WorldWideScience

Sample records for time-responsive digital energy-efficient

  1. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  2. An integrated energy-efficient capacitive sensor digital interface circuit

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient 13-bit capacitive sensor interface circuit. The proposed design fully relies on successive approximation algorithm, which eliminates the need for oversampling and digital decimation filtering, and thus low-power consumption is achieved. The proposed architecture employs a charge amplifier stage to acheive parasitic insensitive operation and fine absolute resolution. Moreover, the output code is not affected by offset voltages or charge injection. The successive approximation algorithm is implemented in the capacitance-domain using a coarse-fine programmable capacitor array, which allows digitizing wide capacitance range in compact area. Analysis for the maximum achievable resolution due to mismatch is provided. The proposed design is insensitive to any reference voltage or current which translates to low temperature sensitivity. The operation of a prototype fabricated in a standard CMOS technology is experimentally verified using both on-chip and off-chip capacitive sensors. Compared to similar prior work, the fabricated prototype achieves and excellent energy efficiency of 34 pJ/step.

  3. Energy-Efficient Capacitance-to-Digital Converters for Smart Sensor Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alhoshany, Abdulaziz

    2017-12-01

    One of the key requirements in the design of wireless sensor nodes and miniature biomedical devices is energy efficiency. For a sensor node, which is a sensor and readout circuit, to survive on limited energy sources such as a battery or harvested energy, its energy consumption should be minimized. Capacitive sensors are candidates for use in energy-constrained applications, as they do not consume static power and can be used in a wide range of applications to measure different physical, chemical or biological quantities. However, the energy consumption is dominated by the capacitive interface circuit, i.e. the capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC). Several energy-efficient CDC architectures are introduced in this dissertation to meet the demand for high resolution and energy efficiency in smart capacitive sensors. First, we propose an energy-efficient CDC based on a differential successive-approximation data converter. The proposed differential CDC employs an energy-efficient operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) based on an inverter. A wide capacitance range with fine absolute resolution is implemented in the proposed coarse-fine DAC architecture which saves 89% of silicon area. The proposed CDC achieves an energy efficiency figure-of-merit () of 45.8fJ/step, which is the best reported energy efficiency to date. Second, we propose an energy efficient CDC for high-precision capacitive resolution by using oversampling and noise shaping. The proposed CDC achieves 150 aF absolute resolution and an energy efficiency of 187fJ/conversion-step which outperforms state of the art high-precision differential CDCs. In the third and last part, we propose an in-vitro cancer diagnostic biosensor-CMOS platform for low-power, rapid detection, and low cost. The introduced platform is the first to demonstrate the ability to screen and quantify the spermidine/spermine N1 acetyltransferase (SSAT) enzyme which reveals the presence of early-stage cancer, on the surface of a

  4. Energy-Efficient Capacitance-to-Digital Converters for Low-Energy Sensor Nodes

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2015-11-01

    Energy efficiency is a key requirement for wireless sensor nodes, biomedical implants, and wearable devices. The energy consumption of the sensor node needs to be minimized to avoid battery replacement, or even better, to enable the device to survive on energy harvested from the ambient. Capacitive sensors do not consume static power; thus, they are attractive from an energy efficiency perspective. In addition, they can be employed in a wide range of sensing applications. However, the sensor readout circuit–i.e., the capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC)–can be the dominant source of energy consumption in the system. Thus, the development of energy-efficient CDCs is crucial to minimizing the energy consumption of capacitive sensor nodes. In the first part of this dissertation, we propose several energy-efficient CDC architectures for low-energy sensor nodes. First, we propose a digitally-controlled coarsefine multislope CDC that employs both current and frequency scaling to achieve significant improvement in energy efficiency. Second, we analyze the limitations of successive approximation (SAR) CDC, and we address these limitations by proposing a robust parasitic-insensitive opamp-based SAR CDC. Third, we propose an inverter-based SAR CDC that achieves an energy efficiency figure-of-merit (FoM) of 31fJ/Step, which is the best energy efficiency FoM reported to date. Fourth, we propose a differential SAR CDC with quasi-dynamic operation to maintain excellent energy efficiency for a scalable sample rate. In the second part of this dissertation, we study the matching properties of small integrated capacitors, which are an integral component of energy-efficient CDCs. Despite conventional wisdom, we experimentally illustrate that the mismatch of small capacitors can be directly measured, and we report mismatch measurements for subfemtofarad integrated capacitors. We also correct the common misconception that lateral capacitors match better than vertical capacitors

  5. Energy-efficient digital and wireless IC design for wireless smart sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Huang, Xiongchuan; Wang, Chao; Tae-Hyoung Kim, Tony; Lian, Yong

    2017-10-01

    Wireless smart sensing is now widely used in various applications such as health monitoring and structural monitoring. In conventional wireless sensor nodes, significant power is consumed in wirelessly transmitting the raw data. Smart sensing adds local intelligence to the sensor node and reduces the amount of wireless data transmission via on-node digital signal processing. While the total power consumption is reduced compared to conventional wireless sensing, the power consumption of the digital processing becomes as dominant as wireless data transmission. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art energy-efficient digital and wireless IC design techniques for reducing the power consumption of the wireless smart sensor node to prolong battery life and enable self-powered applications.

  6. 7.9 pJ/Step Energy-Efficient Multi-Slope 13-bit Capacitance-to-Digital Converter

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2014-08-01

    In this brief, an energy-efficient capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) is presented. The proposed CDC uses digitally controlled coarse-fine multi-slope integration to digitize a wide range of capacitance in short conversion time. Both integration current and frequency are scaled, which leads to significant improvement in the energy efficiency of both analog and digital circuitry. Mathematical analysis for circuit nonidealities, noise, and improvement in energy efficiency is provided. A prototype fabricated in a 0.35-μm CMOS process occupies 0.09 mm2 and consumes a total of 153 μA from 3.3 V supply while achieving 13-bit resolution. The operation of the prototype is experimentally verified using MEMS capacitive pressure sensor. Compared to recently published work, the prototype achieves an excellent energy efficiency of 7.9 pJ/Step. © 2004-2012 IEEE.

  7. 7.9 pJ/Step Energy-Efficient Multi-Slope 13-bit Capacitance-to-Digital Converter

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham; Arsalan, Muhammad; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    In this brief, an energy-efficient capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) is presented. The proposed CDC uses digitally controlled coarse-fine multi-slope integration to digitize a wide range of capacitance in short conversion time. Both integration current and frequency are scaled, which leads to significant improvement in the energy efficiency of both analog and digital circuitry. Mathematical analysis for circuit nonidealities, noise, and improvement in energy efficiency is provided. A prototype fabricated in a 0.35-μm CMOS process occupies 0.09 mm2 and consumes a total of 153 μA from 3.3 V supply while achieving 13-bit resolution. The operation of the prototype is experimentally verified using MEMS capacitive pressure sensor. Compared to recently published work, the prototype achieves an excellent energy efficiency of 7.9 pJ/Step. © 2004-2012 IEEE.

  8. A Digital Compressed Sensing-Based Energy-Efficient Single-Spot Bluetooth ECG Node

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Luo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is still the obstacle for long-term real-time wireless ECG monitoring. In this paper, a digital compressed sensing- (CS- based single-spot Bluetooth ECG node is proposed to deal with the challenge in wireless ECG application. A periodic sleep/wake-up scheme and a CS-based compression algorithm are implemented in a node, which consists of ultra-low-power analog front-end, microcontroller, Bluetooth 4.0 communication module, and so forth. The efficiency improvement and the node’s specifics are evidenced by the experiments using the ECG signals sampled by the proposed node under daily activities of lay, sit, stand, walk, and run. Under using sparse binary matrix (SBM, block sparse Bayesian learning (BSBL method, and discrete cosine transform (DCT basis, all ECG signals were essentially undistorted recovered with root-mean-square differences (PRDs which are less than 6%. The proposed sleep/wake-up scheme and data compression can reduce the airtime over energy-hungry wireless links, the energy consumption of proposed node is 6.53 mJ, and the energy consumption of radio decreases 77.37%. Moreover, the energy consumption increase caused by CS code execution is negligible, which is 1.3% of the total energy consumption.

  9. A Digital Compressed Sensing-Based Energy-Efficient Single-Spot Bluetooth ECG Node.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kan; Cai, Zhipeng; Du, Keqin; Zou, Fumin; Zhang, Xiangyu; Li, Jianqing

    2018-01-01

    Energy efficiency is still the obstacle for long-term real-time wireless ECG monitoring. In this paper, a digital compressed sensing- (CS-) based single-spot Bluetooth ECG node is proposed to deal with the challenge in wireless ECG application. A periodic sleep/wake-up scheme and a CS-based compression algorithm are implemented in a node, which consists of ultra-low-power analog front-end, microcontroller, Bluetooth 4.0 communication module, and so forth. The efficiency improvement and the node's specifics are evidenced by the experiments using the ECG signals sampled by the proposed node under daily activities of lay, sit, stand, walk, and run. Under using sparse binary matrix (SBM), block sparse Bayesian learning (BSBL) method, and discrete cosine transform (DCT) basis, all ECG signals were essentially undistorted recovered with root-mean-square differences (PRDs) which are less than 6%. The proposed sleep/wake-up scheme and data compression can reduce the airtime over energy-hungry wireless links, the energy consumption of proposed node is 6.53 mJ, and the energy consumption of radio decreases 77.37%. Moreover, the energy consumption increase caused by CS code execution is negligible, which is 1.3% of the total energy consumption.

  10. Energy-Efficient Capacitance-to-Digital Converters for Smart Sensor Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Alhoshany, Abdulaziz

    2017-01-01

    One of the key requirements in the design of wireless sensor nodes and miniature biomedical devices is energy efficiency. For a sensor node, which is a sensor and readout circuit, to survive on limited energy sources such as a battery or harvested

  11. Input/output Buffer based Vedic Multiplier Design for Thermal Aware Energy Efficient Digital Signal Processing on 28nm FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Multiplier is used for multiplication of a signal and a constant in digital signal processing (DSP). 28nm technology based Vedic multiplier is implemented with use of VHDL HDL, Xilinx ISE, Kintex-7 FPGA and XPower Analyzer. Vedic multiplier gain speed improvements by parallelizing the generation...... Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in order to reduce the development cost. The development cost for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are high in compare to FPGA. Selection of the most energy efficient IO standards in place of signal gating is the main design methodology for design of energy...... efficient Vedic multiplier.There is 68.51%, 69.86%, 74.65%, and 78.39% contraction in total power of Vedic multiplier on 28nm Kintex-7 FPGA, when we use HSTL_II in place of HSTL_II_DCI_18 at 56.7oC, 53.5oC, 40oC and 21oC respectively....

  12. A new paradigm in the design of energy-efficient digital circuits using laterally-actuated double-gate NEMS

    KAUST Repository

    Dadgour, Hamed F.

    2010-01-01

    Nano-Electro-Mechanical Switches (NEMS) offer the prospect of improved energy-efficiency in digital circuits due to their near-zero subthreshold leakage and extremely low subthreshold swing values. Among the different approaches of implementing NEMS, laterallyactuated double-gate NEMS devices have attracted much attention as they provide unique and exciting circuit design opportunities. For instance, this paper demonstrates that compact XOR/XNOR gates can be implemented using only two such NEMS transistors. While this in itself is a major improvement, its implications for minimizing Boolean functions using Karnaugh maps (K-maps) are even more significant. In the standard K-map technique, which is used in digital circuit design, adjacent "1s" (minterms) are grouped only in horizontal and/or vertical directions; the diagonal (or zig-zag) grouping of adjacent "1s" is not an option due to the absence of compact XOR/XNOR gates. However, this work demonstrates, for the first time ever, that in lateral double-gate NEMS-based circuits, grouping of minterms is possible in horizontal and vertical as well as diagonal fashions. This is because the diagonal groupings of minterms require XOR/XNOR operations, which are available in such NEMS-based circuits at minimal costs. This novel design paradigm facilitates more compact implementations of Boolean functions and thus, considerably improves their energy-efficiency. For example, a lateral NEMS-based full-adder is implemented using less than half the number of transistors, which is required by a CMOS-based full-adder. Furthermore, circuit simulations are performed to evaluate the energy-efficiencies of the NEMS-based 32-bit carry-save adders compared to their standard CMOS-based counterparts. Copyright 2010 ACM.

  13. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a speech of the CEA's (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) general administrator about energy efficiency as a first rank challenge for the planet and for France, this publications proposes several contributions: a discussion of the efficiency of nuclear energy, an economic analysis of R and D's value in the field of fourth generation fast reactors, discussions about biofuels and the relationship between energy efficiency and economic competitiveness, and a discussion about solar photovoltaic efficiency

  14. Energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marvillet, Ch.; Tochon, P.; Mercier, P.

    2004-01-01

    World energy demand is constantly rising. This is a legitimate trend, insofar as access to energy enables enhanced quality of life and sanitation levels for populations. On the other hand, such increased consumption generates effects that may be catastrophic for the future of the planet (climate change, environmental imbalance), should this growth conform to the patterns followed, up to recent times, by most industrialized countries. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, development of new energy sources and energy efficiency are seen as the major challenges to be taken up for the world of tomorrow. In France, the National Energy Debate indeed emphasized, in 2003, the requirement to control both demand for, and offer of, energy, through a strategic orientation law for energy. The French position corresponds to a slightly singular situation - and a privileged one, compared to other countries - owing to massive use of nuclear power for electricity generation. This option allows France to be responsible for a mere 2% of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions. Real advances can nonetheless still be achieved as regards improved energy efficiency, particularly in the transportation and residential-tertiary sectors, following the lead, in this respect, shown by industry. These two sectors indeed account for over half of the country CO 2 emissions (26% and 25% respectively). With respect to transportation, the work carried out by CEA on the hydrogen pathway, energy converters, and electricity storage has been covered by the preceding chapters. As regards housing, a topic addressed by one of the papers in this chapter, investigations at CEA concern integration of the various devices enabling value-added use of renewable energies. At the same time, the organization is carrying through its activity in the extensive area of heat exchangers, allowing industry to benefit from improved understanding in the modeling of flows. An activity evidenced by advances in energy efficiency for

  15. A 45.8fJ/Step, energy-efficient, differential SAR capacitance-to-digital converter for capacitive pressure sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Alhoshany, Abdulaziz

    2016-05-03

    An energy-efficient readout circuit for a capacitive sensor is presented. The capacitive sensor is digitized by a 12-bit energy efficient capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) that is based on a differential successive-approximation architecture. This CDC meets extremely low power requirements by using an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) that is based on a current-starved inverter. It uses a charge-redistribution DAC that involves coarse-fine architecture. We split the DAC into a coarse-DAC and a fine-DAC to allow a wide capacitance range in a compact area. It covers a wide range of capacitance of 16.14 pF with a 4.5 fF absolute resolution. An analog comparator is implemented by cross-coupling two 3-input NAND gates to enable power and area efficient operation. The prototype CDC was fabricated using a standard 180 nm CMOS technology. The 12-bit CDC has a measurement time of 42.5 μs, and consumes 3.54 μW and 0.29 μW from analog and digital supplies, respectively. This corresponds to a state-of-the-art figure-of-merit (FoM) of 45.8 fJ/conversion-step. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A 45.8fJ/Step, energy-efficient, differential SAR capacitance-to-digital converter for capacitive pressure sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Alhoshany, Abdulaziz; Omran, Hesham; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    An energy-efficient readout circuit for a capacitive sensor is presented. The capacitive sensor is digitized by a 12-bit energy efficient capacitance-to-digital converter (CDC) that is based on a differential successive-approximation architecture. This CDC meets extremely low power requirements by using an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) that is based on a current-starved inverter. It uses a charge-redistribution DAC that involves coarse-fine architecture. We split the DAC into a coarse-DAC and a fine-DAC to allow a wide capacitance range in a compact area. It covers a wide range of capacitance of 16.14 pF with a 4.5 fF absolute resolution. An analog comparator is implemented by cross-coupling two 3-input NAND gates to enable power and area efficient operation. The prototype CDC was fabricated using a standard 180 nm CMOS technology. The 12-bit CDC has a measurement time of 42.5 μs, and consumes 3.54 μW and 0.29 μW from analog and digital supplies, respectively. This corresponds to a state-of-the-art figure-of-merit (FoM) of 45.8 fJ/conversion-step. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A new paradigm in the design of energy-efficient digital circuits using laterally-actuated double-gate NEMS

    KAUST Repository

    Dadgour, Hamed F.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Banerjee, Kaustav

    2010-01-01

    . While this in itself is a major improvement, its implications for minimizing Boolean functions using Karnaugh maps (K-maps) are even more significant. In the standard K-map technique, which is used in digital circuit design, adjacent "1s" (minterms

  18. Energy efficiency; Efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the energy efficiency. It presents the energy efficiency and intensity around the world with a particular focus on Europe, the energy efficiency in industry and Total commitment. (A.L.B.)

  19. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bryson, Joe [US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  20. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  1. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  2. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    separate key aspects hinders strategic energy efficiency planning. For this reason, the PLEEC project – “Planning for Energy Efficient Cities” – funded by the EU Seventh Framework Programme uses an integrative approach to achieve the sus‐ tainable, energy– efficient, smart city. By coordinating strategies...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study...... of the European Union’s 20‐20‐20 plan is to improve energy efficiency by 20% in 2020. However, holistic knowledge about energy efficiency potentials in cities is far from complete. Currently, a WP4 location in PLEEC project page 3 variety of individual strategies and approaches by different stakeholders tackling...

  3. Energy Efficiency Center - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obryk, E.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The Energy Efficiency Center (EEC) activities have been concentrated on Energy Efficiency Network (SEGE), education and training of energy auditors. EEC has started studies related to renewable fuels (bio fuel, wastes) and other topics related to environment protection. EEC has continued close collaboration with Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway. It has been organized and conducted Seminar and Workshop on ''How to Reduce Energy and Water Cost in Higher Education Buildings'' for general and technical managers of the higher education institutions. This Seminar was proceeded by the working meeting on energy efficiency strategy in higher education at the Ministry of National Education. EEC has worked out proposal for activities of Cracow Regional Agency for Energy Efficiency and Environment and has made offer to provide services for this Agency in the field of training, education and consulting. The vast knowledge and experiences in the field of energy audits have been used by the members of EEC in lecturing at energy auditors courses authorized by the National Energy Efficiency Agency (KAPE). Altogether 20 lectures have been delivered. (author)

  4. Energy efficiency; Energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-15

    The Low Energy Panel will halve the consumption in buildings. The Panel has proposed a halving of consumption in the construction within 2040 and 20 percent reduction in the consumption in the industry within 2020. The Panel consider it as possible to gradually reduce consumption in buildings from the current level of 80 TWh with 10 TWh in 2020, 25 TWh in 2030 and 40 TWh in 2040. According the committee one such halving can be reached by significant efforts relating to energy efficiency, by greater rehabilitations, energy efficiency in consisting building stock and stricter requirements for new construction. For the industry field the Panel recommend a political goal to be set at least 20 percent reduction in specific energy consumption in the industry and primary industry beyond general technological development by the end of 2020. This is equivalent to approximately 17 TWh based on current level of activity. The Panel believes that a 5 percent reduction should be achieved by the end of 2012 by carrying out simple measures. The Low Energy Panel has since March 2009 considered possibilities to strengthen the authorities' work with energy efficiency in Norway. The wide complex panel adds up proposals for a comprehensive approach for increased energy efficiency in particular in the building- and industry field. The Panel has looked into the potential for energy efficiency, barriers for energy efficiency, assessment of strengths and weaknesses in the existing policy instruments and members of the Panel's recommendations. In addition the report contains a review of theoretical principles for effects of instruments together with an extensive background. One of the committee members have chosen to take special notes on the main recommendations in the report. (AG)

  5. The Energy Efficient Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    2010-09-15

    Since rising energy costs have become a crucial factor for the economy of production processes, the optimization of energy efficiency is of essential importance for industrial enterprises. Enterprises establish energy saving programs, specific to their needs. The most important elements of these energy efficiency programs are energy savings, energy controlling, energy optimization, and energy management. This article highlights the industrial enterprise approach to establish sustainable energy management programs based on the above elements. Globally, if organizations follow this approach, they can significantly reduce the overall energy consumption and cost.

  6. Dimensions of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, K.V.

    1992-01-01

    In this address the author describes three dimensions of energy efficiency in order of increasing costs: conservation, resource and technology substitution, and changes in economic structure. He emphasizes the importance of economic rather than environmental rationales for energy efficiency improvements in developing countries. These countries do not place high priority on the problems of global climate change. Opportunities for new technologies may exist in resource transfer, new fuels and, possibly, small reactors. More research on economic and social impacts of technologies with greater sensitivity to user preferences is needed

  7. National energy efficiency programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper focusses on energy conservation and specifically on energy efficiency which includes efficiency in the production, delivery and utilisation of energy as part of the total energy system of the economy. A National Energy Efficiency Programme is being launched in the Eighth Plan that will take into account both macro level and policy and planning considerations as well as micro level responses for different category of users in the industry, agriculture, transport and domestic sectors. The need for such a National Energy Efficiency Programme after making an assessment of existing energy conservation activities in the country is discussed. The broad framework and contents of the National Energy Efficiency Programme have been outlined and the Eighth Plan targets for energy conservation and their break-up have been given. These targets, as per the Eighth Plan document are 5000 MW in electricity installed capacity and 6 million tonnes of petroleum products by the terminal year of the Eighth Plan. The issues that need to be examined for each sector for achieving the above targets for energy conservation in the Eighth Plan are discussed briefly. They are: (a) policy and planning, (b) implementation arrangements which include the institutional setup and selective legislation, (c) technological requirements, and (d) resource requirements which include human resources and financial resources. (author)

  8. Energy efficient design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Solar Applications and Energy Efficiency in Building Design and Town Planning (RER/87/006) is a United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) project of the Governments of Albania, Bulgaria, Cyprus, The Czech and Slovak Federal Republic, France, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Turkey, United Kingdom and Yugoslavia. The project began in 1988 and comes to a conclusion at the end of 1991. It is to enhance the professional skills of practicing architects, engineers and town planners in European countries to design energy efficient buildings which reduce energy consumption and make greater use of passive solar heating and natural cooling techniques. The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (ECE) is the Executing Agency of the project which is implemented under the auspices of the Committee on Energy, General Energy Programme of Work for 1990-1994, sub-programme 5 Energy Conservation and Efficiency (ECE/ENERGY/15). The project has five main outputs or results: an international network of institutions for low energy building design; a state-of-the-art survey of energy use in the built environment of European IPF countries; a simple computer program for energy efficient building design; a design guide and computer program operators' manual; and a series of international training courses in participating European IPF countries. Energy Efficient Design is the fourth output of the project. It comprises the design guide for practicing architects and engineers, for use mainly in mid-career training courses, and the operators' manual for the project's computer program

  9. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... on households and the public sector, obligations for energy companies (electricity, natural gas, district heating, and oil) to deliver documented savings, strict building codes, special instructions for the public sector, and an Electricity Saving Trust. A political agreement from 2005 states that an evaluation...

  10. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  11. Reconsidering energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldoni, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Energy and environmental policies are reconsidering energy efficiency. In a perfect market, rational and well informed consumers reach economic efficiency which, at the given prices of energy and capital, corresponds to physical efficiency. In the real world, market failures and cognitive frictions distort the consumers from perfectly rational and informed choices. Green incentive schemes aim at balancing market failures and directing consumers toward more efficient goods and services. The problem is to fine tune the incentive schemes [it

  12. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  13. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  14. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1

  15. Productivity and energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovins, H. [Rocky Mountain Inst., Snowmass, CO (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Energy efficient building and office design offers the possibility of significantly increased worker productivity. By improving lighting, heating and cooling, workers can be made more comfortable and productive. An increase of 1 percent in productivity can provide savings to a company that exceed its entire energy bill. Efficient design practices are cost effective just from their energy savings. The resulting productivity gains make them indispensable. This paper documents eight cases in which efficient lighting, heating, and cooling have measurably increased worker productivity, decreased absenteeism, and/or improved the quality of work performed. They also show that efficient lighting can measurably increase work quality by removing errors and manufacturing defects. The case studies presented include retrofit of existing buildings and the design of new facilities, and cover a variety of commercial and industrial settings. Each case study identifies the design changes that were most responsible for increased productivity. As the eight case studies illustrate, energy efficient design may be one of the least expensive ways for a business to improve the productivity of its workers and the quality of its product. (author). 15 refs.

  16. Energy efficient data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed

  17. Energy efficiency labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This research assesses the likely effects on UK consumers of the proposed EEC energy-efficiency labeling scheme. Unless (or until) an energy-labeling scheme is introduced, it is impossible to do more than postulate its likely effects on consumer behavior. This report shows that there are indeed significant differences in energy consumption between different brands and models of the same appliance of which consumers are unaware. Further, the report suggests that, if a readily intelligible energy-labeling scheme were introduced, it would provide useful information that consumers currently lack; and that, if this information were successfully presented, it would be used and could have substantial effects in reducing domestic fuel consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that an energy labeling scheme be introduced.

  18. The European project Merlin on multi-gigabit, energy-efficient, ruggedized lightwave engines for advanced on-board digital processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoulidis, L.; Kehayas, E.; Karppinen, M.; Tanskanen, A.; Heikkinen, V.; Westbergh, P.; Gustavsson, J.; Larsson, A.; Grüner-Nielsen, L.; Sotom, M.; Venet, N.; Ko, M.; Micusik, D.; Kissinger, D.; Ulusoy, A. C.; King, R.; Safaisini, R.

    2017-11-01

    Modern broadband communication networks rely on satellites to complement the terrestrial telecommunication infrastructure. Satellites accommodate global reach and enable world-wide direct broadcasting by facilitating wide access to the backbone network from remote sites or areas where the installation of ground segment infrastructure is not economically viable. At the same time the new broadband applications increase the bandwidth demands in every part of the network - and satellites are no exception. Modern telecom satellites incorporate On-Board Processors (OBP) having analogue-to-digital (ADC) and digital-to-analogue converters (DAC) at their inputs/outputs and making use of digital processing to handle hundreds of signals; as the amount of information exchanged increases, so do the physical size, mass and power consumption of the interconnects required to transfer massive amounts of data through bulk electric wires.

  19. Energy efficiency fallacies revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, Leonard

    2000-01-01

    A number of governments including that of the UK subscribe to the belief that a national program devoted to raising energy efficiency throughout the economy provides a costless - indeed profitable - route to meeting international environmental obligations. This is a seductive policy. It constitutes the proverbial free lunch - not only avoiding politically unpopular measures like outlawing, taxing or rationing offending fuels or expanding non-carboniferous sources of energy like nuclear power but doing so with economic benefit. The author of this contribution came to doubt the validity of this solution when it was offered as a way of mitigating the effect of the OPEC price hikes of the 1970s, maintaining that economically justified improvement in energy efficiency led to higher levels of energy consumption at the economy-wide level than in the absence of any efficiency response. More fundamentally, he argues that there is no case for preferentially singling out energy, from among all the resources available to us, for efficiency maximisation. The least damaging policy is to determine targets, enact the restrictive measures needed to curb consumption, and then leave it to consumers - intermediate and final - to reallocate all the resources available to them to best effect subject to the new enacted constraints and any others they might be experiencing. There is no reason to suppose that it is right for all the economic adjustment following a new resource constraint to take the form of improvements in the productivity of that resource alone. As many others have argued, any action to impose resource constraint entails an inevitable economic cost in the shape of a reduction in production and consumption possibilities: there would be no free lunch. In the last few years debate about the validity of these contentions has blossomed, especially under the influence of writers on the western side of the Atlantic. In this contribution the author outlines the original arguments

  20. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)

  1. Energy efficiency in pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin; Yigit, K. Suleyman; Kilic, Fatma Canka; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, 'energy efficiency' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems

  2. Energy efficiency in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    In Finland a significant portion of energy originates from renewable sources and cogeneration, that is, combined production of electricity and heat. Combined heat and electricity production is typical in the Finnish industry and in the district heating sector. One third of all electricity and 15 % of district heating is produced by cogeneration. District heating schemes provide about 45 % of heat in buildings. Overall efficiency in industry exceeds 80 % and is even higher in the district heating sector. In 1996 25 % of Finland`s primary energy was produced from renewable energy sources which is a far higher proportion than the European Union average of 6 %. Finland is one of the leading users of bioenergy. Biomass including peat, provides approximately 50 % of fuel consumed by industry and is utilised in significant amounts in combined heat and electricity plants. For example, in the pulp and paper industry, by burning black liquor and bark during the production of chemical pulp, significant amounts of energy are generated and used in paper mills. Conservation and efficient use of energy are central to the Finnish Government`s Energy Strategy. The energy conservation programme aims to increase energy efficiency by 10-20 % by the year 2010. Energy saving technology plays a key role in making the production and use of energy more efficient. In 1996 of FIM 335 million (ECU 57 million) spent on funding research, FIM 120 million (ECU 20 million) was spent on research into energy conservation

  3. Energy efficiency in Swedish industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Lundgren, Tommy; Zhou, Wenchao

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses energy efficiency in Swedish industry. Using unique firm-level panel data covering the years 2001–2008, the efficiency estimates are obtained for firms in 14 industrial sectors by using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The analysis accounts for multi-output technologies where undesirable outputs are produced alongside with the desirable output. The results show that there was potential to improve energy efficiency in all the sectors and relatively large energy inefficiencies existed in small energy-use industries in the sample period. Also, we assess how the EU ETS, the carbon dioxide (CO_2) tax and the energy tax affect energy efficiency by conducting a second-stage regression analysis. To obtain consistent estimates for the regression model, we apply a modified, input-oriented version of the double bootstrap procedure of Simar and Wilson (2007). The results of the regression analysis reveal that the EU ETS and the CO_2 tax did not have significant influences on energy efficiency in the sample period. However, the energy tax had a positive relation with the energy efficiency. - Highlights: • We use DEA to estimate firm-level energy efficiency in Swedish industry. • We examine impacts of climate and energy policies on energy efficiency. • The analyzed policies are Swedish carbon and energy taxes and the EU ETS. • Carbon tax and EU ETS did not have significant influences on energy efficiency. • The energy tax had a positive relation with energy efficiency.

  4. Energy efficiency: 2004 world overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Since 1992 the World Energy Council (WEC) has been collaborating with ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Efficiency, France) on a joint project 'Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators'. APERC (Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre) and OLADE (Latin American Energy Organisation) have also participated in the study, which has been monitoring and evaluating energy efficiency policies and their impacts around the world. WEC Member Committees have been providing data and information and ENERDATA (France) has provided technical assistance. This report, published in August 2004, presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies in 63 countries, with a specific focus on five policy measures, for which in-depth case studies were prepared by selected experts: - Minimum energy efficiency standards for household electrical appliances; - Innovative energy efficiency funds; - Voluntary/negotiated agreements on energy efficiency/ CO 2 ; - Local energy information centres; - Packages of measures. In particular, the report identifies the policy measures, which have proven to be the most effective, and can be recommended to countries which have recently embarked on the development and implementation of energy demand management policies. During the past ten years, the Kyoto Protocol and, more recently, emerging concerns about security of supply have raised, both the public and the political profile of energy efficiency. Almost all OECD countries and an increasing number of other countries are implementing energy efficiency policies adapted to their national circumstances. In addition to the market instruments (voluntary agreements, labels, information, etc.), regulatory measures are widely introduced where the market fails to give the right signals (buildings, appliances). In developing countries, energy efficiency is equally important, even if the drivers are different compared to industrialized countries. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and local pollution often have a

  5. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  6. Energy-Efficiency in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia

    This thesis expands the state-of-the-art on the complex problem of implementing energy efficient optical networks. The main contribution of this Ph.D. thesis is providing a holistic approach in a multi-layered manner where different tools are used to tackle the urgent need of both estimating...... and optimizing power consumption in different network segments. An energy consumption analysis for a novel digital signal processing for signal slicing to reduce bandwidth requirements for passive optical networks is presented in this thesis. This scheme aims at re-using low bandwidth equipment to cope...... with parallel optics and WDM systems is reported. These results show the trade-off between increased capacity and both power consumption and system performance. In conclusion, an energy-efficient set of tools has been provided covering different aspects of the telecommunication network resulting in a cohesive...

  7. Energy Efficient Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Waseem

    2013-01-01

    Energy is an important resource in mobile computers now days. It is important to manage energy in efficient manner so that energy consumption will be reduced. Developers of operating system decided to increase the battery life time of mobile phones at operating system level. So, design of energy efficient mobile operating system is the best way to reduce the energy consumption in mobile devices. In this paper, currently used energy efficient mobile operating system is discussed and compared. ...

  8. Energy efficiency: utopia or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    In its 2006 allocution the world council on the energy WEC, analyzes the role of the energy efficiency in the energy life cycle. In spite of different objectives followed by the developing and developed countries, implement a world energy efficiency economy is a challenge possible by the cooperation.The WEC is an ideal forum for the information and experience exchange. (A.L.B.)

  9. Energy efficiency: potentials and profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigaud, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, Jean-Marie Bouchereau (ADEME) has presented a review of the energy efficiency profits in France during the last 20 years and the prospects from now to 2020. Then, Geoffrey Woodward (TOTAL) and Sebastien Huchette (AXENS) have recalled the stakes involved in the energy efficiency of the upstream and downstream sectors respectively and presented examples of advances approaches illustrated by concrete cases of applications. (O.M.)

  10. Energy Efficiency in Swimming Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kampel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    High and increasing energy use is a worldwide issue that has been reported and documented in the literature. Various studies have been performed on renewable energy and energy efficiency to counteract this trend. Although using renewable energy sources reduces pollution, improvements in energy efficiency reduce total energy use and protect the environment from further damage. In Europe, 40 % of the total energy use is linked to buildings, making them a main objective concerning...

  11. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, Bill

    1999-03-15

    On March 15, 1999, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory hosted a workshop focused on energy efficiency in Cleanroom facilities. The workshop was held as part of a multiyear effort sponsored by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency, and the California Energy Commission. It is part of a project that concentrates on improving energy efficiency in Laboratory type facilities including cleanrooms. The project targets the broad market of laboratory and cleanroom facilities, and thus cross-cuts many different industries and institutions. This workshop was intended to raise awareness by sharing case study success stories, providing a forum for industry networking on energy issues, contributing LBNL expertise in research to date, determining barriers to implementation and possible solutions, and soliciting input for further research.

  12. Energy efficiency initiatives: Indian experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dey, Dipankar [ICFAI Business School, Kolkata, (IBS-K) (India)

    2007-07-01

    India, with a population of over 1.10 billion is one of the fastest growing economies of the world. As domestic sources of different conventional commercial energy are drying up, dependence on foreign energy sources is increasing. There exists a huge potential for saving energy in India. After the first 'oil shock' (1973), the government of India realized the need for conservation of energy and a 'Petroleum Conservation Action Group' was formed in 1976. Since then many initiatives aiming at energy conservation and improving energy efficiency, have been undertaken (the establishment of Petroleum Conservation Research Association in 1978; the notification of Eco labelling scheme in 1991; the formation of Bureau of Energy Efficiency in 2002). But no such initiative was successful. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyze the changing importance of energy conservation/efficiency measures which have been initiated in India between 1970 and 2005.The present study tries to analyze the limitations and the reasons of failure of those initiatives. The probable reasons are: fuel pricing mechanism (including subsidies), political factors, corruption and unethical practices, influence of oil and related industry lobbies - both internal and external, the economic situation and the prolonged protection of domestic industries. Further, as India is opening its economy, the study explores the opportunities that the globally competitive market would offer to improve the overall energy efficiency of the economy. The study suggests that the Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) - the newly formed nodal agency for improving energy efficiency of the economy may be made an autonomous institution where intervention from the politicians would be very low. For proper implementation of different initiatives to improve energy efficiency, BEE should involve more the civil societies (NGO) from the inception to the implementation stage of the programs. The paper also

  13. Energy Efficiency in Future PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reschat, Halfdan; Laustsen, Johannes Russell; Wessing, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    There is a still increasing tendency to give energy efficiency a high priority, even in already low energy demanding systems. This is also the case for Passive Optical Networks (PONs) for which many different methods for saving energy are proposed. This paper uses simulations to evaluate three...... proposed power saving solutions for PONs which use sleep mechanisms for saving power. The discovered advantages and disadvantages of these methods are then used as a basis for proposing a new solution combining different techniques in order to increase the energy efficiency further. This novel solution...

  14. State Energy Efficiency Benefits and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the benefits of energy efficiency and how to assess its potential for your state. Also, find details on energy efficiency policies, programs, and resources available for furthering energy efficiency goals.

  15. Mobilising Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Taxes, loans and grants, trading schemes and white certificates, public procurement and investment in R&D or infrastructure: known collectively as 'economic instruments', these tools can be powerful means of mobilising the finances needed to achieve policy goals by implementing energy efficiency measures. The role of economic instruments is to kick-start the private financial markets and to motivate private investors to fund EE measures. They should reinforce and promote energy performance regulations. This IEA analysis addresses the fact that, to date, relatively little effort has been directed toward evaluating how well economic instruments work. Using the buildings sector to illustrate how such measures can support energy efficiency, this paper can help policy makers better select and design economic instruments appropriate to their policy objectives and national contexts. This report’s three main aims are to: 1) Examine how economic instruments are currently used in energy efficiency policy; 2) Consider how economic instruments can be more effective and efficient in supporting low-energy buildings; and 3) Assess how economic instruments should be funded, where public outlay is needed. Detailed case studies in this report assess examples of economic instruments for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in Canada (grants), France (tax relief and loans), Germany (loans and grants), Ireland (grants) and Italy (white certificates and tax relief).

  16. EYES -- Energy Efficient Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Etalle, Sandro; Karl, Holger; Petrioli, Chiara; Zorzi, Michele; Kip, Harry; Lentsch, Thomas; Conti, M.; Giordano, S.; Gregori, E.; Olariu, S.

    The EYES project (IST-2001-34734) is a three years European research project on self-organizing and collaborative energy-efficient sensor networks. It will address the convergence of distributed information processing, wireless communications, and mobile computing. The goal of the project is to

  17. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  18. China's energy efficiency target 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese government has set an ambitious target: reducing China's energy intensity by 20%, or 4.36% each year between 2006 and 2010 on the 2005 level. Real data showed that China missed its target in 2006, having reduced its energy intensity only by 1.3%. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and potential of the Chinese to achieve the target. This paper presents issues of macro-economy, population migration, energy savings, and energy efficiency policy measures to achieve the target. A top-down approach was used to analyse the relationship between the Chinese economic development and energy demand cycles and to identify the potentials of energy savings in sub-sectors of the Chinese economy. A number of factors that contribute to China's energy intensity are identified in a number of energy-intensive sectors. This paper concludes that China needs to develop its economy at its potential GDP growth rate; strengthen energy efficiency auditing, monitoring and verification; change its national economy from a heavy-industry-dominated mode to a light industry or a commerce-dominated mode; phase out inefficient equipment in industrial sectors; develop mass and fast railway transportation; and promote energy-efficient technologies at the end use. This paper transfers key messages to policy makers for designing their policy to achieve China's energy efficiency target

  19. Is energy efficiency environmentally friendly?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, H. [Open University, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2000-07-01

    The paper challenges the view that improving the efficiency of energy use will lead to a reduction in national energy consumption, and hence is an effective policy for reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. It argues that improving energy efficiency lowers the implicit price of energy and hence makes its use more affordable, thus leading to greater use. The paper presents the views of economists, as well as green critics of 'efficiency' and the 'dematerialization' thesis. It argues that a more effective CO{sub 2} policy is to concentrate on shifting to non-fossil fuel, like renewables, subsidized through a carbon tax. Ultimately what is needed, to limit energy consumption is energy conservation not energy efficiency. 44 refs.

  20. Effective education for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zografakis, Nikolaos; Menegaki, Angeliki N.; Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P.

    2008-01-01

    A lot of today's world vices can be eliminated if certain targeted modules and adapted curricula are introduced in the schooling system. One of these vices is energy squandering with all its negative consequences for the planet (e.g. depletion of finite energy sources and the subsequent climate change). This paper describes the results of an energy-thrift information and education project taking place in different levels of education in Crete-Greece, which records 321 students' and their parents' routine energy-related behavior and proves that this behavior changes to a more energy efficient one, after the dissemination of relevant information and the participation into the energy education projects. Namely, response percentages indicating the energy-efficient behavior increased after project participation while the ones indicating an energy-squandering behavior decreased. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was statistically significant in all energy behavior questions related to students and to most questions related to parents

  1. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  2. Energy Efficient Hydraulic Hybrid Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Karl-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency of propulsion systems for cars, trucks and construction machineries has become one of the most important topics in today’s mobile system design, mainly because of increased fuel costs and new regulations about engine emissions, which is needed to save the environment. To meet the increased requirements on higher efficiency and better functionality, components and systems have been developed over the years. For the last ten years the development of hybrid systems can be divid...

  3. Energy Efficient Drivepower: An Overview.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ula, Sadrul; Birnbaum, Larry E.; Jordan, Don

    1993-05-01

    This report examines energy efficiency in drivepower systems. Only systems where the prime movers are electrical motors are discussed. A systems approach is used to examine all major aspects of drivepower, including motors, controls, electrical tune-ups, mechanical efficiency, maintenance, and management. Potential annual savings to the US society of $25 to $50 billion are indicated. The report was written for readers with a semi-technical background.

  4. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  5. Energy efficiency opportunities in Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics in Egypt (2013, the number of hotels is 1193, about 407 of them have contracted power greater than 500 kW.Air conditioning, lighting, water heating and refrigeration represent the main activities demanding electrical energy in hotel business.The energy consumption per night spend changes a lot, depending on various factors; facilities provided, category of hotel, occupancy , geographical situation, weather conditions, nationality of clients, design and control of the installations.Energy benchmarking is an internal management tool designed to provide ongoing, reliable and verifiable tracking on the hotels performance. The most useful performance indicator (or Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of hotels are: Lighting Power Density (LPD in W (for lighting/m2, and energy intensity (kWh/m2/ y.There are multiple benefits for improving energy in hotel business; reduces the hotel's operating cost, reduces climate change risks and promotes green tourism.Energy efficiency opportunities are low-cost measures and cost- effective investments.   There are many energy saving opportunities for lighting in hotel's guest rooms as well as the more obvious savings in lobbies and exterior lighting areas. Behavior campaigns can yield substantial energy savings, both through the guests and housekeeper behavior. Encouraging housekeepers to use natural light during room cleaning is a simple first step to implement energy saving program.This paper presents the energy efficiency guidelines and energy benchmarking for hotels. Also a case study showing how the energy efficiency program implemented is presented. 

  6. Energy efficiency information systems. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    It is well known that different cultures and countries are receptive in different ways to information transfer. Modern information technology, including computers, videos, and telecommunications, can provide a very useful tool for the dissemination of information. At the same time, however, the use of new media involves many new and varied challenges. It is important therefore that the new dissemination methods are developed and utilised in the most effective way depending on the subjects distinctive character, needs and traditions. This workshop was designed to gather experts from all the CADDET member countries, to share knowledge, experiences and ideas about the use of new methods of information exchange and training in the field of energy efficiency. The workshop was divided into four plenary sessions: dissemination of information on energy efficient technologies; training technologies and effective learning; computer-based training tools on energy efficiency; databases and network resources. Two discussion groups followed the plenary sessions, to concentrate on: different aspects of information exchange; and different aspects of state-of-the-art training tools. The workshop was attended by 44 participants from 17 countries, and included 14 speakers

  7. Energy efficiency through energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esan, A. A.

    2000-08-01

    Energy is an essential factor to economic and social development and improved standards of living in developing countries. Nigeria in particular. There is a strong need for greater energy efficiency in every sector of economy in order to reduce costs. enhance competitiveness, conserve energy resources and reduce environmental impacts associated with production, distribution and use of energy. Energy auditing and monitoring has a significant role in any energy management and conservation project. Energy auditing as an important part of industrial energy management on plant level, represents a complex of activities aiming at the efficient use of energy. The activities are undertaken by a team of experts who use a set of measuring instruments to monitor and evaluate all the necessary data to elaborate a package of recommendations on improvements in the field of energy efficiency and possible product quality. The inefficient conversion and use of energy have been identified as a central problem for all developing countries, Nigeria inclusive, since they all consume significantly higher amounts of energy per unit of GDP than OECD countries. This aggravates energy-related environmental problems and is also a burden on domestic resources and foreign exchange. Energy prices have risen drastically in many developing countries, while energy intensities remain high. Price changes alone are not rapidly translating energy efficiency improvements. Identifying and removing the obstacles to greater energy efficiency should be priority for government in developing countries. This is why the Energy Commission, an apex organ of government on Energy matters in all its ramifications is out to encourage relatively low-cost energy audits for the Textile industries - such audits can identify ''good house-keeping's' measures, such as simply process improvements, that reduce energy consumption and operating costs. This will be followed by the training of plant workers/energy managers

  8. Energy Efficiency: Finding Leadership Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rosehart

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1995 and 2011, the population of Alberta increased by roughly 40 per cent, but energy use in the province grew much faster, with a 62 per cent increase over the same period. In the industrial sector, the province’s largest energy consumer, demands grew 110 per cent. In mining and oil-and-gas extraction specifically, energy use over that period soared, growing by 355 per cent. That remarkable growth in energy consumption creates a particular challenge for Alberta Premier Alison Redford, who in 2011 ordered her ministers to develop a plan that “would make Alberta the national leader in energy efficiency and sustainability.” The province is still waiting. The incentives to become more energy efficient are not particularly strong in Alberta. The province’s terrain and size favour larger and less-efficient vehicles. Energy in the province is abundant, so there is little cause for concern over energy security. And energy is relatively affordable, particularly for a population that is more affluent than the Canadian average. There is little pressure on Albertans to radically alter their energy consumption behaviour. Yet, improved energy efficiency could position businesses in Alberta to become even more globally competitive, in addition to leading to improved air quality and public health. And for a province racing to keep up with growing energy demand, effective measures that promote conservation will prove much cheaper than adding yet more expensive infrastructure to the energy network. Many other jurisdictions have already provided examples of methods Alberta could employ to effectively promote energy conservation. First, Alberta must set hard targets for its goals to save energy, and then monitor that progress through transparent accounting, measuring and reporting. The provincial government can also nurture a culture of energy conservation, by formally and publicly recognizing leadership in efficiency improvements in industry and

  9. Energy Efficiency Policy in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beravs, F.

    1998-01-01

    When Slovenia gained its independence in 1991, its energy sector was characterised by largely centralised state planning and artificially low prices maintained by widespread subsidies. Supply side considerations tended to dominate the energy policy and sectoral planning. As a result the final energy intensity in Slovenia was (still albeit declining) considerably higher than the EU average. In order to support economic growth and transition to a modern market economy, integrated and competitive in the European and world market structures, the National Assembly of the Republic of Slovenia adopted a resolution on the Strategy of Energy Use and Supply of Slovenia in early 1996. In the field of energy use, the long-term strategic orientation is to increase energy efficiency in all sectors of energy consumption. The main objective can be summarised as to secure the provision of reliable and environmentally friendly energy services at least costs. In quantitative terms the Strategy attaches a high priority to energy efficiency and environmental protection and sets the target of improving the overall energy efficiency by 2% p.a. over the next 10 to 15 years. To achieve the target mentioned above the sectoral approach and a number of policy instruments have been foreseen. Besides market based energy prices which will, according to the European Energy Charter, gradually incorporate the cost of environment and social impacts, the following policy instruments will be intensified and budget-supported: education and awareness building, energy consultation, regulations and agreements, financial incentives, innovation and technology development. The ambitious energy conservation objectives represent a great challenge to the whole society. (author)

  10. Energy efficiency standards and innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Van Buskirk et al (2014 Environ. Res. Lett. 9 114010) demonstrate that the purchase price, lifecycle cost and price of improving efficiency (i.e. the incremental price of efficiency gain) decline at an accelerated rate following the adoption of the first energy efficiency standards for five consumer products. The authors show these trends using an experience curve framework (i.e. price/cost versus cumulative production). While the paper does not draw a causal link between standards and declining prices, they provide suggestive evidence using markets in the US and Europe. Below, I discuss the potential implications of the work.

