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Sample records for time tst sleep

  1. Total sleep time severely drops during adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Leger

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Restricted sleep duration among young adults and adolescents has been shown to increase the risk of morbidities such as obesity, diabetes or accidents. However there are few epidemiological studies on normal total sleep time (TST in representative groups of teen-agers which allow to get normative data. PURPOSE: To explore perceived total sleep time on schooldays (TSTS and non schooldays (TSTN and the prevalence of sleep initiating insomnia among a nationally representative sample of teenagers. METHODS: Data from 9,251 children aged 11 to 15 years-old, 50.7% of which were boys, as part of the cross-national study 2011 HBSC were analyzed. Self-completion questionnaires were administered in classrooms. An estimate of TSTS and TSTN (week-ends and vacations was calculated based on specifically designed sleep habits report. Sleep deprivation was estimated by a TSTN - TSTS difference >2 hours. Sleep initiating nsomnia was assessed according to International classification of sleep disorders (ICSD 2. Children who reported sleeping 7 hours or less per night were considered as short sleepers. RESULTS: A serious drop of TST was observed between 11 yo and 15 yo, both during the schooldays (9 hours 26 minutes vs. 7 h 55 min.; p<0.001 and at a lesser extent during week-ends (10 h 17 min. vs. 9 h 44 min.; p<0.001. Sleep deprivation concerned 16.0% of chidren aged of 11 yo vs. 40.5% of those of 15 yo (p<0.001. Too short sleep was reported by 2.6% of the 11 yo vs. 24.6% of the 15 yo (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Despite the obvious need for sleep in adolescence, TST drastically decreases with age among children from 11 to 15 yo which creates significant sleep debt increasing with age.

  2. Modulation of Total Sleep Time by Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frase, Lukas; Piosczyk, Hannah; Zittel, Sulamith; Jahn, Friederike; Selhausen, Peter; Krone, Lukas; Feige, Bernd; Mainberger, Florian; Maier, Jonathan G; Kuhn, Marion; Klöppel, Stefan; Normann, Claus; Sterr, Annette; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Riemann, Dieter; Nitsche, Michael A; Nissen, Christoph

    2016-09-01

    Arousal and sleep are fundamental physiological processes, and their modulation is of high clinical significance. This study tested the hypothesis that total sleep time (TST) in humans can be modulated by the non-invasive brain stimulation technique transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting a 'top-down' cortico-thalamic pathway of sleep-wake regulation. Nineteen healthy participants underwent a within-subject, repeated-measures protocol across five nights in the sleep laboratory with polysomnographic monitoring (adaptation, baseline, three experimental nights). tDCS was delivered via bi-frontal target electrodes and bi-parietal return electrodes before sleep (anodal 'activation', cathodal 'deactivation', and sham stimulation). Bi-frontal anodal stimulation significantly decreased TST, compared with cathodal and sham stimulation. This effect was location specific. Bi-frontal cathodal stimulation did not significantly increase TST, potentially due to ceiling effects in good sleepers. Exploratory resting-state EEG analyses before and after the tDCS protocols were consistent with the notion of increased cortical arousal after anodal stimulation and decreased cortical arousal after cathodal stimulation. The study provides proof-of-concept that TST can be decreased by non-invasive bi-frontal anodal tDCS in healthy humans. Further elucidating the 'top-down' pathway of sleep-wake regulation is expected to increase knowledge on the fundamentals of sleep-wake regulation and to contribute to the development of novel treatments for clinical conditions of disturbed arousal and sleep.

  3. TST, as a polysomnographic variable, is superior to the apnea hypopnea index for evaluating intermittent hypoxia in severe obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Zen, Hui-Qing; Lin, Qi-Chang; Chen, Gong-Ping; Chen, Li-Da; Chen, Hua

    2014-10-01

    The polysomnography (PSG) index of the apnea hypopnea index (AHI) is considered the 'gold standard' for stratifying the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, AHI cannot reflect the true characteristic of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), which may trigger systemic inflammation in some OSA patients. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is considered a biomarker of systemic inflammation in OSA patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between PSG variables and hsCRP in men with severe OSA. Men with severe OSA (AHI ≥ 30 events/h) diagnosed by PSG were enrolled. AHI and body mass index were matched between a high hsCRP group (hsCRP ≥ 3.0 mg/L) and a low hsCRP group. A blood sample was taken for serum hsCRP analysis. Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess independent predictors of high hsCRP. One hundred and fifty-two subjects were enrolled in the study (76 in each group). Mean serum hsCRP was 3.76 ± 2.13 mg/L. The mean percentage of total sleep time spent with SaO2 hypoxia variables.

  4. The Association of Daytime Maternal Napping and Exercise With Nighttime Sleep in First-Time Mothers Between 3 and 6 Months Postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillis, Teresa A; Hamilton, Nancy A; Pressman, Sarah D; Khou, Christina S

    2016-10-19

    This study investigated the relationship of daytime maternal napping, exercise, caffeine, and alcohol intake to objective and subjective sleep indices. Sixty healthy, nondepressed, first-time mothers between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Seven consecutive days of online behavior diaries, sleep diaries, and wrist actigraphy, collecting Total Sleep Time (TST), Sleep Onset Latency (SOL), and Wake After Sleep Onset (WASO). After controlling for infant age, employment status, infant feeding method, and infant sleeping location, mixed linear models showed that longer average exercise durations were associated with longer average TST, and longer average nap durations were associated with longer average WASO durations. Significant within-person differences in TST and SOL were also observed, such that, on days when participants exercised and napped longer than average, their respective TST and SOL durations that night were longer. Shorter nap durations and longer exercise durations were associated with longer TST, shorter SOL, and reduced WASO. Even small changes in daily exercise and napping behaviors could lead to reliable improvements in postpartum maternal sleep.

