Time Dependent Quantum Mechanics
Morrison, Peter G.
2012-01-01
We present a systematic method for dealing with time dependent quantum dynamics, based on the quantum brachistochrone and matrix mechanics. We derive the explicit time dependence of the Hamiltonian operator for a number of constrained finite systems from this formalism. Once this has been achieved we go on to calculate the wavevector as a function of time, in order to demonstrate the use of matrix methods with respect to several concrete examples. Interesting results are derived for elliptic ...
Integrable Time-Dependent Quantum Hamiltonians
Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Yuzbashyan, Emil A.; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.; Patra, Aniket; Sun, Chen
2018-05-01
We formulate a set of conditions under which the nonstationary Schrödinger equation with a time-dependent Hamiltonian is exactly solvable analytically. The main requirement is the existence of a non-Abelian gauge field with zero curvature in the space of system parameters. Known solvable multistate Landau-Zener models satisfy these conditions. Our method provides a strategy to incorporate time dependence into various quantum integrable models while maintaining their integrability. We also validate some prior conjectures, including the solution of the driven generalized Tavis-Cummings model.
Dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory.
Zhang, Yu; Yam, Chi Yung; Chen, GuanHua
2013-04-28
A dissipative time-dependent quantum transport theory is developed to treat the transient current through molecular or nanoscopic devices in presence of electron-phonon interaction. The dissipation via phonon is taken into account by introducing a self-energy for the electron-phonon coupling in addition to the self-energy caused by the electrodes. Based on this, a numerical method is proposed. For practical implementation, the lowest order expansion is employed for the weak electron-phonon coupling case and the wide-band limit approximation is adopted for device and electrodes coupling. The corresponding hierarchical equation of motion is derived, which leads to an efficient and accurate time-dependent treatment of inelastic effect on transport for the weak electron-phonon interaction. The resulting method is applied to a one-level model system and a gold wire described by tight-binding model to demonstrate its validity and the importance of electron-phonon interaction for the quantum transport. As it is based on the effective single-electron model, the method can be readily extended to time-dependent density functional theory.
Time dependent variational method in quantum mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torres del Castillo, G.F.
1987-01-01
Using the fact that the solutions to the time-dependent Schodinger equation can be obtained from a variational principle, by restricting the evolution of the state vector to some surface in the corresponding Hilbert space, approximations to the exact solutions can be obtained, which are determined by equations similar to Hamilton's equations. It is shown that, in order for the approximate evolution to be well defined on a given surface, the imaginary part of the inner product restricted to the surface must be non-singular. (author)
Student Understanding of Time Dependence in Quantum Mechanics
Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.
2015-01-01
The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing…
Introduction to quantum mechanics a time-dependent perspective
Tannor, David J
2007-01-01
"Introduction to Quantum Mechanics" covers quantum mechanics from a time-dependent perspective in a unified way from beginning to end. Intended for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses this text will change the way people think about and teach quantum mechanics in chemistry and physics departments.
Student understanding of time dependence in quantum mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul J. Emigh
2015-09-01
Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing the key role of the energy eigenbasis in determining the time dependence of wave functions. Through analysis of student responses to a set of four interrelated tasks, we categorize some of the difficulties that underlie common errors. The conceptual and reasoning difficulties that have been identified are illustrated through student responses to four sets of questions administered at different points in a junior-level course on quantum mechanics. Evidence is also given that the problems persist throughout undergraduate instruction and into the graduate level.
Time-dependent quantum fluid density functional theory of hydrogen ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A time-dependent generalized non-linear Schrödinger equation (GNLSE) of motion was earlier derived in our laboratory by combining density functional theory and quantum fluid dynamics in threedimensional space. In continuation of the work reported previously, the GNLSE is applied to provide additional knowledge on ...
Time-dependent coupled harmonic oscillators: classical and quantum solutions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Macedo, D.X.; Guedes, I.
2014-01-01
In this work we present the classical and quantum solutions for an arbitrary system of time-dependent coupled harmonic oscillators, where the masses (m), frequencies (ω) and coupling parameter (k) are functions of time. To obtain the classical solutions, we use a coordinate and momentum transformations along with a canonical transformation to write the original Hamiltonian as the sum of two Hamiltonians of uncoupled harmonic oscillators with modified time-dependent frequencies and unitary masses. To obtain the exact quantum solutions we use a unitary transformation and the Lewis and Riesenfeld (LR) invariant method. The exact wave functions are obtained by solving the respective Milne–Pinney (MP) equation for each system. We obtain the solutions for the system with m 1 = m 2 = m 0 e γt , ω 1 = ω 01 e -γt/2 , ω 2 = ω 02 e -γt/2 and k = k 0 . (author)
Time-dependent Kohn-Sham approach to quantum electrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruggenthaler, M.; Mackenroth, F.; Bauer, D.
2011-01-01
We prove a generalization of the van Leeuwen theorem toward quantum electrodynamics, providing the formal foundations of a time-dependent Kohn-Sham construction for coupled quantized matter and electromagnetic fields. We circumvent the symmetry-causality problems associated with the action-functional approach to Kohn-Sham systems. We show that the effective external four-potential and four-current of the Kohn-Sham system are uniquely defined and that the effective four-current takes a very simple form. Further we rederive the Runge-Gross theorem for quantum electrodynamics.
Time-dependent generalized Gibbs ensembles in open quantum systems
Lange, Florian; Lenarčič, Zala; Rosch, Achim
2018-04-01
Generalized Gibbs ensembles have been used as powerful tools to describe the steady state of integrable many-particle quantum systems after a sudden change of the Hamiltonian. Here, we demonstrate numerically that they can be used for a much broader class of problems. We consider integrable systems in the presence of weak perturbations which break both integrability and drive the system to a state far from equilibrium. Under these conditions, we show that the steady state and the time evolution on long timescales can be accurately described by a (truncated) generalized Gibbs ensemble with time-dependent Lagrange parameters, determined from simple rate equations. We compare the numerically exact time evolutions of density matrices for small systems with a theory based on block-diagonal density matrices (diagonal ensemble) and a time-dependent generalized Gibbs ensemble containing only a small number of approximately conserved quantities, using the one-dimensional Heisenberg model with perturbations described by Lindblad operators as an example.
Quantum trajectories for time-dependent adiabatic master equations
Yip, Ka Wa; Albash, Tameem; Lidar, Daniel A.
2018-02-01
We describe a quantum trajectories technique for the unraveling of the quantum adiabatic master equation in Lindblad form. By evolving a complex state vector of dimension N instead of a complex density matrix of dimension N2, simulations of larger system sizes become feasible. The cost of running many trajectories, which is required to recover the master equation evolution, can be minimized by running the trajectories in parallel, making this method suitable for high performance computing clusters. In general, the trajectories method can provide up to a factor N advantage over directly solving the master equation. In special cases where only the expectation values of certain observables are desired, an advantage of up to a factor N2 is possible. We test the method by demonstrating agreement with direct solution of the quantum adiabatic master equation for 8-qubit quantum annealing examples. We also apply the quantum trajectories method to a 16-qubit example originally introduced to demonstrate the role of tunneling in quantum annealing, which is significantly more time consuming to solve directly using the master equation. The quantum trajectories method provides insight into individual quantum jump trajectories and their statistics, thus shedding light on open system quantum adiabatic evolution beyond the master equation.
Quantum Drude friction for time-dependent density functional theory
Neuhauser, Daniel; Lopata, Kenneth
2008-10-01
Friction is a desired property in quantum dynamics as it allows for localization, prevents backscattering, and is essential in the description of multistage transfer. Practical approaches for friction generally involve memory functionals or interactions with system baths. Here, we start by requiring that a friction term will always reduce the energy of the system; we show that this is automatically true once the Hamiltonian is augmented by a term of the form ∫a(q ;n0)[∂j(q,t)/∂t]ṡJ(q)dq, which includes the current operator times the derivative of its expectation value with respect to time, times a local coefficient; the local coefficient will be fitted to experiment, to more sophisticated theories of electron-electron interaction and interaction with nuclear vibrations and the nuclear background, or alternately, will be artificially constructed to prevent backscattering of energy. We relate this term to previous results and to optimal control studies, and generalize it to further operators, i.e., any operator of the form ∫a(q ;n0)[∂c(q,t)/∂t]ṡC(q)dq (or a discrete sum) will yield friction. Simulations of a small jellium cluster, both in the linear and highly nonlinear excitation regime, demonstrate that the friction always reduces energy. The energy damping is essentially double exponential; the long-time decay is almost an order of magnitude slower than the rapid short-time decay. The friction term stabilizes the propagation (split-operator propagator here), therefore increasing the time-step needed for convergence, i.e., reducing the overall computational cost. The local friction also allows the simulation of a metal cluster in a uniform jellium as the energy loss in the excitation due to the underlying corrugation is accounted for by the friction. We also relate the friction to models of coupling to damped harmonic oscillators, which can be used for a more sophisticated description of the coupling, and to memory functionals. Our results open the
General time-dependent formulation of quantum scattering theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Althorpe, Stuart C.
2004-01-01
We derive and explain the key ideas behind a time-dependent formulation of quantum scattering theory, applicable generally to systems with a finite-range scattering potential. The scattering is initiated and probed by plane wave packets, which are localized just outside the range of the potential. The asymptotic limits of conventional scattering theory (initiation in the remote past; detection in the remote future) are not taken. Instead, the differential cross section (DCS) is obtained by projecting the scattered wave packet onto the probe plane wave packets. The projection also yields a time-dependent version of the DCS. Cuts through the wave packet, just as it exits the scattering potential, yield time-dependent and time-independent angular distributions that give a close-up picture of the scattering which complements the DCS. We have previously applied the theory to interpret experimental cross sections of chemical reactions [e.g., S. C. Althorpe, F. Fernandez-Alonso, B. D. Bean, J. D. Ayers, A. E. Pomerantz, R. N. Zare, and E. Wrede, Nature (London) 416, 67 (2002)]. This paper gives the derivation of the theory, and explains its relation to conventional scattering theory. For clarity, the derivation is restricted to spherical-particle scattering, though it may readily be extended to general multichannel systems. We illustrate the theory using a simple application to hard-sphere scattering
Nonequilibrium quantum solvation with a time-dependent Onsager cavity
Kirchberg, H.; Nalbach, P.; Thorwart, M.
2018-04-01
We formulate a theory of nonequilibrium quantum solvation in which parameters of the solvent are explicitly depending on time. We assume in a simplest approach a spherical molecular Onsager cavity with a time-dependent radius. We analyze the relaxation properties of a test molecular point dipole in a dielectric solvent and consider two cases: (i) a shrinking Onsager sphere and (ii) a breathing Onsager sphere. Due to the time-dependent solvent, the frequency-dependent response function of the dipole becomes time-dependent. For a shrinking Onsager sphere, the dipole relaxation is in general enhanced. This is reflected in a temporally increasing linewidth of the absorptive part of the response. Furthermore, the effective frequency-dependent response function shows two peaks in the absorptive part which are symmetrically shifted around the eigenfrequency. By contrast, a breathing sphere reduces damping as compared to the static sphere. Interestingly, we find a non-monotonous dependence of the relaxation rate on the breathing rate and a resonant suppression of damping when both rates are comparable. Moreover, the linewidth of the absorptive part of the response function is strongly reduced for times when the breathing sphere reaches its maximal extension.
A Solution of Time Dependent Schrodinger Equation by Quantum Walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sekino, Hideo; Kawahata, Masayuki; Hamada, Shinji
2012-01-01
Time Dependent Schroedinger Equation (TDSE) with an initial Gaussian distribution, is solved by a discrete time/space Quantum Walk (QW) representing consecutive operations corresponding to a dot product of Pauli matrix and momentum operators. We call it as Schroedinger Walk (SW). Though an Hadamard Walk (HW) provides same dynamics of the probability distribution for delta-function-like initial distributions as that of the SW with a delta-function-like initial distribution, the former with a Gaussian initial distribution leads to a solution for advection of the probability distribution; the initial distribution splits into two distinctive distributions moving in opposite directions. Both mechanisms are analysed by investigating the evolution of the both amplitude components. Decoherence of the oscillating amplitudes in central region is found to be responsible for the splitting of the probability distribution in the HW.
Time-dependent problems in quantum-mechanical state reconstruction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leonhardt, U.; Bardroff, P. J.
1997-01-01
We study the state reconstruction of wave packets that travel in time-dependent potentials. We solve the problem for explicitly time-dependent potentials. We solve the problem for explicitly time-dependent harmonic oscillators and sketch a general adaptive technique for finding the wave function that matches and observed evolution. (authors)
Time-dependent quantum fluid density functional theory of hydrogen ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
WINTEC
density functional theory; quantum fluid dynamics. 1. Introduction ... dynamics of strongly non-linear interaction of atoms with intense ... theory and quantum fluid dynamics in real space. .... clear evidence of bond softening since density in the.
Time-dependent description of quantum interference nanotransistor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopka, M.; Bokes, P.
2012-01-01
In this contribution we have presented simulations of electron current response to applied gate potentials in a ring-shaped quantum interference device. Such device could function like a current-switching quantum-interference transistor. We demonstrated capability of our approach to describe this kind of system keeping full quantum coherence in the description for extended periods of time. This have been achieved thanks to the unique feature of our method which allows for explicit simulations of small quantum subsystems with open boundary conditions. Further generalisation of the method is needed to reduce the number of basis set functions required to describe the system. (authors)
On the measurement of time-dependent quantum phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barut, A.O.; Bozic, M.; Klarsfeld, S.; Maric, Z.
1991-11-01
We have evaluated the exact (Pancharatnam) phase differences between the final state l ψ(t) > and various initial states for a spin 1/2-particle in a rotating magnetic field B(t). For the initial states l n; B ef (0) >, which are eigenstates of the spin component along the direction of the initial effective field B ef (0), the exact phase has an energy dependent part, and an energy independent part. It is shown that these states l n; B ef (0) > are cyclic and their corresponding Aharonov-Anandan phases are evaluated. In the adiabatic limit we discuss different choices of time-dependent bases and the relationship between the exact phase, the Born-Fock-Schiff phase and Berry's phase. We propose experiments (neutron) to verify separately the exact and the adiabatic evolution laws, as well as to measure the adiabatic phases associated with different choices of time-dependent basis vectors. (author). 37 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab
Exact solution of a quantum forced time-dependent harmonic oscillator
Yeon, Kyu Hwang; George, Thomas F.; Um, Chung IN
1992-01-01
The Schrodinger equation is used to exactly evaluate the propagator, wave function, energy expectation values, uncertainty values, and coherent state for a harmonic oscillator with a time dependent frequency and an external driving time dependent force. These quantities represent the solution of the classical equation of motion for the time dependent harmonic oscillator.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcos Moshinsky
2008-07-01
Full Text Available For classical canonical transformations, one can, using the Wigner transformation, pass from their representation in Hilbert space to a kernel in phase space. In this paper it will be discussed how the time-dependence of the uncertainties of the corresponding time-dependent quantum problems can be incorporated into this formalism.
Exact solutions of time-dependent Dirac equations and the quantum-classical correspondence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Zhiguo
2006-01-01
Exact solutions to the Dirac equations with a time-dependent mass and a static magnetic field or a time-dependent linear potential are given. Matrix elements of the coordinate, momentum and velocity operator are calculated. In the large quantum number limit, these matrix elements give the classical solution
Tempel, David G; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2012-01-01
We prove that the theorems of TDDFT can be extended to a class of qubit Hamiltonians that are universal for quantum computation. The theorems of TDDFT applied to universal Hamiltonians imply that single-qubit expectation values can be used as the basic variables in quantum computation and information theory, rather than wavefunctions. From a practical standpoint this opens the possibility of approximating observables of interest in quantum computations directly in terms of single-qubit quantities (i.e. as density functionals). Additionally, we also demonstrate that TDDFT provides an exact prescription for simulating universal Hamiltonians with other universal Hamiltonians that have different, and possibly easier-to-realize two-qubit interactions. This establishes the foundations of TDDFT for quantum computation and opens the possibility of developing density functionals for use in quantum algorithms.
Quantum dynamics at finite temperature: Time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Christov, Ivan P., E-mail: ivan.christov@phys.uni-sofia.bg
2016-08-15
In this work we investigate the ground state and the dissipative quantum dynamics of interacting charged particles in an external potential at finite temperature. The recently devised time-dependent quantum Monte Carlo (TDQMC) method allows a self-consistent treatment of the system of particles together with bath oscillators first for imaginary-time propagation of Schrödinger type of equations where both the system and the bath converge to their finite temperature ground state, and next for real time calculation where the dissipative dynamics is demonstrated. In that context the application of TDQMC appears as promising alternative to the path-integral related techniques where the real time propagation can be a challenge.
Quantum effective force and Bohmian approach to time-dependent traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mousavi, S V
2014-01-01
Trajectories of a Bohmian particle confined in time-dependent cylindrical and spherical traps are computed for both contracting and expanding boxes. A quantum effective force is considered in arbitrary directions. It is seen that in contrast to the case for the problem of a particle in an infinite rectangular box with one wall in motion, if the particle is initially in an energy eigenstate of a tiny box, the force is zero in all directions. Trajectories of a two-body system confined in the spherical trap are also computed for different statistics types. Computations show that there are situations for which the distance between bosons is greater than that between fermions. However, the results on the average separation of the particles confirm our expectation as regards the statistics
Experimental Quantum-Walk Revival with a Time-Dependent Coin
Xue, P.; Zhang, R.; Qin, H.; Zhan, X.; Bian, Z. H.; Li, J.; Sanders, Barry C.
2015-04-01
We demonstrate a quantum walk with time-dependent coin bias. With this technique we realize an experimental single-photon one-dimensional quantum walk with a linearly ramped time-dependent coin flip operation and thereby demonstrate two periodic revivals of the walker distribution. In our beam-displacer interferometer, the walk corresponds to movement between discretely separated transverse modes of the field serving as lattice sites, and the time-dependent coin flip is effected by implementing a different angle between the optical axis of half-wave plate and the light propagation at each step. Each of the quantum-walk steps required to realize a revival comprises two sequential orthogonal coin-flip operators, with one coin having constant bias and the other coin having a time-dependent ramped coin bias, followed by a conditional translation of the walker.
The Harmonic Potential Theorem for a Quantum System with Time-Dependent Effective Mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lai Meng-Yun; Xiao Duan-Liang; Pan Xiao-Yin
2015-01-01
We investigate the many-body wave function of a quantum system with time-dependent effective mass, confined by a harmonic potential with time-dependent frequency, and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field. It is found that the wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The wave function reduces to that of the harmonic potential theorem wave function when both the effective mass and frequency are static. An example of application is also given. (paper)
Optimal adaptive control for quantum metrology with time-dependent Hamiltonians
Pang, Shengshi; Jordan, Andrew N.
2017-01-01
Quantum metrology has been studied for a wide range of systems with time-independent Hamiltonians. For systems with time-dependent Hamiltonians, however, due to the complexity of dynamics, little has been known about quantum metrology. Here we investigate quantum metrology with time-dependent Hamiltonians to bridge this gap. We obtain the optimal quantum Fisher information for parameters in time-dependent Hamiltonians, and show proper Hamiltonian control is generally necessary to optimize the Fisher information. We derive the optimal Hamiltonian control, which is generally adaptive, and the measurement scheme to attain the optimal Fisher information. In a minimal example of a qubit in a rotating magnetic field, we find a surprising result that the fundamental limit of T2 time scaling of quantum Fisher information can be broken with time-dependent Hamiltonians, which reaches T4 in estimating the rotation frequency of the field. We conclude by considering level crossings in the derivatives of the Hamiltonians, and point out additional control is necessary for that case. PMID:28276428
Optimal adaptive control for quantum metrology with time-dependent Hamiltonians.
Pang, Shengshi; Jordan, Andrew N
2017-03-09
Quantum metrology has been studied for a wide range of systems with time-independent Hamiltonians. For systems with time-dependent Hamiltonians, however, due to the complexity of dynamics, little has been known about quantum metrology. Here we investigate quantum metrology with time-dependent Hamiltonians to bridge this gap. We obtain the optimal quantum Fisher information for parameters in time-dependent Hamiltonians, and show proper Hamiltonian control is generally necessary to optimize the Fisher information. We derive the optimal Hamiltonian control, which is generally adaptive, and the measurement scheme to attain the optimal Fisher information. In a minimal example of a qubit in a rotating magnetic field, we find a surprising result that the fundamental limit of T 2 time scaling of quantum Fisher information can be broken with time-dependent Hamiltonians, which reaches T 4 in estimating the rotation frequency of the field. We conclude by considering level crossings in the derivatives of the Hamiltonians, and point out additional control is necessary for that case.
Time-dependent transitions with time–space noncommutativity and its implications in quantum optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chandra, Nitin
2012-01-01
We study the time-dependent transitions of a quantum-forced harmonic oscillator in noncommutative R 1,1 perturbatively to linear order in the noncommutativity θ. We show that the Poisson distribution gets modified, and that the vacuum state evolves into a ‘squeezed’ state rather than a coherent state. The time evolutions of uncertainties in position and momentum in vacuum are also studied and imply interesting consequences for modeling nonlinear phenomena in quantum optics. (paper)
Dynamical pruning of static localized basis sets in time-dependent quantum dynamics
McCormack, D.A.
2006-01-01
We investigate the viability of dynamical pruning of localized basis sets in time-dependent quantum wave packet methods. Basis functions that have a very small population at any given time are removed from the active set. The basis functions themselves are time independent, but the set of active
NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Time-Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics : Theory and Experiment
Lathouwers, L
1992-01-01
From March 30th to April 3rd, 1992, a NATO Advanced Research workshop entitled "Time Dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics: Theory and Experiment" was held at Snowbird, Utah. The organizing committee consisted of J. BROECKHOVE (Antwerp, Belgium), L. CEDERBAUM (Heidelberg, Germany), L. LATHOUWERS (Antwerp, Belgium), N. OHRN (Gainesville, Florida) and J. SIMONS (Salt Lake City, Utah). Fifty-two participants from eleven different countries attended the meeting at which thirty-three talks and one poster session were held. Twenty-eight participants submitted contributions to the proceedings of the meeting, which are reproduced in this volume. The workshop brought together experts in different areas 0 f molecular quantum dynamics, all adhering to the time dependent approach. The aim was to discuss and compare methods and applications. The ~amiliarityo~ the aUdience with the concepts o~ time dependent approaches greatly facilitated topical discussions and probing towards new applications. A broad area of subject matt...
Pelissetto, Andrea; Rossini, Davide; Vicari, Ettore
2018-03-01
We investigate the quantum dynamics of many-body systems subject to local (i.e., restricted to a limited space region) time-dependent perturbations. If the system crosses a quantum phase transition, an off-equilibrium behavior is observed, even for a very slow driving. We show that, close to the transition, time-dependent quantities obey scaling laws. In first-order transitions, the scaling behavior is universal, and some scaling functions can be computed exactly. For continuous transitions, the scaling laws are controlled by the standard critical exponents and by the renormalization-group dimension of the perturbation at the transition. Our protocol can be implemented in existing relatively small quantum simulators, paving the way for a quantitative probe of the universal off-equilibrium scaling behavior, without the need to manipulate systems close to the thermodynamic limit.
Farzanehpour, Mehdi; Tokatly, Ilya; Nano-Bio Spectroscopy Group; ETSF Scientific Development Centre Team
2015-03-01
We present a rigorous formulation of the time-dependent density functional theory for interacting lattice electrons strongly coupled to cavity photons. We start with an example of one particle on a Hubbard dimer coupled to a single photonic mode, which is equivalent to the single mode spin-boson model or the quantum Rabi model. For this system we prove that the electron-photon wave function is a unique functional of the electronic density and the expectation value of the photonic coordinate, provided the initial state and the density satisfy a set of well defined conditions. Then we generalize the formalism to many interacting electrons on a lattice coupled to multiple photonic modes and prove the general mapping theorem. We also show that for a system evolving from the ground state of a lattice Hamiltonian any density with a continuous second time derivative is locally v-representable. Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Grant No. FIS2013-46159-C3-1-P), Grupos Consolidados UPV/EHU del Gobierno Vasco (Grant No. IT578-13), COST Actions CM1204 (XLIC) and MP1306 (EUSpec).
Quantum Many-Body System in Presence of Time-Dependent Potential and Electric Field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sobhani, Hadi; Hassanabadi, Hassan [Shahrood University of Technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-07-15
In this article, a quantum many-body system is considered. Then two time-dependent interactions have been added to the system. Changing of them is assumed in general form. After that, by using algebraic method, time evolution of this many-body system has been investigated. In order to study the time evolution, Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamical invariant and time evolution operator method have been used. Appropriate dynamical invariants are constructed and their Eigenvalues are derived as well as appropriate time evolution operators are constructed. These calculations have been done in general form so there are no limiting assumptions on changing of time-dependent functions.
Time-dependent resonant tunnelling for parallel-coupled double quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Bing; Djuric, Ivana; Cui, H L; Lei, X L
2004-01-01
We derive the quantum rate equations for an Aharonov-Bohm interferometer with two vertically coupled quantum dots embedded in each of two arms by means of the nonequilibrium Green function in the sequential tunnelling regime. Based on these equations, we investigate time-dependent resonant tunnelling under a small amplitude irradiation and find that the resonant photon-assisted tunnelling peaks in photocurrent demonstrate a combination behaviour of Fano and Lorentzian resonances due to the interference effect between the two pathways in this parallel configuration, which is controllable by threading the magnetic flux inside this device
Riccati and Ermakov Equations in Time-Dependent and Time-Independent Quantum Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dieter Schuch
2008-05-01
Full Text Available The time-evolution of the maximum and the width of exact analytic wave packet (WP solutions of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (SE represents the particle and wave aspects, respectively, of the quantum system. The dynamics of the maximum, located at the mean value of position, is governed by the Newtonian equation of the corresponding classical problem. The width, which is directly proportional to the position uncertainty, obeys a complex nonlinear Riccati equation which can be transformed into a real nonlinear Ermakov equation. The coupled pair of these equations yields a dynamical invariant which plays a key role in our investigation. It can be expressed in terms of a complex variable that linearizes the Riccati equation. This variable also provides the time-dependent parameters that characterize the Green's function, or Feynman kernel, of the corresponding problem. From there, also the relation between the classical and quantum dynamics of the systems can be obtained. Furthermore, the close connection between the Ermakov invariant and the Wigner function will be shown. Factorization of the dynamical invariant allows for comparison with creation/annihilation operators and supersymmetry where the partner potentials fulfil (real Riccati equations. This provides the link to a nonlinear formulation of time-independent quantum mechanics in terms of an Ermakov equation for the amplitude of the stationary state wave functions combined with a conservation law. Comparison with SUSY and the time-dependent problems concludes our analysis.
Chemical dynamics in the gas phase: Time-dependent quantum mechanics of chemical reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gray, S.K. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)
1993-12-01
A major goal of this research is to obtain an understanding of the molecular reaction dynamics of three and four atom chemical reactions using numerically accurate quantum dynamics. This work involves: (i) the development and/or improvement of accurate quantum mechanical methods for the calculation and analysis of the properties of chemical reactions (e.g., rate constants and product distributions), and (ii) the determination of accurate dynamical results for selected chemical systems, which allow one to compare directly with experiment, determine the reliability of the underlying potential energy surfaces, and test the validity of approximate theories. This research emphasizes the use of recently developed time-dependent quantum mechanical methods, i.e. wave packet methods.
Approximations of time-dependent phenomena in quantum mechanics: adiabatic versus sudden processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melnichuk, S V; Dijk, W van; Nogami, Y
2005-01-01
By means of a one-dimensional model of a particle in an infinite square-well potential with one wall moving at a constant speed, we examine aspects of time-dependent phenomena in quantum mechanics such as adiabatic and sudden processes. The particle is assumed to be initially in the ground state of the potential with its initial width. The time dependence of the wavefunction of the particle in the well is generally more complicated when the potential well is compressed than when it is expanded. We are particularly interested in the case in which the potential well is suddenly compressed. The so-called sudden approximation is not applicable in this case. We also study the energy of the particle in the changing well as a function of time for expansion and contraction as well as for expansion followed by contraction and vice versa
Time-dependent density functional theory for open quantum systems with unitary propagation.
Yuen-Zhou, Joel; Tempel, David G; Rodríguez-Rosario, César A; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2010-01-29
We extend the Runge-Gross theorem for a very general class of open quantum systems under weak assumptions about the nature of the bath and its coupling to the system. We show that for Kohn-Sham (KS) time-dependent density functional theory, it is possible to rigorously include the effects of the environment within a bath functional in the KS potential. A Markovian bath functional inspired by the theory of nonlinear Schrödinger equations is suggested, which can be readily implemented in currently existing real-time codes. Finally, calculations on a helium model system are presented.
Quantum transfer energy in the framework of time-dependent dipole-dipole interaction
El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; Haddon, Robert C.; Al-Heniti, Saleh H.; Raffah, Bahaaudin M.; Berrada, K.; Abdel-Khalek, S.; Al-Hadeethi, Yas F.
2018-03-01
In this work, we examine the process of the quantum transfer of energy considering time-dependent dipole-dipole interaction in a dimer system characterized by two-level atom systems. By taking into account the effect of the acceleration and speed of the atoms in the dimer coupling, we demonstrate that the improvement of the probability for a single-excitation transfer energy extremely benefits from the incorporation of atomic motion effectiveness and the energy detuning. We explore the relevance between the population and entanglement during the time-evolution and show that this kind of nonlocal correlation may be generated during the process of the transfer of energy. Our work may provide optimal conditions to implement realistic experimental scenario in the transfer of the quantum energy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, B; Ding, G H; Lei, X L
2015-01-01
A general theoretical formulation for the effect of a strong on-site Coulomb interaction on the time-dependent electron transport through a quantum dot under the influence of arbitrary time-varying bias voltages and/or external fields is presented, based on slave bosons and the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green's function (GF) techniques. To avoid the difficulties of computing double-time GFs, we generalize the propagation scheme recently developed by Croy and Saalmann to combine the auxiliary-mode expansion with the celebrated Lacroix's decoupling approximation in dealing with the second-order correlated GFs and then establish a closed set of coupled equations of motion, called second-order quantum rate equations (SOQREs), for an exact description of transient dynamics of electron correlated tunneling. We verify that the stationary solution of our SOQREs is able to correctly describe the Kondo effect on a qualitative level. Moreover, a comparison with other methods, such as the second-order von Neumann approach and Hubbard-I approximation, is performed. As illustrations, we investigate the transient current behaviors in response to a step voltage pulse and a harmonic driving voltage, and linear admittance as well, in the cotunneling regime. (paper)
Expected number of quantum channels in quantum networks
Chen, Xi; Wang, He-Ming; Ji, Dan-Tong; Mu, Liang-Zhu; Fan, Heng
2015-07-01
Quantum communication between nodes in quantum networks plays an important role in quantum information processing. Here, we proposed the use of the expected number of quantum channels as a measure of the efficiency of quantum communication for quantum networks. This measure quantified the amount of quantum information that can be teleported between nodes in a quantum network, which differs from classical case in that the quantum channels will be consumed if teleportation is performed. We further demonstrated that the expected number of quantum channels represents local correlations depicted by effective circles. Significantly, capacity of quantum communication of quantum networks quantified by ENQC is independent of distance for the communicating nodes, if the effective circles of communication nodes are not overlapped. The expected number of quantum channels can be enhanced through transformations of the lattice configurations of quantum networks via entanglement swapping. Our results can shed lights on the study of quantum communication in quantum networks.
PREFACE: The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics'
Kleber, Manfred; Kramer, Tobias
2008-03-01
The 395th Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Seminar: `Time-dependent phenomena in Quantum Mechanics' took place at the Heinrich Fabri Institute in Blaubeuren, Germany, 12-16 September 2007. The conference covered a wide range of topics connected with time-dependent phenomena in quantum mechanical systems. The 20 invited talks and 15 short talks with posters at the workshop covered the historical debate between Schrödinger, Dirac and Pauli about the role of time in Quantum Mechanics (the debate was carried out sometimes in footnotes) up to the almost direct observation of electron dynamics on the attosecond time-scale. Semiclassical methods, time-delay, monodromy, variational principles and quasi-resonances are just some of the themes which are discussed in more detail in the papers. Time-dependent methods also shed new light on energy-dependent systems, where the detour of studying the time-evolution of a quantum states allows one to solve previously intractable problems. Additional information is available at the conference webpage http://www.quantumdynamics.de The organizer would like to thank all speakers, contributors, session chairs and referees for their efforts in making the conference a success. We also gratefully acknowledge the generous financial support from the Wilhelm and Else Heraeus Foundation for the conference and the production of this special volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Manfred Kleber Physik Department T30, Technische Universität München, 85747 Garching, Germany mkleber@ph.tum.de Tobias Kramer Institut I: Theoretische Physik, Universität Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg, Germany tobias.kramer@physik.uni-regensburg.de Guest Editors Front row (from left): W Schleich, E J Heller, J B Delos, H Friedrich, K Richter, M Kleber, P Kramer, M Man'ko, A del Campo, V Man'ko, M Efremov, A Ruiz, M O Scully Middle row: A Zamora, R Aganoglu, T Kramer, J Eiglsperger, H Cruz, P Raab, I Cirac, G Muga, J Larson, V Dodonov, W Becker Back row: A Eckardt, A
Expectation values in quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jordan, R.D.
1986-01-01
The purpose of this dissertation is to develop new methods for calculating expectation values of field operators, in situations where particle creation is important. The goal is to apply these techniques to quantum gravity, to see if the initial singularity in the universe might be avoided in the quantum theory. Standard effective action theory is modified to produce effective field equations satisfied by the expectation value of the field in an in state, as opposed to the usual in-out amplitude. Diagrammatic rules are found for calculation of the new field equations, and are used to show that the equations are real and causal up to two loop order. The theory also provides a simple check of unitarity, which is carried out, again up to two loops. Just as the standard effective field equations can be derived by analytic continuation from a theory defined in Euclidean space, so can the modified equations be obtained from a modified contour rotation of the Euclidean theory. This result is used to prove a recent conjecture which yields a simple rule for finding the real, causal equations. The new formalism is applied to two gravitational systems. First, the stability of flat space time is studied by finding the equation satisfied by small perturbations of Minkowski space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appel, H.
2007-05-01
In part I of this work we present a double-pole approximation (DPA) to the response equations of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The double-pole approximation provides an exact description of systems with two strongly coupled excitations which are isolated from the rest of the spectrum. In contrast to the traditional single-pole approximation of TDDFT the DPA also yields corrections to the Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths. We also demonstrate how to invert the double-pole solution which allows us to predict matrix elements of the exchange-correlation kernel f xc from experimental input. We attempt some first steps towards a time-dependent generalization of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT). In part II we derive equations of motion for natural orbitals and occupation numbers. Using the equation of motion for the occupation numbers we show that an adiabatic extension of presently known ground-state functionals of static RDMFT always leads to occupation numbers which are constant in time. From the stationary conditions of the equations of motion for the N-body correlations (correlated parts of the N-body matrices) we derive a new class of ground-state functionals which can be used in static RDMFT. Applications are presented for a one-dimensional model system where the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation can be propagated numerically. We use optimal control theory to find optimized laser pulses for transitions in a model for atomic Helium. From the numerically exact correlated wavefunction we extract the exact time evolution of natural orbitals and occupation numbers for (i) laser-driven Helium and (ii) electron-ion scattering. Part III of this work considers time-dependent quantum transport within TDDFT. We present an algorithm for the calculation of extended eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians which is especially tailored to a finite-difference discretization of the Schroedinger equation. We consider the propagation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Appel, H.
2007-05-15
In part I of this work we present a double-pole approximation (DPA) to the response equations of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The double-pole approximation provides an exact description of systems with two strongly coupled excitations which are isolated from the rest of the spectrum. In contrast to the traditional single-pole approximation of TDDFT the DPA also yields corrections to the Kohn-Sham oscillator strengths. We also demonstrate how to invert the double-pole solution which allows us to predict matrix elements of the exchange-correlation kernel f{sub xc} from experimental input. We attempt some first steps towards a time-dependent generalization of reduced density matrix functional theory (RDMFT). In part II we derive equations of motion for natural orbitals and occupation numbers. Using the equation of motion for the occupation numbers we show that an adiabatic extension of presently known ground-state functionals of static RDMFT always leads to occupation numbers which are constant in time. From the stationary conditions of the equations of motion for the N-body correlations (correlated parts of the N-body matrices) we derive a new class of ground-state functionals which can be used in static RDMFT. Applications are presented for a one-dimensional model system where the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation can be propagated numerically. We use optimal control theory to find optimized laser pulses for transitions in a model for atomic Helium. From the numerically exact correlated wavefunction we extract the exact time evolution of natural orbitals and occupation numbers for (i) laser-driven Helium and (ii) electron-ion scattering. Part III of this work considers time-dependent quantum transport within TDDFT. We present an algorithm for the calculation of extended eigenstates of single-particle Hamiltonians which is especially tailored to a finite-difference discretization of the Schroedinger equation. We consider the
Time-dependent density functional theory of open quantum systems in the linear-response regime.
Tempel, David G; Watson, Mark A; Olivares-Amaya, Roberto; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2011-02-21
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has recently been extended to describe many-body open quantum systems evolving under nonunitary dynamics according to a quantum master equation. In the master equation approach, electronic excitation spectra are broadened and shifted due to relaxation and dephasing of the electronic degrees of freedom by the surrounding environment. In this paper, we develop a formulation of TDDFT linear-response theory (LR-TDDFT) for many-body electronic systems evolving under a master equation, yielding broadened excitation spectra. This is done by mapping an interacting open quantum system onto a noninteracting open Kohn-Sham system yielding the correct nonequilibrium density evolution. A pseudoeigenvalue equation analogous to the Casida equations of the usual LR-TDDFT is derived for the Redfield master equation, yielding complex energies and Lamb shifts. As a simple demonstration, we calculate the spectrum of a C(2 +) atom including natural linewidths, by treating the electromagnetic field vacuum as a photon bath. The performance of an adiabatic exchange-correlation kernel is analyzed and a first-order frequency-dependent correction to the bare Kohn-Sham linewidth based on the Görling-Levy perturbation theory is calculated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basler, Mathias; Gindensperger, Etienne; Meyer, Hans-Dieter; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.
2008-01-01
We address the nonadiabatic quantum dynamics of (macro)systems involving a vast number of nuclear degrees of freedom (modes) in the presence of conical intersections. The macrosystem is first decomposed into a system part carrying a few, strongly coupled modes, and an environment, comprising the remaining modes. By successively transforming the modes of the environment, a hierarchy of effective Hamiltonians for the environment can be constructed. Each effective Hamiltonian depends on a reduced number of effective modes, which carry cumulative effects. The environment is described by a few effective modes augmented by a residual environment. In practice, the effective modes can be added to the system's modes and the quantum dynamics of the entire macrosystem can be accurately calculated on a limited time-interval. For longer times, however, the residual environment plays a role. We investigate the possibility to treat fully quantum mechanically the system plus a few effective environmental modes, augmented by the dynamics of the residual environment treated by the time-dependent Hartree (TDH) approximation. While the TDH approximation is known to fail to correctly reproduce the dynamics in the presence of conical intersections, it is shown that its use on top of the effective-mode formalism leads to much better results. Two numerical examples are presented and discussed; one of them is known to be a critical case for the TDH approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibarra-Sierra, V.G.; Sandoval-Santana, J.C.; Cardoso, J.L.; Kunold, A.
2015-01-01
We discuss the one-dimensional, time-dependent general quadratic Hamiltonian and the bi-dimensional charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields through the Lie algebraic approach. Such method consists in finding a set of generators that form a closed Lie algebra in terms of which it is possible to express a quantum Hamiltonian and therefore the evolution operator. The evolution operator is then the starting point to obtain the propagator as well as the explicit form of the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. First, the set of generators forming a closed Lie algebra is identified for the general quadratic Hamiltonian. This algebra is later extended to study the Hamiltonian of a charged particle in electromagnetic fields exploiting the similarities between the terms of these two Hamiltonians. These results are applied to the solution of five different examples: the linear potential which is used to introduce the Lie algebraic method, a radio frequency ion trap, a Kanai–Caldirola-like forced harmonic oscillator, a charged particle in a time dependent magnetic field, and a charged particle in constant magnetic field and oscillating electric field. In particular we present exact analytical expressions that are fitting for the study of a rotating quadrupole field ion trap and magneto-transport in two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures illuminated by microwave radiation. In these examples we show that this powerful method is suitable to treat quadratic Hamiltonians with time dependent coefficients quite efficiently yielding closed analytical expressions for the propagator and the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. -- Highlights: •We deal with the general quadratic Hamiltonian and a particle in electromagnetic fields. •The evolution operator is worked out through the Lie algebraic approach. •We also obtain the propagator and Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. •Analytical expressions for a
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibarra-Sierra, V.G.; Sandoval-Santana, J.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Cardoso, J.L. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Kunold, A., E-mail: akb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)
2015-11-15
We discuss the one-dimensional, time-dependent general quadratic Hamiltonian and the bi-dimensional charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields through the Lie algebraic approach. Such method consists in finding a set of generators that form a closed Lie algebra in terms of which it is possible to express a quantum Hamiltonian and therefore the evolution operator. The evolution operator is then the starting point to obtain the propagator as well as the explicit form of the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. First, the set of generators forming a closed Lie algebra is identified for the general quadratic Hamiltonian. This algebra is later extended to study the Hamiltonian of a charged particle in electromagnetic fields exploiting the similarities between the terms of these two Hamiltonians. These results are applied to the solution of five different examples: the linear potential which is used to introduce the Lie algebraic method, a radio frequency ion trap, a Kanai–Caldirola-like forced harmonic oscillator, a charged particle in a time dependent magnetic field, and a charged particle in constant magnetic field and oscillating electric field. In particular we present exact analytical expressions that are fitting for the study of a rotating quadrupole field ion trap and magneto-transport in two-dimensional semiconductor heterostructures illuminated by microwave radiation. In these examples we show that this powerful method is suitable to treat quadratic Hamiltonians with time dependent coefficients quite efficiently yielding closed analytical expressions for the propagator and the Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. -- Highlights: •We deal with the general quadratic Hamiltonian and a particle in electromagnetic fields. •The evolution operator is worked out through the Lie algebraic approach. •We also obtain the propagator and Heisenberg picture position and momentum operators. •Analytical expressions for a
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Toledo Sesma
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We construct an effective four-dimensional model by compactifying a ten-dimensional theory of gravity coupled with a real scalar dilaton field on a time-dependent torus. This approach is applied to anisotropic cosmological Bianchi type I model for which we study the classical coupling of the anisotropic scale factors with the two real scalar moduli produced by the compactification process. Under this approach, we present an isotropization mechanism for the Bianchi I cosmological model through the analysis of the ratio between the anisotropic parameters and the volume of the Universe which in general keeps constant or runs into zero for late times. We also find that the presence of extra dimensions in this model can accelerate the isotropization process depending on the momenta moduli values. Finally, we present some solutions to the corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW equation in the context of standard quantum cosmology.
Theoretical treatment of photodissociation of water by time-dependent quantum mechanical methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weide, K.
1993-01-01
An algorithm for wavepacket propagation, based on Kosloff's method of expansion of the time evolution operator in terms of Chebychev polynomials, and some details of its implementation are described. With the programs developed, quantum-mechanical calculations for up to three independent molecular coordinates are possible and feasible and therefore photodissociation of non-rotating triatomic molecules can be treated exactly. The angular degree of freedom here is handled by expansion in terms of free diatomic rotor states. The time-dependent wave packet picture is compared with the more traditional view of stationary wave functions, and both are used to interpret computational results where appropriate. Two-dimensional calculations have been performed to explain several experimental observations about water photodissociation. All calculations are based on ab initio potential energy surfaces, and it is explained in each case why it is reasonable to neglect the third degree of freedom. Many experimental results are reproduced quantitatively. (orig.) [de
Time-dependent current-density functional theory for generalized open quantum systems.
Yuen-Zhou, Joel; Rodríguez-Rosario, César; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2009-06-14
In this article, we prove the one-to-one correspondence between vector potentials and particle and current densities in the context of master equations with arbitrary memory kernels, therefore extending time-dependent current-density functional theory (TD-CDFT) to the domain of generalized many-body open quantum systems (OQS). We also analyse the issue of A-representability for the Kohn-Sham (KS) scheme proposed by D'Agosta and Di Ventra for Markovian OQS [Phys. Rev. Lett. 2007, 98, 226403] and discuss its domain of validity. We suggest ways to expand their scheme, but also propose a novel KS scheme where the auxiliary system is both closed and non-interacting. This scheme is tested numerically with a model system, and several considerations for the future development of functionals are indicated. Our results formalize the possibility of practising TD-CDFT in OQS, hence expanding the applicability of the theory to non-Hamiltonian evolutions.
Time-dependent quantum chemistry of laser driven many-electron molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nguyen-Dang, Thanh-Tung; Couture-Bienvenue, Étienne; Viau-Trudel, Jérémy; Sainjon, Amaury
2014-01-01
A Time-Dependent Configuration Interaction approach using multiple Feshbach partitionings, corresponding to multiple ionization stages of a laser-driven molecule, has recently been proposed [T.-T. Nguyen-Dang and J. Viau-Trudel, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 244102 (2013)]. To complete this development toward a fully ab-initio method for the calculation of time-dependent electronic wavefunctions of an N-electron molecule, we describe how tools of multiconfiguration quantum chemistry such as the management of the configuration expansion space using Graphical Unitary Group Approach concepts can be profitably adapted to the new context, that of time-resolved electronic dynamics, as opposed to stationary electronic structure. The method is applied to calculate the detailed, sub-cycle electronic dynamics of BeH 2 , treated in a 3–21G bound-orbital basis augmented by a set of orthogonalized plane-waves representing continuum-type orbitals, including its ionization under an intense λ = 800 nm or λ = 80 nm continuous-wave laser field. The dynamics is strongly non-linear at the field-intensity considered (I ≃ 10 15 W/cm 2 ), featuring important ionization of an inner-shell electron and strong post-ionization bound-electron dynamics
Origin of non-quantum noise and time dependent thermo field dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Umezawa, H.
1991-01-01
Common features and physically profound differences are summarized between various kinds of noise in pure states caused by the Bogoliubov transformation in such diverse phenomena as the squeezed state in quantum optics, Hawking radiation around the eternal black hole, and thermal physics.All the thermal vacua form a set of states degenerate in eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian H-circumflex, i.e., the zero-hat energy states. The presence of these degenerate energy states exhibits the spontaneous breakdown of weak Bogoliubov symmetry. The thermal freedom is the freedom of moving through the states in this degenerate set. Considering a time-dependent movement of a thermal vacuum through the degenerate set, the time-dependent thermal field dynamics are obtained. With this formalism the authors set up a quasi-particle picture and analyze the spectral representation of the Heisenberg two point Green's function and the diagonalization of the quasi-particle Hamiltonian. The formalism will be used in discussion of the appearance of short time intermediate high-temperature states when the initial state is at practically zero temperature. (author). 28 refs
Time-dependent behavior of D-dimensional ideal quantum gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Suhk Kun
1985-01-01
The time-dependent behavior of D-dimensional ideal quantum gases is studied within the Mori formalism and its extension by Lee. In the classical limit, the time-dependent behavior is found to be independent of the dimensionality D of the system and is characterized by an extremely damped Gaussian relaxation function. However, at T=0K, it depends on the particular statistics adopted for the system and also on the dimensionality of the system. For the ideal Bose gas at T=0 K, complete Bose condensation is manifested by collapse of the dimensionality of a Hilbert space, spanned by basis vectors fsub(ν), from infinity to two. On the other hand, the dimensional effect for the ideal Fermi gas is exhibited by a change in Hilbert space structure, which is determined by the recurrants Δsub(ν) and the basis vectors fsub(ν) More specifically, the structural form of the recurrants is modified such that the relaxation function becomes more damped as D is increased. (Author)
Remarks on time-dependent [current]-density functional theory for open quantum systems.
Yuen-Zhou, Joel; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2013-08-14
Time-dependent [current]-density functional theory for open quantum systems (OQS) has emerged as a formalism that can incorporate dissipative effects in the dynamics of many-body quantum systems. Here, we review and clarify some formal aspects of these theories that have been recently questioned in the literature. In particular, we provide theoretical support for the following conclusions: (1) contrary to what we and others had stated before, within the master equation framework, there is in fact a one-to-one mapping between vector potentials and current densities for fixed initial state, particle-particle interaction, and memory kernel; (2) regardless of the first conclusion, all of our recently suggested Kohn-Sham (KS) schemes to reproduce the current and particle densities of the original OQS, and in particular, the use of a KS closed driven system, remains formally valid; (3) the Lindblad master equation maintains the positivity of the density matrix regardless of the time-dependence of the Hamiltonian or the dissipation operators; (4) within the stochastic Schrödinger equation picture, a one-to-one mapping from stochastic vector potential to stochastic current density for individual trajectories has not been proven so far, except in the case where the vector potential is the same for every member of the ensemble, in which case, it reduces to the Lindblad master equation picture; (5) master equations may violate certain desired properties of the density matrix, such as positivity, but they remain as one of the most useful constructs to study OQS when the environment is not easily incorporated explicitly in the calculation. The conclusions support our previous work as formally rigorous, offer new insights into it, and provide a common ground to discuss related theories.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodonov, V.V.
2009-01-01
Conditions of disappearance of different 'nonclassical' properties (usual and high-order squeezing, sub-Poissonian statistics, negativity of s-parametrized quasidistributions) are derived for a quantum oscillator, whose evolution is governed by the standard master equation of quantum optics with arbitrary time-dependent coefficients.
Parametrization of complex absorbing potentials for time-dependent quantum dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vibok, A.; Balint-Kurti, G.G.