  11. Energy - efficient buildings in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Qureshi, M.U.D.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is one of the countries with the highest energy consumption for domestic use. Annual energy consumption by the domestic sector is 45.9 % of the total, while the industrial sector, consumes about 27.5%. About half of the total energy consumed is used in buildings and/or heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting appliances. The energy consumed for the same purposes in China and UK is 25 to 30 % and 40 %, respectively, even in extreme weather conditions. Energy deficiency in Pakistan is approximately 5,000 MWe, which results in worst load-shedding in summers and, lately, even in winters. Building new energy sources like dams, coal power plants and renewable energy power projects are some possible solutions, but these are time taking and need at least 2 to 6 years to complete, depending upon the nature of the project. Fast development of energy-efficient buildings is, therefore, necessary to deal with exacerbating energy-crisis and related environmental impact in Pakistan. Innovations in the prevailing building-design will help the country in reducing the energy burden. These innovations may include improved architectural designs, energy-efficient building materials, electrical appliances and implementation of building energy-efficiency codes. In 1987, the National Energy Conservation Centre (ENERCON), was established under Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, with the aim to build awareness among the masses for energy conservation, and to make policies regarding energy-conservation structures in the country. But no policy regarding building energy codes has been introduced by ENERCON till now. In collaboration with Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC), ENERCON has recently finalized the Building Energy Code of Pakistan Energy Provisions 2011 for which statutory notification is under process for necessary amendment in the building by-laws. The implementation of this Energy Code will result in 25 to 30 % of energy savings in the

  12. CEE Energy Efficiency Report - Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecl, V.

    2005-01-01

    A review of future trends of energy consumption shows that, in the absence of an active energy policy which promotes energy efficiency, energy consumption will increase as a whole by approximately 6.8% by 2012 continuing to raise after this period.. This result hides large differences between the different sources of energy (mainly heat, fuels and electricity) and between the different sectors - transport, industry, buildings etc. It is therefore clear that a strong energy policy is needed to counterbalance the expected increase in energy consumption in all sectors, with emphasis on measures in the building sector (both residential and tertiary) and in the transport sector. Furthermore improvements in the district heating sector are also essential to prevent further disconnection from district heating and a shift to other means of heating. A review of the main barriers to energy efficiency leads to the conclusion that while significant changes are needed in the regulatory framework, the lack of access to finance and the general lack of awareness about existing technologies and best practice represent the greatest barriers. In order to evaluate the success of energy. In a few studies available from past 2-3 years the calculation of low and high targets for energy policy was elaborated. The low targets would represent about 11% - 12% reduction in overall energy consumption. The high targets would represent a 13% - 15% reduction in overall energy consumption. Policy instruments have been identified which can turn energy efficiency into one of the driving forces of the overall economic and development strategy of the country. Some of these instruments deal with general issues such as general policy issues, regulatory and legal aspects, the institutional framework and fiscal, taxation and pricing policy. They are designed to improve the present conditions and would use only a limited part of the available public budget. The state budget dedicated to energy issues will

  13. ICT applications enhancing energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Matani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Computers, laptops and mobile devices – information technology (IT accounts for 2% of human greenhouse gas emissions worldwide, as evidenced in a study by Global Action Plan, a UK based environmental organization. This figure can be reduced if the green segment, or Green IT, continues to grow. Energy can also be saved through cloud computing, namely the principle of outsourcing the programs and functions of one’s own computer to service providers over the internet. This also means sharing storage capacity with others. This paper highlights the impact of information technology applications towards enhancing energy efficiency of the systems.

  14. Octopus: embracing the energy efficiency of handheld multimedia computers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    1999-01-01

    In the MOBY DICK project we develop and define the architecture of a new generation of mobile hand-held computers called Mobile Digital Companions. The Companions must meet several major requirements: high performance, energy efficient, a notion of Quality of Service (QoS), small size, and low

  15. USSR energy efficiency and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyak, Y.

    1991-06-01

    The U.S.S.R. is the largest energy producer and the second largest energy consumer in the world. Its share of global energy use reached above 17% in 1988. The soviet energy system is characterized by low efficiency and high per capita energy consumption, although there are some reasons justifying the greater U.S.S.R. energy use per unit of product output than in other industrialized countries. The present energy-savings potential is approximately equal to one-half of the domestic energy consumption. Improvements in energy efficiency at all levels of the national economy are now considered to be the primary goal of national energy policy for the next couple of decades. Being endowed with abundant natural gas resources, the U.S.S.R. will count on this energy source in the future to improve its energy efficiency, reduce expenses and cope with air pollution. After 2005-2010, stabilized primary energy consumption may be reached or there may even be a decline of total energy use. The U.S.S.R. could reduce CO 2 emissions by 20% by 2030 but with substantial negative impacts on GNP growth. Required improvements in the Soviet energy system depend on changes in energy management, including reduction of the role of centralized planning, decentralization and privatization of energy-producing facilities, energy-price reforms, reshaping of investment patterns, reduction in military expenditures, etc. (author)

  16. The Challenge of Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Gonzalez, J. A.

    2009-01-01

    Recent Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotion of the use of renewable energies sets some binding targets for the contribution of renewable energies in 2020 to total consumption, setting the share at 20% of final energy demand, with a particularisation of 10% for the transport sector, and also a 20% reduction of greenhouse gases Together with these targets, it also sets another target relative to energy efficiency, aiming for a 20% improvement, under the terms set down by the Commission in its announcement dated 19 October 2006. This energy saving target is going to have a decisive influence on the achievement of the other two. In order to quantify the degree of difficulty of achieving the saving target and determine the policies and measures to be taken, we are going to analyze the evolution of energy efficiency (energy consumption energy units per unit of GDP - economic unit) in Spain from 1980 to date and the value of energy intensity that we should have in 2020 to achieve the targets. This will give us an idea of the magnitude of the challenge and, therefore, of the efforts we will have to make to achieve the target. (Author)

  17. Frontiers in the economics of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, Carlos de; Labandeira, Xavier; Löschel, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has become an essential instrument to obtain effective greenhouse gas mitigation and reduced energy dependence. This introductory article contextualizes the contributions of the supplemental issue by showing the new setting for energy efficiency economics and policy; discussing the role of price instruments to promote energy savings; presenting new approaches for energy efficiency policies; and placing energy efficiency within a wider energy and environmental framework.

  18. Green corridor : energy efficiency initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, M.; Strickland, R.; Harding, N. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed environmental sustainability using alternative energy technologies. It discussed Ecohouse, which is a house designed using conventional and inventive products and techniques to represent an eco-efficient model for living, a more sustainable house, demonstrating sustainable technologies in action and setting a new standard for resource efficiency in Windsor. The presentation provided a building analysis and discussed the following: geothermal heating; distributive power; green roof; net metering; grey water plumbing; solar water heating; passive lighting; energy efficient lighting and geothermal heating and cooling. It also discussed opportunities for innovation, namely: greenhouse; composting toilets; alternative insulation; net metering; solar arrays; hydroponics; and expansion of the house. Also discussed were a nature bridge, an underwater electric kite, and a vertically aerodynamic turbine. The benefits of renewable energy, small hydro power potential, and instream energy generation technology were presented. 9 refs., figs.

  19. Increased energy efficiency of hobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the project is to save energy when cooking food on hobs. A great part of the total energy consumption used for cooking is consumed by hobs. The amount of energy depends on the temperature used for cooking and energy used for evaporation of liquid, focussing especially on the latter in this project. CHEC B is a method for controlling the supply of energy to the zone, so that a minimum of energy is used for reaching a set temperature of the food/liquid in the pot and maintaining this temperature. Today the efficiency of hobs is between 50 - 75%. Using CHEC B the energy efficiency is expected to be higher. (au)

  20. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  1. Global status report on energy efficiency 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; van Breevoort, P.; Roes, A.L.; Coenraads, R.; Müller, N.

    2008-01-01

    There is wide agreement that energy efficiency improvement is one of the key strategies to achieve greater sustainability of the energy system. In the past, the contribution of energy efficiency has already been considerable.Without the energy efficiency improvements achieved since the 1970s,

  2. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda [Advertising Council, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  3. Energy efficiency networks; Energieeffizienz-Netzwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Anna [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH (FfE GmbH), Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Energy efficiency networks are an attractive method to increase the energy efficiency and to reduce the costs and CO{sub 2} emissions of the companies operating in this network. A special feature of the energy efficiency networks is the exchange of experiences and training of the energy managers. Energy efficiency networks consist of about ten to fifteen locally domiciled companies. During the project period of three to four years, there are two main phases. In the first phase, the initial consultation phase, the actual state of a company is captured, and measures to increase the efficiency and energy conservation are identified. Parallel to this, in the second phase every three months a meeting with the participating companies takes place. Experience exchange and implementation of energy efficiency measures are the focus of these meetings. Initial studies show that the increase of the energy efficiency during participating in the energy efficiency network almost can be doubled in comparison to the average of the industry.

  4. Energy efficient home in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to present new methods or new products that could save money while improving the environment in Lebanon. Cost of energy is on the increase and is predicted to increase even more in the future. Environmental issues and awareness are gaining momentum in Lebanon. With electricity production directly linked to power plants that represent about 30% of the air pollution which is also linked to health related issues. There is an intermediate need to introduce more energy efficient products in the construction industry which require less energy to operate or could be linked indirectly to energy. In this context, cost-benefit analysis of heating, light, painting, energy consumption and energy lamp burning hours in addition to fuel burner, gas and electric heater in buildings are presented in tables. Finally, there is a lack of awareness on the positive impact on the environment reflected in the saving of natural resources, reducing pollution and creation of a better living environment

  5. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  6. Radon and energy efficient homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.

    1981-09-01

    Radon and its daughters in indoor air are presently responsible for dose equivalents of about 31 mSv/year (3 rem/year) to parts of the respiratory tract. Linear extrapolation from the dose response values of uranium miners heavily exposed to radon and its decay products would suggest that almost all lung cancers in the non-smoking population are caused by environmental 222 Rn. Using epidemiological data on the types of lung cancer found in non-smokers of the general public as compared to the miners, a smaller effect of low level radon exposure is assumed, which would result in a lung cancer mortality rate due to radon of about 10 deaths per year and million or 25% of the non-smoker rate. Higher indoor radon concentrations in energy efficient homes mostly caused by reduced air exchange rates will lead to a several fold increase of the lung cancer incidence from radon. Based on the above assumption, about 100 additional lung cancer deaths/year-million will result both from an increase in radionuclide concentrations in indoor air and a concomitant rise in effectiveness of radiation to cause cancer with higher exposure levels. Possibilities to reduce indoor radon levels in existing buildings and costs involved are discussed. (Auth.)

  7. Energy-efficient cooking methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De, Dilip K. [Department of Physics, University of Jos, P.M.B. 2084, Jos, Plateau State (Nigeria); Muwa Shawhatsu, N. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Technology, Yola, P.M.B. 2076, Yola, Adamawa State (Nigeria); De, N.N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Ikechukwu Ajaeroh, M. [Department of Physics, University of Abuja, Abuja (Nigeria)

    2013-02-15

    Energy-efficient new cooking techniques have been developed in this research. Using a stove with 649{+-}20 W of power, the minimum heat, specific heat of transformation, and on-stove time required to completely cook 1 kg of dry beans (with water and other ingredients) and 1 kg of raw potato are found to be: 710 {+-}kJ, 613 {+-}kJ, and 1,144{+-}10 s, respectively, for beans and 287{+-}12 kJ, 200{+-}9 kJ, and 466{+-}10 s for Irish potato. Extensive researches show that these figures are, to date, the lowest amount of heat ever used to cook beans and potato and less than half the energy used in conventional cooking with a pressure cooker. The efficiency of the stove was estimated to be 52.5{+-}2 %. Discussion is made to further improve the efficiency in cooking with normal stove and solar cooker and to save food nutrients further. Our method of cooking when applied globally is expected to contribute to the clean development management (CDM) potential. The approximate values of the minimum and maximum CDM potentials are estimated to be 7.5 x 10{sup 11} and 2.2 x 10{sup 13} kg of carbon credit annually. The precise estimation CDM potential of our cooking method will be reported later.

  8. Energy efficient elevators and escalators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrao, Carlos; Fong, Joao; Almeida, Anibal de (Dep. Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)); Rivet, Luc

    2009-07-01

    Elevators and escalators are the crucial element that makes it practical to live and work several floors above ground - more than 4,3 million units are installed in Europe. Due to ageing of the European population the installation of elevators in single family houses is experiencing a significant growth, as well as equipping existing buildings. Elevators use about 4% of the electricity in tertiary sector buildings. High untapped saving potentials exist with respect to energy-efficient technologies, investment decisions and behavioural approaches, in these sectors. This paper presents preliminary results from the IEE project E4, whose overall objective is the improvement of the energy performance of elevators and escalators, in tertiary sector buildings and in multi family residential buildings. The project is characterizing people conveyors electricity consumption in the tertiary sector and in residential buildings in the EU. The installed park is characterised by a survey among elevators national associations in each country. An assessment of the barriers has been made in the first phase of the project and will be presented. Monitoring campaigns in elevators and escalators are being conducted in each country according to a common developed methodology. More than fifty elevators and escalators will be audited. This will allow the collection of load curves (start up, travel up and down, travel full and empty), including the characterization of standby consumption. Standby consumption of an elevator can represent up to 80% of the total energy consumed per year, and can be drastically reduced. This paper presents the preliminary results of the first ten audits performed in Portugal by Isr-UC.

  9. Energy-Efficient Neuromorphic Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Daniel; Rigotti, Mattia; Seok, Mingoo; Fusi, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. The energy consumptions promised by neuromorphic engineering are extremely low, comparable to those of the nervous system. Until now, however, the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, thereby obfuscating a direct comparison of their energy consumption to that used by conventional von Neumann digital machines solving real-world tasks. Here we show that a recent technology developed by IBM can be leveraged to realize neuromorphic circuits that operate as classifiers of complex real-world stimuli. Specifically, we provide a set of general prescriptions to enable the practical implementation of neural architectures that compete with state-of-the-art classifiers. We also show that the energy consumption of these architectures, realized on the IBM chip, is typically two or more orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional digital machines implementing classifiers with comparable performance. Moreover, the spike-based dynamics display a trade-off between integration time and accuracy, which naturally translates into algorithms that can be flexibly deployed for either fast and approximate classifications, or more accurate classifications at the mere expense of longer running times and higher energy costs. This work finally proves that the neuromorphic approach can be efficiently used in real-world applications and has significant advantages over conventional digital devices when energy consumption is considered.

  10. Industrial energy efficiency: A policy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    Policies that promote energy efficiency can work; but potential energy savings are unlikely to be realized without effective policy leadership. This article discusses the opportunities in several countries for increasing energy efficiency. Both ''open'' and centrally planned economies could be much more energy efficient. In the United States, for example, the government needs to stimulate energy efficiency. This could be done by sponsoring research to develop new processes, creating favourable financial conditions for investment in efficiency, and making the advantages of energy efficiency technologies better known. International collaboration in sponsoring research and transfer technologies could be of the greatest importance in improving energy efficiency in countries with centrally planned economies, including the Soviet Union, as well as in developing countries. Favourable conditions for achieving both economic development and environmental protection can be created through cooperation on the international level. (author). 24 refs, 4 tabs

  11. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described

  12. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  13. Market conditions affecting energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabright, J.

    1996-01-01

    The global energy efficiency market is growing, due in part to energy sector and macroeconomic reforms and increased awareness of the environmental benefits of energy efficiency. Many countries have promoted open, competitive markets, thereby stimulating economic growth. They have reduced or removed subsidies on energy prices, and governments have initiated energy conservation programs that have spurred the wider adoption of energy efficiency technologies. The market outlook for energy efficiency is quite positive. The global market for end-use energy efficiency in the industrial, residential and commercial sectors is now estimated to total more than $34 billion per year. There is still enormous technical potential to implement energy conservation measures and to upgrade to the best available technologies for new investments. For many technologies, energy-efficient designs now represent less than 10--20% of new product sales. Thus, creating favorable market conditions should be a priority. There are a number of actions that can be taken to create favorable market conditions for investing in energy efficiency. Fostering a market-oriented energy sector will lead to energy prices that reflect the true cost of supply. Policy initiatives should address known market failures and should support energy efficiency initiatives. And market transformation for energy efficiency products and services can be facilitated by creating an institutional and legal structure that favors commercially-oriented entities

  14. State-level benefits of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonn, Bruce; Peretz, Jean H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20% and 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20-year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies. Energy efficiency programs are cost-effective; typical benefit-cost ratios exceed 3:1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. (author)

  15. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  16. Energy efficiency practices among road freight hauliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Stenholm, Pekka; Tapio, Petri; McKinnon, Alan

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gases (GHG) is a highly prevalent public policy goal among European Union member countries. In the new White Paper on transport, the role of road freight transports in this is strongly emphasized. This far, however, the efficiency practices utilised in logistics firms are less studied. Drawing from policy goals and new survey data on 295 road transport firms our results show that hauliers are aware of the possible energy efficiency actions but lack the knowledge and resources to fully utilize them. Energy efficiency seems also to be unimportant for many shippers, so there are no incentives for hauliers to improve it. Examples from various countries show that clear energy efficiency improvements can be achieved with active cooperation between hauliers, shippers and policy makers. Such cooperation can be developed in Finland through the sectoral energy efficiency agreements. The novelty and the utility of these results allow scholars to answer important open questions in the national-level determinants of enhancing energy efficiency practices among road freight hauliers, and contribute to our understanding of how these can be fostered in public policies. - Highlights: ► Hauliers still monitor their fuel consumption with unsophisticated methods. ► Larger hauliers are more active in energy efficiency related issues than smaller ones. ► Hauliers are aware of energy efficiency actions, but lack knowledge of implementation. ► Finnish energy efficiency agreement provides a good framework for public policies. ► Companies that monitor and improve energy efficiency may gain competitive advantage.

  17. An interdisciplinary perspective on industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, Jenny; Thollander, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper combines engineering and social science approaches to enhance our understanding of industrial energy efficiency and broaden our perspective on policy making in Europe. Sustainable development demands new strategies, solutions, and policy-making approaches. Numerous studies of energy efficiency potential state that cost-effective energy efficiency technologies in industry are not always implemented for various reasons, such as lack of information, procedural impediments, and routines not favoring energy efficiency. Another reason for the efficiency gap is the existence of particular values, unsupportive of energy efficiency, in the dominant networks of a branch of trade. Analysis indicates that different sectors of rather closed communities have established their own tacit knowledge, perceived truths, and routines concerning energy efficiency measures. Actors in different industrial sectors highlight different barriers to energy efficiency and why cost-effective energy efficiency measures are not being implemented. The identified barriers can be problematized in relation to the social context to understand their existence and how to resolve them.

  18. The benefits of energy efficiency - why wait?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; Breevoort, P. van

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy efficiency globally leads to many benefits. First and foremost, improved energy efficiency of equipment, buildings, vehicles and industrial processes will lead to a reduction of the use of electricity, heat and fuels. This will save large amounts of money. Moreover,

  19. Priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides research gaps and priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture across Europe, based on the analysis of the Coordination and Support Action AGREE (Agriculture & Energy Efficiency) funded by the 7th research framework of the EU (www.agree.aua.gr). The analysis from

  20. Promotion of energy efficiency in enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrani, G.; Schelske, O.; Peter, D.; Oettli, B.

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made within the framework of the research programme on energy-economics fundamentals on how the energy efficiency of enterprises can be improved. The report first examines the present state of affairs in Swiss enterprises and looks into the interaction of energy efficiency and environmental management systems. ISO 14001 certification is discussed and examples are given of the responses of various enterprises to a survey concerning the role of energy efficiency in environmental management. Both hindrances and success factors for the embedding of energy-efficiency measures in environmental management activities are discussed and examples are given. Instruments available in Switzerland and from abroad that can be used to promote energy efficiency in enterprises are discussed. Four particular instruments are presented; guidelines and computer-based tools that help in the making of energy-relevant investment decisions, incentives to take part in an energy-benchmark system for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME), low-interest loans for investments in energy-efficiency for SMEs and the closer definition of 'continuous improvement' of energy efficiency within the framework of ISO 14001. The results of a survey amongst those involved are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations for the implementation of the guidelines and for improvements in the integration of energy efficiency in environmental management systems

  1. Energy efficiency: From regional to global cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1994-01-01

    In developing, reforming and emerging countries in particular, institutional hurdles have hindered the introduction of energy efficient technology. The author develops the theme from two U.N. projects: A new institutional accessibility to supra-regional cooperation could provide an important stimulus for future worldwide cooperation in the field of energy efficiency. (orig.) [de

  2. Energy efficiency: from principles to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudry, Paul; Ballot-Miguel, Benedicte; Binet, Guillaume; Bordigoni, Mathieu; Decellas, Fabrice; Hauser, Chantal; Hita, Laurent; Laurent, Marie-Helene; Osso, Dominique; Peureux, Jean-Louis; Pham Van Cang, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This collective publication proposes a comprehensive overview of issues related to energy efficiency: associated stakes, methods of assessment of energy savings and of their costs, methods of action for energy efficiency policies, application in the housing, office building and industry sectors based on energy consumption modes in these different sectors, and main technologies aimed at improving energy efficiency. The first chapter proposes an historical perspective on energy, outlines the crucial role of energy efficiency in today's and tomorrow's contexts, and discusses which are the different levers of action to increase this efficiency. The next chapters address methods of assessment of energy efficiency, identify and discuss the use of different potential sources of energy saving, propose an overview of the various objectives and instruments of policies for energy efficiency, and address the issue of energy efficiency in the housing sector, in the office building sector, and in the industry sector by indicating the current levels of energy consumption, by identifying the various potential sources of energy saving, and by indicating available technologies aimed at improving energy efficiency

  3. Energy efficiency rating of districts, case Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedman, Åsa; Sepponen, Mari; Virtanen, Mikko

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing political pressure on the city planning to create more energy efficient city plans. Not only do the city plans have to enable and promote energy efficient solutions, but it also needs to be clearly assessed how energy efficient the plans are. City planners often have no or poor know how about energy efficiency and building technologies which makes it difficult for them to answer to this need without new guidelines and tools. An easy to use tool for the assessment of the energy efficiency of detailed city plans was developed. The aim of the tool is for city planners to easily be able to assess the energy efficiency of the proposed detailed city plan and to be able to compare the impacts of changes in the plan. The tool is designed to be used with no in-depth knowledge about energy or building technology. With a wide use of the tool many missed opportunities for improving energy efficiency can be avoided. It will provide better opportunities for sustainable solutions leading to less harmful environmental impact and reduced emissions. - Highlights: • We have created a tool for assessing energy efficiency of detailed city plans. • The energy source is the most important factor for efficiency of districts in Finland. • Five case districts in Finland were analyzed. • In this paper one residential district has in-depth sensitivity analyses done

  4. Energy efficiency of mobile soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Langquan; Zhu, Liangliang; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi

    2017-11-15

    The performance of mobile soft robots is usually characterized by their locomotion/velocity efficiency, whereas the energy efficiency is a more intrinsic and fundamental criterion for the performance evaluation of independent or integrated soft robots. In this work, a general framework is established to evaluate the energy efficiency of mobile soft robots by considering the efficiency of the energy source, actuator and locomotion, and some insights for improving the efficiency of soft robotic systems are presented. Proposed as the ratio of the desired locomotion kinetic energy to the input mechanical energy, the energy efficiency of locomotion is found to play a critical role in determining the overall energy efficiency of soft robots. Four key factors related to the locomotion energy efficiency are identified, that is, the locomotion modes, material properties, geometric sizes, and actuation states. It is found that the energy efficiency of most mobile soft robots reported in the literature is surprisingly low (mostly below 0.1%), due to the inefficient mechanical energy that essentially does not contribute to the desired locomotion. A comparison of the locomotion energy efficiency for several representative locomotion modes in the literature is presented, showing a descending ranking as: jumping ≫ fish-like swimming > snake-like slithering > rolling > rising/turning over > inchworm-like inching > quadruped gait > earthworm-like squirming. Besides, considering the same locomotion mode, soft robots with lower stiffness, higher density and larger size tend to have higher locomotion energy efficiency. Moreover, a periodic pulse actuation instead of a continuous actuation mode may significantly reduce the input mechanical energy, thus improving the locomotion energy efficiency, especially when the pulse actuation matches the resonant states of the soft robots. The results presented herein indicate a large and necessary space for improving the locomotion energy

  5. Energy researchers - 1. Energy efficiency: Energy efficiency is driving innovation; No economic crisis for energy efficiency; How can we change our energy habits?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minster, Jean-Francois; Appert, Olivier; Moisan, Francois; Salha, Bernard; Tardieu, Bernard; Ghidaglia, Jean-Michel; Viterbo, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    A first article comments how the race to achieve energy efficiency is driving the emergence of new technologies in transportation and construction (hybrid cars, phase change material, digital mock-ups, and so on). The example of the AGV is evoked, a new version of the TGV developed by Alstom which will run faster and consume less energy. A second article outlines that, due to the support from public authorities and to an increased awareness of energy costs and environmental challenges, the energy savings market is booming. Then, in an interview, a sociologist of the ADEME comments the difficulty of changing habits in terms of energy savings

  6. National energy efficiency study. The Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maly, M.; Jakubes, J.; Spitz, J.; Van Wees, M.T.; Uyterlinde, M.A.; Martens, J.W.; Van Oostvoorn, F.; Henelova, V.; Vazac, V.; Zalesak, M.; Marousek, J.; Szomolanyiova, J.; Havlickova, M.; Zeman, J.; Ten Donkelaar, M.; Travnicek, S.; Stejskal, F.; Pribyl, E.; Blokker, L.; Bizek, V.; Velthuijsen, J.W.

    1999-08-01

    Energy efficiency and renewable energy production contribute to the three major goals of the national energy policy of the Czech Republic: overall competitiveness, security of supply; and environmental protection. Therefore, the Czech Government aims to promote these two sustainable options. The National Energy Efficiency Study has developed specific policies for the promotion of end use energy efficiency and renewables. These are described in two Action Plans, and in this report which serves as a background document. It contains detailed information on options and measures, potentials, barriers and policy instruments for energy efficiency and renewables. The main part is a detailed outline for a new energy efficiency and renewable policy, including a listing of actions for implementation. Also, it includes recommendations for financing schemes to overcome the investment constraints in the Czech Republic. Finally, a list of concrete projects is presented to support project identification. In addition, two separate Action Plans have been published: (1) The Energy Efficiency Action Plan focuses on promotion of energy efficiency in end-use (separate document, ECN-C-99-065); and (2) The Renewable Energy Action Plan (separate document, ECN-C-99-064) deals with policy on promotion of renewable energy production. These two policy documents should provide policy makers in the Czech Government with essential information on potentials, targets, the required budget, and recommended policy instruments. The core of the Action Plans is the list of concrete policy actions, ready for implementation

  7. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  8. Financial Crisis and Energy Efficiency. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de T' Serclaes, Philippine; Gasc, Emilien; Saussay, Aurelien

    2009-10-15

    Governments have understood the importance of financing energy efficiency now. This realisation is exemplified through the central role occupied by energy efficiency in most stimulus packages. The purpose of this memo is to identify the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the evolution of public sector investments, energy efficiency policy development, and private sector investments. The paper will first identify trends which have emerged from the implementation of IEA government stimulus packages. Most relevant case studies are then provided along with lessons and challenges.

  9. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  10. Energy efficient lighting in the retail sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Good Practice Guide gives details on how energy efficient lighting can be incorporated in the brief for a lighting consultant or contractor. The advantages of energy efficiency are highlighted, and the lighting of retail stores, the introduction of energy efficiency measures, and the application of good practice are discussed. Case studies of W H Smith, Cambridge, Tesco Stores, Boots plc, the Harvey Centre, Harlow, and the National Westminster Bank plc are presented. A guide for senior executives and specialists in lighting design is also included. (UK)

  11. Renewable energy sources: Energy Efficiency Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgarensky, Mihael

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the activities of the Energy Efficiency Agency, its main functions, as well as the new legislation stimulating the use of RES, stipulated in the new Energy Law of Bulgaria. The second part of the paper describes the potential of renewable energy in i.e. wind energy; solar energy; biomass energy; hydro energy; geothermal energy; draft of a National Program on RES 2005-2015. The third part describes the main issues of the new ENERGY EFFICIENCY LAW and the established Energy efficiency fund. (Author)

  12. Energy efficiency: Lever for the Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The Eco-electric industry group (FFIE, FGME, Gimelec, IGNES, SERCE) has conducted a study to evaluate the energy saving potential of active energy efficiency solutions in the residential and commercial building sectors. Based on field implementations and demonstrators, it has been demonstrated that active energy efficiency can sustainably achieve substantial savings for households, companies and public authorities. Energy Efficiency - Lever for the energy transition presents the results and conclusions of that study, alongside with recommendations for public authority in terms of building retrofit policy for putting France on the best possible 'trajectory' from a budgetary and environmental point of view. (author)

  13. Building Performance Simulation tools for planning of energy efficiency retrofits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø; Karlshøj, Jan; Vestergaard, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Designing energy efficiency retrofits for existing buildings will bring environmental, economic, social, and health benefits. However, selecting specific retrofit strategies is complex and requires careful planning. In this study, we describe a methodology for adopting Building Performance...... to energy efficiency retrofits in social housing. To generate energy savings, we focus on optimizing the building envelope. We evaluate alternative building envelope actions using procedural solar radiation and daylight simulations. In addition, we identify the digital information flow and the information...... Simulation (BPS) tools as energy and environmentally conscious decision-making aids. The methodology has been developed to screen buildings for potential improvements and to support the development of retrofit strategies. We present a case study of a Danish renovation project, implementing BPS approaches...

  14. Energy efficiency in future wireless broadband networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masonta, MT

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available greener economy and environment. In this research, we investigate the concept of green radio communications in wireless networks and discuss approaches for energy efficient solutions in wireless broadband network deployments. These solutions include...

  15. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides resources for policy-makers, consumers, utilities, and others produced through NAPEE - a private-public initiative to create a sustainable, aggressive national commitment to energy efficiency through a collaborative effort of stakeholders.

  16. Indicators for industrial energy efficiency in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, Dolf; Taylor, Peter

    2009-01-01

    India accounts for 4.5% of industrial energy use worldwide. This share is projected to increase as the economy expands rapidly. The level of industrial energy efficiency in India varies widely. Certain sectors, such as cement, are relatively efficient, while others, such as pulp and paper, are relatively inefficient. Future energy efficiency efforts should focus on direct reduced iron, pulp and paper and small-scale cement kilns because the potentials for improvement are important in both percentage and absolute terms. Under business as usual, industrial energy use is projected to rise faster than total final energy use. A strong focus on energy efficiency can reduce this growth, but CO 2 emissions will still rise substantially. If more substantial CO 2 emissions reductions are to be achieved then energy efficiency will need to be combined with measures that reduce the carbon intensity of the industrial fuel mix.

  17. Energy efficiency: a recipe for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Produced in cooperation with ADEME and Enerdata, this report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies and trends in about 90 countries around the world. It reviews the impact of energy efficiency measures and highlights the trends and results of their implementation. Energy efficiency is ''a low hanging fruit'' on the ''energy tree'' which can help address a number of objectives at the same time and at a low or negative cost: security of supply, environmental impacts, competitiveness, balance of trade, investment requirements, social aspects and others. Despite its significant potential for energy savings, energy efficiency is still far from realising this potential. Why? There is no single answer to this question. A meaningful response requires major research and an analytical effort.

  18. Energy efficiency: a recipe for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Produced in cooperation with ADEME and Enerdata, this report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies and trends in about 90 countries around the world. It reviews the impact of energy efficiency measures and highlights the trends and results of their implementation. Energy efficiency is ''a low hanging fruit'' on the ''energy tree'' which can help address a number of objectives at the same time and at a low or negative cost: security of supply, environmental impacts, competitiveness, balance of trade, investment requirements, social aspects and others. Despite its significant potential for energy savings, energy efficiency is still far from realising this potential. Why? There is no single answer to this question. A meaningful response requires major research and an analytical effort.

  19. Building Energy Efficiency through Innovative Thermodevices (BEEIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Y. Sungtaek [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dunn, Bruce [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pei, Qibing [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kim, C. -J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-12-14

    This is the final scientific/technical report for the project "Compact MEMS Electrocaloric Cooling Module" sponsored by ARAPA-E as part of its Building Energy Efficiency through Innovative Thermodevices (BEEIT) program.

  20. Investing in Energy Efficiency. Removing the Barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Investing in improving energy efficiency has the clear advantages of reducing energy costs, improving security of supply and mitigating the environmental impacts of energy use. And still, many viable opportunities for higher energy efficiency are not tapped because of the existence of numerous barriers to such investments. These lost opportunities imply costs to the individual energy consumers and to the society as a whole and they are particularly important in economies in transition. This report identifies various types of barriers for making energy efficiency investments (be they of legal, administrative, institutional or financial nature), mainly in buildings, district heating and efficient lighting. The role of various bodies and organisations for the facilitation of energy efficiency investments is analysed, from public authorities and regulators to banks and international financing institutions

  1. Transition Towards Energy Efficient Machine Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zein, André

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The ...

  2. Health, Energy Efficiency and Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change is becoming a driving force for improving energy efficiency because saving energy can help reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change. However, it is important to balance energy saving measures with ventilation...

  3. Energy-efficient fault-tolerant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Jimson; Pradhan, Dhiraj K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in energy efficient, fault-tolerant embedded systems. It covers the entire product lifecycle of electronic systems design, analysis and testing and includes discussion of both circuit and system-level approaches. Readers will be enabled to meet the conflicting design objectives of energy efficiency and fault-tolerance for reliability, given the up-to-date techniques presented.

  4. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  5. Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP) Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, Howard [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP), Boulder, CO (United States); Meyers, Jim [Southwest Energy Efficiency Project (SWEEP), Boulder, CO (United States)

    2018-01-29

    SWEEP worked with Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) programs to foster greater energy efficiency throughout the Southwest. SWEEP accomplished this through a combination of analysis and support; preparation and distribution of materials on best practice technologies, policies and programs; and technical assistance and information dissemination to states and municipalities in the southwest supporting BTO, AMO, OWIP for advancement of efficiency in products and practices. These efforts were accomplished during the period 2012 through 2017.

  6. Governance and communication for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency has multiple benefits. It usually is a win-win option for all aspects of sustainability – environment, social objectives, and economy. We need to evaluate and communicate these multiple benefits – to citizens, companies, and policy-makers. Due to strong market barriers, effective governance and policy packages for energy efficiency are needed. Evaluation shows effective policy can achieve around 2% per year of additional energy savings.

  7. Energy Efficiency Policy and Carbon Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  8. Transition towards energy efficient machine tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zein, Andre [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkzeugmaschinen und Fertigungstechnik

    2012-07-01

    Provides unique data about industrial trends affecting the energy demand of machine tools. Presents a comprehensive methodology to assess the energy efficiency of machining processes. Contains an integrated management concept to implement energy performance measures into existing industrial systems. Includes an industrial case study with two exemplary applications. Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and practitioners challenged to enhance energy efficiency in manufacturing. The book may also be beneficial for graduate students who want to specialize in this field.

  9. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  10. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since the author......Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... with practitioners in the building sector at the local level. The aim of this report is to look into municipal efforts to promote energy efficient buildings to learn from their experiences: What types of challenges are municipalities facing, when attempting to disseminate energy efficient technologies in local...... building projects through municipal planning practices, and how do they cope with these challenges? The report is based on an in-depth study of proactive planning practices performed by municipal partners in the Class 1 project and a series of experiences, strategies and instru-ments are identified...

  11. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies can significantly reduce household electricity consumption, but adoption has been slow. A unique dataset of German households is used in this paper to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The ‘rebound’ effect of increased lamp luminosity in the transition to energy efficient bulbs is analyzed jointly with the replacement decision to account for household self-selection in bulb-type choice. Results indicate that the EU ban on ILs accelerated the pace of transition to CFLs and LEDs, while storage of bulbs significantly dampened the speed of the transition. Higher lighting needs and bulb attributes like energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and durability spur IL replacement with CFLs or LEDs. Electricity gains from new energy efficient lighting are mitigated by 23% and 47% increases in luminosity for CFL and LED replacements, respectively. Model results suggest that taking the replacement bulb from storage and higher levels of education dampen the magnitude of these luminosity rebounds in IL to CFL transitions. - Highlights: • EU ban on ILs has fostered transitions to energy efficient lighting • Energy efficient, environmentally friendly, and durable lighting preferences make CFL and LED transitions more likely • Indicators of greater lighting needs are associated with higher propensities to replace ILs with CFLs and LEDs • For residential lighting, the rebound effect manifests itself through increases in luminosity • In IL to CLF transitions luminosity increases are lower with higher levels of education

  12. Tariff regulation with energy efficiency goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrardi, Laura; Cambini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We study the optimal tariff structure that could induce a regulated utility to promote energy efficiency by its customers given that it is privately informed about the effectiveness of its effort on demand reduction. The regulator should optimally offer a menu of incentive compatible two-part tariffs. If the firm's energy efficiency activities have a high impact on demand reduction, the consumer should pay a high fixed fee but a low per unit price, approximating the tariff structure to a decoupling policy, which strengthens the firm's incentives to pursue energy conservation. Instead, if the firm's effort to adopt energy efficiency actions is scarcely effective, the tariff is characterized by a low fixed fee but a high price per unit of energy consumed, thus shifting the incentives for energy conservation on consumers. The optimal tariff structure also depends on the cost of the consumer's effort (in case the consumer can also adopt energy efficiency measures) and on the degree of substitutability between the consumer's and the firm's efforts. - Highlights: • We study the optimal tariff structure that induces an utility to adopt energy efficiency activities. • The regulator optimally offer a menu of incentive compatible two-part tariffs. • If energy efficiency activities have a high effectiveness, decoupling emerges as a solution. • If the energy efficiency actions are less effective, the tariff has a higher per unit price and lower fixed fee. • The optimal tariff structure also depends on the degree of substitutability between the consumer's and the firm's efforts

  13. Encouraging energy efficiency: Policies and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Successfully overcoming the barriers to higher energy efficiency requires development of policies designed for specific users and locations. Reform of energy pricing, which entails removing subsidies and beginning internalization of externalities, is critical to give technology producers and users proper signals for investment and management decisions. But while a rise in energy prices increases the amount of energy-efficiency improvement that is cost-effective, it does not remove other barriers that deter investment. Minimum efficiency standards or agreements can raise the market floor, and are important because they affect the entire market in the near-term. But they may not raise the celining very much, and do little to push the efficiency frontier. To accomplish these goals, incentives and other market-development strategies are needed. Utility programs in particular can play a key role in pushing energy efficiency beyond the level where users are likely to invest on their own. Policies, programs, and pricing should complement one another. Pricing reform alone will not overcome the many entrenched barriers to higher energy efficiency, but trying to accelerate energy efficiency improvement without addressing energy pricing problems will lead to limited success. Whether tagerting new equipment or management of existing systems, policies must reflect a thorough understanding of the particular system and an awareness of the motivations of the actors. 25 refs

  14. Energy efficiency of milkmaid systems in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLanos, E.; Astigarraga, L.; Jacques, R.; Picasso, V.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption and increasing energy efficiency of agricultural systems may result in environmental and economic benefits. The aim of this study was to analyze dairy production systems from an energy perspective, to identify the main variables affecting energy efficiency and fossil energy consumption, through a model of inputs and outputs. The model included as inputs energy costs of food, labor, electricity, agrochemicals, fuels and machinery, and as outputs dairy and meat production. We analyzed a database of 30 dairy farms from southern Uruguay, from the Cooperative Nacional de Product ores de Leche (Conaprole), organized in three strata based on their dairy productivity per hectare. The fossil energy use was 2.40, 3.63 y 3.80 MJ.l-1 for productivity strata low, medium and high respectively (P<0.01). Energy efficiency averages were 1.40, 0.90 y 0.86 for the same strata (P<0.01). Fossil energy of agrochemicals and fuel accounted for more than 80% of the energy consumed in the three strata. The greater the percentage of concentrate in the diet, the lower energy efficiency (P<0.01). These results suggest the existence of a negative relationship between the intensification of dairy production and energy efficiency

  15. Modeling international trends in energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, David I.

    2012-01-01

    I use a stochastic production frontier to model energy efficiency trends in 85 countries over a 37-year period. Differences in energy efficiency across countries are modeled as a stochastic function of explanatory variables and I estimate the model using the cross-section of time-averaged data, so that no structure is imposed on technological change over time. Energy efficiency is measured using a new energy distance function approach. The country using the least energy per unit output, given its mix of outputs and inputs, defines the global production frontier. A country's relative energy efficiency is given by its distance from the frontier—the ratio of its actual energy use to the minimum required energy use, ceteris paribus. Energy efficiency is higher in countries with, inter alia, higher total factor productivity, undervalued currencies, and smaller fossil fuel reserves and it converges over time across countries. Globally, technological change was the most important factor counteracting the energy-use and carbon-emissions increasing effects of economic growth.

  16. Energy Efficient Engine: Control system preliminary definition report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David C.

    1986-01-01

    The object of the Control Preliminary Definition Program was to define a preliminary control system concept as a part of the Energy Efficient Engine program. The program was limited to a conceptual definition of a full authority digital electronic control system. System requirements were determined and a control system was conceptually defined to these requirements. Areas requiring technological development were identified and a plan was established for implementing the identified technological features, including a control technology demonstration. A significant element of this program was a study of the potential benefits of closed-loop active clearance control, along with laboratory tests of candidate clearance sensor elements for a closed loop system.

  17. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2003-06-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Indicators for Energy Efficiency Monitoring and Target setting (ODYSSEE)''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-2000 (2001 for overall energy use). Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.9% pr year in the period 1990 to 2001. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.6% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.3% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 11 TWh from 1990 to 2000. (author)

  18. Energy efficient thermal management of data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Energy Efficient Thermal Management of Data Centers examines energy flow in today's data centers. Particular focus is given to the state-of-the-art thermal management and thermal design approaches now being implemented across the multiple length scales involved. The impact of future trends in information technology hardware, and emerging software paradigms such as cloud computing and virtualization, on thermal management are also addressed. The book explores computational and experimental characterization approaches for determining temperature and air flow patterns within data centers. Thermodynamic analyses using the second law to improve energy efficiency are introduced and used in proposing improvements in cooling methodologies. Reduced-order modeling and robust multi-objective design of next generation data centers are discussed. This book also: Provides in-depth treatment of energy efficiency ideas based on  fundamental heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, controls, and computer science Focus...