  5. Exercise to improve sleep in insomnia: exploration of the bidirectional effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Kelly Glazer; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C

    2013-08-15

    Exercise improves sleep quality, mood, and quality of life among older adults with insomnia. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the daily bidirectional relationships between exercise and sleep in a sample of women with insomnia. Participants included 11 women (age M = 61.27, SD 4.15) with insomnia who engaged in 30 min of aerobic exercise 3 times per week. Self-reported sleep quality was assessed at baseline and at 16 weeks. Sleep and exercise logs and wrist activity were collected continuously. Sleep variables included subjective sleep quality and objective measures recorded via wrist actigraphy (sleep onset latency [SOL], total sleep time [TST], sleep efficiency [SE], wake after sleep onset [WASO], and fragmentation index [FI]). Age, subjective sleep quality, TST, SOL, and physical fitness at baseline were tested as moderators of the daily effects. TST, SE, and self-reported global sleep quality improved from baseline to 16 weeks (p values exercise session duration (p exercise was not associated with subjective or objective sleep variables during the corresponding night. However, participants had shorter exercise duration following nights with longer SOL (p exercise duration (p exercise was stronger in participants who had shorter TST at baseline. Results suggest that sleep influences next day exercise rather than exercise influencing sleep. The relationship between TST and next day exercise was stronger for those with shorter TST at baseline. These results suggest that improving sleep may encourage exercise participation.

  6. Sleep restriction therapy for insomnia is associated with reduced objective total sleep time, increased daytime somnolence, and objectively impaired vigilance: implications for the clinical management of insomnia disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Simon D; Miller, Christopher B; Rogers, Zoe; Siriwardena, A Niroshan; Macmahon, Kenneth M; Espie, Colin A

    2014-02-01

    To investigate whether sleep restriction therapy (SRT) is associated with reduced objective total sleep time (TST), increased daytime somnolence, and impaired vigilance. Within-subject, noncontrolled treatment investigation. Sleep research laboratory. Sixteen patients [10 female, mean age = 47.1 (10.8) y] with well-defined psychophysiological insomnia (PI), reporting TST ≤ 6 h. Patients were treated with single-component SRT over a 4-w protocol, sleeping in the laboratory for 2 nights prior to treatment initiation and for 3 nights (SRT night 1, 8, 22) during the acute interventional phase. The psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) was completed at seven defined time points [day 0 (baseline), day 1,7,8,21,22 (acute treatment) and day 84 (3 mo)]. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was completed at baseline, w 1-4, and 3 mo. Subjective sleep outcomes and global insomnia severity significantly improved before and after SRT. There was, however, a robust decrease in PSG-defined TST during acute implementation of SRT, by an average of 91 min on night 1, 78 min on night 8, and 69 min on night 22, relative to baseline (P insomnia.

  7. The role of sleep in predicting college academic performance: is it a unique predictor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J; Vatthauer, Karlyn E; Bramoweth, Adam D; Ruggero, Camilo; Roane, Brandy

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the predictability of academic performance (i.e., cumulative grade point average [GPA]) using sleep when common nonsleep predictors of academic performance are included. This project studied psychological, demographic, educational, and sleep risk factors of decreased academic performance in college undergraduates. Participants (N = 867) completed a questionnaire packet and sleep diary. It was hypothesized that low total sleep time (TST), increased sleep onset latency, later bedtimes, later wake times, and TST inconsistency would predict decreased academic performance. The most significant predictors of academic performance were high school GPA, standardized test scores (i.e., SAT/ACT), TST, time awake before arising (TWAK), TST inconsistency, and the quadratic terms of perceived stress (PSS) and TST.

  8. Sleep/Wake Patterns and Parental Perceptions of Sleep in Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N.; Meltzer, Lisa J.; Tapia, Ignacio E.; Traylor, Joel; Nixon, Gillian M.; Horne, Rosemary S.C.; Doyle, Lex W.; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Mindell, Jodi A.; Marcus, Carole L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To compare sleep/wake patterns in children born preterm in Australia vs Canada and determine cultural differences in the relationship between parental perception of sleep and actual sleep behaviors. Methods: Australian and Canadian children born preterm were recruited from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial (n = 188, 5–12 y) and underwent 14 days actigraphy monitoring. Parents completed the National Sleep Foundation 2004 Sleep in America questionnaire. Cross-cultural differences in sleep characteristics assessed by actigraphy and parent-reported questionnaire were examined. Correlational analyses determined the associations between parental perceptions of child sleep need and sleep behavior. Results: Actigraphy showed preterm children obtained, on average, 8 h sleep/night, one hour less than population recommendations for their age. There was no difference in total sleep time (TST) between Australian and Canadian cohorts; however, bed and wake times were earlier in Australian children. Bedtimes and TST varied by 60 minutes from night to night in both cohorts. Parent-reported child TST on the National Sleep Foundation questionnaire was 90 minutes longer than recorded by actigraphy. Both bedtime and TST on weekdays and weekends were related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Australian cohort. Only TST on weekdays was related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Canadian cohort. Conclusions: This study suggests that short sleep duration and irregular sleep schedules are common in children born preterm. Cultural differences in the association between parental perception of child sleep need and actual sleep behaviors provide important targets for future sleep health education. Citation: Biggs SN, Meltzer LJ, Tapia IE, Traylor J, Nixon GM, Horne RS, Doyle LW, Asztalos E, Mindell JA, Marcus CL. Sleep/wake patterns and parental perceptions of sleep in children born preterm. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(5):711–717

  9. Sleep/Wake Patterns and Parental Perceptions of Sleep in Children Born Preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N; Meltzer, Lisa J; Tapia, Ignacio E; Traylor, Joel; Nixon, Gillian M; Horne, Rosemary S C; Doyle, Lex W; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Mindell, Jodi A; Marcus, Carole L