1992-01-01
Five different forms of complex absorbing potentials are examined and compared. Such potentials are needed to absorb wavepackets near the edges of grids in time-dependent quantum dynamical calculations. The extent to which the different potentials transmit or reflect an incident wavepacket is quantified, and optimal potential parameters to minimize both the reflection and transmission for each type of potential are derived. A rigorously derived scaling procedure, which permits the derivation of optimal potential parameters for use with any chosen mass or kinetic energy from those optimized for different conditions, is described. Tables are also presented which permit the immediate selection of the parameters for an absorbing potential of a particular form so as to allow a preselected (very small) degree of transmitted plus reflected probability to be attained. It is always desirable to devote a minimal region to the absorbing potential, while at the same time effectively absorbing all of the wavepacket and neither transmitting nor reflecting any of it. The tables presented here enable the use to easily select the potential parameters he will require to attain these goals. 23 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grasselli, Federico, E-mail: federico.grasselli@unimore.it; Goldoni, Guido, E-mail: guido.goldoni@unimore.it [Department of Physics, Informatics and Mathematics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); CNR-NANO S3, Institute for Nanoscience, Via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy); Bertoni, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.bertoni@nano.cnr.it [CNR-NANO S3, Institute for Nanoscience, Via Campi 213/a, 41125 Modena (Italy)
2015-01-21
We study the unitary propagation of a two-particle one-dimensional Schrödinger equation by means of the Split-Step Fourier method, to study the coherent evolution of a spatially indirect exciton (IX) in semiconductor heterostructures. The mutual Coulomb interaction of the electron-hole pair and the electrostatic potentials generated by external gates and acting on the two particles separately are taken into account exactly in the two-particle dynamics. As relevant examples, step/downhill and barrier/well potential profiles are considered. The space- and time-dependent evolutions during the scattering event as well as the asymptotic time behavior are analyzed. For typical parameters of GaAs-based devices, the transmission or reflection of the pair turns out to be a complex two-particle process, due to comparable and competing Coulomb, electrostatic, and kinetic energy scales. Depending on the intensity and anisotropy of the scattering potentials, the quantum evolution may result in excitation of the IX internal degrees of freedom, dissociation of the pair, or transmission in small periodic IX wavepackets due to dwelling of one particle in the barrier region. We discuss the occurrence of each process in the full parameter space of the scattering potentials and the relevance of our results for current excitronic technologies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeong Ryeol Choi
2015-01-01
Full Text Available An adiabatic invariant, which is a conserved quantity, is useful for studying quantum and classical properties of dynamical systems. Adiabatic invariants for time-dependent superconducting qubit-oscillator systems and resonators are investigated using the Liouville-von Neumann equation. At first, we derive an invariant for a simple superconducting qubit-oscillator through the introduction of its reduced Hamiltonian. Afterwards, an adiabatic invariant for a nanomechanical resonator linearly interfaced with a superconducting circuit, via a coupling with a time-dependent strength, is evaluated using the technique of unitary transformation. The accuracy of conservation for such invariant quantities is represented in detail. Based on the results of our developments in this paper, perturbation theory is applicable to the research of quantum characteristics of more complicated qubit systems that are described by a time-dependent Hamiltonian involving nonlinear terms.
Kreisbeck, C; Kramer, T; Molina, R A
2017-04-20
We have performed time-dependent wave packet simulations of realistic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) devices with a quantum dot embedded in one of the arms of the interferometer. The AB ring can function as a measurement device for the intrinsic transmission phase through the quantum dot, however, care has to be taken in analyzing the influence of scattering processes in the junctions of the interferometer arms. We consider a harmonic quantum dot and show how the Darwin-Fock spectrum emerges as a unique pattern in the interference fringes of the AB oscillations.
Time-dependent current into and through multilevel parallel quantum dots in a photon cavity
Gudmundsson, Vidar; Abdullah, Nzar Rauf; Sitek, Anna; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Tang, Chi-Shung; Manolescu, Andrei
2017-05-01
We analyze theoretically the charging current into, and the transport current through, a nanoscale two-dimensional electron system with two parallel quantum dots embedded in a short wire placed in a photon cavity. A plunger gate is used to place specific many-body states of the interacting system in the bias window defined by the external leads. We show how the transport phenomena active in the many-level complex central system strongly depend on the gate voltage. We identify a resonant transport through the central system as the two spin components of the one-electron ground state are in the bias window. This resonant transport through the lowest energy electron states seems to a large extent independent of the detuned photon field when judged from the transport current. This could be expected in the small bias regime, but an observation of the occupancy of the states of the system reveals that this picture is not entirely true. The current does not reflect slower photon-active internal transitions bringing the system into the steady state. The number of initially present photons determines when the system reaches the real steady state. With two-electron states in the bias window we observe a more complex situation with intermediate radiative and nonradiative relaxation channels leading to a steady state with a weak nonresonant current caused by inelastic tunneling through the two-electron ground state of the system. The presence of the radiative channels makes this phenomena dependent on the number of photons initially in the cavity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Pantelides, Sokrates T.
2000-01-01
The conventional Hellmann-Feynman theorem for the definition of forces on nuclei is not directly applicable to quantum time-dependent and transport problems. We present a rigorous derivation of a general Hellmann-Feynman-like theorem that applies to all quantum mechanical systems and reduces to well-known results for ground-state problems. It provides a rigorous definition of forces in time-dependent and transport problems. Explicit forms of Pulay-like forces are derived and the conditions for them to be zero are identified. A practical scheme for ab initio calculations of current-induced forces is described and the study of the transfer of a Si atom between two electrodes is presented as an example. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeong Ryeol eChoi
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Quantum characteristics of a charged particle traveling under the influence of an external time-dependent magnetic field in ionized plasma are investigated using the invariant operator method. The Hamiltonian that gives the radial part of the classical equation of motion for the charged particle is dependent on time. The corresponding invariant operator that satisfies Liouville-von Neumann equation is constructed using fundamental relations. The exact radial wave functions are derived by taking advantage of the eigenstates of the invariant operator. Quantum properties of the system is studied using these wave functions. Especially, the time behavior of the radial component of the quantized energy is addressed in detail.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Mus-’ab Anas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic study of the absorption spectrum of various sizes of small hydrogenated silicon quantum dots of quasi-spherical symmetry using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT. In this study, real-time and real-space implementation of TDDFT involving full propagation of the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations were used. The experimental results for SiH4 and Si5H12 showed good agreement with other earlier calculations and experimental data. Then these calculations were extended to study larger hydrogenated silicon quantum dots with diameter up to 1.6 nm. It was found that, for small quantum dots, the absorption spectrum is atomic-like while, for relatively larger (1.6 nm structure, it shows bulk-like behavior with continuous plateau with noticeable peak. This paper also studied the absorption coefficient of silicon quantum dots as a function of their size. Precisely, the dependence of dot size on the absorption threshold is elucidated. It was found that the silicon quantum dots exhibit direct transition of electron from HOMO to LUMO states; hence this theoretical contribution can be very valuable in discerning the microscopic processes for the future realization of optoelectronic devices.
Time-dependent perturbation of a two-state quantum mechanical system
Dion, D. R.
1974-01-01
A two- (nondegenerate) level quantum system interacting with a classical monochromatic radiation field is described. The existing work on this problem is reviewed and some novel aspects of the problems are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotler, Z.; Neria, E.; Nitzan, A.
1991-01-01
The use of the time-dependent self-consistent field approximation (TDSCF) in the numerical solution of quantum curve crossing and tunneling dynamical problems is investigated. Particular emphasis is given to multiconfiguration TDSCF (MCTDSCF) approximations, which are shown to perform considerably better with only a small increase in computational effort. We investigate a number of simple models in which a 'system' characterized by two electronic potential surfaces evolves while interacting with a 'bath' mode described by an harmonic oscillator, and compare exact numerical solutions to one- and two-configuration TDSCF approximations. We also introduce and investigate a semiclassical approximation in which the 'bath' mode is described by semiclassical wavepackets (one for each electronic state) and show that for all models investigated this scheme works very well in comparison with the fully quantum MCTDSCF approximation. This provides a potentially very useful method to simulate strongly quantum systems coupled to an essentially classical environment. (orig.)
Compact versus noncompact quantum dynamics of time-dependent su(1,1)-valued Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penna, V.
1996-01-01
We consider the Schroedinger problem for time-dependent (TD) Hamiltonians represented by a linear combination of the compact generator and the hyperbolic generator of su(1,1). Several types of transitions, characterized by different time initial conditions on the generator coefficients, are analyzed by resorting to the harmonic oscillator model with a frequency vanishing for t→+∞. We provide examples that point out how the TD states of the transitions can be constructed either by the compact eigenvector basis or by the noncompact eigenvector basis depending on the initial conditions characterizing the frequency time behavior. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc
Unitarity Bounds and RG Flows in Time Dependent Quantum Field Theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, Xi; Horn, Bart; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-04-05
We generalize unitarity bounds on operator dimensions in conformal field theory to field theories with spacetime dependent couplings. Below the energy scale of spacetime variation of the couplings, their evolution can strongly affect the physics, effectively shifting the infrared operator scaling and unitarity bounds determined from correlation functions in the theory. We analyze this explicitly for large-N double-trace flows, and connect these to UV complete field theories. One motivating class of examples comes from our previous work on FRW holography, where this effect explains the range of flavors allowed in the dual, time dependent, field theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarkar, P.; Bhattacharyya, S.P.
1995-01-01
The effects of quartic anharmonicity on the quantum dynamics of a linear oscillator with time-dependent force constant (K) or harmonic frequency (ω) are studied both perturbatively and numerically by the time-dependent Fourier grid Hamiltonian method. In the absence of anharmonicity, the ground-state population decreases and the population of an accessible excited state (k = 2.4, 6 ... ) increases with time. However, when anharmonicity is introduced, both the ground- and excited-state populations show typical oscillations. For weak coupling, the population of an accessible excited state at a certain instant of time (short) turns out to be a parabolic function of the anharmonic coupling constant (λ), when all other parameters of the system are kept fixed. This parabolic nature of the excited-state population vs. the λ profile is independent of the specific form of the time dependence of the force constant, K t . However, it depends upon the rate at which K t relaxes. For small anharmonic coupling strength and short time scales, the numerical results corroborate expectations based on the first-order time-dependent perturbative analysis, using a suitably repartitioned Hamiltonian that makes H 0 time-independent. Some of the possible experimental implications of our observations are analyzed, especially in relation to intensity oscillations observed in some charge-transfer spectra in systems in which the dephasing rates are comparable with the time scale of the electron transfer. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab
Exactly solvable quantum state reduction models with time-dependent coupling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brody, Dorje C; Constantinou, Irene C; Dear, James D C; Hughston, Lane P
2006-01-01
A closed-form solution to the energy-based stochastic Schroedinger equation with a time-dependent coupling is obtained. The solution is algebraic in character, and is expressed directly in terms of independent random data. The data consist of (i) a random variable H which has the distribution P(H=E i ) = π i , where π i is the transition probability vertical bar (ψ 0 vertical bar Φ i ) vertical bar 2 from the initial state vertical bar ψ 0 ) to the Lueders state vertical bar Φ i ) with energy E i , and (ii) an independent P-Brownian motion, where P is the physical probability measure associated with the dynamics of the reduction process. When the coupling is time independent, it is known that state reduction occurs asymptotically-that is to say, over an infinite time horizon. In the case of a time-dependent coupling, we show that if the magnitude of the coupling decreases sufficiently rapidly, then the energy variance will be reduced under the dynamics, but the state need not reach an energy eigenstate. This situation corresponds to the case of a 'partial' or 'incomplete' measurement of the energy. We also construct an example of a model where the opposite situation prevails, in which complete state reduction is achieved after the passage of a finite period of time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scully, M O
2008-01-01
The time dependent Schrodinger equation is frequently 'derived' by postulating the energy E → i h-bar (∂/∂t) and momentum p-vector → ( h-bar /i)∇ operator relations. In the present paper we review the quantum field theoretic route to the Schrodinger wave equation which treats time and space as parameters, not operators. Furthermore, we recall that a classical (nonlinear) wave equation can be derived from the classical action via Hamiltonian-Jacobi theory. By requiring the wave equation to be linear we again arrive at the Schrodinger equation, without postulating operator relations. The underlying philosophy is operational: namely 'a particle is what a particle detector detects.' This leads us to a useful physical picture combining the wave (field) and particle paradigms which points the way to the time-dependent Schrodinger equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikitin, N. V.; Sotnikov, V.P.; Toms, K. S.
2015-01-01
A radically new class of Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form was obtained on the basis of Kolmorov’s axiomatization of probability theory and the hypothesis of locality. These inequalities take explicitly into account the dependence on time (time-dependent Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form). By using these inequalities, one can propose a means for experimentally testing Bohr’ complementarity principle in the relativistic region. The inequalities in question open broad possibilities for studying correlations of nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum systems in external fields. The violation of the time-dependent inequalities in quantum mechanics was studied by considering the behavior of a pair of anticorrelated spins in a constant external magnetic field and oscillations of neutral pseudoscalar mesons. The decay of a pseudoscalar particle to a fermion–antifermion pair is considered within quantum field theory. In order to test experimentally the inequalities proposed in the present study, it is not necessary to perform dedicated noninvasive measurements required in the Leggett–Garg approach, for example
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nikitin, N. V., E-mail: nnikit@mail.cern.ch; Sotnikov, V.P., E-mail: sotnikov@physics.msu.ru [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Toms, K. S., E-mail: ktoms@mail.cern.ch [The University of New Mexico, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)
2015-10-15
A radically new class of Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form was obtained on the basis of Kolmorov’s axiomatization of probability theory and the hypothesis of locality. These inequalities take explicitly into account the dependence on time (time-dependent Bell inequalities in Wigner’s form). By using these inequalities, one can propose a means for experimentally testing Bohr’ complementarity principle in the relativistic region. The inequalities in question open broad possibilities for studying correlations of nonrelativistic and relativistic quantum systems in external fields. The violation of the time-dependent inequalities in quantum mechanics was studied by considering the behavior of a pair of anticorrelated spins in a constant external magnetic field and oscillations of neutral pseudoscalar mesons. The decay of a pseudoscalar particle to a fermion–antifermion pair is considered within quantum field theory. In order to test experimentally the inequalities proposed in the present study, it is not necessary to perform dedicated noninvasive measurements required in the Leggett–Garg approach, for example.
Conditional expectations associated with quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niestegge, Gerd
2005-01-01
An extension of the conditional expectations (those under a given subalgebra of events and not the simple ones under a single event) from the classical to the quantum case is presented. In the classical case, the conditional expectations always exist; in the quantum case, however, they exist only if a certain weak compatibility criterion is satisfied. This compatibility criterion was introduced among others in a recent paper by the author. Then, state-independent conditional expectations and quantum Markov processes are studied. A classical Markov process is a probability measure, together with a system of random variables, satisfying the Markov property and can equivalently be described by a system of Markovian kernels (often forming a semigroup). This equivalence is partly extended to quantum probabilities. It is shown that a dynamical (semi)group can be derived from a given system of quantum observables satisfying the Markov property, and the group generators are studied. The results are presented in the framework of Jordan operator algebras, and a very general type of observables (including the usual real-valued observables or self-adjoint operators) is considered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, A; Gross, E K U
2014-01-01
We derive the fundamental equations of an optimal control theory for systems containing both quantum electrons and classical ions. The system is modeled with Ehrenfest dynamics, a non-adiabatic variant of molecular dynamics. The general formulation, that needs the fully correlated many-electron wavefunction, can be simplified by making use of time-dependent density-functional theory. In this case, the optimal control equations require some modifications that we will provide. The abstract general formulation is complemented with the simple example of the H 2 + molecule in the presence of a laser field. (paper)
Goker, Ali
2011-06-01
A combination of ab initio and many-body calculations is utilized to determine the effects of the bonding in Au electrodes on the time dependent current through a quantum dot suddenly shifted into the Kondo regime by a gate voltage. For an asymmetrically coupled system the instantaneous conductance exhibits fluctuations. The frequencies of the fluctuations turn out to be proportional to the energetic separation between the dominating peaks in the density of states and the Fermi level. The chemical bonding in the electrodes, thus, drastically alters the transient current, which can be accessed by ultrafast pump-probe techniques. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Goker, Ali; Zhu, Zhiyong; Manchon, Aurelien; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2011-01-01
A combination of ab initio and many-body calculations is utilized to determine the effects of the bonding in Au electrodes on the time dependent current through a quantum dot suddenly shifted into the Kondo regime by a gate voltage. For an asymmetrically coupled system the instantaneous conductance exhibits fluctuations. The frequencies of the fluctuations turn out to be proportional to the energetic separation between the dominating peaks in the density of states and the Fermi level. The chemical bonding in the electrodes, thus, drastically alters the transient current, which can be accessed by ultrafast pump-probe techniques. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
From localized to extended states in a time-dependent quantum model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jose, J.V.
1986-01-01
The problem of a particle inside a rigid box with one of the walls oscillating periodically in time is studied quantum mechanically. In the classical limit, this model was introduced by Fermi in the context of cosmic ray physics. The classical solutions can go from being quasiperiodic to chaotic, as a function of the amplitude of the wall oscillation. In the quantum case, the authors calculate the spectral properties of the corresponding evolution operator, i.e.: the quasi-energy eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The specific form of the wall oscillation, e.g. iota(t) = √ 1 + 2δabsolute value of t, with absolute value of t ≤ 1/2, and iota(t + 1) = iota(t), is essential to the solutions presented here. It is found that as h increases with δ fixed, the nearest neighbor separation between quasi-energy eigenvalues changes from showing no energy level repulsion to energy level repulsion. This transition, from Poisson-like statistics to Gaussian-Orthogonal-Ensemble-like statistics is tested by looking at the distribution of quasi-energy level nearest neighbor separations and the Δ/sub e/(L) statistics. these results are also correlated to a transition between localized to extended states in energy space. The possible relevance of the results presented here to experiments in quasi-one-dimensional atoms is also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hebenstreit, F.; Alkofer, R.; Gies, H.
2010-01-01
The nonperturbative electron-positron pair production (Schwinger effect) is considered for space- and time-dependent electric fields E-vector(x-vector,t). Based on the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism, we derive a system of partial differential equations of infinite order for the 16 irreducible components of the Wigner function. In the limit of spatially homogeneous fields the Vlasov equation of quantum kinetic theory is rediscovered. It is shown that the quantum kinetic formalism can be exactly solved in the case of a constant electric field E(t)=E 0 and the Sauter-type electric field E(t)=E 0 sech 2 (t/τ). These analytic solutions translate into corresponding expressions within the Dirac-Heisenberg-Wigner formalism and allow to discuss the effect of higher derivatives. We observe that spatial field variations typically exert a strong influence on the components of the Wigner function for large momenta or for late times.
Elizaga Navascués, Beatriz; Martín de Blas, Daniel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.
2018-02-01
Loop quantum cosmology has recently been applied in order to extend the analysis of primordial perturbations to the Planck era and discuss the possible effects of quantum geometry on the cosmic microwave background. Two approaches to loop quantum cosmology with admissible ultraviolet behavior leading to predictions that are compatible with observations are the so-called hybrid and dressed metric approaches. In spite of their similarities and relations, we show in this work that the effective equations that they provide for the evolution of the tensor and scalar perturbations are somewhat different. When backreaction is neglected, the discrepancy appears only in the time-dependent mass term of the corresponding field equations. We explain the origin of this difference, arising from the distinct quantization procedures. Besides, given the privileged role that the big bounce plays in loop quantum cosmology, e.g. as a natural instant of time to set initial conditions for the perturbations, we also analyze the positivity of the time-dependent mass when this bounce occurs. We prove that the mass of the tensor perturbations is positive in the hybrid approach when the kinetic contribution to the energy density of the inflaton dominates over its potential, as well as for a considerably large sector of backgrounds around that situation, while this mass is always nonpositive in the dressed metric approach. Similar results are demonstrated for the scalar perturbations in a sector of background solutions that includes the kinetically dominated ones; namely, the mass then is positive for the hybrid approach, whereas it typically becomes negative in the dressed metric case. More precisely, this last statement is strictly valid when the potential is quadratic for values of the inflaton mass that are phenomenologically favored.
Kim, Ilki; von Spakovsky, Michael R.
2017-08-01
Quantum systems driven by time-dependent Hamiltonians are considered here within the framework of steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics (SEAQT) and used to study the thermodynamic characteristics of such systems. In doing so, a generalization of the SEAQT framework valid for all such systems is provided, leading to the development of an ab initio physically relevant expression for the intrarelaxation time, an important element of this framework and one that had as of yet not been uniquely determined as an integral part of the theory. The resulting expression for the relaxation time is valid as well for time-independent Hamiltonians as a special case and makes the description provided by the SEAQT framework more robust at the fundamental level. In addition, the SEAQT framework is used to help resolve a fundamental issue of thermodynamics in the quantum domain, namely, that concerning the unique definition of process-dependent work and heat functions. The developments presented lead to the conclusion that this framework is not just an alternative approach to thermodynamics in the quantum domain but instead one that uniquely sheds new light on various fundamental but as of yet not completely resolved questions of thermodynamics.
Quantum physics. Vol. 2. From time-dependent dynamics to many-body physics and quantum chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zelevinsky, Vladimir
2011-01-01
This two-volume set can be naturally divided into two semester courses, and contains a full modern graduate course in quantum physics. The idea is to teach graduate students how to practically use quantum physics and theory, presenting the fundamental knowledge, and gradually moving on to applications, including atomic, nuclear and solid state physics, as well as modern subfields, such as quantum chaos and quantum entanglement. The book starts with basic quantum problems, which do not require full quantum formalism but allow the student to gain the necessary experience and elements of quantum thinking. Only then does the fundamental Schrodinger equation appear. The author has included topics that are not usually covered in standard textbooks and has written the book in such a way that every topic contains varying layers of difficulty, so that the instructor can decide where to stop. Although supplementary sources are not required, ''Further reading'' is given for each chapter, including references to scientific journals and publications, and a glossary is also provided. Problems and solutions are integrated throughout the text. (orig.)
Quantum physics. Vol. 2. From time-dependent dynamics to many-body physics and quantum chaos
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zelevinsky, Vladimir [NSCL Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy
2011-07-01
This two-volume set can be naturally divided into two semester courses, and contains a full modern graduate course in quantum physics. The idea is to teach graduate students how to practically use quantum physics and theory, presenting the fundamental knowledge, and gradually moving on to applications, including atomic, nuclear and solid state physics, as well as modern subfields, such as quantum chaos and quantum entanglement. The book starts with basic quantum problems, which do not require full quantum formalism but allow the student to gain the necessary experience and elements of quantum thinking. Only then does the fundamental Schrodinger equation appear. The author has included topics that are not usually covered in standard textbooks and has written the book in such a way that every topic contains varying layers of difficulty, so that the instructor can decide where to stop. Although supplementary sources are not required, ''Further reading'' is given for each chapter, including references to scientific journals and publications, and a glossary is also provided. Problems and solutions are integrated throughout the text. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kotler, Z.; Neria, E.; Nitzan, A. (Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Chemistry)
1991-02-01
The use of the time-dependent self-consistent field approximation (TDSCF) in the numerical solution of quantum curve crossing and tunneling dynamical problems is investigated. Particular emphasis is given to multiconfiguration TDSCF (MCTDSCF) approximations, which are shown to perform considerably better with only a small increase in computational effort. We investigate a number of simple models in which a 'system' characterized by two electronic potential surfaces evolves while interacting with a 'bath' mode described by an harmonic oscillator, and compare exact numerical solutions to one- and two-configuration TDSCF approximations. We also introduce and investigate a semiclassical approximation in which the 'bath' mode is described by semiclassical wavepackets (one for each electronic state) and show that for all models investigated this scheme works very well in comparison with the fully quantum MCTDSCF approximation. This provides a potentially very useful method to simulate strongly quantum systems coupled to an essentially classical environment. (orig.).
Length expectation values in quantum Regge calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khatsymovsky, V.M.
2004-01-01
Regge calculus configuration superspace can be embedded into a more general superspace where the length of any edge is defined ambiguously depending on the 4-tetrahedron containing the edge. Moreover, the latter superspace can be extended further so that even edge lengths in each the 4-tetrahedron are not defined, only area tensors of the 2-faces in it are. We make use of our previous result concerning quantization of the area tensor Regge calculus which gives finite expectation values for areas. Also our result is used showing that quantum measure in the Regge calculus can be uniquely fixed once we know quantum measure on (the space of the functionals on) the superspace of the theory with ambiguously defined edge lengths. We find that in this framework quantization of the usual Regge calculus is defined up to a parameter. The theory may possess nonzero (of the order of Planck scale) or zero length expectation values depending on whether this parameter is larger or smaller than a certain value. Vanishing length expectation values means that the theory is becoming continuous, here dynamically in the originally discrete framework
Yao, Yao; Sun, Ke-Wei; Luo, Zhen; Ma, Haibo
2018-01-18
The accurate theoretical interpretation of ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy experiments relies on full quantum dynamics simulations for the investigated system, which is nevertheless computationally prohibitive for realistic molecular systems with a large number of electronic and/or vibrational degrees of freedom. In this work, we propose a unitary transformation approach for realistic vibronic Hamiltonians, which can be coped with using the adaptive time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (t-DMRG) method to efficiently evolve the nonadiabatic dynamics of a large molecular system. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of this approach with an example of simulating the exciton dissociation process within an oligothiophene/fullerene heterojunction, indicating that t-DMRG can be a promising method for full quantum dynamics simulation in large chemical systems. Moreover, it is also shown that the proper vibronic features in the ultrafast electronic process can be obtained by simulating the two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectrum by virtue of the high computational efficiency of the t-DMRG method.
Time-dependent pH sensing phenomena using CdSe/ZnS quantum dots in EIS structure.
Kumar, Pankaj; Maikap, Siddheswar; Prakash, Amit; Tien, Ta-Chang
2014-04-12
Time-dependent pH sensing phenomena of the core-shell CdSe/ZnS quantum dot (QD) sensors in EIS (electrolyte insulator semiconductor) structure have been investigated for the first time. The quantum dots are immobilized by chaperonin GroEL protein, which are observed by both atomic force microscope and scanning electron microscope. The diameter of one QD is approximately 6.5 nm. The QDs are not oxidized over a long time and core-shell CdSe/ZnS are confirmed by X-ray photon spectroscopy. The sensors are studied for sensing of hydrogen ions concentration in different buffer solutions at broad pH range of 2 to 12. The QD sensors show improved sensitivity (38 to 55 mV/pH) as compared to bare SiO2 sensor (36 to 23 mV/pH) with time period of 0 to 24 months, owing to the reduction of defects in the QDs. Therefore, the differential sensitivity of the QD sensors with respect to the bare SiO2 sensors is improved from 2 to 32 mV/pH for the time period of 0 to 24 months. After 24 months, the sensitivity of the QD sensors is close to ideal Nernstian response with good linearity of 99.96%. Stability and repeatability of the QD sensors show low drift (10 mV for 10 cycles) as well as small hysteresis characteristics (sensor is very useful for future human disease diagnostics.
Fliller, Raymond P; Hartung, Walter
2005-01-01
A system was developed at INFN Milano for preparing cesium telluride photo-cathodes and transferring them into an RF gun under ultra-high vacuum. This system has been in use at the Fermilab NICADD Photo-Injector Laboratory (FNPL) since 1997. A similar load-lock system is used at the TeSLA Test Facility at DESY-Hamburg. Two 1.625-cell high duty cycle RF guns have been fabricated for the project. Studies of the photo-emission and field emission ("dark current") behavior of both RF guns have been carried out. Unexpected phenomena were observed in one of the RF guns. In situ changes in the cathode's quantum efficiency and dark current with time were seen during operation of the photo-injector. These changes were correlated with the magnetostatic field at the cathode.* In addition, multipacting is observed in the RF guns under certain conditions. Recent measurements indicate a correlation between multipacting, anomalous photo-emission behavior, and anomalous field emission behavior. Results will be presented.
Tian, Heng; Chen, GuanHua
2013-10-01
Going beyond the limitations of our earlier works [X. Zheng, F. Wang, C.Y. Yam, Y. Mo, G.H. Chen, Phys. Rev. B 75, 195127 (2007); X. Zheng, G.H. Chen, Y. Mo, S.K. Koo, H. Tian, C.Y. Yam, Y.J. Yan, J. Chem. Phys. 133, 114101 (2010)], we propose, in this manuscript, a new alternative approach to simulate time-dependent quantum transport phenomenon from first-principles. This new practical approach, still retaining the formal exactness of HEOM framework, does not rely on any intractable parametrization scheme and the pole structure of Fermi distribution function, thus, can seamlessly incorporated into first-principles simulation and treat transient response of an open electronic systems to an external bias voltage at both zero and finite temperatures on the equal footing. The salient feature of this approach is surveyed, and its time complexity is analysed. As a proof-of-principle of this approach, simulation of the transient current of one dimensional tight-binding chain, driven by some direct external voltages, is demonstrated.
Huo, Ming-Xia; Li, Ying
2017-12-01
Quantum error correction is important to quantum information processing, which allows us to reliably process information encoded in quantum error correction codes. Efficient quantum error correction benefits from the knowledge of error rates. We propose a protocol for monitoring error rates in real time without interrupting the quantum error correction. Any adaptation of the quantum error correction code or its implementation circuit is not required. The protocol can be directly applied to the most advanced quantum error correction techniques, e.g. surface code. A Gaussian processes algorithm is used to estimate and predict error rates based on error correction data in the past. We find that using these estimated error rates, the probability of error correction failures can be significantly reduced by a factor increasing with the code distance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Revai, Janos.
1988-10-01
A model was attempted to construct which, on one hand, is flexible enough to imitate certain physical properties of real systems and, on the other hand, allows exact solution of its time dependent dynamics. This double goal is proposed to achieve by using separable interactions. A particle moving in an external field consisting of a stationary attractive and a time dependent repulsive part is proposed for the model in question. Due to the use of separable interactions, the time evolution dynamics can be solved exactly, and the model can be applied for studying time evolution of quasi-stationary states. (R.P.) 7 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Chuanji; Zhu Qinsheng; Wu Shaoyi
2010-01-01
Based on algebraic dynamics and the concept of the concurrence of the entanglement, we investigate the evolutive properties of the two-qubit entanglement that formed by Heisenberg XXX models under a time-depending external held. For this system, the property of the concurrence that is only dependent on the coupling constant J and total values of the external field is proved. Furthermore, we found that the thermal concurrence of the system under a static random external field is a function of the coupling constant J, temperature T, and the magnitude of external held. (general)
Koole, R.; Schapotschnikow, P.Z.; de Mello Donega, C.; Vlugt, T.J.H.; Meijerink, A.
2008-01-01
The exchange kinetics of native ligands that passivate CdSe quantum dots (hexadecylamine (HDA), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), and trioctylphosphine (TOP)) by thiols is followed in situ. This is realized by measuring, in real-time, the decrease in emission intensity of the QDs upon addition of
Head-Marsden, Kade; Mazziotti, David A
2015-02-07
For an open, time-dependent quantum system, Lindblad derived the most general modification of the quantum Liouville equation in the Markovian approximation that models environmental effects while preserving the non-negativity of the system's density matrix. While Lindblad's modification is correct for N-electron density matrices, solution of the Liouville equation with a Lindblad operator causes the one-electron reduced density matrix (1-RDM) to violate the Pauli exclusion principle. Consequently, after a short time, the 1-RDM is not representable by an ensemble N-electron density matrix (not ensemble N-representable). In this communication, we derive the necessary and sufficient constraints on the Lindbladian matrix within the Lindblad operator to ensure that the 1-RDM remains N-representable for all time. The theory is illustrated by considering the relaxation of an excitation in several molecules F2, N2, CO, and BeH2 subject to environmental noise.
Chern-Simons expectation values and quantum horizons from loop quantum gravity and the Duflo map.
Sahlmann, Hanno; Thiemann, Thomas
2012-03-16
We report on a new approach to the calculation of Chern-Simons theory expectation values, using the mathematical underpinnings of loop quantum gravity, as well as the Duflo map, a quantization map for functions on Lie algebras. These new developments can be used in the quantum theory for certain types of black hole horizons, and they may offer new insights for loop quantum gravity, Chern-Simons theory and the theory of quantum groups.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krönke, Sven; Cao, Lushuai; Schmelcher, Peter; Vendrell, Oriol
2013-01-01
We develop and apply the multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method for bosons, which represents an ab initio method for investigating the non-equilibrium quantum dynamics of multi-species bosonic systems. Its multi-layer feature allows for tailoring the wave function ansatz to describe intra- and inter-species correlations accurately and efficiently. To demonstrate the beneficial scaling and efficiency of the method, we explored the correlated tunneling dynamics of two species with repulsive intra- and inter-species interactions, to which a third species with vanishing intra-species interaction was weakly coupled. The population imbalances of the first two species can feature a temporal equilibration and their time evolution significantly depends on the coupling to the third species. Bosons of the first and second species exhibit a bunching tendency, whose strength can be influenced by their coupling to the third species. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masiello, David J.; Reinhardt, William P.
2007-01-01
A time-dependent multiconfigurational self-consistent field theory is presented to describe the many-body dynamics of a gas of identical bosonic atoms confined to an external trapping potential at zero temperature from first principles. A set of generalized evolution equations are developed, through the time-dependent variational principle, which account for the complete and self-consistent coupling between the expansion coefficients of each configuration and the underlying one-body wave functions within a restricted two state Fock space basis that includes the full effects of the condensate's mean field as well as atomic correlation. The resulting dynamical equations are a classical Hamiltonian system and, by construction, form a well-defined initial value problem. They are implemented in an efficient numerical algorithm. An example is presented, highlighting the generality of the theory, in which the ballistic expansion of a fragmented condensate ground state is compared to that of a macroscopic quantum superposition state, taken here to be a highly entangled number state, upon releasing the external trapping potential. Strikingly different many-body matter-wave dynamics emerge in each case, accentuating the role of both atomic correlation and mean-field effects in the two condensate states
Thermal state of the general time-dependent harmonic oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Taking advantage of dynamical invariant operator, we derived quantum mechanical solution of general time-dependent harmonic oscillator. The uncertainty relation of the system is always larger than ħ=2 not only in number but also in the thermal state as expected. We used the diagonal elements of density operator ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhong, Xinxin; Zhao, Yi; Cao, Jianshu
2014-01-01
The time-dependent wavepacket diffusion method for carrier quantum dynamics (Zhong and Zhao 2013 J. Chem. Phys. 138 014111), a truncated version of the stochastic Schrödinger equation/wavefunction approach that approximately satisfies the detailed balance principle and scales well with the size of the system, is applied to investigate the carrier transport in one-dimensional systems including both the static and dynamic disorders on site energies. The predicted diffusion coefficients with respect to temperature successfully bridge from band-like to hopping-type transport. As demonstrated in paper I (Moix et al 2013 New J. Phys. 15 085010), the static disorder tends to localize the carrier, whereas the dynamic disorder induces carrier dynamics. For the weak dynamic disorder, the diffusion coefficients are temperature-independent (band-like property) at low temperatures, which is consistent with the prediction from the Redfield equation, and a linear dependence of the coefficient on temperature (hopping-type property) only appears at high temperatures. In the intermediate regime of dynamic disorder, the transition from band-like to hopping-type transport can be easily observed at relatively low temperatures as the static disorder increases. When the dynamic disorder becomes strong, the carrier motion can follow the hopping-type mechanism even without static disorder. Furthermore, it is found that the memory time of dynamic disorder is an important factor in controlling the transition from the band-like to hopping-type motions. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vikas
2011-01-01
Evolution of the helium atom in a strong time-dependent (TD) magnetic field (B) of strength up to 10 11 G is investigated through a quantum fluid dynamics (QFD) based current-density functional theory (CDFT). The TD-QFD-CDFT computations are performed through numerical solution of a single generalized nonlinear Schroedinger equation employing vector exchange-correlation potentials and scalar exchange-correlation density functionals that depend both on the electronic charge-density and the current-density. The results are compared with that obtained from a B-TD-QFD-DFT approach (based on conventional TD-DFT) under similar numerical constraints but employing only scalar exchange-correlation potential dependent on electronic charge-density only. The B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, at a particular TD magnetic field-strength, yields electronic charge- and current-densities as well as exchange-correlation potential resembling with that obtained from the time-independent studies involving static (time-independent) magnetic fields. However, TD-QFD-CDFT electronic charge- and current-densities along with the exchange-correlation potential and energy differ significantly from that obtained using B-TD-QFD-DFT approach, particularly at field-strengths >10 9 G, representing dynamical effects of a TD field. The work concludes that when a helium atom is subjected to a strong TD magnetic field of order >10 9 G, the conventional TD-DFT based approach differs 'dynamically' from the CDFT based approach under similar computational constraints. (author)
Kishi, Ryohei; Nakano, Masayoshi
2011-04-21
A novel method for the calculation of the dynamic polarizability (α) of open-shell molecular systems is developed based on the quantum master equation combined with the broken-symmetry (BS) time-dependent density functional theory within the Tamm-Dancoff approximation, referred to as the BS-DFTQME method. We investigate the dynamic α density distribution obtained from BS-DFTQME calculations in order to analyze the spatial contributions of electrons to the field-induced polarization and clarify the contributions of the frontier orbital pair to α and its density. To demonstrate the performance of this method, we examine the real part of dynamic α of singlet 1,3-dipole systems having a variety of diradical characters (y). The frequency dispersion of α, in particular in the resonant region, is shown to strongly depend on the exchange-correlation functional as well as on the diradical character. Under sufficiently off-resonant condition, the dynamic α is found to decrease with increasing y and/or the fraction of Hartree-Fock exchange in the exchange-correlation functional, which enhances the spin polarization, due to the decrease in the delocalization effects of π-diradical electrons in the frontier orbital pair. The BS-DFTQME method with the BHandHLYP exchange-correlation functional also turns out to semiquantitatively reproduce the α spectra calculated by a strongly correlated ab initio molecular orbital method, i.e., the spin-unrestricted coupled-cluster singles and doubles.
Wang, Mengmeng; Wang, Jilong; Sun, Hubo; Han, Sihai; Feng, Shuai; Shi, Lu; Meng, Peijun; Li, Jiayi; Huang, Peili; Sun, Zhiwei
2016-01-01
A complete understanding of the toxicological behavior of quantum dots (QDs) in vivo is of great importance and a prerequisite for their application in humans. In contrast with the numerous cytotoxicity studies investigating QDs, only a few in vivo studies of QDs have been reported, and the issue remains controversial. Our study aimed to understand QD-mediated toxicity across different time points and to explore the roles of free cadmium ions (Cd(2+)) and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) in tissue damage. Male ICR mice were administered a single intravenous dose (1.5 µmol/kg) of CdTe QDs, and liver and kidney function and morphology were subsequently examined at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days. Furthermore, ·OH production in the tissue was quantified by trapping · OH with salicylic acid (SA) as 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) and detecting it using a high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method. We used the induction of tissue metallothionein levels and 2,3-DHBA:SA ratios as markers for elevated Cd(2+) from the degradation of QDs and ·OH generation in the tissue, respectively. Our experimental results revealed that the QD-induced histopathological changes were time-dependent with elevated Cd(2+) and ·OH, and could recover after a period of time. The Cd(2+) and ·OH exhibited delayed effects in terms of histopathological abnormalities. Histological assessments performed at multiple time points might facilitate the evaluation of the biological safety of QDs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang M
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Mengmeng Wang,1,2,* Jilong Wang,1,2,* Hubo Sun,1,2 Sihai Han,3 Shuai Feng,1 Lu Shi,1 Peijun Meng,1,2 Jiayi Li,1,2 Peili Huang,1,2 Zhiwei Sun1,2 1Department of Toxicology and Sanitary Chemistry, School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, Capital Medical University, Beijing, 3College of Food and Bioengineering, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: A complete understanding of the toxicological behavior of quantum dots (QDs in vivo is of great importance and a prerequisite for their application in humans. In contrast with the numerous cytotoxicity studies investigating QDs, only a few in vivo studies of QDs have been reported, and the issue remains controversial. Our study aimed to understand QD-mediated toxicity across different time points and to explore the roles of free cadmium ions (Cd2+ and hydroxyl radicals (·OH in tissue damage. Male ICR mice were administered a single intravenous dose (1.5 µmol/kg of CdTe QDs, and liver and kidney function and morphology were subsequently examined at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days. Furthermore, ·OH production in the tissue was quantified by trapping ·OH with salicylic acid (SA as 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA and detecting it using a high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence method. We used the induction of tissue metallothionein levels and 2,3-DHBA:SA ratios as markers for elevated Cd2+ from the degradation of QDs and ·OH generation in the tissue, respectively. Our experimental results revealed that the QD-induced histopathological changes were time-dependent with elevated Cd2+ and ·OH, and could recover after a period of time. The Cd2+ and ·OH exhibited delayed effects in terms of histopathological abnormalities. Histological assessments performed at multiple time points might facilitate the evaluation of the biological safety of
Rivero Santamaría, Alejandro; Dayou, Fabrice; Rubayo-Soneira, Jesus; Monnerville, Maurice
2017-03-02
The dynamics of the Si( 3 P) + OH(X 2 Π) → SiO(X 1 Σ + ) + H( 2 S) reaction is investigated by means of the time-dependent wave packet (TDWP) approach using an ab initio potential energy surface recently developed by Dayou et al. ( J. Chem. Phys. 2013 , 139 , 204305 ) for the ground X 2 A' electronic state. Total reaction probabilities have been calculated for the first 15 rotational states j = 0-14 of OH(v=0,j) at a total angular momentum J = 0 up to a collision energy of 1 eV. Integral cross sections and state-selected rate constants for the temperature range 10-500 K were obtained within the J-shifting approximation. The reaction probabilities display highly oscillatory structures indicating the contribution of long-lived quasibound states supported by the deep SiOH/HSiO wells. The cross sections behave with collision energies as expected for a barrierless reaction and are slightly sensitive to the initial rotational excitation of OH. The thermal rate constants show a marked temperature dependence below 200 K with a maximum value around 15 K. The TDWP results globally agree with the results of earlier quasi-classical trajectory (QCT) calculations carried out by Rivero-Santamaria et al. ( Chem. Phys. Lett. 2014 , 610-611 , 335 - 340 ) with the same potential energy surface. In particular, the thermal rate constants display a similar temperature dependence, with TDWP values smaller than the QCT ones over the whole temperature range.
Inglesfield, J. E.
2007-01-01
A method of solving the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation is presented, in which a finite region of space is treated explicitly, with the boundary conditions for matching the wave-functions on to the rest of the system replaced by an embedding term added on to the Hamiltonian. This time-dependent embedding term is derived from the Fourier transform of the energy-dependent embedding potential, which embeds the time-independent Schr\\"odinger equation. Results are presented for a one-dimensi...
Time dependent drift Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boozer, A.H.
1982-04-01
The motion of individual charged particles in a given magnetic and an electric fields is discussed. An idea of a guiding center distribution function f is introduced. The guiding center distribution function is connected to the asymptotic Hamiltonian through the drift kinetic equation. The general non-stochastic magnetic field can be written in a contravariant and a covariant forms. The drift Hamiltonian is proposed, and the canonical gyroradius is presented. The proposed drift Hamiltonian agrees with Alfven's drift velocity to lowest non-vanishing order in the gyroradius. The relation between the exact, time dependent equations of motion and the guiding center equation is clarified by a Lagrangian analysis. The deduced Lagrangian represents the drift motion. (Kato, T.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinez, Rodrigo; Sierra, Jose Daniel; Gray, Stephen K.; Gonzalez, Miguel
2006-01-01
The time dependent real wave packet method using the helicity decoupling approximation was used to calculate the cross section evolution with collision energy (excitation function) of the O + +H 2 (v=0,j=0)→OH + +H reaction and its isotopic variants with D 2 and HD, using the best available ab initio analytical potential energy surface. The comparison of the calculated excitation functions with exact quantum results and experimental data showed that the present quantum dynamics approach is a very useful tool for the study of the selected and related systems, in a quite wide collision energy interval (approximately 0.0-1.1 eV), involving a much lower computational cost than the quantum exact methods and without a significant loss of accuracy in the cross sections
Cosmologies with a time dependent vacuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sola, Joan
2011-01-01
The idea that the cosmological term Λ should be a time dependent quantity in cosmology is a most natural one. It is difficult to conceive an expanding universe with a strictly constant vacuum energy density, ρ Λ = Λ/(8π G), namely one that has remained immutable since the origin of time. A smoothly evolving vacuum energy density ρ Λ = ρ Λ (ξ(t)) that inherits its time-dependence from cosmological functions ξ = ξ(t), such as the Hubble rate H(t) or the scale factor a(t), is not only a qualitatively more plausible and intuitive idea, but is also suggested by fundamental physics, in particular by quantum field theory (QFT) in curved space-time. To implement this notion, is not strictly necessary to resort to ad hoc scalar fields, as usually done in the literature (e.g. in quintessence formulations and the like). A 'running' Λ term can be expected on very similar grounds as one expects (and observes) the running of couplings and masses with a physical energy scale in QFT. Furthermore, the experimental evidence that the equation of state (EOS) of the dark energy (DE) could be evolving with time/redshift (including the possibility that it might currently behave phantom-like) suggests that a time-variable Λ = Λ(t) term (possibly accompanied by a variable Newton's gravitational coupling too, G = G(t)) could account in a natural way for all these features. Remarkably enough, a class of these models (the 'new cosmon') could even be the clue for solving the old cosmological constant problem, including the coincidence problem.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arvieu, R.; Carbonell, J.; Gignoux, C.; Mangin-Brinet, M.; Rozmej, P.
1997-01-01
The time evolution of coherent rotational wave packets associated to a diatomic molecule or to a deformed nucleus has been studied. Assuming a rigid body dynamics the J(J+1) law leads to a mechanism of cloning: the way function is divided into wave packets identical to the initial one at specific time. Applications are studied for a nuclear wave packed formed by Coulomb excitation. Exact boundary conditions at finite distance for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation are derived. A numerical scheme based on Crank-Nicholson method is proposed to illustrate its applicability in several examples. (authors)
Mosquera, Martín A.
2017-10-01
Provided the initial state, the Runge-Gross theorem establishes that the time-dependent (TD) external potential of a system of non-relativistic electrons determines uniquely their TD electronic density, and vice versa (up to a constant in the potential). This theorem requires the TD external potential and density to be Taylor-expandable around the initial time of the propagation. This paper presents an extension without this restriction. Given the initial state of the system and evolution of the density due to some TD scalar potential, we show that a perturbative (not necessarily weak) TD potential that induces a non-zero divergence of the external force-density, inside a small spatial subset and immediately after the initial propagation time, will cause a change in the density within that subset, implying that the TD potential uniquely determines the TD density. In this proof, we assume unitary evolution of wavefunctions and first-order differentiability (which does not imply analyticity) in time of the internal and external force-densities, electronic density, current density, and their spatial derivatives over the small spatial subset and short time interval.
Reddy, Araveeti Eswar; Rao, S. Srinivasa; Gopi, Chandu V. V. M.; Anitha, Tarugu; Thulasi-Varma, Chebrolu Venkata; Punnoose, Dinah; Kim, Hee-Je
2017-11-01
Cobalt sulfide (CoS) agglomerated nanoparticle thin films obtained by a facile chemical bath method at different deposition times. The CoS counter electrode (CE) deposited at 3 h deposition time (CC-3h) based quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) achieves higher power conversion efficiency (η) of 3.67% than those of CC-2h (1.83%), CC-4h (2.52%), and Pt (1.48%) CEs, under one sun illumination (100 mW cm-2, AM 1.5 G). The electrochemical analysis revealed that CC-3h CE shows a smaller charge transfer resistance (9.22 Ω) at the CE/electrolyte interface than the CC-2h (23.34 Ω), CC-4h (19.73 Ω) and Pt (139.92 Ω) CEs, respectively.
Monolayer phosphorene under time-dependent magnetic field
Nascimento, J. P. G.; Aguiar, V.; Guedes, I.
2018-02-01
We obtain the exact wave function of a monolayer phosphorene under a low-intensity time-dependent magnetic field using the dynamical invariant method. We calculate the quantum-mechanical energy expectation value and the transition probability for a constant and an oscillatory magnetic field. For the former we observe that the Landau level energy varies linearly with the quantum numbers n and m and the magnetic field intensity B0. No transition takes place. For the latter, we observe that the energy oscillates in time, increasing linearly with the Landau level n and m and nonlinearly with the magnetic field. The (k , l) →(n , m) transitions take place only for l = m. We investigate the (0,0) →(n , 0) and (1 , l) and (2 , l) probability transitions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marshman, Emily; Singh, Chandralekha
2017-01-01
The expectation value of an observable is an important concept in quantum mechanics since measurement outcomes are, in general, probabilistic and we only have information about the probability distribution of measurement outcomes in a given quantum state of a system. However, we find that upper-level undergraduate and PhD students in physics have both conceptual and procedural difficulties when determining the expectation value of a physical observable in a given quantum state in terms of the eigenstates and eigenvalues of the corresponding operator, especially when using Dirac notation. Here we first describe the difficulties that these students have with determining the expectation value of an observable in Dirac notation. We then discuss how the difficulties found via student responses to written surveys and individual interviews were used as a guide in the development of a quantum interactive learning tutorial (QuILT) to help students develop a good grasp of the expectation value. The QuILT strives to help students integrate conceptual understanding and procedural skills to develop a coherent understanding of the expectation value. We discuss the effectiveness of the QuILT in helping students learn this concept from in-class evaluations. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
depend on the reader’s own experiences, individual feelings, personal associations or on conventions of reading, interpretive communities and cultural conditions? This volume brings together narrative theory, fictionality theory and speech act theory to address such questions of expectations...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shore, B.W.; Eberly, J.H.
1983-01-01
The definition of a time-dependent spectrum registered by an idealized spectrometer responding to a time-varying electromagnetic field as proposed by Eberly and Wodkiewicz and subsequently applied to the spectrum of laser-induced fluorescence by Eberly, Kunasz, and Wodkiewicz is here extended to allow a stochastically fluctuating (interruption model) environment: we provide an algorithm for numerical determination of the time-dependent fluorescence spectrum of an atom subject to excitation by an intense noisy laser and interruptive relaxation
Time dependent resonating Hartree-Bogoliubov theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishiyama, Seiya; Fukutome, Hideo.