  19. Promoting energy efficiency in Egyptian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.H.

    1990-01-01

    The energy situation in Egypt is characterized by a rather high energy demand, a high annual increase in energy consumption, inefficient utilization of energy, and heavily subsidized energy prices. Energy efficiency is therefore considered to be a matter of top priority, as it would lead to substantial savings. A national policy for efficient use of energy in industry has been outlined, including the establishment of an Industrial Energy Conservation Centre (IECC), the training and upgrading of energy management specialists, and the introduction of energy efficiency technologies in industrial plants. In this article the assistance that international organizations and donors can give to energy efficiency programmes is demonstrated. The results obtained so far are discussed and the lessons, findings and experience gained are outlined. (author). 1 tab

  20. Energy efficiency of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigulina, Anna Yu.; Ponomarenko, Alla M.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to analysis of tendencies and advanced technologies in the field of energy supply and energy efficiency of tall buildings, to the history of the emergence of the concept of "efficiency" and its current interpretation. Also the article show the difference of evaluation criteria of the leading rating systems LEED and BREEAM. Authors reviewed the latest technologies applied in the construction of energy efficient buildings. Methodological approach to the design of tall buildings taking into account energy efficiency needs to include the primary energy saving; to seek the possibility of production and accumulation of alternative electric energy by converting energy from the sun and wind with the help of special technical devices; the application of regenerative technologies.

  1. Fourth Annual Report on Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Franco, Nino; Bertini, Ilaria; Federici, Alessandro; Moneta Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Here we present the main elements of the annual report on energy efficiency 2015. The results indicate that, thanks to national policies for energy efficiency, Italy saved over 7.5 million tons of oil equivalent per year in the period 2005-2013. Compared to the National Plan for Energy Efficiency 2014, the report shows that the 2020 objectives have already been achieved for more than 20%, with residential (35.7% of the target) and industry (26.6%) among the sectors that contributed most to this result. Substantial savings could result from the agribusiness sector through the dissemination of efficient technologies in the logistics and large retail chains. A key role lies with the banks: 86% of banks has developed products dedicated to efficiency, necessitating guidelines for replicability of projects, and audit and rating to assess their quality [it

  2. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  3. Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document brings together the different definitions of the indicators used in the European Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators. This project was initiated in 1990. It benefits from the combined support of the SAVE programme of the European Commission, of Ademe and of 15 national Efficiency Agencies within the European network of energy efficiency agencies. The objective of the project is to develop and maintain indicators that enable to review progress in energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, by sector, end-use, etc.. for each country and the EU as a whole. To reach this objective, all data and indicators are stored in a common database called ODYSSEE that is regularly updated. A common methodology is used to produce comparative energy efficiency indicators from the database. The definitions presented in this document concern: 1) the general points (energy intensity, consumption, savings, efficiency, the unit consumption effect and index, the technological effect or savings, the substitution effect and the behavioural/management effect); 2) the macro-indicators (primary and final energy intensities at constant structure, at purchasing power parities, at reference economic structure); 3) industry (energy intensity of industry/manufacturing, of industry at constant structure and at reference structure, unit consumption of steel, cement etc.., process effect); 4) transports (energy intensity, unit consumption of vehicles, average specific consumption, test specific consumption, unit consumption, specific consumption, behavioural energy savings; 5) households and services (unit consumption, specific consumption, energy intensity of households, appliances); 6) transformations (apparent efficiency of energy sector or transformations, efficiency at constant fuel mix, efficiency of electricity sector). The same work is made for the 'key energy efficiency indicators', for the 'aggregate energy efficiency indicators' for

  4. Determinants of energy efficiency across countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Guolin

    With economic development, environmental concerns become more important. Economies cannot be developed without energy consumption, which is the major source of greenhouse gas emissions. Higher energy efficiency is one means of reducing emissions, but what determines energy efficiency? In this research we attempt to find answers to this question by using cross-sectional country data; that is, we examine a wide range of possible determinants of energy efficiency at the country level in an attempt to find the most important causal factors. All countries are divided into three income groups: high-income countries, middle-income countries, and low-income countries. Energy intensity is used as a measurement of energy efficiency. All independent variables belong to two categories: quantitative and qualitative. Quantitative variables are measures of the economic conditions, development indicators and energy usage situations. Qualitative variables mainly measure political, societal and economic strengths of a country. The three income groups have different economic and energy attributes. Each group has different sets of variables to explain energy efficiency. Energy prices and winter temperature are both important in high-income and middle-income countries. No qualitative variables appear in the model of high-income countries. Basic economic factors, such as institutions, political stability, urbanization level, population density, are important in low-income countries. Besides similar variables, such as macroeconomic stability and index of rule of law, the hydroelectricity share in total electric generation is also a driver of energy efficiency in middle-income countries. These variables have different policy implications for each group of countries.

  5. Regional level approach for increasing energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viholainen, Juha; Luoranen, Mika; Väisänen, Sanni; Niskanen, Antti; Horttanainen, Mika; Soukka, Risto

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive snapshot of regional energy system for decision makers. • Connecting regional sustainability targets and energy planning. • Involving local players in energy planning. - Abstract: Actions for increasing the renewable share in the energy supply and improving both production and end-use energy efficiency are often built into the regional level sustainability targets. Because of this, many local stakeholders such as local governments, energy producers and distributors, industry, and public and private sector operators require information on the current state and development aspects of the regional energy efficiency. The drawback is that an overall view on the focal energy system operators, their energy interests, and future energy service needs in the region is often not available for the stakeholders. To support the local energy planning and management of the regional energy services, an approach for increasing the regional energy efficiency is being introduced. The presented approach can be seen as a solid framework for gathering the required data for energy efficiency analysis and also evaluating the energy system development, planned improvement actions, and the required energy services at the region. This study defines the theoretical structure of the energy efficiency approach and the required steps for revealing such energy system improvement actions that support the regional energy plan. To demonstrate the use of the approach, a case study of a Finnish small-town of Lohja is presented. In the case example, possible actions linked to the regional energy targets were evaluated with energy efficiency analysis. The results of the case example are system specific, but the conducted study can be seen as a justified example of generating easily attainable and transparent information on the impacts of different improvement actions on the regional energy system.

  6. Energy efficiency trends and policy in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mansour, Fouad

    2011-01-01

    The energy dependency of Slovenia is high (52.1%), but it is a little lower than the average energy dependency in the EU 27 (53.8%). Slovenia imports all its petroleum products and natural gas and partly coal and electricity. The energy intensity of Slovenia is higher by about 50% than the average in the EU 27. The target of the EU Directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services adopted in 2006 is to achieve a 9% improvement of EE (energy efficiency) within the period 2008-2016. The new target of the EU climate and energy package '20-20-20 plan' is a 20% increase in EE by 2020. Since 1991 the Slovenian government has been supporting energy efficiency activities. The improvement of EE was one of the targets of strategic energy documents ReSROE (Resolution on the Strategy of Use and Supply of Energy in Slovenia from 1996 and ReNEP (Resolution on the National Energy Programme) from 2004 adopted by the Slovenian National Assembly (Parliament) in previous years. The Energy Act adopted in 1999 defines the objective of energy policy as giving priority to EE and utilization of renewable energy sources. The goals of the 'National Energy Action Plan 2008-2016 (NEEAP)' adopted by the Slovenian government in 2008 include a set of energy efficiency improvement instruments in the residential, industrial, transport and tertiary sectors. The target of the NEEAP is to save final energy in the 2008-2016 period, amounting to at least 4261 GWh or 9% of baseline consumption. The indicators of energy efficiency trends show considerable improvement in the period from 1998 to 2007. The improvement of EE was reached in all sectors: manufacturing, transport and households. The paper analyses the structure, trends of energy consumption and energy efficiency indicators by sectors of economic activity. A review of energy efficiency policy and measures is described in the paper.

  7. Research for energy efficiency; Forschung fuer Energieeffizienz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    The Federal Ministry of Economy enhanced its funding for research in the field of non-nuclear energy in the programme ''Forschung fuer Energieeffizienz'' (Research for Energy Efficiency). The programme focuses on established areas like modern power plant technologies (''Moderne Kraftwerkstechnologien''), fuel cells and hydrogen (''Brennstoffzelle, Wasserstoff''), and energy-optimized building construction (''Energieoptimiertes Bauen''). New subjects are energy-efficient towns and cities (''Energieeffiziente Stadt''), power grids for future power supply (''Netze fuer die Stromversorgung der Zukunft''), power storage (''Stromspeicher''), and electromobility (''Elektromobilitaet''). The brochure presents research and demonstration projects that illustrate the situation in 2010 when the programme was initiated. (orig.)

  8. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  9. The energy efficiency of onboard hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng; Bjerrum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels is threatening the environment and energy efficiency is one of the most important ways to reduce this threat. Industry, transport and buildings are all high energy-using sectors in the world and even in the most technologically optimistic...... perspectives energy use is projected to increase in the next 50 years. How and when energy is used determines society's ability to create long-term sustainable energy systems. This is why this book, focusing on energy efficiency in these sectors and from different perspectives, is sharp and also important...

  10. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This memo is written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy- efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating...... when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent...

  11. Downtown Detroit Energy Efficient Street Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, Malik [Detroit Economic Growth Corp, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2013-11-29

    Reliable public lighting remains a critically important and valuable public service in Detroit, Michigan. The Downtown Detroit Energy Efficiency Lighting Program (the, “Program”) was designed and implemented to bring the latest advancements in lighting technology, energy efficiency, public safety and reliability to Detroit’s Central Business District, and the Program accomplished those goals successfully. Downtown’s nighttime atmosphere has been upgraded as a result of the installation of over 1000 new LED roadway lighting fixtures that were installed as part of the Program. The reliability of the lighting system has also improved.

  12. Speech for the defense of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escande, Ph.; Laforce, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reprints an interview of C. Mandil, executive director of IEA who comments some of the recent energy policy events: the recent mergers between European energy companies and the competition on energy markets, the role and share of nuclear energy and renewable energies in the energy mix, the Russian gas affair and the energy efficiency in Russia, the oil prices and the Iranian threat of exports disruption, the peak oil and the decay of petroleum production, the energy efficiency in China, the global warming and the Kyoto protocol. (J.S.)

  13. Measures for energy efficiency improvement of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption in buildings causes the need to propose energy efficiency improvement measures. Urban planning in accordance with micro location conditions can lead to energy consumption reduction in buildings through the passive solar design. While satisfying the thermal comfort to the user space purpose, energy efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the architectural and construction parameters such as shape of the building, envelope structure and the percentage of glazing. The improvement of the proposed measures, including the use of renewable energy sources, can meet requirements of Directive 2010/31 / EU of 'nearly zero energy buildings'.

  14. 78 FR 48855 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee AGENCY: International Trade... the international competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries. The... Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee, Attention: Ryan Mulholland, Office of Energy and...

  15. Energy efficient policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector. (author)

  16. Energy efficiency policy impact in India: case study of investment in industrial energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ming

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to identify the effectiveness of energy policy and capital investment in energy efficiency technologies in the industrial sector in India. Indian energy policies relating to industrial energy efficiency over the past 25 years are briefly reviewed, and a comparison study of these energy efficiency policies and strategies in India and China has been carried out. Interviews were conducted with a number of government policy-making institutions and a national industrial development bank. The accounts of 26 industrial enterprises which applied and used a loan of the Asian Development Bank were audited for data collection. Field-visits to seven industrial entrepreneurs were undertaken in a case study. Methodologies used in this study include documentation, cross-country reviews on energy policies, questionnaire design and distribution in the industrial sector, and on-site auditing of energy efficiency technologies. This paper concludes that current energy policies and strategies in India need further improvement to promote energy efficiency investment and energy efficiency technology development in the industrial sector. This paper will interest those policy makers and industrial entrepreneurs who are willing to finance energy efficiency projects and improve energy efficiency in the industrial sector

  17. Promoting Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This pilot project is the first attempt to address the lack of rigorous and transparent approach to defining best practice in city energy efficiency programmes. The project has provided interesting insights into a range of exciting projects being implemented in cities around the world. However, the potential exists for far greater benefit. The study has found that it is possible to collate the detailed information needed to identify best practice energy efficiency projects in cities. However, gathering the data is not easy. The data is often not recorded in an easily accessible format. Nor is it easy to get city officials to allocate time to the necessary data collation given the many other competing demands on their time. A key area that this project identifies as requiring urgent attention is the development of a common data management format for energy efficiency projects by Cas. Further work could also focus on refining the criteria used to define best practice, and broadening the scope of projects beyond energy efficiency.

  18. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Energy efficiency programs add to the costs incurred by electricity users in the short term and generate significant economic benefits in the medium and long term. Using the example of programs in development at Hydro-Quebec, it is shown that the net economic benefits surpass, in present value terms, the sums invested by the electric utility and the customer, corresponding to yields of over 100%. This benefit is the principal impact of energy conservation programs which also provide employment, for every dollar invested, of the same order as that provided by hydroelectric production (i.e. costs associated with construction of generating plants, transmission lines, and distribution facilities). This evaluation takes account of the structure of purchases of goods and services brought about by energy efficiency programs and their large import component. This result may be surprising since the hydroelectric industry is strongly integrated into the Quebec economy, but it is understandable when one takes into account the importance of distribution costs to small-scale users, which causes significant local activity even when imported products are involved, and the very intensive labor requirement for certain energy efficiency measures. In addition, the employment generated by energy efficiency investments is very diversified in terms of the range of skills used and its geographic dispersion. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Power shifts: the dynamics of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edenhofer, O.; Jaeger, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    Induced technical change is crucial for tackling the problem of timing in environmental policy. However, it is by no means obvious that the state has the ability to impose its will concerning technical change on the other relevant actors. Therefore, we conceptualize power in a non-linear model with social conflict and induced technical change. The model shows how economic growth, business cycles and innovation waves interact in the dynamics of energy efficiency. We assess three different ways of government control: energy taxes, energy and labor subsidies, and energy caps. Energy taxes help to select more energy efficient technologies. However, a successful selection of such technologies presupposes that they are available in the pool of technologies. As for energy subsidies, their existence helps to explain why in contemporary economies labor productivity grows faster than energy efficiency. With an energy cap, the social network of the relevant agents may be stabilized via social norms. It seems plausible that innovation waves comprise several business cycles and that such a wave is currently in the making. Proposals to postpone policies for improving energy efficiency increase the risk of energy inefficient lock-in effects. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Energy Efficiency for the Nunamiut People

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodman, Dan

    2014-04-09

    The goal of this project is to upgrade existing building facilities owned by Nunamiut Corporation in Anaktuvuk Pass, AK. The upgrades mentioned will include lighting, heating system, insulation and smart control units designed to increase the energy efficiency of Village Corporation owned buildings.

  1. The Energy Efficiency of Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Li, Qingfeng

    2007-01-01

    A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true...

  2. Energy Efficiency in Self Organising Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kisielius, Edvinas; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Zakrzewska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of an energy efficient algorithm that controls power emissions and the number of powered cell sites (eNBs) in overlaid Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. Simulations are carried out in OPNET Modeler and we investigate cells cites designed to meet peak hours trac demand...

  3. The Next Frontier in Industiral Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.

    2010-01-01

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. In the near future, energy efficiency is

  4. Energy efficiency in industry and transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruscoe, J.

    1990-01-01

    The discussion of energy issues has changed since the 1970s as improvements have been made in energy efficiency. The present capacity for surplus energy production in economically advanced countries reflects a decrease in energy requirements as well as new production sources. At the same time, the energy crisis can be seen as having discouraged improvements in energy efficiency because of its negative impact on growth. And the centrally planned economies remain highly inefficient energy users. Economic growth encourages the use of new technologies which are likely to be less energy-intensive than those they replace. Permanent gains in energy efficiency are derived from structural changes in the economy and from the introduction of energy-efficient technologies. This article addresses the prospect of increased energy conservation, particularly in industry (the end-use which consumes the most energy) and transportation. Although investments in projects to promote energy conservation are more cost-effective and environment-friendly than investments in energy supply, there is still widespread support for the latter. Developing countries naturally give preference to quantitative growth, with an increasing consumption of energy, but in these countries, too, more efficient use of energy could greatly reduce demand. The policies of international development agencies which still favour increasing energy supply over conservation need to change. Awareness of the need to reduce energy demand is, however, growing worldwide. (author)

  5. A study on electric bicycle energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan EVTIMOV

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a construction of an experimental electric bicycle for evaluation of the energy efficiency. The bicycle is equipped with onboard computer which can store the information about motion and energy consumption. The result concerning power, energy consumption, recharging during brake process, etc. are given. Energy consumption for 3 typical city routes is studied.

  6. Energy efficiency indicators. Case study, Liguria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciarallo, M. A.

    2001-01-01

    The report examines the trend in the Liguria Region's energy requirements over the period 1988-1996. The trend was analysed using the regional energy balances and energy efficiency indicators, both in aggregate form and on a single sector basis. The residential sector, in particular, was singled out for an in-depth analysis using publishing and processed data [it

  7. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.

    2009-07-01

    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  8. A framework to characterize energy efficiency measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; De Donatis, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel framework to characterize energy efficiency measures is proposed. • It allows a greater knowledge sharing, facilitating the adoption of the best measures. • It supports policy-makers in developing drivers for industrial energy efficiency. - Abstract: The need to increase the diffusion of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) is of crucial importance to achieve a consistent reduction of energy consumption and green house gases (GHG) emissions. A clear comprehension of the characteristics of such EEMs could assist in gathering and capitalizing all the information needed by industrial firms in selecting and adopting technologies, as well as by policy-makers in designing appropriate policies for their diffusion. Therefore, in this study, starting from a literature review of the studies analyzing the attributes of EEMs, we aim at providing an innovative and comprehensive framework to characterize such measures, based on 17 attributes grouped according to six categories, such as: economic, energy, environmental, production-related, implementation-related and the possible interaction with other systems. We applied this scheme to an extensive range of EEMs in cross-cutting technologies, i.e. motors, compressed air, lighting and HVAC systems. The analysis provides a relevant contribution firstly to the structuring and the sharing of knowledge on EEMs and hence to the comprehension of the barriers currently hindering their adoption; secondly, it provides a structured basis for the analysis of the drivers that policy-makers should develop in order to promote industrial energy efficiency

  9. Complex photonic structures for energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiersma D. S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Photonic structures are playing an increasingly important role in energy efficiency. In particular, they can help to control the flow of light and improve the optical properties of photovoltaic solar cells. We will explain the physics of light transport in such structures with a special focus on disordered materials.

  10. Energy Efficiency Perspectives of PMR Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Dolfi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the concern about energy efficiency in wireless communications has been growing rapidly. Manufacturers and researchers have developed innovative solutions, highlighting the benefits in reducing operational expenditures (OPEX and carbon footprint. Professional Mobile Radio (PMR systems, like Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA, have been designed to provide voice and data services to professional users. The energy consumption is one of the critical aspects of PMR broadband solutions and a major constraint for PMR services. The future convergence of PMR to the LTE system introduces a new topic in the research discussion about the energy efficiency of wireless systems. This paper focuses on the feasibility of energy efficient solutions for current and potentially future PMR networks, by providing a mathematical formulation of power consumption in TETRA base stations and assessing possible business models and energy saving solutions for enhanced mission-critical operations. The energy efficiency evaluation has been performed by taking into account the traffic load of a deployed TETRA regional network: in the considered network scenario with 150 base stations, significant OPEX savings up to 70 thousand Euros per year of operation are achieved. Moreover, the proposed solutions allow for saving more than 1 ton of CO 2 per year.

  11. Factors affecting commuter rail energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    The objective of this study is to develop a planninglevel model of commuter rail energy efficiency. The : environmental benefits of commuter rail are often cited as one of the key benefits and motivators for its rapid development as a public trans...

  12. 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations. 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The IEA recommends that G8 leaders adopt and urgently implement this package of measures to significantly enhance energy efficiency. This package was developed under the Gleneagles G8 Plan of Action, which mandates the pursuit of a clean, clever and competitive energy future.

  13. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...

  14. Energy efficient control of a refrigeration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems. The new idea is to control the superheat by the compressor speed and capacity by the refrigerant flow. A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design...... and the methods are evaluated with respect to energy efficiency....

  15. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  16. Hydro-Quebec and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    There is growing awareness that energy efficiency is both profitable and environmentally beneficial. In this year's Development Plan, Hydro-Quebec is proposing an Energy Efficiency Project made up of marketing programs designed for all markets throughout the final decade of the 20th century. This Project will have two aspects: energy efficiency and consumption management. Hydro-Quebec aims to reach an energy-efficiency level of 12.9 terawatt hours per year by 1999, fully 55% of its 23-terawatt hour potential. Over the next 10 years the utility intends to spend $1.8 billion for this purpose. Cumulative anticipated energy savings should be in the vicinity of 70 terawatt hours for the coming decade, and more than 130 terawatt hours for the first decade of the next century. Of the overall goal of 12.9 terawatt hours for Horizon 1999, energy savings of 9.0 terawatt hours should be the direct result of this year's proposed marketing programs, and will account for the bulk of anticipated investments. The remaining 3.9 terawatt hours will be gained as customers acquire better electrical appliance and accessory (household appliances, home insulation) buying habits

  17. Achieving Energy Efficient Ship Operations Under Third Party Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taudal Poulsen, René; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Profitable energy saving measures are often not fully implemented in shipping, causing energy efficiency gaps. The paper identifies energy efficiency gaps in ship operations, and explores their causes. Lack of information on energy efficiency, lack of energy training at sea and onshore and lack...... of time to produce and provide reliable energy efficiency information cause energy efficiency gaps. The paper brings together the energy efficiency and ship management literatures, demonstrating how ship management models influence energy efficiency in ship operations. Achieving energy efficiency in ship...

  18. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, N.; Worrell, E.; Ruth, M.; Price, L.; Elliott, R.N.; Shipley, A.M.; Thorne, J.

    2000-10-01

    U.S. industry consumes approximately 37 percent of the nation's energy to produce 24 percent of the nation's GDP. Increasingly, industry is confronted with the challenge of moving toward a cleaner, more sustainable path of production and consumption, while increasing global competitiveness. Technology will be essential for meeting these challenges. At some point, businesses are faced with investment in new capital stock. At this decision point, new and emerging technologies compete for capital investment alongside more established or mature technologies. Understanding the dynamics of the decision-making process is important to perceive what drives technology change and the overall effect on industrial energy use. The assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies can be useful for: (1) identifying R&D projects; (2) identifying potential technologies for market transformation activities; (3) providing common information on technologies to a broad audience of policy-makers; and (4) offering new insights into technology development and energy efficiency potentials. With the support of PG&E Co., NYSERDA, DOE, EPA, NEEA, and the Iowa Energy Center, staff from LBNL and ACEEE produced this assessment of emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies. The goal was to collect information on a broad array of potentially significant emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies and carefully characterize a sub-group of approximately 50 key technologies. Our use of the term ''emerging'' denotes technologies that are both pre-commercial but near commercialization, and technologies that have already entered the market but have less than 5 percent of current market share. We also have chosen technologies that are energy-efficient (i.e., use less energy than existing technologies and practices to produce the same product), and may have additional ''non-energy benefits.'' These benefits are as important (if

  19. Benchmarking urban energy efficiency in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirstead, James

    2013-01-01

    This study asks what is the ‘best’ way to measure urban energy efficiency. There has been recent interest in identifying efficient cities so that best practices can be shared, a process known as benchmarking. Previous studies have used relatively simple metrics that provide limited insight on the complexity of urban energy efficiency and arguably fail to provide a ‘fair’ measure of urban performance. Using a data set of 198 urban UK local administrative units, three methods are compared: ratio measures, regression residuals, and data envelopment analysis. The results show that each method has its own strengths and weaknesses regarding the ease of interpretation, ability to identify outliers and provide consistent rankings. Efficient areas are diverse but are notably found in low income areas of large conurbations such as London, whereas industrial areas are consistently ranked as inefficient. The results highlight the shortcomings of the underlying production-based energy accounts. Ideally urban energy efficiency benchmarks would be built on consumption-based accounts, but interim recommendations are made regarding the use of efficiency measures that improve upon current practice and facilitate wider conversations about what it means for a specific city to be energy-efficient within an interconnected economy. - Highlights: • Benchmarking is a potentially valuable method for improving urban energy performance. • Three different measures of urban energy efficiency are presented for UK cities. • Most efficient areas are diverse but include low-income areas of large conurbations. • Least efficient areas perform industrial activities of national importance. • Improve current practice with grouped per capita metrics or regression residuals

  20. Who should administer energy-efficiency programs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumstein, Carl; Goldman, Charles; Barbose, Galen

    2005-01-01

    The restructuring of the US electricity industry created a crisis for utility operated energy-efficiency programs. This paper briefly describes the reasons for the crisis and some of its consequences. Then the paper focuses on issues related to program administration and discusses the relative merits of entities--utilities, state agencies, and non-profit corporations--that might be administrators. Four criteria are developed for choosing among program administration options: compatibility with public policy goals, effectiveness of the incentive structure, ability to realize economies of scale and scope, and contribution to the development of an energy-efficiency infrastructure. We examine one region, the Pacific Northwest, and three states, New York, Vermont, and Connecticut, which have made successful transitions to new governance and/or administration structures. Attention is also given to California where large-scale energy-efficiency programs have continued to operate, despite the fact that many of the key governance/administration issues remain unresolved. We observe that no single administrative structure for energy-efficiency programs has yet emerged in the US that is clearly superior to all of the other alternatives. We conclude that this is not likely to happen soon for three reasons. First, policy environments differ significantly among the states. Second, the structure and regulation of the electric utility industry differs among the regions of the US. Third, market transformation and resource acquisition, two program strategies that were once seen as alternatives, are increasingly coming to be seen as complements. Energy-efficiency programs going forward are likely to include elements of both strategies. But, the administrative arrangements that are best suited to support market transformation may be different from the arrangements that are best for resource acquisition

  1. The promotion of energy efficiency in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paoli, L.; Bongiolatti, L.

    2006-01-01

    In 2004 Italy introduced an obligation for electricity and gas distribution companies to reach specific objectives regarding the improvement of energy efficiency in final energy consumption. The scope of the provision is to promote investments in energy efficiency in order to meet the greenhouse gases reduction target set by the Kyoto protocol. The adoption of binding targets of energy efficiency will also lead to the development of an energy services market, modifying the traditional relation between energy dealers and final consumers, thus leading to a more efficient use of the available resources. Similar mechanisms have already been applied in other European countries (as France and United Kingdom) and will be likely introduced in other countries with the implementation of European Directive on energy end-use efficiency and energy services. This paper describes and analyzes both the measures adopted in Italy and the results obtained after the first year of operation of the mechanism. The paper is divided in six different sections. In the first part we highlight the main problems related to the development of system based on tradable white certificates. In the second part we provide a brief description of the Italian regulatory context. In the third part there is an economic analysis of investments in energy efficiency. The fourth part considers the different options that distribution companies face in order to reach the energy efficiency targets. The fifth part shows the results obtained after the first year of operation of the mechanism. Finally, we propose some possible modifications to the scheme adopted in Italy considering the results obtained and the alternative solutions already applied in France and United Kingdom [it

  2. Energy Efficiency Plan 2009-2012; Energie Efficiency Plan 2009-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulen, M.M.W. (ed.)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of the Energy Efficiency Plan is to give an overview of the energy conservation plans of the Eindhoven University of Technology in Eindhoven, Netherlands, which must result in efficient use of energy conform the long-range agreements between businesses, industry and organizations and the Dutch government to improve energy efficiency (MJA3) [Dutch] Het doel van het EEP (Energie Efficiency Plan) is het in beeld brengen van de energiebesparingsplannen die leiden tot een efficienter gebruik van energie conform de MJA-3 afspraak (de derde Meerjaren Afspraak)

  3. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-23

    The study identifies the industrial decision makers, investigated the information they needed to know, how they can best be reached, and the motivating factors for purchasing energy-efficient electric motors. A survey was conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors. The survey measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy-efficient motors, decision-making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The survey data were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. A description of study findings, conclusions, and recommendations is presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in 3 appendices. Appendices D and E contain descriptions of the methods used. (MCW)

  4. Energy planning and energy efficiency assistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L. [Electrotek Concepts, Inc., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Electrotek is an engineering services company specializing in energy-related programs. Clients are most utilities, large energy users, and the U.S. Electric Power Research Institute. Electrotek has directed energy projects for the U.S. Agency for International Development and the U.S. Department of Energy in Poland and other countries of Central Europe. The objective is to assist the host country organizations to identify and implement appropriate energy efficiency and pollution reduction technologies, to transfer technical and organizational knowledge, so that further implementations are market-driven, without needed continuing foreign investment. Electrotek has worked with the Silesian Power Distribution Company to design an energy efficiency program for industrial customers that has proven to be profitable for the company and for its customers. The program has both saved energy and costs, and reduced pollution. The program is expanding to include additional customers, without needing more funding from the U.S. government.

  5. Deployment of commercial energy efficiency cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-04-01

    This research concerned the promotion of energy-efficient wood stoves in commercial and institutional kitchens in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda through technology transfer and training of local commercial stove producers. The key objective of the project was to introduce proven designs of energy-efficient wood stoves to producers in the target countries and train them in the manufacture and marketing of these stoves. The improved designs save 50% of the fuel used by the traditional stoves - a major saving where 10-15% of the kitchen budget is spent on fuel. They also remove smoke more effectively, protect cooks from heat and burns, and are easier to keep clean. The project went well although results have varied from one country to the other. In conclusion, the technology transfer of commercial stove designs can take place between neighbouring countries by a process of training, study visits, prototype development, market surveys and producer support.(author)

  6. Affordable Energy-Efficient New Housing Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Subrato; Widder, Sarah H.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; McIlvaine, Janet; Chasar, David; Beal, David; Sutherland, Karen; Abbott, , K.; Fonorow, Ken; Eklund, Ken; Lubliner, Michael; Salzberg, Emily; Peeks, B.; Hewes, T.; Kosar, D.

    2012-05-31

    Since 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America has sponsored research at PNNL to investigate cost-effective, energy-saving home-building technologies and to demonstrate how high-performance homes can deliver lower utility bills, increased comfort, and improved indoor air quality, while maintaining accessibility for low-income homeowners. PNNL and its contractors have been investigating 1) cost-effective whole-house solutions for Habitat for Humanity International (HFHI) and specific HFH affiliates in hot-humid and marine climates; 2) cost-effective energy-efficiency improvements for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in new, stick-built and manufactured homes; and 3) energy-efficient domestic hot-water systems.

  7. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  8. 'Normal' markets, market imperfections and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanstad, A.H.; Howarth, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    The conventional distinction between 'economic' and 'engineering' approaches to energy analysis obscures key methodological issues concerning the measurement of the costs and benefits of policies to promote the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. The engineering approach is in fact based upon firm economic foundations: the principle of lifecycle cost minimization that arises directly from the theory of rational investment. Thus, evidence that so-called 'market barriers' impede the adoption of cost-effective energy-efficient technologies implies the existence of market failures as defined in the context of microeconomic theory. A widely held view that the engineering view lacks economic justification, is based on the fallacy that markets are 'normally' efficient. (author)

  9. Energy Efficient Cooking - The EffiCooker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Substantial energy savings in moist heat cooking may be achieved by employing a pan with integrated electric heating element rather than an ordinary pan on a conventional electric range. The electric pan should be thermally insulated and equipped with an "intelligent" controller and timer....... A working prototype of a saucepan, dubbed the EffiCooker, has been constructed according to these guidelines. The EffiCooker has demonstrated energy savings in the range from 28% to 81% compared to conventional equipment when performing ordinary cooking tasks. The user need not be particularly aware...... of energy conservation to realize such savings; even those who are more concerned with their culinary achievements than with energy efficiency are likely to benefit. Besides being energy efficient the EffiCooker is user friendly. Many cooking tasks, once initiated, are performed automatically without any...

  10. The R-134a energy efficiency problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, N.; Dekleva, T.W.; Hartley, J.G.; Murphy, F.T.; Powell, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the controversy over the relative energy efficiencies of R-134a and R-12, from a theoretical thermodynamic perspective. In this regard, the authors have used an in-house process flowsheeting program which allows to simulate the complete thermodynamic cycle, and investigate the effects of superheat and subcooling. Special attention is given to the suitable basis for comparing the energy efficiencies of different refrigerants calculated from thermodynamic data. Modelling experiments demonstrate the relative extent to which R-12 and R-134a respond differently to superheat and subcooling. With appropriate superheat and subcooling taken into consideration, such as applied in standard practice in the home appliance industry, R-134a can provide COP values essentially equivalent to that of R-12

  11. Adopting Energy Efficiency in Connected Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Dane T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kemper, Emily [CLEAResult

    2017-10-02

    This presentation on connected homes was presented at the 11th Rocky Mountain Utility Efficiency Exchange on September 28, 2017. The discussion covered the integration of energy efficiency measures and practices with Internet of Things (IoT) awareness and adoption of smart technologies and services via WiFi/ Bluetooth enabled home and office equipment. The presentation also describes the benefits to the home and business and benefits/challenges for the utility/implementer.

  12. Energy-efficient wireless mesh infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazmi, Y.; de Meer, Hermann; Hummel, Karin Anna; Meyer, Harald; Meo, Michela; Remondo Bueno, David

    2011-01-01

    The Internet comprises access segments with wired and wireless technologies. In the future, we can expect wireless mesh infrastructures (WMIs) to proliferate in this context. Due to the relatively low energy efficiency of wireless transmission, as compared to wired transmission, energy consumption of WMIs can represent a significant part of the energy consumption of the Internet as a whole. We explore different approaches to reduce energy consumption in WMIs, taking into accoun...

  13. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  14. Energy efficiency and proliferation assessment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The objective of INFCE is to evaluate the nuclear fuel cycles from the point of view of their ability to satisfy the worldwide nuclear energy needs, while minimizing the proliferation risks. Accordingly, the different working groups have to take into consideration as well the energy-efficiency and the proliferation-resistance of these nuclear fuel cycles. The present working paper is aimed at suggesting the main assessment factors which should be taken into consideration

  15. Computer Architecture for Energy Efficient SFQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-27

    IBM Corporation (T.J. Watson Research Laboratory) 1101 Kitchawan Road Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 -0000 2 ABSTRACT Number of Papers published in peer...accomplished during this ARO-sponsored project at IBM Research to identify and model an energy efficient SFQ-based computer architecture. The... IBM Windsor Blue (WB), illustrated schematically in Figure 2. The basic building block of WB is a "tile" comprised of a 64-bit arithmetic logic unit

  16. France's action plan for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first presents the French strategy for energy efficiency which is notably based on several commitments and an energy conservation policy. The second part describes the various policies and measures which have been implemented in France for different sectors: energy demand, housing and office building, transports, industry, exemplary State and local communities, agriculture, wastes, public information and sensitization. Several large appendices complete this report. They address assessment methods, policies and measures, and a European directive

  17. Energy Efficiency of Tunnel Boring Machines.

    OpenAIRE

    Grishenko, Vitaly

    2014-01-01

    Herrenknecht AG is a German world-leading Tunnel Boring Machines manufacturer showing strong awareness and concern regarding environmental issues. The company supports research on the Energy Efficiency (EE) of their products, aimed at the development of intelligent design for a green Tunnel Boring Machine. The aim of this project is to produce a ’status quo’ report on EE of three types of Tunnel Boring Machines (Hardrock, EPB and Mixshield TBM). In the framework of this research 39 projects a...

  18. Holistic Approach to Data Center Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, Steven W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-18

    This presentation discusses NREL's Energy System Integrations Facility and NREL's holistic design approach to sustainable data centers that led to the world's most energy-efficient data center. It describes Peregrine, a warm water liquid cooled supercomputer, waste heat reuse in the data center, demonstrated PUE and ERE, and lessons learned during four years of operation.

  19. Energy efficient industrialized housing research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, R.; Brown, G.Z.; Finrow, J.; Kellett, R.; Mc Donald, M.; McGinn, B.; Ryan, P.; Sekiguchi, T. (Oregon Univ., Eugene, OR (USA). Center for Housing Innovation); Chandra, S.; Elshennawy, A.K.; Fairey, P.; Harrison, J.; Maxwell, L.; Roland, J.; Swart, W. (Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This is the second volume of a two volume report on energy efficient industrialized housing. Volume II contains support documentation for Volume I. The following items are included: individual trip reports; software bibliography; industry contacts in the US, Denmark, and Japan; Cost comparison of industrialized housing in the US and Denmark; draft of the final report on the systems analysis for Fleetwood Mobile Home Manufacturers. (SM)

  20. ENERGY EFFICIENCY. TRENDS AND INFLUENCE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizi GOSCHIN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is correlated with many factors of influence: Gross National Income per capita, energy imports (% of energy use, renewable combustible and waste (% of total, energy use per capita, services as % of GDP and others. In this paper we are testing a model of piecewise linear regression with breakpoint in order to measure the influence of these factors on the variation of GDP per unit of energy use in Europe in the year 2003.

  1. ENERGY EFFICIENT TRACKING SYSTEM USING WIRELESS SENSORS

    OpenAIRE

    Thankaselvi Kumaresan; Sheryl Mathias; Digja Khanvilkar; Prof. Smita Dange

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is surveillance system, which is used to track moving targets. WSN is composed of a large number of low cost sensors which operate on the power derived from batteries. Energy efficiency is an important issue in WSN, which determines the network lifetime. Due to the need for continuous monitoring with 100% efficiency, keeping all the sensor nodes active permanently leads to fast draining of batteries. Hen...

  2. Achieving affordable housing through energy efficiency strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copiello, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between public and private sector has achieved a remarkable widespread, in the Italian context, over the last two decades. Nevertheless, the increasing difficulty in accessing the capital market and the rising cost of funding sources, both noticeable over the past few years, led to a slowdown of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives. Meanwhile, the community is expressing new needs to be satisfied, such as the conversion of brownfields, the recovery of housing stock dating back to former times, as well as the refurbishment of public offices or schools. Emerging priorities include the supply of affordable dwellings for low to medium income households. This essay aims to examine a case study in which PPP and buildings energy efficiency have been successfully combined, in order to jointly contribute to the achievement of a social housing settlement. Thanks to energy efficiency measures—concerning building envelope insulation, heating system and other installations—the agreed rent results far higher than social rent of protected tenancies, and furthermore above the range of fair rents characterising other regulated tenancies, but mildly lower than market rents. All this allows to achieve an equity yield rate satisfying from the perspective of a venture philanthropy investment. -- Highlights: •Provision of affordable dwellings is an emerging priority within Italian context. •Lack of public funds leads to promote Public–Private Partnership schemes. •Without public grants the adoption of a venture philanthropy approach is needed. •The examined case study allows to explain the role of buildings energy efficiency. •Buildings energy efficiency may boost feasibility of social housing transactions

  3. Grant credit lines for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramatikov, P.; Iliev, I.

    2010-01-01

    The European Commission established a mechanism of credit lines to integrate more quickly the Bulgarian economy to the open international markets. Thereby it was enabled certain Bulgarian banks to provide grant loans to private companies in the industrial sector for projects of improvement of the energy efficiency of their production. The Bulgarian experience in using of two European credit lines and their role in the current economic crisis is presented in this paper. (authors)

  4. Shifting attitudes towards energy efficiency in Europe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stead, Dominic [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands).OTB Research Inst. for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies

    2005-07-01

    Special Eurobarometer surveys are carried out regularly in all European member states on behalf of the European Commission. These surveys concern a range of subjects (recent topics include the environment, health, biotechnology, discrimination, the Common Agricultural Policy and European integration). Each survey consists of approximately 1,000 face-to-face interviews per country, with the exception of Germany (2,000 interviews), Luxembourg (600 interviews) and the United Kingdom (1,300 interviews, including 300 in Northern Ireland). From time to time, the Special Eurobarometer surveys focus on energy related issues. This paper draws on three such Special Eurobarometer surveys from 1984, 1993 and 2002 in order to examine temporal trends in individual actions and intentions concerning energy efficiency across Europe. The main focus of the paper is on broad energy efficiency measures (such as home insulation, heating reduction, home-appliance use reduction and car use reduction) and the differences in stated actions and intentions over time and between countries. It examines whether actions and intentions differ according to age, gender and education, and whether these differences are stable over time (between 1984, 1993 and 2002). Data from the 2002 Eurobarometer survey are also used to explore the level of public support for different types of energy efficiency instruments such as taxes, regulations, information campaigns and financial incentives.

  5. Long term agreements energy efficiency. Progress 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-11-01

    Long Term Agreements (LTAs) on energy efficiency have been contracted with various business sectors since 1992, as part of energy conservation policy: industrial sectors, commercial services, agrarian sectors and non-profit services. LTAs are voluntary agreements between a specific sector and the Minister of Economic Affairs. In some cases, the Minister of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries is also involved. The sector commits to an effort to improve energy efficiency by a particular percentage within an agreed period. As at 31 December 1999, a total of 29 LTAs had been contracted with industrial sectors and 14 with non-industrial ones. This report describes the progress of the LTAs in 1999. It reviews the energy efficiency improvements realised through the LTAs, both overall and in each individual sector. The aim is to make the efforts and results in the various sectors accessible to the general public. Appendix 1 describes the positioning of the LTA instrument. This Appendix provides and insight into the position of the LTAs within the overall set of policy instruments. It also covers the subsidy schemes and fiscal instruments that support the LTAs, the relationships between LTAs and environmental policy and new developments relating to the LTAs in the years ahead. Appendices 2 to 6 contain the reports on the LTAs and a list of abbreviations (Appendix 7)

  6. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the barriers'' literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  7. Barriers to improvements in energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A.K.N.

    1991-10-01

    To promote energy-efficiency improvements, actions may be required at one or more levels -- from the lowest level of the consumer (residential, commercial, industrial, etc.) through the highest level of the global agencies. But barriers to the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements exist or can arise at all these levels. Taking up each one of these barriers in turn, the paper discusses specific measures that can contribute to overcoming the barriers. However, a one-barrier-one-measure approach must be avoided. Single barriers may in fact involve several sub-barriers. Also, combinations of measures are much more effective in overcoming barriers. In particular, combinations of measures that simultaneously overcome several barriers are most successful. The paper discusses the typology of barriers, explores their origin and suggests measures that by themselves or in combination with other measures, will overcome these barriers. Since most of the barriers dealt with can be found in the ``barriers`` literature, any originality in the paper lies in its systematic organization, synoptic view and holistic treatment of this issue. This paper is intended to initiate a comprehensive treatment of barriers, their origins and the measures that contribute to overcoming them. Hopefully, such a treatment will facilitate the implementation of energy-efficiency improvements involving a wide diversity of ever-changing energy end uses and consumer preferences.

  8. Energy efficiency opportunities in the brewery industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan

    2002-06-28

    Breweries in the United States spend annually over $200 Million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 3-8% of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that there may still be opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively for breweries. Major brewing companies have and will continue to spend capital on cost effective measures that do not impact the quality of the beer. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies at individual breweries.

  9. Energy Efficiency Adult Tracking Report - Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amy [Ad Council, NY (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Postwave tracking study for the Energy Efficiency Adult Campaign This study serves as measure of key metrics among the campaign’s target audience, homeowners age 25+. Key measures include: Awareness of messages relating to the broad issue; Recognition of the PSAs; Relevant attitudes, including interest, ease of taking energy efficient steps, and likelihood to act; Relevant knowledge, including knowledge of light bulb alternatives and energy efficient options; and Relevant behaviors, including specific energy-saving behaviors mentioned within the PSAs. Wave 1: May 27 – June 7, 2011 Wave 2: May 29 – June 8, 2012 Wave 3: May 29 – June 19, 2014 General market sample of adults 25+ who own their homes W1 sample: n = 704; W2: n=701; W3: n=806 Online Survey Panel Methodology Study was fielded by Lightspeed Research among their survey panel. Sample is US Census representative of US homeowners by race/ethnicity, income, age, region, and family status. At least 30% of respondents were required to have not updated major appliances in their home in the past 5 years (dishwasher, stove, refrigerator, washer, or dryer).

  10. Energy Efficient Payload Aggregation in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ákos MILÁNKOVICH

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Creating wireless sensor networks requires a different approach than traditional communication networks because energy efficiency plays a key role in sensor networks, which consist of devices without external power. The amount of energy used determines the lifetime of these devices. In most cases data packets are less sensitive to delay, thus can be aggregated, making it possible to gather more useful information reducing the energy required to transmit information. This article discusses the energy efficiency of different Forward Error Correction algorithms and presents a method to calculate the optimal amount of aggregation of the data packets in terms of power consumption, while taking into account the Bit Error Rate characteristics of the wireless channel. The contribution of this paper is a general method to improve the energy efficiency of wireless sensor networks by using the optimal amount of aggregation in case of different Forward Error Correction codes and channel characteristics. The presented results can be applied to any packet-based wireless protocol.