    2016-05-15

    To compare sleep/wake patterns in children born preterm in Australia vs Canada and determine cultural differences in the relationship between parental perception of sleep and actual sleep behaviors. Australian and Canadian children born preterm were recruited from the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity trial (n = 188, 5-12 y) and underwent 14 days actigraphy monitoring. Parents completed the National Sleep Foundation 2004 Sleep in America questionnaire. Cross-cultural differences in sleep characteristics assessed by actigraphy and parent-reported questionnaire were examined. Correlational analyses determined the associations between parental perceptions of child sleep need and sleep behavior. Actigraphy showed preterm children obtained, on average, 8 h sleep/night, one hour less than population recommendations for their age. There was no difference in total sleep time (TST) between Australian and Canadian cohorts; however, bed and wake times were earlier in Australian children. Bedtimes and TST varied by 60 minutes from night to night in both cohorts. Parent-reported child TST on the National Sleep Foundation questionnaire was 90 minutes longer than recorded by actigraphy. Both bedtime and TST on weekdays and weekends were related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Australian cohort. Only TST on weekdays was related to parental perception of child sleep need in the Canadian cohort. This study suggests that short sleep duration and irregular sleep schedules are common in children born preterm. Cultural differences in the association between parental perception of child sleep need and actual sleep behaviors provide important targets for future sleep health education. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  10. Subjective sleep complaints indicate objective sleep problems in psychosomatic patients: a prospective polysomnographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linden M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Michael Linden,1,2 Marie Dietz,1 Christian Veauthier,3 Ingo Fietze3 1Research Group Psychosomatic Rehabilitation, Charité University Medicine Berlin, 2Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Rehabilitation Centre Seehof, Teltow, 3Interdisciplinary Center of Sleep Medicine, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany Objective: To elucidate the relationship between subjective complaints and polysomnographical parameters in psychosomatic patients.Method: A convenience sample of patients from a psychosomatic inpatient unit were classified according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI as very poor sleepers (PSQI >10, n=80 and good sleepers (PSQI <6, n=19. They then underwent a polysomnography and in the morning rated their previous night’s sleep using a published protocol (Deutschen Gesellschaft für Schlafforschung und Schlafmedizin morning protocol [MP].Results: In the polysomnography, significant differences were found between very poor and good sleepers according to the PSQI with respect to sleep efficiency and time awake after sleep onset. When comparing objective PSG and subjective MP, the polysomnographical sleep onset latency was significantly positively correlated with the corresponding parameters of the MP: the subjective sleep onset latency in minutes and the subjective evaluation of sleep onset latency (very short, short, normal, long, very long were positively correlated with the sleep latency measured by polysomnography. The polysomnographical time awake after sleep onset (in minutes was positively correlated with the subjective time awake after sleep onset (in minutes, evaluation of time awake after sleep onset (seldom, normal often, and subjective restfulness. The polysomnographical total sleep time (TST was positively correlated with the subjective TST. Conversely, the polysomnographical TST was negatively correlated with the evaluation of TST (high polysomnographical TST was correlated with the subjective

  11. 5 CFR 551.432 - Sleep time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sleep time. 551.432 Section 551.432... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Hours of Work Special Situations § 551.432 Sleep time. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, bona fide sleep time that fulfills the following conditions shall...

  12. 29 CFR 553.222 - Sleep time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sleep time. 553.222 Section 553.222 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.222 Sleep time... enforcement personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude sleep time...

  13. AASM standards of practice compliant validation of actigraphic sleep analysis from SOMNOwatch(TM) versus polysomnographic sleep diagnostics shows high conformity also among subjects with sleep disordered breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, R; Schulz, J; Penzel, T; Fietze, I; Partinen, M; Hein, H

    2010-01-01

    In recent AASM practice, parameter actimetry is cited to measure total sleep time in obstructive sleep apnoea patients, when polysomnography is not available. An actigraph was therefore compared to polysomnographic data in 28 subjects with known sleep disordered breathing. Total sleep time (TST), sleep period time (SPT), sleep efficiency (SE), sustained sleep efficiency (SSE), sleep onset latency (SL) and sleep/wake pattern were compared to gold standard polysomnography. The results of an epoch-by-epoch comparison of sleep/wake from actigraphy to sleep stages from polysomnography gave a sensitivity of 90.2%, a specificity of 95.2% and an overall accuracy of 85.9%. Correlations were moderately strong for SE (0.71, p < 0.001) and SSE (0.65, p < 0.001) and high for TST (0.89, p < 0.001), SPT (0.91, p < 0.001) and SL (0.89, p < 0.001). It was concluded that actigraphy is not identical with PSG recording but gives good results in sleep/wake patterns and predicting TST, SPT, SSE, SE and SL also in sleep apnoea patients not suffering from other sleep disorders. The difficult detection of correct sleep onset causes SSE and SL to be less predictable. Therefore a 15-epoch criterion was introduced and resulted in high correlation of 0.89 for sleep latency, but has to be tested on a bigger population

  14. Reliability of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine Rules for Assessing Sleep Depth in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Magdy; Kuna, Samuel T; Pack, Allan I; Walsh, James K; Kushida, Clete A; Staley, Bethany; Pien, Grace W

    2018-02-15

    The American Academy of Sleep Medicine has published manuals for scoring polysomnograms that recommend time spent in non-rapid eye movement sleep stages (stage N1, N2, and N3 sleep) be reported. Given the well-established large interrater variability in scoring stage N1 and N3 sleep, we determined the range of time in stage N1 and N3 sleep scored by a large number of technologists when compared to reasonably estimated true values. Polysomnograms of 70 females were scored by 10 highly trained sleep technologists, two each from five different academic sleep laboratories. Range and confidence interval (CI = difference between the 5th and 95th percentiles) of the 10 times spent in stage N1 and N3 sleep assigned in each polysomnogram were determined. Average values of times spent in stage N1 and N3 sleep generated by the 10 technologists in each polysomnogram were considered representative of the true values for the individual polysomnogram. Accuracy of different technologists in estimating delta wave duration was determined by comparing their scores to digitally determined durations. The CI range of the ten N1 scores was 4 to 39 percent of total sleep time (% TST) in different polysomnograms (mean CI ± standard deviation = 11.1 ± 7.1 % TST). Corresponding range for N3 was 1 to 28 % TST (14.4 ± 6.1 % TST). For stage N1 and N3 sleep, very low or very high values were reported for virtually all polysomnograms by different technologists. Technologists varied widely in their assignment of stage N3 sleep, scoring that stage when the digitally determined time of delta waves ranged from 3 to 17 seconds. Manual scoring of non-rapid eye movement sleep stages is highly unreliable among highly trained, experienced technologists. Measures of sleep continuity and depth that are reliable and clinically relevant should be a focus of clinical research. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  15. (Mis)perception of Sleep in Insomnia: A Puzzle and a Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G.; Tang, Nicole K. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is prevalent, causing severe distress and impairment. This review focuses on illuminating the puzzling finding that many insomnia patients misperceive their sleep. They overestimate their sleep onset latency (SOL) and underestimate their total sleep time (TST), relative to objective measures. This tendency is ubiquitous (although not…

  16. Sleep Time: Media Hype vs. Diary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, William

    2011-01-01

    Sleep duration has figured into claims of two trends promoted recently as dysfunctional in the mass media. One is the observation that the population at large is sleeping less than before. The second is that the annual change from Standard Time to Daylight Savings (or summer) Time causes adverse effects, largely through the loss of an hour's…