1989-01-01
Very recently, we have developed a theory of excitations in superconducting Fermion systems with large quantum fluctuations that can be described by resonance of time dependent non-orthogonal Hartree-Bogoliubov (HB) wave functions with different correlation structures. We have derived a new kind of variation equation called the time dependent Resonating HB equation, in order to determine both the time dependent Resonating HB wave functions and coefficients of a superposition of the HB wave functions. Further we have got a new approximation for excitations from time dependent small fluctuations of the Resonating HB ground state, i.e., the Resonating HB RPA. The Res HB RPA equation is represented in a given single particle basis. It, however, has drawbacks that the constraints for the Res HB RPA amplitudes are not taken into account and the equation contains equations which are not independent. We shall derive another form of the Res HB RPA equation eliminating these drawbacks. The Res HB RPA gives a unified description of the vibrons and resonons and their interactions. (author)
Time-dependent potential-functional embedding theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Chen; Libisch, Florian; Peng, Qing; Carter, Emily A.
2014-01-01
We introduce a time-dependent potential-functional embedding theory (TD-PFET), in which atoms are grouped into subsystems. In TD-PFET, subsystems can be propagated by different suitable time-dependent quantum mechanical methods and their interactions can be treated in a seamless, first-principles manner. TD-PFET is formulated based on the time-dependent quantum mechanics variational principle. The action of the total quantum system is written as a functional of the time-dependent embedding potential, i.e., a potential-functional formulation. By exploiting the Runge-Gross theorem, we prove the uniqueness of the time-dependent embedding potential under the constraint that all subsystems share a common embedding potential. We derive the integral equation that such an embedding potential needs to satisfy. As proof-of-principle, we demonstrate TD-PFET for a Na 4 cluster, in which each Na atom is treated as one subsystem and propagated by time-dependent Kohn-Sham density functional theory (TDDFT) using the adiabatic local density approximation (ALDA). Our results agree well with a direct TDDFT calculation on the whole Na 4 cluster using ALDA. We envision that TD-PFET will ultimately be useful for studying ultrafast quantum dynamics in condensed matter, where key regions are solved by highly accurate time-dependent quantum mechanics methods, and unimportant regions are solved by faster, less accurate methods
Calvi, Marta
2011-01-01
This review reports preliminary results of time-dependent measurements of decays of $B^0$ mesons and $B^0_s$ mesons coming from the analysis of about 36 pb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the LHCb experiment during the 2010 run of the Large Hadron Collider at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV.
Calvi, Marta; Collaboration, for the LHCb
2011-01-01
This review reports preliminary results of time-dependent measurements of decays of B^0 mesons and B^0_s mesons coming from the analysis of about 36 pb^-1 of data collected by the LHCb experiment during the 2010 run of the Large Hadron Collider at sqrt(s)=7 TeV.
Time dependent view factor methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirkpatrick, R.C.
1998-03-01
View factors have been used for treating radiation transport between opaque surfaces bounding a transparent medium for several decades. However, in recent years they have been applied to problems involving intense bursts of radiation in enclosed volumes such as in the laser fusion hohlraums. In these problems, several aspects require treatment of time dependence
Time dependent black holes and thermal equilibration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Karch, Andreas
2007-01-01
We study aspects of a recently proposed exact time dependent black hole solution of IIB string theory using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The dual field theory is a thermal system in which initially a vacuum density for a non-conserved operator is turned on. We can see that in agreement with general thermal field theory expectation the system equilibrates: the expectation value of the non-conserved operator goes to zero exponentially and the entropy increases. In the field theory the process can be described quantitatively in terms of a thermofield state and exact agreement with the gravity answers is found
Reconstructing time-dependent dynamics
Clemson, Philip; Lancaster, Gemma; Stefanovska, Aneta
2016-01-01
The usefulness of the information extracted from biomedical data relies heavily on the underlying theory of the methods used in its extraction. The assumptions of stationarity and autonomicity traditionally applied to dynamical systems break down when considering living systems, due to their inherent time-variability. Living systems are thermodynamically open, and thus constantly interacting with their environment. This results in highly nonlinear, time-dependent dynamics. The aim of signal a...
Prospects for time-dependent asymmetries at LHCb
INSPIRE-00260500
2012-01-01
LHCb is already providing leading measurements of time-dependent CP asymmetries with 1 fb$^{-1}$ of data. With the LHCb detector, and further one with the LHCb upgrade, very high-precision time-dependent CP measurements are expected to stringently test the CKM paradigm and to the search for possible small NP effects. A review of the current precision and the prospects for these time-dependent quantities with the LHCb and LHCb upgraded detectors are summarised in this paper.
Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beck, R.; Drury, L.O.
1985-01-01
Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The same argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions
Selfsimilar time dependent shock structures
Beck, R.; Drury, L. O.
1985-01-01
Diffusive shock acceleration as an astrophysical mechanism for accelerating charged particles has the advantage of being highly efficient. This means however that the theory is of necessity nonlinear; the reaction of the accelerated particles on the shock structure and the acceleration process must be self-consistently included in any attempt to develop a complete theory of diffusive shock acceleration. Considerable effort has been invested in attempting, at least partially, to do this and it has become clear that in general either the maximum particle energy must be restricted by introducing additional loss processes into the problem or the acceleration must be treated as a time dependent problem (Drury, 1984). It is concluded that stationary modified shock structures can only exist for strong shocks if additional loss processes limit the maximum energy a particle can attain. This is certainly possible and if it occurs the energy loss from the shock will lead to much greater shock compressions. It is however equally possible that no such processes exist and we must then ask what sort of nonstationary shock structure develops. The ame argument which excludes stationary structures also rules out periodic solutions and indeed any solution where the width of the shock remains bounded. It follows that the width of the shock must increase secularly with time and it is natural to examine the possibility of selfsimilar time dependent solutions.
Betweenness in time dependent networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alsayed, Ahmad; Higham, Desmond J.
2015-01-01
The concept of betweenness has given rise to a very useful class of network centrality measures. Loosely, betweenness quantifies the level of importance of a node in terms of its propensity to act as an intermediary when messages are passed around the network. In this work we generalize a walk-based betweenness measure to the case of time-dependent networks, such as those arising in telecommunications and on-line social media. We also introduce a new kind of betweenness measure, temporal betweenness, which quantifies the importance of a time-point. We illustrate the effectiveness of these new measures on synthetic examples, and also give results on real data sets involving voice call, email and Twitter
A Generalized Time-Dependent Harmonic Oscillator at Finite Temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majima, H.; Suzuki, A.
2006-01-01
We show how a generalized time-dependent harmonic oscillator (GTHO) is extended to a finite temperature case by using thermo field dynamics (TFD). We derive the general time-dependent annihilation and creation operators for the system, and obtain the time-dependent quasiparticle annihilation and creation operators for the GTHO by using the temperature-dependent Bogoliubov transformation of TFD. We also obtain the thermal state as a two-mode squeezed vacuum state in the time-dependent case as well as in the time-independent case. The general formula is derived to calculate the thermal expectation value of operators
Simulation of time-dependent Heisenberg models in one dimension
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Volosniev, A. G.; Hammer, H. -W.; Zinner, N. T.
2016-01-01
In this Letter, we provide a theoretical analysis of strongly interacting quantum systems confined by a time-dependent external potential in one spatial dimension. We show that such systems can be used to simulate spin chains described by Heisenberg Hamiltonians in which the exchange coupling...... constants can be manipulated by time-dependent driving of the shape of the external confinement. As illustrative examples, we consider a harmonic trapping potential with a variable frequency and an infinite square well potential with a time-dependent barrier in the middle....
Integrating speech in time depends on temporal expectancies and attention.
Scharinger, Mathias; Steinberg, Johanna; Tavano, Alessandro
2017-08-01
Sensory information that unfolds in time, such as in speech perception, relies on efficient chunking mechanisms in order to yield optimally-sized units for further processing. Whether or not two successive acoustic events receive a one-unit or a two-unit interpretation seems to depend on the fit between their temporal extent and a stipulated temporal window of integration. However, there is ongoing debate on how flexible this temporal window of integration should be, especially for the processing of speech sounds. Furthermore, there is no direct evidence of whether attention may modulate the temporal constraints on the integration window. For this reason, we here examine how different word durations, which lead to different temporal separations of sound onsets, interact with attention. In an Electroencephalography (EEG) study, participants actively and passively listened to words where word-final consonants were occasionally omitted. Words had either a natural duration or were artificially prolonged in order to increase the separation of speech sound onsets. Omission responses to incomplete speech input, originating in left temporal cortex, decreased when the critical speech sound was separated from previous sounds by more than 250 msec, i.e., when the separation was larger than the stipulated temporal window of integration (125-150 msec). Attention, on the other hand, only increased omission responses for stimuli with natural durations. We complemented the event-related potential (ERP) analyses by a frequency-domain analysis on the stimulus presentation rate. Notably, the power of stimulation frequency showed the same duration and attention effects than the omission responses. We interpret these findings on the background of existing research on temporal integration windows and further suggest that our findings may be accounted for within the framework of predictive coding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin
2014-01-01
The expectation value definitions over an extended space from the considered Hilbert space of the system under consideration is given in another paper of the second author in this symposium. There, in that paper, the conceptuality rather than specification is emphasized on. This work uses that conceptuality to investigate the time evolutions of the position related operators' expectation values not in its standard meaning but rather in a new version of the definition over not the original Hilbert space but in the space obtained by extensions via introducing the images of the given initial wave packet under the positive integer powers of the system Hamiltonian. These images may not be residing in the same space of the initial wave packet when certain singularities appear in the structure of the system Hamiltonian. This may break down the existence of the integrals in the definitions of the expectation values. The cure is the use of basis functions in the abovementioned extended space and the sandwiching of the target operator whose expectation value is under questioning by an appropriately chosen operator guaranteeing the existence of the relevant integrals. Work specifically focuses on the hydrogen-like quantum systems whose Hamiltonians contain a polar singularity at the origin
Construction of time-dependent dynamical invariants: A new approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertin, M. C.; Pimentel, B. M.; Ramirez, J. A.
2012-01-01
We propose a new way to obtain polynomial dynamical invariants of the classical and quantum time-dependent harmonic oscillator from the equations of motion. We also establish relations between linear and quadratic invariants, and discuss how the quadratic invariant can be related to the Ermakov invariant.
Path integral solution for some time-dependent potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Storchak, S.N.
1989-12-01
The quantum-mechanical problem with a time-dependent potential is solved by the path integral method. The solution is obtained by the application of the previously derived general formula for rheonomic homogeneous point transformation and reparametrization in the path integral. (author). 4 refs
On the initial conditions of time-dependent mean-field equations of evolution. Pt. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Troudet, T.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay
1986-01-01
We analyze the problem so far untouched of determining the initial mean-field wavefunction in the context of zero-temperature mean-field descriptions of time-dependent expectation values and quantum fluctuations of nuclear observables. The nucleus, at zero temperature, is taken to be in a low-lying excited many-body eigenstate and is approximated by the corresponding RPA wavefunction as a continuous superposition of coherent states (i.e. Slater determinants). A generating function Gsub(A)(lambda) for time-dependent expectation values and quantum fluctuations is constructed within the formalism of functional integration. By applying the saddle-point method to the functional action of Gsub(A)(lambda) and then taking its lambda-derivatives, we recover the well-known TDHF theory and propose a simple determination of the initial Slater determinant for an appropriate mean-field description of time-dependent expectation values. The analog mean-field description of quadratic-quantum fluctuations proceeds similarly and in addition includes the contribution of the uncorrelated TDHF-RPA phonons coupled to collective excitations of the initial (static) mean-field configuration. When the collective TDHF-RPA excitations are solely taken into account, we obtain an improved version of the Balian-Veneroni dispersion formula by showing how to determine the initial mean-field wavefunction. By first taking the lambda-derivatives of Gsub(A)(lambda) before applying the saddle-point method, the initial mean-field wavefunction is found to be non-linearly coupled to the mean-field dynamics themselves. In return, and in contrast to the first quantization scheme, these both depend non-trivially upon the observable A being measured so that approximations must be proposed to simplify the resulting mean-field equations. (orig.)
Time-dependent density functional theory for many-electron systems interacting with cavity photons.
Tokatly, I V
2013-06-07
Time-dependent (current) density functional theory for many-electron systems strongly coupled to quantized electromagnetic modes of a microcavity is proposed. It is shown that the electron-photon wave function is a unique functional of the electronic (current) density and the expectation values of photonic coordinates. The Kohn-Sham system is constructed, which allows us to calculate the above basic variables by solving self-consistent equations for noninteracting particles. We suggest possible approximations for the exchange-correlation potentials and discuss implications of this approach for the theory of open quantum systems. In particular we show that it naturally leads to time-dependent density functional theory for systems coupled to the Caldeira-Leggett bath.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lo, C.F.
2009-01-01
By applying the standard analytical techniques of solving partial differential equations, we have obtained the exact solution in terms of the Fourier sine series to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation describing a quantum one-dimensional harmonic oscillator of time-dependent frequency confined in an infinite square well with the two walls moving along some parametric trajectories. Based upon the orthonormal basis of quasi-stationary wave functions, the exact propagator of the system has also been analytically derived. Special cases like (i) a confined free particle, (ii) a confined time-independent harmonic oscillator, and (iii) an aging oscillator are examined, and the corresponding time-dependent wave functions are explicitly determined. Besides, the approach has been extended to solve the case of a confined generalized time-dependent harmonic oscillator for some parametric moving boundaries as well. (general)
Kwato-Njock, K
2002-01-01
A search is conducted for the determination of expectation values of r sup q between Dirac and quasirelativistic radial wave functions in the quantum-defect approximation. The phenomenological and supersymmetry-inspired quantum-defect models which have proven so far to yield accurate results are used. The recursive structure of formulae derived on the basis of the hypervirial theorem enables us to develop explicit relations for arbitrary values of q. Detailed numerical calculations concerning alkali-metal-like ions of the Li-, Na- and Cu-iso electronic sequences confirm the superiority of supersymmetry-based quantum-defect theory over quantum-defect orbital and exact orbital quantum number approximations. It is also shown that relativistic rather than quasirelativistic treatment may be used for consistent inclusion of relativistic effects.
Kwato-Njock, M G; Oumarou, B
2002-01-01
A search is conducted for the determination of expectation values of $r^q$ between Dirac and quasirelativistic radial wave functions in the quantum-defect approximation. The phenomenological and supersymmetry-inspired quantum-defect models which have proven so far to yield accurate results are used. The recursive structure of formulae derived on the basis of the hypervirial theorem enables us to develop explicit relations for arbitrary values of $q$. Detailed numerical calculations concerning alkali-metal-like ions of the Li-, Na- and Cu-iso electronic sequences confirm the superiority of supersymmetry-based quantum-defect theory over quantum-defect orbital and exact orbital quantum number approximations. It is also shown that relativistic rather than quasirelativistic treatment may be used for consistent inclusion of relativistic effects.
Time-dependent Autler-Townes spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qamar, Sajid; Zhu, S.-Y.; Zubairy, M Suhail
2003-01-01
Autler-Townes spontaneous emission spectroscopy is revisited for a time-dependent case. We report the results of spontaneous emission spectra for nonstationary scattered light signals using the definition of the time-dependent physical spectrum. This is a rare example of problems where time-dependent spectra can be calculated exactly
Time-dependent Autler-Townes spectroscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Qamar, Sajid [Institute for Quantum Studies, Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Zhu, S.-Y. [Institute for Quantum Studies, Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Zubairy, M Suhail [Institute for Quantum Studies, Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States)
2003-04-01
Autler-Townes spontaneous emission spectroscopy is revisited for a time-dependent case. We report the results of spontaneous emission spectra for nonstationary scattered light signals using the definition of the time-dependent physical spectrum. This is a rare example of problems where time-dependent spectra can be calculated exactly.
Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Zhang
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.
Vacuum radiation induced by time dependent electric field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Bo, E-mail: zhangbolfrc@caep.cn [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Zhi-meng; Hong, Wei; He, Shu-Kai; Teng, Jian [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Gu, Yu-qiu, E-mail: yqgu@caep.cn [Department of High Energy Density Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory of Science and Technology on Plasma Physics, Research Center of Laser Fusion, 621900, Mianyang, Sichuan (China)
2017-04-10
Many predictions of new phenomena given by strong field quantum electrodynamics (SFQED) will be tested on next generation multi-petawatt laser facilities in the near future. These new phenomena are basis to understand physics in extremely strong electromagnetic fields therefore have attracted wide research interest. Here we discuss a new SFQED phenomenon that is named as vacuum radiation. In vacuum radiation, a virtual electron loop obtain energy from time dependent external electric field and radiate an entangled photon pair. Features of vacuum radiation in a locally time dependent electric field including spectrum, characteristic temperature, production rate and power are given.
Holographic complexity for time-dependent backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Momeni, Davood, E-mail: davoodmomeni78@gmail.com [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: mirfaizalmir@googlemail.com [Irving K. Barber School of Arts and Sciences, University of British Columbia, Okanagan, 3333 University Way, Kelowna, British Columbia V1V 1V7 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada); Bahamonde, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.beltran.14@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Myrzakulov, Ratbay [Eurasian International Center for Theoretical Physics and Department of General Theoretical Physics, Eurasian National University, Astana 010008 (Kazakhstan)
2016-11-10
In this paper, we will analyze the holographic complexity for time-dependent asymptotically AdS geometries. We will first use a covariant zero mean curvature slicing of the time-dependent bulk geometries, and then use this co-dimension one spacelike slice of the bulk spacetime to define a co-dimension two minimal surface. The time-dependent holographic complexity will be defined using the volume enclosed by this minimal surface. This time-dependent holographic complexity will reduce to the usual holographic complexity for static geometries. We will analyze the time-dependence as a perturbation of the asymptotically AdS geometries. Thus, we will obtain time-dependent asymptotically AdS geometries, and we will calculate the holographic complexity for such time-dependent geometries.
Quadratic time dependent Hamiltonians and separation of variables
Anzaldo-Meneses, A.
2017-06-01
Time dependent quantum problems defined by quadratic Hamiltonians are solved using canonical transformations. The Green's function is obtained and a comparison with the classical Hamilton-Jacobi method leads to important geometrical insights like exterior differential systems, Monge cones and time dependent Gaussian metrics. The Wei-Norman approach is applied using unitary transformations defined in terms of generators of the associated Lie groups, here the semi-direct product of the Heisenberg group and the symplectic group. A new explicit relation for the unitary transformations is given in terms of a finite product of elementary transformations. The sequential application of adequate sets of unitary transformations leads naturally to a new separation of variables method for time dependent Hamiltonians, which is shown to be related to the Inönü-Wigner contraction of Lie groups. The new method allows also a better understanding of interacting particles or coupled modes and opens an alternative way to analyze topological phases in driven systems.
Computational complexity of time-dependent density functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitfield, J D; Yung, M-H; Tempel, D G; Aspuru-Guzik, A; Boixo, S
2014-01-01
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is rapidly emerging as a premier method for solving dynamical many-body problems in physics and chemistry. The mathematical foundations of TDDFT are established through the formal existence of a fictitious non-interacting system (known as the Kohn–Sham system), which can reproduce the one-electron reduced probability density of the actual system. We build upon these works and show that on the interior of the domain of existence, the Kohn–Sham system can be efficiently obtained given the time-dependent density. We introduce a V-representability parameter which diverges at the boundary of the existence domain and serves to quantify the numerical difficulty of constructing the Kohn-Sham potential. For bounded values of V-representability, we present a polynomial time quantum algorithm to generate the time-dependent Kohn–Sham potential with controllable error bounds. (paper)
Time-dependent behavior of concrete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfeiffer, P.A.; Tanabe, Tada-aki
1992-01-01
This paper is a condensed version of the material presented at the International Workshop on Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete, Session 4 -- Time Dependent Behavior, held at Columbia University, New York on June 3--6, 1991. Dr. P.A. Pfeiffer presented recent developments in time-dependent behavior of concrete and Professor T. Tanabe presented a review of research in Japan on time-dependent behavior of concrete. The paper discusses the recent research of time-dependent behavior of concrete in the past few years. 6 refs
Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation: Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufty, James W.
2007-01-01
This is the Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-2ER54677 award 'Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation - Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas'. Research has focused on the nonequilibrium dynamics of electrons in the presence of ions, both via basic quantum theory and via semi-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In addition, fundamental notions of dissipative dynamics have been explored for models of grains and dust, and for scalar fields (temperature) in turbulent edge plasmas. The specific topics addressed were Quantum Kinetic Theory for Metallic Clusters, Semi-classical MD Simulation of Plasmas , and Effects of Dissipative Dynamics.
Quadratic time dependent Hamiltonians and separation of variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anzaldo-Meneses, A.
2017-01-01
Time dependent quantum problems defined by quadratic Hamiltonians are solved using canonical transformations. The Green’s function is obtained and a comparison with the classical Hamilton–Jacobi method leads to important geometrical insights like exterior differential systems, Monge cones and time dependent Gaussian metrics. The Wei–Norman approach is applied using unitary transformations defined in terms of generators of the associated Lie groups, here the semi-direct product of the Heisenberg group and the symplectic group. A new explicit relation for the unitary transformations is given in terms of a finite product of elementary transformations. The sequential application of adequate sets of unitary transformations leads naturally to a new separation of variables method for time dependent Hamiltonians, which is shown to be related to the Inönü–Wigner contraction of Lie groups. The new method allows also a better understanding of interacting particles or coupled modes and opens an alternative way to analyze topological phases in driven systems. - Highlights: • Exact unitary transformation reducing time dependent quadratic quantum Hamiltonian to zero. • New separation of variables method and simultaneous uncoupling of modes. • Explicit examples of transformations for one to four dimensional problems. • New general evolution equation for quadratic form in the action, respectively Green’s function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hotta, Ryuuichi; Morozumi, Takuya; Takata, Hiroyuki
2012-01-01
We develop the method analyzing particle number non-conserving phenomena with non-equilibrium quantum field-theory. In this study, we consider a CP violating model with interaction Hamiltonian that breaks particle number conservation. To derive the quantum Boltzmann equation for the particle number, we solve Schwinger-Dyson equation, which are obtained from two particle irreducible closed-time-path (2PI CTP) effective action. In this calculation, we show the contribution from interaction Hamiltonian to the time evolution of expectation value of particle number.
Charged particle motion in a time-dependent flux-driven ring: an exactly solvable model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luan, P-G; Tang, C-S
2007-01-01
We consider a charged particle driven by a time-dependent flux threading a quantum ring. The dynamics of the charged particle is investigated using a classical treatment, a Fourier expansion technique, a time-evolution method, and the Lewis-Riesenfeld approach. We have shown that, by properly managing the boundary conditions, a time-dependent wavefunction can be obtained using a general non-Hermitian time-dependent invariant, which is a specific linear combination of initial angular-momentum and azimuthal-angle operators. It is shown that the linear invariant eigenfunction can be realized as a Gaussian-type wavepacket with a peak moving along the classical angular trajectory, while the distribution of the wavepacket is determined by the ratio of the coefficient of the initial angle to that of the initial canonical angular momentum. From the topologically nontrivial nature as well as the classical trajectory and angular momentum, one can determine the dynamical motion of the wavepacket. It should be noted that the peak position is no longer an expectation value of the angle operator, and hence the Ehrenfest theorem is not directly applicable in such a topologically nontrivial system
Competing risks and time-dependent covariates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cortese, Giuliana; Andersen, Per K
2010-01-01
Time-dependent covariates are frequently encountered in regression analysis for event history data and competing risks. They are often essential predictors, which cannot be substituted by time-fixed covariates. This study briefly recalls the different types of time-dependent covariates......, as classified by Kalbfleisch and Prentice [The Statistical Analysis of Failure Time Data, Wiley, New York, 2002] with the intent of clarifying their role and emphasizing the limitations in standard survival models and in the competing risks setting. If random (internal) time-dependent covariates...
Time-dependent, Bianchi II, rotating universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reboucas, M.J.
1981-01-01
An exact cosmological solution of Einstein's equations which has time-dependent rotation is presented. The t-constant sections are of Bianchi type II. The source of this geometry is a fluid which has not been thermalized. (Author) [pt
Topic 5: Time-Dependent Behavior
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pfeiffer, P.A.; Tanabe, Tada-aki
1991-01-01
This chapter is a report of the material presented at the International Workshop on Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete, Session 4 -- Time Dependent Behavior, held at Columbia University, New York on June 3--6, 1991. Dr. P.A. Pfeiffer presented recent developments in time-dependent behavior of concrete and Professor T. Tanabe presented a review of research in Japan on time-dependent behavior of concrete. The chapter discusses the recent research of time-dependent behavior of concrete in the past few years in both the USA-European and Japanese communities. The author appreciates the valuable information provided by Zdenek P. Bazant in preparing the USA-European Research section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Teeny, Nicolas; Fähnle, Manfred
2013-01-01
In the density-matrix formalism of electron–phonon quantum kinetics, the hierarchy of infinitely many coupled equations of motion for the expectation values of products of electron and phonon creation and annihilation operators of arbitrary order is usually terminated on the level of the equations of motion for the expectation values of three-operator products by using decoupling procedures for the four-operator products occurring in these equations. In the literature, decoupling procedures are discussed for special types of electron and phonon states. In the present paper, generalized decoupling procedures are derived for arbitrary electron and phonon states. (paper)
Adiabatic theorem for the time-dependent wave operator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viennot, David; Jolicard, Georges; Killingbeck, John P.; Perrin, Marie-Yvonne
2005-01-01
The application of time-dependent wave operator theory to the development of a quantum adiabatic perturbation theory is treated both theoretically and numerically, with emphasis on the description of field-matter interactions which involve short laser pulses. It is first shown that the adiabatic limit of the time-dependent wave operator corresponds to a succession of instantaneous static Bloch wave operators. Wave operator theory is then shown to be compatible with the two-time Floquet theory of light-matter interaction, thus allowing the application of Floquet theory to cases which require the use of a degenerate active space. A numerical study of some problems shows that the perturbation strength associated with nonadiabatic processes can be reduced by using multidimensional active spaces and illustrates the capacity of the wave operator approach to produce a quasiadiabatic treatment of a nominally nonadiabatic Floquet dynamical system
Non-Perturbative Formulation of Time-Dependent String Solutions
Alexandre, J; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E; Alexandre, Jean; Ellis, John; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E.
2006-01-01
We formulate here a new world-sheet renormalization-group technique for the bosonic string, which is non-perturbative in the Regge slope alpha' and based on a functional method for controlling the quantum fluctuations, whose magnitudes are scaled by the value of alpha'. Using this technique we exhibit, in addition to the well-known linear-dilaton cosmology, a new, non-perturbative time-dependent background solution. Using the reparametrization invariance of the string S-matrix, we demonstrate that this solution is conformally invariant to alpha', and we give a heuristic inductive argument that conformal invariance can be maintained to all orders in alpha'. This new time-dependent string solution may be applicable to primordial cosmology or to the exit from linear-dilaton cosmology at large times.
Exact wavefunctions for a time-dependent Coulomb potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menouar, S; Maamache, M; Saadi, Y; Choi, J R
2008-01-01
The one-dimensional Schroedinger equation associated with a time-dependent Coulomb potential is studied. The invariant operator method (Lewis and Riesenfeld) and unitary transformation approach are employed to derive quantum solutions of the system. We obtain an ordinary second-order differential equation whose analytical exact solution has been unknown. It is confirmed that the form of this equation is similar to the radial Schroedinger equation for the hydrogen atom in a (arbitrary) strong magnetic field. The qualitative properties for the eigenstates spectrum are described separately for the different values of the parameter ω 0 appearing in the x 2 term, x being the position, i.e., ω 0 > 0, ω 0 0 = 0. For the ω 0 = 0 case, the eigenvalue equation of invariant operator reduces to a solvable form and, consequently, we have provided exact eigenstates of the time-dependent Hamiltonian system
Fermions in interaction with time dependent fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falkensteiner, P.; Grosse, H.
1988-01-01
We solve a two dimensional model describing the interaction of fermions with time dependent external fields. We work out the second quantized formulation and obtain conditions for equivalence of representations at different times. This implies the existence of sectors which describe charged states. We obtain the time dependence of charges and observe that charge differences become integer for unitary equivalent states. For scattering we require the equivalence of in- and out-representations; nevertheless charged sectors may be reached by suitable interactions and ionization is possible. 20 refs. (Author)
Investigations of Low Temperature Time Dependent Cracking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van der Sluys, W A; Robitz, E S; Young, B A; Bloom, J
2002-09-30
The objective of this project was to investigate metallurgical and mechanical phenomena associated with time dependent cracking of cold bent carbon steel piping at temperatures between 327 C and 360 C. Boiler piping failures have demonstrated that understanding the fundamental metallurgical and mechanical parameters controlling these failures is insufficient to eliminate it from the field. The results of the project consisted of the development of a testing methodology to reproduce low temperature time dependent cracking in laboratory specimens. This methodology was used to evaluate the cracking resistance of candidate heats in order to identify the factors that enhance cracking sensitivity. The resultant data was integrated into current available life prediction tools.
Time-dependent density-functional theory concepts and applications
Ullrich, Carsten A
2011-01-01
Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) describes the quantum dynamics of interacting electronic many-body systems formally exactly and in a practical and efficient manner. TDDFT has become the leading method for calculating excitation energies and optical properties of large molecules, with accuracies that rival traditional wave-function based methods, but at a fraction of the computational cost.This book is the first graduate-level text on the concepts and applications of TDDFT, including many examples and exercises, and extensive coverage of the literature. The book begins with a s
Time-dependent Dyson orbital theory
Gritsenko, O.V.; Baerends, E.J.
2016-01-01
Although time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) has become the tool of choice for real-time propagation of the electron density ρN(t) of N-electron systems, it also encounters problems in this application. The first problem is the neglect of memory effects stemming from the, in TDDFT
Biological repair with time-dependent irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Broyles, A.A.; Shapiro, C.S.
1985-01-01
Recent experiments have provided new data that explore the effectiveness of biological repair in assessing damage due to exposures from ionizing radiation. These data are mainly from experiments conducted at constant dose rates, to study the effectiveness per unit dose of different dose rates. Here, we develop new formulae to estimate the effectiveness of an arbitrary time-dependent dose rate exposure
Scheduling with time-dependent execution times
Woeginger, G.J.
1995-01-01
We consider systems of tasks where the task execution times are time-dependent and where all tasks have some common deadline. We describe how to compute in polynomial time a schedule that minimizes the number of late tasks. This answers a question raised in a recent paper by Ho, Leung and Wei.
Hartree--Fock time-dependent problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bove, A; Fano, G [Bologna Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Fisica; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy)); Da Prato, G [Rome Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Matematica
1976-06-01
A previous result is generalized. An existence and uniqueness theorem is proved for the Hartree--Fock time-dependent problem in the case of a finite Fermi system interacting via a two body potential which is supposed to be dominated by the kinetic energy part of the one-particle Hamiltonian.
Variational derivation of a time-dependent Hartree-Fock Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichtner, P.C.; Griffin, J.J.; Schultheis, H.; Schultheis, R.; Volkov, A.B.
1979-01-01
The variational derivation of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equation is reviewed. When norm-violating variations are included, a unique time-dependent Hartree-Fock Hamiltonian, which differs from that customarily used in time-dependent Hartree-Fock analyses, is implied. This variationally ''true'' Hartree-Fock Hamiltonian has the same expectation value as the exact Hamiltonian, equal to the average energy of the system. Since this quantity remains constant under time-dependent Hartree-Fock time evolution, we suggest the label ''constant '' for this form of time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory
Wave function for time-dependent harmonically confined electrons in a time-dependent electric field.
Li, Yu-Qi; Pan, Xiao-Yin; Sahni, Viraht
2013-09-21
The many-body wave function of a system of interacting particles confined by a time-dependent harmonic potential and perturbed by a time-dependent spatially homogeneous electric field is derived via the Feynman path-integral method. The wave function is comprised of a phase factor times the solution to the unperturbed time-dependent Schrödinger equation with the latter being translated by a time-dependent value that satisfies the classical driven equation of motion. The wave function reduces to that of the Harmonic Potential Theorem wave function for the case of the time-independent harmonic confining potential.
Transient fluctuation relations for time-dependent particle transport
Altland, Alexander; de Martino, Alessandro; Egger, Reinhold; Narozhny, Boris
2010-09-01
We consider particle transport under the influence of time-varying driving forces, where fluctuation relations connect the statistics of pairs of time-reversed evolutions of physical observables. In many “mesoscopic” transport processes, the effective many-particle dynamics is dominantly classical while the microscopic rates governing particle motion are of quantum-mechanical origin. We here employ the stochastic path-integral approach as an optimal tool to probe the fluctuation statistics in such applications. Describing the classical limit of the Keldysh quantum nonequilibrium field theory, the stochastic path integral encapsulates the quantum origin of microscopic particle exchange rates. Dynamically, it is equivalent to a transport master equation which is a formalism general enough to describe many applications of practical interest. We apply the stochastic path integral to derive general functional fluctuation relations for current flow induced by time-varying forces. We show that the successive measurement processes implied by this setup do not put the derivation of quantum fluctuation relations in jeopardy. While in many cases the fluctuation relation for a full time-dependent current profile may contain excessive information, we formulate a number of reduced relations, and demonstrate their application to mesoscopic transport. Examples include the distribution of transmitted charge, where we show that the derivation of a fluctuation relation requires the combined monitoring of the statistics of charge and work.
Time-dependent 2-stream particle transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corngold, Noel
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We consider time-dependent transport in the 2-stream or “rod” model via an attractive matrix formalism. • After reviewing some classical problems in homogeneous media we discuss transport in materials with whose density may vary. • There we achieve a significant contraction of the underlying Telegrapher’s equation. • We conclude with a discussion of stochastics, treated by the “first-order smoothing approximation.” - Abstract: We consider time-dependent transport in the 2-stream or “rod” model via an attractive matrix formalism. After reviewing some classical problems in homogeneous media we discuss transport in materials whose density may vary. There we achieve a significant contraction of the underlying Telegrapher’s equation. We conclude with a discussion of stochastics, treated by the “first-order smoothing approximation.”
Time-dependent scattering in resonance lines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunasz, P.B.
1983-01-01
A numerical finite-difference method is presented for the problem of time-dependent line transfer in a finite slab in which material density is sufficiently low that the time of flight between scatterings greatly exceeds the relaxation time of the upper state of the scattering transition. The medium is assumed to scatter photons isotropically, with complete frequency redistribution. Numerical solutions are presented for a homogeneous, time-independent slab illuminated by an externally imposed radiation field which enters the slab at t = 0. Graphical results illustrate relaxation to steady state of trapped internal radiation, emergent energy, and emergent profiles. A review of the literature is also given in which the time-dependent line transfer problem is discussed in the context of recent analytical work
Time dependent policy-based access control
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vasilikos, Panagiotis; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis
2017-01-01
also on other attributes of the environment such as the time. In this paper, we use systems of Timed Automata to model distributed systems and we present a logic in which one can express time-dependent policies for access control. We show how a fragment of our logic can be reduced to a logic......Access control policies are essential to determine who is allowed to access data in a system without compromising the data's security. However, applications inside a distributed environment may require those policies to be dependent on the actual content of the data, the flow of information, while...... that current model checkers for Timed Automata such as UPPAAL can handle and we present a translator that performs this reduction. We then use our translator and UPPAAL to enforce time-dependent policy-based access control on an example application from the aerospace industry....
Time-dependent version of crypto-Hermitian quantum theory
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Znojil, Miloslav
2008-01-01
Roč. 78, č. 8 (2008), 085003/1-085003/5 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/1307; GA MŠk LC06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : KLEIN-GORDON FIELDS * PSEUDO-HERMITICITY * HILBERT-SPACE Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 5.050, year: 2008
Time-dependent quantum simulation of coronene photoemission spectra
Acocella, Angela; de Simone, Monica; Evangelista, Fabrizio; Coreno, Marcello; Rudolf, Petra; Zerbetto, Francesco
2016-01-01
Photoelectron spectroscopy is usually described by a simple equation that relates the binding energy of the photoemitted electron, E-binding, its kinetic energy, E-kinetic, the energy of the ionizing photon, E-photon, and the work function of the spectrometer, phi, E-binding = E-photon - E-kinetic -
Time-dependent problems and difference methods
Gustafsson, Bertil; Oliger, Joseph
2013-01-01
Praise for the First Edition "". . . fills a considerable gap in the numerical analysis literature by providing a self-contained treatment . . . this is an important work written in a clear style . . . warmly recommended to any graduate student or researcher in the field of the numerical solution of partial differential equations."" -SIAM Review Time-Dependent Problems and Difference Methods, Second Edition continues to provide guidance for the analysis of difference methods for computing approximate solutions to partial differential equations for time-de
Steinberg, R.; Siegel, E.
2010-03-01
``AUDIOMAPS'' music enjoyment/appreciation-via-understanding methodology, versus art, music-dynamics evolves, telling a story in (3+1)-dimensions: trails, frames, timbres, + dynamics amplitude vs. music-score time-series (formal-inverse power- spectrum) surprisingly closely parallels (3+1)-dimensional Einstein(1905) special-relativity ``+'' (with its enjoyment- expectations) a manifestation of quantum-theory expectation- values, together a music quantum-ACOUSTO/MUSICO-dynamics (QA/MD). Analysis via Derrida deconstruction enabled Siegel- Baez ``Category-Semantics'' ``FUZZYICS''=``CATEGORYICS (``SON of 'TRIZ") classic Aristotle ``Square-of-Opposition" (SoO) DEduction-logic, irrespective of Boon-Klimontovich versus Voss- Clark[PRL(77)] music power-spectrum analysis sampling- time/duration controversy: part versus whole, shows that ``AUDIOMAPS" QA/MD reigns supreme as THE music appreciation-via- analysis tool for the listener in musicology!!! Connection to Deutsch-Hartmann-Levitin[This is Your Brain on Music,(2006)] brain/mind-barrier brain/mind-music connection is both subtle and compelling and immediate!!!
Fender, Lee; Steinberg, Russell; Siegel, Edward Carl-Ludwig
2011-03-01
Steinberg wildly popular "AUDIOMAPS" music enjoyment/appreciation-via-understanding methodology, versus art, music-dynamics evolves, telling a story in (3+1)-dimensions: trails, frames, timbres, + dynamics amplitude vs. music-score time-series (formal-inverse power-spectrum) surprisingly closely parallels (3+1)-dimensional Einstein(1905) special-relativity "+" (with its enjoyment-expectations) a manifestation of quantum-theory expectation-values, together a music quantum-ACOUSTO/MUSICO-dynamics(QA/MD). Analysis via Derrida deconstruction enabled Siegel-Baez "Category-Semantics" "FUZZYICS"="CATEGORYICS ('TRIZ") Aristotle SoO DEduction , irrespective of Boon-Klimontovich vs. Voss-Clark[PRL(77)] music power-spectrum analysis sampling-time/duration controversy: part versus whole, shows QA/MD reigns supreme as THE music appreciation-via-analysis tool for the listener in musicology!!! Connection to Deutsch-Hartmann-Levitin[This is Your Brain on Music, (06)] brain/mind-barrier brain/mind-music connection is subtle/compelling/immediate!!!
Examining the time dependence of DAMA's modulation amplitude
Kelso, Chris; Savage, Christopher; Sandick, Pearl; Freese, Katherine; Gondolo, Paolo
2018-03-01
If dark matter is composed of weakly interacting particles, Earth's orbital motion may induce a small annual variation in the rate at which these particles interact in a terrestrial detector. The DAMA collaboration has identified at a 9.3σ confidence level such an annual modulation in their event rate over two detector iterations, DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA, each with ˜ 7 years of observations. This data is well fit by a constant modulation amplitude for the two iterations of the experiment. We statistically examine the time dependence of the modulation amplitudes, which "by eye" appear to be decreasing with time in certain energy ranges. We perform a chi-squared goodness of fit test of the average modulation amplitudes measured by the two detector iterations which rejects the hypothesis of a consistent modulation amplitude at greater than 80, 96, and 99.6% for the 2-4, 2-5 and 2-6 keVee energy ranges, respectively. We also find that among the 14 annual cycles there are three ≳ 3σ departures from the average in our estimated data in the 5-6 keVee energy range. In addition, we examined several phenomenological models for the time dependence of the modulation amplitude. Using a maximum likelihood test, we find that descriptions of the modulation amplitude as decreasing with time are preferred over a constant modulation amplitude at anywhere between 1σ and 3σ , depending on the phenomenological model for the time dependence and the signal energy range considered. A time dependent modulation amplitude is not expected for a dark matter signal, at least for dark matter halo morphologies consistent with the DAMA signal. New data from DAMA/LIBRA-phase2 will certainly aid in determining whether any apparent time dependence is a real effect or a statistical fluctuation.
The Dynamical Invariant of Open Quantum System
Wu, S. L.; Zhang, X. Y.; Yi, X. X.
2015-01-01
The dynamical invariant, whose expectation value is constant, is generalized to open quantum system. The evolution equation of dynamical invariant (the dynamical invariant condition) is presented for Markovian dynamics. Different with the dynamical invariant for the closed quantum system, the evolution of the dynamical invariant for the open quantum system is no longer unitary, and the eigenvalues of it are time-dependent. Since any hermitian operator fulfilling dynamical invariant condition ...
Time-dependent Hartree approximation and time-dependent harmonic oscillator model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blaizot, J.P.
1982-01-01
We present an analytically soluble model for studying nuclear collective motion within the framework of the time-dependent Hartree (TDH) approximation. The model reduces the TDH equations to the Schroedinger equation of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator. Using canonical transformations and coherent states we derive a few properties of the time-dependent harmonic oscillator which are relevant for applications. We analyse the role of the normal modes in the time evolution of a system governed by TDH equations. We show how these modes couple together due to the anharmonic terms generated by the non-linearity of the theory. (orig.)
Exact expectation values of local fields in the quantum sine-Gordon model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lukyanov, S.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Chernogolovka; Zamolodchikov, A.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Chernogolovka
1997-01-01
We propose an explicit expression for vacuum expectation values left angle e iaφ right angle of the exponential fields in the sine-Gordon model. Our expression agrees both with semi-classical results in the sine-Gordon theory and with perturbative calculations in the massive Thirring model. We use this expression to make new predictions about the large-distance asymptotic form of the two-point correlation function in the XXZ spin chain. (orig.)
Constitutive model with time-dependent deformations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogsbøll, Anette
1998-01-01
are common in time as well as size. This problem is adressed by means of a new constitutive model for soils. It is able to describe the behavior of soils at different deformation rates. The model defines time-dependent and stress-related deformations separately. They are related to each other and they occur...... was the difference in time scale between the geological process of deposition (millions of years) and the laboratory measurements of mechanical properties (minutes or hours). In addition, the time scale relevant to the production history of the oil field was interesting (days or years)....
Time-dependent angularly averaged inverse transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bal, Guillaume; Jollivet, Alexandre
2009-01-01
This paper concerns the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters in a time-dependent linear transport equation from knowledge of angularly averaged measurements performed at the boundary of a domain of interest. Such measurement settings find applications in medical and geophysical imaging. We show that the absorption coefficient and the spatial component of the scattering coefficient are uniquely determined by such measurements. We obtain stability results on the reconstruction of the absorption and scattering parameters with respect to the measured albedo operator. The stability results are obtained by a precise decomposition of the measurements into components with different singular behavior in the time domain
Gamallo, Pablo; Akpinar, Sinan; Defazio, Paolo; Petrongolo, Carlo
2014-08-21
We present the adiabatic quantum dynamics of the proton-transfer reaction H((2)S) + HeH(+)(X(1)Σ(+)) → H2(+)(X(2)Σg(+)) + He((1)S) on the HeH2(+) X̃(2)Σ(+) RMRCI6 (M = 6) PES of C. N. Ramachandran et al. ( Chem. Phys. Lett. 2009, 469, 26). We consider the HeH(+) molecule in the ground vibrational–rotational state and obtain initial-state-resolved reaction probabilities and the ground-state cross section σ0 and rate constant k0 by propagating time-dependent, coupled-channel, real wavepackets (RWPs) and performing a flux analysis. Three different wavepackets are propagated to describe the wide range of energies explored, from cold (0.0001 meV) to hyperthermal (1000 meV) collision energies, and in a temperature range from 0.01 to 2000 K. We compare our time-dependent results with the time-independent ones by D. De Fazio and S. Bovino et al., where De Fazio carried out benchmark coupled-channel calculations whereas Bovino et al. employed the negative imaginary potential and the centrifugal-sudden approximations. The RWP cross section is in good agreement with that by De Fazio, except at the lowest collision energies below ∼0.01 meV, where the former is larger than the latter. However, neither the RWP and De Fazio results possess the huge resonance in probability and cross section at 0.01 meV, found by Bovino et al., who also obtained a too low σ0 at high energies. Therefore, the RWP and De Fazio rate constants compare quite well, whereas that by Bovino et al. is in general lower.
Time-dependent asymmetries in Bs decays at LHCb
Blouw, Johan
2007-01-01
The LHCb experiment will search for New Physics in Bs mixing. The Bs mixing phase will be extracted from the measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry in exclusive Bs decays governed by the $b \\to c\\bar{c}s$ quark level transition. Large New Physics effects can be discovered or excluded with the data collected during the very first physics run of LHC. Based on Monte Carlo simulations of the LHCb detector, the expected sensitivity with 2 fb$^{-1}$ on the CP-violation parameter $\\phi_s$, is $\\sigma(\\phi_s)$ = 0.022.
Testing the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zanghellini, Juergen; Kitzler, Markus; Brabec, Thomas; Scrinzi, Armin
2004-01-01
We test the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method as a new approach towards the numerical calculation of dynamical processes in multi-electron systems using the harmonic quantum dot and one-dimensional helium in strong laser pulses as models. We find rapid convergence for quantities such as ground-state population, correlation coefficient and single ionization towards the exact results. The method converges, where the time-dependent Hartree-Fock method fails qualitatively
Intense field stabilization in circular polarization: Three-dimensional time-dependent dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Dae-Il; Chism, Will
2002-01-01
We investigate the stabilization of hydrogen atoms in a circularly polarized laser field. We use a three-dimensional, time-dependent approach to study the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms subject to high-intensity, short-wavelength, laser pulses. We find an enhanced survival probability as the field is increased under fixed envelope conditions. We also confirm wave packet behaviors previously seen in two-dimensional time-dependent computations
Time dependent fracture and cohesive zones
Knauss, W. G.
1993-01-01
This presentation is concerned with the fracture response of materials which develop cohesive or bridging zones at crack tips. Of special interest are concerns regarding crack stability as a function of the law which governs the interrelation between the displacement(s) or strain across these zones and the corresponding holding tractions. It is found that for some materials unstable crack growth can occur, even before the crack tip has experienced a critical COD or strain across the crack, while for others a critical COD will guarantee the onset of fracture. Also shown are results for a rate dependent nonlinear material model for the region inside of a craze for exploring time dependent crack propagation of rate sensitive materials.
Time-dependent Cooling in Photoionized Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gnat, Orly, E-mail: orlyg@phys.huji.ac.il [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)
2017-02-01
I explore the thermal evolution and ionization states in gas cooling from an initially hot state in the presence of external photoionizing radiation. I compute the equilibrium and nonequilibrium cooling efficiencies, heating rates, and ion fractions for low-density gas cooling while exposed to the ionizing metagalactic background radiation at various redshifts ( z = 0 − 3), for a range of temperatures (10{sup 8}–10{sup 4} K), densities (10{sup −7}–10{sup 3} cm{sup −3}), and metallicities (10{sup −3}–2 times solar). The results indicate the existence of a threshold ionization parameter, above which the cooling efficiencies are very close to those in photoionization equilibrium (so that departures from equilibrium may be neglected), and below which the cooling efficiencies resemble those in collisional time-dependent gas cooling with no external radiation (and are thus independent of density).
Time-dependent dilatancy for brittle rocks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Li
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical study on time-dependent dilatancy behaviors for brittle rocks. The theory employs a well-accepted postulation that macroscopically observed dilatancy originates from the expansion of microcracks. The mechanism and dynamic process that microcracks initiate from local stress concentration and grow due to localized tensile stress are analyzed. Then, by generalizing the results from the analysis of single cracks, a parameter and associated equations for its evolution are developed to describe the behaviors of the microcracks. In this circumstance, the relationship between microcracking and dilatancy can be established, and the theoretical equations for characterizing the process of rock dilatancy behaviors are derived. Triaxial compression and creep tests are conducted to validate the developed theory. With properly chosen model parameters, the theory yields a satisfactory accuracy in comparison with the experimental results.
A gauge invariant theory for time dependent heat current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Jian; ShangGuan, Minhui; Wang, Jian
2015-01-01
In this work, we develop a general gauge-invariant theory for AC heat current through multi-probe systems. Using the non-equilibrium Green’s function, a general expression for time-dependent electrothermal admittance is obtained where we include the internal potential due to the Coulomb interaction explicitly. We show that the gauge-invariant condition is satisfied for heat current if the self-consistent Coulomb interaction is considered. It is known that the Onsager relation holds for dynamic charge conductance. We show in this work that the Onsager relation for electrothermal admittance is violated, except for a special case of a quantum dot system with a single energy level. We apply our theory to a nano capacitor where the Coulomb interaction plays an essential role. We find that, to the first order in frequency, the heat current is related to the electrochemical capacitance as well as the phase accumulated in the scattering event. (paper)
The time-dependent density matrix renormalisation group method
Ma, Haibo; Luo, Zhen; Yao, Yao
2018-04-01
Substantial progress of the time-dependent density matrix renormalisation group (t-DMRG) method in the recent 15 years is reviewed in this paper. By integrating the time evolution with the sweep procedures in density matrix renormalisation group (DMRG), t-DMRG provides an efficient tool for real-time simulations of the quantum dynamics for one-dimensional (1D) or quasi-1D strongly correlated systems with a large number of degrees of freedom. In the illustrative applications, the t-DMRG approach is applied to investigate the nonadiabatic processes in realistic chemical systems, including exciton dissociation and triplet fission in polymers and molecular aggregates as well as internal conversion in pyrazine molecule.