  11. The economic impacts of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.

    1990-01-01

    Hydro Quebec's energy efficiency initiatives are reviewed and the economic benefits it expects to garner from such programs are described. Energy efficiency programs affect the cost of supplying electricity, and rates usually rise during the early years and are subsequently offset by the benefits the program generates. Energy efficiency programs should allow Hydro Quebec to avoid $6 billion in expenditures for electricity supply, while entailing contributions of $1.4 billion for the efficiency measures. Evaluation of the potential for efficiency has allowed Hydro Quebec to set a target of 12.9 TWh/y in 1999 on a potential estimated at 18% of regular sales in Quebec in 1989, namely 23.3 TWh. Customers, who contribute $1.4 billion of their own funds to efficiency programs will realize savings of $3.2 billion. Hydro Quebec programs insist strongly on replacement of appliances and motors of all sorts, and in the residential sector, purchases of slightly less than $0.5 billion will consist of electric lamps (3%), water heaters (2.4%), insulation products (32%), hardware (2.5%), and various electric appliances (33%). In the commercial sector, expenditures will be higher, reaching ca $650 million. These are allocated to purchases of electric lamps (18%), heating equipment (12%), insulation products (24%), street lighting (4%), and various electric devices such as controls (39%). 2 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Energy efficiency in the British housing stock: Energy demand and the Homes Energy Efficiency Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Ian G.; Steadman, Philip J.; Bruhns, Harry; Summerfield, Alex J.; Lowe, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The UK Government has unveiled an ambitious retrofit programme that seeks significant improvement to the energy efficiency of the housing stock. High quality data on the energy efficiency of buildings and their related energy demand is critical to supporting and targeting investment in energy efficiency. Using existing home improvement programmes over the past 15 years, the UK Government has brought together data on energy efficiency retrofits in approximately 13 million homes into the Homes Energy Efficiency Database (HEED), along with annual metered gas and electricity use for the period of 2004–2007. This paper describes the HEED sample and assesses its representativeness in terms of dwelling characteristics, the energy demand of different energy performance levels using linked gas and electricity meter data, along with an analysis of the impact retrofit measures has on energy demand. Energy savings are shown to be associated with the installation of loft and cavity insulation, and glazing and boiler replacement. The analysis illustrates this source of ‘in-action’ data can be used to provide empirical estimates of impacts of energy efficiency retrofit on energy demand and provides a source of empirical data from which to support the development of national housing energy efficiency retrofit policies. - Highlights: • The energy efficiency level for 50% of the British housing stock is described. • Energy demand is influenced by size and age and energy performance. • Housing retrofits (e.g. cavity insulation, glazing and boiler replacements) save energy. • Historic differences in energy performance show persistent long-term energy savings

  13. Energy efficiency policies and measures in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2012-07-01

    This report represents the national case study of Norway for the IEE-project {sup M}onitoring of EU and national energy efficiency targets (ODYSSEE-MURE 2010)'. The Norwegian part of the project is co-funded by Enova. The report presents the recent energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of indicators extracted from the ODYSSEE database. The database contains information on energy use in a detailed level of the industry, transport, household and service sectors and other energy use. lt also contains information on energy drivers like heated square meters in the households and services sectors, transported passenger-km and ton-km of gods, value added, production index, production volumes etc. Final energy consumption has increased from 195 TWh in 1990 lo 229 TWh in 2010 The last ten years the energy consumption has varied between 212I Wh (2009) and 229 TWh (2010) with an annual average of 221TfUh. The sector using most energy is the industry, but the share has decreased from 40 % in 1990 to 31 % in 2010. From 1990 to 2010 the growth rate has been highest in the transport sector. Half of the energy end-use was electricity in 20,10, 42 % was fossil fuels and 6 % was biomass. The electricity use has an annual increase of 0.8 % since 1990, but the last decade the annual increase is reduced to 0.14 %. The consumption of oil products has decreased in stationary end-use (heating) and increased in the transport sector. In ODYSSEE, an aggregate bottom-up energy efficiency index, ODEX, is calculated. This energy efficiency index aggregates the trends in the detailed bottom-up indicators in one single indicator. This ODEX has improved by 26 o/o from 1990 to 2010 or by 1.3 o/o per year. This means that energy efficiency policies and measures implemented since 1990 have contributed to a decrease in the energy use of 2010 of approximately 59 TWh. (Author)

  14. Measuring industrial energy efficiency: Physical volume versus economic value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, S.L.; Niefer, M.J.; Roop, J.M.

    1996-12-01

    This report examines several different measures of industrial output for use in constructing estimates of industrial energy efficiency and discusses some reasons for differences between the measures. Estimates of volume-based measures of output, as well as 3 value-based measures of output (value of production, value of shipments, and value added), are evaluated for 15 separate 4-digit industries. Volatility, simple growth rate, and trend growth rate estimates are made for each industry and each measure of output. Correlations are made between the volume- and value-based measures of output. Historical energy use data are collected for 5 of the industries for making energy- intensity estimates. Growth rates in energy use, energy intensity, and correlations between volume- and value-based measures of energy intensity are computed. There is large variability in growth trend estimates both long term and from year to year. While there is a high correlation between volume- and value-based measures of output for a few industries, typically the correlation is low, and this is exacerbated for estimates of energy intensity. Analysis revealed reasons for these low correlations. It appears that substantial work must be done before reliable measures of trends in the energy efficiency of industry can be accurately characterized.

  15. MOSFET Replacement Devices for Energy-Efficient Digital Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-17

    and the structures were released (Fig. 4.3f) with a timed isotropic oxide etch using vapor 49% hydrofluoric acid at 27oC. Immediately afterwards...gate is separated from the gate dielectric; the gate coupling to the channel is weak and the transistor is therefore turned off. When a positive Vgs is...for Vrl can be derived similarly: : ⁄ ⁄ ln (3.17) 67 ln ⁄ ln ln (3.18) Eqns. (3.16) and (3.18) explain why both Vpi and Vrl are

  16. Energy efficiency potential study for New Brunswick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The economic and environmental impacts associated with economically attractive energy savings identified in each of four sectors in New Brunswick are analyzed. The results are derived through a comparison of two potential future scenarios. The frozen efficiency scenario projects what future energy expenditures would be if no new energy efficiency initiatives are introduced. The economic potential scenario projects what those expenditures would be if all economically attractive energy efficiency improvements were gradually implemented over the next 20 years. Energy related emissions are estimated under scenarios with and without fuel switching. The results show, for example, that New Brunswick's energy related CO 2 emissions would be reduced by ca 5 million tonnes in the year 2000 under the economic potential scenario. If fuel switching is adopted, an additional 1 million tonnes of CO 2 emissions could be saved in the year 2000 and 1.6 million tonnes in 2010. The economic impact analysis is restricted to efficiency options only and does not consider fuel switching. Results show the effect of the economic potential scenario on employment, government revenues, and intra-industry distribution of employment gains and losses. The employment impact is estimated as the equivalent of the creation of 2,424 jobs annually over 1991-2010. Government revenues would increase by ca $24 million annually. The industries benefitting most from energy efficiency improvements would be those related to construction, retail trade, finance, real estate, and food/beverages. Industries adversely affected would be the electric power, oil, and coal sectors. 2 figs., 37 tabs

  17. Transaction costs of energy efficiency policy instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis [International Inst. for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund Univ. (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    This paper identifies the nature and scale of transaction costs (TCs) under different policy instruments aimed to increase energy efficiency. It analyses three cases: a) GHG-driven initiatives, b) tradable 'White Certificate' (TWC) schemes -taking the Energy Efficiency Commitment in Great Britain as a case study-, and c) energy efficiency audits given by grid companies in Denmark. The analysis focuses on TCs borne by project developers or obliged parties under these initiatives. Several sources of TCs are considered, such as search for information, persuasion of customers, negotiation with business partners, and measurement and verification (M and V) activities. Information has been obtained through a literature review, interviews with stakeholders and questionnaires. Some similarities were found as far as the nature of TCs is concerned. Relevant sources of TCs appear to be the search for information (for both potential measures and beneficiaries), negotiation and contract agreements with third parties, follow-up of measures, M and V activities and due accreditation of savings. The scale of TCs differs to a large extent, ranging from 5 % to 36 % of total audit/project costs. Figures must be taken with caution due to a number of specific factors driving their order of magnitude, including levels of uncertainty and the TCs accounting problem. Indications of economies of scale were only found for the case of GHG policy initiatives. In all, estimations are very case-specific and cannot be comparable. It is concluded that a number of endogenous and exogenous determinants affect the nature and scale of TCs for the analysed cases.

  18. Energy efficiency and energy management: an abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coullet-Demaiziere, Corinne; Barthet, Marie-Claire; Tourneur, Jean-Claude; Mirguet, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    As France has just published a decree on the energy audit for large companies, and has thus been among the first countries to comply with an article of the European directive on energy efficiency, a set of articles discusses various aspects of these issues of energy efficiency and energy management. A first one presents this mandatory energy audit as a tool for a better energy efficiency, and illustrates the relationship between this commitment and the ISO 50001 standard for French large companies. A second article outlines the tools and standards of application of this energy audit in different legal texts. A third one comments the introduction of four new European arrangements on the labelling of products (indication of energy performance by retailers, objective of reduction of energy consumption, information displayed on site and on-line for various household appliances, current legislation). The next article comments the new German legislation on renewable energies which implements environmental requirements higher than European objectives, and tries to boost the carbon market. The presence of the ISO 50001 certification in the German law is also briefly addressed. Then, an article proposes an overview of a bill project, opinions of experts, and way to go for the new arrangement for energy saving certificates (CEE, certificat d'economie d'energie) launched by the French ministry of Ecology, and which aims at a 700 TWh saving. The content of each article of the bill project is presented and explained, and the relationship between certificate application and some standards is highlighted. The last article comments the decision of the European Court of Justice on the compatibility of Flemish Green Certificates with the European law

  19. Management of projects for energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Miodrag M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to lower operating costs and improve competitiveness, many organizations today are preparing projects in the field of energy saving. On the other hand, companies that provide energy services and implement these projects, need to build competences in this area to well manage the projects which are subject to energy savings and by this to justify the confidence of investors. This paper presents research that shows the most important factors for the development of local capacity in project management in the field of energy efficiency.

  20. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  1. Energy efficiency in multi-story buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staritcyna Anastasiia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this project a research on energy efficiency of Malta house was provided, it is a residential multi-story building in Helsinki, Jätkäsaari area. This project describes introduction with a new heating system for residential dwellings, which uses only heated air. To maintain air temperature in comfort level heat recovery and district heating is used in the same system. The task was to research efficacy of the enclosure structures. For research the 3D model has been created in the program the Revit 2015 and Lumion 13. Thermotechnical calculation for three types of a design has been executed in the program U-value.net.

  2. Improved energy efficiency in the process industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilavachi, P A [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium)

    1992-12-31

    The European Commission, through the JOULE Programme, is promoting energy efficient technologies in the process industries; the topics of the various R and D activities are: heat exchangers (enhanced evaporation, shell and tube heat exchangers including distribution of fluids, and fouling), low energy separation processes (adsorption, melt-crystallization and supercritical extraction), chemical reactors (methanol synthesis and reactors with integral heat exchangers), other unit operations (evaporators, glass-melting furnaces, cement kilns and baking ovens, dryers and packed columns and replacements for R12 in refrigeration), energy and system process models (batch processes, simulation and control of transients and energy synthesis), development of advanced sensors.

  3. Energy-efficient electric motors study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    A survey conducted of purchasers of integral horsepower polyphase motors measured current knowledge of and awareness of energy efficient motors, decision making criteria, information sources, purchase and usage patterns, and related factors. The data obtained were used for the electric motor market penetration analysis. Additionally, a telephone survey was made. The study also provides analyses of distribution channels, commercialization constraints, and the impacts of government programs and rising energy prices. Study findings, conclusions, and recommendations are presented. Sample questionnaires and copies of letters to respondents are presented in appendices as well as descriptions of the methods used.

  4. Barriers to electric energy efficiency in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berko, Joseph Kofi, Jr.

    Development advocates argue that sustainable development strategies are the best means to permanently improve living standards in developing countries. Advocates' arguments are based on the technical, financial, and environmental advantages of sustainable development. However, they have not addressed the organizational and administrative decision-making issues which are key to successful implementation of sustainable development in developing countries. Using the Ghanaian electricity industry as a case study, this dissertation identifies and analyzes organizational structures, administrative mechanisms, and decision-maker viewpoints that critically affect the success of adoption and implementation of energy efficiency within a sustainable development framework. Utilizing semi-structured interviews in field research, decision-makers' perceptions of the pattern of the industry's development, causes of the electricity supply shortfall, and barriers to electricity-use efficiency were identified. Based on the initial findings, the study formulated a set of policy initiatives to establish support for energy use efficiency. In a second set of interviews, these policy suggestions were presented to some of the top decision-makers to elicit their reactions. According to the decision-makers, the electricity supply shortfall is due to rapid urbanization and increased industrial consumption as a result of the structural adjustment program, rural electrification, and the sudden release of suppressed loads. The study found a lack of initiative and collaboration among industry decision-makers, and a related divergence in decision-makers' concerns and viewpoints. Also, lacking are institutional support systems and knowledge of proven energy efficiency strategies and technologies. As a result, planning, and even the range of perceived solutions to choose from are supply-side oriented. The final chapter of the study presents implications of its findings and proposes that any

  5. LEAN and energy efficiency; Lean og energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jespersen, Per T; Vesterager Christensen, D; Andersen, Hans [Teknologisk Institut, Energi og Klima, Taastrup (Denmark); Dam Wied, M; Dam, M [NRGi Raadgivning, Aarhus (Denmark); Thorndahl, M [Horsens Kommune, Horsens (Denmark); Weldingh, P [Lokal Energi, Viby J. (Denmark); Maagoee, P; Kristensen, Kenneth T [Viegand og Maagoee, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kirketerp Friis, A [Novozymes, Bagsvaerd (Denmark)

    2010-03-15

    By means of theoretical reports and three specific cases, the project showed how Lean principles can improve energy consulting efficiency, thus making it easier for end-users and energy consultants to record and document energy savings achieved. The three cases documented various types of extra benefits of integrating energy efficiency improvement in Lean processes. As a result of process optimisation, one manufacturing company successfully reduced both staffing and energy consumption, thus making production in Denmark competitive with out-sourced production in Asia. (LN)

  6. Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Uganda, Making Energy Efficiency Count. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Pudleiner, David; Jones, David; Khan, Aleisha

    2017-06-15

    Like many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, Uganda has focused its energy sector investments largely on increasing energy access by increasing energy supply. The links between energy efficiency and energy access, the importance of energy efficiency in new energy supply, and the multiple benefits of energy efficiency for the level and quality of energy available, have been largely overlooked. Implementing energy efficiency in parallel with expanding both the electricity grid and new clean energy generation reduces electricity demand and helps optimize the power supply so that it can serve more customers reliably at minimum cost. Ensuring efficient appliances are incorporated into energy access efforts provides improved energy services to customers. Energy efficiency is an important contributor to access to modern energy. This Energy Efficiency Roadmap for Uganda (Roadmap) is a response to the important role that electrical energy efficiency can play in meeting Uganda’s energy goals. Power Africa and the United Nations Sustainable Energy for All (SEforALL) initiatives collaborated with more than 24 stakeholders in Uganda to develop this document. The document estimates that if the most efficient technologies on the market were adopted, 2,224 gigawatt hours could be saved in 2030 across all sectors, representing 31% of the projected load. This translates into 341 megawatts of peak demand reductions, energy access to an additional 6 million rural customers and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by 10.6 million tonnes in 2030. The Roadmap also finds that 91% of this technical potential is cost-effective, and 47% is achievable under conservative assumptions. The Roadmap prioritizes recommendations for implementing energy efficiency and maximizing benefits to meet the goals and priorities established in Uganda’s 2015 SEforALL Action Agenda. One important step is to create and increase demand for efficiency through long-term enabling policies and financial incentives

  7. Building energy efficiency in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China's total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to provide for basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China's success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation. - Highlights: • Building energy use is larger in rural China than in cities. • Rural buildings are very energy intensive, and energy use is growing with incomes. • A new design standard aims to help rural communities build more efficiently. • Important challenges remain with implementation

  8. Building energy efficiency in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Wan, Kevin K.W.; Tsang, C.L.; Yang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Energy simulation was conducted for office buildings in the five major climate zones - severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild, and hot summer and warm winter - in China using DOE-2.1E. The primary aim was to investigate the thermal and energy performance of office buildings with centralised heating, ventilation and air conditioning plants in the major climatic zones in China. The computed results were analysed in three aspects - heating load, cooling load and the corresponding building energy consumption. The building peak monthly heating load varied from 142 MW h (1033 MW h cooling) in Hong Kong to 447 MW h (832 MW h cooling) in Harbin. It was also found that passive solar designs could have large energy savings potential in the severe cold and cold climates. In Harbin, the window solar component helped lower the annual building heating load by 650 MW h. Internal loads (lighting and office equipment) and part load operations of fans and pumps also played a significant role in the overall building energy efficiency. This paper presents the work, its findings and energy efficiency implications

  9. Research and Energy Efficiency: Selected Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, P. W.; Garland, R. W.

    1997-06-26

    Energy use and energy technology play critical roles in the U.S. economy and modern society. The Department of Energy (DOE) conducts civilian energy research and development (R&D) programs for the purpose of identifying promising technologies that promote energy security, energy efficiency, and renewable energy use. DOE-sponsored research ranges from basic investigation of phenomena all the way through development of applied technology in partnership with industry. DOE`s research programs are conducted in support of national strategic energy objectives, however austere financial times have dictated that R&D programs be measured in terms of cost vs. benefit. In some cases it is difficult to measure the return on investment for the basic "curiosity-driven" research, however many applied technology development programs have resulted in measurable commercial successes. The DOE has published summaries of their most successful applied technology energy R&D programs. In this paper, we will discuss five examples from the Building Technologies area of the DOE Energy Efficiency program. Each story will describe the technology, discuss the level of federal funding, and discuss the returns in terms of energy savings, cost savings, or national economic impacts.

  10. Contribution to the strategy of energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciconkov, Risto

    2003-01-01

    An explanation for the greenhouse effect, i.e.global warming and reasons which contribute to this effect. Greenhouse gasses (GHG) and GWP (Global Warming Potential) as a factor for estimating their contributing on the greenhouse effect. Indicators of the climate change in the previous period and projecting of likely scenarios for the future. Consequences on the environment and human activities: industry, energy, agriculture, water resource. The main lines of the Kyoto Protocol and problems in its realization. Suggestions to the country strategy concerning to the acts of the Kyoto Protocol. A special attention is pointed out on the energy, its resource, the structure of energy consumption and energy efficiency. Main sectors of the energy efficiency: buildings, industry and transport. Buildings: importance of heat insulation. District heating, suggestions for space heating. Heat pumps and CHP. Air conditioning and refrigeration. Industry: process heating, and integrated energy system heat recovery, refrigeration, compressed air. Need of quality maintenance and servicing. Monitoring and automatic control. Education for energy and its saving. (Original)

  11. Energy efficiency: the challenges of policy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varone, F. [Catholic University of Louvain (Belgium); Aebischer, B. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technolog, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2001-06-01

    This article is about the choice of policy instruments to promote electricity-efficient household appliances and office equipment. We analyse the design process of the energy-efficiency policies implemented by Canada, Denmark, the United States, Sweden and Switzerland from 1973 to 1996. The results of this comparative study suggest that a policy instrument is adopted (1) if the degree of coercion involved is compatible with the party ideology of the ruling majority, (2) if a specialized administrative institution already exists, which helps to minimize the costs of implementation, (3) if other political or administrative jurisdictions have already applied it with success and if the transfer of their experiences is desirable or necessary, or (4) if the groups which are targeted are not opposed to it, and (5) its adoption also depends on the structure of the market and the speed of technological developments affecting household appliances and office equipment. In conclusion, we recommend taking account of these considerations in designing new energy-efficiency policies at both national and international levels. (author)

  12. Building energy efficiency labeling programme in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siew Eang; Rajagopalan, Priyadarsini

    2008-01-01

    The use of electricity in buildings constitutes around 16% of Singapore's energy demand. In view of the fact that Singapore is an urban city with no rural base, which depends heavily on air-conditioning to cool its buildings all year round, the survival as a nation depends on its ability to excel economically. To incorporate energy efficiency measures is one of the key missions to ensure that the economy is sustainable. The recently launched building energy efficiency labelling programme is such an initiative. Buildings whose energy performance are among the nation's top 25% and maintain a healthy and productive indoor environment as well as uphold a minimum performance for different systems can qualify to attain the Energy Smart Office Label. Detailed methodologies of the labelling process as well as the performance standards are elaborated. The main strengths of this system namely a rigorous benchmarking database and an independent audit conducted by a private accredited Energy Service Company (ESCO) are highlighted. A few buildings were awarded the Energy Smart Office Label during the launching of the programme conducted in December 2005. The labeling of other types of buildings like hotels, schools, hospitals, etc. is ongoing

  13. Benchmarking the energy efficiency of commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, William; Hui, Y.V.; Lam, Y. Miu

    2006-01-01

    Benchmarking energy-efficiency is an important tool to promote the efficient use of energy in commercial buildings. Benchmarking models are mostly constructed in a simple benchmark table (percentile table) of energy use, which is normalized with floor area and temperature. This paper describes a benchmarking process for energy efficiency by means of multiple regression analysis, where the relationship between energy-use intensities (EUIs) and the explanatory factors (e.g., operating hours) is developed. Using the resulting regression model, these EUIs are then normalized by removing the effect of deviance in the significant explanatory factors. The empirical cumulative distribution of the normalized EUI gives a benchmark table (or percentile table of EUI) for benchmarking an observed EUI. The advantage of this approach is that the benchmark table represents a normalized distribution of EUI, taking into account all the significant explanatory factors that affect energy consumption. An application to supermarkets is presented to illustrate the development and the use of the benchmarking method

  14. Utilities and energy efficiency Denmark report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olesen, G.B.; Lyck, N.C.

    1996-11-01

    The report is the Danish contribution to the project `Utilities and Energy Efficiency` produced for the European Commission by IET, Nikkel straat 15, 4823 AE Breda, The Netherlands. Information is given under the headings of existing situation and desired situation. Recommendations are also given under the headings of legislation concerning the objectives of the utilities, of government programs and targets, of organizational structure, required market dependence and internal objectives of the utilities, for regulation and standardization, and of tariff structure. Flow diagrams are presented for the Danish energy system 1990, 1993. The 1993 follow up of the energy plan `Energy 2000` points out that the goals set up at that time, first and foremost the 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions in 2005 compared to the 1988 level, will not be reached without changes in policy, such as an increase in the use of renewable energy, more transparent and consistent tariff systems as a greater incentive for energy conservation, regulations on thermal insulation of houses, increase in public information activities,a new subsidy scheme to stimulate improvements of energy efficiency in buildings and regulations on energy supply to large buildings. (ARW) 55 refs.

  15. Energy efficiency in Norway (1997). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators - Phase 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    2000-02-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 5 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of maximum 7-8 TWH from 1990 to 1997. This corresponds to a saving of 0.5% per year. In the same period, final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy intensity can not be attributed to increased energy efficiency. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  16. Energy efficiency in the world and Turkey and investigation of energy efficiency in Turkish Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavak, K.

    2005-09-01

    The reserves of fossil fuels which currently respond to the major part of world energy requirements are being running out very fast. Because it is forecasted that reserves of some fossil fuels like oil and natural gas will come to an end in the second half of this century, exploiting all energy resources in an efficient manner has great importance. Throughout the world where the energy demand grows continuously but the resources decrease gradually, many types of programs are implemented to provide efficient energy use. In Turkey, although there have been some efforts in last two decades, the importance of the issue could not be undersood yet. Turkey'sgeneral energy policy still focuses on supply security and finding ways to meet the growing demand, rather than decreasing the demand by energy efficiency. In this study, the possible opportunities and benefits that Turkey would gain by energy efficiency is pointed out. The studies about energy efficiency which have been conducted in the world and Turkey are examined. The measurement that can be taken in the sectors such as industry, power plants, buildings, transportation and the utilities of these measures for energy economy are indicated. The successful practices of energy efficiency studies in various countries, the state of some countries which pioneer efficiency implementations. Turkey's situation in energy in the light of basic indicators such as energy consumption per capita and enrgy intensity, the energy efficiency studies that have been done and should be done in various sectors of Turkey are also discussed in this thesis. Turkish industry's energy comsumption is analyzed as a seperate chapter by taking into consideration energy efficiency, energy intensity and energy resources. The general energy consumption and energy intensity tendencies of main manufacturing industries between 1995 and 2002 are explored and resource utilization ratios are investigated. This chapter provides to find out what kind of

  17. Reduction of Climate Gases by Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, N.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide cannot be depolluted in practice. However, there are two areas where measures can be taken to avoid CO 2 emissions: 1. Energy-efficiency. 2. Use of sustainable energy sources in energy production. It is characteristic that many measures which are good for the environment are also good from the point of view of cost efficiency, preparedness and employment. This is tru, for instance, of the greater use of biofuels instead of fossil fuels, collective heating systems as opposed to individual ones and economy measures - especially more efficient use of electricity. It is a question of thinking of the system as a whole. Methane is another factor which contributes to the greenhouse effect. Methane emissions can also be avoided, or reduced, by system-thinking. System-thinking is, for instance, not ro deposit combustible waste but to use it as an energy source. And why not produce electricity by using methane from existing landfill sites. Electrical energy is the most useful form of energy. Therefore, electricity should not, as a principal rule, be used for heating, or as process energy. The fact that energy-efficiency and emission of greenhouse gases are interrelated is shown in the following two examples. 1. Only about 25% of the energy content in extracted coal will reach the consumers as electricity when the production takes place in an ordinary, coal-fires condensing power station. 2. When district heating (room-heating and hot water) is produced in a modern heat-production plant by flue-gas condensation, about 90% of the energy is utilised for heating purposes. To obtain an overall picture of the amount of energy used for a purpose, e.g. heating or electricity, you must view the entire process from extraction to final use. Such a picture can show the energy efficiency and what losses arise. Efficiency measures can reduce the energy bill. They can also reduce pollution, greenhouse gases among other things. Examples will be given in this paper of energy

  18. Towards Energy Efficient Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman

    2016-07-14

    Cognitive radio (CR) is a cutting-edge wireless communication technology that adopts several existing communication concepts in order to efficiently utilize the spectrum and meet the users demands of high throughput and real-time systems. Conventionally, high throughput demands are met through adopting broadband and multi-antenna technologies such as, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO). Whereas, real-time application demands are met by analyzing metrics which characterize the delay limited channels, such as, outage probability over block-fading channels. Being an environmental friendly technology, energy efficiency metrics should be considered in the design of a CR application. This thesis tackles the energy efficiency of CR system from different aspects, utilizing different measuring metrics and constrains. Under the single-input single-output (SISO) OFDM we minimized the energy per goodbit (EPG) metric subject to several power and Quality of Service (QoS) constraints. In this approach, the minimum EPG metric is optimized via proposing two optimal and sub-optimal resource allocation schemes. We consider several parameters as optimization variables, such as, power policy, sensing threshold, and channel quality threshold. We also captured the impact of involving the media access control (MAC) layers parameters, such as, frame length, in the minimization of a modified EPG metric. Also, a MAC protocol, i.e., hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ), and the associated power consumption of the retransmission mechanism is considered in the formulation of the problem. In this context, the optimal power and frame length are derived to minimize the modified EPG while considering several spectrum-sharing scenarios, which depend on sensing information. In MIMO based CR system, we maximized capacity to power ratio (CPR) (as an energy efficiency (EE) metric) subject to several power and QoS constraints. In this context, the

  19. Aligning Utility Incentives with Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the financial effects on a utility of its spending on energy efficiency programs, how those effects could constitute barriers to more aggressive and sustained utility investment in energy efficiency.

  20. 77 FR 6783 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... competitiveness of U.S. renewable [[Page 6784

  1. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  2. Energy efficient cross layer design for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Shihada, Basem

    2016-01-01

    We propose a cross layer design that optimizes the energy efficiency of spectrum sharing systems. The energy per good bit (EPG) is considered as an energy efficiency metric. We optimize the secondary user's transmission power and media access frame

  3. Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discusses the five standard tests used to assess the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency, how states are using these tests, and how the tests can be used to determine the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures.

  4. The relation between energy efficiency and general objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, John; Naessen, Jonas; Sprei, Frances

    2006-09-01

    Three overall objectives for energy efficiency programs are discussed: Reduction of negative externalities, esp. climatic change; Phase-out of nuclear power while limiting electricity imports; and creating welfare gains by correcting market failures of energy efficiency programs (rebound effects)

  5. Innovations in Multi-Level Governance for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Recent IEA analysis highlights member countries' significant progress with developing energy efficiency policy (International Energy Agency 2009). The 28 member countries of the IEA are engaged in promoting innovative financial instruments, energy efficiency strategies and action plans. They are designing policies to promote energy efficiency in buildings, the adoption of standby power, the phase out of inefficient lighting, proper tyre-inflation and related policies, and energy efficiency in utilities.

  6. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Study (Appendix A), June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This study examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This study also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  7. Innovations in Multi-Level Governance for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Recent IEA analysis highlights member countries' significant progress with developing energy efficiency policy (International Energy Agency 2009). The 28 member countries of the IEA are engaged in promoting innovative financial instruments, energy efficiency strategies and action plans. They are designing policies to promote energy efficiency in buildings, the adoption of standby power, the phase out of inefficient lighting, proper tyre-inflation and related policies, and energy efficiency in utilities.

  8. Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency - Report to Congress, June 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This report examines barriers that impede the adoption of energy efficient technologies and practices in the industrial sector, and identifies successful examples and opportunities to overcome these barriers. Three groups of energy efficiency technologies and measures were examined: industrial end-use energy efficiency, industrial demand response, and industrial combined heat and power. This report also includes the estimated economic benefits from hypothetical Federal energy efficiency matching grants, as directed by the Act.

  9. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  10. Structural breaks and energy efficiency in Fiji

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskara Rao, B.; Rao, Gyaneshwar

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how energy-output ratios (EYRs) in Fiji have responded to the major energy crises and in particular if these ratios have declined after the energy shocks. The expectation is that energy efficiency should improve after an energy crisis. For this purpose we have used at first a few simpler procedures and then a recently developed more powerful tests for structural breaks by Bai and Perron [Bai, J., Perron, P., 1998. Estimating and testing linear models with multiple structural changes. Econometrica 66, 47-78; Bai, J., Perron, P., 2003a. Computation and analysis of multiple structural change models. Journal of Applied Econometrics 18, 1-22; Bai, J., Perron, P., 2003b. Critical values for multiple structural change tests. Econometrics Journal 6, 72-78]. Policy implications of our results are discussed.

  11. Energy efficient technologies for the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.; Bamber, A.; Weatherwax, T.; Dozdiak, J.; Nadolski, S.; Roufail, R.; Parry, J.; Roufail, R.; Tong, L.; Hall, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials, Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining in British Columbia is the second largest industrial electricity consumer. This presentation highlighted methods to help the mining industry reduce their energy requirements by limiting waste and improving efficiency. The measures are aimed at optimizing energy-use and efficiency in mining and processing and identifying opportunities and methods of improving this efficiency. Energy conservation in comminution and beneficiation is a primary focus of research activities at the University of British Columbia (UBC). The objective is to reduce energy usage in metal mines by 20 per cent overall. Open pit copper, gold and molybdenum mines are being targeted. Projects underway at UBC were outlined, with particular reference to energy usage, recovery and alternative energy sources; preconcentration; reducing energy usage from comminution in sorting, high pressure grinding rolls and high speed stirred mills; Hydromet; other energy efficient technologies such as control and flotation; and carbon dioxide sequestration. Studies were conducted at various mining facilities, including mines in Sudbury, Ontario. tabs., figs.

  12. Progress towards energy efficient cities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    and supporting local authorities in their actions. Still, a general benchmarking of states and efforts is still missing which could however increase the use of good practice and enforce discussions in lagging cities. Against this background, a model was developed in the ongoing EU-FP7 project PLEEC to measure......Energy is a key issue for sustainable urban development. Despite agendas set on national and international level, local authorities are the key actors in this transformation (Lewis et al. 2013). European initiatives as the Covenant of Mayors or Energy Cities are closely following this development...... the energy situation in cities, compiling 50 energy-related indicators. In this paper we discuss the progress towards more energy efficient cities in Denmark, by analysing selected key-indicators across all 98 municipalities and their development in the recent 10 years. This allows a unique perspective...

  13. Energy efficiency in buildings. Yearbook 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschk, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Viewpoints, concepts and projects of policy and practice are the main focus of the Yearbook, which has become the standard work of housing and real estate sector in Germany in the 2016th. The energy transition has long been only a electricity transition. ''Building'' has become a topic of increasing concern to the political and public debate - and quite controversial. In this yearbook attempt is made to illuminate the topic of energy efficiency in buildings in its complexity. The more than 30 contributions by renowned specialist authors are divided into the following chapters: Political strategies and positions; studies and concepts; energy research for buildings and districts; models from practice; tenant electricity: concepts and projects, human factor: information - motivation - behavior change. [de

  14. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  15. Energy efficiency and load curve impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feilberg, Nicolai

    2002-01-01

    One of SINTEF Energy Research's European RTD projects is the two-year EFFLOCOM (Energy EFFiciency and LOad curve impacts of COMmercial development in competitive markets). This project will determine the end-user response of different market-related services offered in deregulated power markets. The project will investigate the possibility of influencing load curves by using different price signals and two-way communications via Internet. The partners are from Denmark. Finland, England, France and Norway. SINTEF Energy Research is in charge of the project management. During the project, the changes in load curves will he studied in the in the participating countries before and after deregulation. Specific issues are the use of ICT, time- and situation-dependent tariffs and smart-house technology. The project will consist of 5 work packages that will give recommendations about new methods, guidelines and tools to promote effective use of energy in the partner countries. The total budget is EUR 692 000. (author)

  16. Energy Efficient Evolution of Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micallef, Gilbert; Mogensen, Preben

    2011-01-01

    options for how to evolve their networks, allowing them to carry the expected increase in traffic. The best solution is generally selected based on two main criteria, performance and cost. However, pushed by a variety of environmental and energy challenges, MNOs are now also showing interest...... in understanding the impact that different options can have on the energy consumption of their networks. This paper investigates the possible energy gains of evolving a mobile network through a joint pico deployment and macro upgrade solution over a period of 8 years. Besides the network energy consumption, energy...... efficiency in Mbps/kWh is also analyzed. Furthermore, a cost analysis is carried out, to give a more complete picture of the different options being considered. Focusing on the last year of the evolution analysis, results show that deploying more pico sites reduces the energy consumption of the network...

  17. Gas and energy efficiency. The ''E'' factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, G.

    1992-06-01

    On 1 April 1992 a new gas tariff formula came into effect limiting the prices British Gas can charge to its 18 million -primarily domestic - tariff customers. A feature of the new formula is the ''E'' factor, designed to stimulate investment by British Gas in energy efficiency. This paper is intended to explain the thinking which lay behind the introduction of the ''E''factor, what statutory and other considerations need to be taken into account in considering ''E'' factor proposals and how the arrangements for the gas industry are likely to fit in with the creation of an Energy Savings Trust recently announced by the Government. In doing so, it is intended to give guidance to those who may have proposals for the more efficient use of energy and gas and wish to understand whether these could be eligible to be considered as ''E'' factor projects. (Author)

  18. Regional and global exergy and energy efficiencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakicenovic, N; Kurz, R [International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria). Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (Ecuador) Project; Gilli, P V [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria)

    1996-03-01

    We present estimates of global energy efficiency by applying second-law (exergy) analysis to regional and global energy balances. We use a uniform analysis of national and regional energy balances and aggregate these balances first for three main economic regions and subsequently into world totals. The procedure involves assessment of energy and exergy efficiencies at each step of energy conversion, from primary exergy to final and useful exergy. Ideally, the analysis should be extended to include actual delivered energy services; unfortunately, data are scarce and only rough estimates can be given for this last stage of energy conversion. The overall result is that the current global primary to useful exergy efficiency is about one-tenth of the theoretical maximum and the service efficiency is even lower. (Author)

  19. Evaluating municipal energy efficiency in biorefinery integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haikonen, Turo; Tuomaala, Mari; Holmberg, Henrik; Ahtila, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    In this study biomass-based energy production was introduced to an urban city area of Helsinki, Finland. The study compared two cases in integration with a municipality: (1) biomass fuelled small-scale CHP (combined heat and power)-plant and (2) a biorefinery. The comparison was made according to primary energy consumption, primary energy factors, CO 2 (carbon dioxide) emissions and the price of produced biowax. It was also studied how results are influenced by different assumptions. The results showed that the primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions were higher in the biorefinery case in absolute amounts as more products i.e. biowax was produced. The results indicated the primary energy factors were almost the same for both cases. Additionally, the primary energy use was very low for district heat and electricity produced in the biorefinery, when the primary energy use of the biorefinery was allocated only to the biowax. The sensitivity analysis of biowax pricing showed that a biorefinery is a competitive alternative for a CHP-plant if the prices of biomass and market electricity are low and the price of CO 2 allowance is high. In terms of overall energy efficiency comparison, the comparison cannot be properly completed, because of the different end-products of the plants. - Highlights: • Primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in a municipality are studied. • Energy production in a biorefinery is compared to a conventional CHP-plant. • In the biorefinery CO 2 emission per produced energy unit (CO 2 /MWh) is the lowest. • The CHP-case benefits from low primary energy consumption and electricity demand. • More than one energy efficiency figure needs to be considered in analyses

  20. Energy efficiency of electrical infrared heating elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.J.; Farrelly, R.; O’Shaughnessy, S.M.; Robinson, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterization of the radiant energy efficiency of infrared heating elements. • Performed for a commercially available ceramic heater element for two cases. • Total radiant power and net radiant efficiency is computed. • Radiant efficiencies are strongly dependant on the input power to the element. • In-plane efficiencies depend on the distance from the heater. - Abstract: A measurement system has been designed to characterize the radiant energy efficiency of infrared heating elements. The system also allows for measurement of the radiant heat flux distribution emitted from radiant heater assemblies. To facilitate these, a 6-axis robotic arm is fitted with a Schmidt–Boelter radiant heat flux gauge. A LabVIEW interface operates the robot and positions the sensor in the desired location and subsequently acquires the desired radiant heat flux measurement. To illustrate the functionality of the measurement system and methodology, radiant heat flux distributions and efficiency calculations are performed for a commercially available ceramic heater element for two cases. In the first, a spherical surface is traced around the entire heater assembly and the total radiant power and net radiant efficiency is computed. In the second, 50 cm × 50 cm vertical planes are traced parallel to the front face of the heater assembly at distances between 10 cm and 50 cm and the in-plane power and efficiencies are computed. The results indicate that the radiant efficiencies are strongly dependant on the input power to the element and, for the in-plane efficiencies, depend on the distance from the heater.

  1. A hybrid energy efficient building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calay, Rajnish Kaur; Wang, Wen Chung

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents a high performance cooling/heating ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger (RHE), together with a reverse-cycle heat pump (RCHP) that can be integrated with various heat sources. Energy consumption in the building sector is largely dominated by the energy consumed in maintaining comfortable conditions indoors. For example in many developed countries the building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consume up to 50% of the total energy consumed in buildings. Therefore energy efficient HVAC solutions in buildings are critical for realising CO 2 targets at local and global level. There are many heating/cooling concepts that rely upon renewable energy sources and/or use natural low temperature heat sources in the winter and heat sinks in the summer. In the proposed system, waste energy from the exhaust air stream is used to precondition the outdoor air before it is supplied into the building. The hybrid system provides heating in the winter and cooling in the summer without any need for additional heating or cooling devices as required in conventional systems. Its performance is better than a typical reheat or air conditioning system in providing the same indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. It is shown that an energy saving up to 60% (heat energy) is achieved by using the proposed hybrid system in building ventilation applications. -- Highlights: • Hybrid ventilation system: the hybrid ventilation system uses a rotating regenerator and a reversible heat pump. • Heat recovery: heat recovery from exhaust air stream by rotary wheel type heat exchanger. • Reversible cycle heat pump (RCHP): additional heating or cooling of the supply air is provided by the RCHP. • Energy efficiency: energy savings of up to 60% using the proposed system are achievable

  2. Conservation and energy efficiency plan 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This plan outlined details of Nova Scotia's proposed $5 million incremental investment in energy efficiency and conservation measures in 2006. The plan was developed through consultation with various Canadian utilities, customers and external stakeholders. A team of stakeholders identified lighting, pricing, partnerships and education as opportunities offering the greatest potential for results. Market research was conducted to identify market potential and the identification of barriers to customer adoption of programs as well as customer expectations regarding program implementation. It was anticipated that the plan will reduce electricity usage and result in significant savings for customers, as well as reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The aim of the plan is to help build a conservation and energy efficiency culture in Nova Scotia and to bring Nova Scotia Power together with community-based partners. Specific plans for 2007 included: a 72 GWh reduction in annual electricity usage; approximately $7.7 million in annual savings to customers; a 16 MW reduction in peak electricity demand; and a 50 thousand tonne reduction of GHGs. A business case was presented along with details of proposed residential, commercial and industrial programs. A cost benefit analysis was provided, as well as an outline of the plan's budget and organizational structure. It was concluded that the success of the various program elements will be based on quantitative and qualitative data on the actual effect on energy use of each customer sector, as well as its effect on system demand profiles. Data will be collected through the use of customer surveys, questionnaires, and direct feedback from partners, educators and manufactures and suppliers. 11 tabs., 16 figs

  3. Emerging energy-efficient technologies for industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, Nathan; Price, Lynn; Ruth, Michael; Elliott, Neal; Shipley, Anna; Thorn, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    For this study, we identified about 175 emerging energy-efficient technologies in industry, of which we characterized 54 in detail. While many profiles of individual emerging technologies are available, few reports have attempted to impose a standardized approach to the evaluation of the technologies. This study provides a way to review technologies in an independent manner, based on information on energy savings, economic, non-energy benefits, major market barriers, likelihood of success, and suggested next steps to accelerate deployment of each of the analyzed technologies. There are many interesting lessons to be learned from further investigation of technologies identified in our preliminary screening analysis. The detailed assessments of the 54 technologies are useful to evaluate claims made by developers, as well as to evaluate market potentials for the United States or specific regions. In this report we show that many new technologies are ready to enter the market place, or are currently under development, demonstrating that the United States is not running out of technologies to improve energy efficiency and economic and environmental performance, and will not run out in the future. The study shows that many of the technologies have important non-energy benefits, ranging from reduced environmental impact to improved productivity. Several technologies have reduced capital costs compared to the current technology used by those industries. Non-energy benefits such as these are frequently a motivating factor in bringing technologies such as these to market. Further evaluation of the profiled technologies is still needed. In particular, further quantifying the non-energy benefits based on the experience from technology users in the field is important. Interactive effects and inter-technology competition have not been accounted for and ideally should be included in any type of integrated technology scenario, for it may help to better evaluate market

  4. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings.

  5. Surplus biomass through energy efficient kilns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Jan-Olof; Westerlund, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The magnitude of the national heat demand for drying lumber in kilns is established. → Each part of the total heat consumption is divided and shown between the main drying conditions. → The potential to increase the energy efficiency in kilns with available techniques is presented. → The market demand for the biomass, available with increase kiln energy efficiency, is reviled. -- Abstract: The use of biomass in the European Union has increased since the middle of the 1990s, mostly because of high subsidies and CO 2 emission regulation through the Kyoto protocol. The sawmills are huge biomass suppliers to the market; out of the Swedish annual lumber production of 16.4 Mm 3 , 95% is produced by medium to large-volume sawmills with a lumber quotient of 47%. The remaining part is produced as biomass. An essential part (12%) of the entering timber is used for supply of heat in their production processes, mostly in the substantial drying process. The drying process is the most time and heat consuming process in the sawmill. This study was undertaken to determine the sawmills' national use of energy and potential magnitude of improvements. If the drying process can be made more effective, sawmills' own use of biomass can be decreased and allow a considerably larger supply to the biomass market through processed or unprocessed biomass, heat or electricity production. The national electricity and heat usage when drying the lumber have been analysed by theoretical evaluation and experimental validation at a batch kiln. The main conclusion is that the heat consumption for drying lumber among the Swedish sawmills is 4.9 TW h/year, and with available state-of-the-art techniques it is possible to decrease the national heat consumption by approximately 2.9 TW h. This additional amount of energy corresponds to the market's desire for larger energy supply.

  6. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings. (paper)

  7. Design for energy efficiency: Energy efficient industrialized housing research program. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellett, R.; Berg, R.; Paz, A.; Brown, G.Z.

    1991-03-01

    Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy has sponsored the Energy Efficient Industrialized Housing research program (EEIH) to improve the energy efficiency of industrialized housing. Two research centers share responsibility for this program: The Center for Housing Innovation at the University of Oregon and the Florida Solar Energy Center, a research institute of the University of Central Florida. Additional funding is provided through the participation of private industry, state governments and utilities. The program is guided by a steering committee comprised of industry and government representatives. This report summarizes Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 activities and progress, and proposed activities for FY 1991 in Task 2.1 Design for Energy Efficiency. This task establishes a vision of energy conservation opportunities in critical regions, market segments, climate zones and manufacturing strategies significant to industrialized housing in the 21st Century. In early FY 1990, four problem statements were developed to define future housing demand scenarios inclusive of issues of energy efficiency, housing design and manufacturing. Literature surveys were completed to assess seven areas of influence for industrialized housing and energy conservation in the future. Fifty-five future trends were identified in computing and design process; manufacturing process; construction materials, components and systems; energy and environment; demographic context; economic context; and planning policy and regulatory context.

  8. 78 FR 20896 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... industry-specific teams--renewable energy, energy efficiency, energy storage and transmission, and biofuels...

  9. 77 FR 23224 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC.... competitiveness in exporting renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and services, such as access...

  10. 76 FR 7815 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... programs support the competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency companies, to review...

  11. 78 FR 69370 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC....S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries. The December 3, 2013 meeting of the RE&EEAC...