  17. CERT TST December 2015 Visit Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, Robert Currier [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bailey, Teresa S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Gamblin, G. Todd [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Olinger, Chad Tracy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pautz, Shawn D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Williams, Alan B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-01-25

    The annual PSAAP II TST visit to Texas A&M’s CERT Center was held on December 1-3, 2015. The agenda for the visit is attached. Non-TAMU attendees were: TST Members – Teresa Bailey (LLNL), Todd Gamblin (LLNL), Bob Little (LANL) – Chair, Chad Olinger (LANL), Shawn Pautz (SNL), Alan Williams (SNL);Other Lab staff – Skip Kahler (LANL), Ana Kupresanin (LLNL), and Rob Lowrie (LANL); AST Members – Nelson Hoffman (LANL) and Bob Voigt (Leidos) The TST wishes to express our appreciation to all involved with CERT for the high-quality posters and presentations and for the attention to logistics that enabled a successful visit. We have broken our comments into four sections: (1) Kudos, (2) Recommendations, (3) Feedback on Priorities for April Review, and (4) Follow-Up Activities with Labs.

  18. The Role of Sleep in Predicting College Academic Performance: Is It A Unique Predictor?

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Daniel J.; Vatthauer, Karlyn E.; Bramoweth, Adam D.; Ruggero, Camilo; Roane, Brandy

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have looked at the predictability of academic performance (i.e., cumulative grade point average [GPA]) using sleep when common nonsleep predictors of academic performance are included. The present project studied psychological, demographic, educational, and sleep risk factors of decreased academic performance in college undergraduates. Subjects (N = 867) completed a questionnaire packet and sleep diary. It was hypothesized that low total sleep time (TST), increased sleep onset lat...

  19. Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances...... in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. METHODS: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis....... RESULTS: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high...

  20. Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, X.; Arends, J.B.A.M.; Aarts, R.M.; Haakma, R.; Fonseca, P.; Rolink, J.

    2015-01-01

    Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by

  1. Sleep Misperception in Chronic Insomnia Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Implications for Clinical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Su Jung; Suh, Sooyeon; Ong, Jason; Joo, Eun Yeon

    2016-11-15

    To investigate whether sleep perception (SP), defined by the ratio of subjective and objective total sleep time, and habitual sleep time in various sleep disorders may be based on comorbid insomnia status. We enrolled 420 patients (age 20-79 y) who underwent polysomnography (PSG). They were divided into three groups based on chief complaints: chronic insomnia (CI, n = 69), patients with both obstructive sleep apnea and insomnia (OSA-I, n = 49) or OSA only (OSA, n = 149). Healthy volunteers were also recruited (normal controls [NC], n = 80). We compared differences in PSG parameters and habitual sleep duration and investigated the discrepancy between objective and subjective total sleep time (TST) and sleep latency among four groups. Subjective TST was defined as sleep time perceived by participants the next morning of PSG. SP for TST was highest in the OSA group (median 92.9%), and lowest in the CI group (80.3%). SP of the NC group (91.4%) was higher than the CI, but there was no difference between OSA-I and OSA groups. OSA-I had higher depressive mood compared to the OSA group (p insomnia and arousal index of PSG. Insomnia patients with (OSA-I) or without OSA (CI) reported the smallest discrepancy between habitual sleep duration and objective TST. Patients with OSA with or without insomnia have different PSG profiles, which suggests that objective measures of sleep are an important consideration for differentiating subtypes of insomnia and tailoring proper treatment. A commentary on this articles appears in this issue on page 1437. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  2. Effects of a 2-Week High-Intensity Training Camp on Sleep Activity of Professional Rugby League Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Pitchford, Nathan W; Delaney, Jace A; Benton, Dean T; Dascombe, Ben J

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the effects of a training camp on the sleep characteristics of professional rugby league players compared with a home period. During a 7-d home and 13-d camp period, time in bed (TIB), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), and wake after sleep onset were measured using wristwatch actigraphy. Subjective wellness and training loads (TL) were also collected. Differences in sleep and TL between the 2 periods and the effect of daytime naps on nighttime sleep were examined using linear mixed models. Pearson correlations assessed the relationship of changes in TL on individuals' TST. During the training camp, TST (-85 min), TIB (-53 min), and SE (-8%) were reduced compared with home. Those who undertook daytime naps showed increased TIB (+33 min), TST (+30 min), and SE (+0.9%). Increases in daily total distance and training duration above individual baseline means during the training camp shared moderate (r = -.31) and trivial (r = -.04) negative relationships with TST. Sleep quality and quantity may be compromised during training camps; however, daytime naps may be beneficial for athletes due to their known benefits, without being detrimental to nighttime sleep.

  3. The suprachiasmatic nucleus regulates sleep timing and amount in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Easton, Amy; Meerlo, Peter; Bergmann, Bernard; Turek, Fred W.

    2004-01-01

    Context: Sleep is regulated by circadian and homeostatic processes. The circadian pacemaker, located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), regulates the timing and consolidation of the sleep-wake cycle, while a homeostatic mechanism governs the accumulation of sleep debt and sleep, recovery. Recent

  4. Effect of Daytime Exercise on Sleep Eeg and Subjective Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Y.; Kawada, T.; Kiryu, Y.

    1997-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of daytime physical exercise on the quality of objective and subjective sleep by examining all-night sleep EEGs. The subjects were five male students, aged 19 to 20 years, who were in the habit of performing regular daytime exercise. The sleep polygraphic parameters in this study were sleep stage time as a percentage of total sleep time (%S1, %S2, %S(3+4), %SREM, %MT), time in bed (TIB), sleep time (ST), total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), waking from sleep, sleep efficiency, number of awakenings, number of stage shifts, number of spindles, and percentages of α and δ waves, all of which were determined by an automatic computer analysis system. The OSA questionnaire was used to investigate subjective sleep. The five scales of the OSA used were sleepiness, sleep maintenance, worry, integrated sleep feeling, and sleep initiation. Each sleep parameter was compared in the exercise and the non-exercise groups. Two-way analysis of variance was applied using subject factor and exercise factor. The main effect of the subject was significant in all parameters and the main effect of exercise in %S(3+4), SOL and sleep efficiency, among the objective sleep parameters. The main effects of the subject, except sleepiness, were significant, as was the main effect of exercise on sleep initiation, among the subjective sleep parameters. These findings suggest that daytime exercise shortened sleep latency and prolonged slow-wave sleep, and that the subjects fell asleep more easily on exercise days. There were also significant individual differences in both the objective and subjective sleep parameters.