Entanglement entropy with a time-dependent Hamiltonian
Sivaramakrishnan, Allic
2018-03-01
The time evolution of entanglement tracks how information propagates in interacting quantum systems. We study entanglement entropy in CFT2 with a time-dependent Hamiltonian. We perturb by operators with time-dependent source functions and use the replica trick to calculate higher-order corrections to entanglement entropy. At first order, we compute the correction due to a metric perturbation in AdS3/CFT2 and find agreement on both sides of the duality. Past first order, we find evidence of a universal structure of entanglement propagation to all orders. The central feature is that interactions entangle unentangled excitations. Entanglement propagates according to "entanglement diagrams," proposed structures that are motivated by accessory spacetime diagrams for real-time perturbation theory. To illustrate the mechanisms involved, we compute higher-order corrections to free fermion entanglement entropy. We identify an unentangled operator, one which does not change the entanglement entropy to any order. Then, we introduce an interaction and find it changes entanglement entropy by entangling the unentangled excitations. The entanglement propagates in line with our conjecture. We compute several entanglement diagrams. We provide tools to simplify the computation of loop entanglement diagrams, which probe UV effects in entanglement propagation in CFT and holography.
Fundamentals of time-dependent density functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marques, Miguel A.L.; Rubio, Angel
2012-01-01
There have been many significant advances in time-dependent density functional theory over recent years, both in enlightening the fundamental theoretical basis of the theory, as well as in computational algorithms and applications. This book, as successor to the highly successful volume Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (Lect. Notes Phys. 706, 2006) brings together for the first time all recent developments in a systematic and coherent way. First, a thorough pedagogical presentation of the fundamental theory is given, clarifying aspects of the original proofs and theorems, as well as presenting fresh developments that extend the theory into new realms such as alternative proofs of the original Runge-Gross theorem, open quantum systems, and dispersion forces to name but a few. Next, all of the basic concepts are introduced sequentially and building in complexity, eventually reaching the level of open problems of interest. Contemporary applications of the theory are discussed, from real-time coupled-electron-ion dynamics, to excited-state dynamics and molecular transport. Last but not least, the authors introduce and review recent advances in computational implementation, including massively parallel architectures and graphical processing units. Special care has been taken in editing this volume as a multi-author textbook, following a coherent line of thought, and making all the relevant connections between chapters and concepts consistent throughout. As such it will prove to be the text of reference in this field, both for beginners as well as expert researchers and lecturers teaching advanced quantum mechanical methods to model complex physical systems, from molecules to nanostructures, from biocomplexes to surfaces, solids and liquids. (orig.)
Time-Dependent Variations of Accretion Disk
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hye-Weon Na
1987-06-01
Full Text Available In dward nova we assume the primary star as a white dwarf and the secondary as the late type star which filled Roche lobe. Mass flow from the secondary star leads to the formation of thin accretion disk around the white dwarf. We use the α parameter as viscosity to maintain the disk form and propose that the outburst in dwarf nova cause the steep increase of source term. With these assumptions we solve the basic equations of stellar structure using Newton-Raphson method. We show the physical parameters like temperature, density, pressure, opacity, surface density, height and flux to the radius of disk. Changing the value of α, we compare several parameters when mass flow rate is constant with those of when luminosity of disk is brightest. At the same time, we obtain time-dependent variations of luminosity and mass of disk. We propose the suitable range of α is 0.15-0.18 to the difference of luminosity. We compare several parameters of disk with those of the normal late type stars which have the same molecular weight of disk is lower. Maybe the outburst in dwarf nova is due to the variation of the α value instead of increment of mass flow from the secondary star.
Time dependent mean-field games
Gomes, Diogo A.
2014-01-06
We consider time dependent mean-field games (MFG) with a local power-like dependence on the measure and Hamiltonians satisfying both sub and superquadratic growth conditions. We establish existence of smooth solutions under a certain set of conditions depending both on the growth of the Hamiltonian as well as on the dimension. In the subquadratic case this is done by combining a Gagliardo-Nirenberg type of argument with a new class of polynomial estimates for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation in terms of LrLp- norms of DpH. These techniques do not apply to the superquadratic case. In this setting we recur to a delicate argument that combines the non-linear adjoint method with polynomial estimates for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation in terms of L1L1-norms of DpH. Concerning the subquadratic case, we substantially improve and extend the results previously obtained. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, the superquadratic case has not been addressed in the literature yet. In fact, it is likely that our estimates may also add to the current understanding of Hamilton-Jacobi equations with superquadratic Hamiltonians.
Time-dependent EQPET analysis of TSC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takahashi, Akito
2006-01-01
Time-dependent fusion rates for 2D and 4D reactions are calculated for squeezing of tetrahedral symmetric condensate (TSC) from about 100 pm size to its minimum size (about 10 fm), within about 75 fs squeezing motion. Life time of the minimum TSC state is yet to be studied. Time-averaged fusion rates are given by assuming the life time of minimum TSC state is negligible. Time-averaged 2D fusion rate was given as 2.9x10 -25 f/s/pair, and time-averaged 4D fusion rate was 5.5x10 -8 f/s/cl. These values are compared with 1.0x10 -20 f/s/pair for 2D and 1.0x10 -9 f/s/cl for 4D, respectively, of previously estimated values by electronic quasi-particle expansion theory/TSC models. Effective fusion time by the TSC squeezing motion was estimated as 0.014 fs: namely fusions may happen in very short time interval. (author)
Deformation aspects of time dependent fracture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, C.Y.; Turner, A.P.L.; Diercks, D.R.; Laird, C.; Langdon, T.G.; Nix, W.D.; Swindeman, R.; Wolfer, W.G.; Woodford, D.A.
1979-01-01
For all metallic materials, particularly at elevated temperatures, deformation plays an important role in fracture. On the macro-continuum level, the inelastic deformation behavior of the material determines how stress is distributed in the body and thus determines the driving force for fracture. At the micro-continuum level, inelastic deformation alters the elastic stress singularity at the crack tip and so determines the local environment in which crack advance takes place. At the microscopic and mechanistic level, there are many possibilities for the mechanisms of deformation to be related to those for crack initiation and growth. At elevated temperatures, inelastic deformation in metallic systems is time dependent so that the distribution of stress in a body will vary with time, affecting conditions for crack initiation and propagation. Creep deformation can reduce the tendency for fracture by relaxing the stresses at geometric stress concentrations. It can also, under suitable constraints, cause a concentration of stresses at specific loading points as a result of relaxation elsewhere in the body. A combination of deformation and unequal heating, as in welding, can generate large residual stress which cannot be predicted from the external loads on the body. Acceleration of deformation by raising the temperature can be an effective way to relieve such residual stresses
System reliability time-dependent models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Debernardo, H.D.
1991-06-01
A probabilistic methodology for safety system technical specification evaluation was developed. The method for Surveillance Test Interval (S.T.I.) evaluation basically means an optimization of S.T.I. of most important system's periodically tested components. For Allowed Outage Time (A.O.T.) calculations, the method uses system reliability time-dependent models (A computer code called FRANTIC III). A new approximation, which was called Independent Minimal Cut Sets (A.C.I.), to compute system unavailability was also developed. This approximation is better than Rare Event Approximation (A.E.R.) and the extra computing cost is neglectible. A.C.I. was joined to FRANTIC III to replace A.E.R. on future applications. The case study evaluations verified that this methodology provides a useful probabilistic assessment of surveillance test intervals and allowed outage times for many plant components. The studied system is a typical configuration of nuclear power plant safety systems (two of three logic). Because of the good results, these procedures will be used by the Argentine nuclear regulatory authorities in evaluation of technical specification of Atucha I and Embalse nuclear power plant safety systems. (Author) [es
Time-dependent correlations in electricity markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Escarela-Perez, Rafael
2010-01-01
In the last years, many electricity markets were subjected to deregulated operation where prices are set by the action of market participants. In this form, producers and consumers rely on demand and price forecasts to decide their bidding strategies, allocate assets, negotiate bilateral contracts, hedge risks, and plan facility investments. A basic feature of efficient market hypothesis is the absence of correlations between price increments over any time scale leading to random walk-type behavior of prices, so arbitrage is not possible. However, recent studies have suggested that this is not the case and correlations are present in the behavior of diverse electricity markets. In this paper, a temporal quantification of electricity market correlations is made by means of detrended fluctuation and Allan analyses. The approach is applied to two Canadian electricity markets, Ontario and Alberta. The results show the existence of correlations in both demand and prices, exhibiting complex time-dependent behavior with lower correlations in winter while higher in summer. Relatively steady annual cycles in demand but unstable cycles in prices are detected. On the other hand, the more significant nonlinear effects (measured in terms of a multifractality index) are found for winter months, while the converse behavior is displayed during the summer period. In terms of forecasting models, our results suggest that nonlinear recursive models (e.g., feedback NNs) should be used for accurate day-ahead price estimation. In contrast, linear models can suffice for demand forecasting purposes. (author)
Time-dependent crashworthiness of polyurethane foam
Basit, Munshi Mahbubul; Cheon, Seong Sik
2018-05-01
Time-dependent stress-strain relationship as well as crashworthiness of polyurethane foam was investigated under constant impact energy with different velocities, considering inertia and strain-rate effects simultaneously during the impact testing. Even though the impact energies were same, the percentage in increase in densification strain due to higher impact velocities was found, which yielded the wider plateau region, i.e. growth in crashworthiness. This phenomenon is analyzed by the microstructure of polyurethane foam obtained from scanning electron microscopy. The equations, coupled with the Sherwood-Frost model and the impulse-momentum theory, were employed to build the constitutive equation of the polyurethane foam and calculate energy absorption capacity of the foam. The nominal stress-strain curves obtained from the constitutive equation were compared with results from impact tests and were found to be in good agreement. This study is dedicated to guiding designer use polyurethane foam in crashworthiness structures such as an automotive bumper system by providing crashworthiness data, determining the crush mode, and addressing a mathematical model of the crashworthiness.
Time-dependent nonlinear Jaynes-Cummings dynamics of a trapped ion
Krumm, F.; Vogel, W.
2018-04-01
In quantum interaction problems with explicitly time-dependent interaction Hamiltonians, the time ordering plays a crucial role for describing the quantum evolution of the system under consideration. In such complex scenarios, exact solutions of the dynamics are rarely available. Here we study the nonlinear vibronic dynamics of a trapped ion, driven in the resolved sideband regime with some small frequency mismatch. By describing the pump field in a quantized manner, we are able to derive exact solutions for the dynamics of the system. This eventually allows us to provide analytical solutions for various types of time-dependent quantities. In particular, we study in some detail the electronic and the motional quantum dynamics of the ion, as well as the time evolution of the nonclassicality of the motional quantum state.
Progress Report on Alloy 617 Time Dependent Allowables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wright, Julie Knibloe [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)
2015-06-01
Time dependent allowable stresses are required in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for design of components in the temperature range where time dependent deformation (i.e., creep) is expected to become significant. There are time dependent allowable stresses in Section IID of the Code for use in the non-nuclear construction codes, however, there are additional criteria that must be considered in developing time dependent allowables for nuclear components. These criteria are specified in Section III NH. St is defined as the lesser of three quantities: 100% of the average stress required to obtain a total (elastic, plastic, primary and secondary creep) strain of 1%; 67% of the minimum stress to cause rupture; and 80% of the minimum stress to cause the initiation of tertiary creep. The values are reported for a range of temperatures and for time increments up to 100,000 hours. These values are determined from uniaxial creep tests, which involve the elevated temperature application of a constant load which is relatively small, resulting in deformation over a long time period prior to rupture. The stress which is the minimum resulting from these criteria is the time dependent allowable stress St. In this report data from a large number of creep and creep-rupture tests on Alloy 617 are analyzed using the ASME Section III NH criteria. Data which are used in the analysis are from the ongoing DOE sponsored high temperature materials program, form Korea Atomic Energy Institute through the Generation IV VHTR Materials Program and historical data from previous HTR research and vendor data generated in developing the alloy. It is found that the tertiary creep criterion determines St at highest temperatures, while the stress to cause 1% total strain controls at low temperatures. The ASME Section III Working Group on Allowable Stress Criteria has recommended that the uncertainties associated with determining the onset of tertiary creep and the lack of significant
Time-dependent radioactivity distribution in MAFF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nebel, F.; Zech, E.; Faestermann, T.; Kruecken, R.; Maier-Komor, P.; Assmann, W.; Szerypo, J.; Gross, M.; Kester, O.; Thirolf, P.G.; Groetzschel, R.
2006-01-01
The Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments is planned to be installed at the FRM II in Garching. It will operate a uranium-carbide-loaded graphite matrix as a target for neutron-induced fission. The radioactive reaction fragments leave the ion source as both, atoms and ions. For radiation safety it is imperative to have a basic understanding of the fragment distribution within the beam line. Atoms leaving the graphite matrix will spread like a gas and stick to surfaces depending on their species. A probabilistic Monte-Carlo approach is used to predict the surface coating of internal surfaces of the beam line for all fission nuclides. To decrease calculation time, the problem is reduced to two dimensions with the surface areas being a measure for the probability, that they are hit by a particle. The program is completely time dependent to implement radioactive decay. Ions leaving the fission ion source are transported by electrostatic means towards the mass pre-separator, a low-resolution dipole magnet with a complex slit system in the focal plane. All unwanted ions are stopped at the slits, resulting in a high level of radioactive contamination. While it is advantageous for shielding purposes to have the majority of the contamination in one point, precautions must be taken to ensure that it stays that way. Material corrosion caused by sputtering will release previously implanted radionuclides. To reduce this effect, different methods are under investigation, one of which is changing the slit geometry. The considered designs will be described and experimental results will be shown
Coherent states for the time dependent harmonic oscillator: the step function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moya-Cessa, Hector; Fernandez Guasti, Manuel
2003-01-01
We study the time evolution for the quantum harmonic oscillator subjected to a sudden change of frequency. It is based on an approximate analytic solution to the time dependent Ermakov equation for a step function. This approach allows for a continuous treatment that differs from former studies that involve the matching of two time independent solutions at the time when the step occurs
Time-dependent crack growth in steam generator tube leakage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, H.D.; Lee, J.H.; Park, Y.W.; Choi, Y.H.
2006-01-01
In general, cracks found in steam generator tubes have semi-elliptical shapes and it is assumed to be rectangular shape for conservatism after crack penetration. Hence, the leak and crack growth behavior has not been clearly understood after the elliptical crack penetrates the tube wall. Several experimental results performed by Argonne Nation Laboratory exhibited time-dependent crack growth behavior of rectangular flaws as well as trapezoidal flaws under constant pressure. The crack growth faster than expected was observed in both cases, which is likely attributed to time-dependent crack growth accompanied by fatigue sources such as the interaction between active jet and crack. The stress intensity factor, K 1 , is necessary for the prediction of the observed fatigue crack growth behavior. However, no K 1 solution is available for a trapezoidal flaw. The objective of this study is to develop the stress intensity factor which can be used for the fatigue analysis of a trapezoidal crack. To simplify the analysis, the crack is assumed to be a symmetric trapezoidal shape. A new K 1 formula for axial trapezoidal through-wall cracks was proposed based on the FEM results. (author)
FRANTIC: a computer code for time dependent unavailability analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.
1977-03-01
The FRANTIC computer code evaluates the time dependent and average unavailability for any general system model. The code is written in FORTRAN IV for the IBM 370 computer. Non-repairable components, monitored components, and periodically tested components are handled. One unique feature of FRANTIC is the detailed, time dependent modeling of periodic testing which includes the effects of test downtimes, test overrides, detection inefficiencies, and test-caused failures. The exponential distribution is used for the component failure times and periodic equations are developed for the testing and repair contributions. Human errors and common mode failures can be included by assigning an appropriate constant probability for the contributors. The output from FRANTIC consists of tables and plots of the system unavailability along with a breakdown of the unavailability contributions. Sensitivity studies can be simply performed and a wide range of tables and plots can be obtained for reporting purposes. The FRANTIC code represents a first step in the development of an approach that can be of direct value in future system evaluations. Modifications resulting from use of the code, along with the development of reliability data based on operating reactor experience, can be expected to provide increased confidence in its use and potential application to the licensing process
Aspects of two-level systems under external time-dependent fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bagrov, V.G.; Wreszinski, W.F. [Tomsk State University and Tomsk Institute of High Current Electronics (Russian Federation); Barata, J.C.A.; Gitman D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica (Brazil)]. E-mails: jbarata@fma.if.usp.br; gitman@fma.if.usp.br
2001-12-14
The dynamics of two-level systems in time-dependent backgrounds is under consideration. We present some new exact solutions in special backgrounds decaying in time. On the other hand, following ideas of Feynman et al, we discuss in detail the possibility of reducing the quantum dynamics to a classical Hamiltonian system. This, in particular, opens the possibility of directly applying powerful methods of classical mechanics (e.g. KAM methods) to study the quantum system. Following such an approach, we draw conclusions of relevance for 'quantum chaos' when the external background is periodic or quasi-periodic in time. (author)
Time-Dependent Topology of Railway Prestressed Concrete Sleepers
Li, Dan; Ngamkhanong, Chayut; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat
2017-10-01
The railway sleepers are very important component of railway track structure. The sleepers can be manufactured by using timber, concrete, steel or other engineered materials. Nowadays, prestressed concrete has become most commonly used type of sleepers. Prestressed concrete sleepers have longer life-cycle and lower maintenance cost than reinforced concrete sleepers. They are expected to withstand high dynamic loads and harsh environments. However, durability and long-term performance of prestressed concrete sleepers are largely dependent on creep and shrinkage responses. This study investigates the long-term behaviours of prestressed concrete sleepers and proposes the shortening and deflection diagrams. Comparison between design codes of Eurocode 2 and AS3600-2009 provides the insight into the time-dependent performance of prestressed concrete sleepers. The outcome of this paper will improve the rail maintenance and inspection criteria in order to establish appropriate sensible remote track condition monitor network in practice.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habershon, Scott
2013-01-01
We introduce a new approach for calculating quantum time-correlation functions and time-dependent expectation values in many-body thermal systems; both electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic cases can be treated. Our approach uses a path integral simulation to sample an initial thermal density matrix; subsequent evolution of this density matrix is equivalent to solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, which we perform using a linear expansion of Gaussian wavepacket basis functions which evolve according to simple classical-like trajectories. Overall, this methodology represents a formally exact approach for calculating time-dependent quantum properties; by introducing approximations into both the imaginary-time and real-time propagations, this approach can be adapted for complex many-particle systems interacting through arbitrary potentials. We demonstrate this method for the spin Boson model, where we find good agreement with numerically exact calculations. We also discuss future directions of improvement for our approach with a view to improving accuracy and efficiency
Habershon, Scott
2013-09-14
We introduce a new approach for calculating quantum time-correlation functions and time-dependent expectation values in many-body thermal systems; both electronically adiabatic and non-adiabatic cases can be treated. Our approach uses a path integral simulation to sample an initial thermal density matrix; subsequent evolution of this density matrix is equivalent to solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation, which we perform using a linear expansion of Gaussian wavepacket basis functions which evolve according to simple classical-like trajectories. Overall, this methodology represents a formally exact approach for calculating time-dependent quantum properties; by introducing approximations into both the imaginary-time and real-time propagations, this approach can be adapted for complex many-particle systems interacting through arbitrary potentials. We demonstrate this method for the spin Boson model, where we find good agreement with numerically exact calculations. We also discuss future directions of improvement for our approach with a view to improving accuracy and efficiency.
The Electromagnetic Field of Elementary Time-Dependent Toroidal Sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afanas'ev, G.N.; Stepanovskij, Yu.P.
1994-01-01
The radiation field of toroidal-like time-dependent current configurations is investigated. Time-dependent charge-current sources are found outside which the electromagnetic strengths disappear but the potentials survive. This can be used to carry out time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm-like experiments and the information transfer. Using the Neumann-Helmholtz parametrization of the current density we present the time-dependent electromagnetic field in a form convenient for applications. 17 refs
Radiation induced time dependent attenuation in a fiber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kelly, R.E.; Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.
1985-01-01
Characteristics describing the time dependent attenuation coefficient of an optical fiber during and following a very short and intense radiation pulse are analyzed. This problem is important for transmission applications when the fiber is subjected to gamma, electron, or neutron beams. Besides time, the attenuation coefficient is a function of temperature, dose rate, dose, nature of the radiation (n, e, γ), fiber composition and purity, pre-existing solid state defects, and wavelength of the transmitted signal. The peak attenuation for a given fiber is mainly determined by the dose rate and pulse length, but temperature and strain (or athermal) annealing also contribute to a partial recovery during the pulse duration. The peak attenuation per unit dose appears to be smaller at high doses, perhaps caused by particle track overlap, which produces a saturation effect. After pulse termination, the attenuation coefficient tends to recover towards its pre-radiation value at different rates, depending upon the factors mentioned above. In particular, ionized electrons relax back to the positive lattice ions at a rate which depends upon initial separation distance and temperature. The initial separation distance is a function of beam energy. Some electrons will encounter a trap in the lattice and may recombine by quantum mechanical tunneling or be removed by photons (hence, absorption). Besides ionization, radiation may induce lattice displacements which in turn produce additional absorption centers. The displacement contribution has a different time constant than that associated with ionization. These topics, as they influence fiber characteristics, are discussed, along with supporting experimental data
Demystifying the constancy of the Ermakov-Lewis invariant for a time-dependent oscillator
Padmanabhan, T.
2018-03-01
It is well known that the time-dependent harmonic oscillator (TDHO) possesses a conserved quantity, usually called Ermakov-Lewis invariant. I provide a simple physical interpretation of this invariant as well as a whole family of related invariants. This interpretation does not seem to have been noticed in the literature before. The procedure also allows one to tackle some key conceptual issues which arise in the study of quantum fields in the external, time-dependent backgrounds like in the case of particle production in an expanding universe and Schwinger effect.
RAPTOR. I. Time-dependent radiative transfer in arbitrary spacetimes
Bronzwaer, T.; Davelaar, J.; Younsi, Z.; Mościbrodzka, M.; Falcke, H.; Kramer, M.; Rezzolla, L.
2018-05-01
Context. Observational efforts to image the immediate environment of a black hole at the scale of the event horizon benefit from the development of efficient imaging codes that are capable of producing synthetic data, which may be compared with observational data. Aims: We aim to present RAPTOR, a new public code that produces accurate images, animations, and spectra of relativistic plasmas in strong gravity by numerically integrating the equations of motion of light rays and performing time-dependent radiative transfer calculations along the rays. The code is compatible with any analytical or numerical spacetime. It is hardware-agnostic and may be compiled and run both on GPUs and CPUs. Methods: We describe the algorithms used in RAPTOR and test the code's performance. We have performed a detailed comparison of RAPTOR output with that of other radiative-transfer codes and demonstrate convergence of the results. We then applied RAPTOR to study accretion models of supermassive black holes, performing time-dependent radiative transfer through general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamical (GRMHD) simulations and investigating the expected observational differences between the so-called fast-light and slow-light paradigms. Results: Using RAPTOR to produce synthetic images and light curves of a GRMHD model of an accreting black hole, we find that the relative difference between fast-light and slow-light light curves is less than 5%. Using two distinct radiative-transfer codes to process the same data, we find integrated flux densities with a relative difference less than 0.01%. Conclusions: For two-dimensional GRMHD models, such as those examined in this paper, the fast-light approximation suffices as long as errors of a few percent are acceptable. The convergence of the results of two different codes demonstrates that they are, at a minimum, consistent. The public version of RAPTOR is available at the following URL: http://https://github.com/tbronzwaer/raptor
Photodetachment of the H− ion in a linear time-dependent electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, De-Hua; Chen, Zhaohang; Cheng, Shaohao
2016-01-01
Using the time-dependent closed orbit theory, we study the photodetachment of the H − ion in a linear time-dependent electric field for the first time. An analytical formula for calculating the time-dependent photodetachment cross section of this system has been put forward. It is found when the external electric field changes very slowly with time, there is only one closed orbit of the detached electron and the photodetachment cross section is quite stable. However, when the electric field changes quickly with time, three different types of closed orbits are found and the photodetachment cross section oscillates in a much more complex way. The connection of each type of closed orbit with the oscillatory structure in the photodetachment cross section is analyzed quantitatively. In addition, the photon energy and the laser field parameters can also have great influence on the time-dependent photodetachment cross section of this system. This study provides a clear and intuitive picture for the photodetachment dynamics of a negative ion in the presence of a time-dependent electric field and may guide future experimental studies exploring the quantum effect in the photodetachment dynamics of negative ions from a time-dependent viewpoint. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayvaz, Muzaffer; Demiralp, Metin
2011-01-01
In this study, the optimal control equations for one dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator under the quadratic control operators together with linear dipole polarizability effects are constructed in the sense of Heisenberg equation of motion. A numerical technique based on the approximation to the non-commuting quantum mechanical operators from the fluctuation free expectation value dynamics perspective in the classical limit is also proposed for the solution of optimal control equations which are ODEs with accompanying boundary conditions. The dipole interaction of the system is considered to be linear, and the observable whose expectation value will be suppressed during the control process is considered to be quadratic in terms of position operator x. The objective term operator is also assumed to be quadratic.
Constant resolution of time-dependent Hartree--Fock phase ambiguity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lichtner, P.C.; Griffin, J.J.; Schultheis, H.; Schultheis, R.; Volkov, A.B.
1978-01-01
The customary time-dependent Hartree--Fock problem is shown to be ambiguous up to an arbitrary function of time additive to H/sub HF/, and, consequently, up to an arbitrary time-dependent phase for the solution, PHI(t). The ''constant'' (H)'' phase is proposed as the best resolution of this ambiguity. It leads to the following attractive features: (a) the time-dependent Hartree--Fock (TDHF) Hamiltonian, H/sub HF/, becomes a quantity whose expectation value is equal to the average energy and, hence, constant in time; (b) eigenstates described exactly by determinants, have time-dependent Hartree--Fock solutions identical with the exact time-dependent solutions; (c) among all possible TDHF solutions this choice minimizes the norm of the quantity (H--i dirac constant delta/delta t) operating on the ket PHI, and guarantees optimal time evolution over an infinitesimal period; (d) this choice corresponds both to the stationary value of the absolute difference between (H) and (i dirac constant delta/delta t) and simultaneously to its absolute minimal value with respect to choice of the time-dependent phase. The source of the ambiguity is discussed. It lies in the time-dependent generalization of the freedom to transform unitarily among the single-particle states of a determinant at the (physically irrelevant for stationary states) cost of altering only a factor of unit magnitude
Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory for Open Systems and Its Applications.
Chen, Shuguang; Kwok, YanHo; Chen, GuanHua
2018-02-20
Photovoltaic devices, electrochemical cells, catalysis processes, light emitting diodes, scanning tunneling microscopes, molecular electronics, and related devices have one thing in common: open quantum systems where energy and matter are not conserved. Traditionally quantum chemistry is confined to isolated and closed systems, while quantum dissipation theory studies open quantum systems. The key quantity in quantum dissipation theory is the reduced system density matrix. As the reduced system density matrix is an O(M! × M!) matrix, where M is the number of the particles of the system of interest, quantum dissipation theory can only be employed to simulate systems of a few particles or degrees of freedom. It is thus important to combine quantum chemistry and quantum dissipation theory so that realistic open quantum systems can be simulated from first-principles. We have developed a first-principles method to simulate the dynamics of open electronic systems, the time-dependent density functional theory for open systems (TDDFT-OS). Instead of the reduced system density matrix, the key quantity is the reduced single-electron density matrix, which is an N × N matrix where N is the number of the atomic bases of the system of interest. As the dimension of the key quantity is drastically reduced, the TDDFT-OS can thus be used to simulate the dynamics of realistic open electronic systems and efficient numerical algorithms have been developed. As an application, we apply the method to study how quantum interference develops in a molecular transistor in time domain. We include electron-phonon interaction in our simulation and show that quantum interference in the given system is robust against nuclear vibration not only in the steady state but also in the transient dynamics. As another application, by combining TDDFT-OS with Ehrenfest dynamics, we study current-induced dissociation of water molecules under scanning tunneling microscopy and follow its time dependent
Time-dependent perturbations in two-dimensional string black holes
Diamandis, G A; Maintas, X N; Mavromatos, Nikolaos E
1992-01-01
We discuss time-dependent perturbations (induced by matter fields) of a black-hole background in tree-level two-dimensional string theory. We analyse the linearized case and show the possibility of having black-hole solutions with time-dependent horizons. The latter exist only in the presence of time-dependent `tachyon' matter fields, which constitute the only propagating degrees of freedom in two-dimensional string theory. For real tachyon field configurations it is not possible to obtain solutions with horizons shrinking to a point. On the other hand, such a possibility seems to be realized in the case of string black-hole models formulated on higher world-sheet genera. We connect this latter result with black hole evaporation/decay at a quantum level.}
Wave Functions for Time-Dependent Dirac Equation under GUP
Zhang, Meng-Yao; Long, Chao-Yun; Long, Zheng-Wen
2018-04-01
In this work, the time-dependent Dirac equation is investigated under generalized uncertainty principle (GUP) framework. It is possible to construct the exact solutions of Dirac equation when the time-dependent potentials satisfied the proper conditions. In (1+1) dimensions, the analytical wave functions of the Dirac equation under GUP have been obtained for the two kinds time-dependent potentials. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11565009
Introduction to numerical methods for time dependent differential equations
Kreiss, Heinz-Otto
2014-01-01
Introduces both the fundamentals of time dependent differential equations and their numerical solutions Introduction to Numerical Methods for Time Dependent Differential Equations delves into the underlying mathematical theory needed to solve time dependent differential equations numerically. Written as a self-contained introduction, the book is divided into two parts to emphasize both ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and partial differential equations (PDEs). Beginning with ODEs and their approximations, the authors provide a crucial presentation of fundamental notions, such as the t
On the time-dependent Aharonov–Bohm effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Jing
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The Aharonov–Bohm effect in the background of a time-dependent vector potential is re-examined for both non-relativistic and relativistic cases. Based on the solutions to the Schrodinger and Dirac equations which contain the time-dependent magnetic vector potential, we find that contrary to the conclusions in a recent paper (Singleton and Vagenas 2013 [4], the interference pattern will be altered with respect to time because of the time-dependent vector potential.
Dittmann, Niklas; Splettstoesser, Janine; Helbig, Nicole
2018-04-01
We simulate the dynamics of a single-electron source, modeled as a quantum dot with on-site Coulomb interaction and tunnel coupling to an adjacent lead in time-dependent density-functional theory. Based on this system, we develop a time-nonlocal exchange-correlation potential by exploiting analogies with quantum-transport theory. The time nonlocality manifests itself in a dynamical potential step. We explicitly link the time evolution of the dynamical step to physical relaxation timescales of the electron dynamics. Finally, we discuss prospects for simulations of larger mesoscopic systems.
Coherent states for certain time-dependent systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedrosa, I.A.
1989-01-01
Hartley and Ray have constructed and studied coherent states for the time-dependent oscillator. Here we show how to construct states for more general time-dependent systems. We also show that these states are equivalent to the well-known squeezed states. (author) [pt
Propagators for the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castro, Alberto; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Rubio, Angel
2004-01-01
In this paper we address the problem of the numerical integration of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation i∂ t φ=Hφ. In particular, we are concerned with the important case where H is the self-consistent Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian that stems from time-dependent functional theory. As the Kohn-Sham potential depends parametrically on the time-dependent density, H is in general time dependent, even in the absence of an external time-dependent field. The present analysis also holds for the description of the excited state dynamics of a many-electron system under the influence of arbitrary external time-dependent electromagnetic fields. Our discussion is separated in two parts: (i) First, we look at several algorithms to approximate exp(A), where A is a time-independent operator [e.g., A=-iΔtH(τ) for some given time τ]. In particular, polynomial expansions, projection in Krylov subspaces, and split-operator methods are investigated. (ii) We then discuss different approximations for the time-evolution operator, such as the midpoint and implicit rules, and Magnus expansions. Split-operator techniques can also be modified to approximate the full time-dependent propagator. As the Hamiltonian is time dependent, problem (ii) is not equivalent to (i). All these techniques have been implemented and tested in our computer code OCTOPUS, but can be of general use in other frameworks and implementations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Miyagi, Haruhide; Madsen, Lars Bojer
2013-01-01
We present the time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-RASSCF) theory as a framework for the time-dependent many-electron problem. The theory generalizes the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) theory by incorporating the restricted-active-space scheme...... well known in time-independent quantum chemistry. Optimization of the orbitals as well as the expansion coefficients at each time step makes it possible to construct the wave function accurately while using only a relatively small number of electronic configurations. In numerical calculations of high...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Gianfreda
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss conditions giving rise to stationary position-momentum correlations among quantum states in the Fock and coherent basis associated with the natural invariant for the one-dimensional time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian operators such as the Kanai-Caldirola Hamiltonian. We also discuss some basic features such as quantum decoherence of the wave functions resulting from the corresponding quantum dynamics of these systems that exhibit no timedependence in their quantum correlations. In particular, steady statistical momentum averages are seen over well-defined time intervals in the evolution of a linear superposition of the basis states of modified exponentially damped mass systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuece, Cem
2003-01-01
In this paper, the problem of the charged harmonic plus an inverse harmonic oscillator with time-dependent mass and frequency in a time-dependent electromagnetic field is investigated. It is reduced to the problem of the inverse harmonic oscillator with time-independent parameters and the exact wave function is obtained
Time-dependent reliability sensitivity analysis of motion mechanisms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei, Pengfei; Song, Jingwen; Lu, Zhenzhou; Yue, Zhufeng
2016-01-01
Reliability sensitivity analysis aims at identifying the source of structure/mechanism failure, and quantifying the effects of each random source or their distribution parameters on failure probability or reliability. In this paper, the time-dependent parametric reliability sensitivity (PRS) analysis as well as the global reliability sensitivity (GRS) analysis is introduced for the motion mechanisms. The PRS indices are defined as the partial derivatives of the time-dependent reliability w.r.t. the distribution parameters of each random input variable, and they quantify the effect of the small change of each distribution parameter on the time-dependent reliability. The GRS indices are defined for quantifying the individual, interaction and total contributions of the uncertainty in each random input variable to the time-dependent reliability. The envelope function method combined with the first order approximation of the motion error function is introduced for efficiently estimating the time-dependent PRS and GRS indices. Both the time-dependent PRS and GRS analysis techniques can be especially useful for reliability-based design. This significance of the proposed methods as well as the effectiveness of the envelope function method for estimating the time-dependent PRS and GRS indices are demonstrated with a four-bar mechanism and a car rack-and-pinion steering linkage. - Highlights: • Time-dependent parametric reliability sensitivity analysis is presented. • Time-dependent global reliability sensitivity analysis is presented for mechanisms. • The proposed method is especially useful for enhancing the kinematic reliability. • An envelope method is introduced for efficiently implementing the proposed methods. • The proposed method is demonstrated by two real planar mechanisms.
Van Meer, R.; Gritsenko, O. V.; Baerends, E. J.
2017-01-01
Straightforward interpretation of excitations is possible if they can be described as simple single orbital-to-orbital (or double, etc.) transitions. In linear response time-dependent density functional theory (LR-TDDFT), the (ground state) Kohn-Sham orbitals prove to be such an orbital basis. In
Time-dependent friction and solvation time correlation function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samanta, Alok; Ali, Sk Musharaf; Ghosh, Swapan K
2005-01-01
We have derived a new relation between the time-dependent friction and solvation time correlation function (STCF) for non-polar fluids. The friction values calculated using this relation and simulation results on STCF for a Lennard-Jones fluid are shown to have excellent agreement with the same obtained through mode-coupling theory. Also derived is a relation between the time-dependent dielectric friction and STCF for polar fluids. Routes are thus provided to obtain the time-dependent friction (non-polar as well as dielectric) from an experimentally measured quantity like STCF, even if the interparticle interaction potential is not known
Time-dependent deterministic transport on parallel architectures using PARTISN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alcouffe, R.E.; Baker, R.S.
1998-01-01
In addition to the ability to solve the static transport equation, the authors have also incorporated time dependence into the parallel S N code PARTISN. Using a semi-implicit scheme, PARTISN is capable of performing time-dependent calculations for both fissioning and pure source driven problems. They have applied this to various types of problems such as shielding and prompt fission experiments. This paper describes the form of the time-dependent equations implemented, their solution strategies in PARTISN including iteration acceleration, and the strategies used for time-step control. Results are presented for a iron-water shielding calculation and a criticality excursion in a uranium solution configuration
Time-dependent behavior of positrons in noble gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wadehra, J.M.
1990-01-01
Both equilibrium and nonequilibrium behaviors of positrons in several noble gases are reviewed. Our novel procedure for obtaining the time-dependent behavior of various swarm parameters -- such as the positron drift velocity, average positron energy, positron annihilation rate (or equivalently Z eff ) etc. -- for positrons in pure ambient gases subjected to external electrostatic fields is described. Summaries of time-dependent as well as electric field-dependent results for positron swarms in various noble gases are presented. New time-dependent results for positron swarms in neon are also described in detail. 36 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs
Evaluation of Time-Dependent Behavior of Soils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Augustesen, Anders; Liingaard, Morten; Lade, Poul V.
2004-01-01
The time-dependent behavior of soils has been investigated extensively through one-dimensional and triaxial test conditions. Most of the observations in literature have focused on the determination of the time-dependent behavior of clayey soils, whereas the reported experimental studies of granular...... situation for soils. That is whether the time-dependent behavior can be characterized as isotach or nonisotach. It seems that the isotach behavior is adequate for describing the time effects in clays in most situations. But for sand, the isotach description is inadequate. Further, the phenomenon...
Multicomponent Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory: Proton and Electron Excitation Energies.
Yang, Yang; Culpitt, Tanner; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon
2018-04-05
The quantum mechanical treatment of both electrons and protons in the calculation of excited state properties is critical for describing nonadiabatic processes such as photoinduced proton-coupled electron transfer. Multicomponent density functional theory enables the consistent quantum mechanical treatment of more than one type of particle and has been implemented previously for studying ground state molecular properties within the nuclear-electronic orbital (NEO) framework, where all electrons and specified protons are treated quantum mechanically. To enable the study of excited state molecular properties, herein the linear response multicomponent time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is derived and implemented within the NEO framework. Initial applications to FHF - and HCN illustrate that NEO-TDDFT provides accurate proton and electron excitation energies within a single calculation. As its computational cost is similar to that of conventional electronic TDDFT, the NEO-TDDFT approach is promising for diverse applications, particularly nonadiabatic proton transfer reactions, which may exhibit mixed electron-proton vibronic excitations.
K shortest paths in stochastic time-dependent networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lars Relund; Pretolani, Daniele; Andersen, Kim Allan
2004-01-01
A substantial amount of research has been devoted to the shortest path problem in networks where travel times are stochastic or (deterministic and) time-dependent. More recently, a growing interest has been attracted by networks that are both stochastic and time-dependent. In these networks, the ...... present a computational comparison of time-adaptive and a priori route choices, pointing out the effect of travel time and cost distributions. The reported results show that, under realistic distributions, our solution methods are effective.......A substantial amount of research has been devoted to the shortest path problem in networks where travel times are stochastic or (deterministic and) time-dependent. More recently, a growing interest has been attracted by networks that are both stochastic and time-dependent. In these networks...
Skinner-Rusk approach to time-dependent mechanics
Cortés, Jorge; Martínez, Sonia; Cantrijn, Frans
2002-01-01
The geometric approach to autonomous classical mechanical systems in terms of a canonical first-order system on the Whitney sum of the tangent and cotangent bundle, developed by Skinner and Rusk, is extended to the time-dependent framework.
Ambiguities in the Lagrangians formalism: the time-dependent case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreira, D.T.
1986-01-01
An intrinsic formulation of the equivalence problem for time-dependent Lagrangians is given. A new demostration of a theorem derived by Henneaux (1982) is obtained. The relationship to transformation groups is discussed. (Author) [pt
The accuracy of time dependent transport equation ergodic approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stancic, V.
1995-01-01
In order to predict the accuracy of the ergodic approximation for solving the time dependent transport equation, a comparison with respect to multiple collision and time finite difference methods, has been considered. (author)
Construction of an exact solution of time-dependent Ginzburg ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau (TDGL) equations we have calculated the ... The prototype of such equations is the parabolic reaction diffusion equation [7,8] ..... It may be possible to compare the above results with suitable experiments, ...
Time-dependent pseudo-reciprocity relations in neutronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Modak, R.S.; Sahni, D.C.
2002-01-01
Earlier, certain reciprocity-like relations have been shown to hold in some restricted steady state cases in neutron diffusion and transport theories. Here, the possibility of existence of similar relations in time-dependent situations is investigated
Geometry and dynamics with time-dependent constraints
Evans, Jonathan M.; Jonathan M Evans; Philip A Tuckey
1995-01-01
We describe how geometrical methods can be applied to a system with explicitly time-dependent second-class constraints so as to cast it in Hamiltonian form on its physical phase space. Examples of particular interest are systems which require time-dependent gauge fixing conditions in order to reduce them to their physical degrees of freedom. To illustrate our results we discuss the gauge-fixing of relativistic particles and strings moving in arbitrary background electromagnetic and antisymmetric tensor fields.
Relativistic Photoionization Computations with the Time Dependent Dirac Equation
2016-10-12
Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6795--16-9698 Relativistic Photoionization Computations with the Time Dependent Dirac... Photoionization Computations with the Time Dependent Dirac Equation Daniel F. Gordon and Bahman Hafizi Naval Research Laboratory 4555 Overlook Avenue, SW...Unclassified Unlimited Unclassified Unlimited 22 Daniel Gordon (202) 767-5036 Tunneling Photoionization Ionization of inner shell electrons by laser
Stationary solution of a time dependent density matrix formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tohyama, Mitsuru
1994-01-01
A stationary solution of a time-dependent density-matrix formalism, which is an extension of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory to include the effects of two-body correlations, is obtained for the Lipkin model hamiltonian, using an adiabatic treatment of the two-body interaction. It is found that the obtained result is a reasonable approximation for the exact solution of the model. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolay M. Bogoliubov
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The basic model of the non-equilibrium low dimensional physics the so-called totally asymmetric exclusion process is related to the 'crystalline limit' (q → ∞ of the SU_q(2 quantum algebra. Using the quantum inverse scattering method we obtain the exact expression for the time-dependent stationary correlation function of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process on a one dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions.
Zheng, Xiao; Yam, ChiYung; Wang, Fan; Chen, GuanHua
2011-08-28
We present the time-dependent holographic electron density theorem (TD-HEDT), which lays the foundation of time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) for open electronic systems. For any finite electronic system, the TD-HEDT formally establishes a one-to-one correspondence between the electron density inside any finite subsystem and the time-dependent external potential. As a result, any electronic property of an open system in principle can be determined uniquely by the electron density function inside the open region. Implications of the TD-HEDT on the practicality of TDDFT are also discussed.
Time-dependent non-equilibrium dielectric response in QM/continuum approaches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, Feizhi; Lingerfelt, David B.; Li, Xiaosong, E-mail: benedetta.mennucci@unipi.it, E-mail: li@chem.washington.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Mennucci, Benedetta, E-mail: benedetta.mennucci@unipi.it, E-mail: li@chem.washington.edu [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy)
2015-01-21
The Polarizable Continuum Models (PCMs) are some of the most inexpensive yet successful methods for including the effects of solvation in quantum-mechanical calculations of molecular systems. However, when applied to the electronic excitation process, these methods are restricted to dichotomously assuming either that the solvent has completely equilibrated with the excited solute charge density (infinite-time limit), or that it retains the configuration that was in equilibrium with the solute prior to excitation (zero-time limit). This renders the traditional PCMs inappropriate for resolving time-dependent solvent effects on non-equilibrium solute electron dynamics like those implicated in the instants following photoexcitation of a solvated molecular species. To extend the existing methods to this non-equilibrium regime, we herein derive and apply a new formalism for a general time-dependent continuum embedding method designed to be propagated alongside the solute’s electronic degrees of freedom in the time domain. Given the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the solvent, an equation of motion for the dielectric polarization is derived within the PCM framework and numerically integrated simultaneously with the time-dependent Hartree fock/density functional theory equations. Results for small molecular systems show the anticipated dipole quenching and electronic state dephasing/relaxation resulting from out-of-phase charge fluctuations in the dielectric and embedded quantum system.
Time-dependent weak values and their intrinsic phases of evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parks, A D
2008-01-01
The equation of motion for a time-dependent weak value of a quantum-mechanical observable is known to contain a complex valued energy factor (the weak energy of evolution) that is defined by the dynamics of the pre-selected and post-selected states which specify the observable's weak value. In this paper, the mechanism responsible for the creation of this energy is identified and it is shown that the cumulative effect over time of this energy is manifested as dynamical phases and pure geometric phases (the intrinsic phases of evolution) which govern the evolution of the weak value during its measurement process. These phases are simply related to a Pancharatnam phase and Fubini-Study metric distance defined by the Hilbert space evolution of the associated pre-selected and post-selected states. A characterization of time-dependent weak value evolution as Pancharatnam phase angle rotations and Fubini-Study distance scalings of a vector in the Argand plane is discussed as an application of this relationship. The theory of weak values is also reviewed and simple 'gedanken experiments' are used to illustrate both the time-independent and the time-dependent versions of the theory. It is noted that the direct experimental observation of the weak energy of evolution would strongly support the time-symmetric paradigm of quantum mechanics and it is suggested that weak value equations of motion represent a new category of nonlocal equations of motion
An analytical nodal method for time-dependent one-dimensional discrete ordinates problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barros, R.C. de
1992-01-01
In recent years, relatively little work has been done in developing time-dependent discrete ordinates (S N ) computer codes. Therefore, the topic of time integration methods certainly deserves further attention. In this paper, we describe a new coarse-mesh method for time-dependent monoenergetic S N transport problesm in slab geometry. This numerical method preserves the analytic solution of the transverse-integrated S N nodal equations by constants, so we call our method the analytical constant nodal (ACN) method. For time-independent S N problems in finite slab geometry and for time-dependent infinite-medium S N problems, the ACN method generates numerical solutions that are completely free of truncation errors. Bsed on this positive feature, we expect the ACN method to be more accurate than conventional numerical methods for S N transport calculations on coarse space-time grids
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vubangsi, M.; Tchoffo, M.; Fai, L. C. [Mesoscopic and Multilayer Structures Laboratory, Physics Department, University of Dschang, P.O. Box 417 Dschang (Cameroon); Pisma’k, Yu. M. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
The problem of a particle with position and time-dependent effective mass in a one-dimensional infinite square well is treated by means of a quantum canonical formalism. The dynamics of a launched wave packet of the system reveals a peculiar revival pattern that is discussed. .
Dynamics of the sub-Ohmic spin-boson model: A time-dependent variational study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Ning; Duan Liwei; Zhao Yang; Li Xin
2013-01-01
The Dirac-Frenkel time-dependent variation is employed to probe the dynamics of the zero temperature sub-Ohmic spin-boson model with strong friction utilizing the Davydov D 1 ansatz. It is shown that initial conditions of the phonon bath have considerable influence on the dynamics. Counterintuitively, even in the very strong coupling regime, quantum coherence features still manage to survive under the polarized bath initial condition, while such features are absent under the factorized bath initial condition. In addition, a coherent-incoherent transition is found at a critical coupling strength α≈ 0.1 for s= 0.25 under the factorized bath initial condition. We quantify how faithfully our ansatz follows the Schrödinger equation, finding that the time-dependent variational approach is robust for strong dissipation and deep sub-Ohmic baths (s≪ 1).
Comparison of deterministic and stochastic methods for time-dependent Wigner simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shao, Sihong, E-mail: sihong@math.pku.edu.cn [LMAM and School of Mathematical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Sellier, Jean Michel, E-mail: jeanmichel.sellier@parallel.bas.bg [IICT, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev str. 25A, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)
2015-11-01
Recently a Monte Carlo method based on signed particles for time-dependent simulations of the Wigner equation has been proposed. While it has been thoroughly validated against physical benchmarks, no technical study about its numerical accuracy has been performed. To this end, this paper presents the first step towards the construction of firm mathematical foundations for the signed particle Wigner Monte Carlo method. An initial investigation is performed by means of comparisons with a cell average spectral element method, which is a highly accurate deterministic method and utilized to provide reference solutions. Several different numerical tests involving the time-dependent evolution of a quantum wave-packet are performed and discussed in deep details. In particular, this allows us to depict a set of crucial criteria for the signed particle Wigner Monte Carlo method to achieve a satisfactory accuracy.
Hydrodynamic perspective on memory in time-dependent density-functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thiele, M.; Kuemmel, S.
2009-01-01
The adiabatic approximation of time-dependent density-functional theory is studied in the context of nonlinear excitations of two-electron singlet systems. We compare the exact time evolution of these systems to the adiabatically exact one obtained from time-dependent Kohn-Sham calculations relying on the exact ground-state exchange-correlation potential. Thus, we can show under which conditions the adiabatic approximation breaks down and memory effects become important. The hydrodynamic formulation of quantum mechanics allows us to interpret these results and relate them to dissipative effects in the Kohn-Sham system. We show how the breakdown of the adiabatic approximation can be inferred from the rate of change of the ground-state noninteracting kinetic energy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nascimento, Daniel R.; DePrince, A. Eugene, E-mail: deprince@chem.fsu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306-4390 (United States)
2015-12-07
We present a combined cavity quantum electrodynamics/ab initio electronic structure approach for simulating plasmon-molecule interactions in the time domain. The simple Jaynes-Cummings-type model Hamiltonian typically utilized in such simulations is replaced with one in which the molecular component of the coupled system is treated in a fully ab initio way, resulting in a computationally efficient description of general plasmon-molecule interactions. Mutual polarization effects are easily incorporated within a standard ground-state Hartree-Fock computation, and time-dependent simulations carry the same formal computational scaling as real-time time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. As a proof of principle, we apply this generalized method to the emergence of a Fano-like resonance in coupled molecule-plasmon systems; this feature is quite sensitive to the nanoparticle-molecule separation and the orientation of the molecule relative to the polarization of the external electric field.