  12. 78 FR 2952 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... competitiveness of U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency exports. The meeting is open to the public and the...

  13. 76 FR 54431 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... competitiveness of the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency industries, including specific challenges...

  14. 77 FR 32531 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... new capital for investment in the U.S. renewable energy and energy efficiency sectors, increasing the...

  15. 78 FR 78340 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... affecting U.S. competitiveness in exporting renewable energy and energy efficiency (RE&EE) products and...

  16. 77 FR 50489 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Wind and Water Power Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Hoyt Battey, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S...

  17. 75 FR 70214 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an open meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC... submitted to the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee, Office of Energy and...

  18. 76 FR 44576 - Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency... of an Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (RE&EEAC.... renewable energy and energy efficiency industries. The RE&EEAC held its first meeting on December 7, 2010...

  19. 78 FR 37995 - Energy Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... Efficiency Standards for Manufactured Housing AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... in receiving information that relates to the relationship between energy efficiency and indoor air... higher energy efficiencies, and possible enforcement models for the DOE standards. This notice identifies...

  20. 77 FR 54777 - Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ...--Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency Executive Order 13625--Improving Access to Mental... Accelerating Investment in Industrial Energy Efficiency By the authority vested in me as President by the... helping to facilitate investments in energy efficiency at industrial facilities, it is hereby ordered as...

  1. 10 CFR 435.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 435.4 Section 435.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL LOW-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Mandatory Energy Efficiency Standards for Federal Low-Rise Residential...

  2. 10 CFR 433.4 - Energy efficiency performance standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy efficiency performance standard. 433.4 Section 433.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY STANDARDS FOR THE DESIGN AND... consumption level at or better than the maximum level of energy efficiency that is life-cycle cost-effective...

  3. The green computing book tackling energy efficiency at large scale

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Wu-chun

    2014-01-01

    Low-Power, Massively Parallel, Energy-Efficient Supercomputers The Blue Gene TeamCompiler-Driven Energy Efficiency Mahmut Kandemir and Shekhar Srikantaiah An Adaptive Run-Time System for Improving Energy Efficiency Chung-Hsing Hsu, Wu-chun Feng, and Stephen W. PooleEnergy-Efficient Multithreading through Run-Time Adaptation Exploring Trade-Offs between Energy Savings and Reliability in Storage Systems Ali R. Butt, Puranjoy Bhattacharjee, Guanying Wang, and Chris GniadyCross-Layer Power Management Zhikui Wang and Parthasarathy Ranganathan Energy-Efficient Virtualized Systems Ripal Nathuji and K

  4. How energy efficiency fails in the building industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryghaug, Marianne; Sorensen, Knut H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how energy efficiency fails in the building industry based on many years of research into the integration of energy efficiency in the construction of buildings and sustainable architecture in Norway. It argues that energy-efficient construction has been seriously restrained by three interrelated problems: (1) deficiencies in public policy to stimulate energy efficiency, (2) limited governmental efforts to regulate the building industry, and (3) a conservative building industry. The paper concludes that innovation and implementation of new, energy-efficient technologies in the building industry requires new policies, better regulations and reformed practices in the industry itself

  5. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  6. ICT energy efficiency in higher education. Continuous measurement and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ter Hofte, H. [Novay, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    Power consumption of information and communications technology (ICT) is rising rapidly worldwide. Reducing (the growth in) energy demand helps to achieve sustainability goals in the area of energy resource depletion, energy security, economy, and ecology. Various governments and industry consortia have set out policies and agreements to reduce the (growth in) demand for energy. In the MJA3 agreements in the Netherlands, various organizations, including all 14 universities and 39 universities of applied sciences pledged to achieve 30% increase in energy efficiency in 2020 compared to 2005. In this report, we argue that using the number of kilowatt-hours of final electricity used for ICT per enrolled student per day (kWh/st/d), should be used as the primary metric for ICT energy efficiency in higher education. For other uses of electricity than ICT in higher education, we express electricity use in kilowatthours per person per day (kWh/p/d). Applying continuous monitoring and management of ICT energy is one approach one could take to increase ICT energy efficiency in education. In households, providing direct (i.e. real-time) feedback about energy use typically results in 5-15% energy savings, whereas indirect feedback (provided some time after consumption occurs), results in less energy savings, typically 0-10%. Continuous measurement of ICT electricity use can be done in a variety of ways. In this report, we distinguish and describe four major measurement approaches: (1) In-line meters, which require breaking the electrical circuit to install the meter; (2) clamp-on-meters, which can be wrapped around a wire; (3) add-ons to existing energy meters, which use analog or digital ports of existing energy meters; (4) software-only measurement, which uses existing network interfaces, protocols and APIs. A measurement approach can be used at one or more aggregation levels: at building level (to measure all electrical energy used in a building, e.g. a datacenter); at

  7. Energy efficient circuit design using nanoelectromechanical relays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubramanian, Ramakrishnan

    Nano-electromechanical (NEM) relays are a promising class of emerging devices that offer zero off-state leakage and behave like an ideal switch. Recent advances in planar fabrication technology have demonstrated that microelectromechanical (MEMS) scale miniature relays could be manufactured reliably and could be used to build fully functional, complex integrated circuits. The zero leakage operation of relays has renewed the interest in relay based low power logic design. This dissertation explores circuit architectures using NEM relays and NEMS-CMOS heterogeneous integration. Novel circuit topologies for sequential logic, memory, and power management circuits have been proposed taking into consideration the NEM relay device properties and optimizing for energy efficiency and area. In nanoscale electromechanical devices, dispersion forces like Van der Waals' force (vdW) affect the pull-in stability of the relay devices significantly. Verilog-A electromechanical model of the suspended gate relay operating at 1V with a nominal air gap of 5 - 10nm has been developed taking into account all the electrical, mechanical and dispersion effects. This dissertation explores different relay based latch and flip-flop topologies. It has been shown that as few as 4 relay cells could be used to build flip-flops. An integrated voltage doubler based flip flop that improves the performance by 2X by overdriving Vgb has been proposed. Three NEM relay based parallel readout memory bitcell architectures have been proposed that have faster access time, and remove the reliability issues associated with previously reported serial readout architectures. A paradigm shift in design of power switches using NEM relays is proposed. An interesting property of the relay device is that the ON state resistance (Ron) of the NEM relay switch is constant and is insensitive to the gate slew rate. This coupled with infinite OFF state resistance (Roff ) offers significant area and power advantages over CMOS

  8. Towards Energy Efficient and Shared Mobility Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rames, Clement L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Throughout the 20th century, automobiles have shaped urban and suburban landscapes, especially in North America. Globally, the car-centric transportation paradigm has contributed to unprecedented issues in terms of air quality, fossil-fuel dependence, carbon emissions lock-in, traffic congestion, road safety, parking scarcity, serious public health concerns, and socioeconomic inequality. Nonetheless, in the United States the percentage of single-occupant vehicle (SOV) commuters has continued to rise since 1960 while the proportion of carpooling has decreased by more than half since 1980. Evolving mobility services, in conjunction with new behavioral insights, have motivated recent inquiries in how to best foster sustainable growth while reducing traffic congestion and improving health outcomes. Few studies have assessed their true effectiveness, unanticipated effects (e.g., 'dead-head' or 'empty-vehicle' ride-hailing trips) or measured their impact on a specific city (e.g., modal shift, changes in personal miles traveled/vehicle miles traveled). This effort aims to answer the following questions: to what extent can shared mobility help invert the trend of increasing SOV trips? What are the energy risks and benefits of shared mobility? How do interactions between technology, policy, urban design, and behavioral change shape the transition to energy-efficient transportation? To this end, an assessment framework for sustainable urban mobility is developed, incorporating behavioral metrics (percent active transportation, percent transit ridership, percent shared trips), energy use (vehicle miles traveled per capita, percent SOV trips) and urban planning (population density, average commute time). We apply this framework to three cities (Denver, CO; San Francisco, CA; and Paris, France) to evaluate the sustainability of their transportation systems and explore their potential for shared mobility. The influence of incentives, social norms, and public

  9. The Danish agreements on energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    CO{sub 2}-taxes for industry were introduced in 1993. In 1996, the taxes were increased and an agreement system for energy-intensive companies was implemented. The main purpose of the agreement system has been to allow energy-intensive industry to pay a reduced tax rate, while at the same time improving energy efficiency. The evaluation of the energy tax system has shown that it has been possible to establish an energy tax that has led to a decrease in CO{sub 2}-emissions, without causing a decrease in the competitiveness of trade, industry and services. The agreement system has been a very important element in that it has improved energy efficiency in companies in which taxes would not have been a realistic instrument. In the case of companies with agreements, several studies suggest improvements of approximately 2.7% of the total energy use per agreement (three years). The three sources (concrete projects, special investigation and energy management) contribute approximately one third of this reduction each. The values for special investigation and energy management must be used with great care. It is also predicted that a continuation of the agreement system by 2005, relative to a situation without agreements, can lead to a decrease in CO{sub 2}-emissions corresponding to 6% of total emissions in industry and trade. Of this reduction, the highest amount is due to energy management. However, maintaining the positive effects of energy management systems will require that companies give higher priority to the managerial part of the system and not only focus on energy accounting. Some companies have argued that it is costly to carry out energy audits and to have to audits verified. Therefore, consideration should be given to possibilities for reducing the administrative costs of entering into an agreement, without this causing reduced efforts to save energy. A means of achieving these objectives could be to reduce the requirement for energy audits and verification

  10. Energy management for cost reduction in the production. TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management; Energiemanagement zur Kostensenkung in der Produktion. TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westkaemper, Engelbert; Verl, Alexander (eds.)

    2009-07-01

    Within the workshop of the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA (Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany) at 6th October, 2009, in Stuttgart the following lectures were held: (1) Presentation of Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA (Engelbert Westkaemper); (2) TEEM - Total Energy Efficiency Management - ''With energy management to an energy efficient production'' (Alexander Schloske); (3) DIN EN 16001 Introduction of an energy management system - utilization and advantages for companies (Sylvia Wahren); (4) Analysis of the energy efficiency with power flow - Support and implementation at factory planning and optimization of production (Klaus Erlach); (5) Total Energy Efficiency Management - Approaches at the company Kaercher in injection moulding for example (Axel Leschtar); (6) Modelling the embodied product energy (Shahin Rahimifard); (7) Acquisition of energy data in the production - Technologies and possibilities (Joachim Neher); (8) Active energy management by means of an ''energy control centre'' - Analysis of the real situation and upgrading measures in the production using coating plants as an example (Wolfgang Klein); (9) Visualisation and simulation of energy values in the digital factory (Carmen Constantinescu, Axel Bruns).

  11. Energy efficiency through integrated environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benromdhane, Souad Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Integrated environmental management became an economic necessity after industrial development proved to be unsustainable without consideration of environmental direct and indirect impacts. Energy dependency and air pollution along with climate change grew into major challenges facing developed and developing countries alike. Thus, a new global market structure emerged and changed the way we do trade. The search intensified for alternatives to petroleum. However, scientists, policy makers, and environmental activists agreed to focus on strategic conservation and optimization of energy use. Environmental concerns will remain partially unaddressed with the current pace of consumption because greenhouse gas emissions will continue to rise with economic growth. This paper discusses energy efficiency, steady integration of alternative sources, and increased use of best available technologies. Energy criteria developed for environmental labeling certification are presented. Our intention is to encourage manufacturers and service providers to supply consumers with less polluting and energy-consuming goods and services, inform consumers of the environmental and energy impacts, and thereby instill sustainable and responsible consumption. As several programs were initiated in developed countries, environmental labeling requirements created barriers to many exports manufactured in developing countries, affecting current world trade and putting more pressure on countries to meet those requirements. Defining an institutional and legal framework of environmental labeling is a key challenge in implementing such programs for critical economic sectors like tourism, textiles, and food production where energy needs are the most important aspect to control. A case study of Tunisia and its experience with eco-labeling is presented.

  12. Energy Efficiency Model for Induction Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Asit Kr

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a system of a solar induction furnace unit was design to find out a new solution for the existing AC power consuming heating process through Supervisory control and data acquisition system. This unit can be connected directly to the DC system without any internal conversion inside the device. The performance of the new system solution is compared with the existing one in terms of power consumption and losses. This work also investigated energy save, system improvement, process control model in a foundry induction furnace heating framework corresponding to PV solar power supply. The results are analysed for long run in terms of saving energy and integrated process system. The data acquisition system base solar foundry plant is an extremely multifaceted system that can be run over an almost innumerable range of operating conditions, each characterized by specific energy consumption. Determining ideal operating conditions is a key challenge that requires the involvement of the latest automation technologies, each one contributing to allow not only the acquisition, processing, storage, retrieval and visualization of data, but also the implementation of automatic control strategies that can expand the achievement envelope in terms of melting process, safety and energy efficiency.

  13. Energy Efficiency in Computing (2/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    We will start the second day of our energy efficient computing series with a brief discussion of software and the impact it has on energy consumption. A second major point of this lecture will be the current state of research and a few future technologies, ranging from mainstream (e.g. the Internet of Things) to exotic. Lecturer's short bio: Andrzej Nowak has 10 years of experience in computing technologies, primarily from CERN openlab and Intel. At CERN, he managed a research lab collaborating with Intel and was part of the openlab Chief Technology Office. Andrzej also worked closely and initiated projects with the private sector (e.g. HP and Google), as well as international research institutes, such as EPFL. Currently, Andrzej acts as a consultant on technology and innovation with TIK Services (http://tik.services), and runs a peer-to-peer lending start-up. NB! All Academic Lectures are recorded. No webcast! Because of a problem of the recording equipment, this lecture will be repeated for recording pu...

  14. Energy Efficiency in Computing (1/2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    As manufacturers improve the silicon process, truly low energy computing is becoming a reality - both in servers and in the consumer space. This series of lectures covers a broad spectrum of aspects related to energy efficient computing - from circuits to datacentres. We will discuss common trade-offs and basic components, such as processors, memory and accelerators. We will also touch on the fundamentals of modern datacenter design and operation. Lecturer's short bio: Andrzej Nowak has 10 years of experience in computing technologies, primarily from CERN openlab and Intel. At CERN, he managed a research lab collaborating with Intel and was part of the openlab Chief Technology Office. Andrzej also worked closely and initiated projects with the private sector (e.g. HP and Google), as well as international research institutes, such as EPFL. Currently, Andrzej acts as a consultant on technology and innovation with TIK Services (http://tik.services), and runs a peer-to-peer lending start-up. NB! All Academic L...

  15. Energy efficiency, sustainability and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert U.; Turton, Hal; Casten, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores two linked theses related to the role energy in economic development, and potential sources of increased energy efficiency for continued growth with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first thesis is that, while reduced GHG emissions are essential for long-term global sustainability, the usual policy recommendation of increasing energy costs by introducing a carbon tax may be relatively ineffective under current market structures and have an unnecessarily adverse impact on economic growth. Our second thesis is that there exists a practical near-term strategy for reducing GHG emissions while simultaneously encouraging continued technology-driven economic growth. Moreover, this strategy does not require radical new technologies, but rather improved regulation or-more precisely-better deregulation of the electric power sector. In respect to the first of our two theses, this paper addresses a deficiency in neoclassical economic growth theory, in which growth is assumed to be automatic, inevitable and cost-free. We challenge both the assumption that growth will continue in the future at essentially the same rate ('the trend') as it has in the past, and the corollary that our children's children will inevitably be richer and better able to afford the cost of repairing the environmental damages caused by current generations [Simon et al., The state of humanity. Cambridge MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.; 1995

  16. External shading devices for energy efficient building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdan, M. S.; Ahmad, S. S.; Hussin, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    External shading devices on a building façade is an important passive design strategy as they reduce solar radiation. Although studies have proven the benefits of external shading devices, many are designed solely for aesthetic purposes without fully considering its high potential to reduce solar radiation and glare. Furthermore, explorations into shading devices by the design team are mostly left too late in the design development phases. Hence, the paper looks into the effectiveness of external shading devices on a building towards more energy efficient building. The study aims to analyse the effects of various configurations of external shading devices towards the energy consumption of a case study building based on computer simulations. This study uses Building Information Modelling (BIM) through Autodesk Revit software as simulation tool. The constant variables for the simulation are the orientation of the building, types of glazing used by the building and the internal loads of the building. Whereas, the manipulated variable is the types of shading device used. The data were sorted according to the categories and translated into a chart. Analysis of the findings indicate that shading devices with different configurations show significant results in the energy consumption and the best configuration is the egg-crate shading devices. The study recommends that the consideration for shading device as a passive design strategy needs to be developed at the early stage of the building design.

  17. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren`t always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation.

  18. Faster and Energy-Efficient Signed Multipliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ramkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate faster and energy-efficient column compression multiplication with very small area overheads by using a combination of two techniques: partition of the partial products into two parts for independent parallel column compression and acceleration of the final addition using new hybrid adder structures proposed here. Based on the proposed techniques, 8-b, 16-b, 32-b, and 64-b Wallace (W, Dadda (D, and HPM (H reduction tree based Baugh-Wooley multipliers are developed and compared with the regular W, D, H based Baugh-Wooley multipliers. The performances of the proposed multipliers are analyzed by evaluating the delay, area, and power, with 65 nm process technologies on interconnect and layout using industry standard design and layout tools. The result analysis shows that the 64-bit proposed multipliers are as much as 29%, 27%, and 21% faster than the regular W, D, H based Baugh-Wooley multipliers, respectively, with a maximum of only 2.4% power overhead. Also, the power-delay products (energy consumption of the proposed 16-b, 32-b, and 64-b multipliers are significantly lower than those of the regular Baugh-Wooley multiplier. Applicability of the proposed techniques to the Booth-Encoded multipliers is also discussed.

  19. Teaching the Fundamentals of Energy Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Alan

    2010-02-01

    A course on energy efficiency is a surprisingly valuable complement to a student's education in physics and many other disciplines. The Univ. of California, Davis, offers a 1-quarter course on ``understanding the other side of the meter.'' Lectures begin by giving students a demand-side perspective on how, where, and why energy is used. Students measure energy use of appliances in their homes and then report results. This gives students a practical sense of the difference between energy and power and learn how appliances transform energy into useful services. Lectures introduce the types of direct conservation measures--reducing demand, reducing fixed consumptions, and increasing efficiency. Practical examples draw upon simple concepts in heat transfer, thermodynamics, and mechanics. Graphical techniques, strengthened through problem sets, explain the interdependence of conservation measures. Lectures then examine indirect energy savings from measures and consider questions like ``where can one achieve the greatest fuel savings in a car by removing one gram of mass?'' Finally, students learn about conservation measures that circumvent physical limits by adopting new processes. By the end of the course, students have a gained a new perspective on energy consumption and the opportunities to reduce it. )

  20. Energy Efficient Graphene Based High Performance Capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Joonwon; Kwon, Oh Seok; Lee, Chang-Soo

    2017-07-10

    Graphene (GRP) is an interesting class of nano-structured electronic materials for various cutting-edge applications. To date, extensive research activities have been performed on the investigation of diverse properties of GRP. The incorporation of this elegant material can be very lucrative in terms of practical applications in energy storage/conversion systems. Among various those systems, high performance electrochemical capacitors (ECs) have become popular due to the recent need for energy efficient and portable devices. Therefore, in this article, the application of GRP for capacitors is described succinctly. In particular, a concise summary on the previous research activities regarding GRP based capacitors is also covered extensively. It was revealed that a lot of secondary materials such as polymers and metal oxides have been introduced to improve the performance. Also, diverse devices have been combined with capacitors for better use. More importantly, recent patents related to the preparation and application of GRP based capacitors are also introduced briefly. This article can provide essential information for future study. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. Optimising window parameters for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boland, J. [South Australia Univ., Adelaide, SA (Australia); Luther, M. [Deakin Univ., Geelong, VIC (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Large north facing windows act a solar collectors, with the heat being stored in the building mass and being released later in the day. This study examines one of the elements of this paradigm, that increasing the size of equatorially facing windows necessarily improves the energy efficiency of a dwelling. This question and that of whether there is a case for using double glazing in Australia were examined for a number of locations ranging from cool temperate to warm temperate and for several types of construction from lightweight to heavyweight. Simulations were performed using the modelling tool Cheetah. It was found that the optimal window size on equatorially facing walls was smaller than expected for singly glazed windows. Double glazing was found to be effective in most situations and increased the optimum size of the window substantially. Changing the operational pattern of the house (specifically when cooling equipment may be employed) considerably affects conclusions about single and double glazing. (author). 3 tabs., 3 figs., 13 refs.

  2. Energy efficiency, renewable energy and sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ervin, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EE) is part of the U.S. Department of Energy that is specifically charged with encouraging the more efficient use of energy resources, and the use of renewable energy resources - such as solar power, wind power, biomass energy and geothermal energy. In the past several years, EE has increased its emphasis on technology deployment through partnerships with states, local governments and private companies. Partnerships move new discoveries more quickly into the marketplace, where they can create jobs, prevent pollution, save resources, and produce many other benefits. The author then emphasizes the importance of this effort in a number of different sections of the paper: energy consumption pervades everything we do; U.S. energy imports are rising to record levels; transportation energy demand is increasing; U.S. energy use is increasing; population growth increases world energy demand; total costs of energy consumption aren't always counted; world energy markets offer incredible potential; cost of renewables is decreasing; clean energy is essential to sustainable development; sustainable energy policy; sustainable energy initiatives: utilities, buildings, and transportation

  3. Energy efficiency in Norway (1996). Cross Country Comparison on Energy Efficiency Indicators, Phase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, Leif Kristian

    1998-12-01

    This is the national report for Norway in phase 4 of the SAVE project 'Cross country comparison of energy efficiency indicators'. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway the last 20 years, with a special emphasis on the period after 1990. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approx 2.3% per year from 1990 to 1996. Doing detailed sector analysis we are applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to either activity, structure or intensity. Calculating an aggregate intensity index from the sector intensities gives an average intensity reduction of 0.4% per year. Thereby most of the reduction in final energy per unit GDP are due to structural changes, and not technical improvements. Almost all data are taken from official Norwegian statistics (Statistics Norway). (author)

  4. Energy efficiency in Serbia national energy efficiency program: Strategy and priorities for the future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oka Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy system in Serbia, in the whole energy chain, from exploitation of primary energy sources, transformations in electric power plants and district heating plants, energy (electric and heat transmission and distribution to final users, and up to final energy consumption, is faced with a number of irrational and inefficient behavior and processes. In order to fight with such situation National Energy Efficiency Program, financed by the Ministry of Science and Environmental Protection has been founded in 2001. Basic facts about status of energy sector in Serbia, with special emphasis on the energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources have been given in the review paper published in the issue No. 2, 2006 of this journal. In present paper new strategy and priorities of the National Energy Efficiency Program for the future period from 2006 to 2008, and beyond, is presented. This strategy and priorities are mainly based on the same concept and principles as previous, but new reality and new and more simulative economic and financial environment in energy sector made by the Energy low (accepted by Parliament in 2004 and Strategy of Development of Energy Sector in Republic Serbia up to 2015 (accepted by the Parliament in May 2005, have been taken into account. Also, responsibilities that are formulated in the Energy Community Treaty signed by the South-East European countries, and also coming from documents and directives of the European Community and Kyoto Protocol are included in new strategy. Once again necessity of legislative framework and influence of regulations and standards, as well as of the governmental support, has been pointed out if increased energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy sources are expected. .

  5. Improving building energy efficiency in India: State-level analysis of building energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  6. Total-factor energy efficiency in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xingping; Cheng Xiaomei; Yuan Jiahai; Gao Xiaojun

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses a total-factor framework to investigate energy efficiency in 23 developing countries during the period of 1980-2005. We explore the total-factor energy efficiency and change trends by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA) window, which is capable of measuring efficiency in cross-sectional and time-varying data. The empirical results indicate that Botswana, Mexico and Panama perform the best in terms of energy efficiency, whereas Kenya, Sri Lanka, Syria and the Philippines perform the worst during the entire research period. Seven countries show little change in energy efficiency over time. Eleven countries experienced continuous decreases in energy efficiency. Among five countries witnessing continuous increase in total-factor energy efficiency, China experienced the most rapid rise. Practice in China indicates that effective energy policies play a crucial role in improving energy efficiency. Tobit regression analysis indicates that a U-shaped relationship exists between total-factor energy efficiency and income per capita. - Research Highlights: → To measure the total-factor energy efficiency using DEA window analysis. → Focus on an application area of developing countries in the period of 1980-2005. → A U-shaped relationship was found between total-factor energy efficiency and income.

  7. Energy efficiency and economic value in affordable housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegut, Andrea; Eichholtz, Piet; Holtermans, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Strong rental protection in the affordable housing market often prohibits landlords from charging rental premiums for energy-efficient dwellings. This may impede (re)development of energy efficient affordable housing. In the Netherlands, affordable housing institutions regularly sell dwellings from their housing stock to individual households. If they can sell energy efficient dwellings at a premium, this may stimulate investments in the environmental performance of homes. We analyze the value effects of energy efficiency in the affordable housing market, by using a sample of 17,835 homes sold by Dutch affordable housing institutions in the period between 2008 and 2013. We use Energy Performance Certificates to determine the value of energy efficiency in these transactions. We document that dwellings with high energy efficiency sell for 2.0–6.3% more compared to otherwise similar dwellings with low energy efficiency. This implies a premium of some EUR 3,000 to EUR 9,700 for highly energy efficient affordable housing. - Highlights: • Dutch affordable housing suppliers recoup sustainability investment by selling dwellings. • Energy-efficient affordable dwellings sell at a premium. • A-labeled dwellings are 6.3% – 9,300 euros – more valuable than C-labeled ones. • The combined value effect of refurbishing an affordable housing dwelling, including improving the energy efficiency, of 20% would more than pay for the retrofit.

  8. Energy efficiency determinants: An empirical analysis of Spanish innovative firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa-Campi, María Teresa; García-Quevedo, José; Segarra, Agustí

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which innovative Spanish firms pursue improvements in energy efficiency (EE) as an objective of innovation. The increase in energy consumption and its impact on greenhouse gas emissions justifies the greater attention being paid to energy efficiency and especially to industrial EE. The ability of manufacturing companies to innovate and improve their EE has a substantial influence on attaining objectives regarding climate change mitigation. Despite the effort to design more efficient energy policies, the EE determinants in manufacturing firms have been little studied in the empirical literature. From an exhaustive sample of Spanish manufacturing firms and using a logit model, we examine the energy efficiency determinants for those firms that have innovated. To carry out the econometric analysis, we use panel data from the Community Innovation Survey for the period 2008–2011. Our empirical results underline the role of size among the characteristics of firms that facilitate energy efficiency innovation. Regarding company behaviour, firms that consider the reduction of environmental impacts to be an important objective of innovation and that have introduced organisational innovations are more likely to innovate with the objective of increasing energy efficiency. -- Highlights: •Drivers of innovation in energy efficiency at firm-level are examined. •Tangible investments have a greater influence on energy efficiency than R&D. •Environmental and energy efficiency innovation objectives are complementary. •Organisational innovation favors energy efficiency innovation. •Public policies should be implemented to improve firms’ energy efficiency

  9. Geospatial Technologies to Improve Urban Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharanidharan Hemachandran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The HEAT (Home Energy Assessment Technologies pilot project is a FREE Geoweb mapping service, designed to empower the urban energy efficiency movement by allowing residents to visualize the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT incorporates Geospatial solutions for residential waste heat monitoring using Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA and Canadian built Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager technology (TABI-320 to provide users with timely, in-depth, easy to use, location-specific waste-heat information; as well as opportunities to save their money and reduce their green-house-gas emissions. We first report on the HEAT Phase I pilot project which evaluates 368 residences in the Brentwood community of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and describe the development and implementation of interactive waste heat maps, energy use models, a Hot Spot tool able to view the 6+ hottest locations on each home and a new HEAT Score for inter-city waste heat comparisons. We then describe current challenges, lessons learned and new solutions as we begin Phase II and scale from 368 to 300,000+ homes with the newly developed TABI-1800. Specifically, we introduce a new object-based mosaicing strategy, an adaptation of Emissivity Modulation to correct for emissivity differences, a new Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN technique to correct for scene-wide microclimatic variation. We also describe a new Carbon Score and opportunities to update city cadastral errors with automatically defined thermal house objects.

  10. Improving energy efficiency in the transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, S.E.

    1994-12-31

    A primary characteristic of transportation in the United States is its high per capita energy consumption. The average US citizen consumes nearly five times as much energy for transportation as the average Japanese and nearly three times as much as the average citizen of France, Britain, or West Germany. The energy efficiency of US transportation has improved substantially over the past two decades (both absolutely and in comparison to Europe), and US travel volume has grown more slowly than in most of the developed world. However, the United States still consumes more than one-third of the world`s transport energy. Also, 96 percent of US transport energy is in the form of oil products. This is more oil than the United States produces, despite its position as one of the world`s largest oil producers. With current problems and expectation of continued growth in travel and energy use, Congress has increasingly turned to transportation energy conservation - in the form of improvements in the technical efficiency of travel, increases in load factors, reductions in travel demand, shifting to alternative fuels, and shifts to more efficient travel modes - as an important policy goal. For example, the Clean Air Amendments of 1990 incorporate transportation demand management as a critical tool in reducing urban air pollution. Legislation proposed in the 102d Congress sought rigorous new automobile and light truck fuel economy standards. With continued increases in U.S. oil imports, urban traffic congestion, and greenhouse gas emissions, and the failure of many urban areas to meet air quality standards, strong congressional interest in new energy conservation initiates is likely to continue.

  11. West Edmonton Mall : buying into energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, K. [West Edmonton Mall, AB (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    The West Edmonton Mall consists of 600 stores and services, as well as attractions including a marine life lagoon, a skating rink, the largest indoor wave pool in the world, and an amusement park. Lighting retrofits, power-factor correction equipment, and tenant energy-saving criteria all combine to make the West Edmonton Mall a model of energy efficiency. An energy consultant was hired in 2001 to develop an energy management plan in an attempt to find ways to save energy while providing a return on investment. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions are a consequence of reduced energy consumption. Variable frequency drives (VFDs) were recently installed on heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) fans, with assistance from the Energy Innovators Initiative (EII) of Natural Resources Canada. In addition, the West Edmonton Mall is now signed up with Canada's Climate Change Voluntary Challenge and Registry Inc. The retrofit involved the conversion of 42 constant speed, variable-pitch supply and return fans to a fixed pitch. The total cost of the retrofit was $970,000, and the energy savings are expected to reach $524,295 annually. A brief overview of energy savings measures implemented since 1985 was provided. Separate metering and billing for new tenants is a strategy to make sure that they are aware of their energy costs. This strategy makes them more active in reducing their energy consumption. An awareness and accountability system was put in place, and a variety of potential projects are being evaluated, such as a cogeneration system, updating fluid pumps, and adding new controls to hot water heaters. 1 tab.

  12. Energy Efficiency in the Mediterranean Building Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, H.L.; El Habib, El Andaloussi

    2011-01-01

    Despite the alerts that have been sounded since 1992, as international conferences aimed at curbing global warming have come and gone, and despite the plans for reducing the use of fossil fuel resources that call for the moderation of energy consumption, few actions or incentive measures (and even fewer directives) have actually been developed to act on the demand for energy. Yet, as Henri-Luc Thibault and El Habib El Andaloussi show here, some very concrete measures can have major effects in this area. This is the case with everything relating to the improvement of energy efficiency in building, where housing conditions, the housing stock and related energy consumption (heating, air-conditioning etc.) are concerned. Thibault and El Andaloussi show the potential impact of such measures in the Mediterranean region. Basing themselves on the work of the 'Plan Bleu' organization, which has worked out a revolutionary scenario for the energy field in the countries of the southern and eastern Mediterranean (to 2030), they begin by recalling the importance of buildings in regional energy consumption and the various levers that might be used to reduce that consumption (regulation, materials, efficiency of machinery etc.). In such a scenario, the potential for energy savings in this sector would seem considerable. Moreover, this would enable a substantial decrease in greenhouse gas emissions to be achieved, and would also have very positive effects in terms of job creation. In conclusion, the authors point out the need for investment over 20 years, depending on the particular country concerned, to put in place the five flagship measures of energy saving, which would be genuine investments for the future.. (authors)

  13. Buildings energy efficiency in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    In June 1992, energy service providers from around the Southeastern United States gathered at the Shenandoah Environment and Education Center of Georgia Power Company, to discuss issues related to energy efficiency buildings in the region. The meeting was organized by an ad hoc planning committee under the auspices of the Atlanta Support Office of the DOE. The objectives of the Workshop were to provide a forum for regional energy service providers to discuss matters of mutual concern and to identify issues of particular relevance to the Southeast. What characterizes energy use in the Southeast Most lists would include rapid population growth, high temperatures and humidity, a large air conditioning load on utilities, a relatively clean environment, and regulatory processes that seek to keep energy prices low. There was less unanimity on what are the priority issues. No definitive list of priorities emerged from the workshop. Participants did identify several areas where work should be initiated: networking, training/certification/education, performance of technical measures, and studies of market forces/incentives/barriers. The most frequently mentioned context for these work areas was that of utility programs. Presentations given during the first morning provided attendees an overview of energy use in the region and of building energy conservation programs being implemented both by state agencies and by utilities. These were the base for breakout and plenary sessions in which attendees expressed their views on specific topics. The regional need mentioned most often at the workshop was for networking among energy service providers in the region. In this context, this report itself is a follow up action. Participants also requested a regional directory of energy program resources. DOE agreed to assemble a preliminary directory based upon input from workshop attendees. Because the response was quick and positive, a directory is part of this document.

  14. Promoting energy efficiency in developing countries: The role of NGOs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtaszek, E.I.

    1993-06-01

    Developing countries need energy growth to spur economic growth. Yet energy activities contribute significantly to local water pollution and global greenhouse gas emissions. Energy efficiency offers the means to achieve the twin goals of sustainable economic/social development and environmental protection. Energy efficiency increases industrial competitiveness and frees up capital so it can be applied to other uses, such as health and education. The key to improving energy efficiency in developing countries will be acquiring and applying Western technologies, practices, and policies and building national institutions for promoting energy efficiency. Relevant energy-efficient technologies include the use of better electric motors, adjustable speed controls, combined cycle power cogeneration, improved lighting, better refrigeration technologies, and improved electric power transmission and distribution systems. Western countries can best help developing countries by providing guidance and resources to support nongovernmental organizations (NGOS) staffed by local experts; these institutions can capture the energy efficiency potential and ensure environmental protection in developing countries

  15. Partial-factor Energy Efficiency Model of Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho Fathul; Syaifudin Noor

    2018-01-01

    This study employs the partial-factor energy efficiency to reveal the relationships between energy efficiency and the consumption of both, the renewable energy and non-renewable energy in Indonesia. The findings confirm that consumption of non-renewable energy will increase the inefficiency in energy consumption. On the other side, the use of renewable energy will increase the energy efficiency in Indonesia. As the result, the Government of Indonesia may address this issue by providing more s...

  16. Progress Implementing the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Significantly improving energy efficiency remains a priority for all countries. Meetings of G8 leaders and IEA ministers reaffirmed the critical role that improved energy efficiency can play in addressing energy security, environmental and economic challenges. Many IEA publications have also documented the essential role of energy efficiency. For example, the World Energy Outlook and the Energy Technology Perspectives reports identify energy efficiency as the most significant contributor to achieving energy security, economic and environmental goals. Energy efficiency is clearly the “first fuel” in the delivery of energy services in the coming low-carbon energy future. To support governments in their implementation of energy efficiency, the IEA recommended the adoption of specific energy efficiency policy measures to the G8 summits in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The consolidated set of recommendations to these summits is known as the ‘IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations’ because it covers 25 fields of action across seven priority areas: cross-sectoral activity, buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, industry and energy utilities. The IEA estimates that if implemented globally without delay, the proposed actions could save as much as 7.6 giga tonnes (Gt) CO2/year by 2030 – almost 1.5 times the current annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of the United States. The IEA 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations were developed to address policy gaps and priorities. This has two implications. First, the recommendations do not cover the full range of energy efficiency policy activity possible. Rather, they focus on priority energy efficiency policies identified by IEA analysis. Second, while IEA analysis, the energy efficiency professional literature and engagement with experts clearly demonstrate the broad benefits of these IEA priority measures, the recommendations are not weighted to reflect the different energy end-use make up of different

  17. Energy Efficiency Policy Developments: September 2011-September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member and key non-member countries over the period from September 2011 to September 2012. The report provides an overview of energy efficiency policy developments across the seven sectors covered by the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations (25 EEPR) – Cross-sectoral activities, Buildings, Appliances and Equipment, Lighting, Transport, Industry and Energy Providers.

  18. The state of energy efficiency in Canada 2006 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This report reviewed energy efficiency strategies in Canada's economic sector, and provided information on the contributions made by various energy efficiency initiatives administered by Natural Resources Canada through its Office of Energy Efficiency. Energy use in Canada increased by 22 per cent between 1990 and 2003, in contrast to the 32 per cent anticipated without energy efficiency increases. Energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 52 megatonnes lower than they would have been without energy efficiency programs, indicating that strong and measurable progress has been made. In the residential sector, the combined effects of a 26 per cent increase in activity, an increase in energy demand due to weather, and an increase in the average number of appliances per household were partly offset by a 19 per cent improvement in energy efficiency. A 45 per cent increase in industrial activity along with a 13 per cent improvement in energy efficiency between 1990-2003 was noted. A 15 per cent increase in passenger transportation and a 40 per cent increase in freight transportation were offset by a 16 per cent improvement in energy efficiency. Basic policy instruments were reviewed, as well as information and voluntary programs, direct financial incentives, and various regulations to eliminate less efficient products from the market. It was noted that the Green Municipal Fund has recently provided over $248 million to support 419 feasibility studies and energy efficiency projects. The federal budget has provided an additional $300 million towards the fund. 22 figs.

  19. Energy efficiency in South Africa: A decomposition exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inglesi-Lotz, R.; Pouris, A.

    2012-01-01

    Improvement of energy efficiency has been accepted as one of the most cost-effective approaches towards sustainable economic development and reduction of the continuously increasing energy consumption internationally. South Africa, being among the developing countries, is not an exception even though historically low energy prices and the lack of appropriate policies have created an energy intensive economy. This paper examines the factors affecting the trends in energy efficiency in South Africa from 1993 to 2006 and particularly the impact of structural changes and utilisation efficiency of the country's energy intensity. Identifying and understanding the driving forces are necessary ingredients in the development of appropriate policy-making. This paper also provides disaggregation of the energy efficiency trends in the main sectors of the economy. We determine that structural changes of the economy have played an important and negative role in the increasing economy-wide energy efficiency. On the other hand, the energy usage's intensity was a contributing factor to the decreasing trend of energy efficiency. We suggest that differentiated price policies may be required if South Africa is to create an effective energy efficiency policy. -- Highlights: ► Improving energy efficiency can lead to lower energy consumption and emissions. ► A decomposition analysis examines the factors affecting efficiency in South Africa. ► With unchanged economic structure, the energy efficiency would be 0.75 units lower. ► Intensity was a contributing factor to the decreasing trend of energy efficiency.

  20. Energy Efficiency Resources to Support State Energy Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Office of Strategic Programs, Strategic Priorities and Impact Analysis Team

    2017-06-01

    An early step for most energy efficiency planning is to identify and quantify energy savings opportunities, and then to understand how to access this potential. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy offers resources that can help with both of these steps. This fact sheet presents those resources. The resources are also available on the DOE State and Local Solution Center on the "Energy Efficiency: Savings Opportunities and Benefits" page: https://energy.gov/eere/slsc/energy-efficiency-savings-opportunities-and-benefits.

  1. DTU International Energy Report 2012: Energy efficiency improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Increased energy efficiency can reduce global CO2 emissions over the period to 2050 with up to 25%. On the top of that large profits can be gained for very little investment. Energy efficiency improvements can save investment in new energy infrastructure, cut fuel costs, increase competitiveness...... and increase consumer welfare. Thus, it is natural for DTU International Energy Report 2012 to take up this issue and analyze the global, regional and national challenges in exploiting energy efficiency and promote research and development in energy efficiency....

  2. Energy Efficiency Policies around the World: Review and Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    Since 1992 the World Energy Council (WEC) and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Efficiency, France) have been collaborating on a joint project ''Energy Efficiency Policies and Indicators'' with technical assistance by ENERDATA (France). The latest report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies in nearly 70 countries around the world, with a specific focus on five policy measures: mandatory energy audits, ESCO's, energy incentives for cars, energy efficiency obligations for utilities, and 'packages of measures' for solar water heaters. The report describes the implemented measures and identifies those proven most effective.

  3. USE Efficiency -- Universities and Students for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melandri, Daniela

    2010-09-15

    Universities and Student for Energy Efficiency is a European Project within the Intelligent Energy Programme. It intends to create a common stream for energy efficiency systems in university buildings. Universities and students are proposed as shining examples for energy efficiency solutions and behaviour. The Project involves 10 countries and has the aim to improve energy efficiency in university buildings. Students are the main actors of the project together with professors and technicians. To act on students means to act on direct future market players in diffusion of public opinions. A strong communication action supports the succeeding of the action.

  4. Status and progress of the market for energy efficiency services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsanev, Ts.; Baev, D.; Kolev, V.

    2005-01-01

    For the realization of the energy efficiency policy in Bulgaria, some real steps have been performed, such as the development of the Energy Strategy of Bulgaria, 10-year Programme for energy economy and 3-year action plan. The Energy efficiency law and the corresponding regulations have been adopted. More attractive forms for the crediting of energy efficiency projects were offered. Form the beginning of 2005, the EBRD credit line for such projects is in use. The Bulgarian fund for energy efficiency has been also established

  5. Incentives to improve energy efficiency in EU Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Beestermoeller, C.; Gardiner, A.

    2013-04-15

    The Energy Efficiency Directive (2012/27/EU) includes provisions related to network tariffs and regulation. It is timely therefore to revisit the potential options for energy efficiency in grids, the treatment of energy efficiency in network tariffs and alternative policies for improving energy efficiency. This project builds on work done previously for the European Copper Institute in this area. In this paper, we concentrate on energy efficiency in electricity network design and operation. Other articles in the Directive relate to the role of the network tariffs and regulations in enabling or incentivising the provision of energy efficiency to end users. In section 2, we describe technical efficiency measures to reduce losses (improve energy efficiency) in the grid. Section 3 reviews grid tariffs in three countries to identify whether they provide incentives or disincentives for energy efficiency in the grid. Section 4 discusses and evaluates alternative regulations for energy efficiency in grids. Section 5 concludes and discusses the main components of the optimal policy framework.

  6. Closing the Gap GEF Experiences in Global Energy Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency plays and will continue to play an important role in the world to save energy and mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, little is known on how much additional capital should be invested to ensure using energy efficiently as it should be, and very little is known which sub-areas, technologies, and countries shall achieve maximum greenhouse gas emissions mitigation per dollar of investment in energy efficiency worldwide. Analyzing completed and slowly moving energy efficiency projects by the Global Environment Facility during 1991-2010, Closing the Gap: GEF Experiences in Global Energy Efficiency evaluates impacts of multi-billion-dollar investments in the world energy efficiency. It covers the following areas: 1.       Reviewing the world energy efficiency investment and disclosing the global energy efficiency gap and market barriers that cause the gap; 2.       Leveraging private funds with public funds and other resources in energy efficiency investments; using...

  7. Measuring Energy Efficiency in China’s Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Hao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is one of the key factors affecting energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. By focusing on China’s transport sector, this study comprehensively reviews and compares the energy efficiency performance of passenger vehicles, light-duty commercial vehicles, commercial road transport, commercial water transport, aviation transport and railway transport, and identifies the opportunities for further energy efficiency improvements. It is found that railway transport exhibited the greatest improvement in energy efficiency during the past decade, which was mainly driven by progress in its electrification. Passenger vehicles have also experienced considerable energy efficiency improvements, which can be mainly attributed to the establishment of mandatory fuel consumption standards. In contrast, commercial road transport has shown the least improvement, due to insufficient policy implementations. Based on the analysis, it is recommended that, as China’s present policy framework to improve energy efficiency in the transport sector is generally effective, it should be consistently maintained and successively improved. Electrification represents a major opportunity for improvement of energy efficiency in the transport sector. Such potential should be fully tapped for all transport modes. Greater effort should be put into improving the energy efficiency of commercial road transport. The policy instruments utilized to improve the energy efficiency of heavy-duty vehicles should be as intensive and effective as the policy instruments for passenger vehicles.