  5. School Start Time and Teen Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2000-01-01

    Sleep studies have shown that teenagers' internal clocks are incompatible with most high schools' early hours. Research in two Minnesota districts indicates that later school starting times can benefit teens and everyone dealing with them. Student participation in sports and other afterschool activities remained high. (MLH)

  6. Electronic Media Use and Sleep Among Preschoolers: Evidence for Time-Shifted and Less Consolidated Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyens, Ine; Nathanson, Amy I

    2018-01-11

    This study examined the association between electronic media use and sleep among preschoolers, using a national sample of 402 mothers of 3- to 5-year-olds. Participants completed an online survey assessing preschoolers' electronic media use, bedtime and wake time, sleep time, napping behaviors, and sleep consolidation. Results showed that heavier television use and tablet use, both overall and in the evening, were associated with later bedtimes and later wake times, but not with fewer hours of sleep, providing evidence for a time-shifting process. In addition, heavier daily television use and evening smartphone use were associated with increased daytime napping. Moreover, heavier daily television use, daily and evening smartphone use, and evening tablet use were associated with poorer sleep consolidation, suggesting less mature sleep patterns. These findings indicate that media effects on the timing of sleep and the proportion of sleep that occurs at night are important to consider when assessing the health risks of electronic media on children.

  7. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Korzyukov, Oleg; Roth, Thomas; Bowyer, Susan M; Drake, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP)--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS) (habitual total sleep time (TST) 7 h 32 m) vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS) (habitual TST ≤6 h). To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m) corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS), and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m) in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS), were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep), and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively). The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  8. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Gumenyuk

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS (habitual total sleep time (TST 7 h 32 m vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS (habitual TST ≤6 h. To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS, and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS, were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep, and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively. The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  9. EEG Changes across Multiple Nights of Sleep Restriction and Recovery in Adolescents: The Need for Sleep Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Ju Lynn; Lo, June C; Gooley, Joshua J; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-06-01

    To investigate sleep EEG changes in adolescents across 7 nights of sleep restriction to 5 h time in bed [TIB]) and 3 recovery nights of 9 h TIB. A parallel-group design, quasi-laboratory study was conducted in a boarding school. Fifty-five healthy adolescents (25 males, age = 15-19 y) who reported habitual TIBs of approximately 6 h on week nights (group average) but extended their sleep on weekends were randomly assigned to Sleep Restriction (SR) or Control groups. Participants underwent a 2-week protocol comprising 3 baseline nights (TIB = 9 h), 7 nights of sleep opportunity manipulation (TIB = 5 h for the SR and 9 h for the Control group), and 3 nights of recovery sleep (TIB = 9 h). Polysomnography was obtained on two baseline, three manipulation, and two recovery nights. Across the sleep restriction nights, total SWS duration was preserved relative to the 9 h baseline sleep opportunity, while other sleep stages were reduced. Considering only the first 5 h of sleep opportunity, SR participants had reduced N1 duration and wake after sleep onset (WASO), and increased total sleep time (TST), rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and slow wave sleep (SWS) relative to baseline. Total REM sleep, N2, and TST duration remained above baseline levels by the third recovery sleep episode. In spite of preservation of SWS duration over multiple nights of sleep restriction, adolescents accustomed to curtailing nocturnal sleep on school day nights evidence residual effects on sleep macro-structure, even after three nights of recovery sleep. Older teenagers may not be as resilient to successive nights of sleep restriction as is commonly believed. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. The Timing of Sleep in Depression : Theoretical Considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beersma, Domien G.M.; Daan, Serge; Hoofdakker, Rutger H. van den

    1985-01-01

    Endogenously depressed subjects frequently show severe sleep problems. In this article sleep time in depression is discussed in relation to a recently developed model for sleep timing in healthy subjects. In terms of the model, two parameter sets survive a qualitative comparison with the empirical

  11. Time delay between cardiac and brain activity during sleep transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Xi; Arends, Johan B.; Aarts, Ronald M.; Haakma, Reinder; Fonseca, Pedro; Rolink, Jérôme

    2015-04-01

    Human sleep consists of wake, rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep, and non-REM (NREM) sleep that includes light and deep sleep stages. This work investigated the time delay between changes of cardiac and brain activity for sleep transitions. Here, the brain activity was quantified by electroencephalographic (EEG) mean frequency and the cardiac parameters included heart rate, standard deviation of heartbeat intervals, and their low- and high-frequency spectral powers. Using a cross-correlation analysis, we found that the cardiac variations during wake-sleep and NREM sleep transitions preceded the EEG changes by 1-3 min but this was not the case for REM sleep transitions. These important findings can be further used to predict the onset and ending of some sleep stages in an early manner.

  12. Mid-Treatment Sleep Duration Predicts Clinically Significant Knee Osteoarthritis Pain reduction at 6 months: Effects From a Behavioral Sleep Medicine Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salwen, Jessica K; Smith, Michael T; Finan, Patrick H

    2017-02-01

    To determine the relative influence of sleep continuity (sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, total sleep time [TST], and wake after sleep onset) on clinical pain outcomes within a trial of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) for patients with comorbid knee osteoarthritis and insomnia. Secondary analyses were performed on data from 74 patients with comorbid insomnia and knee osteoarthritis who completed a randomized clinical trial of 8-session multicomponent CBT-I versus an active behavioral desensitization control condition (BD), including a 6-month follow-up assessment. Data used herein include daily diaries of sleep parameters, actigraphy data, and self-report questionnaires administered at specific time points. Patients who reported at least 30% improvement in self-reported pain from baseline to 6-month follow-up were considered responders (N = 31). Pain responders and nonresponders did not differ significantly at baseline across any sleep continuity measures. At mid-treatment, only TST predicted pain response via t tests and logistic regression, whereas other measures of sleep continuity were nonsignificant. Recursive partitioning analyses identified a minimum cut-point of 382 min of TST achieved at mid-treatment in order to best predict pain improvements 6-month posttreatment. Actigraphy results followed the same pattern as daily diary-based results. Clinically significant pain reductions in response to both CBT-I and BD were optimally predicted by achieving approximately 6.5 hr sleep duration by mid-treatment. Thus, tailoring interventions to increase TST early in treatment may be an effective strategy to promote long-term pain reductions. More comprehensive research on components of behavioral sleep medicine treatments that contribute to pain response is warranted. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Time, not sleep, unbinds contexts from item memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Cox

    Full Text Available Contextual cues are known to benefit memory retrieval, but whether and how sleep affects this context effect remains unresolved. We manipulated contextual congruence during memory retrieval in human volunteers across 12 h and 24 h intervals beginning with either sleep or wakefulness. Our data suggest that whereas contextual cues lose their potency with time, sleep does not modulate this process. Furthermore, our results are consistent with the idea that sleep's beneficial effect on memory retention depends on the amount of waking time that has passed between encoding and sleep onset. The findings are discussed in the framework of competitive consolidation theory.