Time-dependent nonequilibrium soft x-ray response during a spin crossover
van Veenendaal, Michel
2018-03-01
A theoretical framework is developed for better understanding the time-dependent soft-x-ray response of dissipative quantum many-body systems. It is shown how x-ray absorption and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at transition-metal L edges can provide insight into ultrafast intersystem crossings of importance for energy conversion, ultrafast magnetism, and catalysis. The photoinduced doublet-to-quartet spin crossover on cobalt in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogs is used as a model system to demonstrate how the x-ray response is affected by the nonequilibrium dynamics on a femtosecond time scale. Changes in local spin and symmetry and the underlying mechanism are reflected in strong broadenings, a collapse of clear selection rules during the intersystem crossing, fluctuations in the isotropic branching ratio in x-ray absorption, crystal-field collapse and/or oscillations, and time-dependent anti-Stokes processes in RIXS.
Single particle nonlocality, geometric phases and time-dependent boundary conditions
Matzkin, A.
2018-03-01
We investigate the issue of single particle nonlocality in a quantum system subjected to time-dependent boundary conditions. We discuss earlier claims according to which the quantum state of a particle remaining localized at the center of an infinite well with moving walls would be specifically modified by the change in boundary conditions due to the wall’s motion. We first prove that the evolution of an initially localized Gaussian state is not affected nonlocally by a linearly moving wall: as long as the quantum state has negligible amplitude near the wall, the boundary motion has no effect. This result is further extended to related confined time-dependent oscillators in which the boundary’s motion is known to give rise to geometric phases: for a Gaussian state remaining localized far from the boundaries, the effect of the geometric phases is washed out and the particle dynamics shows no traces of a nonlocal influence that would be induced by the moving boundaries.
Stochastic time-dependent vehicle routing problem: Mathematical models and ant colony algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhengyu Duan
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This article addresses the stochastic time-dependent vehicle routing problem. Two mathematical models named robust optimal schedule time model and minimum expected schedule time model are proposed for stochastic time-dependent vehicle routing problem, which can guarantee delivery within the time windows of customers. The robust optimal schedule time model only requires the variation range of link travel time, which can be conveniently derived from historical traffic data. In addition, the robust optimal schedule time model based on robust optimization method can be converted into a time-dependent vehicle routing problem. Moreover, an ant colony optimization algorithm is designed to solve stochastic time-dependent vehicle routing problem. As the improvements in initial solution and transition probability, ant colony optimization algorithm has a good performance in convergence. Through computational instances and Monte Carlo simulation tests, robust optimal schedule time model is proved to be better than minimum expected schedule time model in computational efficiency and coping with the travel time fluctuations. Therefore, robust optimal schedule time model is applicable in real road network.
Time-dependent reliability analysis of flood defences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buijs, F.A.; Hall, J.W.; Sayers, P.B.; Gelder, P.H.A.J.M. van
2009-01-01
This paper describes the underlying theory and a practical process for establishing time-dependent reliability models for components in a realistic and complex flood defence system. Though time-dependent reliability models have been applied frequently in, for example, the offshore, structural safety and nuclear industry, application in the safety-critical field of flood defence has to date been limited. The modelling methodology involves identifying relevant variables and processes, characterisation of those processes in appropriate mathematical terms, numerical implementation, parameter estimation and prediction. A combination of stochastic, hierarchical and parametric processes is employed. The approach is demonstrated for selected deterioration mechanisms in the context of a flood defence system. The paper demonstrates that this structured methodology enables the definition of credible statistical models for time-dependence of flood defences in data scarce situations. In the application of those models one of the main findings is that the time variability in the deterioration process tends to be governed the time-dependence of one or a small number of critical attributes. It is demonstrated how the need for further data collection depends upon the relevance of the time-dependence in the performance of the flood defence system.
Watching excitons move: the time-dependent transition density matrix
Ullrich, Carsten
2012-02-01
Time-dependent density-functional theory allows one to calculate excitation energies and the associated transition densities in principle exactly. The transition density matrix (TDM) provides additional information on electron-hole localization and coherence of specific excitations of the many-body system. We have extended the TDM concept into the real-time domain in order to visualize the excited-state dynamics in conjugated molecules. The time-dependent TDM is defined as an implicit density functional, and can be approximately obtained from the time-dependent Kohn-Sham orbitals. The quality of this approximation is assessed in simple model systems. A computational scheme for real molecular systems is presented: the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations are solved with the OCTOPUS code and the time-dependent Kohn-Sham TDM is calculated using a spatial partitioning scheme. The method is applied to show in real time how locally created electron-hole pairs spread out over neighboring conjugated molecular chains. The coupling mechanism, electron-hole coherence, and the possibility of charge separation are discussed.
Semiclassical approximation to time-dependent Hartree--Fock theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dworzecka, M.; Poggioli, R.
1976-01-01
Working within a time-dependent Hartree-Fock framework, one develops a semiclassical approximation appropriate for large systems. It is demonstrated that the standard semiclassical approach, the Thomas-Fermi approximation, is inconsistent with Hartree-Fock theory when the basic two-body interaction is short-ranged (as in nuclear systems, for example). However, by introducing a simple extension of the Thomas-Fermi approximation, one overcomes this problem. One also discusses the infinite nuclear matter problem and point out that time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory yields collective modes of the zero sound variety instead of ordinary hydrodynamic (first) sound. One thus emphasizes that one should be extremely circumspect when attempting to cast the equations of motion of time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory into a hydrodynamic-like form
Time dependent convection electric fields and plasma injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaye, S.M.; Kivelson, M.G.
1979-01-01
Large-scale electric fields associated with storms or substorms are responsible for inward convection and energization of plasma sheet plasma. Calculations based on steady state convection theory show that the response to such electric fields qualitatively accounts for many features of the injected particle distribution, but quantitative agreement with the theory has not yet been obtained. It is known that the predictions can be improved by introducing the concept of convection in response to a time dependent electric field. On the other hand, time dependent calculations are sensitive to the choice of initial conditions, and most models have failed to incorporate these conditions in a realistic and self-consistent manner. In this paper we present a more complete model consisting of realisic initial conditions and time dependent convection to explain a typical substorm-associated electron injection event. We find very good agreement between the observed electron flux changes and those predicted by our model
Time-dependent massless Dirac fermions in graphene
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khantoul, Boubakeur, E-mail: bobphys@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Jijel, BP 98, Ouled Aissa, 18000 Jijel (Algeria); Fring, Andreas, E-mail: a.fring@city.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, City University London, Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom)
2015-10-30
Using the Lewis–Riesenfeld method of invariants we construct explicit analytical solutions for the massless Dirac equation in 2+1 dimensions describing quasi-particles in graphene. The Hamiltonian of the system considered contains some explicit time-dependence in addition to one resulting from being minimally coupled to a time-dependent vector potential. The eigenvalue equations for the two spinor components of the Lewis–Riesenfeld invariant are found to decouple into a pair of supersymmetric invariants in a similar fashion as the known decoupling for the time-independent Dirac Hamiltonians. - Highlights: • An explicit analytical solution for a massless 2+1 dimensional time-dependent Dirac equation is found. • All steps of the Lewis–Riesenfeld method have been carried out.
Solitary wave dynamics in time-dependent potentials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abou Salem, Walid K.
2008-01-01
The long time dynamics of solitary wave solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation in time-dependent external potentials is rigorously studied. To set the stage, the well-posedness of the Cauchy problem for a generalized nonautonomous nonlinear Schroedinger equation with time-dependent nonlinearities and potential is established. Afterward, the dynamics of NLS solitary waves in time-dependent potentials is studied. It is shown that in the space-adiabatic regime where the external potential varies slowly in space compared to the size of the soliton, the dynamics of the center of the soliton is described by Hamilton's equations, plus terms due to radiation damping. Finally, two physical applications are discussed: the first is adiabatic transportation of solitons and the second is the Mathieu instability of trapped solitons due to time-periodic perturbations
Time-dependent Bragg diffraction by multilayer gratings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
André, Jean-Michel; Jonnard, Philippe
2016-01-01
Time-dependent Bragg diffraction by multilayer gratings working by reflection or by transmission is investigated. The study is performed by generalizing the time-dependent coupled-wave theory previously developed for one-dimensional photonic crystals (André J-M and Jonnard P 2015 J. Opt. 17 085609) and also by extending the Takagi–Taupin approach of the dynamical theory of diffraction. The indicial response is calculated. It presents a time delay with a transient time that is a function of the extinction length for reflection geometry and of the extinction length combined with the thickness of the grating for transmission geometry. (paper)
Characterization of Models for Time-Dependent Behavior of Soils
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liingaard, Morten; Augustesen, Anders; Lade, Poul V.
2004-01-01
Different classes of constitutive models have been developed to capture the time-dependent viscous phenomena ~ creep, stress relaxation, and rate effects ! observed in soils. Models based on empirical, rheological, and general stress-strain-time concepts have been studied. The first part....... Special attention is paid to elastoviscoplastic models that combine inviscid elastic and time-dependent plastic behavior. Various general elastoviscoplastic models can roughly be divided into two categories: Models based on the concept of overstress and models based on nonstationary flow surface theory...
Exponential integrators in time-dependent density-functional calculations
Kidd, Daniel; Covington, Cody; Varga, Kálmán
2017-12-01
The integrating factor and exponential time differencing methods are implemented and tested for solving the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations. Popular time propagation methods used in physics, as well as other robust numerical approaches, are compared to these exponential integrator methods in order to judge the relative merit of the computational schemes. We determine an improvement in accuracy of multiple orders of magnitude when describing dynamics driven primarily by a nonlinear potential. For cases of dynamics driven by a time-dependent external potential, the accuracy of the exponential integrator methods are less enhanced but still match or outperform the best of the conventional methods tested.
Time dependent density matrix theory and effective interaction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tohyama, Mitsuru [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine
1998-07-01
A correlated ground state of {sup 16}O and an E2 giant resonance built on it are calculated using an extended version of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory called the time-dependent density-matrix theory (TDDM). The Skyrme force is used in the calculation of both a mean field and two-body correlations. It is found that TDDM gives reasonable ground-state correlations and a large spreading width of the E2 giant resonance when single-particle states in the continuum are treated appropriately. (author)
Basic and heavy ion scattering in time dependent Hartree-Fock Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, M.S.
1984-01-01
Time Dependent Hartree-Fock theory, TDHF, is the most sophisticated, microscopic approach to nuclear dynamics yet practiced. Although it is far from a description of nature it does allow us to examine multiply interactive many-body systems semi quantum mechanically and to visualize otherwise covert processes. Some of the properties of the TDHF equations are stated leaving the interested reader to one of several excellent review articles for the derivations. Some of the applications to the collision of heavy ions are briefly described
The effect of time-dependent coupling on non-equilibrium steady states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Neidhardt, Hagen; Zagrebnov, Valentin
Consider (for simplicity) two one-dimensional semi-infinite leads coupled to a quantum well via time dependent point interactions. In the remote past the system is decoupled, and each of its components is at thermal equilibrium. In the remote future the system is fully coupled. We define...... and compute the non equilibrium steady state (NESS) generated by this evolution. We show that when restricted to the subspace of absolute continuity of the fully coupled system, the state does not depend at all on the switching. Moreover, we show that the stationary charge current has the same invariant...
The effect of time-dependent coupling on non-equilibrium steady states
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cornean, Horia; Neidhardt, Hagen; Zagrebnov, Valentin A.
2009-01-01
Consider (for simplicity) two one-dimensional semi-infinite leads coupled to a quantum well via time dependent point interactions. In the remote past the system is decoupled, and each of its components is at thermal equilibrium. In the remote future the system is fully coupled. We define...... and compute the non equilibrium steady state (NESS) generated by this evolution. We show that when restricted to the subspace of absolute continuity of the fully coupled system, the state does not depend at all on the switching. Moreover, we show that the stationary charge current has the same invariant...
Finster, Felix; Murro, Simone; Röken, Christian
2016-07-01
We give a non-perturbative construction of the fermionic projector in Minkowski space coupled to a time-dependent external potential which is smooth and decays faster than quadratically for large times. The weak and strong mass oscillation properties are proven. We show that the integral kernel of the fermionic projector is of the Hadamard form, provided that the time integral of the spatial sup-norm of the potential satisfies a suitable bound. This gives rise to an algebraic quantum field theory of Dirac fields in an external potential with a distinguished pure quasi-free Hadamard state.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Finster, Felix; Murro, Simone; Röken, Christian
2016-01-01
We give a non-perturbative construction of the fermionic projector in Minkowski space coupled to a time-dependent external potential which is smooth and decays faster than quadratically for large times. The weak and strong mass oscillation properties are proven. We show that the integral kernel of the fermionic projector is of the Hadamard form, provided that the time integral of the spatial sup-norm of the potential satisfies a suitable bound. This gives rise to an algebraic quantum field theory of Dirac fields in an external potential with a distinguished pure quasi-free Hadamard state.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finster, Felix, E-mail: finster@ur.de, E-mail: simone.murro@ur.de, E-mail: Christian.Roeken@mathematik.ur.de; Murro, Simone, E-mail: finster@ur.de, E-mail: simone.murro@ur.de, E-mail: Christian.Roeken@mathematik.ur.de; Röken, Christian, E-mail: finster@ur.de, E-mail: simone.murro@ur.de, E-mail: Christian.Roeken@mathematik.ur.de [Fakultät für Mathematik, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)
2016-07-15
We give a non-perturbative construction of the fermionic projector in Minkowski space coupled to a time-dependent external potential which is smooth and decays faster than quadratically for large times. The weak and strong mass oscillation properties are proven. We show that the integral kernel of the fermionic projector is of the Hadamard form, provided that the time integral of the spatial sup-norm of the potential satisfies a suitable bound. This gives rise to an algebraic quantum field theory of Dirac fields in an external potential with a distinguished pure quasi-free Hadamard state.
Anderson, David F; Yuan, Chaojie
2018-04-18
A number of coupling strategies are presented for stochastically modeled biochemical processes with time-dependent parameters. In particular, the stacked coupling is introduced and is shown via a number of examples to provide an exceptionally low variance between the generated paths. This coupling will be useful in the numerical computation of parametric sensitivities and the fast estimation of expectations via multilevel Monte Carlo methods. We provide the requisite estimators in both cases.
Vehicle routing with stochastic time-dependent travel times
Lecluyse, C.; Woensel, van T.; Peremans, H.
2009-01-01
Assigning and scheduling vehicle routes in a stochastic time-dependent environment is a crucial management problem. The assumption that in a real-life environment everything goes according to an a priori determined static schedule is unrealistic. Our methodology builds on earlier work in which the
Ranking paths in stochastic time-dependent networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan; Pretolani, Daniele D.
2014-01-01
In this paper we address optimal routing problems in networks where travel times are both stochastic and time-dependent. In these networks, the best route choice is not necessarily a path, but rather a time-adaptive strategy that assigns successors to nodes as a function of time. Nevertheless, in...
Review of time-dependent fatigue behaviour of structural alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenstreet, W.L.
1978-01-01
A review and assessment of time-dependent fatigue was needed to provide an understanding of time-dependent fatigue processes, to define the limits of our present knowledge, and to establish bases for the development of verified design methods for structural components and systems for operation at elevated temperatures. This report reviews the present state of understanding of that phenomena, commonly called 'creep fatigue', and separates it into crack-initiation and crack propagation processes. Criteria for describing material behavior for each of these processes are discussed and described within the extent of present knowledge, which is limited largely to experience with one-dimensional loading. Behaviors of types 304 and 316 stainless steel are emphasized. Much of the treatment of time-dependent failure present here is new and of a developing nature; areas of agreement and areas requiring further resolution are enumerated'. These words are from the abstract of the report on a comprehensive study of time-dependent fatigue. This paper briefly reviews some of the contents and discusses important conclusions reached, especially in terms of current status and needs for additional work. (Auth.)
Quantifying Time Dependent Moisture Storage and Transport Properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Peuhkuri, Ruut H
2003-01-01
This paper describes an experimental and numerical approach to quantify the time dependence of sorption mechanisms for some hygroscopic building - mostly insulation - materials. Some investigations of retarded sorption and non-Fickian phenomena, mostly on wood, have given inspiration to the present...
Simulation of compressible viscous flow in time-dependent domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Česenek, J.; Feistauer, M.; Horáček, Jaromír; Kučera, V.; Prokopova, J.
2013-01-01
Roč. 219, č. 13 (2013), s. 7139-7150 ISSN 0096-3003 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/11/0207 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : time dependent domain * ALE method * semi-implicit time discretization * shock indicator Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.600, year: 2013
Cumulative Beam Breakup with Time-Dependent Parameters
Delayen, J R
2004-01-01
A general analytical formalism developed recently for cumulative beam breakup (BBU) in linear accelerators with arbitrary beam current profile and misalignments [1] is extended to include time-dependent parameters such as energy chirp or rf focusing in order to reduce BBU-induced instabilities and emittance growth. Analytical results are presented and applied to practical accelerator configurations.
Unit-time scheduling problems with time dependent resources
Tautenhahn, T.; Woeginger, G.
1997-01-01
We investigate the computational complexity of scheduling problems, where the operations consume certain amounts of renewable resources which are available in time-dependent quantities. In particular, we consider unit-time open shop problems and unit-time scheduling problems with identical parallel
Investment horizons : A time-dependent measure of asset performance
Ingve Simonsen; Anders Johansen; Mogens H. Jensen
2005-01-01
We review a resent {\\em time-dependent} performance measure for economical time series -- the (optimal) investment horizon approach. For stock indices, the approach shows a pronounced gain-loss asymmetry that is {\\em not} observed for the individual stocks that comprise the index. This difference may hint towards an synchronize of the draw downs of the stocks.
Multicomponent density-functional theory for time-dependent systems
Butriy, O.; Ebadi, H.; de Boeij, P. L.; van Leeuwen, R.; Gross, E. K. U.
2007-01-01
We derive the basic formalism of density functional theory for time-dependent electron-nuclear systems. The basic variables of this theory are the electron density in body-fixed frame coordinates and the diagonal of the nuclear N-body density matrix. The body-fixed frame transformation is carried
Propagator of a time-dependent unbound quadratic Hamiltonian system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeon, K.H.; Kim, H.J.; Um, C.I.; George, T.F.; Pandey, L.N.
1996-01-01
The propagator for a time-dependent unbound quadratic Hamiltonian system is explicitly evaluated using the path integral method. Two time-invariant quantities of the system are found where these invariants determine whether or not the system is bound. Several examples are considered to illustrate that the propagator obtained for the unbound systems is correct
Measuring time-dependent deformations in metallic MEMS
Bergers, L.I.J.C.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Delhey, N.K.R.; Geers, M.G.D.
2011-01-01
The reliability of metallic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) depends on time-dependent deformation such as creep. Key to this process is the interaction between microstructural length scales and dimensional length scales, so-called size-effects. As a first critical step towards studying these
Distributional curvature of time-dependent cosmic strings
Wilson, J P
1997-01-01
Colombeau's theory of generalised functions is used to calculate the contributions, at the rotation axis, to the distributional curvature for a time-dependent radiating cosmic string, and hence the mass per unit length of the string source. This mass per unit length is compared with the mass at null infinity, giving evidence for a global energy conservation law.
The evolution of streams in a time-dependent potential
Buist, Hans J. T.; Helmi, Amina
2015-01-01
We study the evolution of streams in a time-dependent spherical gravitational potential. Our goal is to establish what are the imprints of this time evolution on the properties of streams as well as their observability. To this end, we have performed a suite of test-particle experiments for a host
The Feynman integral for time-dependent anharmonic oscillators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grothaus, M.; Khandekar, D.C.; da Silva, J.L.; Streit, L.
1997-01-01
We review some basic notions and results of white noise analysis that are used in the construction of the Feynman integrand as a generalized white noise functional. We show that the Feynman integrand for the time-dependent harmonic oscillator in an external potential is a Hida distribution. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Inhibitory Synaptic Plasticity - Spike timing dependence and putative network function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tim P Vogels
2013-07-01
Full Text Available While the plasticity of excitatory synaptic connections in the brain has been widely studied, the plasticity of inhibitory connections is much less understood. Here, we present recent experimental and theoretical □ndings concerning the rules of spike timing-dependent inhibitory plasticity and their putative network function. This is a summary of a workshop at the COSYNE conference 2012.
Asymptotic time dependent neutron transport in multidimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, M.E.; Sawan, M.E.; Wassef, W.A.; El-Gueraly, L.A.
1983-01-01
A model which predicts the asymptotic time behavior of the neutron distribution in multi-dimensional systems is presented. The model is based on the kernel factorization method used for stationary neutron transport in a rectangular parallelepiped. The accuracy of diffusion theory in predicting the asymptotic time dependence is assessed. The use of neutron pulse experiments for predicting the diffusion parameters is also investigated
Time-Dependent Natural Convection Couette Flow of Heat ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Time-Dependent Natural Convection Couette Flow of Heat Generating/Absorbing Fluid between Vertical Parallel Plates Filled With Porous Material. ... The numerical simulation conducted for some saturated liquids reveled that at t ≥ Pr the steady and unsteady state velocities (as well as the temperature of the fluid) ...
Vehicle routing with stochastic time-dependent travel times
Lecluyse, C.; Woensel, van T.; Peremans, H.
2007-01-01
Assigning and scheduling vehicle routes in a stochastic time-dependent environment is a crucial management problem. The assumption that in a real-life environment everything goes according to an a priori determined static schedule is unrealistic. Our methodology builds on earlier work in which the
Coherent states of general time-dependent harmonic oscillator
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. By introducing an invariant operator, we obtain exact wave functions for a general time-dependent quadratic harmonic oscillator. The coherent states, both in x- and p-spaces, are calculated. We confirm that the uncertainty product in coherent state is always larger than Η/2 and is equal to the minimum of the ...
Huang, Jiayu; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Dong H.; Krems, Roman V.
2018-04-01
Because the de Broglie wavelength of ultracold molecules is very large, the cross sections for collisions of molecules at ultracold temperatures are always computed by the time-independent quantum scattering approach. Here, we report the first accurate time-dependent wave packet dynamics calculation for reactive scattering of ultracold molecules. Wave packet dynamics calculations can be applied to molecular systems with more dimensions and provide real-time information on the process of bond rearrangement and/or energy exchange in molecular collisions. Our work thus makes possible the extension of rigorous quantum calculations of ultracold reaction properties to polyatomic molecules and adds a new powerful tool for the study of ultracold chemistry.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mejlbro, Leif
1996-01-01
Fick's Second Law of Diffusion with time-dependent diffusioncoefficient and surface concentration is solved. Mimicking the classicalsolution, special time-dependent surface concentration functions areconsidered. These models are used in giving estimates of the lifetimeof the structure, when...... the concrete cover is given, as well as estimatesof the thickness of the concrete cover, when the expected lifetime is given.*Note: Book tilte: Durability of Concrete in Saline Environment...
Time-dependent nonequilibrium soft x-ray response during a spin crossover
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
van Veenendaal, Michel
2018-03-01
The rapid development of high-brilliance pulsed X-ray sources with femtosecond time resolution has created a need for a better theoretical understanding of the time-dependent soft-X-ray response of dissipative many-body quantum systems. It is demonstrated how soft-X-ray spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at transition-metal L-edges, can provide insight into intersystem crossings, such as a spin crossover. The photoinduced doublet-to-quartet spin crossover on cobalt in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogues is used as an example to demonstrate how the X-ray response is affected by the dissipative nonequilibrium dynamics. The time-dependent soft-X-ray spectra provide a wealth of information that reflect the changes in the nonequilibrium initial state via continuously changing spectral lineshapes that cannot be decomposed into initial photoexcited and final metastable spectra, strong broadenings, a collapse of clear selection rules during the intersystem crossing, strong fluctuations in the isotropic branching ratio in X-ray absorption, and crystal-field collapse/oscillations and strongly time-dependent anti-Stokes processes in RIXS.
Creation of particles by time-dependent gravitational fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castagnino, M.; Weder, R.
1979-01-01
A method based on the formulation of a quantum equivalence principle is introduced in order to define particle annihilation and creation operators during the expansion of the universe. Our theory predicts the creation of a finite number of particles. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keiji Sawada
2016-12-01
Full Text Available A novel rovibrationally resolved collisional-radiative model of molecular hydrogen that includes 4,133 rovibrational levels for electronic states whose united atom principal quantum number is below six is developed. The rovibrational X 1 Σ g + population distribution in a SlimCS fusion demo detached divertor plasma is investigated by solving the model time dependently with an initial 300 K Boltzmann distribution. The effective reaction rate coefficients of molecular assisted recombination and of other processes in which atomic hydrogen is produced are calculated using the obtained time-dependent population distribution.
Nonlinear time-dependent simulation of helix traveling wave tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Wei-Feng; Yang Zhong-Hai; Hu Yu-Lu; Li Jian-Qing; Lu Qi-Ru; Li Bin
2011-01-01
A one-dimensional nonlinear time-dependent theory for helix traveling wave tubes is studied. A generalized electromagnetic field is applied to the expression of the radio frequency field. To simulate the variations of the high frequency structure, such as the pitch taper and the effect of harmonics, the spatial average over a wavelength is substituted by a time average over a wave period in the equation of the radio frequency field. Under this assumption, the space charge field of the electron beam can be treated by a space charge wave model along with the space charge coefficient. The effects of the radio frequency and the space charge fields on the electrons are presented by the equations of the electron energy and the electron phase. The time-dependent simulation is compared with the frequency-domain simulation for a helix TWT, which validates the availability of this theory. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Considerations on assessment of different time depending models adequacy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Constantinescu, C.
2015-01-01
The operating period of nuclear power plants can be prolonged if it can be shown that their safety has remained on a high level, and for this, it is necessary to estimate how the aged systems, structures and components (SSCs) influence the NPP reliability and safety. To emphasize the ageing aspects the case study presented in this paper will assess different time depending models for rate of occurrence of failures with the goal to obtain the best fitting model. A sensitivity analysis for the impact of burn-in failures was performed to improve the result of the goodness of fit test. Based on the analysis results, a conclusion about the existence or the absence of an ageing trend could be developed. A sensitivity analysis regarding of the reliability parameters was performed, and the results were used to observe the impact over the time-dependent rate of occurrence of failures. (authors)
Theoretical information measurement in nonrelativistic time-dependent approach
Najafizade, S. A.; Hassanabadi, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.
2018-02-01
The information-theoretic measures of time-dependent Schrödinger equation are investigated via the Shannon information entropy, variance and local Fisher quantities. In our calculations, we consider the two first states n = 0,1 and obtain the position Sx (t) and momentum Sp (t) Shannon entropies as well as Fisher information Ix (t) in position and momentum Ip (t) spaces. Using the Fourier transformed wave function, we obtain the results in momentum space. Some interesting features of the information entropy densities ρs (x,t) and γs (p,t), as well as the probability densities ρ (x,t) and γ (p,t) for time-dependent states are demonstrated. We establish a general relation between variance and Fisher's information. The Bialynicki-Birula-Mycielski inequality is tested and verified for the states n = 0,1.
Induced voltage due to time-dependent magnetisation textures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudtarkar, Santosh Kumar; Dhadwal, Renu
2010-01-01
We determine the induced voltage generated by spatial and temporal magnetisation textures (inhomogeneities) in metallic ferromagnets due to the spin diffusion of non-equilibrium electrons. Using time dependent semi-classical theory as formulated in Zhang and Li and the drift-diffusion model of transport it is shown that the voltage generated depends critically on the difference in the diffusion constants of up and down spins. Including spin relaxation results in a crucial contribution to the induced voltage. We also show that the presence of magnetisation textures results in the modification of the conductivity of the system. As an illustration, we calculate the voltage generated due to a time dependent field driven helimagnet by solving the Landau-Lifshitz equation with Gilbert damping and explicitly calculate the dependence on the relaxation and damping parameters.
Time-dependent nonlinear cosmic ray shocks confirming abstract
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorfi, E.A.
1985-01-01
Numerical studies of time dependent cosmic ray shock structures in planar geometry are interesting because analytical time-independent solutions are available which include the non-linear reactions on the plasma flow. A feature of these time asymptotic solutions is that for higher Mach numbers (M approximately 5) and for a low cosmic ray upstream pressure the solution is not uniquely determined by the usual conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy. These numerical solutions clearly indicate that much work needs to be done before we understand shock acceleration as a time dependent process. The slowness of the process is possibly due to the fact that there is a diffusive flux into the downstream region in addition to the usual advective losses. Analytic investigations of this phenomenon are required
Tokamak power reactor ignition and time dependent fractional power operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vold, E.L.; Mau, T.K.; Conn, R.W.
1986-06-01
A flexible time-dependent and zero-dimensional plasma burn code with radial profiles was developed and employed to study the fractional power operation and the thermal burn control options for an INTOR-sized tokamak reactor. The code includes alpha thermalization and a time-dependent transport loss which can be represented by any one of several currently popular scaling laws for energy confinement time. Ignition parameters were found to vary widely in density-temperature (n-T) space for the range of scaling laws examined. Critical ignition issues were found to include the extent of confinement time degradation by alpha heating, the ratio of ion to electron transport power loss, and effect of auxiliary heating on confinement. Feedback control of the auxiliary power and ion fuel sources are shown to provide thermal stability near the ignition curve
The Time-Dependent Structure of the Electron Reconnection Layer
Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji; Kuznetsova, Masha; Klimas, Alex
2009-01-01
Collisionless magnetic reconnection is often associated with time-dependent behavior. Specifically, current layers in the diffusion region can become unstable to tearing-type instabilities on one hand, or to instabilities with current-aligned wave vectors on the other. In the former case, the growth of tearing instabilities typically leads to the production of magnetic islands, which potentially provide feedback on the reconnection process itself, as well as on the rate of reconnection. The second class of instabilities tend to modulate the current layer along the direction of the current flow, for instance generating kink-type perturbations, or smaller-scale turbulence with the potential to broaden the current layer. All of these processes contribute to rendering magnetic reconnection time-dependent. In this presentation, we will provide a summary of these effects, and a discussion of how much they contribute to the overall magnetic reconnection rate.
Time dependent non-extinction probability for prompt critical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gregson, M. W.; Prinja, A. K.
2009-01-01
The time dependent non-extinction probability equation is presented for slab geometry. Numerical solutions are provided for a nested inner/outer iteration routine where the fission terms (both linear and non-linear) are updated and then held fixed over the inner scattering iteration. Time dependent results are presented highlighting the importance of the injection position and angle. The iteration behavior is also described as the steady state probability of initiation is approached for both small and large time steps. Theoretical analysis of the nested iteration scheme is shown and highlights poor numerical convergence for marginally prompt critical systems. An acceleration scheme for the outer iterations is presented to improve convergence of such systems. Theoretical analysis of the acceleration scheme is also provided and the associated decrease in computational run time addressed. (authors)
Transcriptional dynamics with time-dependent reaction rates
Nandi, Shubhendu; Ghosh, Anandamohan
2015-02-01
Transcription is the first step in the process of gene regulation that controls cell response to varying environmental conditions. Transcription is a stochastic process, involving synthesis and degradation of mRNAs, that can be modeled as a birth-death process. We consider a generic stochastic model, where the fluctuating environment is encoded in the time-dependent reaction rates. We obtain an exact analytical expression for the mRNA probability distribution and are able to analyze the response for arbitrary time-dependent protocols. Our analytical results and stochastic simulations confirm that the transcriptional machinery primarily act as a low-pass filter. We also show that depending on the system parameters, the mRNA levels in a cell population can show synchronous/asynchronous fluctuations and can deviate from Poisson statistics.
Transcriptional dynamics with time-dependent reaction rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nandi, Shubhendu; Ghosh, Anandamohan
2015-01-01
Transcription is the first step in the process of gene regulation that controls cell response to varying environmental conditions. Transcription is a stochastic process, involving synthesis and degradation of mRNAs, that can be modeled as a birth–death process. We consider a generic stochastic model, where the fluctuating environment is encoded in the time-dependent reaction rates. We obtain an exact analytical expression for the mRNA probability distribution and are able to analyze the response for arbitrary time-dependent protocols. Our analytical results and stochastic simulations confirm that the transcriptional machinery primarily act as a low-pass filter. We also show that depending on the system parameters, the mRNA levels in a cell population can show synchronous/asynchronous fluctuations and can deviate from Poisson statistics. (paper)
Time-dependent delayed signatures from energetic photon interrogations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norman, Daren R.; Jones, James L.; Blackburn, Brandon W.; Haskell, Kevin J.; Johnson, James T.; Watson, Scott M.; Hunt, Alan W.; Spaulding, Randy; Harmon, Frank
2007-01-01
Pulsed photonuclear interrogation environments generated by 8-24 MeV electron linac are rich with time-dependent, material-specific, radiation signatures. Nitrogen-based explosives and nuclear materials can be detected by exploiting these signatures in different delayed-time regions. Numerical and experimental results presented in this paper show the unique time and energy dependence of these signatures. It is shown that appropriate delayed-time windows are essential to acquire material-specific signatures in pulsed photonuclear assessment environments. These developments demonstrate that pulsed, high-energy, photon-inspection environments can be exploited for time-dependent, material-specific signatures through the proper operation of specialized detectors and detection methods
Time-dependent phase error correction using digital waveform synthesis
Doerry, Armin W.; Buskirk, Stephen
2017-10-10
The various technologies presented herein relate to correcting a time-dependent phase error generated as part of the formation of a radar waveform. A waveform can be pre-distorted to facilitate correction of an error induced into the waveform by a downstream operation/component in a radar system. For example, amplifier power droop effect can engender a time-dependent phase error in a waveform as part of a radar signal generating operation. The error can be quantified and an according complimentary distortion can be applied to the waveform to facilitate negation of the error during the subsequent processing of the waveform. A time domain correction can be applied by a phase error correction look up table incorporated into a waveform phase generator.
Spectral methods for time dependent partial differential equations
Gottlieb, D.; Turkel, E.
1983-01-01
The theory of spectral methods for time dependent partial differential equations is reviewed. When the domain is periodic Fourier methods are presented while for nonperiodic problems both Chebyshev and Legendre methods are discussed. The theory is presented for both hyperbolic and parabolic systems using both Galerkin and collocation procedures. While most of the review considers problems with constant coefficients the extension to nonlinear problems is also discussed. Some results for problems with shocks are presented.
Time-dependent crack growth and fracture in concrete
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Fan Ping.
1992-02-01
The objectives of this thesis are to study time-dependent fracture behaviour in concrete. The thesis consists of an experimental study, costitutive modelling and numerical analysis. The experimental study was undertaken to investigate the influences of time on material properties for the fracture process zone and on crack growth and fracture in plain concrete structures. The experiments include tensile relaxation tests, bending tests on notched beams to determine fracture energy at varying deflection rates, and sustained bending and compact tensile tests. From the tensile relaxation tests, the envelope of the σ-w relation does not seem to be influenced by holding periods, though some local detrimental effect does occur. Fracture energy seems to decrease as rates become slower. In the sustained loading tests, deformation (deflection or CMOD) growth curves display three stages, as usually observed in a creep rupture test. The secondary stage dominates the whole failure lifetime, and the secondary deformation rate appears to have good correlation with the failure lifetime. A crack model for time-dependent fracture is proposed, by applying the idea of the Fictitious Crack Model. In this model, a modified Maxwell model is introduced for the fracture process zone incorporated with the static σ-w curve as a failure criterion, based on the observation of the tensile relaxation tests. The time-dependent σ-w curve is expressed in an incremental law. The proposed model has been implemented in a finite element program and applied to simulating sustained flexural and compact tensile tests. Numerical analysis includes simulations of crack growth, load-CMOD curves, stress-failure lifetime curves, size effects on failure life etc. The numerical results indicate that the model seems to be able to properly predict the main features of time-dependent fracture behaviour in concrete, as compared with the experimental results. 97 refs
Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K
1996-01-01
.0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33...
Distributed Scheduling in Time Dependent Environments: Algorithms and Analysis
Shmuel, Ori; Cohen, Asaf; Gurewitz, Omer
2017-01-01
Consider the problem of a multiple access channel in a time dependent environment with a large number of users. In such a system, mostly due to practical constraints (e.g., decoding complexity), not all users can be scheduled together, and usually only one user may transmit at any given time. Assuming a distributed, opportunistic scheduling algorithm, we analyse the system's properties, such as delay, QoS and capacity scaling laws. Specifically, we start with analyzing the performance while \\...
Time dependent response of equatorial ionospheric electric fieldsto magnetospheric disturbances
Fejer, Bela G.; Scherliess, L.
1995-01-01
We use extensive radar measurements of F region vertical plasma drifts and auroral electrojet indices to determine the storm time dependence of equatorial zonal electric fields. These disturbance drifts result from the prompt penetration of high latitude electric fields and from the dynamo action of storm time winds which produce largest perturbations a few hours after the onset of magnetic activity. The signatures of the equatorial disturbance electric fields change significantly depending o...
Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and Height Using an Elevator
Kinser, Jason M.
2015-01-01
A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to height is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v(t)=? a(t) dt (1) and x(t)=? v(t) dt. Mobile devices such as…
Time dependence of the pH of rain
John A. Kadlecek; Volkar A. Mohnen
1976-01-01
Standard procedures for determining the pH of rain samples usually involve substantial delays from the time of rainfall to the time of analysis. This assumes that no change in pH occurs during the storage period. We have found that this is not always true. We have determined that individual rain water samples possess a time dependent pH which can be correlated with the...
Analysis of multimedian problems on time dependent networks
Salman, F Sibel
1994-01-01
Ankara : The Department of Industrial Engineering and the Institute of Enginering and Science of Bilkent Univ., 1994. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1994. Includes bibliographical references leaves 81-85. Time dependency arises in transportation and computer-communication networks due to factors such as time varying demand, traffic intensity, and road conditions. This necessitates a locational decision to be based on an analysis involving a time horizon. In this st...
Time-dependent effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Roig, Marc; Thomas, Richard; Mang, Cameron S
2016-01-01
We present new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory can be regulated in a time-dependent manner. When the exercise stimulus is temporally coupled with specific phases of the memory formation process, a single bout of cardiovascular exercise may...... be sufficient to improve memory. SUMMARY: The timing of exercise in relation to the information to be remembered is critical to maximize the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on memory....
Time dependent temperature distribution in pulsed Ti:sapphire lasers
Buoncristiani, A. Martin; Byvik, Charles E.; Farrukh, Usamah O.
1988-01-01
An expression is derived for the time dependent temperature distribution in a finite solid state laser rod for an end-pumped beam of arbitrary shape. The specific case of end pumping by circular (constant) or Gaussian beam is described. The temperature profile for a single pump pulse and for repetitive pulse operation is discussed. The particular case of the temperature distribution in a pulsed titanium:sapphire rod is considered.
Time-dependent diffusive acceleration of test particles at shocks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Drury, L.O' C. (Dublin Inst. for Advanced Studies (Ireland))
1991-07-15
The acceleration of test particles at a steady plane non-relativistic shock is considered. Analytic expressions are found for the mean and the variance of the acceleration time distribution in the case where the diffusion coefficient has an arbitrary dependence on position and momentum. These expressions are used as the basis for an approximation scheme which is shown, by comparison with numerical solutions, to give an excellent representation of the time-dependent spectrum. (author).
Time-dependent diffusive acceleration of test particles at shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drury, L.O'C.
1991-01-01
The acceleration of test particles at a steady plane non-relativistic shock is considered. Analytic expressions are found for the mean and the variance of the acceleration time distribution in the case where the diffusion coefficient has an arbitrary dependence on position and momentum. These expressions are used as the basis for an approximation scheme which is shown, by comparison with numerical solutions, to give an excellent representation of the time-dependent spectrum. (author)
Stochastic Landau equation with time-dependent drift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swift, J.B.; Hohenberg, P.C.; Ahlers, G.
1991-01-01
The stochastic differential equation τ 0 ∂ tA =ε(t)A-g 3 A 3 +bar f(t), where bar f(t) is Gaussian white noise, is studied for arbitrary time dependence of ε(t). In particular, cases are considered where ε(t) goes through the bifurcation of the deterministic system, which occurs at ε=0. In the limit of weak noise an approximate analytic expression generalizing earlier work of Suzuki [Phys. Lett. A 67, 339 (1978); Prog. Theor. Phys. (Kyoto) Suppl. 64, 402 (1978)] is obtained for the time-dependent distribution function P(A,t). The results compare favorably with a numerical simulation of the stochastic equation for the case of a linear ramp (both increasing and decreasing) and for a periodic time dependence of ε(t). The procedure can be generalized to an arbitrary deterministic part ∂ tA =D(A,t)+bar f(t), but the deterministic equation may then have to be solved numerically
Algebraic time-dependent variational approach to dynamical calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, S.; Rabitz, H.
1988-01-01
A set of time-dependent basis states is obtained with a group of unitary transformations generated by a Lie algebra. Applying the time-dependent variational principle to the trial function subspace constructed from the linear combination of the time-dependent basis states gives rise to a set of ''classical'' equations of motion for the group parameters and the expansion coefficients from which the time evolution of the system state can be determined. The formulation is developed for a general Lie algebra as well as for the commonly encountered algebra containing homogeneous polynominal products of the coordinate Q and momentum P operators (or equivalently the boson creation a/sup dagger/ and annihilation a operators) of order 0, 1, and 2. Explicit expressions for the transition amplitudes are derived by virtue of the cannonical transformation properties of the unitary transformation. The applicability of the present formalism in a variety of problems is implied by two illustrative examples: (a) a parametric amplifier; (b) the collinear collision of an atom with a Morse oscillator
Neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sajad Abbar
2015-12-01
Full Text Available A dense neutrino medium such as that inside a core-collapse supernova can experience collective flavor conversion or oscillations because of the neutral-current weak interaction among the neutrinos. This phenomenon has been studied in a restricted, stationary supernova model which possesses the (spatial spherical symmetry about the center of the supernova and the (directional axial symmetry around the radial direction. Recently it has been shown that these spatial and directional symmetries can be broken spontaneously by collective neutrino oscillations. In this letter we analyze the neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model. Our results show that collective neutrino oscillations start at approximately the same radius in both the stationary and time-dependent supernova models unless there exist very rapid variations in local physical conditions on timescales of a few microseconds or shorter. Our results also suggest that collective neutrino oscillations can vary rapidly with time in the regimes where they do occur which need to be studied in time-dependent supernova models.
Neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbar, Sajad; Duan, Huaiyu, E-mail: duan@unm.edu
2015-12-17
A dense neutrino medium such as that inside a core-collapse supernova can experience collective flavor conversion or oscillations because of the neutral-current weak interaction among the neutrinos. This phenomenon has been studied in a restricted, stationary supernova model which possesses the (spatial) spherical symmetry about the center of the supernova and the (directional) axial symmetry around the radial direction. Recently it has been shown that these spatial and directional symmetries can be broken spontaneously by collective neutrino oscillations. In this letter we analyze the neutrino flavor instabilities in a time-dependent supernova model. Our results show that collective neutrino oscillations start at approximately the same radius in both the stationary and time-dependent supernova models unless there exist very rapid variations in local physical conditions on timescales of a few microseconds or shorter. Our results also suggest that collective neutrino oscillations can vary rapidly with time in the regimes where they do occur which need to be studied in time-dependent supernova models.
Time-dependent fatigue--phenomenology and life prediction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coffin, L.F.
1979-01-01
The time-dependent fatigue behavior of materials used or considered for use in present and advanced systems for power generation is outlined. A picture is first presented to show how basic mechanisms and phenomenological information relate to the performance of the component under consideration through the so-called local strain approach. By this means life prediction criteria and design rules can be formulated utilizing laboratory test information which is directly translated to predicting the performance of a component. The body of phenomenological information relative to time-dependent fatigue is reviewed. Included are effects of strain range, strain rate and frequency, environment and wave shape, all of which are shown to be important in developing both an understanding and design base for time dependent fatigue. Using this information, some of the current methods being considered for the life prediction of components are reviewed. These include the current ASME code case, frequency-modified fatigue equations, strain range partitioning, the damage function method, frequency separation and damage rate equations. From this review, it is hoped that a better perspective on future directions for basic material science at high temperature can be achieved
Time-Dependent-Asymmetric-Linear-Parsimonious Ancestral State Reconstruction.
Didier, Gilles
2017-10-01
The time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony is an ancestral state reconstruction method which extends the standard linear parsimony (a.k.a. Wagner parsimony) approach by taking into account both branch lengths and asymmetric evolutionary costs for reconstructing quantitative characters (asymmetric costs amount to assuming an evolutionary trend toward the direction with the lowest cost). A formal study of the influence of the asymmetry parameter shows that the time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony infers states which are all taken among the known states, except for some degenerate cases corresponding to special values of the asymmetry parameter. This remarkable property holds in particular for the Wagner parsimony. This study leads to a polynomial algorithm which determines, and provides a compact representation of, the parametric reconstruction of a phylogenetic tree, that is for all the unknown nodes, the set of all the possible reconstructed states associated with the asymmetry parameters leading to them. The time-dependent-asymmetric-linear parsimony is finally illustrated with the parametric reconstruction of the body size of cetaceans.
One-dimensional multiple-well oscillators: A time-dependent
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... quantum mechanical multiple-well oscillators. An imaginary-time evolution technique, coupled with the minimization of energy expectation value to reach a global minimum, subject to orthogonality constraint (for excited states) has been employed. Pseudodegeneracy in symmetric, deep multiple-well potentials, probability ...
Quantum mechanics in chemistry
Schatz, George C
2002-01-01
Intended for graduate and advanced undergraduate students, this text explores quantum mechanical techniques from the viewpoint of chemistry and materials science. Dynamics, symmetry, and formalism are emphasized. An initial review of basic concepts from introductory quantum mechanics is followed by chapters examining symmetry, rotations, and angular momentum addition. Chapter 4 introduces the basic formalism of time-dependent quantum mechanics, emphasizing time-dependent perturbation theory and Fermi's golden rule. Chapter 5 sees this formalism applied to the interaction of radiation and matt
The time dependent Hartree-Fock-theory for collective nuclear motions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goeke, K.
1976-11-01
The time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory (TDHF) approximately solves the Schroedinger equation by a variational method in the space of the time-dependent Slater determinants. As the TDHF wave function, similar to the exact solution has the property of being determined completely for all times by the nucleon-nucleon interaction and by assuming initial conditions. TDHF is expected to describe collective motion of nuclei with large amplitudes, too. The subject of this paper is to formulate the TDHF theory and its adiabatic limiting case (ATDHF) suited for setting up a collective Schroedinger equation, to investigate the relations with other theories, and to show the applicability for solving practical problems. (orig./WL) [de
Space-time dependent couplings In N = 1 SUSY gauge theories: Anomalies and central functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babington, J.; Erdmenger, J.
2005-01-01
We consider N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theories in which the couplings are allowed to be space-time dependent functions. Both the gauge and the superpotential couplings become chiral superfields. As has recently been shown, a new topological anomaly appears in models with space-time dependent gauge coupling. Here we show how this anomaly may be used to derive the NSVZ β-function in a particular, well-determined renormalisation scheme, both without and with chiral matter. Moreover we extend the topological anomaly analysis to theories coupled to a classical curved superspace background, and use it to derive an all-order expression for the central charge c, the coefficient of the Weyl tensor squared contribution to the conformal anomaly. We also comment on the implications of our results for the central charge a expected to be of relevance for a four-dimensional C-theorem. (author)
Quantum Stephani exact cosmological solutions and the selection of time variable
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedram, P; Jalalzadeh, S; Gousheh, S S
2007-01-01
We study a perfect fluid Stephani quantum cosmological model. In the present work, the Schutz's variational formalism which recovers the notion of time is applied. This gives rise to a Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the scale factor. We use the eigenfunctions in order to construct wave packets for each case. We study the time-dependent behavior of the expectation value of the scale factor, using many-worlds and de Broglie-Bohm interpretations of quantum mechanics
Characterizing time-dependent mechanics in metallic MEMS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Geers M.G.D.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Experiments for characterization of time-dependent material properties in free-standing metallic microelectromechanical system (MEMS pose challenges: e.g. fabrication and handling (sub-μm sized specimens, control and measurement of sub-μN loads and sub-μm displacements over long periods and various temperatures [1]. A variety of experimental setups have been reported each having their pros and cons. One example is a micro-tensile tester with an ingenious electro-static specimen gripping system [2] aiding simple specimen design giving good results at μN and sub-μm levels, but without in-situ full-field observations. Other progressive examples assimilate the specimen, MEMS actuators and load cells on a single chip [3,4] yielding significant results at nN and nm levels with in-situ TEM/SEM observability, though not without complications: complex load actuator/sensor calibration per chip, measures to reduce fabrication failure and unfeasible cofabrication on wafers with commercial metallic MEMS. This work aims to overcome these drawbacks by developing experimental methods with high sensitivity, precision and in-situ full-field observation capabilities. Moreover, these should be applicable to simple free-standing metallic MEMS that can be co-fabricated with commercial devices. These methods will then serve in systematic studies into size-effects in time-dependent material properties. First a numeric-experimental method is developed. It characterizes bending deformation of onwafer μm-sized aluminum cantilevers. A specially designed micro-clamp is used to mechanically apply a constant precise deflection of the beam (zres <50 nm for a prolonged period, see fig. 1. After this period, the deflection by the micro-clamp is removed. Full-field height maps with the ensuing deformation are measured over time with confocal optical profilometry (COP. This yields the tip deflection as function of time with ~3 nm precision, see fig.2. To extract material
Time-Dependent Neutron and Photon Dose-Field Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wooten, Hasani Omar [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
2005-08-01
A unique tool is developed that allows the user to model physical representations of complicated glovebox facilities in two dimensions and determine neutral-particle flux and ambient dose-equivalent fields throughout that geometry. The Pandemonium code, originally designed to determine flux and dose-rates only, is improved to include realistic glovebox geometries, time-dependent source and detector positions, time-dependent shielding thickness calculations, time-integrated doses, a representative criticality accident scenario based on time-dependent reactor kinetics, and more rigorous photon treatment. A primary benefit of this work has been an extensive analysis and improvement of the photon model that is not limited to the application described in this thesis. The photon model has been extended in energy range to 10 MeV to include photons from fission and new photon buildup factors have been included that account for the effects of photon buildup at slant-path thicknesses as a function of angle, where the mean free path thickness has been preserved. The overall system of codes is user-friendly and it is directly applicable to facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory, where high-intensity neutron and photon emitters are regularly used. The codes may be used to determine a priori doses for given work scenarios in an effort to supply dose information to process models which will in turn assist decision makers on ensuring as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) compliance. In addition, coupling the computational results of these tools with the process model visualization tools will help to increase worker safety and radiological safety awareness.