  8. Improved energy efficiency in sawmill drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Jan-Olof; Westerlund, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A heating system at a sawmill was investigated and improved. • Different impacts of external technologies at the energy usage were explored. • The heat and electricity consumption was analysed separate between technologies type. • The result point out a significant decrease of the biomass consumptions. - Abstract: The worldwide use of biomass has increased drastically during the last decade. At Swedish sawmills about half of the entering timber becomes lumber, with the remainder considered as by-product (biomass). A significant part of this biomass is used for internal heat production, mainly for forced drying of lumber in drying kilns. Large heat losses in kilns arise due to difficulties in recovering evaporative heat in moist air at low temperatures. This paper addresses the impact of available state-of-the-art technologies of heat recycling on the most common drying schemes used in Swedish sawmills. Simulations of different technologies were performed on an hourly basis to compare the heat and electricity demand with the different technologies. This was executed for a total sawmill and finally to the national level to assess the potential effects upon energy efficiency and biomass consumption. Since some techniques produce a surplus of heat the comparison has to include the whole sawmill. The impact on a national level shows the potential of the different investigated techniques. The results show that if air heat exchangers were introduced across all sawmills in Sweden, the heat demand would decrease by 0.3 TWh/year. The mechanical heat pump technology would decrease the heat demand by 5.6 TWh/year and would also produce a surplus for external heat sinks, though electricity demand would increase by 1 TWh/year. The open absorption system decreases the heat demand by 3.4 TWh/year on a national level, though at the same time there is a moderate increase in electricity demand of 0.05 TWh/year. Introducing actual energy prices in Sweden gives an

  9. Curriculum for Commissioning Energy Efficient Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Lia [Portland Energy Conservation, Inc., OR (United States)

    2012-12-27

    In July 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded funding to PECI to develop training curriculum in commercial energy auditing and building commissioning. This program was created in response to the high demand for auditing and commissioning services in the U.S. commercial buildings market and to bridge gaps and barriers in existing training programs. Obstacles addressed included: lack of focus on entry level candidates; prohibitive cost and time required for training; lack of hands-on training; trainings that focus on certifications & process overviews; and lack of comprehensive training. PECI organized several other industry players to create a co-funded project sponsored by DOE, PECI, New York State Energy and Research Development Authority (NYSERDA), California Energy Commission (CEC), Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) and California Commissioning Collaborative (CCC). After awarded, PECI teamed with another DOE awardee, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), to work collaboratively to create one comprehensive program featuring two training tracks. NJIT’s Center for Building Knowledge is a research and training institute affiliated with the College of Architecture and Design, and provided e-learning and video enhancements. This project designed and developed two training programs with a comprehensive, energy-focused curriculum to prepare new entrants to become energy auditors or commissioning authorities (CxAs). The following are the key elements of the developed trainings, which is depicted graphically in Figure 1: • Online classes are self-paced, and can be completed anywhere, any time • Commissioning Authority track includes 3 online modules made up of 24 courses delivered in 104 individual lessons, followed by a 40 hour hands-on lab. Total time required is between 75 and 100 hours, depending on the pace of the independent learner. • Energy Auditor track includes 3 online modules made up of 18 courses delivered in 72 individual

  10. Energie Efficiency Directive. Article 7. Dutch implementation; Energie Efficiency Directive. Artikel 7. Nederlandse invulling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, B.; Gerdes, J.; Boonekamp, P.; Kroon, P.; Stutvoet-Mulder, K.; Tigchelaar, C.; Wetzels, W. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    Article 7 of the recently adopted Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) obliges the EU member states to achieve 1.5% yearly efficiency improvements during the period 2014-2020, culminating in a cumulative savings target. This report describes the way the Netherlands intends to meet the article 7 obligations, as requested by the European Commission. The EED offers the member states various degrees of freedom with regard to the definition of the target and the way it is met. Hence, this report addresses the choices of the Netherlands and their consequences for the Dutch target and the realised energy savings. A broad-lined description of the choices and overall results is complemented by extensive annexes that offer technical descriptions and detailed numbers [Dutch] Dit rapport beschrijft de manier waarop Nederland aan haar doelstelling voor artikel 7 van de Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) denkt te voldoen. Het is gebaseerd op de interpretaties en keuzes die de Nederlandse overheid heeft gemaakt. Artikel 7 van de Energy Efficiency Directive verplicht Nederland tot het realiseren van een efficiencyverbetering van 1,5% per jaar in de periode 2014-2020, als cumulatieve doelstelling. Voor Nederland betekent dit - rekening houdend met de vrijheidsgraden van de EED - een doelstelling van minimaal 482 PJ besparing op het finaal energiegebruik. Nederland verwacht een cumulatieve besparing te bereiken tussen de 387 en 562 PJ in finale termen, waarvan 87 tot 186 PJ door nieuw beleid. Dit nieuwe beleid bestaat uit de overeengekomen beleidsmaatregelen uit het recente Energieakkoord dat onder regie van de Sociaal Economische Raad (SER) is gesloten. Het kabinet heeft dit akkoord mede ondertekend.

  11. Spreading The Net: The Multiple Benefits Of Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency can deliver a range of benefits to the economy and society. However energy efficiency programmes are often evaluated only on the basis of the energy savings they deliver. As a result, the full value of energy efficiency improvements in both national and global economies may be significantly underestimated. This also means that energy efficiency policy may not be optimised to target the potential of the full range of outcomes possible. Moreover, when the merit of energy efficiency programmes is judged solely on reductions in energy demand, programmes are susceptible to criticisms related to the rebound effect when the energy savings are less than expected due to other welfare gains. There are several reasons why the full range of outcomes from energy efficiency policy is not generally evaluated. First, it is due to the non-market, somewhat intangible, nature of the socioeconomic benefits, which makes them difficult to quantify. Second, the effects due to energy efficiency alone can be complex to isolate and to determine causality. Third, evaluators and policy makers working in the energy efficiency sphere are usually energy professionals, working for an energy agency or ministry, with little experience of how energy efficiency might impact other non-energy sectors. The result is an under-appreciation – and related underinvestment – in energy efficiency, and as a consequence, missed opportunities and benefits. These foregone benefits represent the ‘opportunity cost’ of failing to adequately evaluate and prioritize energy efficiency investments. The objective of this report is to fully outline the array of different benefits from improved energy efficiency and investigate their implications for policy design. By better understanding the different benefits arising from energy efficiency it should be easier for policy makers to prioritise the most significant outcomes, in addition to energy savings, in optimising energy efficiency

  12. Alternative approach for Article 5. Energie Efficiency Directive; Alternatieve aanpak artikel 5. Energy Efficiency Directive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkveld, M.; Jablonska, B. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-05-15

    Article 5 of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED) is an annual obligation to renovate 3% of the building stock of central government. After renovation the buildings will meet the minimum energy performance requirements laid down in Article 4 of the EPBD. The Directive gives room to an alternative approach to achieve the same savings. The Ministry of Interior Affairs has asked ECN to assist with this alternative approach. ECN calculated what saving are achieved with the 3% renovation obligation under the directive. Then ECN looked for the possibilities for an alternative approach to achieve the same savings [Dutch] In artikel 5 van de Energie Efficiency Directive (EED) staat een verplichting om jaarlijks 3% van de gebouwvoorraad van de centrale overheid te renoveren. Die 3% van de gebouwvoorraad moet na renovatie voldoen aan de minimum eisen inzake energieprestatie die door het betreffende lidstaat zijn vastgelegd op grond van artikel 4 in de EPBD. De verplichting betreft gebouwen die in bezit en in gebruik zijn van de rijksoverheid met een gebruiksoppervlakte groter dan 500 m{sup 2}, vanaf juli 2015 groter dan 250 m{sup 2}. De gebouwen die eigendom zijn van de Rijksgebouwendienst betreft kantoren van rijksdiensten, gerechtsgebouwen, gebouwen van douane en politie en gevangenissen. Van de gebouwen van Defensie hoeven alleen kantoren en legeringsgebouwen aan de verplichting te voldoen.

  13. Energy Efficient Electrochromic Windows Incorporating Ionic Liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheri Boykin; James Finley; Donald Anthony; Julianna Knowles; Richard Markovic; Michael Buchanan; Mary Ann Fuhry; Lisa Perrine

    2008-11-30

    One approach to increasing the energy efficiency of windows is to control the amount of solar radiation transmitted through a window by using electrochromic technology. What is unique about this project is that the electrochromic is based on the reduction/oxidation reactions of cathodic and anodic organic semi-conducting polymers using room temperature ionic liquids as ion transport electrolytes. It is believed that these types of coatings would be a lower cost alternative to traditional all inorganic thin film based electrochromic technologies. Although there are patents1 based on the proposed technology, it has never been reduced to practice and thoroughly evaluated (i.e. durability and performance) in a window application. We demonstrate that by using organic semi-conductive polymers, specific bands of the solar spectrum (specifically visible and near infrared) can be targeted for electrochemical variable transmittance responsiveness. In addition, when the technology is incorporated into an insulating glass unit, the energy parameters such as the solar heat gain coefficient and the light to solar gain ratio are improved over that of a typical insulating glass unit comprised of glass with a low emissivity coating. A minimum of {approx}0.02 quads of energy savings per year with a reduction of carbon emissions for electricity of {approx}320 MKg/yr benefit is achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. Note that these values include a penalty in the heating season. If this penalty is removed (i.e. in southern climates or commercial structures where cooling is predominate year-round) a maximum energy savings of {approx}0.05 quad per year and {approx}801 MKg/yr can be achieved over that of a typical insulating glass unit including a double silver low-E coating. In its current state, the technology is not durable enough for an exterior window application. The primary downfall is that the redox chemistry fails to

  14. 77 FR 64112 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Nationwide Categorical Waivers of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy. [FR Doc. 2012-25636 Filed 10-17-12; 8:45 am...

  15. Energy Saving: Scaling Network Energy Efficiency Faster than Traffic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Blume, O.; Gati, A.; Capone, A.; Wu, C.-E.; Barth, U.; Marzetta, T.; Zhang, H.; Xu, S.

    2013-01-01

    As the mobile traffic is expected to continue its exponential growth in the near future, energy efficiency has gradually become a must criterion for wireless network design. Three fundamental questions need to be answered before the detailed design could be carried out, namely what energy efficiency

  16. Energy efficiency of error correcting mechanisms for wireless communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    We consider the energy efficiency of error control mechanisms for wireless communication. Since high error rates are inevitable to the wireless environment, energy efficient error control is an important issue for mobile computing systems. Although good designed retransmission schemes can be optimal

  17. 77 FR 54839 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... CFR Parts 1710, 1717, 1721, 1724, and 1730 RIN 0572-AC19 Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan..., proposing policies and procedures for loan and guarantee financial assistance in support of energy efficiency programs (EE Programs) sponsored and implemented by electric utilities for the benefit of rural...

  18. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  19. Evaluating the energy efficiency of a one pedal driving algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Besselink, I.J.M.; van Boekel, J.J.P.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2015-01-01

    Regenerative braking of electric vehicles (EVs) is important to improve the energy efficiency and increase the vehicle range. However, the additional friction braking during deceleration may limit the amount of recuperated energy. To improve the energy efficiency and driving comfort of EVs, a one

  20. Design of Energy Efficient SMISMO-ELS Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally mechanical linked meter-in and meterout spool valves are used for velocity control of hydraulic differential cylinders. However with the demand for energy efficient systems the individual meter-in and meter-out valves draws massive attention. This paper propose an energy efficient a...

  1. Analysis of the Russian Market for Building Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lychuk, Taras; Evans, Meredydd; Halverson, Mark A.; Roshchanka, Volha

    2012-12-01

    This report provides analysis of the Russian energy efficiency market for the building sector from the perspective of U.S. businesses interested in exporting relevant technologies, products and experience to Russia. We aim to help U.S. energy efficiency and environmental technologies businesses to better understand the Russian building market to plan their market strategy.

  2. Evaluation of energy efficiency policy instruments effectiveness : case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukarica, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical basis for evaluating energy efficiency policy in the Republic of Croatia and corroborated it with the analysis of energy efficiency market development and transformation. The current status of the market was evaluated and policy instruments were adapted to achieve optimal results. In particular, the energy efficiency market in Croatia was discussed in terms of micro and macro environment factors that influence policy making processes and the choice of policy instruments. The macro environment for energy efficiency market in Croatia is the process of European Union pre-integration with all related national and international legislation, political and economical factors and potential to use financial funds. The micro environment consists of government institutions, local financing institutions and a range of market players on the supply and demand side. Energy efficiency is the most powerful and cost-effective way for achieving goals of sustainable development. Policy instruments developed to improve energy efficiency are oriented towards a cleaner environment, better standard of living, more competitive industry and improved security of energy supply. Energy efficiency is much harder to implement and requires policy interventions. In response to recent trends in the energy sector, such as deregulation and open competition, policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency should shift from an end-users oriented approach towards a whole market approach. The optimal policy instruments mix should be designed to meet defined targets. However, market dynamics must be taken into consideration. 9 refs., 4 figs

  3. Energy efficiency of error correction on wireless systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Since high error rates are inevitable to the wireless environment, energy-efficient error-control is an important issue for mobile computing systems. We have studied the energy efficiency of two different error correction mechanisms and have measured the efficiency of an implementation in software.

  4. Barriers' and policies' analysis of China's building energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yurong; Wang, Yuanfeng

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid economic growth and the improvement of people's living standards, China's building energy consumption has kept rising during the past 15 years. Under the effort of the Chinese government and the society, China's building energy efficiency has made certain achievements. However, the implementation of building energy efficiency in China is still far from its potential. Based on the analysis of the existing policies implemented in China, the article concluded that the most essential and the most effective ways to promote building energy efficiency is the government's involvement as well as economic and financial incentives. In addition, the main barriers in the process of promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified in six aspects. It has been found that the legal system and administrative issues constitute major barriers, and the lack of financial incentives and the mismatching of market mechanism also hamper the promotion of building energy efficiency. Finally, in view of the existing policies and barriers analysis, three corresponding policy proposals are presented. -- Highlights: •The existing policies implemented in China from three aspects are presented and analysed. •The Government's involvement is the most essential effective way to promote building-energy efficiency. •Six aspects of barriers in promoting building energy efficiency in China are identified. •The legal system and administrative issues constitute the major barriers. •Three policy proposals to further promote building energy efficiency in China are proposed

  5. Refractories for Industrial Processing. Opportunities for Improved Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hayden, H. Wayne [Metals Manufacture Process and Controls Technology, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Angelini, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moore, Robert E. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States); Headrick, William L. [R.E. Moore Associates, Maricopa, AZ (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Refractories are a class of materials of critical importance to manufacturing industries with high-temperature unit processes. This study describes industrial refractory applications and identifies refractory performance barriers to energy efficiency for processing. The report provides recommendations for R&D pathways leading to improved refractories for energy-efficient manufacturing and processing.

  6. The Green Lab : Experimentation in Software Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procaccianti, Giuseppe; Lago, Patricia; Vetrò, Antonio; Méndez Fernández, Daniel; Wieringa, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Software energy efficiency is a research topic where experimentation is widely adopted. Nevertheless, current studies and research approaches struggle to find generalizable findings that can be used to build a consistent knowledge base for energy-efficient software. To this end, we will discuss how

  7. JIT maintenance improves the productivity and energy efficiency of the system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Željko M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance planning in order to ensure the smooth functioning of the system, optimal interaction of system with the environment, and timely responses to the set requirements is one of the most important internal resources of the organization. Just-In-Time Maintenance enables rarely downtime and lower maintenance costs throughout the life cycle of the system, and dramatically increases the productivity and energy efficiency of the entire system. By adopting of the Just-In-Time Maintenance philosophy, minimum of objective function of energy or production system, as well as of production of services system, is achieved.

  8. Energy efficiency of road freight hauliers - A Nordic comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liimatainen, Heikki; Nykanen, Lasse; Arvidsson, Niklas

    2014-01-01

    In order to promote policy targets for decarbonising road freight, it is important to gain knowledge on the current energy efficiency practices of hauliers in various countries. This research aimed to provide such knowledge to enable international comparison of the energy efficiency practices...... of road freight hauliers. This was achieved by replicating the Finnish haulier survey in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Energy efficiency index was developed to provide a simple metric for international comparison. The EEL covers various aspects of energy efficiency to provide a comprehensive outlook...... efficiency actions is rather similar between the four countries. The simple and inexpensive actions, like choosing the lorry according to the cargo and idling avoidance, are most widely implemented. The energy efficiency index developed in this research proved to be a very useful tool for comparing...

  9. Training the next generation of energy efficiency evaluators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory LBNL and California Institute for Energy and Environment, Berkeley, CA (United States); Saxonis, W. [New York Department of Public Service, Albany, NY (United States); Peters, J. [Research Into Action, Portland, OR (United States); Tannenbaum, B. [Research Into Action, Madison, WI (United States); Wirtshafter, B. [Wirstshafter Associates, Rydal, PA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    The energy efficiency services sector is an increasingly important part of the global economy, with an increased need for trained evaluators to foster energy efficiency program accountability and improvement. Organizations are experiencing difficulty in finding people who are knowledgeable about and experienced in the evaluation of energy efficiency programs. Accordingly, there is a need to assess the training needs of the energy efficiency evaluation community (for both new and 'experienced' evaluators). This paper presents the results of a recent survey conducted by the International Energy Program Evaluation Conference (IEPEC) on energy efficiency evaluation training needs and contrasts those findings with the findings from a survey conducted by the American Evaluation Association on young evaluators (those people in the field <5 years) and another by the Association of Energy Services Professionals. This analysis is also complemented by a brief survey of members of the 2012 Rome Conference IEPEC Planning Committee on international needs.

  10. The Multiple Benefits of Measures to Improve Energy Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig, Daniel; Farrell, Timothy Clifford

    Understanding the barriers to, and enablers for, energy efficiency requires targeted information and analysis. This report is a summary of four detailed studies providing new insights on how to promote efficiency in selected priority areas. It complements initiatives such as the so-called energy...... efficiency accelerators, which seek to increase the uptake of selected technologies, as well as the work of many other institutions committed to improving energy efficiency. The modelling estimates and the case studies presented in this report illustrate that, while significant progress has already been...... achieved, the case for accelerating energy efficiency action is strong. Key highlights include: • At the global level, energy efficiency improvements would account for between 2.6 and 3.3 Gt CO2e of the reductions in 2030, equivalent to between 23 and 26 percent of the overall reductions achieved...

  11. Measuring energy efficiency: Is energy intensity a good evidence base?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakova, L.; Kovalev, A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy intensity measure reflects consumption, not energy efficiency. • Thermodynamic indicators should describe energy efficiency at all levels. • These indicators should have no reference to economic or financial parameters. • A set of energy efficiency indicators should satisfy several basic principles. • There are trade-offs between energy efficiency, power and costs. - Abstract: There is a widespread assumption in energy statistics and econometrics that energy intensity and energy efficiency are equivalent measures of energy performance of economies. The paper points to the discrepancy between the engineering concept of energy efficiency and the energy intensity as it is understood in macroeconomic statistics. This double discrepancy concerns definitions (while engineering concept of energy efficiency is based on the thermodynamic definition, energy intensity includes economic measures) and use. With regard to the latter, the authors conclude that energy intensity can only provide indirect and delayed evidence of technological and engineering energy efficiency of energy conversion processes, which entails shortcomings for management and policymaking. Therefore, we suggest to stop considering subsectoral, sectoral and other levels of energy intensities as aggregates of lower-level energy efficiency. It is suggested that the insufficiency of energy intensity indicators can be compensated with the introduction of thermodynamic indicators describing energy efficiency at the physical, technological, enterprise, sub-sector, sectoral and national levels without references to any economic or financial parameters. Structured statistical data on thermodynamic efficiency is offered as a better option for identifying break-through technologies and technological bottle-necks that constrain efficiency advancements. It is also suggested that macro-level thermodynamic indicators should be based on the thermodynamic first law efficiency and the energy

  12. Empirical investigation of energy efficiency barriers in Italian manufacturing SMEs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, Andrea; Cagno, Enrico; Worrell, Ernst; Pugliese, Giacomo

    2013-01-01

    The paper identifies and evaluates barriers to industrial energy efficiency through the investigation of 48 manufacturing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in Northern Italy. The research provides interesting suggestions both for enterprises and energy policy-makers. Firstly, economic and information barriers are perceived as the major obstacles to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies, whilst behavioural barriers do not seem to affect enterprises very much. Nonetheless, despite what declared, the most relevant barriers are the lack of interest in energy efficiency and the existence of other priorities, thus showing that decision-makers tend to downgrade energy efficiency to a marginal issue. Furthermore, perceived barriers do not take place exclusively in implementing energy-efficient technologies, but, with comparable importance, also in generating the interest and knowledge of the opportunities. Moreover, the study highlights that relevant differences can be appreciated for both perceived and real barriers even among SMEs, that thus should not be bundled together. In addition to that, other factors affect barriers, stimulating future research: indeed, lower real barriers can be observed with higher complexity of the production, high variability of the demand and strong competitors. -- Highlights: ► Evidence of existing misalignments between perceived and real barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient technologies. ► Relevance of barriers to the generation of interest towards energy efficiency. ► Evidence of firm's size (within SMEs) and energy expenditures on barriers to energy efficiency. ► Importance, for energy efficiency barriers, of avoid bundling SMEs as a whole. ► Preliminary evidence of factors related to supply chain complexity affecting barriers to energy efficiency.

  13. 75 FR 69655 - Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory Committee (ERAC) AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advisory [[Page 69656

  14. Improving energy efficiency in handheld biometric applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, David C.; Gale, John W.; Schultz, Robert C.; Rakvic, Ryan N.; Ives, Robert W.

    2012-06-01

    With improved smartphone and tablet technology, it is becoming increasingly feasible to implement powerful biometric recognition algorithms on portable devices. Typical iris recognition algorithms, such as Ridge Energy Direction (RED), utilize two-dimensional convolution in their implementation. This paper explores the energy consumption implications of 12 different methods of implementing two-dimensional convolution on a portable device. Typically, convolution is implemented using floating point operations. If a given algorithm implemented integer convolution vice floating point convolution, it could drastically reduce the energy consumed by the processor. The 12 methods compared include 4 major categories: Integer C, Integer Java, Floating Point C, and Floating Point Java. Each major category is further divided into 3 implementations: variable size looped convolution, static size looped convolution, and unrolled looped convolution. All testing was performed using the HTC Thunderbolt with energy measured directly using a Tektronix TDS5104B Digital Phosphor oscilloscope. Results indicate that energy savings as high as 75% are possible by using Integer C versus Floating Point C. Considering the relative proportion of processing time that convolution is responsible for in a typical algorithm, the savings in energy would likely result in significantly greater time between battery charges.

  15. The Inefficiencies of Energy Efficiency : Reviewing the Strategic Role of Energy Efficiency and its Effectiveness in Alleviating Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Read, S.A.; Lindhult, Erik; Mashayekhi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Our present economy is high-energy and demand-intensive, demand met through the use of high energy yield fossil fuels. Energy efficiency and renewable energy sources are proposed as the solution and named the ‘twin pillars’ of sustainable energy policy. Increasing energy efficiencies are expected to

  16. Measuring energy efficiency in economics: Shadow value approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatani, Asgar

    For decades, academic scholars and policy makers have commonly applied a simple average measure, energy intensity, for studying energy efficiency. In contrast, we introduce a distinctive marginal measure called energy shadow value (SV) for modeling energy efficiency drawn on economic theory. This thesis demonstrates energy SV advantages, conceptually and empirically, over the average measure recognizing marginal technical energy efficiency and unveiling allocative energy efficiency (energy SV to energy price). Using a dual profit function, the study illustrates how treating energy as quasi-fixed factor called quasi-fixed approach offers modeling advantages and is appropriate in developing an explicit model for energy efficiency. We address fallacies and misleading results using average measure and demonstrate energy SV advantage in inter- and intra-country energy efficiency comparison. Energy efficiency dynamics and determination of efficient allocation of energy use are shown through factors impacting energy SV: capital, technology, and environmental obligations. To validate the energy SV, we applied a dual restricted cost model using KLEM dataset for the 35 US sectors stretching from 1958 to 2000 and selected a sample of the four sectors. Following the empirical results, predicted wedges between energy price and the SV growth indicate a misallocation of energy use in stone, clay and glass (SCG) and communications (Com) sectors with more evidence in the SCG compared to the Com sector, showing overshoot in energy use relative to optimal paths and cost increases from sub-optimal energy use. The results show that energy productivity is a measure of technical efficiency and is void of information on the economic efficiency of energy use. Decomposing energy SV reveals that energy, capital and technology played key roles in energy SV increases helping to consider and analyze policy implications of energy efficiency improvement. Applying the marginal measure, we also

  17. Role of executive agencies for energy efficiency with a view on activities of Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačić Bojan J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries, particularly in Europe, have executive energy efficiency agencies at national, regional and local levels that are organized in different ways. For all of them, it is common that there are existing strategic needs in their countries for enhancement of conditions and measures for rational use of energy and fuels. Serbian Energy Efficiency Agency was established in 2002 within the reform of the energy sector in Serbia and its current status was defined in 2004 by the Energy Law. It contributes to the improvement of social responsibility towards energy in all structures of the state and society, by proposing energy efficiency incentives, promoting importance of energy efficiency, as well as by managing energy efficiency and renewable energy programs and projects.

  18. Energy efficiency action plan. Policy action plan for promotion of energy efficiency in the Czech Republic to 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-08-01

    Energy efficiency and renewable energy production contribute to the three major goals of the national energy policy of the Czech Republic: overall competitiveness, security of supply and environmental protection. Therefore, the Czech government aims to promote these two sustainable options. The Energy Policy White Paper, which is being developed at the time of writing (June 1999), will provide the general framework for the future role of energy efficiency and renewable energy in the Czech Republic. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific policies. The National Energy Efficiency Study aimed to support the Czech government in the formulation of energy efficiency and renewable energy policy. The National Energy Efficiency Study has resulted in the following documents: (1) The Energy Efficiency Action Plan focuses on promotion of energy efficiency in end-use (this report); The Renewable Energy Action Plan (separate report; ECN-C--99-064) deals with policy on promotion of renewable energy production. These two Action Plans provide policy makers in the Czech government with essential information on potentials, targets, budgets and recommended policy instruments. The core of the Action Plans is the list of concrete policy actions, ready for implementation; and (2) The National Energy Efficiency Study NEES (separate report; ECN-C--99-063). This report is the background document to the two Action Plans. It contains detailed information on options and measures, potentials, barriers and policy instruments for energy efficiency and renewables. The main part is a detailed outline for a new energy efficiency and renewable policy. Also, it includes recommendations for financing schemes to overcome the investment constraints in the Czech Republic. Finally, a list of concrete projects is included to support project identification

  19. Plugging the Energy Efficiency Gap with Climate Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The role of International Financial Institutions (IFIs) and the Green Climate Fund to realise the potential of energy efficiency in developing countries. This report examines the current role of climate finance in funding EE projects and the potential to channel funds to relevant EE projects in developing countries under the new Green Climate Fund (GCF). The objectives of the report are to examine: 1) the share of climate finance currently being channelled to energy efficiency measures, and 2) how the design of climate finance can better facilitate energy efficiency projects. Improving energy efficiency (EE) can deliver a range of benefits such as improved air quality, enhanced economic competitiveness and, at the national scale, a higher degree of energy security. Significant improvements in energy efficiency in developing countries could provide greater opportunity for economic growth while also providing broader access to energy and related services even from limited energy resources. However, several barriers limit the scaling-up of funding of EE projects in developing countries (some are common also to developed countries). The report focuses primarily on public climate finance flows from 'north' to 'south', probing the current use of funds from multi-lateral development banks (MDBs), bi-lateral financial institutions (BFIs) and carbon markets for energy efficiency projects and the design of the future climate financial mechanisms such as the Green Climate Fund to encourage energy efficiency improvements in developing countries.

  20. Energy efficiency as a competitive advantage; Energieeffizienz als Wettbewerbsvorteil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agricola, A.C. [Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH (dena), Berlin (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    'The Energy Efficiency Award 'with a prize of 30,000 Euro is conferred to enterprises from industry and trades for transformation of outstanding operational projects for the increase of energy efficiency. The winners of the 'Energy Efficiency Award 2008' point out the role of the increase of energy efficiency in the cost reduction and increase of net yield. The first price was conferred to Festo AG (Esslingen, Federal Republic of Germany). This enterprise could save 38 % of the annual energy costs by an energy-efficient conversion of a location extension in comparison to a conventional planning. The second price was conferred to Leiber GmbH (Bremsche, Federal Republic of Germany) and Mercedes-Benz factory Untertuerkheim of Daimler Benz AG. With a new energy-efficient waste water purification, Leiber GmbH could save 72 % of the current consumption in comparison to the technology used previously. By means of suitable energy efficiency measures, Mercedes-Benz factory Untertuerkheim could save nearly 9 million Euro per year at energy costs. For these three examples, the author of the contribution under consideration describes the measures leading to this success.

  1. Measuring energy efficiency in the United States` economy: A beginning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Energy efficiency is a vital component of the Nation`s energy strategy. One of the Department of Energy`s missions are to promote energy efficiency to help the Nation manage its energy resources. The ability to define and measure energy efficiency is essential to this objective. In the absence of consistent defensible measures, energy efficiency is a vague, subjective concept that engenders directionless speculation and confusion rather than insightful analysis. The task of defining and measuring energy efficiency and creating statistical measures as descriptors is a daunting one. This publication is not a final product, but is EIA`s first attempt to define and measure energy efficiency in a systematic and robust manner for each of the sectors and the United States economy as a whole. In this process, EIA has relied on discussions, customer reviews, in-house reviews, and seminars that have focused on energy efficiency in each of the sectors. EIA solicits the continued participation of its customers in further refining this work.

  2. Energy efficiency: a source of savings; a priority objective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethencourt, Anne de; Chorin, Jacky

    2013-01-01

    Energy efficiency is defined as consumption of less energy whilst delivering the same service. Significant progress has been made through the impact of technology, price increases and awareness of waste. Too often viewed as a constraint, energy efficiency nonetheless constitutes the leading potential source of domestic energy for the 2020 goal. Energy efficiency is or will be (depending on the will of the stakeholders, public authorities and society as a whole) a key market for the future and a pathway to creative innovation. Everything is pointing in that direction: the obligation to reduce greenhouse gas emissions fourfold, the new European Directive on Energy Efficiency to be incorporated, the expected increase in energy prices, the presence in France of industry leaders and of a small-scale but important industry in this sector. The goals in energy efficiency entail: - at Community level, that the objective of 20% energy savings for the 2020 goal becomes binding; - at national level, that public policies for energy efficiency are part of a long-term vision, based on the achievements of the Grenelle Environment Forum and avoid sending out any wrong signals which might adversely affect progress. The ESEC proposals are built around the following four themes: - (residential and service sector) buildings: Make energy efficiency into a real sector and a new opportunity 'work together', Optimise tools and regulations, Be innovative in terms of financial support; - fuel poverty; - industry and agriculture; - the particular situation of the overseas departments

  3. Global energy efficiency governance in the context of climate politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.; Ivanova, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that energy efficiency and conservation is a noncontroversial, critical, and equitable option for rich and poor alike. Although there is growing scientific and political consensus on its significance as an important option at global and national level, the political momentum for taking action is not commensurate with the potential in the sector or the urgency with which measures need to be taken to deal with climate change. The current global energy (efficiency) governance framework is diffuse. This paper submits that there are four substantive reasons why global governance should play a complementary role in promoting energy efficiency worldwide. Furthermore, given that market mechanisms are unable to rapidly mobilize energy efficiency projects and that there are no clear vested interests in this field which involves a large number of actors, there is need for a dedicated agency to promote energy efficiency and conservation. This paper provides an overview of energy efficiency options presented by IPCC, the current energy efficiency governance structure at global level, and efforts taken at supranational and national levels, and makes suggestions for a governance framework.

  4. Progress with Implementing Energy Efficiency Policies in the G8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    At the 2008 G8 Summit in Hokkaido, leaders reaffirmed the critical role improved energy efficiency can play in addressing energy security, environmental and economic objectives. They went even farther than in previous Summits and committed to maximising implementation of the 25 IEA energy efficiency recommendations prepared for the G8. The imperative to enhance energy efficiency remains a priority for all countries. To support governments with their implementation of energy efficiency, the IEA recommended the adoption of a broad range of specific energy efficiency policy measures to the G8 Summits in 2006, 2007 and 2008. The consolidated set of recommendations from these Summits covers 25 fields of action across seven priority areas: cross-sectoral activity, buildings, appliances, lighting, transport, industry and power utilities. If governments want to significantly improve energy efficiency, the IEA considers that no single policy implemented in isolation will be effective at achieving this aim. The IEA Secretariat recommends that governments implement a full set of appropriate measures. The IEA estimates that if implemented globally without delay, the proposed actions could save around 8.2 GtCO2/yr by 2030 -- equivalent to twice the EU's yearly emissions. This report evaluates the progress of the G8 countries in implementing energy efficiency policy, including the 25 G8/IEA recommendations. Information in this report is current up to 31 March 2009.

  5. Consumer preferences for automobile energy-efficiency grades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Yoonmo; Kim, Chang Seob; Hong, Junhee; Choi, Ie-Jung; Lee, Jongsu

    2012-01-01

    Recently, increases in energy prices have made energy conservation and efficiency improvements even more essential than in the past. However, consumers experience difficulty in obtaining reliable information regarding energy efficiency, so that many countries have implemented regulations to enforce energy-efficiency grade labeling. In this study, consumer preferences regarding energy efficiency grades are analyzed by the mixed logit and MDCEV model based on the revealed preference data of past automobile purchases. Findings show that consumers rationally apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. This study discusses political implications of energy efficiency policies as they might impact consumer behaviors of automobile purchase and usage. - Highlights: ► We model discrete choice model to evaluate energy-efficiency grade regulation. ► Consumers apply information on energy efficiency grades when purchasing automobiles. ► However, they tend to show inefficiency in automobile usage patterns. ► The policies for efficient automobile usage are discussed.

  6. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Education and Training Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Peters, Jane S.; Albers, Nathaniel; Stuart, Elizabeth; Fuller, Merrian C.

    2010-03-19

    This report provides a baseline assessment of the current state of energy efficiency-related education and training programs and analyzes training and education needs to support expected growth in the energy efficiency services workforce. In the last year, there has been a significant increase in funding for 'green job' training and workforce development (including energy efficiency), through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Key segments of the energy efficiency services sector (EESS) have experienced significant growth during the past several years, and this growth is projected to continue and accelerate over the next decade. In a companion study (Goldman et al. 2009), our research team estimated that the EESS will increase two- to four-fold by 2020, to 220,000 person-years of employment (PYE) (low-growth scenario) or up to 380,000 PYE (high-growth scenario), which may represent as many as 1.3 million individuals. In assessing energy efficiency workforce education and training needs, we focus on energy-efficiency services-related jobs that are required to improve the efficiency of residential and nonresidential buildings. Figure ES-1 shows the market value chain for the EESS, sub-sectors included in this study, as well as the types of market players and specific occupations. Our assessment does not include the manufacturing, wholesale, and retail distribution subsectors, or energy efficiency-focused operations and maintenance performed by facility managers.

  7. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...

  8. Supply Chain Management for Improved Energy Efficiency: Review and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Marchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency represents a key resource for economic and social development, providing substantial benefits to different stakeholders, ranging from the entities which develop energy efficient measures to everyone in society. In addition to cost savings, multiple benefits can be achieved by supporting a better alignment between energy issues and strategic business priorities: e.g., improved competitiveness, profitability, quality, etc. Thus, energy efficiency can be a strategic advantage, not just a marginal issue, for companies. However, most firms, especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs, face many problems and, in some cases, hostility when trying to effectively implement energy efficiency actions. The most dominant barriers are the access to capital and the lack of awareness (especially in terms of life cycle cost effects. The supply chain viewpoint represents one of the main opportunities for overcoming those barriers and improving energy performance even for weaker companies. Since the current literature on energy efficiency and practical approaches to ensure energy efficiency mainly focus on energy performance on a single-firm basis, this paper aims to provide a systematic review of papers on the integration of energy efficiency in supply chain design and management published in academic journal, thereby defining potential research streams to close the gaps in the literature. A number of literature reviews have been published focusing on specific aspects of sustainable or on green supply chain management; however, to the best of our knowledge, no review has focused on the energy efficiency issue. Firstly, the present paper shows how considering energy consumption in supply chain management can contribute to more energy-efficient processes from a systemic point of view. Then, the review methodology used is defined and the sampled papers are analyzed and categorized based on the different approaches they propose. From these

  9. Energy efficient hybrid computing systems using spin devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharad, Mrigank

    Emerging spin-devices like magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ's), spin-valves and domain wall magnets (DWM) have opened new avenues for spin-based logic design. This work explored potential computing applications which can exploit such devices for higher energy-efficiency and performance. The proposed applications involve hybrid design schemes, where charge-based devices supplement the spin-devices, to gain large benefits at the system level. As an example, lateral spin valves (LSV) involve switching of nanomagnets using spin-polarized current injection through a metallic channel such as Cu. Such spin-torque based devices possess several interesting properties that can be exploited for ultra-low power computation. Analog characteristic of spin current facilitate non-Boolean computation like majority evaluation that can be used to model a neuron. The magneto-metallic neurons can operate at ultra-low terminal voltage of ˜20mV, thereby resulting in small computation power. Moreover, since nano-magnets inherently act as memory elements, these devices can facilitate integration of logic and memory in interesting ways. The spin based neurons can be integrated with CMOS and other emerging devices leading to different classes of neuromorphic/non-Von-Neumann architectures. The spin-based designs involve `mixed-mode' processing and hence can provide very compact and ultra-low energy solutions for complex computation blocks, both digital as well as analog. Such low-power, hybrid designs can be suitable for various data processing applications like cognitive computing, associative memory, and currentmode on-chip global interconnects. Simulation results for these applications based on device-circuit co-simulation framework predict more than ˜100x improvement in computation energy as compared to state of the art CMOS design, for optimal spin-device parameters.

  10. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna

    2010-01-01

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed.

  11. A Systemic Perspective on Innovation from Energy Efficiency Policy efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    In order to reduce climate change, resource scarcity and other global environmental issues major increases in energy efficiency are necessary throughout our energy system. Despite this daunting outlook and the fact that energy efficiency in most instances makes economic and environmental sense...... efficiency innovation activities where market demand and policy efforts appear to have the most impact. The thesis also goes in depth with a single sector to describe the complexities of innovation processes in energy efficiency and the noticeable role of policy. Overall the doctoral thesis provides...

  12. Energy efficiency analysis of reconfigured distribution system for practical loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In deregulated rate structure, the performance evaluation of distribution system for energy efficiency includes; loss minimization, improved power quality, loadability limit, reliability and availability of supply. Energy efficiency changes with the variation in loading pattern and the load behaviour. Further, the nature of load at each node is not explicitly of any one type rather their characteristics depend upon the node voltages. In most cases, load is assumed to be constant power (real and reactive. In this paper voltage dependent practical loads are represented with composite load model and the energy efficiency performance of distribution system for practical loads is evaluated in different configurations of 33-node system.

  13. Overcoming the energy efficiency gap in India's household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    Energy efficiency generates substantial financial savings while simultaneously improving environmental quality. Despite these benefits, developing countries like India are missing out on energy efficiency opportunities and instead concentrating on increased energy production. This paper identifies the efficient technologies in the household sector in India, and details their benefits to the consumer as well as to the society. It identifies the barriers that prevent the government from achieving its energy efficiency goals, analyses programs that addresses these barriers, and explores the creation of an institutional mechanism

  14. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  15. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-01-01

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards

  16. Linking Energy Efficiency and ISO: Creating a Framework forSustainable Industrial Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKane, Aimee; Perry, Wayne; Aixian, Li; Tienan, Li; Williams,Robert

    2005-04-01

    Industrial motor-driven systems consume more than 2194billion kWh annually on a global basis and offer one of the largestopportunities for energy savings. In the United States (US), they accountfor more than 50 percent of all manufacturing electricity use. Incountries with less well-developed consumer economies, the proportion ofelectricity consumed by motors is higher-more than 50 percent ofelectricity used in all sectors in China is attributable to motors.Todate, the energy savings potential from motor-driven systems haveremained largely unrealized worldwide. Both markets and policy makerstend to focus on individual system components, which have a typicalimprovement potential of 2-5 percent versus 20-50 percent for completesystems. Several factors contribute to this situation, most notably thecomplexity of the systems themselves. Determining how to optimize asystem requires a high level of technical skill. In addition, once anenergy efficiency project is completed, the energy savings are often notsustained due to changes in personnel and production processes. Althoughtraining and educational programs in the US, UK, and China to promotesystem optimization have proven effective, these resource-intensiveefforts have only reached a small portion of the market.The same factorsthat make it so challenging to achieve and sustain energy efficiency inmotor-driven systems (complexity, frequent changes) apply to theproduction processes that they support. Yet production processestypically operate within a narrow band of acceptable performance. Theseprocesses are frequently incorporated into ISO 9000/14000 quality andenvironmental management systems, which require regular, independentaudits to maintain ISO certification, an attractive value forinternational trade.This paper presents a new approach to achievingindustrial system efficiency (motors and steam) that will encourageplants to incorporate system energy efficiency into their existing ISOmanagement systems. We will

  17. Closing the Energy Efficiency Gap—A Systematic Review of Empirical Articles on Drivers to Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Talseth Solnørdal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research has identified an extensive potential for energy efficiency within the manufacturing sector, which is responsible for a substantial share of global energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The purpose of this study is to enhance the knowledge of vital drivers for energy efficiency in this sector by providing a critical and systematic review of the empirical literature on drivers to energy efficiency in manufacturing firms at the firm level. The systematic literature review (SLR is based on peer-reviewed articles published between 1998 and 2016. The findings reveal that organizational and economic drivers are, from the firms’ perspective, the most prominent stimulus for energy efficiency and that they consider policy instruments and market drivers to be less important. Secondly, firm size has a positive effect on the firms’ energy efficiency, while the literature is inconclusive considering sectorial impact. Third, the studies are mainly conducted in the US and Western European countries, despite the fact that future increase in energy demand is expected outside these regions. These findings imply a potential mismatch between energy policy-makers’ and firm mangers’ understanding of which factors are most important for achieving increased energy efficiency in manufacturing firms. Energy policies should target the stimulation of management, competence, and organizational structure in addition to the provision of economic incentives. Further understanding about which and how internal resources, organizational capabilities, and management practices impact energy efficiency in manufacturing firms is needed. Future energy efficiency scholars should advance our theoretical understanding of the relationship between energy efficiency improvements in firms, the related change processes, and the drivers that affect these processes.

  18. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varman, M.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2006-01-01

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification

  19. Influences of economic development in the Brazilian energy efficiency projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cárcel Carrasco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work has as main goal to present some of the issues regarding the effects of the Brazilian economy in the effectiveness of national energy efficiency projects in order to provide some guidelines for optimizing the energy saving actions. The replacement of traditional electric motors with high efficiency motors has been considered, or that brings innovation and increases the need to search for new technologies for Brazilian industries. We must consider whether this new paradigm requires a strong federal government's investment in Brazil in order to allow the implementation of energy efficiency programs, mainly in small and medium industries. This document is divided into three main parts. The first part deals with some aspects of the economic crisis. The second presents the most important data of the National Electricity Conservation (PROCEL and Energy Efficiency Program of the ANEEL (National Electric Energy Agency. The third shows data on Small and Medium Industries and how their energy efficiency programs were affected.

  20. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    State and local governments can provide benefits to low-income communities by investing in energy efficiency. Use the Program Finder table to identify those programs that reach the sectors and audiences of interest in your organization.

  1. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in SIPs and TIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tools and guides to encourage state, tribal and local agencies to consider incorporating Energy Efficiency (EE) and Renewable Energy (RE) policies and programs in their State and Tribal Implementation Plans (SIPs/TIPs).

  2. Indoor radon problem in energy efficient multi-storey buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmoshenko, I V; Vasilyev, A V; Onishchenko, A D; Kiselev, S M; Zhukovsky, M V

    2014-07-01

    Modern energy-efficient architectural solutions and building construction technologies such as monolithic concrete structures in combination with effective insulation reduce air permeability of building envelope. As a result, air exchange rate is significantly reduced and conditions for increased radon accumulation in indoor air are created. Based on radon survey in Ekaterinburg, Russia, remarkable increase in indoor radon concentration level in energy-efficient multi-storey buildings was found in comparison with similar buildings constructed before the-energy-saving era. To investigate the problem of indoor radon in energy-efficient multi-storey buildings, the measurements of radon concentration have been performed in seven modern buildings using radon monitoring method. Values of air exchange rate and other parameters of indoor climate in energy-efficient buildings have been estimated. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Energy Efficiency Program Administrators and Building Energy Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Explore how energy efficiency program administrators have helped advance building energy codes at federal, state, and local levels—using technical, institutional, financial, and other resources—and discusses potential next steps.

  4. Residential Energy Efficiency Research Planning Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes key findings and outcomes from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Research Planning meeting, held on October 28-29, 2011, in Washington, D.C.

  5. Energy efficiency indicators of Italy (1970-1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D` Angelo, E; Perrella, G [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia; Bianco, R

    1996-02-01

    This report is aimed at presenting the results of the energy efficiency evolution in Italy for the 1970-1992 period Results come from the data-base developed under the SAVE/EnR project on `Cross countries comparison on energy efficiency indicators`. In order to be comparable among countries, efforts have been made to harmonize the data collection as well as the definition and the calculation of energy efficiency indicators. Selected indicators are considered in order to illustrate the potentiality of the project (around 200 different energy efficiency indicators can be calculated and presented). Emphasis is put on the interpretation of the so-called `techno-economic indicators` as well as explanatory indicators both for the economic and techno-economic approaches. Industry, transport, tertiary, residential and transformation sectors have been analyzed.

  6. Energy Efficient Network Protocols for Wireless and Mobile Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sivalingam, Krishna

    2001-01-01

    ... (also called power aware) network protocols for wireless and mobile networks. Battery power limitations are a very serious concern, and it is essential to study energy efficient protocol design at different layers of the network protocol stack...

  7. Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy-efficient adjustable speed double inverter-fed woundrotor induction motor ... at speeds up to double rated without the magnetic flux reducing is presented. ... Keywords: power, double-fed wound-rotor induction motor drive, steel and ...