  14. The multiple time scales of sleep dynamics as a challenge for modelling the sleeping brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbrich, Eckehard; Claussen, Jens Christian; Achermann, Peter

    2011-10-13

    A particular property of the sleeping brain is that it exhibits dynamics on very different time scales ranging from the typical sleep oscillations such as sleep spindles and slow waves that can be observed in electroencephalogram (EEG) segments of several seconds duration over the transitions between the different sleep stages on a time scale of minutes to the dynamical processes involved in sleep regulation with typical time constants in the range of hours. There is an increasing body of work on mathematical and computational models addressing these different dynamics, however, usually considering only processes on a single time scale. In this paper, we review and present a new analysis of the dynamics of human sleep EEG at the different time scales and relate the findings to recent modelling efforts pointing out both the achievements and remaining challenges.

  15. Expiratory timing in obstructive sleep apnoeas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibella, F; Marrone, O; Sanci, S; Bellia, V; Bonsignore, G

    1990-03-01

    Diaphragmatic electromyogram was recorded during NREM sleep in 4 patients affected by obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) syndrome in order to evaluate the behaviour of expiratory time (TE) in the course of the obstructive apnoea-ventilation cycle. The two components of TE, i.e. time of post-inspiratory inspiratory activity (TPIIA) and time of expiratory phase 2 (TE2) were separately analysed. TPIIA showed a short duration, with only minor variations, within the apnoea, while its duration was more variable and longer in the interapnoeic periods: the longest TPIIA values were associated with the highest inspiratory volumes in the same breaths. This behaviour seemed regulated according to the need of a more or less effective expiratory flow braking, probably as a result of pulmonary stretch receptors discharge. Conversely TE2 showed a continuous gradual modulation, progressively increasing in the pre-apnoeic period, decreasing during the apnoea and increasing in the post-apnoeic period: these TE2 variations seemed related to oscillations in chemical drive. These data show that TE in the obstructive apnoea-ventilation cycle results from a different modulation in its two components and suggest that both mechanical and chemical influences play a role in its overall duration.

  16. Subjectively and objectively measured sleep with and without posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ihori; Huntley, Edward; Lavela, Joseph; Mellman, Thomas A

    2012-07-01

    Although reports of sleep disturbances are common among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), results of polysomnographic (PSG) studies have inconsistently documented abnormalities and have therefore suggested "sleep state misperception." The authors' study objectives were to compare sleep parameters measured objectively and subjectively in the laboratory and at home in civilians with and without trauma exposure and PTSD. Cross-sectional study. PSG recordings in a sleep laboratory and actigraphic recordings in participants' homes. One hundred three urban-residing African Americans with and without trauma exposure and PTSD who participated in a larger study. N/A. Sleep parameters (total sleep time [TST], sleep onset latency [SOL], and wake after sleep onset [WASO]) were assessed using laboratory PSG and home actigraphy. A sleep diary was completed in the morning after PSG and actigraphy recordings. Habitual TST, SOL, and WASO were assessed using a sleep questionnaire. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale was administered to assess participants' trauma exposure and PTSD diagnostic status. Participants, regardless of their trauma exposure/PTSD status, underestimated WASO in the diary and questionnaire relative to actigraphy and overestimated SOL in the diary relative to PSG. Among participants with current PTSD, TST diary estimates did not differ from the actigraphy measure in contrast with those without current PTSD who overestimated TST. No other significant group differences in discrepancies between subjective and objective sleep measures were found. Discrepancies between subjectively and objectively measured sleep parameters were not associated with trauma exposure or PTSD. This challenges prior assertions that individuals with PTSD overreport their sleep disturbances.

  17. Sleep Deprivation and Time-Based Prospective Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria José; Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, PierCarla

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on time-based prospective memory performance, that is, realizing delayed intentions at an appropriate time in the future (e.g., to take a medicine in 30 minutes). Between-subjects experimental design. The experimental group underwent 24 h of total sleep deprivation, and the control group had a regular sleep-wake cycle. Participants were tested at 08:00. Laboratory. Fifty healthy young adults (mean age 22 ± 2.1, 31 female). 24 h of total sleep deprivation. Participants were monitored by wrist actigraphy for 3 days before the experimental session. The following cognitive tasks were administered: one time-based prospective memory task and 3 reasoning tasks as ongoing activity. Objective and subjective vigilance was assessed by the psychomotor vigilance task and a visual analog scale, respectively. To measure the time-based prospective memory task we assessed compliance and clock checking behavior (time monitoring). Sleep deprivation negatively affected time-based prospective memory compliance (P sleep deprivation on human behavior, particularly the ability to perform an intended action after a few minutes. Sleep deprivation strongly compromises time-based prospective memory compliance but does not affect time check frequency. Sleep deprivation may impair the mechanism that allows the integration of information related to time monitoring with the prospective intention. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Validation of Contact-Free Sleep Monitoring Device with Comparison to Polysomnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Asher; Shinar, Zvika; Shaki, David; Codish, Shlomi; Goldbart, Aviv