Noether symmetries and integrability in time-dependent Hamiltonian mechanics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jovanović Božidar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We consider Noether symmetries within Hamiltonian setting as transformations that preserve Poincaré-Cartan form, i.e., as symmetries of characteristic line bundles of nondegenerate 1-forms. In the case when the Poincaré-Cartan form is contact, the explicit expression for the symmetries in the inverse Noether theorem is given. As examples, we consider natural mechanical systems, in particular the Kepler problem. Finally, we prove a variant of the theorem on complete (non-commutative integrability in terms of Noether symmetries of time-dependent Hamiltonian systems.
Signal restoration for NMR imaging using time-dependent gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frahm, J.; Haenicke, W.
1984-01-01
NMR imaging experiments that employ linear but time-dependent gradients for encoding spatial information in the time-domain signals result in distorted images when treated with conventional image reconstruction techniques. It is shown here that the phase and amplitude distortions can be entirely removed if the timeshape of the gradient is known. The method proposed is of great theoretical and experimental simplicity. It consists of a retransformation of the measured time-domain signal and corresponds to synchronisation of the signal sampling with the time-development of the gradient field strength. The procedure complements other treatments of periodically oscillating gradients in NMR imaging. (author)
Frictional Heating with Time-Dependent Specific Power of Friction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Topczewska Katarzyna
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper analytical solutions of the thermal problems of friction were received. The appropriate boundary-value problems of heat conduction were formulated and solved for a homogeneous semi–space (a brake disc heated on its free surface by frictional heat fluxes with different and time-dependent intensities. Solutions were obtained in dimensionless form using Duhamel's theorem. Based on received solutions, evolution and spatial distribution of the dimensionless temperature were analyzed using numerical methods. The numerical results allowed to determine influence of the time distribution of friction power on the spatio-temporal temperature distribution in brake disc.
Perspective: Fundamental aspects of time-dependent density functional theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maitra, Neepa T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hunter College and the Physics Program at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, 695 Park Avenue, New York, New York 10065 (United States)
2016-06-14
In the thirty-two years since the birth of the foundational theorems, time-dependent density functional theory has had a tremendous impact on calculations of electronic spectra and dynamics in chemistry, biology, solid-state physics, and materials science. Alongside the wide-ranging applications, there has been much progress in understanding fundamental aspects of the functionals and the theory itself. This Perspective looks back to some of these developments, reports on some recent progress and current challenges for functionals, and speculates on future directions to improve the accuracy of approximations used in this relatively young theory.
Time-dependent coolant velocity measurements in an operating BWR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luebbesmeyer, D.; Crowe, R.D.
1980-01-01
A method to measure time-dependent fluid velocities in BWR-bundle elements by noise analysis of the incore-neutron-detector signals is shown. Two application examples of the new method are given. The time behaviour of the fluid velocity in the bundle element during a scheduled power excursion of the plant. The change of power was performed by changing the coolant flow through the core The apparent change of the fluid velocity due to thermal elongation of the helix-drive of the TIP-system. A simplified mathematical model was derived for this elongation to use as a reference to check the validity of the new method. (author)
Optimal moving grids for time-dependent partial differential equations
Wathen, A. J.
1992-01-01
Various adaptive moving grid techniques for the numerical solution of time-dependent partial differential equations were proposed. The precise criterion for grid motion varies, but most techniques will attempt to give grids on which the solution of the partial differential equation can be well represented. Moving grids are investigated on which the solutions of the linear heat conduction and viscous Burgers' equation in one space dimension are optimally approximated. Precisely, the results of numerical calculations of optimal moving grids for piecewise linear finite element approximation of PDE solutions in the least-squares norm are reported.
Scattering theory for explicitely time-dependent interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perusch, M.
1982-01-01
Multiple ionization of hydrogen atoms has got increased attention in recent years in connection with high-power lasers. Due to the strong external electromagnetic fields, perturbation theory is no longer valid. The expression for the multiple ionization probability contains the projections of the time-dependent Hamilton operators and the Moeller operators. The main point of the present work is a proof of existence and completeness of the Moeller operators. The proof of existence and completeness is given. The final chapter contains a physical interpretation and discussion of the multiple ionization probability. (G.Q.)
Shapes and dynamics from the time-dependent mean field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stevenson, P.D.; Goddard, P.M.; Rios, A.
2015-01-01
Explaining observed properties in terms of underlying shape degrees of freedom is a well-established prism with which to understand atomic nuclei. Self-consistent mean-field models provide one tool to understand nuclear shapes, and their link to other nuclear properties and observables. We present examples of how the time-dependent extension of the mean-field approach can be used in particular to shed light on nuclear shape properties, particularly looking at the giant resonances built on deformed nuclear ground states, and at dynamics in highly-deformed fission isomers. Example calculations are shown of 28 Si in the first case, and 240 Pu in the latter case
MINARET: Towards a time-dependent neutron transport parallel solver
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baudron, A.M.; Lautard, J.J.; Maday, Y.; Mula, O.
2013-01-01
We present the newly developed time-dependent 3D multigroup discrete ordinates neutron transport solver that has recently been implemented in the MINARET code. The solver is the support for a study about computing acceleration techniques that involve parallel architectures. In this work, we will focus on the parallelization of two of the variables involved in our equation: the angular directions and the time. This last variable has been parallelized by a (time) domain decomposition method called the para-real in time algorithm. (authors)
On particle creation by a time-dependent scalar field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgov, A.D.; Kirilova, D.P.
1989-01-01
The probability of particles creation by a homogeneous scalar field Χ (t) is calculated. Explicit analytical expressions are obtained in two limiting cases in the quasiclassical approximation and in the framework of perturbation theory. In the case when the mass of the created particles is defined by the time-dependent field Χ (t) according to the expression g Χ (t) Ψ-barΨ, where Χ (t) =Χ 0 cos (ωt), it is shown that the creation probability is suppresed not exponentially, but as ω 1/2 . Some cosmological consequences of the results are discussed. 13 refs
Filter frequency response of time dependent signal using Laplace transform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shestakov, Aleksei I. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2018-01-16
We analyze the effect a filter has on a time dependent signal x(t). If X(s) is the Laplace transform of x and H (s) is the filter Transfer function, the response in frequency space is X (s) H (s). Consequently, in real space, the response is the convolution (x*h) (t), where hi is the Laplace inverse of H. Effects are analyzed and analytically for functions such as (t/t_{c})^{2} e^{-t/t$_c$}, where t_{c} = const. We consider lowpass, highpass and bandpass filters.
Time-Dependent Mean-Field Games with Logarithmic Nonlinearities
Gomes, Diogo A.; Pimentel, Edgard
2015-01-01
In this paper, we prove the existence of classical solutions for time-dependent mean-field games with a logarithmic nonlinearity and subquadratic Hamiltonians. Because the logarithm is unbounded from below, this nonlinearity poses substantial mathematical challenges that have not been addressed in the literature. Our result is proven by recurring to a delicate argument which combines Lipschitz regularity for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with estimates for the nonlinearity in suitable Lebesgue spaces. Lipschitz estimates follow from an application of the nonlinear adjoint method. These are then combined with a priori bounds for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation and a concavity argument for the nonlinearity.
Evaluation of design safety factors for time-dependent buckling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, C.M.; Nickell, R.E.
1977-02-01
The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code rules concerning time-dependent (creep) buckling for Class 1 nuclear components have recently been changed. Previous requirements for a factor of ten on service life have been replaced with a factor of safety of 1.5 on loading for load-controlled buckling. This report examines the supposed equivalence of the two rules from the standpoint of materials behavior--specifically, the secondary creep strain rate exponent. The comparison is made using results obtained numerically for an axially-loaded, cylindrical shell with varying secondary creep exponents. A computationally efficient scheme for analyzing creep buckling problems is also presented
Fitting a function to time-dependent ensemble averaged data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fogelmark, Karl; Lomholt, Michael A.; Irbäck, Anders
2018-01-01
Time-dependent ensemble averages, i.e., trajectory-based averages of some observable, are of importance in many fields of science. A crucial objective when interpreting such data is to fit these averages (for instance, squared displacements) with a function and extract parameters (such as diffusion...... method, weighted least squares including correlation in error estimation (WLS-ICE), to particle tracking data. The WLS-ICE method is applicable to arbitrary fit functions, and we provide a publically available WLS-ICE software....
Time-Dependent Mean-Field Games with Logarithmic Nonlinearities
Gomes, Diogo A.
2015-10-06
In this paper, we prove the existence of classical solutions for time-dependent mean-field games with a logarithmic nonlinearity and subquadratic Hamiltonians. Because the logarithm is unbounded from below, this nonlinearity poses substantial mathematical challenges that have not been addressed in the literature. Our result is proven by recurring to a delicate argument which combines Lipschitz regularity for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation with estimates for the nonlinearity in suitable Lebesgue spaces. Lipschitz estimates follow from an application of the nonlinear adjoint method. These are then combined with a priori bounds for solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation and a concavity argument for the nonlinearity.
The time-dependent prize-collecting arc routing problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Black, Dan; Eglese, Richard; Wøhlk, Sanne
2013-01-01
with the time of day. Two metaheuristic algorithms, one based on Variable Neighborhood Search and one based on Tabu Search, are proposed and tested for a set of benchmark problems, generated from real road networks and travel time information. Both algorithms are capable of finding good solutions, though......A new problem is introduced named the Time-Dependent Prize-Collecting Arc Routing Problem (TD-PARP). It is particularly relevant to situations where a transport manager has to choose between a number of full truck load pick-ups and deliveries on a road network where travel times change...
Radiation effects on time-dependent deformation: Creep and growth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonen, E.P.
1989-03-01
Observations of irradiation creep strain as well as irradiation growth strain and related microstructures are reviewed and compared to mechanisms for radiation effects on time-dependent deformation. Composition, microstructure, stress and temperature affect irradiation creep less than thermal creep. Irradiation creep rates can often dominate thermal creep rates, particularly at low temperatures and low stresses. Irradiation creep mechanisms are classified in two general categories: (1) stress-induced preferential absorption and (2) climb-glide. In the former, creep results from dislocation climb, whereas in the latter, creep results from dislocation glide. The effects of irradiation creep on failure modes in nuclear environments are discussed. 53 refs., 18 figs., 1 tab
Kuwahara, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Yamanaka, Y.
2018-04-01
The way to determine the renormalized energy of inhomogeneous systems of a quantum field under an external potential is established for both equilibrium and nonequilibrium scenarios based on thermo field dynamics. The key step is to find an extension of the on-shell concept valid in homogeneous case. In the nonequilibrium case, we expand the field operator by time-dependent wavefunctions that are solutions of the appropriately chosen differential equation, synchronizing with temporal change of thermal situation, and the quantum transport equation is derived from the renormalization procedure. Through numerical calculations of a triple-well model with a reservoir, we show that the number distribution and the time-dependent wavefunctions are relaxed consistently to the correct equilibrium forms at the long-term limit.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdel-Khalek, S., E-mail: sayedquantum@yahoo.co.uk [Mathematics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, 82524 Sohag (Egypt); The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Miramare-Trieste (Italy); Berrada, K. [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, Miramare-Trieste (Italy); Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), College of Science, Department of Physics, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Eleuch, H. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Department of Physics, Université de Montréal, 2900 boul. douard-Montpetit, Montreal, QC, H3T 1J4 (Canada)
2015-10-15
The dynamics of a superconducting (SC) qubit interacting with a field under decoherence with and without time-dependent coupling effect is analyzed. Quantum features like the collapse–revivals for the dynamics of population inversion, sudden birth and sudden death of entanglement, and statistical properties are investigated under the phase damping effect. Analytic results for certain parametric conditions are obtained. We analyze the influence of decoherence on the negativity and Wehrl entropy for different values of the physical parameters. We also explore an interesting relation between the SC-field entanglement and Wehrl entropy behavior during the time evolution. We show that the amount of SC-field entanglement can be enhanced as the field tends to be more classical. The studied model of SC-field system with the time-dependent coupling has high practical importance due to their experimental accessibility which may open new perspectives in different tasks of quantum formation processing.
On the Time-Dependent Analysis of Gamow Decay
Durr, Detlef; Grummt, Robert; Kolb, Martin
2011-01-01
Gamow's explanation of the exponential decay law uses complex "eigenvalues" and exponentially growing "eigenfunctions". This raises the question, how Gamow's description fits into the quantum mechanical description of nature, which is based on real eigenvalues and square integrable wavefunctions. Observing that the time evolution of any…
Souto, R Seoane; Martín-Rodero, A; Yeyati, A Levy
2016-12-23
We analyze the quantum quench dynamics in the formation of a phase-biased superconducting nanojunction. We find that in the absence of an external relaxation mechanism and for very general conditions the system gets trapped in a metastable state, corresponding to a nonequilibrium population of the Andreev bound states. The use of the time-dependent full counting statistics analysis allows us to extract information on the asymptotic population of even and odd many-body states, demonstrating that a universal behavior, dependent only on the Andreev state energy, is reached in the quantum point contact limit. These results shed light on recent experimental observations on quasiparticle trapping in superconducting atomic contacts.
Information entropy of a time-dependent three-level trapped ion interacting with a laser field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud
2005-01-01
Trapped and laser-cooled ions are increasingly used for a variety of modern high-precision experiments, frequency standard applications and quantum information processing. Therefore, in this communication we present a comprehensive analysis of the pattern of information entropy arising in the time evolution of an ion interacting with a laser field. A general analytic approach is proposed for a three-level trapped-ion system in the presence of the time-dependent couplings. By working out an exact analytic solution, we conclusively analyse the general properties of the von Neumann entropy and quantum information entropy. It is shown that the information entropy is affected strongly by the time-dependent coupling and exhibits long time periodic oscillations. This feature attributed to the fact that in the time-dependent region Rabi oscillation is time dependent. Using parameters corresponding to a specific three-level ionic system, a single beryllium ion in a RF-(Paul) trap, we obtain illustrative examples of some novel aspects of this system in the dynamical evolution. Our results establish an explicit relation between the exact information entropy and the entanglement between the multi-level ion and the laser field. We show that different nonclassical effects arise in the dynamics of the ionic population inversion, depending on the initial states of the vibrational motion/field and on the values of Lamb-Dicke parameter η
Time-dependent methodology for fault tree evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vesely, W.B.
1976-01-01
Any fault tree may be evaluated applying the method called the kinetic theory of fault trees. The basic feature of this method as presented here is in that any information on primary failure, type failure or peak failure is derived from three characteristics: probability of existence, failure intensity and failure density. The determination of the said three characteristics for a given phenomenon yields the remaining probabilistic information on the individual aspects of the failure and on their totality for the whole observed period. The probabilistic characteristics are determined by applying the analysis of phenomenon probability. The total time dependent information on the peak failure is obtained by using the type failures (critical paths) of the fault tree. By applying the said process the total time dependent information is obtained for every primary failure and type failure of the fault tree. In the application of the method of the kinetic theory of fault trees represented by the PREP and KITT programmes, the type failures are first obtained using the deterministic testing method or using the Monte Carlo simulation (PREP programme). The respective characteristics are then determined using the kinetic theory of fault trees (KITT programmes). (Oy)
Rayleigh-Taylor mixing with time-dependent acceleration
Abarzhi, Snezhana
2016-10-01
We extend the momentum model to describe Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mixing driven by a time-dependent acceleration. The acceleration is a power-law function of time, similarly to astrophysical and plasma fusion applications. In RT flow the dynamics of a fluid parcel is driven by a balance per unit mass of the rates of momentum gain and loss. We find analytical solutions in the cases of balanced and imbalanced gains and losses, and identify their dependence on the acceleration exponent. The existence is shown of two typical regimes of self-similar RT mixing-acceleration-driven Rayleigh-Taylor-type and dissipation-driven Richtymer-Meshkov-type with the latter being in general non-universal. Possible scenarios are proposed for transitions from the balanced dynamics to the imbalanced self-similar dynamics. Scaling and correlations properties of RT mixing are studied on the basis of dimensional analysis. Departures are outlined of RT dynamics with time-dependent acceleration from canonical cases of homogeneous turbulence as well as blast waves with first and second kind self-similarity. The work is supported by the US National Science Foundation.
Interacting particle systems in time-dependent geometries
Ali, A.; Ball, R. C.; Grosskinsky, S.; Somfai, E.
2013-09-01
Many complex structures and stochastic patterns emerge from simple kinetic rules and local interactions, and are governed by scale invariance properties in combination with effects of the global geometry. We consider systems that can be described effectively by space-time trajectories of interacting particles, such as domain boundaries in two-dimensional growth or river networks. We study trajectories embedded in time-dependent geometries, and the main focus is on uniformly expanding or decreasing domains for which we obtain an exact mapping to simple fixed domain systems while preserving the local scale invariance properties. This approach was recently introduced in Ali et al (2013 Phys. Rev. E 87 020102(R)) and here we provide a detailed discussion on its applicability for self-affine Markovian models, and how it can be adapted to self-affine models with memory or explicit time dependence. The mapping corresponds to a nonlinear time transformation which converges to a finite value for a large class of trajectories, enabling an exact analysis of asymptotic properties in expanding domains. We further provide a detailed discussion of different particle interactions and generalized geometries. All our findings are based on exact computations and are illustrated numerically for various examples, including Lévy processes and fractional Brownian motion.
Smooth time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curve estimators.
Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Pardo-Fernández, Juan Carlos
2018-03-01
The receiver operating characteristic curve is a popular graphical method often used to study the diagnostic capacity of continuous (bio)markers. When the considered outcome is a time-dependent variable, two main extensions have been proposed: the cumulative/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve and the incident/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curve. In both cases, the main problem for developing appropriate estimators is the estimation of the joint distribution of the variables time-to-event and marker. As usual, different approximations lead to different estimators. In this article, the authors explore the use of a bivariate kernel density estimator which accounts for censored observations in the sample and produces smooth estimators of the time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves. The performance of the resulting cumulative/dynamic and incident/dynamic receiver operating characteristic curves is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Additionally, the influence of the choice of the required smoothing parameters is explored. Finally, two real-applications are considered. An R package is also provided as a complement to this article.
Time-dependent patterns in quasivertical cylindrical binary convection
Alonso, Arantxa; Mercader, Isabel; Batiste, Oriol
2018-02-01
This paper reports on numerical investigations of the effect of a slight inclination α on pattern formation in a shallow vertical cylindrical cell heated from below for binary mixtures with a positive value of the Soret coefficient. By using direct numerical simulation of the three-dimensional Boussinesq equations with Soret effect in cylindrical geometry, we show that a slight inclination of the cell in the range α ≈0.036 rad =2∘ strongly influences pattern selection. The large-scale shear flow (LSSF) induced by the small tilt of gravity overcomes the squarelike arrangements observed in noninclined cylinders in the Soret regime, stratifies the fluid along the direction of inclination, and produces an enhanced separation of the two components of the mixture. The competition between shear effects and horizontal and vertical buoyancy alters significantly the dynamics observed in noninclined convection. Additional unexpected time-dependent patterns coexist with the basic LSSF. We focus on an unsual periodic state recently discovered in an experiment, the so-called superhighway convection state (SHC), in which ascending and descending regions of fluid move in opposite directions. We provide numerical confirmation that Boussinesq Navier-Stokes equations with standard boundary conditions contain the essential ingredients that allow for the existence of such a state. Also, we obtain a persistent heteroclinic structure where regular oscillations between a SHC pattern and a state of nearly stationary longitudinal rolls take place. We characterize numerically these time-dependent patterns and investigate the dynamics around the threshold of convection.
Time-dependent behavior of rough discontinuities under shearing conditions
Wang, Zhen; Shen, Mingrong; Ding, Wenqi; Jang, Boan; Zhang, Qingzhao
2018-02-01
The mechanical properties of rocks are generally controlled by their discontinuities. In this study, the time-dependent behavior of rough artificial joints under shearing conditions was investigated. Based on Barton’s standard profile lines, samples with artificial joint surfaces were prepared and used to conduct the shear and creep tests. The test results showed that the shear strength of discontinuity was linearly related to roughness, and subsequently an empirical equation was established. The long-term strength of discontinuity can be identified using the inflection point of the isocreep-rate curve, and it was linearly related to roughness. Furthermore, the ratio of long-term and instantaneous strength decreased with the increase of roughness. The shear-stiffness coefficient increased with the increase of shear rate, and the influence of shear rate on the shear stiffness coefficient decreased with the decrease of roughness. Further study of the mechanism revealed that these results could be attributed to the different time-dependent behavior of intact and joint rocks.
Some notes on time dependent Thomas Fermi approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holzwarth, G.
1979-01-01
The successful use of effective density-dependent potentials in static Hartree-Fock calculations for nuclear ground-state properties has led to the question whether it is possible to obtain significant further simplification by approximating also the kinetic energy part of the ground state energy by a functional of the local density alone. The great advantage of such an approach is that its complexity is independent of particle number; the size of the system enters only through parameters, Z and N. The simple 'extended Thomas Fermi' functionals are based on the assumption of a spherically symmetric local Fermi surface throughout the nucleus and they represent the 'liquid drop' part of the static total energy. Given this static formalism which is solved directly for the local density without considering individual particles one might ask for a possible dynamical extension in the same sense as TDHF is a dynamical extension of the static HF approach. The aim of such a Time Dependent Thomas Fermi (TDTF) approximation would be to determine directly the time-dependent local single-particle density from given initial conditions and the single-particle current density without following each particle on its individual orbit
Time-dependent Models of Magnetospheric Accretion onto Young Stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Robinson, C. E.; Espaillat, C. C. [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Owen, J. E. [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Adams, F. C., E-mail: connorr@bu.edu [Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)
2017-04-01
Accretion onto Classical T Tauri stars is thought to take place through the action of magnetospheric processes, with gas in the inner disk being channeled onto the star’s surface by the stellar magnetic field lines. Young stars are known to accrete material in a time-variable manner, and the source of this variability remains an open problem, particularly on the shortest (∼day) timescales. Using one-dimensional time-dependent numerical simulations that follow the field line geometry, we find that for plausibly realistic young stars, steady-state transonic accretion occurs naturally in the absence of any other source of variability. However, we show that if the density in the inner disk varies smoothly in time with ∼day-long timescales (e.g., due to turbulence), this complication can lead to the development of shocks in the accretion column. These shocks propagate along the accretion column and ultimately hit the star, leading to rapid, large amplitude changes in the accretion rate. We argue that when these shocks hit the star, the observed time dependence will be a rapid increase in accretion luminosity, followed by a slower decline, and could be an explanation for some of the short-period variability observed in accreting young stars. Our one-dimensional approach bridges previous analytic work to more complicated multi-dimensional simulations and observations.
Time-dependent Models of Magnetospheric Accretion onto Young Stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robinson, C. E.; Espaillat, C. C.; Owen, J. E.; Adams, F. C.
2017-01-01
Accretion onto Classical T Tauri stars is thought to take place through the action of magnetospheric processes, with gas in the inner disk being channeled onto the star’s surface by the stellar magnetic field lines. Young stars are known to accrete material in a time-variable manner, and the source of this variability remains an open problem, particularly on the shortest (∼day) timescales. Using one-dimensional time-dependent numerical simulations that follow the field line geometry, we find that for plausibly realistic young stars, steady-state transonic accretion occurs naturally in the absence of any other source of variability. However, we show that if the density in the inner disk varies smoothly in time with ∼day-long timescales (e.g., due to turbulence), this complication can lead to the development of shocks in the accretion column. These shocks propagate along the accretion column and ultimately hit the star, leading to rapid, large amplitude changes in the accretion rate. We argue that when these shocks hit the star, the observed time dependence will be a rapid increase in accretion luminosity, followed by a slower decline, and could be an explanation for some of the short-period variability observed in accreting young stars. Our one-dimensional approach bridges previous analytic work to more complicated multi-dimensional simulations and observations.
Time-dependent strains and stresses in a pumpkin balloon
Gerngross, T.; Xu, Y.; Pellegrino, S.
This paper presents a study of pumpkin-shaped superpressure balloons consisting of gores made from a thin polymeric film attached to high stiffness meridional tendons This type of design is being used for the NASA ULDB balloons The gore film shows considerable time-dependent stress relaxation whereas the behaviour of the tendons is essentially time-independent Upon inflation and pressurization the instantaneous i e linear-elastic strain and stress distributions in the film show significantly higher values in the meridional direction However over time and due to the biaxial visco-elastic stress relaxation of the the gore material the em hoop strains increase and the em meridional stresses decrease whereas the em remaining strain and stress components remain substantially unchanged These results are important for a correct assessment of the structural integrity of a pumpkin balloon in a long-duration mission both in terms of the material performance and the overall stability of the shape of the balloon An experimental investigation of the time dependence of the biaxial strain distribution in the film of a 4 m diameter 48 gore pumpkin balloon is presented The inflated shape of selected gores has been measured using photogrammetry and the time variation in strain components at some particular points of these gores has been measured under constant pressure and temperature The results show good correlation with a numerical study using the ABAQUS finite-element package that includes a widely used model of
Time-dependent simulation of organic light-emitting diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharifi, M J
2009-01-01
Several methods to simulate the behavior of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have been proposed in the past. In this paper, we develop a previous method, based on the master equation, in order to allow the simulation of time-dependent behavior and transient states. The calculation algorithm of the program that we have written is described. The time-dependent behaviors of two simple monolayer devices and of a more complicated three-layer device were simulated by means of this program, and the results are discussed. The results show that the turn-off speed of an OLED might be very slow, especially in the case of a multilayer device. This behavior is related to the low mobility of the organic material in weak electric fields. An interesting feature of the time behavior is pointed out, whereby the recombination rate may become considerably larger after the falling edge of an applied voltage pulse. Moreover, the validity of the transient electro-luminescent method for measuring carrier mobility in organic material has been examined by means of simulation. The results show that there is some inconsistency especially in high electric fields
Functional requirements for reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity.
Frémaux, Nicolas; Sprekeler, Henning; Gerstner, Wulfram
2010-10-06
Recent experiments have shown that spike-timing-dependent plasticity is influenced by neuromodulation. We derive theoretical conditions for successful learning of reward-related behavior for a large class of learning rules where Hebbian synaptic plasticity is conditioned on a global modulatory factor signaling reward. We show that all learning rules in this class can be separated into a term that captures the covariance of neuronal firing and reward and a second term that presents the influence of unsupervised learning. The unsupervised term, which is, in general, detrimental for reward-based learning, can be suppressed if the neuromodulatory signal encodes the difference between the reward and the expected reward-but only if the expected reward is calculated for each task and stimulus separately. If several tasks are to be learned simultaneously, the nervous system needs an internal critic that is able to predict the expected reward for arbitrary stimuli. We show that, with a critic, reward-modulated spike-timing-dependent plasticity is capable of learning motor trajectories with a temporal resolution of tens of milliseconds. The relation to temporal difference learning, the relevance of block-based learning paradigms, and the limitations of learning with a critic are discussed.
Time-dependent CP asymmetries $B_s$ decays at LHCb
Blouw, J
2008-01-01
The LHCb experiment will search for New Physics in $b_s$ mixing. The $b_s$ mixing phase will be extracted from the measurement of the time-dependent CP asymmetry in exclusive $\\mathrm{B}_s$ decays governed by the $b \\rightarrow c\\bar{c} s$ quark-level transition. Large New Physics effects can be discovered or excluded with the data collected during the very first physics run of LHC. Based on Monte Carlo simulations of the LHCb detector, the expected sensitivity with $2~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ on the CP-violation parameter $\\phi_s$, is $\\sigma(\\phi_s) = 0.022$.
Specific features of time-dependent Psub(N) approximations in spherical geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peltzer, P.; Pucker, N.
1979-01-01
Approximations to the time-dependent linear transport equation can result in more serious distortions in the description of the actual physical situation than in the stationary problem. This is demonstrated in detail for the case of a neutron pulse in spherical geometry, treated within a P 1 approximation. One has to pay special attention to the singularity at r = 0 and to the effect of the boundary conditions. Effects similar to those shown here are also to be expected in connection with Psub(N) approximations of higher order. (Auth.)
Multi-configuration time-dependent density-functional theory based on range separation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fromager, E.; Knecht, S.; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard
2013-01-01
Multi-configuration range-separated density-functional theory is extended to the time-dependent regime. An exact variational formulation is derived. The approximation, which consists in combining a long-range Multi-Configuration- Self-Consistent Field (MCSCF) treatment with an adiabatic short...... (srGGA) approximations. As expected, when modeling long-range interactions with the MCSCF model instead of the adiabatic Buijse-Baerends density-matrix functional as recently proposed by Pernal [J. Chem. Phys. 136, 184105 (2012)10.1063/1.4712019], the description of both the 1D doubly-excited state...
Breakdown of the equivalence between active gravitational mass and energy for a quantum body
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebed, Andrei G.
2016-01-01
We determine active gravitational mass operator of the simplest composite quantum body - a hydrogen atom - within the semiclassical approach to the Einstein equation for a gravitational field. We show that the expectation value of the mass is equivalent to energy for stationary quantum states. On the other hand, it occurs that, for quantum superpositions of stationary states with constant expectation values of energy, the expectation values of the gravitational mass exhibit time-dependent oscillations. This breaks the equivalence between active gravitational mass and energy and can be observed as a macroscopic effect for a macroscopic ensemble of coherent quantum states of the atoms. The corresponding experiment could be the first direct observation of quantum effects in General Relativity. (paper)
Time dependent variation of carrying capacity of prestressed precast beam
Le, Tuan D.; Konečný, Petr; Matečková, Pavlína
2018-04-01
The article deals with the evaluation of the precast concrete element time dependent carrying capacity. The variation of the resistance is inherited property of laboratory as well as in-situ members. Thus the specification of highest, yet possible, laboratory sample resistance is important with respect to evaluation of laboratory experiments based on the test machine loading capabilities. The ultimate capacity is evaluated through the bending moment resistance of a simply supported prestressed concrete beam. The probabilistic assessment is applied. Scatter of random variables of compressive strength of concrete and effective height of the cross section is considered. Monte Carlo simulation technique is used to investigate the performance of the cross section of the beam with changes of tendons’ positions and compressive strength of concrete.
On the time-dependent radiative transfer in photospheric plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schultz, A.L.; Schweizer, M.A.
1987-01-01
The paper is the second of a series investigating time-dependent radiative transfer processes of x-rays in photospheric plasmas. A quantitative discussion is presented of analytical results derived earlier along with a comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. The geometry considered is a homogeneous plasma ball with radius R. The source is concentrated on a concentric shell with radius r 0 < R. Point sources at the centre of the ball or semi-infinite geometries are discussed as limiting cases. Diffusion profiles are given for every scattering order and the total profile appears as the sum over these individual profiles. The comparison with Monte Carlo results is used to test the accuracy of the analytical approach and to adjust the time profiles of the first few scattering orders. The analytical theory yields good results over a wide range of situations. (author)
Timing intervals using population synchrony and spike timing dependent plasticity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Xu
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We present a computational model by which ensembles of regularly spiking neurons can encode different time intervals through synchronous firing. We show that a neuron responding to a large population of convergent inputs has the potential to learn to produce an appropriately-timed output via spike-time dependent plasticity. We explain why temporal variability of this population synchrony increases with increasing time intervals. We also show that the scalar property of timing and its violation at short intervals can be explained by the spike-wise accumulation of jitter in the inter-spike intervals of timing neurons. We explore how the challenge of encoding longer time intervals can be overcome and conclude that this may involve a switch to a different population of neurons with lower firing rate, with the added effect of producing an earlier bias in response. Experimental data on human timing performance show features in agreement with the model’s output.
Light pressure of time-dependent fields in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeidler, A.; Schnabl, H.; Mulser, P.
1985-01-01
An expression of the light pressure Pi is derived for the case of a nearly monochromatic electromagnetic wave with arbitrarily time-dependent amplitude. Thereby Pi is defined as the time-averaged force density exerted on a plasma by the wave. The resulting equations are valid for both transverse and longitudinal waves. The light pressure turns out to consist of two components: the well-known gradient-type term and a new nonstationary solenoidal term. This is true for warm as well as cold plasmas. The importance of the new term for the generation of static magnetic fields is shown, and a model in which shear forces may result is given. Formulas for the nonstationary light pressure developed previously are discussed
Histogram bin width selection for time-dependent Poisson processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koyama, Shinsuke; Shinomoto, Shigeru
2004-01-01
In constructing a time histogram of the event sequences derived from a nonstationary point process, we wish to determine the bin width such that the mean squared error of the histogram from the underlying rate of occurrence is minimized. We find that the optimal bin widths obtained for a doubly stochastic Poisson process and a sinusoidally regulated Poisson process exhibit different scaling relations with respect to the number of sequences, time scale and amplitude of rate modulation, but both diverge under similar parametric conditions. This implies that under these conditions, no determination of the time-dependent rate can be made. We also apply the kernel method to these point processes, and find that the optimal kernels do not exhibit any critical phenomena, unlike the time histogram method
Histogram bin width selection for time-dependent Poisson processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koyama, Shinsuke; Shinomoto, Shigeru [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2004-07-23
In constructing a time histogram of the event sequences derived from a nonstationary point process, we wish to determine the bin width such that the mean squared error of the histogram from the underlying rate of occurrence is minimized. We find that the optimal bin widths obtained for a doubly stochastic Poisson process and a sinusoidally regulated Poisson process exhibit different scaling relations with respect to the number of sequences, time scale and amplitude of rate modulation, but both diverge under similar parametric conditions. This implies that under these conditions, no determination of the time-dependent rate can be made. We also apply the kernel method to these point processes, and find that the optimal kernels do not exhibit any critical phenomena, unlike the time histogram method.
The time-dependent Aharonov–Casher effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singleton, Douglas, E-mail: dougs@csufresno.edu [Department of Physics, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740-8031 (United States); ICTP South American Institute for Fundamental Research, UNESP – Univ. Estadual Paulista, Rua Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, 01140-070, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ulbricht, Jaryd, E-mail: julbrich@ucsc.edu [Physics Department, University of California Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Department of Physics, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740-8031 (United States)
2016-02-10
In this paper we give a covariant expression for Aharonov–Casher phase. This expression is a combination of the canonical electric field, Aharonov–Casher phase plus a magnetic field phase shift. We use this covariant expression for the Aharonov–Casher phase to investigate the case of a neutral particle with a non-zero magnetic moment moving in the time dependent electric and magnetic fields of a plane electromagnetic wave background. We focus on the case where the magnetic moment of the particle is oriented so that both the electric and magnetic fields lead to non-zero phases, and we look at the interplay between these electric and magnetic phases.
Study of Time-Dependent Properties of Thermoplastics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bolchoun A.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Simple tests carried out with a common tension/compression testing machine are used to obtain timedependent properties of non-reinforced thermoplastics. These tests include ramp loadings as well as relaxation and creep tests. Two materials (PBT Celanex 2002-2 and POM Hostaform C9021, Ticona GmbH, Kelsterbach were taken for the experiments. The experiments show that an adequate description of the long-term material properties can be obtained from the short-time tests, namely from tests with constant traverse speed $L^.$. Below a model for the time-dependent mechanical behavior is presented and fitted to the obtained measured data. For the evaluation of the fitting quality long-term tests are used. Especially creep and relaxation tests with ”jumps”, i.e. rapid change of loading, are important for this purpose.
Development of constitutive model for composites exhibiting time dependent properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pupure, L; Joffe, R; Varna, J; Nyström, B
2013-01-01
Regenerated cellulose fibres and their composites exhibit highly nonlinear behaviour. The mechanical response of these materials can be successfully described by the model developed by Schapery for time-dependent materials. However, this model requires input parameters that are experimentally determined via large number of time-consuming tests on the studied composite material. If, for example, the volume fraction of fibres is changed we have a different material and new series of experiments on this new material are required. Therefore the ultimate objective of our studies is to develop model which determines the composite behaviour based on behaviour of constituents of the composite. This paper gives an overview of problems and difficulties, associated with development, implementation and verification of such model
Fundamental Constants in Physics and their Time Dependence
CERN. Geneva
2008-01-01
In the Standard Model of Particle Physics we are dealing with 28 fundamental constants. In the experiments these constants can be measured, but theoretically they are not understood. I will discuss these constants, which are mostly mass parameters. Astrophysical measurements indicate that the finestructure constant is not a real constant, but depends on time. Grand unification then implies also a time variation of the QCD scale. Thus the masses of the atomic nuclei and the magnetic moments of the nuclei will depend on time. I proposed an experiment, which is currently done by Prof. Haensch in Munich and his group. The first results indicate a time dependence of the QCD scale. I will discuss the theoretical implications.
Observation of Broadband Time-Dependent Rabi Shifting in Microplasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Compton, Ryan; Filin, Alex; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.
2009-01-01
Coherent broadband radiation in the form of Rabi sidebands is observed when a ps probe laser propagates through a weakly ionized, electronically excited microplasma generated in the focus of an intense pump beam. The sidebands arise from the interaction of the probe beam with pairs of excited states of a constituent neutral atom via the probe-induced Rabi oscillation. Sideband shifting of >90 meV from the probe carrier frequency results in an effective bandwidth of 200 meV. The sidebands are controlled by the intensity and temporal profile of the probe pulse; with amplitude and shift in agreement with the predictions of a time-dependent generalized Rabi cycling model.
Two-dimensional time dependent Riemann solvers for neutron transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunner, Thomas A.; Holloway, James Paul
2005-01-01
A two-dimensional Riemann solver is developed for the spherical harmonics approximation to the time dependent neutron transport equation. The eigenstructure of the resulting equations is explored, giving insight into both the spherical harmonics approximation and the Riemann solver. The classic Roe-type Riemann solver used here was developed for one-dimensional problems, but can be used in multidimensional problems by treating each face of a two-dimensional computation cell in a locally one-dimensional way. Several test problems are used to explore the capabilities of both the Riemann solver and the spherical harmonics approximation. The numerical solution for a simple line source problem is compared to the analytic solution to both the P 1 equation and the full transport solution. A lattice problem is used to test the method on a more challenging problem
TIME-DEPENDENT COROTATION RESONANCE IN BARRED GALAXIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Yu-Ting; Taam, Ronald E. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Pfenniger, Daniel, E-mail: ytwu@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw, E-mail: daniel.pfenniger@unige.ch, E-mail: taam@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland)
2016-10-20
The effective potential neighboring the corotation resonance region in barred galaxies is shown to be strongly time-dependent in any rotating frame, due to the competition of nearby perturbations of similar strengths with differing rotation speeds. Contrary to the generally adopted assumption that in the bar rotating frame the corotation region should possess four stationary equilibrium points (Lagrange points), with high quality N -body simulations, we localize the instantaneous equilibrium points (EPs) and find that they circulate or oscillate broadly in azimuth with respect to the pattern speeds of the inner or outer perturbations. This implies that at the particle level the Jacobi integral is not well conserved around the corotation radius. That is, angular momentum exchanges decouple from energy exchanges, enhancing the chaotic diffusion of stars through the corotation region.
Parametric Resonance in a Time-Dependent Harmonic Oscillator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. N. Nesterov
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the phenomenon of appearance of new resonances in a timedependent harmonic oscillator under an oscillatory decreasing force. The studied equation belongs to the class of adiabatic oscillators and arises in connection with the spectral problem for the one-dimensional Schr¨odinger equation with Wigner–von Neumann type potential. We use a specially developed method for asymptotic integration of linear systems of differential equations with oscillatory decreasing coefficients. This method uses the ideas of the averaging method to simplify the initial system. Then we apply Levinson’s fundamental theorem to get the asymptotics for its solutions. Finally, we analyze the features of a parametric resonance phenomenon. The resonant frequencies of perturbation are found and the pointwise type of the parametric resonance phenomenon is established. In conclusion, we construct an example of a time-dependent harmonic oscillator (adiabatic oscillator in which the parametric resonances, mentioned in the paper, may occur.
Stirring inertia in time-dependent low Reynolds number flows
Yecko, Philip; Luchtenburg, Dirk Martin (Mark); Forgoston, Eric; Billings, Lora
2017-11-01
Diagnosis of a kinematic flow and its transport using Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) based on finite-time Lyapunov exponents (FTLE) neglects dynamical effects, such as pressure, as well as dynamically important constraints, such as potential vorticity conservation. Chaotic advection, on the other hand, often neglects inertial effects, which are prominent in LCS. We present results for very low Reynolds number laboratory flows, including a Stokes double gyre, vertically sheared strain and a four roll mill. Images of tracer (dye) and FTLE fields computed from particle image velocimetry (PIV) reveal complementary sets of flow structures, giving a more complete picture of transport in these flows. We confirm by computing FTLE of an exact time-dependent Stokes flow solution and present implications of these findings for inertial object transport in flows. Support of NSF DMS-1418956 is gratefully acknoweldged.
Sensitivity analysis of time-dependent laminar flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hristova, H.; Etienne, S.; Pelletier, D.; Borggaard, J.
2004-01-01
This paper presents a general sensitivity equation method (SEM) for time dependent incompressible laminar flows. The SEM accounts for complex parameter dependence and is suitable for a wide range of problems. The formulation is verified on a problem with a closed form solution obtained by the method of manufactured solution. Systematic grid convergence studies confirm the theoretical rates of convergence in both space and time. The methodology is then applied to pulsatile flow around a square cylinder. Computations show that the flow starts with symmetrical vortex shedding followed by a transition to the traditional Von Karman street (alternate vortex shedding). Simulations show that the transition phase manifests itself earlier in the sensitivity fields than in the flow field itself. Sensitivities are then demonstrated for fast evaluation of nearby flows and uncertainty analysis. (author)
Exponential time-dependent perturbation theory in rotationally inelastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cross, R.J.
1983-01-01
An exponential form of time-dependent perturbation theory (the Magnus approximation) is developed for rotationally inelastic scattering. A phase-shift matrix is calculated as an integral in time over the anisotropic part of the potential. The trajectory used for this integral is specified by the diagonal part of the potential matrix and the arithmetic average of the initial and final velocities and the average orbital angular momentum. The exponential of the phase-shift matrix gives the scattering matrix and the various cross sections. A special representation is used where the orbital angular momentum is either treated classically or may be frozen out to yield the orbital sudden approximation. Calculations on Ar+N 2 and Ar+TIF show that the theory generally gives very good agreement with accurate calculations, even where the orbital sudden approximation (coupled-states) results are seriously in error
Time-dependent perturbation theory for nonequilibrium lattice models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jensen, I.; Dickman, R.
1993-01-01
The authors develop a time-dependent perturbation theory for nonequilibrium interacting particle systems. They focus on models such as the contact process which evolve via destruction and autocatalytic creation of particles. At a critical value of the destruction rate there is a continuous phase transition between an active steady state and the vacuum state, which is absorbing. They present several methods for deriving series for the evolution starting from a single seed particle, including expansions for the ultimate survival probability in the super- and subcritical regions, expansions for the average number of particles in the subcritical region, and short-time expansions. Algorithms for computer generation of the various expansions are presented. Rather long series (24 terms or more) and precise estimates of critical parameters are presented. 45 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs
Time-dependent reliability analysis and condition assessment of structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellingwood, B.R.
1997-01-01
Structures generally play a passive role in assurance of safety in nuclear plant operation, but are important if the plant is to withstand the effect of extreme environmental or abnormal events. Relative to mechanical and electrical components, structural systems and components would be difficult and costly to replace. While the performance of steel or reinforced concrete structures in service generally has been very good, their strengths may deteriorate during an extended service life as a result of changes brought on by an aggressive environment, excessive loading, or accidental loading. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures can be developed using time-dependent structural reliability analysis methods. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process
Benchmarking time-dependent neutron problems with Monte Carlo codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Couet, B.; Loomis, W.A.
1990-01-01
Many nuclear logging tools measure the time dependence of a neutron flux in a geological formation to infer important properties of the formation. The complex geometry of the tool and the borehole within the formation does not permit an exact deterministic modelling of the neutron flux behaviour. While this exact simulation is possible with Monte Carlo methods the computation time does not facilitate quick turnaround of results useful for design and diagnostic purposes. Nonetheless a simple model based on the diffusion-decay equation for the flux of neutrons of a single energy group can be useful in this situation. A combination approach where a Monte Carlo calculation benchmarks a deterministic model in terms of the diffusion constants of the neutrons propagating in the media and their flux depletion rates thus offers the possibility of quick calculation with assurance as to accuracy. We exemplify this approach with the Monte Carlo benchmarking of a logging tool problem, showing standoff and bedding response. (author)
Translation invariant time-dependent solutions to massive gravity II
Mourad, J.; Steer, D. A.
2014-06-01
This paper is a sequel to JCAP 12 (2013) 004 and is also devoted to translation-invariant solutions of ghost-free massive gravity in its moving frame formulation. Here we consider a mass term which is linear in the vielbein (corresponding to a β3 term in the 4D metric formulation) in addition to the cosmological constant. We determine explicitly the constraints, and from the initial value formulation show that the time-dependent solutions can have singularities at a finite time. Although the constraints give, as in the β1 case, the correct number of degrees of freedom for a massive spin two field, we show that the lapse function can change sign at a finite time causing a singular time evolution. This is very different to the β1 case where time evolution is always well defined. We conclude that the β3 mass term can be pathological and should be treated with care.
New applications with time-dependent thermochemical simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koukkari, P. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Laukkanen, L. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Penttilae, K. [Kemira Engineering Oy, Helsinki (Finland)
1996-12-31
A new method (RATEMIX) to calculate multicomponent chemical reaction mixtures as a series of sequential thermochemical states was recently introduced. The procedure combines multicomponent thermodynamics with chemical kinetics and may be used to simulate the multicomponent reactors as a thermochemical natural process. The method combines the desired reaction rates sequentially with constrained Gibbs energy minimization. The reactant concentrations are determined by the experimental (Arrhenius) rate laws. During the course of the given reaction the subsequent side reactions are supposed to occur reversibly. At every sequential stage of the given reaction the temperature and composition of the reaction mixture are calculated by a thermodynamic subroutine, which minimizes the Gibbs energy of the system and takes into account the heat transfer between the system and its surroundings. The extents of reaction are included as algorithmic constraints in the Gibbs energy minimization procedure. Initially, the reactants are introduced to the system as inert copies to match both the mass and energy balance of the reactive system. During the calculation the copies are sequentially interchanged to the actual reactants which allows one to simulate the time-dependent reaction route by using the thermochemical procedure. For each intermediate stage, the temperature and composition are calculated and as well numerical estimates of the thermodynamic functions are obtained. The method is applicable in processes where the core thermodynamic and kinetic data of the system are known and the time-dependent heat transfer data can either be measured or estimated by calculation. The method has been used to simulate e.g. high temperature flame reactions, zinc vapour oxidation and a counter-current rotary drum with chemical reactions. The procedure has today been tested with SOLGASMIX, CHEMSAGE and HSC programs. (author)
Time-dependent source model of the Lusi mud volcano
Shirzaei, M.; Rudolph, M. L.; Manga, M.
2014-12-01
The Lusi mud eruption, near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia, began erupting in May 2006 and continues to erupt today. Previous analyses of surface deformation data suggested an exponential decay of the pressure in the mud source, but did not constrain the geometry and evolution of the source(s) from which the erupting mud and fluids ascend. To understand the spatiotemporal evolution of the mud and fluid sources, we apply a time-dependent inversion scheme to a densely populated InSAR time series of the surface deformation at Lusi. The SAR data set includes 50 images acquired on 3 overlapping tracks of the ALOS L-band satellite between May 2006 and April 2011. Following multitemporal analysis of this data set, the obtained surface deformation time series is inverted in a time-dependent framework to solve for the volume changes of distributed point sources in the subsurface. The volume change distribution resulting from this modeling scheme shows two zones of high volume change underneath Lusi at 0.5-1.5 km and 4-5.5km depth as well as another shallow zone, 7 km to the west of Lusi and underneath the Wunut gas field. The cumulative volume change within the shallow source beneath Lusi is ~2-4 times larger than that of the deep source, whilst the ratio of the Lusi shallow source volume change to that of Wunut gas field is ~1. This observation and model suggest that the Lusi shallow source played a key role in eruption process and mud supply, but that additional fluids do ascend from depths >4 km on eruptive timescales.
New applications with time-dependent thermochemical simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koukkari, P [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Laukkanen, L [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Penttilae, K [Kemira Engineering Oy, Helsinki (Finland)
1997-12-31
A new method (RATEMIX) to calculate multicomponent chemical reaction mixtures as a series of sequential thermochemical states was recently introduced. The procedure combines multicomponent thermodynamics with chemical kinetics and may be used to simulate the multicomponent reactors as a thermochemical natural process. The method combines the desired reaction rates sequentially with constrained Gibbs energy minimization. The reactant concentrations are determined by the experimental (Arrhenius) rate laws. During the course of the given reaction the subsequent side reactions are supposed to occur reversibly. At every sequential stage of the given reaction the temperature and composition of the reaction mixture are calculated by a thermodynamic subroutine, which minimizes the Gibbs energy of the system and takes into account the heat transfer between the system and its surroundings. The extents of reaction are included as algorithmic constraints in the Gibbs energy minimization procedure. Initially, the reactants are introduced to the system as inert copies to match both the mass and energy balance of the reactive system. During the calculation the copies are sequentially interchanged to the actual reactants which allows one to simulate the time-dependent reaction route by using the thermochemical procedure. For each intermediate stage, the temperature and composition are calculated and as well numerical estimates of the thermodynamic functions are obtained. The method is applicable in processes where the core thermodynamic and kinetic data of the system are known and the time-dependent heat transfer data can either be measured or estimated by calculation. The method has been used to simulate e.g. high temperature flame reactions, zinc vapour oxidation and a counter-current rotary drum with chemical reactions. The procedure has today been tested with SOLGASMIX, CHEMSAGE and HSC programs. (author)
Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.
Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A
2016-05-09
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.
Implicit time-dependent finite different algorithm for quench simulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koizumi, Norikiyo; Takahashi, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Hiroshi
1994-12-01
A magnet in a fusion machine has many difficulties in its application because of requirement of a large operating current, high operating field and high breakdown voltage. A cable-in-conduit (CIC) conductor is the best candidate to overcome these difficulties. However, there remained uncertainty in a quench event in the cable-in-conduit conductor because of a difficulty to analyze a fluid dynamics equation. Several scientists, then, developed the numerical code for the quench simulation. However, most of them were based on an explicit time-dependent finite difference scheme. In this scheme, a discrete time increment is strictly restricted by CFL (Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy) condition. Therefore, long CPU time was consumed for the quench simulation. Authors, then, developed a new quench simulation code, POCHI1, which is based on an implicit time dependent scheme. In POCHI1, the fluid dynamics equation is linearlized according to a procedure applied by Beam and Warming and then, a tridiagonal system can be offered. Therefore, no iteration is necessary to solve the fluid dynamics equation. This leads great reduction of the CPU time. Also, POCHI1 can cope with non-linear boundary condition. In this study, comparison with experimental results was carried out. The normal zone propagation behavior was investigated in two samples of CIC conductors which had different hydraulic diameters. The measured and simulated normal zone propagation length showed relatively good agreement. However, the behavior of the normal voltage shows a little disagreement. These results indicate necessity to improve the treatment of the heat transfer coefficient in the turbulent flow region and the electric resistivity of the copper stabilizer in high temperature and high field region. (author)
Spike-timing dependent plasticity in the striatum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elodie Fino
2010-06-01
Full Text Available The striatum is the major input nucleus of basal ganglia, an ensemble of interconnected sub-cortical nuclei associated with fundamental processes of action-selection and procedural learning and memory. The striatum receives afferents from the cerebral cortex and the thalamus. In turn, it relays the integrated information towards the basal ganglia output nuclei through which it operates a selected activation of behavioral effectors. The striatal output neurons, the GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs, are in charge of the detection and integration of behaviorally relevant information. This property confers to the striatum the ability to extract relevant information from the background noise and select cognitive-motor sequences adapted to environmental stimuli. As long-term synaptic efficacy changes are believed to underlie learning and memory, the corticostriatal long-term plasticity provides a fundamental mechanism for the function of the basal ganglia in procedural learning. Here, we reviewed the different forms of spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP occurring at corticostriatal synapses. Most of the studies have focused on MSNs and their ability to develop long-term plasticity. Nevertheless, the striatal interneurons (the fast-spiking GABAergic, the NO synthase and cholinergic interneurons also receive monosynaptic afferents from the cortex and tightly regulated corticostriatal information processing. Therefore, it is important to take into account the variety of striatal neurons to fully understand the ability of striatum to develop long-term plasticity. Corticostriatal STDP with various spike-timing dependence have been observed depending on the neuronal sub-populations and experimental conditions. This complexity highlights the extraordinary potentiality in term of plasticity of the corticostriatal pathway.
Study of calculated and measured time dependent delayed neutron yields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waldo, R.W.
1980-05-01
Time-dependent delayed neutron emission is of interest in reactor design, reactor dynamics, and nuclear physics studies. The delayed neutrons from neutron-induced fission of 232 U, 237 Np, 238 Pu, 241 Am, /sup 242m/Am, 245 Cm, and 249 Cf were studied for the first time. The delayed neutron emission from 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu, and 242 Pu were measured as well. The data were used to develop an empirical expression for the total delayed neutron yield. The expression gives accurate results for a large variety of nuclides from 232 Th to 252 Cf. The data measuring the decay of delayed neutrons with time were used to derive another empirical expression predicting the delayed neutron emission with time. It was found that nuclides with similar mass-to-charge ratios have similar decay patterns. Thus the relative decay pattern of one nuclide can be established by any measured nuclide with a similar mass-to-charge ratio. A simple fission product yield model was developed and applied to delayed neutron precursors. It accurately predicts observed yield and decay characteristics. In conclusion, it is possible to not only estimate the total delayed neutron yield for a given nuclide but the time-dependent nature of the delayed neutrons as well. Reactors utilizing recycled fuel or burning actinides are likely to have inventories of fissioning nuclides that have not been studied until now. The delayed neutrons from these nuclides can now be incorporated so that their influence on the stability and control of reactors can be delineated. 8 figures, 39 tables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritchie, A.B.; Riley, M.E.
1997-06-01
The authors have found that the conventional exponentiated split operator procedure is subject to difficulties in energy conservation when solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for Coulombic systems. By rearranging the kinetic and potential energy terms in the temporal propagator of the finite difference equations, one can find a propagation algorithm for three dimensions that looks much like the Crank-Nicholson and alternating direction implicit methods for one- and two-space-dimensional partial differential equations. They report comparisons of this novel implicit split operator procedure with the conventional exponentiated split operator procedure on hydrogen atom solutions. The results look promising for a purely numerical approach to certain electron quantum mechanical problems
Yang, Run-Qiu; Niu, Chao; Zhang, Cheng-Yong; Kim, Keun-Young
2018-02-01
We compute the time-dependent complexity of the thermofield double states by four different proposals: two holographic proposals based on the "complexity-action" (CA) conjecture and "complexity-volume" (CV) conjecture, and two quantum field theoretic proposals based on the Fubini-Study metric (FS) and Finsler geometry (FG). We find that four different proposals yield both similarities and differences, which will be useful to deepen our understanding on the complexity and sharpen its definition. In particular, at early time the complexity linearly increase in the CV and FG proposals, linearly decreases in the FS proposal, and does not change in the CA proposal. In the late time limit, the CA, CV and FG proposals all show that the growth rate is 2 E/(πℏ) saturating the Lloyd's bound, while the FS proposal shows the growth rate is zero. It seems that the holographic CV conjecture and the field theoretic FG method are more correlated.
Shaping charge excitations in chiral edge states with a time-dependent gate voltage
Misiorny, Maciej; Fève, Gwendal; Splettstoesser, Janine
2018-02-01
We study a coherent conductor supporting a single edge channel in which alternating current pulses are created by local time-dependent gating and sent on a beam-splitter realized by a quantum point contact. The current response to the gate voltage in this setup is intrinsically linear. Based on a fully self-consistent treatment employing a Floquet scattering theory, we analyze the effect of different voltage shapes and frequencies, as well as the role of the gate geometry on the injected signal. In particular, we highlight the impact of frequency-dependent screening on the process of shaping the current signal. The feasibility of creating true single-particle excitations with this method is confirmed by investigating the suppression of excess noise, which is otherwise created by additional electron-hole pair excitations in the current signal.
On particle emission in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maedler, P.
1984-01-01
Investigations of fast particle emission in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock mean-field approximation (TDHF) have been performed for one-dimensional slab collisions. For a fixed target mass number and incident velocity the total yields of PEP exhibit pronounced srtructures as a function of the pro ectile mass number, which strongly correcate with the binding energy of the last nucleon in the projectnle. This is in explicit disagreement with experiment. The conclusion has been drawn that the Fermi-jet mechanism cannot be responsible for most of the fast particles observed in experiment, even if quantum diffraction is taken into account (as in TDHF). After PEP emission large amplitude density oscillations, which are the only possible modes in the slab geometry, are found to be damped by further particle emission
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herman, Michael F. [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)
2015-10-28
The time independent semiclassical treatment of barrier tunneling has been understood for a very long time. Several semiclassical approaches to time dependent tunneling through barriers have also been presented. These typically involve trajectories for which the position variable is a complex function of time. In this paper, a method is presented that uses only real valued trajectories, thus avoiding the complications that can arise when complex trajectories are employed. This is accomplished by expressing the time dependent wave packet as an integration over momentum. The action function in the exponent in this expression is expanded to second order in the momentum. The expansion is around the momentum, p{sub 0{sup *}}, at which the derivative of the real part of the action is zero. The resulting Gaussian integral is then taken. The stationary phase approximation requires that the derivative of the full action is zero at the expansion point, and this leads to a complex initial momentum and complex tunneling trajectories. The “pseudo-stationary phase” approximation employed in this work results in real values for the initial momentum and real valued trajectories. The transmission probabilities obtained are found to be in good agreement with exact quantum results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herman, Michael F.
2015-01-01
The time independent semiclassical treatment of barrier tunneling has been understood for a very long time. Several semiclassical approaches to time dependent tunneling through barriers have also been presented. These typically involve trajectories for which the position variable is a complex function of time. In this paper, a method is presented that uses only real valued trajectories, thus avoiding the complications that can arise when complex trajectories are employed. This is accomplished by expressing the time dependent wave packet as an integration over momentum. The action function in the exponent in this expression is expanded to second order in the momentum. The expansion is around the momentum, p 0 * , at which the derivative of the real part of the action is zero. The resulting Gaussian integral is then taken. The stationary phase approximation requires that the derivative of the full action is zero at the expansion point, and this leads to a complex initial momentum and complex tunneling trajectories. The “pseudo-stationary phase” approximation employed in this work results in real values for the initial momentum and real valued trajectories. The transmission probabilities obtained are found to be in good agreement with exact quantum results
2007 Time_Dependent Density-Functional Therory (July 15-20, 2007 Colby College, Maine)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ullrich Carsten
2008-09-19
Time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) provides an efficient, elegant, and formally exact way of describing the dynamics of interacting many-body quantum systems, circumventing the need for solving the full time-dependent Schroedinger equation. In the 20 years since it was first rigorously established in 1984, the field of TDDFT has made rapid and significant advances both formally as well as in terms of successful applications in chemistry, physics and materials science. Today, TDDFT has become the method of choice for calculating excitation energies of complex molecules, and is becoming increasingly popular for describing optical and spectroscopic properties of a variety of materials such as bulk solids, clusters and nanostructures. Other growing areas of applications of TDDFT are nonlinear dynamics of strongly excited electronic systems and molecular electronics. The purpose and scope of this Gordon Research Conference is to provide a platform for discussing the current state of the art of the rapidly progressing, highly interdisciplinary field of TDDFT, to identify and debate open questions, and to point out new promising research directions. The conference will bring together experts with a diverse background in chemistry, physics, and materials science.
Relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation theory and applications to atomic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parpia, F.Z.
1984-01-01
A time-dependent linear-response theory appropriate to the relativistic local-density approximation (RLDA) to quantum electrodynamics (QED) is developed. The resulting theory, the relativistic time-dependent local-density approximation (RTDLDA) is specialized to the treatment of electric excitations in closed-shell atoms. This formalism is applied to the calculation of atomic photoionization parameters in the dipole approximation. The static-field limit of the RTDLDA is applied to the calculation of dipole polarizabilities. Extensive numerical calculations of the photoionization parameters for the rare gases neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, and for mercury from the RTDLDA are presented and compared in detail with the results of other theories, in particular the relativistic random-phase approximation (RRPA), and with experimental measurements. The predictions of the RTDLDA are comparable with the RRPA calculations made to date. This is remarkable in that the RTDLDA entails appreciably less computational effort. Finally, the dipole polarizabilities predicted by the static-field RTDLDA are compared with other determinations of these quantities. In view of its simplicity, the static-field RTDLDA demonstrates itself to be one of the most powerful theories available for the calculation of dipole polarizabilities
Correlated electron dynamics and memory in time-dependent density functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thiele, Mark
2009-01-01
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is an exact reformulation of the time-dependent many-electron Schroedinger equation, where the problem of many interacting electrons is mapped onto the Kohn-Sham system of noninteracting particles which reproduces the exact electronic density. In the Kohn-Sham system all non-classical many-body effects are incorporated in the exchange-correlation potential which is in general unknown and needs to be approximated. It is the goal of this thesis to investigate the connection between memory effects and correlated electron dynamics in strong and weak fields. To this end one-dimensional two-electron singlet systems are studied. At the same time these systems include the onedimensional helium atom model, which is an established system to investigate the crucial effects of correlated electron dynamics in external fields. The studies presented in this thesis show that memory effects are negligible for typical strong field processes. Here the approximation of the spatial nonlocality is of primary importance. For the photoabsorption spectra on the other hand the neglect of memory effects leads to qualitative and quantitative errors, which are shown to be connected to transitions of double excitation character. To develop a better understanding of the conditions under which memory effects become important quantum fluid dynamics has been found to be especially suitable. It represents a further exact reformulation of the quantum mechanic many-body problem which is based on hydrodynamic quantities such as density and velocity. Memory effects are shown to be important whenever the velocity field develops strong gradients and dissipative effects contribute. (orig.)
Correlated electron dynamics and memory in time-dependent density functional theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thiele, Mark
2009-07-28
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is an exact reformulation of the time-dependent many-electron Schroedinger equation, where the problem of many interacting electrons is mapped onto the Kohn-Sham system of noninteracting particles which reproduces the exact electronic density. In the Kohn-Sham system all non-classical many-body effects are incorporated in the exchange-correlation potential which is in general unknown and needs to be approximated. It is the goal of this thesis to investigate the connection between memory effects and correlated electron dynamics in strong and weak fields. To this end one-dimensional two-electron singlet systems are studied. At the same time these systems include the onedimensional helium atom model, which is an established system to investigate the crucial effects of correlated electron dynamics in external fields. The studies presented in this thesis show that memory effects are negligible for typical strong field processes. Here the approximation of the spatial nonlocality is of primary importance. For the photoabsorption spectra on the other hand the neglect of memory effects leads to qualitative and quantitative errors, which are shown to be connected to transitions of double excitation character. To develop a better understanding of the conditions under which memory effects become important quantum fluid dynamics has been found to be especially suitable. It represents a further exact reformulation of the quantum mechanic many-body problem which is based on hydrodynamic quantities such as density and velocity. Memory effects are shown to be important whenever the velocity field develops strong gradients and dissipative effects contribute. (orig.)
Rock, Adam J; Permezel, Fiona E; Storm, Lance
2012-01-01
Previous research has demonstrated the effects of ostensible subtle energy on physical systems and subjective experience. However, one subtle energy technique that has been neglected, despite anecdotal support for its efficacy, is Quantum BioEnergetics (QBE). Furthermore, the influence of paranormal belief and experience (either real belief/experience or suggested belief/experience) on subtle energy effects remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate experimentally the effects of distant QBE healing, and paranormal belief/experience, on mood. A randomized expectancy-enhanced placebo-controlled design was used. Data were collected at the QBE Centre, Melbourne. Participants were students from Deakin University and from the general public. Snowball sampling (ie, word-of-mouth) and convenience sampling using a ballot box placed in the university library. Profile of Mood States-Short Form was used to quantify positive and negative mood states. The QBE condition was associated with (1) significantly less Tension-Anxiety compared with the placebo and control condition; and (2) significantly less Anger-Hostility and Total Mood Disturbance compared with the control condition (but not the placebo condition). Furthermore, there was an interaction of condition and paranormal belief/experience with regard to Depression-Dejection, with believers assigned to the placebo condition scoring lowest on this Mood variable. Findings suggest that the use of QBE by an experienced practitioner reduces mood disturbance. In addition, the placebo condition may have evoked suggestibility effects in believers, which would mean that they may be more likely than nonbelievers to believe that they were receiving healing, thus resulting in lower Depression-Dejection scores. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Power Supply Interruption Costs: Models and Methods Incorporating Time Dependent Patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kjoelle, G.H.
1996-12-01
This doctoral thesis develops models and methods for estimation of annual interruption costs for delivery points, emphasizing the handling of time dependent patterns and uncertainties in the variables determining the annual costs. It presents an analytical method for calculation of annual expected interruption costs for delivery points in radial systems, based on a radial reliability model, with time dependent variables. And a similar method for meshed systems, based on a list of outage events, assuming that these events are found in advance from load flow and contingency analyses. A Monte Carlo simulation model is given which handles both time variations and stochastic variations in the input variables and is based on the same list of outage events. This general procedure for radial and meshed systems provides expectation values and probability distributions for interruption costs from delivery points. There is also a procedure for handling uncertainties in input variables by a fuzzy description, giving annual interruption costs as a fuzzy membership function. The methods are developed for practical applications in radial and meshed systems, based on available data from failure statistics, load registrations and customer surveys. Traditional reliability indices such as annual interruption time, power- and energy not supplied, are calculated as by-products. The methods are presented as algorithms and/or procedures which are available as prototypes. 97 refs., 114 figs., 62 tabs
Power Supply Interruption Costs: Models and Methods Incorporating Time Dependent Patterns
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kjoelle, G.H.
1996-12-01
This doctoral thesis develops models and methods for estimation of annual interruption costs for delivery points, emphasizing the handling of time dependent patterns and uncertainties in the variables determining the annual costs. It presents an analytical method for calculation of annual expected interruption costs for delivery points in radial systems, based on a radial reliability model, with time dependent variables. And a similar method for meshed systems, based on a list of outage events, assuming that these events are found in advance from load flow and contingency analyses. A Monte Carlo simulation model is given which handles both time variations and stochastic variations in the input variables and is based on the same list of outage events. This general procedure for radial and meshed systems provides expectation values and probability distributions for interruption costs from delivery points. There is also a procedure for handling uncertainties in input variables by a fuzzy description, giving annual interruption costs as a fuzzy membership function. The methods are developed for practical applications in radial and meshed systems, based on available data from failure statistics, load registrations and customer surveys. Traditional reliability indices such as annual interruption time, power- and energy not supplied, are calculated as by-products. The methods are presented as algorithms and/or procedures which are available as prototypes. 97 refs., 114 figs., 62 tabs.
Time-dependent spectrum analysis of high power gyrotrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlaich, Andreas
2015-01-01
In this work, an investigation of vacuum electronic oscillators capable of generating multi-megawatt continuous wave output power in the millimeter-wave range (so-called gyrotrons) through spectral measurements is presented. The centerpiece is the development of a measurement system with a high dynamic range (50-60 dB) for time-dependent spectrum analysis, covering the frequency range 100-170 GHz with instantaneous bandwidths of 6-12 GHz. Despite relying on heterodyne reception through harmonic mixers, the Pulse Spectrum Analysis (PSA) system maintains RF unambiguity in the spectrogram output through the application of a novel RF reconstruction technique. Using the new possibilities, a wide range of spectral phenomena in gyrotrons has been investigated, such as cavity mode jumps, lowfrequency modulation, frequency tuning in long pulses and the spectral behavior during the presence of an RF window arc. A dedicated investigation on parasitic RF oscillations in W7-X gyrotrons combining several analysis techniques led to the conclusion that after-cavity oscillations can be physical reality in high power gyrotrons, and are the probable cause for the undesired signals observed. Apart from systematic parameter sweeps using the PSA system, an analytical dispersion analysis in the Brillouin diagram was applied, and numerical gyrotron interaction simulations of unprecedented extent were conducted. Furthermore, the improved frequency measurement capabilities were employed to analyze the frequency tuning through thermal expansion and electrostatic neutralization caused by ionization inside the tube in long-pulse operation. By macroscopically modeling the gas dynamics and ionization processes in combination with a fitting process, the time dependences of the two processes could be investigated. In doing so, indication was found that the neutralization in W7-X gyrotrons amounts to only 60% of the electrostatic depression voltage, instead of 100% as widely believed for
Time-dependent spectrum analysis of high power gyrotrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlaich, Andreas
2015-07-01
In this work, an investigation of vacuum electronic oscillators capable of generating multi-megawatt continuous wave output power in the millimeter-wave range (so-called gyrotrons) through spectral measurements is presented. The centerpiece is the development of a measurement system with a high dynamic range (50-60 dB) for time-dependent spectrum analysis, covering the frequency range 100-170 GHz with instantaneous bandwidths of 6-12 GHz. Despite relying on heterodyne reception through harmonic mixers, the Pulse Spectrum Analysis (PSA) system maintains RF unambiguity in the spectrogram output through the application of a novel RF reconstruction technique. Using the new possibilities, a wide range of spectral phenomena in gyrotrons has been investigated, such as cavity mode jumps, lowfrequency modulation, frequency tuning in long pulses and the spectral behavior during the presence of an RF window arc. A dedicated investigation on parasitic RF oscillations in W7-X gyrotrons combining several analysis techniques led to the conclusion that after-cavity oscillations can be physical reality in high power gyrotrons, and are the probable cause for the undesired signals observed. Apart from systematic parameter sweeps using the PSA system, an analytical dispersion analysis in the Brillouin diagram was applied, and numerical gyrotron interaction simulations of unprecedented extent were conducted. Furthermore, the improved frequency measurement capabilities were employed to analyze the frequency tuning through thermal expansion and electrostatic neutralization caused by ionization inside the tube in long-pulse operation. By macroscopically modeling the gas dynamics and ionization processes in combination with a fitting process, the time dependences of the two processes could be investigated. In doing so, indication was found that the neutralization in W7-X gyrotrons amounts to only 60% of the electrostatic depression voltage, instead of 100% as widely believed for
submitter Time-dependent CP violation in charm mesons
Inguglia, Gianluca
CP violation is a well established phenomenon for B and K mesons, but for D0 mesons, bound states made up of a quark-antiquark pair containing a charm quark, a conclusive answer to the question whether there is CP vio- lation or not, has yet to be determined. I show here the phenomenology of time-dependent CP asymmetries in charm decays, and discuss the implica- tions of experimental tests aimed at the measurement of CP violation in the interference between mixing and decays of charm mesons, in particular when studying the decay channels D0 ! h+h (h = K; ). The decay channels considered can also be used to constrain quantities that are poorly measured or still to be investigated, such as MIX and c;eff , provided that the e ects of penguin pollution are ignored. I considered correlated production of D0 mesons at the SuperB experiment and its planned asymmetric run at the charm threshold and performed a study of simulated events, nding that a boost factor = 0:28 would not be su cient to produce competitive re- ...
Learning Probabilistic Inference through Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity.
Pecevski, Dejan; Maass, Wolfgang
2016-01-01
Numerous experimental data show that the brain is able to extract information from complex, uncertain, and often ambiguous experiences. Furthermore, it can use such learnt information for decision making through probabilistic inference. Several models have been proposed that aim at explaining how probabilistic inference could be performed by networks of neurons in the brain. We propose here a model that can also explain how such neural network could acquire the necessary information for that from examples. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity in combination with intrinsic plasticity generates in ensembles of pyramidal cells with lateral inhibition a fundamental building block for that: probabilistic associations between neurons that represent through their firing current values of random variables. Furthermore, by combining such adaptive network motifs in a recursive manner the resulting network is enabled to extract statistical information from complex input streams, and to build an internal model for the distribution p (*) that generates the examples it receives. This holds even if p (*) contains higher-order moments. The analysis of this learning process is supported by a rigorous theoretical foundation. Furthermore, we show that the network can use the learnt internal model immediately for prediction, decision making, and other types of probabilistic inference.
Learning Probabilistic Inference through Spike-Timing-Dependent Plasticity123
Pecevski, Dejan
2016-01-01
Abstract Numerous experimental data show that the brain is able to extract information from complex, uncertain, and often ambiguous experiences. Furthermore, it can use such learnt information for decision making through probabilistic inference. Several models have been proposed that aim at explaining how probabilistic inference could be performed by networks of neurons in the brain. We propose here a model that can also explain how such neural network could acquire the necessary information for that from examples. We show that spike-timing-dependent plasticity in combination with intrinsic plasticity generates in ensembles of pyramidal cells with lateral inhibition a fundamental building block for that: probabilistic associations between neurons that represent through their firing current values of random variables. Furthermore, by combining such adaptive network motifs in a recursive manner the resulting network is enabled to extract statistical information from complex input streams, and to build an internal model for the distribution p* that generates the examples it receives. This holds even if p* contains higher-order moments. The analysis of this learning process is supported by a rigorous theoretical foundation. Furthermore, we show that the network can use the learnt internal model immediately for prediction, decision making, and other types of probabilistic inference. PMID:27419214
Effects of time-dependent photoionization on interstellar pickup atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isenberg, P.A.; Lee, M.A.
1995-01-01
We present an analytical model for the density variations of interstellar pickup ions in the solar wind due to a time-dependent variation in the photoionization rate, our model predicts a pickup ion density enhancement lasting for a time of the order of the duration of the increase plus the solar wind convection time to the observation point. If the photoionization rate returns to its initial value, this enhancement is followed by a decreased pickup ion density resulting from a depleted interstellar neutral particle density. In the absence of further variations in the photoionization rate, the pickup ion density recovers on a time which scales as the radial position of the observation point divided by the inflow speed of the neutral particles. Gradual variations in the photoionization rate result in a pickup ion density which tends to track the ionization rate, though the density variations are smoothed and delayed in time due to the solar wind convection of ions picked up at points closer to the Sun. 27 refs., 4 figs
Time-dependent efficacy of longitudinal biomarker for clinical endpoint.
Kolamunnage-Dona, Ruwanthi; Williamson, Paula R
2018-06-01
Joint modelling of longitudinal biomarker and event-time processes has gained its popularity in recent years as they yield more accurate and precise estimates. Considering this modelling framework, a new methodology for evaluating the time-dependent efficacy of a longitudinal biomarker for clinical endpoint is proposed in this article. In particular, the proposed model assesses how well longitudinally repeated measurements of a biomarker over various time periods (0,t) distinguish between individuals who developed the disease by time t and individuals who remain disease-free beyond time t. The receiver operating characteristic curve is used to provide the corresponding efficacy summaries at various t based on the association between longitudinal biomarker trajectory and risk of clinical endpoint prior to each time point. The model also allows detecting the time period over which a biomarker should be monitored for its best discriminatory value. The proposed approach is evaluated through simulation and illustrated on the motivating dataset from a prospective observational study of biomarkers to diagnose the onset of sepsis.
Time-Dependent Liquid Transport on a Biomimetic Topological Surface.
Yu, Cunlong; Li, Chuxin; Gao, Can; Dong, Zhichao; Wu, Lei; Jiang, Lei
2018-05-02
Liquid drops impacting on a solid surface is a familiar phenomenon. On rainy days, it is quite important for leaves to drain off impacting raindrops. Water can bounce off or flow down a water-repellent leaf easily, but with difficulty on a hydrophilic leaf. Here, we show an interesting phenomenon in which impacting drops on the hydrophilic pitcher rim of Nepenthes alata can spread outward to prohibit water filling the pitcher tank. We mimic the peristome surface through a designed 3D printing and replicating way and report a time-dependently switchable liquid transport based on biomimetic topological structures, where surface curvature can work synergistically with the surface microtextures to manipulate the switchable spreading performance. Motived by this strange behavior, we construct a large-scaled peristome-mimetic surface in a 3D profile, demonstrating the ability to reduce the need to mop or to squeegee drops that form during the drop impacting process on pipes or other curved surfaces in food processing, moisture transfer, heat management, etc.
Chaos in Time-Dependent Space-Charge Potentials
Betzel, Gregory T; Sideris, Ioannis V
2005-01-01
We consider a spherically symmetric, homologously breathing, space-charge-dominated beam bunch in the spirit of the particle-core model. The question we ask is: How does the time dependence influence the population of chaotic orbits? The static beam has zero chaotic orbits; the equation of particle motion is integrable up to quadrature. This is generally not true once the bunch is set into oscillation. We quantify the population of chaotic orbits as a function of space charge and oscillation amplitude (mismatch). We also apply a newly developed measure of chaos, one that distinguishes between regular, sticky, and wildly chaotic orbits, to characterize the phase space in detail. We then introduce colored noise into the system and show how its presence modifies the dynamics. One finding is that, despite the presence of a sizeable population of chaotic orbits, halo formation in the homologously breathing beam is much less prevalent than in an envelope-matched counterpart wherein an internal collective mode is ex...
Time-dependent, multimode interaction analysis of the gyroklystron amplifier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swati, M. V., E-mail: swati.mv.ece10@iitbhu.ac.in; Chauhan, M. S.; Jain, P. K. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)
2016-08-15
In this paper, a time-dependent multimode nonlinear analysis for the gyroklystron amplifier has been developed by extending the analysis of gyrotron oscillators by employing the self-consistent approach. The nonlinear analysis developed here has been validated by taking into account the reported experimental results for a 32.3 GHz, three cavity, second harmonic gyroklystron operating in the TE{sub 02} mode. The analysis has been used to estimate the temporal RF growth in the operating mode as well as the nearby competing modes. Device gain and bandwidth have been computed for different drive powers and frequencies. The effect of various beam parameters, such as beam voltage, beam current, and pitch factor, has also been studied. The computational results have estimated the gyroklystron saturated RF power ∼319 kW at 32.3 GHz with efficiency ∼23% and gain ∼26.3 dB with device bandwidth ∼0.027% (8 MHz) for a 70 kV, 20 A electron beam. The computed results are found to be in agreement with the experimental values within 10%.
Fitting a function to time-dependent ensemble averaged data.
Fogelmark, Karl; Lomholt, Michael A; Irbäck, Anders; Ambjörnsson, Tobias
2018-05-03
Time-dependent ensemble averages, i.e., trajectory-based averages of some observable, are of importance in many fields of science. A crucial objective when interpreting such data is to fit these averages (for instance, squared displacements) with a function and extract parameters (such as diffusion constants). A commonly overlooked challenge in such function fitting procedures is that fluctuations around mean values, by construction, exhibit temporal correlations. We show that the only available general purpose function fitting methods, correlated chi-square method and the weighted least squares method (which neglects correlation), fail at either robust parameter estimation or accurate error estimation. We remedy this by deriving a new closed-form error estimation formula for weighted least square fitting. The new formula uses the full covariance matrix, i.e., rigorously includes temporal correlations, but is free of the robustness issues, inherent to the correlated chi-square method. We demonstrate its accuracy in four examples of importance in many fields: Brownian motion, damped harmonic oscillation, fractional Brownian motion and continuous time random walks. We also successfully apply our method, weighted least squares including correlation in error estimation (WLS-ICE), to particle tracking data. The WLS-ICE method is applicable to arbitrary fit functions, and we provide a publically available WLS-ICE software.
Time-dependent Fracture Behaviour of Polyampholyte Hydrogels
Sun, Tao Lin; Luo, Feng; Nakajima, Tasuku; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping
Recently, we report that polyampholytes, polymers bearing randomly dispersed cationic and anionic repeat groups, form tough and self-healing hydrogels with excellent multiple mechanical functions. The randomness makes ionic bonds with a wide distribution of strength, via inter and intra chain complexation. As the breaking and reforming of ionic bonds are time dependent, the hydrogels exhibit rate dependent mechanical behaviour. We systematically studied the tearing energy by tearing test with various tearing velocity under different temperature, and the linear viscoelastic behaviour over a wide range of frequency and temperature. Results have shown that the tearing energy markedly increase with the crack velocity and decrease with the measured temperature. In accordance with the prediction of Williams, Landel, and Ferry (WLF) rate-temperature equivalence, a master curve of tearing energy dependence of crack velocity can be well constructed using the same shift factor from the linear viscoelastic data. The scaling relation of tearing energy as a function of crack velocity can be predicted well by the rheological data according to the developed linear fracture mechanics.
Physical implementation of pair-based spike timing dependent plasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azghadi, M.R.; Al-Sarawi, S.; Iannella, N.; Abbott, D.
2011-01-01
Full text: Objective Spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STOP) is one of several plasticity rules which leads to learning and memory in the brain. STOP induces synaptic weight changes based on the timing of the pre- and post-synaptic neurons. A neural network which can mimic the adaptive capability of biological brains in the temporal domain, requires the weight of single connections to be altered by spike timing. To physically realise this network into silicon, a large number of interconnected STOP circuits on the same substrate is required. This imposes two significant limitations in terms of power and area. To cover these limitations, very large scale integrated circuit (VLSI) technology provides attractive features in terms of low power and small area requirements. An example is demonstrated by (lndiveli et al. 2006). The objective of this paper is to present a new implementation of the STOP circuit which demonstrates better power and area in comparison to previous implementations. Methods The proposed circuit uses complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology as depicted in Fig. I. The synaptic weight can be stored on a capacitor and charging/discharging current can lead to potentiation and depression. HSpice simulation results demonstrate that the average power, peak power, and area of the proposed circuit have been reduced by 6, 8 and 15%, respectively, in comparison with Indiveri's implementation. These improvements naturally lead to packing more STOP circuits onto the same substrate, when compared to previous proposals. Hence, this new implementation is quite interesting for real-world large neural networks.
Complexities in gauging time-dependency of proliferation resistance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avens, L.R.; Eller, P.G.; Stanbro, W.D.
2004-01-01
To a considerable extent, policy decisions on nuclear fuel cycle issues depend upon how decision makers recognize and weigh 'long-term' and 'short-term' nuclear proliferation risk factors. Priorities and structures of advanced fuel cycle and safeguards research and development programs are affected similarly. Unfortunately, there is a diversity of understanding of the precise meanings of these proliferation risk terms, leading to lack of precision in their usage. In addition, proliferation risk evaluation fundamentally involves value judgments on the relative importance of time-dependent risks. Poor communication and diverse conclusions often result. This paper explores some complexities in gauging 'long-term' and 'short-term' proliferation risk in the context of advanced nuclear fuel cycles. A convenient vehicle for this purpose is a commonly used notional plot of some proliferation resistance attribute of spent fuel or separated plutonium versus years from reactor discharge, often overlain with similar notional curves denoting multiple fuel irradiation and recycle. A common basis for misuse of such plots is failure to clearly define the range of proliferation threats being evaluated, as illustrated by several common examples of such omissions. Partial arguments of this type can be misleading and provide a disservice to policy makers who must have a clear picture of the tradeoffs being made. This paper concludes with a call for much greater care to avoid overly simplistic interpretations of notional proliferation-related concepts and greater precision in general in use of proliferation-related terminology.
Multiscale time-dependent density functional theory: Demonstration for plasmons.
Jiang, Jiajian; Abi Mansour, Andrew; Ortoleva, Peter J
2017-08-07
Plasmon properties are of significant interest in pure and applied nanoscience. While time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) can be used to study plasmons, it becomes impractical for elucidating the effect of size, geometric arrangement, and dimensionality in complex nanosystems. In this study, a new multiscale formalism that addresses this challenge is proposed. This formalism is based on Trotter factorization and the explicit introduction of a coarse-grained (CG) structure function constructed as the Weierstrass transform of the electron wavefunction. This CG structure function is shown to vary on a time scale much longer than that of the latter. A multiscale propagator that coevolves both the CG structure function and the electron wavefunction is shown to bring substantial efficiency over classical propagators used in TDDFT. This efficiency follows from the enhanced numerical stability of the multiscale method and the consequence of larger time steps that can be used in a discrete time evolution. The multiscale algorithm is demonstrated for plasmons in a group of interacting sodium nanoparticles (15-240 atoms), and it achieves improved efficiency over TDDFT without significant loss of accuracy or space-time resolution.
Recovery of time-dependent volatility in option pricing model
Deng, Zui-Cha; Hon, Y. C.; Isakov, V.
2016-11-01
In this paper we investigate an inverse problem of determining the time-dependent volatility from observed market prices of options with different strikes. Due to the non linearity and sparsity of observations, an analytical solution to the problem is generally not available. Numerical approximation is also difficult to obtain using most of the existing numerical algorithms. Based on our recent theoretical results, we apply the linearisation technique to convert the problem into an inverse source problem from which recovery of the unknown volatility function can be achieved. Two kinds of strategies, namely, the integral equation method and the Landweber iterations, are adopted to obtain the stable numerical solution to the inverse problem. Both theoretical analysis and numerical examples confirm that the proposed approaches are effective. The work described in this paper was partially supported by a grant from the Research Grant Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Project No. CityU 101112) and grants from the NNSF of China (Nos. 11261029, 11461039), and NSF grants DMS 10-08902 and 15-14886 and by Emylou Keith and Betty Dutcher Distinguished Professorship at the Wichita State University (USA).
Time-dependent motor properties of multipedal molecular spiders.
Samii, Laleh; Blab, Gerhard A; Bromley, Elizabeth H C; Linke, Heiner; Curmi, Paul M G; Zuckermann, Martin J; Forde, Nancy R
2011-09-01
Molecular spiders are synthetic biomolecular walkers that use the asymmetry resulting from cleavage of their tracks to bias the direction of their stepping motion. Using Monte Carlo simulations that implement the Gillespie algorithm, we investigate the dependence of the biased motion of molecular spiders, along with binding time and processivity, on tunable experimental parameters, such as number of legs, span between the legs, and unbinding rate of a leg from a substrate site. We find that an increase in the number of legs increases the spiders' processivity and binding time but not their mean velocity. However, we can increase the mean velocity of spiders with simultaneous tuning of the span and the unbinding rate of a spider leg from a substrate site. To study the efficiency of molecular spiders, we introduce a time-dependent expression for the thermodynamic efficiency of a molecular motor, allowing us to account for the behavior of spider populations as a function of time. Based on this definition, we find that spiders exhibit transient motor function over time scales of many hours and have a maximum efficiency on the order of 1%, weak compared to other types of molecular motors.
Time-dependent simulations of disk-embedded planetary atmospheres
Stökl, A.; Dorfi, E. A.
2014-03-01
At the early stages of evolution of planetary systems, young Earth-like planets still embedded in the protoplanetary disk accumulate disk gas gravitationally into planetary atmospheres. The established way to study such atmospheres are hydrostatic models, even though in many cases the assumption of stationarity is unlikely to be fulfilled. Furthermore, such models rely on the specification of a planetary luminosity, attributed to a continuous, highly uncertain accretion of planetesimals onto the surface of the solid core. We present for the first time time-dependent, dynamic simulations of the accretion of nebula gas into an atmosphere around a proto-planet and the evolution of such embedded atmospheres while integrating the thermal energy budget of the solid core. The spherical symmetric models computed with the TAPIR-Code (short for The adaptive, implicit RHD-Code) range from the surface of the rocky core up to the Hill radius where the surrounding protoplanetary disk provides the boundary conditions. The TAPIR-Code includes the hydrodynamics equations, gray radiative transport and convective energy transport. The results indicate that diskembedded planetary atmospheres evolve along comparatively simple outlines and in particular settle, dependent on the mass of the solid core, at characteristic surface temperatures and planetary luminosities, quite independent on numerical parameters and initial conditions. For sufficiently massive cores, this evolution ultimately also leads to runaway accretion and the formation of a gas planet.
Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K
1996-01-01
storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine......Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during.......0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33...
Time-dependent effect in green synthesis of silver nanoparticles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darroudi M
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Majid Darroudi1,2, Mansor Bin Ahmad3, Reza Zamiri4, AK Zak5, Abdul Halim Abdullah1,3, Nor Azowa Ibrahim31Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology (ITMA, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran; 3Department of Chemistry, 4Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia; 5Low Dimensional Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, MalaysiaAbstract: The application of “green” chemistry rules to nanoscience and nanotechnology is very important in the preparation of various nanomaterials. In this work, we successfully developed an eco-friendly chemistry method for preparing silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs in natural polymeric media. The colloidal Ag-NPs were synthesized in an aqueous solution using silver nitrate, gelatin, and glucose as a silver precursor, stabilizer, and reducing agent, respectively. The properties of synthesized colloidal Ag-NPs were studied at different reaction times. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis spectra were in excellent agreement with the obtained nanostructure studies performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and their size distributions. The prepared samples were also characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The use of eco-friendly reagents, such as gelatin and glucose, provides green and economic attributes to this work.Keywords: silver nanoparticles, gelatin, green chemistry, time-dependent effect, ultraviolet-visible spectra
Residual distribution for general time-dependent conservation laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ricchiuto, Mario; Csik, Arpad; Deconinck, Herman
2005-01-01
We consider the second-order accurate numerical solution of general time-dependent hyperbolic conservation laws over unstructured grids in the framework of the Residual Distribution method. In order to achieve full conservation of the linear, monotone and first-order space-time schemes of (Csik et al., 2003) and (Abgrall et al., 2000), we extend the conservative residual distribution (CRD) formulation of (Csik et al., 2002) to prismatic space-time elements. We then study the design of second-order accurate and monotone schemes via the nonlinear mapping of the local residuals of linear monotone schemes. We derive sufficient and necessary conditions for the well-posedness of the mapping. We prove that the schemes obtained with the CRD formulation satisfy these conditions by construction. Thus the nonlinear schemes proposed in this paper are always well defined. The performance of the linear and nonlinear schemes are evaluated on a series of test problems involving the solution of the Euler equations and of a two-phase flow model. We consider the resolution of strong shocks and complex interacting flow structures. The results demonstrate the robustness, accuracy and non-oscillatory character of the proposed schemes. d schemes
Erratic time dependence of orbits of topologically mixing maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiong Jincheng.
1988-11-01
In the present paper we show that for a topologically mixing map there are considerably many points in the domain whose orbits display highly erratic time dependence, i.e., if f: X→X is a topologically mixing map where X is a compact metric space then for any increasing sequence {q i } of positive integers and any countable subset S dense in X there exists everywhere an uncountable subset C of X satisfying the conditions of (1) for any s is an element of S. There exists a subsequence {p i } of the sequence {q i } such that lim i→∞ f P 1 (y)=s for every y is an element of C, and (2) for any n>0, any n distinct points y 1 ,y 2 ,...,y n of C and any n points x 1 ,x 2 ,...,x n of X there exists a subsequence {t i } of the sequence {q i } such that lim i→∞ f t i (y j )=x j for every j=1,2,...n. (author). 4 refs
Fitzpatrick, Richard
2015-01-01
Quantum mechanics was developed during the first few decades of the twentieth century via a series of inspired guesses made by various physicists, including Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Schroedinger, Heisenberg, Pauli, and Dirac. All these scientists were trying to construct a self-consistent theory of microscopic dynamics that was compatible with experimental observations. The purpose of this book is to present quantum mechanics in a clear, concise, and systematic fashion, starting from the fundamental postulates, and developing the theory in as logical manner as possible. Topics covered in the book include the fundamental postulates of quantum mechanics, angular momentum, time-dependent and time-dependent perturbation theory, scattering theory, identical particles, and relativistic electron theory.
Quantization and instability of the damped harmonic oscillator subject to a time-dependent force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majima, H.; Suzuki, A.
2011-01-01
We consider the one-dimensional motion of a particle immersed in a potential field U(x) under the influence of a frictional (dissipative) force linear in velocity (-γx) and a time-dependent external force (K(t)). The dissipative system subject to these forces is discussed by introducing the extended Bateman's system, which is described by the Lagrangian: L=mxy-U(x+1/2 y)+U(x-1/2 y)+(γ)/2 (xy-yx)-xK(t)+yK(t), which leads to the familiar classical equations of motion for the dissipative (open) system. The equation for a variable y is the time-reversed of the x motion. We discuss the extended Bateman dual Lagrangian and Hamiltonian by setting U(x±y/2)=1/2 k(x±y/2) 2 specifically for a dual extended damped-amplified harmonic oscillator subject to the time-dependent external force. We show the method of quantizing such dissipative systems, namely the canonical quantization of the extended Bateman's Hamiltonian H. The Heisenberg equations of motion utilizing the quantized Hamiltonian H surely lead to the equations of motion for the dissipative dynamical quantum systems, which are the quantum analog of the corresponding classical systems. To discuss the stability of the quantum dissipative system due to the influence of an external force K(t) and the dissipative force, we derived a formula for transition amplitudes of the dissipative system with the help of the perturbation analysis. The formula is specifically applied for a damped-amplified harmonic oscillator subject to the impulsive force. This formula is used to study the influence of dissipation such as the instability due to the dissipative force and/or the applied impulsive force. - Highlights: → A method of quantizing dissipative systems is presented. → In order to obtain the method, we apply Bateman's dual system approach. → A formula for a transition amplitude is derived. → We use the formula to study the instability of the dissipative systems.
Dose- and time-dependent pharmacokinetics of apigenin trimethyl ether.
Elhennawy, Mai Gamal; Lin, Hai-Shu
2018-06-15
Apigenin trimethyl ether (5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone, ATE), one of the key polymethoxyflavones present in black ginger (rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora) possesses various health-promoting activities. To optimize its medicinal application, the pharmacokinetics of ATE was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats with emphases to identify the impacts from dose and repeated dosing on its major pharmacokinetic parameters. Plasma ATE levels were monitored by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. Upon single intravenous administration (2 mg/kg), plasma levels of ATE declined through an apparent first-order process while dose-escalation to 4 and 8 mg/kg led to its non-linear disposition, which could be described by the Michaelis-Menten model. Similarly, dose-dependent oral pharmacokinetics was confirmed and when the dose was escalated from 5 to 15 and 45 mg/kg, much longer mean residence time (MRT 0→last ), higher dose-normalized maximal plasma concentration (C max /Dose) and exposure (AUC/Dose) were observed at 15 and/or 45 mg/kg. One-week daily oral administration of ATE at 15 mg/kg caused its accelerated elimination and the plasma exposure (AUC) after intravenous (2 mg/kg) and oral administration (15 mg/kg) dropped ~40 and 60%, respectively. As ATE displayed both dose- and time-dependent pharmacokinetics, caution is needed in the medicinal applications of ATE and/or black ginger. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A simple shear limited, single size, time dependent flocculation model
Kuprenas, R.; Tran, D. A.; Strom, K.
2017-12-01
This research focuses on the modeling of flocculation of cohesive sediment due to turbulent shear, specifically, investigating the dependency of flocculation on the concentration of cohesive sediment. Flocculation is important in larger sediment transport models as cohesive particles can create aggregates which are orders of magnitude larger than their unflocculated state. As the settling velocity of each particle is determined by the sediment size, density, and shape, accounting for this aggregation is important in determining where the sediment is deposited. This study provides a new formulation for flocculation of cohesive sediment by modifying the Winterwerp (1998) flocculation model (W98) so that it limits floc size to that of the Kolmogorov micro length scale. The W98 model is a simple approach that calculates the average floc size as a function of time. Because of its simplicity, the W98 model is ideal for implementing into larger sediment transport models; however, the model tends to over predict the dependency of the floc size on concentration. It was found that the modification of the coefficients within the original model did not allow for the model to capture the dependency on concentration. Therefore, a new term within the breakup kernel of the W98 formulation was added. The new formulation results is a single size, shear limited, and time dependent flocculation model that is able to effectively capture the dependency of the equilibrium size of flocs on both suspended sediment concentration and the time to equilibrium. The overall behavior of the new model is explored and showed align well with other studies on flocculation. Winterwerp, J. C. (1998). A simple model for turbulence induced flocculation of cohesive sediment. .Journal of Hydraulic Research, 36(3):309-326.
Spike-timing dependent plasticity and the cognitive map
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daniel eBush
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Since the discovery of place cells – single pyramidal neurons that encode spatial location – it has been hypothesised that the hippocampus may act as a cognitive map of known environments. This putative function has been extensively modelled using auto-associative networks, which utilise rate-coded synaptic plasticity rules in order to generate strong bi-directional connections between concurrently active place cells that encode for neighbouring place fields. However, empirical studies using hippocampal cultures have demonstrated that the magnitude and direction of changes in synaptic strength can also be dictated by the relative timing of pre- and post- synaptic firing according to a spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP rule. Furthermore, electrophysiology studies have identified persistent ‘theta-coded’ temporal correlations in place cell activity in vivo, characterised by phase precession of firing as the corresponding place field is traversed. It is not yet clear if STDP and theta-coded neural dynamics are compatible with cognitive map theory and previous rate-coded models of spatial learning in the hippocampus. Here, we demonstrate that an STDP rule based on empirical data obtained from the hippocampus can mediate rate-coded Hebbian learning when pre- and post- synaptic activity is stochastic and has no persistent sequence bias. We subsequently demonstrate that a spiking recurrent neural network that utilises this STDP rule, alongside theta-coded neural activity, allows the rapid development of a cognitive map during directed or random exploration of an environment of overlapping place fields. Hence, we establish that STDP and phase precession are compatible with rate-coded models of cognitive map development.
Spike-timing dependent plasticity and the cognitive map.
Bush, Daniel; Philippides, Andrew; Husbands, Phil; O'Shea, Michael
2010-01-01
Since the discovery of place cells - single pyramidal neurons that encode spatial location - it has been hypothesized that the hippocampus may act as a cognitive map of known environments. This putative function has been extensively modeled using auto-associative networks, which utilize rate-coded synaptic plasticity rules in order to generate strong bi-directional connections between concurrently active place cells that encode for neighboring place fields. However, empirical studies using hippocampal cultures have demonstrated that the magnitude and direction of changes in synaptic strength can also be dictated by the relative timing of pre- and post-synaptic firing according to a spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP) rule. Furthermore, electrophysiology studies have identified persistent "theta-coded" temporal correlations in place cell activity in vivo, characterized by phase precession of firing as the corresponding place field is traversed. It is not yet clear if STDP and theta-coded neural dynamics are compatible with cognitive map theory and previous rate-coded models of spatial learning in the hippocampus. Here, we demonstrate that an STDP rule based on empirical data obtained from the hippocampus can mediate rate-coded Hebbian learning when pre- and post-synaptic activity is stochastic and has no persistent sequence bias. We subsequently demonstrate that a spiking recurrent neural network that utilizes this STDP rule, alongside theta-coded neural activity, allows the rapid development of a cognitive map during directed or random exploration of an environment of overlapping place fields. Hence, we establish that STDP and phase precession are compatible with rate-coded models of cognitive map development.
Pharmacokinetics: time-dependent changes--autoinduction of carbamazepine epoxidation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertilsson, L.; Tomson, T.; Tybring, G.