  8. Trends in energy efficiency in countries of the Mediterranean Rim

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-04-01

    This report describes trends in energy efficiency in four countries of the southern side of the Mediterranean Sea (Algeria, Lebanon, Morocco and Tunisia) and five Mediterranean European countries (France, Spain, Italy, Greece and Portugal). This study is based on energy efficiency indicators per sector of energy consumption as they are developed within the frame of the MEDENER project for the four southern countries and of the ODYSSEE-MURE project for the European countries. The report presents the context of energy efficiency (challenges and objectives, trends in energy consumption, primary and final intensities), discusses trends of energy efficiency in the transformation sector, in the housing sector, in the transport sector (trends in consumption, road and air transport), in the industry (sector intensities), in the tertiary sector (global trends, sector indicators), and in agriculture and fishing (global trends and sector indicators)

  9. Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, P.

    2003-01-01

    Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand side management are defined and the role played in the promotion and advancement of energy efficiency objectives by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance are explained. Direct and indirect economic and environmental benefits and the potential impacts in terms of savings and jobs are discussed, with examples of successful greenhouse gas emission reduction programs by industry. The total potential for energy efficiency in Canada is estimated at 18 per cent lower energy use by 2010, and 33 per cent by 2020, assuming that specific policy recommendations and other cost effective efficiency measures are implemented. Overall conclusions are that there is a large potential for cost-effective energy savings over and above of what has been done already. Furthermore, utilities can play a leading role in realizing these efficiencies, and in the process achieve substantial benefits for themselves

  10. Energy Efficient LED Spectrally Matched Smart Lighting, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovative Imaging and Research and the University of Houston Clear Lake have teamed to develop a widely extensible, affordable, energy efficient, smart lighting...

  11. Energy efficiency and reliability solutions for rail operations and facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the study included examining energy consumption of : the facilities comprising the three major rail yards on the New Haven Rail Line as : well as platform stations and identifying energy efficiency and cost savings : opportunities f...

  12. THE IMPACT OF THE NEW EU LEGISLATION ON ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the Energy Union from the perspective of energy efficiency. The research has a multidisciplinary character, which implies an economic analysis of an empirical type, but also a theoretical approach to the benefits of energy efficiency. The author analyzes the impact of the new energy regulations on efficiency in the European Union (EU, namely the in-depth review of the Directive on Buildings Energy Performance, the new heating and cooling strategy for the intelligent transformation of this sector, as well as the strategy for protecting vulnerable consumers. The effects of the new energy efficiency regulations are more significant in a number of Member States, but as soon as these will be applied throughout the EU, the beneficial effects of increased energy efficiency are likely to be felt in the entire EU area.

  13. Political ideology affects energy-efficiency attitudes and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M; Kunreuther, Howard; Larrick, Richard P

    2013-06-04

    This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond.

  14. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  15. Promoting energy efficiency: supporting Public Administration and Local Bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasano, G.; Manila, E.

    2008-01-01

    ENEAS's institutional tasks include technical and scientific support to Public Administration and Local Bodies in the field of energy. Recently such a role has been strengthened by setting up the Agency for Energy Efficiency which ENEA is responsible for [it

  16. Method for calculating annual energy efficiency improvement of TV sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varman, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]. E-mail: indra@um.edu.my; Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2006-10-15

    The popularization of 24 h pay-TV, interactive video games, web-TV, VCD and DVD are poised to have a large impact on overall TV electricity consumption in the Malaysia. Following this increased consumption, energy efficiency standard present a highly effective measure for decreasing electricity consumption in the residential sector. The main problem in setting energy efficiency standard is identifying annual efficiency improvement, due to the lack of time series statistical data available in developing countries. This study attempts to present a method of calculating annual energy efficiency improvement for TV set, which can be used for implementing energy efficiency standard for TV sets in Malaysia and other developing countries. Although the presented result is only an approximation, definitely it is one of the ways of accomplishing energy standard. Furthermore, the method can be used for other appliances without any major modification.

  17. BC Hydro best practices : energy efficiency and integrated planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henriques, D.

    2004-01-01

    The key elements to success in energy efficiency include integrated energy planning, a review of conservation potential, pursuing a target, risk sharing between all parties, and long term planning when making investments in demand side management (DSM). The barriers to cost effective energy efficiency investment were also outlined along with the scope of the conservation potential review which included 95 per cent of electricity end use applications in all market sectors including residential, commercial, institutional and industrial. BC Hydro's Power Smart program focuses on energy efficiency and load displacement to meet 35 per cent of the utility's forecasted growth by 2012. The sources of savings within each of the market sectors were identified. Key recommendations regarding energy efficiency and conservation were also presented with reference to financial incentives offered by BC Hydro to consumers to encourage a switch to more efficient lighting systems. 10 figs

  18. Energy efficiency as an opportunity for the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, P. [Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    Energy conservation, energy efficiency and demand side management are defined and the role played in the promotion and advancement of energy efficiency objectives by the Canadian Energy Efficiency Alliance are explained. Direct and indirect economic and environmental benefits and the potential impacts in terms of savings and jobs are discussed, with examples of successful greenhouse gas emission reduction programs by industry. The total potential for energy efficiency in Canada is estimated at 18 per cent lower energy use by 2010, and 33 per cent by 2020, assuming that specific policy recommendations and other cost effective efficiency measures are implemented. Overall conclusions are that there is a large potential for cost-effective energy savings over and above of what has been done already. Furthermore, utilities can play a leading role in realizing these efficiencies, and in the process achieve substantial benefits for themselves.

  19. Political ideology affects energy-efficiency attitudes and choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromet, Dena M.; Kunreuther, Howard; Larrick, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    This research demonstrates how promoting the environment can negatively affect adoption of energy efficiency in the United States because of the political polarization surrounding environmental issues. Study 1 demonstrated that more politically conservative individuals were less in favor of investment in energy-efficient technology than were those who were more politically liberal. This finding was driven primarily by the lessened psychological value that more conservative individuals placed on reducing carbon emissions. Study 2 showed that this difference has consequences: In a real-choice context, more conservative individuals were less likely to purchase a more expensive energy-efficient light bulb when it was labeled with an environmental message than when it was unlabeled. These results highlight the importance of taking into account psychological value-based considerations in the individual adoption of energy-efficient technology in the United States and beyond. PMID:23630266

  20. Compare of Energy Efficiency of Windows in Aalborg and Chongqing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Zhenguo; Heiselberg, Per; Yao, Runming

    2007-01-01

    Focus on window's energy efficiency, this paper compared the difference of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing. The author analysed the designing process, the thermal insulation performances, the sun shading devices and the ventilation of windows in Aalborg and Chongqing respectively. Furthermore......, the author explored the reasons for window problems in Chongqing, found out the main barriers to overcome and measures to take for solving the problem. Deeper analysis should be made before the energy efficient windows of Aalborg used in Chongqing....

  1. Energy efficiency: utopia or reality?; Efficacite energetique: utopie ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2006-04-15

    In its 2006 allocution the world council on the energy WEC, analyzes the role of the energy efficiency in the energy life cycle. In spite of different objectives followed by the developing and developed countries, implement a world energy efficiency economy is a challenge possible by the cooperation.The WEC is an ideal forum for the information and experience exchange. (A.L.B.)

  2. Optimal shaping and positioning of energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barović Dušan D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the number of variables and the complexity of objective functions, optimal design of an energy-efficient building is hard combinatorial problem of multi-objective optimisation. Therefore, it is necessary to describe structure and its position in surroundings precisely but by as few variables as possible. This paper presents methodology for finding adequate methodology for defining geometry and orientation of a given building, as well as its elements of importance for energy-efficiency analysis.

  3. Energy Efficiency Practices: Assessment of Ohrid Hotel Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Petrevska, Biljana; Cingoski, Vlatko

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides information on the extent how the hotel industry in Ohrid meets the energy efficiency practices in terms of the current level of involvement. By undertaking an online survey in three, four and five-star hotels, the study assesses the attitudes and willingness of hotel managers concerning applying energy efficiency and environmental protection concepts and practices. Moreover, it investigates various determinants of energy consumption, like: solid waste management, resource...

  4. The economic crisis and the energy efficiency programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturesa, Jim Silva; Mariotoni, Carlos Alberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents some data from the Brazilian economy (2009 and 2010) and their impact on energy efficiency programs. It is also shown the main results of the National Electricity Conservation Program (PROCEL) and PROCEL INFO, which aims to gather and make available information on the rational and efficient use of energy. At the end, we present information showing that MSMEs (Micro, Small and Medium Companies) should be the main focus of the technological innovation programs aimed to energy efficiency. (author)

  5. Energy efficient maintenance. Project report; Energioptimerende vedligehold. Projektrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerg, J. (Center for Drift og Vedligehold, Frederici (Denmark)); Dam Wied, M.; Skjershede Nielsen, P.; Holt, J. (NRGi Raadgivning A/S, Aarhus (Denmark)); Dam, M. (Energi Horsens, Horsens (Denmark)); Holk Lauridsen, V. (Teknologisk Institut, Energieffektivisering og Ventilation, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    Together with four case companies, the project developed and tested a model for energy-efficient maintenance. In each of the companies, the model was adjusted through a cooperation process aiming at combining energy optimisation and maintenance as part of specific production optimisation. When correctly planned, energy-efficient maintenance is interesting for all companies. An overall solution was made, which can facilitate major energy savings and production efficiency improvement. (LN)

  6. Coeur d'Alene Tribe Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgood, Tiffany L. [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States); Sorter, Andy [Coeur d' Alene Tribe, Plummer, ID (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The Coeur d'Alene Tribe's Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study (EEFS) is the culminating document that compiles the energy efficiency and building performance assessment and project prioritization process completed on 36 Tribally owned and operated facilities within Tribal lands. The EEFS contains sections on initial findings, utility billing analyses, energy conservation measures and prioritization and funding sources and strategies for energy project implementation.

  7. Energy efficient process planning based on numerical simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Neugebauer, Reimund; Hochmuth, C.; Schmidt, G.; Dix, M.

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of energy-efficient manufacturing is to generate products with maximum value-added at minimum energy consumption. To this end, in metal cutting processes, it is necessary to reduce the specific cutting energy while, at the same time, precision requirements have to be ensured. Precision is critical in metal cutting processes because they often constitute the final stages of metalworking chains. This paper presents a method for the planning of energy-efficient machining processes ...

  8. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles A.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Ian; Fuller, Merrian C.; Billingsley, Megan A.

    2011-02-25

    Since the spring of 2009, billions of federal dollars have been allocated to state and local governments as grants for energy efficiency and renewable energy projects and programs. The scale of this American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) funding, focused on 'shovel-ready' projects to create and retain jobs, is unprecedented. Thousands of newly funded players - cities, counties, states, and tribes - and thousands of programs and projects are entering the existing landscape of energy efficiency programs for the first time or expanding their reach. The nation's experience base with energy efficiency is growing enormously, fed by federal dollars and driven by broader objectives than saving energy alone. State and local officials made countless choices in developing portfolios of ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs and deciding how their programs would relate to existing efficiency programs funded by utility customers. Those choices are worth examining as bellwethers of a future world where there may be multiple program administrators and funding sources in many states. What are the opportunities and challenges of this new environment? What short- and long-term impacts will this large, infusion of funds have on utility customer-funded programs; for example, on infrastructure for delivering energy efficiency services or on customer willingness to invest in energy efficiency? To what extent has the attribution of energy savings been a critical issue, especially where administrators of utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs have performance or shareholder incentives? Do the new ARRA-funded energy efficiency programs provide insights on roles or activities that are particularly well-suited to state and local program administrators vs. administrators or implementers of utility customer-funded programs? The answers could have important implications for the future of U.S. energy efficiency. This report focuses on a selected set of ARRA

  9. The Total Energy Efficiency Index for machine tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schudeleit, Timo; Züst, Simon; Weiss, Lukas; Wegener, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency in industries is one of the dominating challenges of the 21st century. Since the release of the eco-design directive 2005/32/EC in 2005, great research effort has been spent on the energy efficiency assessment for energy using products. The ISO (International Organization for Standardization) standardization body (ISO/TC 39 WG 12) currently works on the ISO 14955 series in order to enable the assessment of energy efficient design of machine tools. A missing piece for completion of the ISO 14955 series is a metric to quantify the design of machine tools regarding energy efficiency based on the respective assembly of components. The metric needs to take into account each machine tool components' efficiency and the need-oriented utilization in combination with the other components while referring to efficiency limits. However, a state of the art review reveals that none of the existing metrics is feasible to adequately match this goal. This paper presents a metric that matches all these criteria to promote the development of the ISO 14955 series. The applicability of the metric is proven in a practical case study on a turning machine. - Highlights: • Study for pushing forward the standardization work on the ISO 14955 series. • Review of existing energy efficiency indicators regarding three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Development of a metric comprising the three basic strategies to foster sustainability. • Metric application for quantifying the energy efficiency of a turning machine.

  10. Measurement of energy efficiency based on economic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency policy is seen as a very important activity by almost all policy makers. In practical energy policy analysis, the typical indicator used as a proxy for energy efficiency is energy intensity. However, this simple indicator is not necessarily an accurate measure given changes in energy intensity are a function of changes in several factors as well as ‘true’ energy efficiency; hence, it is difficult to make conclusions for energy policy based upon simple energy intensity measures. Related to this, some published academic papers over the last few years have attempted to use empirical methods to measure the efficient use of energy based on the economic theory of production. However, these studies do not generally provide a systematic discussion of the theoretical basis nor the possible parametric empirical approaches that are available for estimating the level of energy efficiency. The objective of this paper, therefore, is to sketch out and explain from an economic perspective the theoretical framework as well as the empirical methods for measuring the level of energy efficiency. Additionally, in the second part of the paper, some of the empirical studies that have attempted to measure energy efficiency using such an economics approach are summarized and discussed.

  11. Energy-efficient buildings: Does the marketplace work?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    1996-12-31

    For a variety of reasons, U.S. households, businesses, manufacturers, and government agencies all fail to take full advantage of cost-effective, energy-efficiency opportunities. Despite a growing environmental ethic among Americans and a concern for energy independence, consumers in this country are underinvesting in technologies, products, and practices that would cut their energy bills. The result is a large untapped potential for improving energy productivity, economic competitiveness, environmental quality, and energy security. The thesis of this paper is that the marketplace for energy efficiency, in general, is not operating perfectly, and the marketplace for energy-efficient buildings, in particular, is flawed. The reasons for underinvestments in cost-effective, energy efficiency are numerous and complicated. They also vary from sector to sector: the principal causes of energy inefficiencies in agriculture, manufacturing, and transportation are not the same as the causes of inefficiencies in homes and office buildings, although there are some similarities. One of the reasons for these differences is that the structure of marketplace for delivering new technologies and products in each sector differs. Energy-efficiency improvements in the buildings sector is critical to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, since most of the energy consumed in buildings comes from the burning of fossil fuels. This paper therefore begins by describing energy use and energy trends in the U.S. buildings sector. Characteristics of the marketplace for delivering energy efficiency technologies and products are then described in detail, arguing that this marketplace structure significantly inhibits rapid efficiency improvements.

  12. Warm Body Temperature Facilitates Energy Efficient Cortical Action Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na+, and outward K+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37–42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code. PMID:22511855

  13. Policies of energy efficiency: problematic, means and tools of assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateau, Bertrand

    2016-02-01

    As energy efficiency has become one of the main issues and even a pillar of energy policies and policies of struggle against climate change, this article discusses the various aspects of this issue which may also mean energy savings in some situations. Thus, energy efficiency encompasses all changes associated with a decrease of the energy required to produce an economic activity unit, or to obtain a given level of comfort. Implementing public policies for energy efficiency supposes the adoption of means of action aimed at acting on the different levers of energy efficiency improvement. The author first discusses to which extent and how it is better to improve energy efficiency rather than let increase investments in energy production and distribution, emissions and energy imports. He therefore discusses the various types of measures: information, incentive and financial, economic, regulatory, or others. In the second part, he discusses how to assess the results of energy efficiency policies, and more particularly at the level of global economy and of main sectors by using various indicators like energetic intensity, final energetic intensity at constant structure, or technical-economic indicators

  14. ENERGY EFFICIENCY IN THE SHIPPING SECTOR – A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRANISLAV DRAGOVIŠ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of Ship Energy Efficiency has been a major issue for the Shipping industry, primarily for three reasons; Firstly because fuel expenses of merchant ships contribute substantially to the overall expenses, secondarily, as conventional diesel engines and gas turbines emit large amounts of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs, contributing to the Climate Change and thirdly due to recent legislation including IMO Resolutions and EU Directives. The above in addition to the recent economic recession, have made it imperative for the industry to lower costs and introduce novel technologies and technical innovations, through the application of the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI and Energy Efficiency Operation Index (EEOI.This paper aims to contribute to the identification of methods and management tools in order to improve energy efficiency, by developing Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plans (SEEMPs. The paper focuses especially on investments, modifications, management and operational changes that can be deployed, in order to improve energy efficiency of existing ships. Finally, the economic result of modifications made on an existing vessel is presented, using data from a study performed by the authors in collaboration with several shipping companies.

  15. Warm body temperature facilitates energy efficient cortical action potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Yu

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na(+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na(+, and outward K(+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na(+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37-42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code.

  16. Energy efficiency in California laboratory-type facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E.; Bell, G.; Sartor, D. [and others

    1996-07-31

    The central aim of this project is to provide knowledge and tools for increasing the energy efficiency and performance of new and existing laboratory-type facilities in California. We approach the task along three avenues: (1) identification of current energy use and savings potential, (2) development of a {ital Design guide for energy- Efficient Research Laboratories}, and (3) development of a research agenda for focused technology development and improving out understanding of the market. Laboratory-type facilities use a considerable amount of energy resources. They are also important to the local and state economy, and energy costs are a factor in the overall competitiveness of industries utilizing laboratory-type facilities. Although the potential for energy savings is considerable, improving energy efficiency in laboratory-type facilities is no easy task, and there are many formidable barriers to improving energy efficiency in these specialized facilities. Insufficient motivation for individual stake holders to invest in improving energy efficiency using existing technologies as well as conducting related R&D is indicative of the ``public goods`` nature of the opportunity to achieve energy savings in this sector. Due to demanding environmental control requirements and specialized processes, laboratory-type facilities epitomize the important intersection between energy demands in the buildings sector and the industrial sector. Moreover, given the high importance and value of the activities conducted in laboratory-type facilities, they represent one of the most powerful contexts in which energy efficiency improvements stand to yield abundant non-energy benefits if properly applied.

  17. Energy efficiency in Norway 1990-2002. Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe: The Odyssee and MURE projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva; Espegren, Kari Aamodt

    2004-08-01

    This report presents an analysis of energy efficiency trends in Norway on the basis of energy efficiency indicators extracted from the Odyssee data base, maintained and updated in the framework of the SAVE programme. This analysis focuses on the period 1990-2001/2002. It also examines the policies and measures implemented in the field of energy efficiency with a focus on the years 2000-2003. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 2% pr year in the period 1990 to 2002. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.7% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.3% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). We have found in total efficiency improvement of approximately 15 TWh from 1990 to 2001. (Author)

  18. Transport Schemes for Fiber-Wireless Technology: Transmission Performance and Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-wireless technology has been actively researched as a potential candidate for next generation broadband wireless signal distribution. Despite the popularity, this hybrid scheme has many technical challenges that impede the uptake and commercial deployment. One of the inherent issues is the transport of the wireless signals over a predominantly digital optical network in today’s telecommunication infrastructure. Many different approaches have been introduced and demonstrated with digitized RF transport of the wireless signals being the most compatible with the existing optical fiber networks. In this paper, we review our work in the area of digitized RF transport to address the inherent issues related to analog transport in the fiber-wireless links and compare the transmission performance and energy efficiency with the other transport strategies.

  19. Energy efficient buildings : a plan for BC : creating a legacy of energy efficient buildings in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    A plan to conserve energy and improve energy efficiency in homes and buildings in British Columbia was presented. Benefits of the plan included savings for consumers throughout BC; an increase in the value of homes and buildings; a return on investment after an average of 5 years; improved comfort and indoor air quality in buildings; creation of equipment manufacturing, building design, development and trades jobs across the province; and reduced environmental impacts, including greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-creating air emissions. An outline of cost-effective energy efficiency targets was presented to complement ongoing local, provincial and federal programs. A number of market challenges were reviewed, such as the lack of information available to consumers on energy efficiency, the increased initial cost of energy efficient buildings, and the fact that opportunities to reduce energy consumption after construction are limited and expensive. It was suggested that energy consumers are not often aware of the environmental and social costs of over-consumption of energy. Details of existing programs that support energy efficiency were presented, as well as information concerning sales tax exemptions for high efficiency heating equipment and other materials used to conserve energy. Various provincial policies and incentives supporting energy conservation were outlined. Cost-effective targets for energy efficiency for new and existing buildings were presented, as well as details of rebates for homeowners. Capital costs for new construction standards were presented, as well as details of incentives and provincial sales tax exemptions

  20. From Policy to Compliance: Federal Energy Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMates, Laurèn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Scodel, Anna [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Federal buyers are required to purchase energy-efficient products in an effort to minimize energy use in the federal sector, save the federal government money, and spur market development of efficient products. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)’s Energy Efficient Product Procurement (EEPP) Program helps federal agencies comply with the requirement to purchase energy-efficient products by providing technical assistance and guidance and setting efficiency requirements for certain product categories. Past studies have estimated the savings potential of purchasing energy-efficient products at over $500 million per year in energy costs across federal agencies.1 Despite the strong policy support for EEPP and resources available, energy-efficient product purchasing operates within complex decision-making processes and operational structures; implementation challenges exist that may hinder agencies’ ability to comply with purchasing requirements. The shift to purchasing green products, including energy-efficient products, relies on “buy in” from a variety of potential actors throughout different purchasing pathways. Challenges may be especially high for EEPP relative to other sustainable acquisition programs given that efficient products frequently have a higher first cost than non-efficient ones, which may be perceived as a conflict with fiscal responsibility, or more simply problematic for agency personnel trying to stretch limited budgets. Federal buyers may also face challenges in determining whether a given product is subject to EEPP requirements. Previous analysis on agency compliance with EEPP, conducted by the Alliance to Save Energy (ASE), shows that federal agencies are getting better at purchasing energy-efficient products. ASE conducted two reviews of relevant solicitations for product and service contracts listed on Federal Business Opportunities (FBO), the centralized website where federal agencies are required to post procurements greater

  1. Ecological total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lanbing; Hu Jinli

    2012-01-01

    Most existing energy efficiency indices are computed without taking into account undesirable outputs such as CO 2 and SO 2 emissions. This paper computes the ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) of 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009 through the slack-based model (SBM) with undesirable outputs. We calculate the ETFEE index by comparing the target energy input obtained from SBM with undesirable outputs to the actual energy input. Findings show that China's regional ETFEE still remains a low level of around 0.600 and regional energy efficiency is overestimated by more than 0.100 when not looking at environmental impacts. China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced: the east area ranks first with the highest ETFEE of above 0.700, the northeast and central areas follow, and the west area has the lowest ETFEE of less than 0.500. A monotone increasing relation exists between the area's ETFEE and China's per capita GDP. The truncated regression model shows that the ratio of R and D expenditure to GDP and the degree of foreign dependence have positive impacts, whereas the ratio of the secondary industry to GDP and the ratio of government subsidies for industrial pollution treatment to GDP have negative effects, on the ETFEE. - Highlights: ► Most energy efficiency indices ignore undesirable outputs such as CO 2 and SO 2 emissions. ► The ecological total-factor energy efficiency (ETFEE) is computed by slack-based model (SBM). ► The datasets contains 30 regions in China for the period 2005–2009. ► China's regional energy efficiency is extremely unbalanced. ► A monotone increasing relation exists between ETFEE and per capita GDP.

  2. Integration of energy efficient technologies in UK supermarkets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochieng, E.G.; Jones, N.; Price, A.D.F.; Ruan, X.; Egbu, C.O; Zuofa, T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold: to determine if the integration of energy efficient technologies in UK supermarkets can determine consumer behaviour, and to establish if such activities can help satisfying the environmental elements of the clients corporate social responsibilities (CSR) in an attempt to create a competitive advantage. A literature review of existing material considered the history and drivers of sustainability, the types of energy efficient technologies and factors concerning CSR and consumer behaviour in relation to the supermarket industry. Interviews with 15 senior store managers were recorded and transcribed. The opinions of the senior store managers were then sought and analysed using qualitative research software NVivo software. Validity of the data was achieved at a later stage through workshops. The results of this paper suggested that there is a definite lack of awareness and knowledge amongst customers regarding energy efficient technologies. From the findings, it was further established that the key driver for retailers who integrate energy efficient technologies is fiscal incentives, although it was suggested some retailers use CSR strategies to report there are environmental achievements it was ultimately found that cost savings were the primary driver. - Highlights: • The effect of sustainability towards consumer behaviour was explored. • Majority of consumers are unaware of energy efficient technologies. • Energy efficient technologies do not determine or create shifts in paradigm in consumer actions. • Stores are driven to integrate energy efficient technologies more by government legislation. • Participants were clear in making the point that their image and reputation was based on trust

  3. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  4. New approaches for improving energy efficiency in the Brazilian industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique de Mello Santana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian government has been promoting energy efficiency measures for industry since the eighties but with very limited returns, as shown in this paper. The governments of some other countries dedicated much more effort and funds for this area and reached excellent results. The institutional arrangements and types of programmes adopted in these countries are briefly evaluated in the paper and provide valuable insights for several proposals put forward here to make more effective the Brazilian government actions directed to overcome market barriers and improve energy efficiency in the local industry. The proposed measures include the creation of Industrial Assessment Centres and an executive agency charged with the coordination of all energy efficiency programmes run by the Federal government. A large share of the Brazilian industry energy consumption comes from energy-intensive industrial branches. According to a recent survey, most of them have substantial energy conservation potentials. To materialize a fair amount of them, voluntary targets concerning energy efficiency gains should start to be negotiated between the Government and associations representing these industrial branches. Credit facilities and tax exemptions for energy-efficient equipment’s should be provided to stimulate the interest of the entrepreneurs and the setting-up of bolder targets.

  5. Climate change mitigation through energy efficiency : opportunities in Atlantic Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cote, R.; Archibald, G.

    2008-01-01

    Canada's total energy use is expected to increase by 20 per cent between 2005 and 2020. Studies have suggested that successful energy efficiency initiatives could reduce growth in demand by up to 50 per cent, while reducing greenhouse gases (GHGs) by an estimated 40 per cent. Energy use comprises approximately 65.4 per cent of total expenditures for most businesses. Atlantic region industries contribute nearly 7 per cent of Canadian industrial energy consumption while contributing 5 per cent to the Canadian industrial gross domestic product (GDP). Energy efficiency practices adopted by industry operators in the Maritimes included modifications to boilers, process cooling equipment, motors, compressed air equipment, lighting and HVAC systems. Energy efficiency performance values in the Maritimes range from 11 to 100 per cent, with an average of 65 per cent. Opportunities for improving energy efficiency include inefficient lighting, leaking faucets, poor heat distribution, and inappropriate solid waste segregation. Cost savings for various energy efficiency measures were presented. Case studies of various eco-efficiency programs conducted at plants and businesses in the Maritimes were also included. tabs., figs.

  6. A framework to bridge the energy efficiency gap in shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarzadeh, Sepideh; Utne, Ingrid Bouwer

    2014-01-01

    Environmental concerns, emission regulations, fuel prices, and emission taxes increase the demand to improve energy efficiency in shipping. However, several barriers prevent the adoption of cost-effective energy saving measures. In this article a framework is offered to overcome the barriers encountered in shipping. 12 participants from five ship owners in Norway, two equipment suppliers, and a research institute have provided input to this study. The framework makes the barriers evident to ship owners and (energy) managers. It helps them to prioritize and overcome the critical barriers to improve energy efficiency in a consistent manner. Researchers and policy makers can also utilize the framework as it makes challenges to energy efficiency apparent. Finally, due to its generic structure it can be applied to industries other than shipping. - Highlights: • The article offers a framework for overcoming barriers to energy efficiency. • The framework is developed based on input from five ship owners in Norway, two equipment suppliers, and a research institute. • The article presents challenges and barriers to energy efficiency in shipping. • Possible measures for overcoming barriers in shipping are suggested. • The framework is generic in nature and can be applied to other industries

  7. Gadgets and Gigawatts - Policies for Energy Efficient Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-05-13

    By 2010 there will be over 3.5 billion mobile phones subscribers, 2 billion TVs in use around the world and 1 billion personal computers. Electronic devices are a growing part of our lives and many of us can count between 20 and 30 separate items in our homes, from major items like televisions to a host of small gadgets. The communication and entertainment benefits these bring are not only going to people in wealthier nations - in Africa, for example, one in nine people now has a mobile phone. But as these electronic devices gain popularity, they account for a growing portion of household energy consumption. How 'smart' is this equipment from an energy efficiency perspective and should we be concerned about how much energy these gadgets use? What is the potential for energy savings? This new book, Gadgets and Gigawatts: Policies for Energy Efficient Electronics, includes a global assessment of the changing pattern in residential electricity consumption over the past decade and an in-depth analysis of the role played by electronic equipment. It reviews the influence that government policies have had on creating markets for more energy efficient appliances and identifies new opportunities for creating smarter, more energy efficient homes. This book is essential reading for policy makers and others interested in improving the energy efficiency of our homes.

  8. Total-factor energy efficiency of regions in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, J.-L.; Wang, S.-C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes energy efficiencies of 29 administrative regions in China for the period 1995-2002 with a newly introduced index. Most existing studies of regional productivity and efficiency neglect energy inputs. We use the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to find the target energy input of each region in China at each particular year. The index of total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) then divides the target energy input by the actual energy input. In our DEA model, labor, capital stock, energy consumption, and total sown area of farm crops used as a proxy of biomass energy are the four inputs and real GDP is the single output. The conventional energy productivity ratio regarded as a partial-factor energy efficiency index is computed for comparison in contrast to TFEE; our index is found fitting better to the real case. According to the TFEE index rankings, the central area of China has the worst energy efficiency and its total adjustmentof energy consumption amount is over half of China's total. Regional TFEE in China generally improved during the research period except for the western area. A U-shape relation between the area's TFEE and per capita income in the areas of China is found, confirming the scenario that energy efficiency eventually improves with economic growth

  9. Environment-adjusted regional energy efficiency in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jin-Li; Lio, Mon-Chi; Yeh, Fang-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Hsun

    2011-01-01

    This study applies the four-stage DEA procedure to calculate the energy efficiency of 23 regions in Taiwan from 1998 to 2007. After controlling for the effects of external environments, only Taipei City, Chiayi City, and Kaohsiung City are energy efficient. Note that Kaohsiung City reaches the efficiency frontier due to the adjustment via partial environmental factors such as higher education attainment and transport vehicles. We also find a worsening trend for Taiwan's energy efficiency. Not only is there a gap of energy efficiency between Taiwan's metropolitan areas and the other regions, but the gap has also widened in recent years. Those inefficient counties should be given priority and the savings potential. Except for road density, the evidence indicates that each environmental factor has partial incremental effects on input slacks. As more cars and motorcycles are unfavorable externalities affecting partial energy efficiency, the central government should help local governments retire inefficient old motor vehicles, encourage energy-saving vehicle models, and provide convenient mass transportation systems. Besides, people with higher education cause industrial energy inefficient in Taiwan. The conscious of effective energy saving is necessary to schools, communities, and employee accordingly.

  10. Actuarial pricing of energy efficiency projects: lessons foul and fair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Paul; Kromer, J. Stephen; Sezgen, Osman; Meyers, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Recent market convulsions in the energy industry have generated a plethora of post-mortem analyses on a wide range of issues, including accounting rules, corporate governance, commodity markets, and energy policy. While most of these analyses have focused on business practices related to wholesale energy trading, there has been limited analysis of retail energy services, particularly energy efficiency projects. We suggest that there were several business concepts and strategies in the energy efficiency arena whose inherent value may have been masked by the larger failure of companies such as Enron. In this paper, we describe one such concept, namely, actuarial pricing of energy efficiency projects, which leverages a portfolio-based approach to risk management. First, we discuss the business drivers, contrasting this approach with conventional industry practice. We then describe the implementation of this approach, including an actuarial database, pricing curves, and a pricing process compatible with commodity pricing. We conclude with a discussion of the prospects and barriers for the further development of transparent and quantifiable risk management products for energy efficiency, a prerequisite for developing energy efficiency as a tradeable commodity. We address these issues from an experiential standpoint, drawing mostly on our experience in developing and implementing such strategies at Enron

  11. ECOWAS renewable energy and energy efficiency status report - 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auth, Katie; Musolino, Evan; Thomas, Tristram; Adebiyi, Adeola; Reiss, Karin; Semedo, Eder; Williamson, Laura E.; Chawla, Kanika; Diarra, Charles

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), comprising 15 Member States, it has emerged as one of the most active and dynamic regional economic communities on the African continent. Expanding access to modern, reliable, and affordable energy services is a key priority, prompting inter-state cooperation in crucial areas including capacity building, policy development and implementation, and investment. Recognising the critical role that sustainable energy plays in catalysing social, economic, and industrial development across the region, ECOWAS Member States formally inaugurated the ECOWAS Centre for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECREEE) in 2010 to 'contribute to the sustainable economic, social and environmental development of West Africa by improving access to modern, reliable and affordable energy services, energy security and reduction of energy related externalities'. Drawing on data from the ECOWAS Observatory for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency (ECOWREX) and a network of contributors and researchers across the region, the ECOWAS Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Status Report supports ECREEE's efforts to increase the deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency in West Africa by providing a comprehensive regional review of renewable energy and energy efficiency developments, evolving policy landscapes, market trends and related activities, investments in renewable energy and off-grid energy solutions, and the crucial nexus between energy access and gender

  12. Actuarial pricing of energy efficiency projects: lessons foul and fair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, Paul E-mail: pamathew@lbl.gov; Kromer, J. Stephen; Sezgen, Osman; Meyers, Steven

    2005-07-01

    Recent market convulsions in the energy industry have generated a plethora of post-mortem analyses on a wide range of issues, including accounting rules, corporate governance, commodity markets, and energy policy. While most of these analyses have focused on business practices related to wholesale energy trading, there has been limited analysis of retail energy services, particularly energy efficiency projects. We suggest that there were several business concepts and strategies in the energy efficiency arena whose inherent value may have been masked by the larger failure of companies such as Enron. In this paper, we describe one such concept, namely, actuarial pricing of energy efficiency projects, which leverages a portfolio-based approach to risk management. First, we discuss the business drivers, contrasting this approach with conventional industry practice. We then describe the implementation of this approach, including an actuarial database, pricing curves, and a pricing process compatible with commodity pricing. We conclude with a discussion of the prospects and barriers for the further development of transparent and quantifiable risk management products for energy efficiency, a prerequisite for developing energy efficiency as a tradeable commodity. We address these issues from an experiential standpoint, drawing mostly on our experience in developing and implementing such strategies at Enron.

  13. Doing more with less. green paper on energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Even without high and volatile oil prices, which have led to a downgrading of the prospects of economic growth in Europe, there would be very good reasons for the European Union to make a strong push towards a re-invigorated programme promoting energy efficiency at all levels of European society. This green paper seeks to act as a catalyst, leading to a renewed energy efficiency initiative at all levels of European society - EU, national, regional and local. Furthermore, this Green Paper seeks to make a significant contribution, by way of example and leadership, to kick-start an international effort to contribute to addressing climatic change through energy efficiency. China presently uses more than five times as much energy as the EU to produce one unit of GDP, USA uses approximately 50% more than EU. With exploding energy demand, in particular in China and India, energy efficiency must be one of the key policies to try to reconcile, on the one hand, the increased energy needs of the developing world to power growth and improve living conditions and, on the other hand, combat global warming. This Green Paper, and the momentum created in following it up, should put the EU at the forefront of efforts to make energy efficiency a global priority. (BA)

  14. Energy efficiency resource modeling in generation expansion planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaderi, A.; Parsa Moghaddam, M.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, M.K.

    2014-01-01

    Energy efficiency plays an important role in mitigating energy security risks and emission problems. In this paper, energy efficiency resources are modeled as efficiency power plants (EPP) to evaluate their impacts on generation expansion planning (GEP). The supply curve of EPP is proposed using the production function of electricity consumption. A decision making framework is also presented to include EPP in GEP problem from an investor's point of view. The revenue of EPP investor is obtained from energy cost reduction of consumers and does not earn any income from electricity market. In each stage of GEP, a bi-level model for operation problem is suggested: the upper-level represents profit maximization of EPP investor and the lower-level corresponds to maximize the social welfare. To solve the bi-level problem, a fixed-point iteration algorithm is used known as diagonalization method. Energy efficiency feed-in tariff is investigated as a regulatory support scheme to encourage the investor. Results pertaining to a case study are simulated and discussed. - Highlights: • An economic model for energy efficiency programs is presented. • A framework is provided to model energy efficiency resources in GEP problem. • FIT is investigated as a regulatory support scheme to encourage the EPP investor. • The capacity expansion is delayed and reduced with considering EPP in GEP. • FIT-II can more effectively increase the energy saving compared to FIT-I

  15. Uncertainty, loss aversion, and markets for energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing energy efficiency is critical to mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, reducing oil dependence, and achieving a sustainable global energy system. The tendency of markets to neglect apparently cost-effective energy efficiency options has been called the 'efficiency gap' or 'energy paradox.' The market for energy efficiency in new, energy-using durable goods, however, appears to have a bias that leads to undervaluation of future energy savings relative to their expected value. This paper argues that the bias is chiefly produced by the combination of substantial uncertainty about the net value of future fuel savings and the loss aversion of typical consumers. This framework relies on the theory of context-dependent preferences. The uncertainty-loss aversion bias against energy efficiency is quantifiable, making it potentially correctible by policy measures. The welfare economics of such policies remains unresolved. Data on the costs of increased fuel economy of new passenger cars, taken from a National Research Council study, illustrate how an apparently cost-effective increase in energy efficiency would be uninteresting to loss-averse consumers.

  16. Stimulating Investments in Energy Efficiency Through Supply Chain Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Marchi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention to energy efficiency is recently experiencing substantial growth. To overcome the several barriers currently existing that represent an obstacle to the successful implementation of the wide set of energy efficiency measures available, the cooperation among members of a supply chain offers a huge potential. In supply chains, in addition to the traditional coordination of the operations, the members may also share financial resources or act jointly on the capital market. This study presents a two-stage supply chain model considering the opportunity to invest in new energy efficient technologies which are affected by learning effects: the member of the supply chain with better energy performance and/or better financial conditions may find it more profitable to invest in the development of the energy efficiency of its partner. The objective of the model is to determine the optimal investment for each supply chain member so as to maximize the Net Present Value of the supply chain. The impacts of the proposed joint decision-making are investigated through some numerical analysis and managerial insights are proposed: the joint decision-making process on the financial flows for the energy efficiency investments results are especially advantageous (up to a 20% increase of the supply chain Net Present Value when members have different access to capital, which could be the result of different economic conditions in companies’ countries, as well as different credit policies or different credit ratings.

  17. Energy efficient drives and control engineering. Intelligent machine and plant concepts for manufacturing; Energieeffiziente Antriebs- und Steuerungstechnik. Intelligente Maschinen- und Anlagenkonzepte fuer die Fertigung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrbach, Christian; Frank, Klaus; Haack, Steffen; Schemm, Eberhardt; Wittschen, Wiebke

    2010-07-01

    The book discusses the potential of intelligent and energy-efficient drive and control concepts. It shows that energy efficient components - pumps, motors, or speed-controlled pump drives - may result in a double-digit reduction of energy consumption. The effect is even more pronounced when the system is opotimized as a whole. If energy-efficient components are combined so that a direct energy flow will result, energy will be converted on demand, i.e. the right amount at the right time. The book also discusses how these design options can be applied in the various phases of the machine life cycle.

  18. Factors influencing energy efficiency investments in existing Swedish residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif; Mahapatra, Krushna [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden University, SE-83125 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    We used the data from a survey conducted in 2008 of 3,000 owners of detached houses to analyse the factors that influence the adoption of investment measures to improve the energy efficiency of their buildings. For the majority of Swedish homeowners, it was important to reduce their household energy use, and most of them undertook no-cost measures as compared to investment measures. Personal attributes such as income, education, age and contextual factors, including age of the house, thermal discomfort, past investment, and perceived energy cost, influence homeowners' preference for a particular type of energy efficiency measure. The implications for promoting the implementation of energy efficiency investment measures are discussed. (author)

  19. Energy technologies and energy efficiency in economic modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    This paper discusses different approaches to incorporating energy technologies and technological development in energy-economic models. Technological development is a very important issue in long-term energy demand projections and in environmental analyses. Different assumptions on technological ...... of renewable energy and especially wind power will increase the rate of efficiency improvement. A technologically based model in this case indirectly makes the energy efficiency endogenous in the aggregate energy-economy model....... technological development. This paper examines the effect on aggregate energy efficiency of using technological models to describe a number of specific technologies and of incorporating these models in an economic model. Different effects from the technology representation are illustrated. Vintage effects...... illustrates the dependence of average efficiencies and productivity on capacity utilisation rates. In the long run regulation induced by environmental policies are also very important for the improvement of aggregate energy efficiency in the energy supply sector. A Danish policy to increase the share...

  20. The directive on energy efficiency: review in progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Whereas it has not been entirely transposed for all counties yet, the European directive on energy efficiency is to be reviewed to match objectives defined for 2030. Therefore, the European Commission is elaborating an analysis and a consultation on this issue. This article indicates some available data published in the Energy Efficiency Progress Report related to the evolution of final energy consumption and to its objective for 2020, to the evolution of energy consumption in the main sectors, and to the evolution of heat production by co-generation between 2005 and 2013. It also comments the main articles of the directive which address problematic and general objectives, public purchases, energy efficiency obligation schemes (EEOS, which are the main matter of questions), counting and billing, financing, and monitoring

  1. Promoting energy efficiency investments with risk management decision tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Jerry

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews current capital budgeting practices and their impact on energy efficiency investments. The prevalent use of short payback 'rule-of-thumb' requirements to screen efficiency projects for risk is shown to bias investment choices towards 'sure bet' investments bypassing many profitable efficiency investment options. A risk management investment strategy is presented as an alternative to risk avoidance practices applied with payback thresholds. The financial industry risk management tool Value-at-Risk is described and extended to provide an Energy-Budgets-at-Risk or EBaR risk management analysis to convey more accurate energy efficiency investment risk information. The paper concludes with recommendations to expand the use of Value-at-Risk-type energy efficiency analysis.

  2. Energy efficiency policy in a non-cooperative world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barla, Philippe; Proost, Stef

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we explore energy efficiency policies in the presence of a global environmental problem and international cost interdependency associated with R and D activities. We develop a simple model with two regions where the cost of an appliance in one region depends upon the level of energy efficiency in that region and the level of R and D activities by the appliance industry. In our model, the cooperative outcome can be decentralized by imposing a tax on energy. However, we show that when regions do not cooperate, they have an incentive to adopt additional instruments to increase energy efficiency. The reason is that the lack of cooperation leads to under-taxation of the environmental externality which in turn creates an incentive to try to reduce emissions produced abroad. We illustrate this phenomenon with the Californian vehicle greenhouse gas standards.

  3. Energy efficiency. Lever for the German energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie; Roesner, Sven

    2014-05-01

    This document provides some key data on energy consumption in housing and public buildings, indicates the national German objectives in terms of reduction of energy consumption, of reduction of electricity consumption, of energy efficiency, and of evolution of energy consumption in housing and public buildings and in the transport sector. It gives some data related to energy saving and achievements: energy efficiency of the German economy, improvements in housing energy efficiency and insulation, financial support for low income households, reduction of energy consumption within small-medium enterprises, the public sector, the data processing sector and public lighting, and energy saving potential by renewal of public buildings. It indicates the main measures and arrangements: information, support programs for enterprises, local communities and individuals. A graph illustrates a comparison of shares of household power consumption in France and in Germany

  4. WB to Lend $441m for Energy Efficiency in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The World Bank (WB) has approved loans of $441 million to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions from power plants in China. The loans, which account for almost one third of planned loans for China in fiscal 2008, would go to three projects, according to the lender.The energy efficiency project, co-financed by the WB and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), would get a loan of $200 million. The project, which would also receive a grant of 13.5 million U.S. dollars from the GEF, aims to boost large-scale loans for energy efficiency programs in China. China's commercial banks are also reported to participate in the project, such as the Export-Import Bank of China and Huaxia Bank, to offer loans ranging from 5 million to 10 million U. S. dollars for energy conservation projects, especially in heavy industries.

  5. Energy efficient scheme for cognitive radios utilizing soft sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2014-04-06

    In this paper we propose an energy efficient cognitive radio system. Our design considers an underlaying resource allocation combined with soft sensing information to achieve a sub-optimum energy efficient system. The sub-optimality is achieved by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy instead of considering a water-filling power policy. We consider an Energy per Goodbit (EPG) metric to express the energy efficient objective function of the system and as an evaluation metric to our system performance. Since our optimization problem is not a known convex problem, we prove its convexity to guarantee its feasibility. We evaluate the proposed scheme comparing to a benchmark system through both analytical and numerical results.