    2017-03-15

    To validate a contact-free system designed to achieve maximal comfort during long-term sleep monitoring, together with high monitoring accuracy. We used a contact-free monitoring system (EarlySense, Ltd., Israel), comprising an under-the-mattress piezoelectric sensor and a smartphone application, to collect vital signs and analyze sleep. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), body movement, and calculated sleep-related parameters from the EarlySense (ES) sensor were compared to data simultaneously generated by the gold standard, polysomnography (PSG). Subjects in the sleep laboratory underwent overnight technician-attended full PSG, whereas subjects at home were recorded for 1 to 3 nights with portable partial PSG devices. Data were compared epoch by epoch. A total of 63 subjects (85 nights) were recorded under a variety of sleep conditions. Compared to PSG, the contact-free system showed similar values for average total sleep time (TST), % wake, % rapid eye movement, and % non-rapid eye movement sleep, with 96.1% and 93.3% accuracy of continuous measurement of HR and RR, respectively. We found a linear correlation between TST measured by the sensor and TST determined by PSG, with a coefficient of 0.98 (R = 0.87). Epoch-by-epoch comparison with PSG in the sleep laboratory setting revealed that the system showed sleep detection sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 92.5%, 80.4%, and 90.5%, respectively. TST estimates with the contact-free sleep monitoring system were closely correlated with the gold-standard reference. This system shows good sleep staging capability with improved performance over accelerometer-based apps, and collects additional physiological information on heart rate and respiratory rate. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  19. The sleep architecture of Saudi Arabian patients with Kleine-Levin syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shareef, Saad M.; Almeneessier, Aljohara S.; Hammad, Omeima; Smith, Richard M.; BaHammam, Ahmed S.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To establish baseline sleep architecture during an acute attack of Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) in a cohort of Saudi Arabian KLS patients and compare these characteristics with other published cohorts. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study of the polysomnographic characteristics of 10 typical symptomatic Saudi Arabian KLS patients attending the University Sleep Disorders Center, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between 2002 and 2015. Data were captured by nocturnal polysomnography during an acute attack of hypersomnia and compared with other published cohorts identified via a systematic literature search. Results: Self-reported time asleep during episodes (11.1±6.7 hours) and recorded total sleep time (TST) (322.5±108.7 minutes) were generally shorter than other published cohorts. Sleep efficiency was poor at 75.0%±25.1%, with low relative amounts of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep (16.5±5.9% of TST) and deep non-REM sleep (stage N3; 10.5±6.0% of TST) and high relative amounts of non-REM sleep (stage N1; 7.0±4.3% of TST). The sleep architecture of Saudi Arabian KLS patients was similar to other published cohorts. Conclusions: Sleep architecture of our cohort was relatively normal and broadly similar to other published studies, the main features being low sleep efficiency and low relative amounts of REM and stage N3 sleep. Time-course polysomnography studies with functional imaging may be useful to further establish the exact pathophysiology of this disease. PMID:29332107

  20. Correlates of adolescent sleep time and variability in sleep time: the role of individual and health related characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Melisa; Kirchner, H Lester; Drotar, Dennis; Johnson, Nathan; Rosen, Carol; Redline, Susan

    2011-03-01

    Adolescents are predisposed to short sleep duration and irregular sleep patterns due to certain host characteristics (e.g., age, pubertal status, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, and neighborhood distress) and health-related variables (e.g., ADHD, asthma, birth weight, and BMI). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between such variables and actigraphic measures of sleep duration and variability. Cross-sectional study of 247 adolescents (48.5% female, 54.3% ethnic minority, mean age of 13.7years) involved in a larger community-based cohort study. Significant univariate predictors of sleep duration included gender, minority ethnicity, neighborhood distress, parent income, and BMI. In multivariate models, gender, minority status, and BMI were significantly associated with sleep duration (all pminority adolescents, and those of a lower BMI obtaining more sleep. Univariate models demonstrated that age, minority ethnicity, neighborhood distress, parent education, parent income, pubertal status, and BMI were significantly related to variability in total sleep time. In the multivariate model, age, minority status, and BMI were significantly related to variability in total sleep time (all pminority adolescents, and those of a lower BMI obtaining more regular sleep. These data show differences in sleep patterns in population sub-groups of adolescents which may be important in understanding pediatric health risk profiles. Sub-groups that may particularly benefit from interventions aimed at improving sleep patterns include boys, overweight, and minority adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Later Start, Longer Sleep: Implications of Middle School Start Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Deborah A.; Princiotta, Daniel; Ryberg, Renee; Lewin, Daniel S.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Although adolescents generally get less than the recommended 9 hours of sleep per night, research and effort to delay school start times have generally focused on high schools. This study assesses the relation between school start times and sleep in middle school students while accounting for potentially confounding demographic…

  2. Sleep to the beat : A nap favours consolidation of timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, Ilse M; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Van Someren, Eus J W; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D

    Growing evidence suggests that sleep is important for procedural learning, but few studies have investigated the effect of sleep on the temporal aspects of motor skill learning. We assessed the effect of a 90-min day-time nap on learning a motor timing task, using 2 adaptations of a serial

  3. Sleep and delirium in unsedated patients in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, H C; Andersen, J H; Bendtsen, A O

    2016-01-01

    . Delirium assessment was done using the confusion assessment method for the intensive care unit (CAM-ICU). RESULTS: Of four patients who were delirium free, only one had identifiable sleep on PSG. Sleep was disrupted with loss of circadian rhythm, and diminished REM sleep. In the remaining three patients...... the PSGs were atypical, meaning that no sleep signs were found, and sleep could not be quantified from the PSGs. Clinical total sleep time (ClinTST) ranged from 2.0-13.1 h in patients without delirium. Six patients with delirium all had atypical PSGs, so sleep could not be quantified. Short periods of REM......BACKGROUND: Sleep deprivation and delirium are major problems in the ICU. We aimed to assess the sleep quality by polysomnography (PSG) in relation to delirium in mechanically ventilated non-sedated ICU patients. METHODS: Interpretation of 24-h PSG and clinical sleep assessment in 14 patients...