1986-01-01
Drugs labeled with stable isotopes have been useful to study time-dependent changes in kinetics. Early studies suggested that carbamazepine (CBZ) may induce its own metabolism, but this could not be proved until tetradeuterium-labeled CBZ (CBZ-D4) was synthesized and then given to patients. CBZ-D4 was administered to three children during long-term treatment of epilepsy with CBZ. After 17 to 32 days of treatment, the plasma clearance of CBZ-D4 was doubled, but during the next four months, there was no further increase, indicating that autoinduction was complete within one month. Two patients with chronic alcoholism were treated with CBZ for five days. Half of the first dose of 600 mg was comprised of CBZ-D4. The half-life of this CBZ-D4 dose in the two patients (20 and 26 hr, respectively) was similar to the post-steady-state half-life of CBZ (23 hr in both patients) measured later. A single dose of CBZ given one week after the last maintenance dose had a longer half-life (46 and 45 hr, respectively), which probably is close to the disposition of the drug before starting the treatment with CBZ. This shows that autoinduction of CBZ metabolism was completed during the very first doses of CBZ. Autoinduction also disappeared rapidly after stopping the treatment. We have shown that it is mainly the epoxide-diol pathway that is induced, both during autoinduction and after induction with other antiepileptic agents
Time dependence of microsecond intense electron beam transport in gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucey, R.F. Jr.; Gilgenback, R.M.; Tucker, J.E.; Brake, M.L.; Enloe, C.L.; Repetti, T.E.
1987-01-01
The authors present results of long-pulse (0.5 μs) electron beam propagation in the ion focused regime (IFR). Electron beam parameters are 800 kV with several hundred amperes injected current. For injection into air (from 0.7 mTorr to 75 mTorr) and helium (from 14 mTorr to 227 mTorr) the authors observe a ''time-dependent propagation window'' in which efficient (up to 100%) propagation starts at a time comparable to the electron impact ionization time needed to achieve n/sub i/ -- (1/γ/sup 2/)n/sub eb/. The transport goes abruptly to zero about 50-150 ns after this initial propagation. This is followed by erratic propagation often consisting of numerous narrower pulses 10-40 ns wide. In these pulses the transported current can be 100% of the injected current, but is generally lower. As the fill pressure is increased, there are differences in the propagated beam pulse, which can be summarized as follows: 1) the temporal occurrence of the beam propagation window shifts to earlier times, 2) the propagated beam current has much faster risetimes, 3) a larger portion of the injected beam is propagated. Similar results are observed when the electron beam is propagated in helium. However, at a given pressure, the beam transport window occurs at later times and exhibits a slower risetime. These effects are consistent with electron beam-induced ionization. Experiments are being performed to determine if the observed beam instability is due to the ion hose instability or streaming instability
Thresholds of time dependent intergranular crack growth in a nickel disc alloy Alloy 720Li
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Hangyue
2014-01-01
Full Text Available At high temperatures in air, introducing a dwell period at the peak stress of fatigue cycles promotes time dependent intergranular crack growth which can increase crack growth rates by upto a few orders of magnitude from the rates of transgranular fatigue crack growth in superalloys. It is expected that time dependent intergranular crack growth in nickel-based superalloys may not occur below a critical mechanical driving force, ΔKth−IG, analogous to a fatigue threshold (ΔKth and a critical temperature, Tth. In this study, dwell fatigue crack growth tests have been carefully designed and conducted on Alloy 720Li to examine such thresholds. Unlike a fatigue threshold, the threshold stress intensity factor range for intergranular crack growth is observed to be highly sensitive to microstructure, dwell time and test procedure. The near threshold crack growth behaviour is made complex by the interactions between grain boundary oxidation embrittlement and crack tip stress relaxation. In general, lower ΔKth−IG values are associated with finer grain size and/or shorter dwell times. Often a load increasing procedure promotes stress relaxation and tends to lead to higher ΔKth−IG. When there is limited stress relaxation at the crack tip, similar ΔKth−IG values are measured with load increasing and load shedding procedures. They are generally higher than the fatigue threshold (ΔKth despite faster crack growth rates (da/dN in the stable crack growth regime. Time dependent intergranular crack growth cannot be activated below a temperature of 500 ∘C.
Critique of the foundations of time-dependent density-functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schirmer, J.; Dreuw, A.
2007-01-01
The general expectation that, in principle, the time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) is an exact formulation of the time evolution of an interacting N-electron system is critically reexamined. It is demonstrated that the previous TDDFT foundation, resting on four theorems by Runge and Gross (RG) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 997 (1984)], is invalid because undefined phase factors corrupt the RG action integral functionals. Our finding confirms much of a previous analysis by van Leeuwen [Int. J. Mod. Phys. B 15, 1969 (2001)]. To analyze the RG theorems and other aspects of TDDFT, an utmost simplification of the Kohn-Sham (KS) concept has been introduced, in which the ground-state density is obtained from a single KS equation for one spatial (spinless) orbital. The time-dependent (TD) form of this radical Kohn-Sham (rKS) scheme, which has the same validity status as the ordinary KS version, has proved to be a valuable tool for analysis. The rKS concept is used to clarify also the alternative nonvariational formulation of TD KS theory. We argue that it is just a formal theory, allowing one to reproduce but not predict the time development of the exact density of the interacting N-electron system. Besides the issue of the formal exactness of TDDFT, it is shown that both the static and time-dependent KS linear response equations neglect the particle-particle (p-p) and hole-hole (h-h) matrix elements of the perturbing operator. For a local (multiplicative) operator this does not lead to a loss of information due to a remarkable general property of local operators. Accordingly, no logical inconsistency arises with respect to DFT, because DFT requires any external potential to be local. For a general nonlocal operator the error resulting from the neglected matrix elements is of second order in the electronic repulsion
Time-dependent reflection at the localization transition
Skipetrov, Sergey E.; Sinha, Aritra
2018-03-01
A short quasimonochromatic wave packet incident on a semi-infinite disordered medium gives rise to a reflected wave. The intensity of the latter decays as a power law, 1 /tα , in the long-time limit. Using the one-dimensional Aubry-André model, we show that in the vicinity of the critical point of Anderson localization transition, the decay slows down, and the power-law exponent α becomes smaller than both α =2 found in the Anderson localization regime and α =3 /2 expected for a one-dimensional random walk of classical particles.
Quantum evolution across singularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg
2008-01-01
Attempts to consider evolution across space-time singularities often lead to quantum systems with time-dependent Hamiltonians developing an isolated singularity as a function of time. Examples include matrix theory in certain singular time-dependent backgounds and free quantum fields on the two-dimensional compactified Milne universe. Due to the presence of the singularities in the time dependence, the conventional quantum-mechanical evolution is not well-defined for such systems. We propose a natural way, mathematically analogous to renormalization in conventional quantum field theory, to construct unitary quantum evolution across the singularity. We carry out this procedure explicitly for free fields on the compactified Milne universe and compare our results with the matching conditions considered in earlier work (which were based on the covering Minkowski space)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loebl, N.; Maruhn, J. A.; Reinhard, P.-G.
2011-01-01
By calculating the Wigner distribution function in the reaction plane, we are able to probe the phase-space behavior in the time-dependent Hartree-Fock scheme during a heavy-ion collision in a consistent framework. Various expectation values of operators are calculated by evaluating the corresponding integrals over the Wigner function. In this approach, it is straightforward to define and analyze quantities even locally. We compare the Wigner distribution function with the smoothed Husimi distribution function. Different reaction scenarios are presented by analyzing central and noncentral 16 O + 16 O and 96 Zr + 132 Sn collisions. Although we observe strong dissipation in the time evolution of global observables, there is no evidence for complete equilibration in the local analysis of the Wigner function. Because the initial phase-space volumes of the fragments barely merge and mean values of the observables are conserved in fusion reactions over thousands of fm/c, we conclude that the time-dependent Hartree-Fock method provides a good description of the early stage of a heavy-ion collision but does not provide a mechanism to change the phase-space structure in a dramatic way necessary to obtain complete equilibration.
OECD/NEA benchmark for time-dependent neutron transport calculations without spatial homogenization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hou, Jason, E-mail: jason.hou@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Ivanov, Kostadin N. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Boyarinov, Victor F.; Fomichenko, Peter A. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • A time-dependent homogenization-free neutron transport benchmark was created. • The first phase, known as the kinetics phase, was described in this work. • Preliminary results for selected 2-D transient exercises were presented. - Abstract: A Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) benchmark for the time-dependent neutron transport calculations without spatial homogenization has been established in order to facilitate the development and assessment of numerical methods for solving the space-time neutron kinetics equations. The benchmark has been named the OECD/NEA C5G7-TD benchmark, and later extended with three consecutive phases each corresponding to one modelling stage of the multi-physics transient analysis of the nuclear reactor core. This paper provides a detailed introduction of the benchmark specification of Phase I, known as the “kinetics phase”, including the geometry description, supporting neutron transport data, transient scenarios in both two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) configurations, as well as the expected output parameters from the participants. Also presented are the preliminary results for the initial state 2-D core and selected transient exercises that have been obtained using the Monte Carlo method and the Surface Harmonic Method (SHM), respectively.
Observation of time dependent dispersion in laboratory scale experiments with intact tuff
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rundberg, R.S.; Triay, I.R.; Ott, M.A.; Mitchell, A.J.
1989-01-01
The migration of radionuclides through intact tuff was studied using tuff from Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The tuff samples were both highly zeolitized ash-fall tuff from the Calico Hills and densely welded devitrified tuff from the Topopah Springs member of the Paintbrush tuff. Tritiated water and pertechnetate were used as conservative tracers. The sorbing tracers 85 Sr, 137 Cs, and 133 Ba were used with the devitrified tuff only. Greater tailing in the elution curves of the densely welded tuff samples was observed that could be fit by adjusting the dispersion coefficient in the conventional Advection Dispersion Equation, ADE. The curves could be fit using time dependent dispersion as was previously observed for sediments and alluvium by Dieulin, Matheron, and de Marsily. The peak of strontium concentration was expected to arrive after 1.5 years based on the conventional ADE and assuming a linear K d of 26 ml/g. The observed elution had significant strontium in the first sample taken at 2 weeks after injection. The peak in the strontium elution occurred at 5 weeks. The correct arrival time for the strontium peak was achieved using a one dimensional analytic solution with time dependent dispersion. The dispersion coefficient as a function of time used to fit the conservative tracers was found to predict the peak arrival of the sorbing tracers. The K d used was the K d determined by the batch method on crushed tuff. 23 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs
Improved time-dependent harmonic oscillator method for vibrationally inelastic collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DePristo, A.E.
1985-01-01
A quantal solution to vibrationally inelastic collisions is presented based upon a linear expansion of the interaction potential around the time-dependent classical positions of all translational and vibrational degrees of freedom. The full time-dependent wave function is a product of a Gaussian translational wave packet and a multidimensional harmonic oscillator wave function, both centered around the appropriate classical position variables. The computational requirements are small since the initial vibrational coordinates are the equilibrium values in the classical trajectory (i.e., phase space sampling does not occur). Different choices of the initial width of the translational wave packet and the initial classical translational momenta are possible, and two combinations are investigated. The first involves setting the initial classical momenta equal to the quantal expectation value, and varying the width to satisfy normalization of the transition probability matrix. The second involves adjusting the initial classical momenta to ensure detailed balancing for each set of transitions, i→f and f→i, and varying the width to satisfy normalization. This choice illustrates the origin of the empirical correction of using the arithmetic average momenta as the initial classical momenta in the forced oscillator approximation. Both methods are tested for the collinear collision systems CO 2 --(He, Ne), and are found to be accurate except for near-resonant vibration--vibration exchange at low initial kinetic energies
Prospects for time-dependent asymmetries at LHCb
Dupertuis, Frédéric
2013-01-01
LHCb has been acquiring physics data since 2010 and recorded about 0.04 fb$^{-1}$ in 2010 and 1.1 fb$^{-1}$ in 2011 at center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}$ of 7 TeV. In 2012, it is projected to record 2.2 $^{-1}$ at an energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV with a nominal instantaneous luminosity of $\\cal{L}$ = 4 x 10$^{32}$ cm $^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$, before a long shutdown of almost two years. The data taking is expected to resume by the end of 2014 at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 – 14 TeV, before a second long shutdown in 2018 when the upgraded LHCb detector components will be installed. Since the $b\\bar{b}$ cross section depends almost linearly on $\\sqrt{s}$, this will lead to an increase of about 100% in $b\\bar{b}$ pairs yield at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 14 compared to $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7. By 2018, a data sample larger than 8 fb$^{-1}$ is expected to have been recorded, leading to an increase of about a factor four in statistical power with respect to the 1 fb$^{-1}$ sample recorded at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The LHCb upgrade [2] is designed to take data u...
TEMPS, 1-Group Time-Dependent Pulsed Source Neutron Transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganapol, B.D.
1988-01-01
1 - Description of program or function: TEMPS numerically determines the scalar flux as given by the one-group neutron transport equation with a pulsed source in an infinite medium. Standard plane, point, and line sources are considered as well as a volume source in the negative half-space in plane geometry. The angular distribution of emitted neutrons can either be isotropic or mono-directional (beam) in plane geometry and isotropic in spherical and cylindrical geometry. A general anisotropic scattering Kernel represented in terms of Legendre polynomials can be accommodated with a time- dependent number of secondaries given by c(t)=c 0 (t/t 0 ) β , where β is greater than -1 and less than infinity. TEMPS is designed to provide the flux to a high degree of accuracy (4-5 digits) for use as a benchmark to which results from other numerical solutions or approximations can be compared. 2 - Method of solution: A semi-analytic Method of solution is followed. The main feature of this approach is that no discretization of the transport or scattering operators is employed. The numerical solution involves the evaluation of an analytical representation of the solution by standard numerical techniques. The transport equation is first reformulated in terms of multiple collisions with the flux represented by an infinite series of collisional components. Each component is then represented by an orthogonal Legendre series expansion in the variable x/t where the distance x and time t are measured in terms of mean free path and mean free time, respectively. The moments in the Legendre reconstruction are found from an algebraic recursion relation obtained from Legendre expansion in the direction variable mu. The multiple collision series is evaluated first to a prescribed relative error determined by the number of digits desired in the scalar flux. If the Legendre series fails to converge in the plane or point source case, an accelerative transformation, based on removing the
A simplified quantum gravitational model of inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsamis, N C; Woodard, R P
2009-01-01
Inflationary quantum gravity simplifies drastically in the leading logarithm approximation. We show that the only counterterm which contributes in this limit is the 1-loop renormalization of the cosmological constant. We go further to make a simplifying assumption about the operator dynamics at leading logarithm order. This assumption is explicitly implemented at 1- and 2-loop orders, and we describe how it can be implemented nonperturbatively. We also compute the expectation value of an invariant observable designed to quantify the quantum gravitational back-reaction on inflation. Although our dynamical assumption may not prove to be completely correct, it does have the right time dependence, it can naturally produce primordial perturbations of the right strength, and it illustrates how a rigorous application of the leading logarithm approximation might work in quantum gravity. It also serves as a partial test of the 'null hypothesis' that there are no significant effects from infrared gravitons.
Rheological Investigation on the Effect of Shear and Time Dependent Behavior of Waxy Crude Oil
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Japper-Jaafar A.
2014-07-01
Full Text Available Rheological measurements are essential in transporting crude oil, especially for waxy crude oil. Several rheological measurements have been conducted to determine various rheological properties of waxy crude oil including the viscosity, yield strength, wax appearance temperature (WAT, wax disappearance temperature (WDT, storage modulus and loss modulus, amongst others, by using controlled stress rheometers. However, a procedure to determine the correct parameters for rheological measurements is still unavailable in the literature. The paper aims to investigate the effect of shear and time dependent behaviours of waxy crude oil during rheological measurements. It is expected that the preliminary work could lead toward a proper rheological measurement guideline for reliable rheological measurement of waxy crude oil.
Time-dependent analysis of the resistivity of post-disruption tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakhtiari, M.; Whyte, D. G.
2006-01-01
The effect of neutrals on plasma resistivity due to electron-neutral collisions is studied with respect to its effect on tokamak disruptions. The resistivity of the tokamak plasma after the thermal quench is critical in determining the current quench rate, the plasma temperature, and runaway electron generation in tokamaks through the electric field, all features which are important for mitigating the damaging effect of disruptions. It is shown that the plasma resistivity during tokamak disruptions is a time-dependent parameter which may vary with disruption time scales due to the increasing fraction of neutrals. However the effect of neutrals on resistivity is found to be small for the expected neutral fraction, mostly due to power balance considerations between radiation and Ohmic heating in the plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brics, Martins
2016-12-09
Intense, ultra-short laser pulses interacting with atoms, molecules, clusters, and solids give rise to many new fascinating phenomena, not at all accessible to quantum mechanics textbook perturbation theory. A full numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr¨odinger equation (TDSE) for such strong-field problems is also impossible for more than two electrons. Hence, powerful time-dependent quantum many-body approaches need to be developed. Unfortunately, efficient methods such as time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) fail in reproducing experimental observations, in particular if strong correlations are involved. In TDDFT, the approximation not only lies in the so-called exchange correlation potential but also in the density functionals for the observables of interest. In fact, with just the single-particle density alone it is unclear how to calculate, e.g., multiple-ionization probabilities or photoelectron spectra, or, even worse, correlated photoelectron spectra, as measured in nowadays experiments. In general, the simple structure of the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation for a highly-dimensional many-body wavefunction can only be traded for more complicated equations of motion for simpler quantities. In this thesis, a theory is examined that goes one step beyond TDDFT as far as the complexity of the propagated quantity is concerned. In time-dependent renormalized natural orbital theory (TDRNOT), the basic quantities that are propagated in time are the eigenvalues and eigenstates of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM). The eigenstates are called natural orbitals (NOs), the eigenvalues are the corresponding occupation numbers (ONs). Compared to TDDFT, the knowledge of the NOs and the ONs relax the problem of calculating observables in practice because they can be used to construct the 1-RDM and the two-body reduced density matrix (2-RDM). After the derivation of the equations of motion for a combination of NOs and ONs, the so
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brics, Martins
2016-01-01
Intense, ultra-short laser pulses interacting with atoms, molecules, clusters, and solids give rise to many new fascinating phenomena, not at all accessible to quantum mechanics textbook perturbation theory. A full numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr¨odinger equation (TDSE) for such strong-field problems is also impossible for more than two electrons. Hence, powerful time-dependent quantum many-body approaches need to be developed. Unfortunately, efficient methods such as time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) fail in reproducing experimental observations, in particular if strong correlations are involved. In TDDFT, the approximation not only lies in the so-called exchange correlation potential but also in the density functionals for the observables of interest. In fact, with just the single-particle density alone it is unclear how to calculate, e.g., multiple-ionization probabilities or photoelectron spectra, or, even worse, correlated photoelectron spectra, as measured in nowadays experiments. In general, the simple structure of the time-dependent many-body Schroedinger equation for a highly-dimensional many-body wavefunction can only be traded for more complicated equations of motion for simpler quantities. In this thesis, a theory is examined that goes one step beyond TDDFT as far as the complexity of the propagated quantity is concerned. In time-dependent renormalized natural orbital theory (TDRNOT), the basic quantities that are propagated in time are the eigenvalues and eigenstates of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM). The eigenstates are called natural orbitals (NOs), the eigenvalues are the corresponding occupation numbers (ONs). Compared to TDDFT, the knowledge of the NOs and the ONs relax the problem of calculating observables in practice because they can be used to construct the 1-RDM and the two-body reduced density matrix (2-RDM). After the derivation of the equations of motion for a combination of NOs and ONs, the so
Stochastic inflation as a time-dependent random walk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kandrup, H.E.
1989-01-01
This paper exploits the ''stochastic inflation'' paradigm introduced by Starobinskii to study the evolution of long-wavelength modes for a free scalar field Phi in an inflationary Universe. By relaxing the assumption of a ''slow roll,'' it becomes obvious that the well-known late-time infrared divergence of the vacuum for a massless field in de Sitter space may be viewed as a consequence of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. This stochastic model is also extended to allow for nonvacuum states and power-law inflation, situations where the fluctuation-dissipation theorem no longer holds. One recovers the correct late-time form for the expectation value 2 > in these cases as well, corroborating thereby the intuitive picture that, quite generally, the long-wavelength modes of the field evolve in a thermal ''bath'' provided by the shorter-wavelength modes
Variational extension of the time-dependent mean field approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flocard, H.
1989-01-01
We investigate an application of the variational principle of Balian and Veneroni for density operators and observables. Our choice for the trial spaces incorporates correlations in the density operator. It allows one to calculate the expectation values of both one-body and two-body observables. We derive a set of coupled equations which extends the TDHF formalism, and determines the evolution of the partition function, the one-body density and the second cumulant (it corresponds also to a truncation of the quantal counterpart of the BBKGY equations). By restricting further the trial space for the two-body observables, the variational principle generates simpler equations which still include the effects of a selected class of correlations on the evolution of the one-body density
Dittmann, Niklas; Splettstoesser, Janine; Helbig, Nicole
2018-03-01
We calculate the frequency-dependent equilibrium noise of a mesoscopic capacitor in time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT). The capacitor is modeled as a single-level quantum dot with on-site Coulomb interaction and tunnel coupling to a nearby reservoir. The noise spectra are derived from linear-response conductances via the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. Thereby, we analyze the performance of a recently derived exchange-correlation potential with time-nonlocal density dependence in the finite-frequency linear-response regime. We compare our TDDFT noise spectra with real-time perturbation theory and find excellent agreement for noise frequencies below the reservoir temperature.
Time-dependent wave-packet study of the direct low-energy dissociative recombination of HD+
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orel, A. E.
2000-01-01
Wave-packet methods involving the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation have been used with great success in the calculation of cross sections for dissociative recombination of molecular ions by electron impact in the high energy region where the ''boomerang'' model [L. Dube and A. Herzenberg, Phys. Rev. A 11, 1314 (1975)] is valid. We extend this method to study low-energy dissociative recombination where this approximation is no longer appropriate. We apply the method to the ''direct'' low-energy dissociative recombination of HD + . Our results are in excellent agreement with calculations using the multichannel quantum defect method. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Roosen, David; Wegewijs, Maarten R.; Hofstetter, Walter
2008-02-01
We investigate the time-dependent Kondo effect in a single-molecule magnet (SMM) strongly coupled to metallic electrodes. Describing the SMM by a Kondo model with large spin S>1/2, we analyze the underscreening of the local moment and the effect of anisotropy terms on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization. Underscreening by single-channel Kondo processes leads to a logarithmically slow relaxation, while finite uniaxial anisotropy causes a saturation of the SMM’s magnetization. Additional transverse anisotropy terms induce quantum spin tunneling and a pseudospin-1/2 Kondo effect sensitive to the spin parity.
Relativistic time-dependent Fermion-mass renormalization using statistical regularization
Kutnink, Timothy; McMurray, Christian; Santrach, Amelia; Hockett, Sarah; Barcus, Scott; Petridis, Athanasios
2017-09-01
The time-dependent electromagnetically self-coupled Dirac equation is solved numerically by means of the staggered-leap-frog algorithm with reflecting boundary conditions. The stability region of the method versus the interaction strength and the spatial-grid size over time-step ratio is established. The expectation values of several dynamic operators are then evaluated as functions of time. These include the fermion and electromagnetic energies and the fermion dynamic mass. There is a characteristic, non-exponential, oscillatory dependence leading to asymptotic constants of these expectation values. In the case of the fermion mass this amounts to renormalization. The dependence of the expectation values on the spatial-grid size is evaluated in detail. Furthermore, the contribution of positive and negative energy states to the asymptotic values and the gauge fields is analyzed. Statistical regularization, employing a canonical ensemble whose temperature is the inverse of the grid size, is used to remove the grid-size and momentum-dependence and produce a finite result in the continuum limit.
Canonical field quantization in an external time-dependent gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Il'yn, S.B.; Tagirov, E.A.
1975-01-01
The Green functions of the quantum scalar fiels interacting with gravitation of the homogeneous isotropic closed Universe are studied. They have been determined as an expectation value of the time-ordered product of two field operators in the cyclic states of various, in general, unitary-nonequivalent representations of canonical commutation relations. The reqularity properties of these functions are shown to be the same as of the Feynman propagator obtained for arbitrary Riemannian space-time only in the representations that from a class unitary equivalence
Nonperturbative Time Dependent Solution of a Simple Ionization Model
Costin, Ovidiu; Costin, Rodica D.; Lebowitz, Joel L.
2018-02-01
We present a non-perturbative solution of the Schrödinger equation {iψ_t(t,x)=-ψ_{xx}(t,x)-2(1 +α sinω t) δ(x)ψ(t,x)} , written in units in which \\hbar=2m=1, describing the ionization of a model atom by a parametric oscillating potential. This model has been studied extensively by many authors, including us. It has surprisingly many features in common with those observed in the ionization of real atoms and emission by solids, subjected to microwave or laser radiation. Here we use new mathematical methods to go beyond previous investigations and to provide a complete and rigorous analysis of this system. We obtain the Borel-resummed transseries (multi-instanton expansion) valid for all values of α, ω, t for the wave function, ionization probability, and energy distribution of the emitted electrons, the latter not studied previously for this model. We show that for large t and small α the energy distribution has sharp peaks at energies which are multiples of ω, corresponding to photon capture. We obtain small α expansions that converge for all t, unlike those of standard perturbation theory. We expect that our analysis will serve as a basis for treating more realistic systems revealing a form of universality in different emission processes.
Time-dependent density functional theory for multi-component systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tiecheng Li; Peiqing Tong
1985-10-01
The Runge-Gross version of Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham's density functional theory is generalized to multi-component systems, both for arbitrary time-dependent pure states and for arbitrary time-dependent ensembles. (author)
The time-dependent simplified P2 equations: Asymptotic analyses and numerical experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, U.; Miller, W.F. Jr.
1998-01-01
Using an asymptotic expansion, the authors found that the modified time-dependent simplified P 2 (SP 2 ) equations are robust, high-order, asymptotic approximations to the time-dependent transport equation in a physical regime in which the conventional time-dependent diffusion equation is the leading-order approximation. Using diffusion limit analysis, they also asymptotically compared three competitive time-dependent equations (the telegrapher's equation, the time-dependent SP 2 equations, and the time-dependent simplified even-parity equation). As a result, they found that the time-dependent SP 2 equations contain higher-order asymptotic approximations to the time-dependent transport equation than the other competitive equations. The numerical results confirm that, in the vast majority of cases, the time-dependent SP 2 solutions are significantly more accurate than the time-dependent diffusion and the telegrapher's solutions. They have also shown that the time-dependent SP 2 equations have excellent characteristics such as rotational invariance (which means no ray effect), good diffusion limit behavior, guaranteed positivity in diffusive regimes, and significant accuracy, even in deep-penetration problems. Through computer-running-time tests, they have shown that the time-dependent SP 2 equations can be solved with significantly less computational effort than the conventionally used, time-dependent S N equations (for N > 2) and almost as fast as the time-dependent diffusion equation. From all these results, they conclude that the time-dependent SP 2 equations should be considered as an important competitor for an improved approximately transport equations solver. Such computationally efficient time-dependent transport models are important for problems requiring enhanced computational efficiency, such as neutronics/fluid-dynamics coupled problems that arise in the analyses of hypothetical nuclear reactor accidents
Weinberg, Steven
2015-09-01
Preface; Notation; 1. Historical introduction; 2. Particle states in a central potential; 3. General principles of quantum mechanics; 4. Spin; 5. Approximations for energy eigenstates; 6. Approximations for time-dependent problems; 7. Potential scattering; 8. General scattering theory; 9. The canonical formalism; 10. Charged particles in electromagnetic fields; 11. The quantum theory of radiation; 12. Entanglement; Author index; Subject index.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sung Soo Kim
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We consider a discrete-time dependent Sparre Andersen risk model which incorporates multiple threshold levels characterizing an insurer’s minimal capital requirement, dividend paying situations, and external financial activities. We focus on the development of a recursive computational procedure to calculate the finite-time ruin probabilities and expected total discounted dividends paid prior to ruin associated with this model. We investigate several numerical examples and make some observations concerning the impact our threshold levels have on the finite-time ruin probabilities and expected total discounted dividends paid prior to ruin.
Ben-Asher, Anael; Moiseyev, Nimrod
2017-05-01
The appearance of oscillations in the energy-dependent cross sections of the vibrational excitation ν =0 →ν ≥3 of the hydrogen molecule in its electronic ground state as predicted by Mündel, Berman, and Domcke [Phys. Rev. A 32, 181 (1985)] was confirmed in the electron scattering experiments by Allan [J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 18, L451 (1985)]. These unusual structures were obtained in spite of the extremely short lifetime of H2- in its ro-vibrational states. Based on the standard (Hermitian) time-independent scattering calculations, Horáček et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 022701 (2006)] associated these oscillations with the boomerang effect. Here, we show the boomerang effect as developed in time, based on our time-dependent nuclear wavepacket (WP) calculations. The nuclear WP dynamics of H2- is determined using the non-Hermitian quantum mechanics (NH-QM) which enables the use of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation with complex potential energy surfaces. This NH-QM approach, which enables us the association of the nuclear WP dynamics as obtained from the complex potential energy curve of H2- with the evolution of cross section in time, can enlighten the dynamics in other scattering experiments.
To Rabi Hamiltonian through their Time Dependent Terms can be Reckons as Fractals
Rosary-Oyong, Se, Glory
2016-03-01
For light-matters interactions, ever replies by theLate HE. Mr. Prof M. Barmawi through Bose-Einstein condensates matter-waves ever retrieves [Boyce & DiPrima, 2015] instead of Richard Courant cq HE. Mr. Prof. Sudjoko Danusubroto's LKTM, Lustrum VI ITB, March 2, 1984. Follows ``Modified kernel to Quantum systems thorough Laplace inverse transformation'' whereas ``karyon'' in prokaryotes/eukaryotes meant as well as `kernel' , have been sought for `growth curve' & `potential of proton to other protons' the time dependent terms cos (ωt)exp[-iωot] whose integration y = sin ωt + c proves to be fractals h. 3 guided by Rabi Hamiltonian from Isidor Isaac Rabi,1944. Accompanying ``the Theory of Scale Relativity'' from Laurent Nottale/LUTH, the proofs of considerances whereas `time also are fractals', from Norways for Infra OMAN soughts a benchmark portfolio from Kjell Storvik, 2004: ``Socially Responsible Investment Strategies for the Norwegian Petroleum Fund'' whereas the Rabi frequency ? = 2 ɛ.deg/h can be relatively in comparisons expressed of capacitive [E.d/h]. Acknowledgment to HE. Mr. AUGUST PARENGKUAN if accepts 1995-2005 Invoicing & Fulfillments to ``KOMPAS'' cq the Prodi of Physics ITB.
Hilal, Rifaat
2017-06-19
We aim at providing better insight into the parameters that govern the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and photo-injection processes in dyes for dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSC). Density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) calculations are utilized to study the geometry, electronic structure, electrostatic potential (ESP) and absorption spectrum, for a representative donor-π bridge-acceptor (D–π–A) dye for DSSC. The coplanar geometry of the dye (D1) facilitates strong conjugation and considerable delocalization originating the π CT interaction from donor to acceptor orbitals and the hyper-conjugative interactions involving Rydberg states. A model simulating the adsorption of the dye on the TiO surface is utilized to estimate binding energies. The effect of fluorine substituents in the π-spacer on the quantum efficiency of DSSCs was investigated. Gibb’s free energy values, redox potentials, excited state lifetime, non-linear optical properties (NLO) and driving forces for D1 and its fluorinated derivatives were computed.
Time-dependent density functional methods for Raman spectra in open-shell systems.
Aquino, Fredy W; Schatz, George C
2014-01-16
We present an implementation of a time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) linear response module in NWChem for unrestricted DFT calculations and apply it to the calculation of resonant Raman spectra in open-shell molecular systems using the short-time approximation. The new source code was validated and applied to simulate Raman spectra on several doublet organic radicals (e.g., benzyl, benzosemiquinone, TMPD, trans-stilbene anion and cation, and methyl viologen) and the metal complex copper phthalocyanine. We also introduce a divide-and-conquer approach for the evaluation of polarizabilities in relatively large systems (e.g., copper phthalocyanine). The implemented tool gives comparisons with experiment that are similar to what is commonly found for closed-shell systems, with good agreement for most features except for small frequency shifts, and occasionally large deviations for some modes that depend on the molecular system studied, experimental conditions not being accounted in the modeling such as solvation effects and extra solvent-based peaks, and approximations in the underlying theory. The approximations used in the quantum chemical modeling include (i) choice of exchange-correlation functional and basis set; (ii) harmonic approximation used in the frequency analysis to determine vibrational normal modes; and (iii) short-time approximation (omission of nuclear motion effects) used in calculating resonant Raman spectra.
Efficient quantum circuit implementation of quantum walks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglas, B. L.; Wang, J. B.
2009-01-01
Quantum walks, being the quantum analog of classical random walks, are expected to provide a fruitful source of quantum algorithms. A few such algorithms have already been developed, including the 'glued trees' algorithm, which provides an exponential speedup over classical methods, relative to a particular quantum oracle. Here, we discuss the possibility of a quantum walk algorithm yielding such an exponential speedup over possible classical algorithms, without the use of an oracle. We provide examples of some highly symmetric graphs on which efficient quantum circuits implementing quantum walks can be constructed and discuss potential applications to quantum search for marked vertices along these graphs.
Rae, Alastair I M
2007-01-01
PREFACESINTRODUCTION The Photoelectric Effect The Compton Effect Line Spectra and Atomic Structure De Broglie Waves Wave-Particle Duality The Rest of This Book THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equation The Time-Independent Schrödinger Equation Boundary ConditionsThe Infinite Square Well The Finite Square Well Quantum Mechanical Tunneling The Harmonic Oscillator THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCHRÖDINGER EQUATIONS The Wave Equations Separation in Cartesian Coordinates Separation in Spherical Polar Coordinates The Hydrogenic Atom THE BASIC POSTULATES OF QUANTUM MEC
Attainable conditions and exact invariant for the time-dependent harmonic oscillator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guasti, Manuel Fernandez [Lab. de Optica Cuantica, Dep. de Fisica, Universidad A. Metropolitana, Unidad Iztapalapa, Mexico DF, Ap. Post. 55-534 (Mexico)
2006-09-22
The time-dependent oscillator equation is solved numerically for various trajectories in amplitude and phase variables. The solutions exhibit a finite time-dependent parameter whenever the squared amplitude times the derivative of the phase is invariant. If the invariant relationship does not hold, the time-dependent parameter has divergent singularities. These observations lead to the proposition that the harmonic oscillator equation with finite time-dependent parameter must have amplitude and phase solutions fulfilling the invariant relationship. Since the time-dependent parameter or the potential must be finite for any real oscillator implementation, the invariant must hold for any such physically realizable system.
Attainable conditions and exact invariant for the time-dependent harmonic oscillator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guasti, Manuel Fernandez
2006-01-01
The time-dependent oscillator equation is solved numerically for various trajectories in amplitude and phase variables. The solutions exhibit a finite time-dependent parameter whenever the squared amplitude times the derivative of the phase is invariant. If the invariant relationship does not hold, the time-dependent parameter has divergent singularities. These observations lead to the proposition that the harmonic oscillator equation with finite time-dependent parameter must have amplitude and phase solutions fulfilling the invariant relationship. Since the time-dependent parameter or the potential must be finite for any real oscillator implementation, the invariant must hold for any such physically realizable system
Constitutive modeling for uniaxial time-dependent ratcheting of SS304 stainless steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kan Qianhua; Kang Guozheng; Zhang Juan
2007-01-01
Based on the experimental results of uniaxial time-dependent ratcheting behavior of SS304 stainless steel at room temperature and 973K, a new time-dependent constitutive model was proposed. The model describes the time-dependent ratcheting by adding a static/thermal recovery into the Abdel-Karim-Ohno non-linear kinematic hardening rule. The capability of the model to describe the time-dependent ratcheting was discussed by comparing the simulations with the corresponding experimental results. It is shown that the revised unified viscoplastic model can simulate the time-dependent ratcheting reasonably both at room and high temperatures. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arvieu, R.; Carbonell, J.; Gignoux, C.; Mangin-Brinet, M. [Inst. des Sciences Nucleaires, Grenoble-1 Univ., 38 (France); Rozmej, P. [Uniwersytet Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin (Poland)
1997-12-31
The time evolution of coherent rotational wave packets associated to a diatomic molecule or to a deformed nucleus has been studied. Assuming a rigid body dynamics the J(J+1) law leads to a mechanism of cloning: the way function is divided into wave packets identical to the initial one at specific time. Applications are studied for a nuclear wave packed formed by Coulomb excitation. Exact boundary conditions at finite distance for the solution of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation are derived. A numerical scheme based on Crank-Nicholson method is proposed to illustrate its applicability in several examples. (authors) 3 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paula, H.M.
1984-01-01
The work presented here is of direct use in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and is of value to utilities as well as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Specifically, this report presents a methodology and a computer program to calculate the expected number of occurrences for each accident sequence in an event tree. The methodology evaluates the time-dependent (instantaneous) and the average behavior of the accident sequence. The methodology accounts for standby safety system and component failures that occur (a) before they are demanded, (b) upon demand, and (c) during the mission (system operation). With respect to failures that occur during the mission, this methodology is unique in the sense that it models components that can be repaired during the mission. The expected number of system failures during the mission provides an upper bound for the probability of a system failure to run - the mission unreliability. The basic event modeling includes components that are continuously monitored, periodically tested, and those that are not tested or are otherwise nonrepairable. The computer program ASA allows practical applications of the method developed. This work represents a required extension of the presently available methodology and allows a more realistic PRA of nuclear power plants
Time-Dependent Diffusion MRI in Cancer: Tissue Modeling and Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Olivier Reynaud
2017-11-01
estimation (i.e., fitting, potential solutions are detailed. The in vivo applications of this new, non-invasive, specific approach in cancer are reviewed, ranging from the characterization of gliomas in rodent brains and observation of time-dependence in breast tissue lesions and prostate cancer, to the recent preclinical evaluation of new treatments efficacy. It is expected that clinical applications of TDD will strongly benefit the community in terms of non-invasive cancer screening.
Time-dependent diffusion MRI in cancer: tissue modeling and applications
Reynaud, Olivier
2017-11-01
.e. fitting), potential solutions are detailed. The in vivo applications of this new, non-invasive, specific approach in cancer are reviewed, ranging from the characterization of gliomas in rodent brains and observation of time-dependence in breast tissue lesions and prostate cancer, to the recent preclinical evaluation of new treatments efficacy. It is expected that clinical applications of TDD will strongly benefit the community in terms of non-invasive cancer screening.
Two-electron Rabi oscillations in real-time time-dependent density-functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Habenicht, Bradley F.; Tani, Noriyuki P.; Provorse, Makenzie R.; Isborn, Christine M.
2014-01-01
We investigate the Rabi oscillations of electrons excited by an applied electric field in several simple molecular systems using time-dependent configuration interaction (TDCI) and real-time time-dependent density-functional theory (RT-TDDFT) dynamics. While the TDCI simulations exhibit the expected single-electron Rabi oscillations at a single resonant electric field frequency, Rabi oscillations in the RT-TDDFT simulations are a two-electron process. The existence of two-electron Rabi oscillations is determined both by full population inversion between field-free molecular orbitals and the behavior of the instantaneous dipole moment during the simulations. Furthermore, the Rabi oscillations in RT-TDDFT are subject to an intensity threshold of the electric field, below which Rabi oscillations do not occur and above which the two-electron Rabi oscillations occur at a broad range of frequencies. It is also shown that at field intensities near the threshold intensity, the field frequency predicted to induce Rabi oscillations by linear response TDDFT only produces detuned Rabi oscillations. Instead, the field frequency that yields the full two-electron population inversion and Rabi oscillation behavior is shown to be the average of single-electron transition frequencies from the ground S 0 state and the doubly-excited S 2 state. The behavior of the two-electron Rabi oscillations is rationalized via two possible models. The first model is a multi-photon process that results from the electric field interacting with the three level system such that three level Rabi oscillations may occur. The second model suggests that the mean-field nature of RT-TDDFT induces paired electron propagation
Jin, Jingyu; Song, Dongxing; Geng, Jiafeng; Jing, Dengwei
2018-02-01
Ferrofluids can exhibit the anisotropic thermodynamic properties under magnetic fields. The dynamic optical properties of ferrofluids in the presence of magnetic fields are of particular interest due to their potential application as various optical devices. Although time-dependent light scattering by ferrofluids have been extensively studied, the effect of wavelength of incident light have been rarely considered. Here, for the first time, we investigated both the time- and wavelength-dependent light scattering in water based ferrofluids containing Fe3O4 nanoparticles under an external magnetic field. The field-induced response behavior of the prepared ferrofluid samples was determined and verified first by thermal conductivity measurement and numerical simulation. Double-beam UV-Vis spectrophotometer was employed to record the temporal evolution of transmitted intensity of incident light of various wavelengths passing through the ferrofluid sample and propagating parallel to the applied field. As expected, the light intensity decreases to a certain value right after the field is turned on due to the thermal fluctuation induced disorder inside the flexible particle chains. Then the light intensity further decreases with time until the appearance of a minimum at time τ0 followed by an inversed increase before finally reaches equilibrium at a particular time. More importantly, the characteristic inversion time τ0 was found to follow a power law increase with the wavelength of incident light (τ0 ∼ λα, where α = 2.07). A quantitative explanation for the wavelength dependence of characteristic time was proposed based on the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The simulation results are in good agreement with our experimental observations. The time-dependent light scattering in ferrofluids under different incident wavelengths was rationalized by considering both the coarsening process of the particle chains and the occurrence of resonance within the
M≥7 Earthquake rupture forecast and time-dependent probability for the Sea of Marmara region, Turkey
Murru, Maura; Akinci, Aybige; Falcone, Guiseppe; Pucci, Stefano; Console, Rodolfo; Parsons, Thomas E.
2016-01-01
We forecast time-independent and time-dependent earthquake ruptures in the Marmara region of Turkey for the next 30 years using a new fault-segmentation model. We also augment time-dependent Brownian Passage Time (BPT) probability with static Coulomb stress changes (ΔCFF) from interacting faults. We calculate Mw > 6.5 probability from 26 individual fault sources in the Marmara region. We also consider a multisegment rupture model that allows higher-magnitude ruptures over some segments of the Northern branch of the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NNAF) beneath the Marmara Sea. A total of 10 different Mw=7.0 to Mw=8.0 multisegment ruptures are combined with the other regional faults at rates that balance the overall moment accumulation. We use Gaussian random distributions to treat parameter uncertainties (e.g., aperiodicity, maximum expected magnitude, slip rate, and consequently mean recurrence time) of the statistical distributions associated with each fault source. We then estimate uncertainties of the 30-year probability values for the next characteristic event obtained from three different models (Poisson, BPT, and BPT+ΔCFF) using a Monte Carlo procedure. The Gerede fault segment located at the eastern end of the Marmara region shows the highest 30-yr probability, with a Poisson value of 29%, and a time-dependent interaction probability of 48%. We find an aggregated 30-yr Poisson probability of M >7.3 earthquakes at Istanbul of 35%, which increases to 47% if time dependence and stress transfer are considered. We calculate a 2-fold probability gain (ratio time-dependent to time-independent) on the southern strands of the North Anatolian Fault Zone.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nash, Ulrik William
2014-01-01
, they are correlated among people who share environments because these individuals satisfice within their cognitive bounds by using cues in order of validity, as opposed to using cues arbitrarily. Any difference in expectations thereby arise from differences in cognitive ability, because two individuals with identical...... cognitive bounds will perceive business opportunities identically. In addition, because cues provide information about latent causal structures of the environment, changes in causality must be accompanied by changes in cognitive representations if adaptation is to be maintained. The concept of evolutionary......The concept of evolutionary expectations descends from cue learning psychology, synthesizing ideas on rational expectations with ideas on bounded rationality, to provide support for these ideas simultaneously. Evolutionary expectations are rational, but within cognitive bounds. Moreover...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karlson, Kristian Bernt
the role of causal inference in social science; and it discusses the potential of the findings of the dissertation to inform educational policy. In Chapters II and III, constituting the substantive contribution of the dissertation, I examine the process through which students form expectations...... of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...... for their educational futures. Focusing on the causes rather than the consequences of educational expectations, I argue that students shape their expectations in response to the signals about their academic performance they receive from institutionalized performance indicators in schools. Chapter II considers...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Menouar, Salah; Maamache, Mustapha; Choi, Jeong Ryeol
2010-01-01
The dynamics of the time-dependent coupled oscillator model for the motion of a charged particle subjected to a time-dependent external magnetic field is investigated. We use the canonical transformation approach for the classical treatment of the system, whereas the unitary transformation approach is used in managing the system in the framework of quantum mechanics. For both approaches, the original system is transformed into a much more simple system that is the sum of two independent harmonic oscillators with time-dependent frequencies. We therefore easily identify the wavefunctions in the transformed system with the help of an invariant operator of the system. The full wavefunctions in the original system are derived from the inverse unitary transformation of the wavefunctions associated with the transformed system.
Exact time-dependent exchange-correlation potentials for strong-field electron dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lein, Manfred; Kuemmel, Stephan
2005-01-01
By solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation and inverting the time-dependent Kohn-Sham scheme we obtain the exact time-dependent exchange-correlation potential of density-functional theory for the strong-field dynamics of a correlated system. We demonstrate that essential features of the exact exchange-correlation potential can be related to derivative discontinuities in stationary density-functional theory. Incorporating the discontinuity in a time-dependent density-functional calculation greatly improves the description of the ionization process
Numerical modelling of softwood time-dependent behaviour based on microstructure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engelund, Emil Tang
2010-01-01
The time-dependent mechanical behaviour of softwood such as creep or relaxation can be predicted, from knowledge of the microstructural arrangement of the cell wall, by applying deformation kinetics. This has been done several times before; however, often without considering the constraints defined...... by the basic physical mechanism behind the time-dependent behaviour. The mechanism causing time-dependency is thought to be sliding of the microfibrils past each other as a result breaking and re-bonding of hydrogen bonds. This can be incorporated in a numerical model by only allowing time-dependency in shear...
Modelling time-dependent mechanical behaviour of softwood using deformation kinetics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Engelund, Emil Tang; Svensson, Staffan
2010-01-01
The time-dependent mechanical behaviour (TDMB) of softwood is relevant, e.g., when wood is used as building material where the mechanical properties must be predicted for decades ahead. The established mathematical models should be able to predict the time-dependent behaviour. However, these models...... are not always based on the actual physical processes causing time-dependent behaviour and the physical interpretation of their input parameters is difficult. The present study describes the TDMB of a softwood tissue and its individual tracheids. A model is constructed with a local coordinate system that follows...... macroscopic viscoelasticity, i.e., the time-dependent processes are to a significant degree reversible....
Quantum symmetry in quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schomerus, V.
1993-02-01
Symmetry concepts have always been of great importance for physical problems like explicit calculations, classification or model building. More recently, new 'quantum symmetries' ((quasi) quantum groups) attracted much interest in quantum theory. It is shown that all these quantum symmetries permit a conventional formulation as symmetry in quantum mechanics. Symmetry transformations can act on the Hilbert space H of physical states such that the ground state is invariant and field operators transform covariantly. Models show that one must allow for 'truncation' in the tensor product of representations of a quantum symmetry. This means that the dimension of the tensor product of two representations of dimension σ 1 and σ 2 may be strictly smaller than σ 1 σ 2 . Consistency of the transformation law of field operators local braid relations leads us to expect, that (weak) quasi quantum groups are the most general symmetries in local quantum theory. The elements of the R-matrix which appears in these local braid relations turn out to be operators on H in general. It will be explained in detail how examples of field algebras with weak quasi quantum group symmetry can be obtained. Given a set of observable field with a finite number of superselection sectors, a quantum symmetry together with a complete set of covariant field operators which obey local braid relations are constructed. A covariant transformation law for adjoint fields is not automatic but will follow when the existence of an appropriate antipode is assumed. At the example of the chiral critical Ising model, non-uniqueness of the quantum symmetry will be demonstrated. Generalized quantum symmetries yield examples of gauge symmetries in non-commutative geometry. Quasi-quantum planes are introduced as the simplest examples of quasi-associative differential geometry. (Weak) quasi quantum groups can act on them by generalized derivations much as quantum groups do in non-commutative (differential-) geometry
Dickens, Charles
2005-01-01
One of Dickens's most renowned and enjoyable novels, Great Expectations tells the story of Pip, an orphan boy who wishes to transcend his humble origins and finds himself unexpectedly given the opportunity to live a life of wealth and respectability. Over the course of the tale, in which Pip
A time-dependent search for high-energy neutrinos from bright GRBs with ANTARES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Celli Silvia
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Astrophysical point-like neutrino sources, like Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs, are one of the main targets for neutrino telescopes, since they are among the best candidates for Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Ray (UHECR acceleration. From the interaction between the accelerated protons and the intense radiation fields of the source jet, charged mesons are produced, which then decay into neutrinos. The methods and the results of a search for high-energy neutrinos in spatial and temporal correlation with the detected gamma-ray emission are presented for four bright GRBs observed between 2008 and 2013: a time-dependent analysis, optimised for each flare of the selected bursts, is performed to predict detailed neutrino spectra. The internal shock scenario of the fireball model is investigated, relying on the neutrino spectra computed through the numerical code NeuCosmA. The analysis is optimized on a per burst basis, through the maximization of the signal discovery probability. Since no events in ANTARES data passed the optimised cuts, 90% C.L. upper limits are derived on the expected neutrino fluences.
Dynamic neutron depolarization system for the investigation of time dependent magnetic effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammer, J.; Badurek, G.; Rauch, H.
1978-01-01
To study magnetic after-effects in ferro- and superparamagnetic materials within a range of about 100 μs - 10s a so-called dynamic neutron depolarization system has been developed that is currently installed at the polarized beam facility of the TRIGA Mark II reactor, Vienna. It allows to measure the time dependence of the polarization change of an initially fully polarized neutron beam on its transmission through a sample exposed to a pulsed magnetic field. A split-pair coil mounted directly on the nitrogen shield of a specially designed helium/nitrogen bath cryostat can be energized up to a maximal induction of 0.25T at a slope of about 10 3 Ts -1 . Sample temperatures in the ranges of 4.2-15K and 77-120K can be established. In order to minimize eddy currents the coil suspension as well as the sample holder are sliced radially. The maximal repetition frequency of the field pulses is 100 Hz which is the upper limit of the multiscaler system we use for a synchronized registration of the beam polarization. First measurements are dealing with the superparamagnetic system Cu-1%Co where single domain cobalt precipitations are expected to give rise to relaxation phenomena well observable with this method. (author)