  6. Energy efficiency improvements in electric motors and drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, P. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate General for Energy; Ameida, A.T. de [Coimbra Univ. (Portugal). Dept. de Engenharia Electrotecnica; Falkner, H. [eds.] [AEA Technolgy, Harwell (United Kingdom). ETSU

    2000-07-01

    This book covers the state of the art of energy-efficient electric motor technologies, which can be used now and in the near future to achieve significant and cost-effective energy savings. Recent developments in advanced motor technologies by some of the largest manufacturers of motors and drives are also presented. Although energy-efficient motor technologies can save a huge amount of electricity, they still have not been widely adopted. The barriers which can hinder the adoption of those technologies are presented. Policies and programmes to promote the large scale penetration of energy-efficient technologies and the market transformation are featured in the book, describing the experiences carried out in different parts of the world. This extensive coverage includes contributions from relevant institutions in the European Union, North America, Latin America, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. (orig.)

  7. Evaluating Energy Efficiency Policies with Energy-Economy Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundaca, Luis; Neij, Lena; Worrell, Ernst; McNeil, Michael A.

    2010-08-01

    The growing complexities of energy systems, environmental problems and technology markets are driving and testing most energy-economy models to their limits. To further advance bottom-up models from a multidisciplinary energy efficiency policy evaluation perspective, we review and critically analyse bottom-up energy-economy models and corresponding evaluation studies on energy efficiency policies to induce technological change. We use the household sector as a case study. Our analysis focuses on decision frameworks for technology choice, type of evaluation being carried out, treatment of market and behavioural failures, evaluated policy instruments, and key determinants used to mimic policy instruments. Although the review confirms criticism related to energy-economy models (e.g. unrealistic representation of decision-making by consumers when choosing technologies), they provide valuable guidance for policy evaluation related to energy efficiency. Different areas to further advance models remain open, particularly related to modelling issues, techno-economic and environmental aspects, behavioural determinants, and policy considerations.

  8. Energy efficiency opportunity guide in the lime industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The lime industry processes limestone, an abundant inorganic mineral, for metallurgical, industrial and chemical, environmental, and construction applications. The energy the industry uses results in greenhouse gas emissions and the Canadian Lime Institute, in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada, sponsored the development of this guidebook which is intended to provide ideas for saving energy in the lime industry. This document is a practical source of information and can be used to develop self-audit and evaluation techniques to monitor energy usage. The report first provides an overview of the lime industry, then presents its energy costs. General energy efficiency methodologies are highlighted and, in conclusion, advice on improving energy efficiency in general and specifically for lime industry operations is given. This guidebook provides useful information for lime industry operators who are trying to improve the energy efficiency of their operations.

  9. Energy efficiency: Key to solving economic, environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanigan, T.

    1991-01-01

    Energy efficiency can boost economic development and competitiveness, maximize capital productivity, improve environmental quality, and guarantee lasting energy security. Each of these benefits is reason enough, but collectively they form an imperative for action. The energy future must be based on cultural development, not the wanton growth that has served as an indicator of success in the past. Energy efficiency provides not only technical fixes, regulatory innovation, and a host of new financing methods, it also provides a template - a model - for a resource-efficiency ethic congruent with the notion of respecting the rights of future citizens. The good news is that the authors now know how to check environmental despoliation caused by an unquenchable thirst for energy resources. Existing energy-efficiency opportunities allow them to redefine the national energy strategy and take account of the environment and the future

  10. Energy efficiency policies in China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chappoz, Loic; Laponche, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    Most papers dealing with energy efficiency policies focus on the policies and measures implemented in OECD countries and this may lead one to think that only the 'rich' countries are developing efforts in this field. International experience shows that emerging countries and even poor developing countries understand that energy efficiency is a prerequisite for their economic and environmentally friendly development. Among these countries, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam have implemented particularly interesting policies, some of which were launched several decades ago. Moreover the Agence Francaise de developpement (AFD) has active cooperation programs in these five countries. This study describes the current situation and recent trends in final energy demand in these countries as well as the policies and measures they are implementing in the field of end-use energy efficiency. (authors)

  11. How the world should invest in energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, D.; Remes, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    A program that targets cost-effective opportunities in energy productivity could halve the growth in energy demand, cut emissions of greenhouse gases, and generate attractive returns. Boosting energy efficiency will help stretch energy resources and slow down the increase in carbon emissions. It will also create opportunities for businesses and consumers to invest 170 billion USD a year from now until 2020, at a 17 percent average internal rate of return. However, a wide range of information gaps, market failures, and policy imperfections could slow the pace of investment. Public- and private-sector leaders can encourage higher energy productivity by setting efficiency standards for appliances and equipment, financing energy efficiency upgrades, raising corporate standards for energy efficiency, and collaborating with energy intermediaries

  12. Guide to energy efficiency opportunities in Canadian foundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In Canada, the foundry sector employs about 15000 people and most of the companies are members of the Canadian Foundry Association (CFA). The CFA is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions and is therefore looking for energy savings which, in addition to reducing emissions, would help the industry save costs and improve its competitiveness. The aim of this document is to provide operators with a guide to improving energy efficiency in their foundries. The report provides guidance on carrying out energy audits, gathering energy saving ideas, prioritizing projects, and charting the course of improved energy performance. Many different energy saving ideas for many kinds of operation are presented in this guidebook as a help to operators in finding where they could improve their energy efficiency; references to energy saving methods from all over the world are provided. This guidebook is a useful tool for helping foundry operators improve energy efficiency in their operations.

  13. Energy-efficient housing stimulus that pays for itself

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevin, Rick

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an energy-efficient housing stimulus strategy that can: (1) quickly provide large-scale job creation; (2) reduce home energy bills by 30-50% with associated reductions in emissions and energy assistance spending; (3) stabilize home values and reduce foreclosure inventory; (4) help to eliminate childhood lead poisoning; and (5) implement regulatory reforms that highlight market incentives for cost effective energy efficiency and alternative home energy investments. These benefits, far in excess of costs, can be achieved by combining 'lead-safe window replacement' with other weatherization activities and simple regulatory and market reforms. This strategy can help to coordinate American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding for energy efficiency, the $75 billion Making Home Affordable plan to reduce foreclosures, and the recently announced partnership between the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Housing and Urban Development (HUD) to streamline weatherization efforts and spur job creation. (author)

  14. Energy efficient scheme for cognitive radios utilizing soft sensing

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, AbdulRahman; Rezki, Zouheir; Shihada, Basem

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an energy efficient cognitive radio system. Our design considers an underlaying resource allocation combined with soft sensing information to achieve a sub-optimum energy efficient system. The sub-optimality is achieved by optimizing over a channel inversion power policy instead of considering a water-filling power policy. We consider an Energy per Goodbit (EPG) metric to express the energy efficient objective function of the system and as an evaluation metric to our system performance. Since our optimization problem is not a known convex problem, we prove its convexity to guarantee its feasibility. We evaluate the proposed scheme comparing to a benchmark system through both analytical and numerical results.

  15. Financing energy efficiency: lessons from experiences in India and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Painuly, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    in China and India. This paper aims to report the experience of a three-country United Nations Environment Programme/World Bank Energy Efficiency Project (involving China, India and Brazil) that is set up to address the financial barrier and identifies the lessons that can be learnt from the project...... on potential of energy efficiency and need to make financing available for this. The banks in India in created specialized schemes for energy efficiency financing, and in China, the project has a positive impact on the new initiatives with the on-lending facility and the guarantee fund for energy management....... Design/methodology/approach – The paper follows the post-completion review approach of a project and presents the activities undertaken and results obtained from the project. Findings – The project seeks to remove the financial barrier through the development of a commercial banking window for energy...

  16. The performance of energy efficient residential building envelope systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proskiw, G.

    1996-08-01

    The adequacy and durability of residential building envelope systems under actual field conditions were evaluated. A building envelope offers protection from cold, heat, moisture, wind and noise. However, they are exposed to thermal, structural, and moisture stresses and their performance can degrade over time. Envelope performance was evaluated at 20 energy efficient and four conventional, detached modern homes in Winnipeg, Canada. The three complementary measurement tools were wood moisture content (WMC) of framing members, thermographic examinations, and airtightness tests. As expected, energy efficient building envelope systems performed better than the conventional systems. No evidence of envelope degradation was found in any of the energy efficient houses. The building envelopes using polyethylene air barriers performed slightly better than those which used the airtight drywall approach, although both were considered satisfactory. WMC levels were a bit lower in the polyethylene-clad house. 1 ref., 1 tab.

  17. Implementation of voluntary agreements for energy efficiency in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuan

    2007-01-01

    Low-energy efficiency and environmental pollution have long been taken as key problems of Chinese industry, although a number of command-and-control and economic instruments have been adopted in the last few decades. In this paper, policy and legislation development for voluntary agreements were summarized. The voluntary agreements pilot project in two iron and steel companies in Shandong Province as well as other cases were analyzed. In order to identify the existing problems in Chinese cases, comparison was made between China and industrialized countries in the practices of energy efficiency voluntary agreements. Based on the analysis, detained recommendations, including the use of supporting policies for voluntary agreements, were raised. It is expected that voluntary agreements could play a more important role in energy efficiency improvement of Chinese industry

  18. The energy-efficiency business - Energy utility strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebbe, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the energy-efficiency business and the advantages it offers. The author quotes that energy-efficiency can contribute to making savings in primary energy, minimise the economic impact of global warming, improve reliability of supply and protect the gross national product. The advantages of new products for the efficient use of energy are reviewed and the resulting advantages for power customers are noted. Also, possibilities for the positioning of electricity suppliers in the environmental niche is noted. The partial markets involved and estimates concerning the impact of energy-efficiency measures are reviewed. Climate protection, co-operation with energy agencies, consulting services and public relations aspects are also discussed. The prerequisites for successful marketing by the utilities are examined and new business models are discussed along with the clear strategies needed. The development from an electricity utility to a system-competence partner is reviewed

  19. Comparison of energy efficiency incentive programs: Rebates and white certificates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Transue, Morghan; Felder, Frank A. [Center for Energy, Economic, and Environmental Policy, Rutgers the State University of New Jersey, Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, 33 Livingston Avenue, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    With increased interest in energy efficiency in recent years, energy efficiency portfolio standards (EEPS) have gained popularity in state policymaking. This analysis employed New Jersey specific data to compare two incentive based approaches to EEPS implementation: rebates and white certificates. Quantitative modeling suggests that white certificate approaches that depend on market-clearing prices generate much larger upfront incentive outlays than rebate programs. They do not however increase societal burden. Both programs overcome high upfront efficiency measure costs and both recoup the expenses over the long run. Administration costs and participation rates can affect this dynamic however and require additional research to determine which approaches are most cost effective for various energy efficiency measures. (author)

  20. The role of Smart Grids to foster energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, P.S.; De Almeida, A.T. [Institute of Systems and Robotics, University of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Lopez, G.L.; Moreno, J.I. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Leganes (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The traditional electricity grid has remained the same for most of last century, without major architectural improvements. However, its requirements, guidelines and goals do have changed, especially during the last few years, driven by the sustainability in energy generation and energy efficiency principles. Thus, taking greenhouse gases emissions and CO2 footprint reduction as key objectives and information and communications technologies as key enabler technologies, a novel and revolutionary electric grid paradigm, the so-called Smart Grid, is emerging, in which energy efficiency and renewable generation play a central role. This paper presents an overview on the main requirements and features of Smart Grids to integrate energy efficiency, on the work done and to be done, on the enabler technologies, as well as on the expected impacts and the main benefits Smart Grids will bring.

  1. DIGITAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  2. Energy efficiency analysis and implementation of AES on an FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, David

    The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was developed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rjimen and endorsed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 2001. It was designed to replace the aging Data Encryption Standard (DES) and be useful for a wide range of applications with varying throughput, area, power dissipation and energy consumption requirements. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are flexible and reconfigurable integrated circuits that are useful for many different applications including the implementation of AES. Though they are highly flexible, FPGAs are often less efficient than Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs); they tend to operate slower, take up more space and dissipate more power. There have been many FPGA AES implementations that focus on obtaining high throughput or low area usage, but very little research done in the area of low power or energy efficient FPGA based AES; in fact, it is rare for estimates on power dissipation to be made at all. This thesis presents a methodology to evaluate the energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs and proposes a novel FPGA AES implementation which is highly flexible and energy efficient. The proposed methodology is implemented as part of a novel scripting tool, the AES Energy Analyzer, which is able to fully characterize the power dissipation and energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs. Additionally, this thesis introduces a new FPGA power reduction technique called Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating (OCOG) which is used in the proposed energy efficient implementation. The AES Energy Analyzer was able to estimate the power dissipation and energy efficiency of the proposed AES design during its most commonly performed operations. It was found that the proposed implementation consumes less energy per operation than any previous FPGA based AES implementations that included power estimations. Finally, the use of Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating on an AES cipher

  3. Options to improve energy efficiency for educational building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Mafruha

    The cost of energy is a major factor that must be considered for educational facility budget planning purpose. The analysis of energy related issues and options can be complex and requires significant time and detailed effort. One way to facilitate the inclusion of energy option planning in facility planning efforts is to utilize a tool that allows for quick appraisal of the facility energy profile. Once such an appraisal is accomplished, it is then possible to rank energy improvement options consistently with other facility needs and requirements. After an energy efficiency option has been determined to have meaningful value in comparison with other facility planning options, it is then possible to utilize the initial appraisal as the basis for an expanded consideration of additional facility and energy use detail using the same analytic system used for the initial appraisal. This thesis has developed a methodology and an associated analytic model to assist in these tasks and thereby improve the energy efficiency of educational facilities. A detailed energy efficiency and analysis tool is described that utilizes specific university building characteristics such as size, architecture, envelop, lighting, occupancy, thermal design which allows reducing the annual energy consumption. Improving the energy efficiency of various aspects of an educational building's energy performance can be complex and can require significant time and experience to make decisions. The approach developed in this thesis initially assesses the energy design for a university building. This initial appraisal is intended to assist administrators in assessing the potential value of energy efficiency options for their particular facility. Subsequently this scoping design can then be extended as another stage of the model by local facility or planning personnel to add more details and engineering aspects to the initial screening model. This approach can assist university planning efforts to

  4. Three Essays on Energy Efficiency and Environmental Policies in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamtessa, Samuel

    2011-09-01

    This thesis is organized into five Chapters. In Chapter 1, we provide an introduction. In Chapter 2, we present a study on residential energy-efficiency retrofits in Canada. We describe the EnerGuide for Houses data and model household decisions to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits. Our results show that government financial incentives have important positive effects. The decision to invest in energy-efficiency retrofits is positively related to potential energy cost savings and negatively related to the costs of the retrofits. We find that household characteristics such as the age composition of household members are important factors. All else remaining constant, low income households are more likely to undertake energy-efficiency retrofits. In the third Chapter, we present our study on price-induced energy efficiency improvements in Canadian manufacturing. Our study employs a new approach to the estimation of price-induced energy efficiency improvements and the results have important empirical and policy implications. In the fourth chapter, we present our study on the implications of the "shale gas revolution" on Alberta greenhouse gas emission abatement strategy. Given that the strategy is centered on deployment of CCS technologies, we analyze the effects of the declines in natural gas price on CCS deployment in the electricity sector. We use the CIMS simulation model to simulate various policy scenarios under high and low natural gas price assumptions. Comparison of the results shows that CCS market penetration in the electricity sector is very minimal in the low natural gas price scenario even when a 50% cost subsidy is applied. Accordingly, there is little gain from subsidizing CCS given the "shale gas revolution." We provide a few concluding remarks in Chapter 5.

  5. Energy Efficiency Services Sector: Workforce Size and Expectations for Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Fuller, Merrian C.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Peters, Jane S.; McRae, Marjorie; Albers, Nathaniel; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Spahic, Mersiha

    2010-03-22

    The energy efficiency services sector (EESS) is poised to become an increasingly important part of the U.S. economy. Climate change and energy supply concerns, volatile and increasing energy prices, and a desire for greater energy independence have led many state and national leaders to support an increasingly prominent role for energy efficiency in U.S. energy policy. The national economic recession has also helped to boost the visibility of energy efficiency, as part of a strategy to support economic recovery. We expect investment in energy efficiency to increase dramatically both in the near-term and through 2020 and beyond. This increase will come both from public support, such as the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) and significant increases in utility ratepayer funds directed toward efficiency, and also from increased private spending due to codes and standards, increasing energy prices, and voluntary standards for industry. Given the growing attention on energy efficiency, there is a concern among policy makers, program administrators, and others that there is an insufficiently trained workforce in place to meet the energy efficiency goals being put in place by local, state, and federal policy. To understand the likelihood of a potential workforce gap and appropriate response strategies, one needs to understand the size, composition, and potential for growth of the EESS. We use a bottom-up approach based upon almost 300 interviews with program administrators, education and training providers, and a variety of EESS employers and trade associations; communications with over 50 sector experts; as well as an extensive literature review. We attempt to provide insight into key aspects of the EESS by describing the current job composition, the current workforce size, our projections for sector growth through 2020, and key issues that may limit this growth.

  6. KEY ASPECTS OF ENSURING ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Abramyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the review of the foreign and national academic literature and intended to emphasize the issues of ensuring energy efficiency of buildings and structures applicable to all the countries as for reconstruction of existing buildings as for erection of new ones . The author highlights the key aspects of the provision of energy efficiency of buildings and structures in some foreign countries. The conclusion is made that the studies are mainly aimed at discovering new heat insulation materials, whereby polystyrene insulation is found to be the most widespread wall insulation material in a number of countries. At the same time, it is observed that the ongoing research is focused on solutions to optimize the structure of walling systems in terms of both insulant thickness and the number and sequence of insulation layers in the walling structure. A conclusion is made that hyper insulation of external walls leads to considerable expenses arising due to cooling during the summer season. The use of prefabricated vacuum panels as a heat insulation layer and off-the-shelf single-layer structures, subject to their heat insulation characteristics, appears a more constructive way to meet the energy efficiency requirements, as the arrangement of ideal air space in multilayered walls proves a significant challenge today. One of the most promising ways to ensure energy efficiency is the use of multifunctional polyvalent walls and provision of polyvalent heat supply from renewable energy sources. Since energy efficiency depends on the spatial arrangement of buildings, construction must ensure a minimum ratio of the area of enclosing structures to the overall building volume (by adding on new facilities in case of reconstruction. It is noted that a systemic approach to ensuring energy efficiency of buildings is impossible without proper regard to the environmental parameters of heat insulation materials.

  7. Energy efficiency benchmarking of energy-intensive industries in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, David Yih-Liang; Huang, Chi-Feng; Lin, Wei-Chun; Hong, Gui-Bing

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Analytical tool was applied to estimate the energy efficiency indicator of energy intensive industries in Taiwan. • The carbon dioxide emission intensity in selected energy-intensive industries is also evaluated in this study. • The obtained energy efficiency indicator can serve as a base case for comparison to the other regions in the world. • This analysis results can serve as a benchmark for selected energy-intensive industries. - Abstract: Taiwan imports approximately 97.9% of its primary energy as rapid economic development has significantly increased energy and electricity demands. Increased energy efficiency is necessary for industry to comply with energy-efficiency indicators and benchmarking. Benchmarking is applied in this work as an analytical tool to estimate the energy-efficiency indicators of major energy-intensive industries in Taiwan and then compare them to other regions of the world. In addition, the carbon dioxide emission intensity in the iron and steel, chemical, cement, textile and pulp and paper industries are evaluated in this study. In the iron and steel industry, the energy improvement potential of blast furnace–basic oxygen furnace (BF–BOF) based on BPT (best practice technology) is about 28%. Between 2007 and 2011, the average specific energy consumption (SEC) of styrene monomer (SM), purified terephthalic acid (PTA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) was 9.6 GJ/ton, 5.3 GJ/ton and 9.1 GJ/ton, respectively. The energy efficiency of pulping would be improved by 33% if BAT (best available technology) were applied. The analysis results can serve as a benchmark for these industries and as a base case for stimulating changes aimed at more efficient energy utilization

  8. A Framework for Comparative Assessments of Energy Efficiency Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio; Atkinson, Barbara; Lekov, Alex

    2011-05-24

    When policy makers propose new policies, there is a need to assess the costs and benefits of the proposed policy measures, to compare them to existing and alternative policies, and to rank them according to their effectiveness. In the case of equipment energy efficiency regulations, comparing the effects of a range of alternative policy measures requires evaluating their effects on consumers’ budgets, on national energy consumption and economics, and on the environment. Such an approach should be able to represent in a single framework the particularities of each policy measure and provide comparable results. This report presents an integrated methodological framework to assess prospectively the energy, economic, and environmental impacts of energy efficiency policy measures. The framework builds on the premise that the comparative assessment of energy efficiency policy measures should (a) rely on a common set of primary data and parameters, (b) follow a single functional approach to estimate the energy, economic, and emissions savings resulting from each assessed measure, and (c) present results through a set of comparable indicators. This framework elaborates on models that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has used in support of its rulemakings on mandatory energy efficiency standards. In addition to a rigorous analysis of the impacts of mandatory standards, DOE compares the projected results of alternative policy measures to those projected to be achieved by the standards. The framework extends such an approach to provide a broad, generic methodology, with no geographic or sectoral limitations, that is useful for evaluating any type of equipment energy efficiency market intervention. The report concludes with a demonstration of how to use the framework to compare the impacts estimated for twelve policy measures focusing on increasing the energy efficiency of gas furnaces in the United States.

  9. Energy-Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Textile Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    China Energy Group; Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2010-09-29

    The textile industry is one of the most complicated manufacturing industries because it is a fragmented and heterogeneous sector dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Energy is one of the main cost factors in the textile industry. Especially in times of high energy price volatility, improving energy efficiency should be a primary concern for textile plants. There are various energy-efficiency opportunities that exist in every textile plant, many of which are cost-effective. However, even cost-effective options often are not implemented in textile plants mostly because of limited information on how to implement energy-efficiency measures, especially given the fact that a majority of textile plants are categorized as SMEs and hence they have limited resources to acquire this information. Know-how on energy-efficiency technologies and practices should, therefore, be prepared and disseminated to textile plants. This guidebook provides information on energy-efficiency technologies and measures applicable to the textile industry. The guidebook includes case studies from textile plants around the world and includes energy savings and cost information when available. First, the guidebook gives a brief overview of the textile industry around the world, with an explanation of major textile processes. An analysis of the type and the share of energy used in different textile processes is also included in the guidebook. Subsequently, energy-efficiency improvement opportunities available within some of the major textile sub-sectors are given with a brief explanation of each measure. The conclusion includes a short section dedicated to highlighting a few emerging technologies in the textile industry as well as the potential for the use of renewable energy in the textile industry.

  10. Towards more financing options for energy efficient buildings and houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vethman, P.; Menkveld, M.

    2012-02-01

    This article offers an impression of the problems related to the limited financial options for energy efficient buildings and dwellings and possible solutions. It is based on a recent ECN study (RE-BIZZ) and several interviews about this topic with financers. There is a need for a more business appreciation of market parties such as financers for energy efficiency in buildings to increase financing options. The market needs the help of the government, which can help to remove barriers and hence make financing more appealing. [nl

  11. Energy efficiency and economic fallacies: a reply; and reply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookes, L.G.; Grubb, M.

    1992-01-01

    The claim that a programme of energy efficiency improvements has nothing to offer to the solution of any problem of global warming is discussed. Some very important points not previously conceded by supporters of energy efficiency solutions to economic and environmental problems are considered, namely: first that when energy supply/price is the constraint on the level of economic activity, using energy more efficiently does not help to reduce total energy demand; and, second, that it has in practice been true that when energy supply/price is not the macroeconomic constraint, once again demand for energy is not reduced by more efficient use. (author)

  12. Energy Efficiency Analysis for Dynamic Routing in Optical Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vizcaíno, Jorge López; Ye, Yabin; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency in telecommunication networks is gaining more relevance as the Internet traffic is growing. The introduction of OFDM and dynamic operation opens new horizons in the operation of optical networks, improving the network flexibility and its efficiency. In this paper, we compare...... the performance in terms of energy efficiency of a flexible-grid OFDM-based solution with a fixed-grid WDM network in a dynamic scenario with time-varying connections. We highlight the benefits that the bandwidth elasticity and the flexibility of selecting different modulation formats can offer compared...

  13. Chunk-Based Energy Efficient Resource Allocation in OFDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency (EE capacity analysis of the chunk-based resource allocation is presented by considering the minimum spectrum efficiency (SE constraint in downlink multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems. Considering the minimum SE requirement, an optimization problem to maximize EE with limited transmit power is formulated over frequency selective channels. Based on this model, a low-complexity energy efficient resource allocation is proposed. The effects of system parameters, such as the average channel gain-to-noise ratio (CNR and the number of subcarriers per chunk, are evaluated. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme for balancing the EE and SE.

  14. Energy Efficient Design for Two-Way AF Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional designs on two-way relay networks mainly focus on the spectral efficiency (SE rather than energy efficiency (EE. In this paper, we consider a system where two source nodes communicate with each other via an amplify-and-forward (AF relay node and study the power allocation schemes to maximize EE while ensuring a certain data rate. We propose an optimal energy-efficient power allocation algorithm based on iterative search technique. In addition, a closed-form suboptimal solution is derived with reduced complexity and negligible performance degradation. Numerical results show that the proposed schemes can achieve considerable EE improvement compared with conventional designs.

  15. Energy-efficient computing and networking. Revised selected papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatziargyriou, Nikos; Dimeas, Aris [Ethnikon Metsovion Polytechneion, Athens (Greece); Weidlich, Anke (eds.) [SAP Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Tomtsi, Thomai

    2011-07-01

    This book constitutes the postproceedings of the First International Conference on Energy-Efficient Computing and Networking, E-Energy, held in Passau, Germany in April 2010. The 23 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the post-proceedings. The papers are organized in topical sections on energy market and algorithms, ICT technology for the energy market, implementation of smart grid and smart home technology, microgrids and energy management, and energy efficiency through distributed energy management and buildings. (orig.)

  16. The impact of clerestory lights on energy efficiency of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đenadić Dalibor M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The buildings are among major energy consumers, whose energy efficiency is rather low. Clerestory windows are responsible for a large portion of energy losses from the buildings. The energy efficiency of buildings can greatly be improved by upgrading clerestory and other windows. This paper focuses on the theoretical and experimental investigations on how this can be performed in an old school building in the town of Bor in eastern part of Serbia. For that purpose a modern measuring technique has been applied to identify the existing status, and to compare theoretical and actual conditions.

  17. Energy Efficient Wireless Vehicular-Guided Actuator Network

    KAUST Repository

    Boudellioua, Imene

    2013-06-09

    In this paper, we present an energy-efficient vehicular guided system for environmental disaster management using wireless sensor/actuator networks. Sensor nodes within clusters are controlled by a master node that is dynamically selected. Actuators support mobility for every sensor node in the area of interest. The system maintains energy efficiency using statistical, correlation, and confidence for determining actuator actions and implements an adaptive energy scheme to prolong the system lifespan. Experimental results show that the system is capable of saving up to 2.7Watt for every 28KByte of data exchanged. We also show that actuator actions are correct with a 90% confidence.

  18. Dilemmas of energy efficient urban development in three Nordic cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Große, Juliane; Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    Energy is high on the agenda of the European Union and in current urban development. In this study we focus on the role of urban planning in energy efficiency in 3 Northern European cities - Turku (FI), Eskilstuna (SE) and Tartu (EE). The case studies were developed in close collaboration between...... the authors and representatives of the cities. The research was carried out by field trips, interviews and analysis of local reports and planning documents. This work was done in the framework of the EU-FP7 project PLEEC (Planning for energy efficient cities), GA no. 314704, www.pleecproject.eu...

  19. Energy Efficient Power Allocation for Cognitive MIMO Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Sboui, Lokman

    2016-01-06

    Two major issues are facing today s wireless communications evolution: -Spectrum scarcity: Need for more bandwidth. As a solution, the Cognitive Radio (CR) paradigm, where secondary users (unlicensed) share the spectrum with licensed users, was introduced. -Energy consumption and CO2 emission: The ICT produces 2% of global CO2 emission (equivalent to the aviation industry emission). The cellular networks produces 0.2%. As solution energy efficient systems should be designed rather than traditional spectral efficient systems. In this work, an energy efficient power allocation framework based on maximizing the average EE per parallel channel is presented.

  20. China Energy Group - Sustainable Growth Through EnergyEfficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Fridley, David; Lin, Jiang; Sinton, Jonathan; Zhou,Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Huang, Joe; Price, Lynn; McKane, Aimee T.

    2006-03-20

    China is fueling its phenomenal economic growth with huge quantities of coal. The environmental consequences reach far beyond its borders--China is second only to the United States in greenhouse gas emissions. Expanding its supply of other energy sources, like nuclear power and imported oil, raises trade and security issues. Soaring electricity demand necessitates the construction of 40-70 GW of new capacity per year, creating sustained financing challenges. While daunting, the challenge of meeting China's energy needs presents a wealth of opportunities, particularly in meeting demand through improved energy efficiency and other clean energy technologies. The China Energy Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) is committed to understanding these opportunities, and to exploring their implications for policy and business. We work collaboratively with energy researchers, suppliers, regulators, and consumers in China and elsewhere to: better understand the dynamics of energy use in China. Our Research Focus Encompasses Three Major Areas: Buildings, Industry, and Cross-Cutting Activities. Buildings--working to promote energy-efficient buildings and energy-efficient equipment used in buildings. Current work includes promoting the design and use of minimum energy efficiency standards and energy labeling for appliances, and assisting in the development and implementation of building codes for energy-efficient residential and commercial/public buildings. Past work has included a China Residential Energy Consumption Survey and a study of the health impacts of rural household energy use. Industry--understanding China's industrial sector, responsible for the majority of energy consumption in China. Current work includes benchmarking China's major energy-consuming industries to world best practice, examining energy efficiency trends in China's steel and cement industries, implementing voluntary energy efficiency agreements in various

  1. Raising the Profile of Energy Efficiency in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Reducing standby power use in China. How much does China stand to gain from greater energy efficiency? The example of improved standby power efficiency in household appliances provides a useful indicator. IEA analysis projects that eight or nine 1-GW power plants could be struck off Chinas list of immediate capacity needs for the period to 2020 if energy-efficient standby devices were vigorously promoted. This impressive finding emerges from this paper. The paper reviews experience with tackling standby power consumption in OECD countries and models implementation of similar action in China and Shanghai. Its scenarios quantify the significant potential gains from standby power conservation campaigns and mandatory regulations.

  2. Energy efficiency in figures. Final report; Energieeffizienz in Zahlen. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graichen, Verena; Gores, Sabine; Penninger, Gerhard; Zimmer, Wiebke; Cook, Vanessa [Oeko-Institut, Berlin (Germany); Schlomann, Barbara; Fleiter, Tobias; Strigel, Adrian; Eichhammer, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (FhG-ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Ziesing, Hans-Joachim

    2011-07-15

    To examine whether the development of energy productivity and energy efficiency in Germany is in line with targets set by policy, a series of energy efficient indicators and parameters have been developed on the national and sectoral level, the data for which can be regularly updated and documented. It is not sufficient to carry out this analysis on a national macro level; rather it is necessary to use an approach that differentiates between sectors as accurately as possible. Only in this way can the reasons for changes in efficiency and the factors which could have compensated the impact of measures be clearly shown. (orig.)

  3. 75 FR 32177 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy [Docket Number EERE-BT-PET-0024] Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Commonwealth of Massachusetts Petition for Exemption From Federal Preemption of Massachusetts' Energy Efficiency Standard for Residential Non...

  4. Time-varying value of electric energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mims, Natalie A.; Eckman, Tom; Goldman, Charles

    2017-06-30

    Electric energy efficiency resources save energy and may reduce peak demand. Historically, quantification of energy efficiency benefits has largely focused on the economic value of energy savings during the first year and lifetime of the installed measures. Due in part to the lack of publicly available research on end-use load shapes (i.e., the hourly or seasonal timing of electricity savings) and energy savings shapes, consideration of the impact of energy efficiency on peak demand reduction (i.e., capacity savings) has been more limited. End-use load research and the hourly valuation of efficiency savings are used for a variety of electricity planning functions, including load forecasting, demand-side management and evaluation, capacity and demand response planning, long-term resource planning, renewable energy integration, assessing potential grid modernization investments, establishing rates and pricing, and customer service. This study reviews existing literature on the time-varying value of energy efficiency savings, provides examples in four geographically diverse locations of how consideration of the time-varying value of efficiency savings impacts the calculation of power system benefits, and identifies future research needs to enhance the consideration of the time-varying value of energy efficiency in cost-effectiveness screening analysis. Findings from this study include: -The time-varying value of individual energy efficiency measures varies across the locations studied because of the physical and operational characteristics of the individual utility system (e.g., summer or winter peaking, load factor, reserve margin) as well as the time periods during which savings from measures occur. -Across the four locations studied, some of the largest capacity benefits from energy efficiency are derived from the deferral of transmission and distribution system infrastructure upgrades. However, the deferred cost of such upgrades also exhibited the greatest range

  5. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1996-1999. Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe: the ODYSSEE and MURE projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2002-05-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe: the ODYSSEE and MURE projects''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-1999. Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.6% per year from 1990 to 1999. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.4% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.2% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 8 TWh from 1990 to 1999. (author)

  6. Enhancemenent of the energy efficiency by means of the energy efficiency commitment system. Brief: Energy efficiency commitment system (EnEffVSYS); Steigerung der Energieeffizienz mit Hilfe von Energieeffizienz-Verpflichtungssystemen. Kurz: Energieeffizienz-Verpflichtungssysteme (EnEffVSys)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agricola, Annegret C.; Joest, Steffen; Czernie, Marc; Heuke, Reemt; Kalinowska, Dominika; Peters, Sebastian [Deutsche Energie-Agentur GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Perner, Jens; Bothe, David [Frontier Economics Ltd., Koeln (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The origin of the contribution under consideration is the new EU energy efficiency regulation (EU-EnEff-RL) which is valid since 4th December 2012. This regulation emphasizes the increase of the energy efficiency in Europe. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on (a) the framework conditions for energy efficiency and energy consumption in Europe; (b) the development of the energy consumption and energy efficiency in the past; (c) the economic potentials of energy efficiency in Germany up to the year 2020; (d) whether the advancement of the German, market based approach or the implementation of the energy efficiency commitment system in Germany would be the better way in order to reach the energy efficiency targets derived from the EU energy efficiency regulation.

  7. E4 - Energy efficient elevators and escalators. Barriers to and strategies for promoting energy-efficient lift and escalator technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duetschke, Elisabeth; Hirzel, Simon

    2010-02-25

    According to prior findings of the E4 project, considerable savings potential exists both for lifts and escalators that could be realized if appropriate technology is implemented. However, energy-efficient technology is slowly diffusing the market - a phenomenon that could be explained by barriers present in the market. A barrier is defined as a mechanism that inhibits a decision or behavior that appears to be both energy-efficient and economically efficient and thereby prevents investment in energy-efficient technologies. This document has two aims. First, it will identify influential barriers in the European lift and escalator market. This analysis is based on the literature as well as a study including interviews as well as group discussions with relevant stakeholders. Second, strategies and measures to overcome the barriers identified in the first step are outlined. Major barriers to the penetration of energy-efficient technologies identified in this paper include a lack of monitoring energy consumption of installations and a lack of awareness of as well as knowledge about energy-efficient technology. Thus, installations and components are usually chosen without a (comprehensive) assessment of their energy consumption and without considering life-cycle approaches. On top of this, split incentives are a regularly occurring barrier. Various stakeholders are influential in the decisionmaking process about an installation or its components. However, those who will later pay for the energy consumption often are not involved in this process. Moreover, it is important to keep in mind that the number of new lifts and escalators installed each year is relatively low compared to the existing stock. Thus, it is very important to discuss enhancement of energy efficiency also for the existing stock. Based on our analyses, several recommendations are developed in this paper that could contribute to a market transformation in the lift and escalator market. First of all, a

  8. Marginal costs and co-benefits of energy efficiency investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Key elements of present investment decision-making regarding energy efficiency of new buildings and the refurbishment of existing buildings are the marginal costs of energy efficiency measures and incomplete knowledge of investors and architects about pricing, co-benefits and new technologies. This paper reports on a recently completed empirical study for the Swiss residential sector. It empirically quantifies the marginal costs of energy efficiency investments (i.e. additional insulation, improved window systems, ventilation and heating systems and architectural concepts). For the private sector, first results on the economic valuation of co-benefits such as improved comfort of living, improved indoor air quality, better protection against external noise, etc. may amount to the same order of magnitude as the energy-related benefits are given. The cost-benefit analysis includes newly developed technologies that show large variations in prices due to pioneer market pricing, add-on of learning costs and risk components of the installers. Based on new empirical data on the present cost-situation and past techno-economic progress, the potential of future cost reduction was estimated applying the experience curve concept. The paper shows, for the first time, co-benefits and cost dynamics of energy efficiency investments, of which decision makers in the real estate sector, politics and administrations are scarcely aware

  9. Energy security for India: Biofuels, energy efficiency and food productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for significant climate change mitigation and greater energy independence to many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks—global warming pollution and long-term risk that oil prices will undermine real living standards. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk in three ways: biofuel development, energy efficiency promotion, and food productivity improvements. Our salient results suggest that biodiesel shows promise as a transport fuel substitute that can be produced in ways that fully utilize marginal agricultural resources and hence promote rural livelihoods. First-generation bioethanol, by contrast, appears to have a limited ability to offset the impacts of oil price hikes. Combining the biodiesel expansion policy with energy efficiency improvements and food productivity increases proved to be a more effective strategy to enhance both energy and food security, help mitigate climate change, and cushion the economy against oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigate the role of biofuels in India applying a CGE model. • Biodiesel enhances energy security and improve rural livelihoods. • Sugarcane ethanol does not show positive impact on the economy. • Biodiesel and energy efficiency improvements together provide better results. • Food productivity further enhances biodiesel, and energy efficiency impacts

  10. Municipalities and energy efficiency in countries in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezessy, Silvia; Dimitrov, Konstantin; Urge-Vorsatz, Diana; Baruch, Seth

    2006-01-01

    It is widely recognized that many cost-efficient opportunities to employ end-use energy efficiency measures exist in countries in transition (CITs) and that municipal authorities have an essential role to play in capturing these opportunities. The aim of this paper is to review the factors that determine the degree of involvement of local authorities in the market for energy services and energy efficient (EE) equipment in three CITs: Bulgaria, Hungary and the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (hereafter: Macedonia). We achieve this aim by examining the current status of local governments as the most powerful determinant of municipal market involvement. Two broad groups of factors are discussed: statutory obligations and powers of local governments, especially energy-related tasks, and finance. We explain how specific features within these two areas may influence the motivation of local authorities to improve energy efficiency and their capacity to do so. We argue that greater decentralization is the first step in augmenting the role of local authorities in the market for energy services and EE equipment. Based on the analysis we give recommendations on how to encourage municipal authorities to use market mechanisms more extensively to deliver energy efficiency

  11. Designing an energy-efficient quick service restaurant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R.; Spata, A.J.; Turnbull, P.; Allen, T.E.

    1999-07-01

    Food service operators typically focus on controlling labor and food costs in order to increase profits. Energy, which typically represents 2% to 6% of the total cost to operate, is often a lower priority due to the complexity of food service operations and the lack of practical information. However, in an increasing competitive market, operators are actively seeking opportunities to further reduce overhead, and energy represents a good candidate. This paper presents an overview of the design and application of energy-efficient technologies to a quick service restaurant (QSR) and the resulting energy savings. Included in the discussion are the relevance of energy efficiency in a QSR, the criteria for choosing appropriate energy-efficient technologies, the replication of results to other restaurants, and the performance of the individual energy-saving technologies. Three different techniques were used to estimate energy savings of the energy-efficient technologies, with results in the range of 12% to 18% savings in overall annual restaurant energy costs.

  12. Radon safety in terms of energy efficiency classification of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilyev, A.; Yarmoshenko, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2017-06-01

    According to the results of survey in Ekaterinburg, Russia, indoor radon concentrations above city average level have been found in each of the studied buildings with high energy efficiency class. Measures to increase energy efficiency were confirmed to decrease the air exchange rate and accumulation of high radon concentrations indoors. Despite of recommendations to use mechanical ventilation with heat recovery as the main scenario for reducing elevated radon concentrations in energy-efficient buildings, the use of such systems did not show an obvious advantage. In real situation, mechanical ventilation system is not used properly both in the automatic and manual mode, which does not give an obvious advantage over natural ventilation in the climate of the Middle Urals in Ekaterinburg. Significant number of buildings with a high class of energy efficiency and built using modern space-planning decisions contributes to an increase in the average radon concentration. Such situation contradicts to “as low as reasonable achievable” principle of the radiation protection.

  13. Energy efficiency optimum strategies for low carbon development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sound energy efficiency policies play a critical role in fighting climate change. They are considered vital to reducing energy bills and reducing emissions and air pollution, while also improving energy security and sovereignty, and increasing access to energy. However, there are still significant barriers to the effective ...

  14. Energy-efficient TDMA medium access control protocol scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we study the energy efficiency and channel efficiency of TDMA MAC protocol scheduling mechanisms. Most MAC protocols are based on phase grouping that basically has three phases in a frame: uplink, downlink and reservation. We propose a new mechanism in which we have multiple uplink and

  15. Overview of rural building energy efficiency in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bao-jie; Yang, Li; Ye, Miao; Mou, Ben; Zhou, Yanan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades, people's living standard in China has been greatly improved, accompanied by the rapid increasing building energy consumption. Rural building energy consumption has become one of the most important parts of the total energy consumption in China, which deserves to be paid much attention. It is of vital importance to promote building energy efficiency for the New Socialist Countryside and energy conservation and emission reduction. This paper provides an overview of building energy consumption in the countryside, which figures out the situation and challenges in energy-saving work. The government has worked for years on rural building code system aimed at narrowing the energy gap between urban areas, but it is in the beginning phase. This paper has analyzed the only special issues about rural building energy efficiency and the mandatory standards for urban buildings, which can facilitate the development of rural building energy efficiency. Based on the above analysis, some recommendations regarding the improvement of rural building energy efficiency are given. - Highlights: • Situation of rural energy consumption in China. • Challenges in rural building energy-saving work. • Design standard, special plan and some pilot projects are analyzed. • Effects of existing energy policies for urban buildings. • Some recommendations are given

  16. Passive solar energy-efficient architectural building Design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper analyses have been done on the climate data for various climatic regions in North Cyprus to obtain physical architectural building design specification with a view to develop passive solar energy-efficient building. It utilizes a computer program, ARCHIPAK, together with climate data (for 25 year period) to get ...

  17. The impact of fiscal transfer on energy efficiency in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syaifudin, N.; Sutrisno, A.; Setiawan, A.D.

    2015-01-01

    Conference and Exhibition Indonesia - New, Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation (The 3rd Indo-EBTKE ConEx 2014) IRSA-Indonesia 5, a bottom-up CGE model, was employed to analyze the impacts of fiscal support to the sub-national region to implement energy efficiency policy. By implementing several

  18. Energy Efficiency of Robot Locomotion Increases Proportional to Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Støy, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    The task of producing steady, stable and energy efficient locomotion in legged robots with the ability to walk in un- known terrain have for many years been a big challenge in robotics. This work is focusing on how different robots build from the modular robotic system, LocoKit by Larsen et. la [3...

  19. Energy Efficiency of Higher Education Buildings: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Nelson; Pereira, Luísa Dias; Ferreira, João; Conceição, Pedro; da Silva, Patrícia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to propose an energy efficiency plan (with technical and behavioural improvement measures) for a Portuguese higher education building--the Teaching Building of the Faculty of Economics of the University of Coimbra (FEUC). Design/methodology/approach: The study was developed in the context of both the "Green…

  20. Energy efficiency throughout the world. On the way to transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dessus, Benjamin; Laponche, Bernard; Blaustein, Edgar; Chappoz, Loic; Labrousse, Michel; Humberset, Suzanne; Peullemeulle, Justine; Magnin, Gerard; Lacassagne, Sylvie; Bertinat, Pablo; Soumaila, Ibrahim; Rialhe, Anne; Clain, Cristina; Poveda, Mentor; Scalambrini Coasta, Heitor; Diniz, Silvio; Osman, Nejib; Singh, Daljit; Sant, Girish; Kokino, Issairo; Methe Myrand, Lea; Raoust, Michel; Novel, Aymeric; Narain, Sunita; D'Monte, Darryl; Lopez, Jose; Mohanty, Brahmanand; Mezghani, Mohamed; Chamonin, Denis

    2012-10-01

    This document gathers several articles from different countries on different topics related to energy transition. The first part deals with the challenge of energy efficiency as a mean on the way to energy transition (in France, in Europe, in Latin America, in Asian developing countries). The second part illustrates through examples the importance of governance issues and political will (access to energy in West Africa, a network in Latin America and the Caribbean, use of LEDs for public lighting in Brazil, Tunisian policy, role of regulation authorities, situation in India). The third part proposes examples illustrating the importance of the local dimension in any policy aimed at energy efficiency (a project in Africa, public support in housing construction in Austin, the Swedish city of Vaxjo, the French city of Montdidier, the example of two quarters of Geneva using the lake water as cooling or heating source, the refrigerator fleet in a Palestinian village). The last part reports several experiments made in different sectors (building thermal rehabilitation in China, green buildings in India, the building sector in India, a new strategy in India for domestic and commercial electric equipment, stimulation of energy efficiency in the Japanese industry, public transport in sub-Saharan cities, energy efficiency in Indian agriculture)