  4. Shift work, night work and sleep disorders among pastry cookers and shopkeepers in France: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Emilie; Gillet, Pascal; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Thaon, Isabelle; Chennaoui, Mounir; Leger, Damien

    2018-05-09

    Most research on night and shift work focuses on employee health in large companies, primarily in the healthcare and transportation sectors. However, many night workers work on their own or in small businesses related to services or food. This survey focuses on sleep habits and disorders concerning night work in pastry production and sales. An epidemiological telephone cross-sectional survey of night shift workers and their sleep habits was proposed to all employers and employees in the French pastry industry via their insurance health prevention company. Sleep logs allow us to estimate the total sleep time (TST) on workdays and enquire on napping episodes and length. In order to estimate the ideal TST, we added a question on the ideal amount of sleep the subjects need to be in good shape in the morning. We also define sleep debt as the difference between the ideal TST and TST on workdays, and considered a sleep debt when the difference was above 60 min and severe sleep debt above 90 min. Finally we retained subjects as long sleepers for those with a TSTof more than 7 hours and short sleepers when TST was under 5 hours. Insomnia, sleepiness and sleep apnoea have been defined based on the International Classification of Sleep Disorders-Third Edition and the classification of mental disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition). Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to investigate the association with short TST, long TST, sleep debt and napping. We analysed 2622 complete questionnaires from 1313 men and 1309 women aged 22-50 years old. 1397 workers began work before 07:00, whereas 1225 began later. The 24-hour TST was 6.7±1.4 hours, whereas the ideal TST was 7.0±1.2 hours. Severe sleep debt (>90 min) was reported by 6% women versus 5% men, whereas moderate sleep debt (>60 min) was reported by 11.5% women versus 9.3% men. Napping is one way to improve 24-hour TST for 58% of pastry

  5. Association of insomnia and short sleep duration with atherosclerosis risk in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazaki, Chie; Noda, Akiko; Koike, Yasuo; Yamada, Sumio; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-11-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, although a relationship with atherosclerosis in the elderly remains unclear. Eighty-six volunteers aged ≥65 years (mean, 73.6 ± 4.9 years) were evaluated for insomnia. Total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency were measured by actigraphy. Subjective symptoms were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Atherosclerosis was evaluated using ultrasonographic measurements of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). IMT was significantly greater and sleep efficiency was significantly lower in subjects with TST ≤5 h than those with TST >7 h (1.3 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 mm; P = 0.009; 91.0 ± 6.0 vs. 81.6 ± 11.3%, P = 0.03, respectively). IMT was also significantly greater in the insomnia group than the noninsomnia group (1.3 ± 0.5 vs. 1.1 ± 0.4 mm; P = 0.03). IMT was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and TST (SBP: r = 0.49, P insomnia were associated with atherosclerosis risk leading to cardiovascular disease in the elderly.

  6. Sleep duration and cancer risk: time to use a "sleep-years" index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erren, Thomas C

    2012-09-01

    With a focus on melatonin, a recent paper in the Journal investigated the hypothesis that endometrial cancer might be associated with the duration, and ultimately, amount of sleep. The authors found that "[s]elf-reported sleep duration may not adequately represent melatonin levels." The authors also concluded that there was "weak evidence of an association between sleep duration and endometrial cancer risk." Overall, these are interesting observations because primarily experimental and mechanistic research from many angles supports the study's notion that inappropriate sleep may be a determinant of cancer risk. To find out whether this is so in man, rather than assigning study individuals to fixed or average "baseline sleep categories" i.e., ≤5, 6, 7, 8, ≥9 h of habitual sleep in the present study, the accumulated amount of sleep over decades should be reconstructed in retrospective or constructed in prospective studies. To achieve this end, future epidemiological studies may want to use a sleep-years index [SYI]. This simple exposure parameter promises to be a sensible, feasible, and affordable way to approximate cumulative time spent at sleep in critical time windows over many years which we should expect to be relevant for the development of cancer. The SYI could be tested and used in observational studies which promise to be comparable and can be merged. This commentary provides roots of the index and explains why and how it should be used and how it could be interpreted in rigorous studies of biologically plausible links between sleep, on the one hand, and the development of internal cancers, on the other. This commentary also points out limitations of interpreting the SYI. It is emphasized that, where possible, the SYI should be assessed independently of (a) other sleep facets--such as quality--and of (b) known or suspected cancer risk factors. The respective contribution of (a) and (b) to risk must then be assessed during the analyses. Overall, the

  7. Sleep to the beat: A nap favours consolidation of timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Ilse M; Onuki, Yoshiyuki; Van Someren, Eus J W; Van der Werf, Ysbrand D

    2016-06-01

    Growing evidence suggests that sleep is important for procedural learning, but few studies have investigated the effect of sleep on the temporal aspects of motor skill learning. We assessed the effect of a 90-min day-time nap on learning a motor timing task, using 2 adaptations of a serial interception sequence learning (SISL) task. Forty-two right-handed participants performed the task before and after a 90-min period of sleep or wake. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded throughout. The motor task consisted of a sequential spatial pattern and was performed according to 2 different timing conditions, that is, either following a sequential or a random temporal pattern. The increase in accuracy was compared between groups using a mixed linear regression model. Within the sleep group, performance improvement was modeled based on sleep characteristics, including spindle- and slow-wave density. The sleep group, but not the wake group, showed improvement in the random temporal, but especially and significantly more strongly in the sequential temporal condition. None of the sleep characteristics predicted improvement on either general of the timing conditions. In conclusion, a daytime nap improves performance on a timing task. We show that performance on the task with a sequential timing sequence benefits more from sleep than motor timing. More important, the temporal sequence did not benefit initial learning, because differences arose only after an offline period and specifically when this period contained sleep. Sleep appears to aid in the extraction of regularities for optimal subsequent performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Reciprocal Relations between Children's Sleep and Their Adjustment over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Child sleep and adjustment research with community samples is on the rise with a recognized need of explicating this association. We examined reciprocal relations between children's sleep and their internalizing and externalizing symptoms using 3 waves of data spanning 5 years. Participants included 176 children at Time 1 (M = 8.68 years; 69%…

  9. Convergence in Sleep Time Accomplished? Gender Gap in Sleep Time for Middle-Aged Adults in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seung-Eun; Eun, Ki-Soo

    2018-04-19

    Although the gender gap in sleep time has narrowed significantly in the last decade, middle-aged women between ages 35 and 60 still sleep less than their male counterparts in Korea. This study examines and provides evidence for factors contributing to the gender gap in this age group. Using Korean Time Use Survey (KTUS) data from 2004, 2009 and 2014, we find that middle-aged women’s difficulty in managing work-life balance and traditional role expectations placed upon women are the main causes of the gender gap in sleep time. The decomposition analysis reveals that the improved socioeconomic status and recent changes in familial expectations for women may have helped them sleep more than in the past. However, there remain fundamental differences in attitude and time use patterns between men and women that prevent middle-aged women from getting the same amount of sleep.

  10. Sleep and Physiological Dysregulation: A Closer Look at Sleep Intraindividual Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Seeman, Teresa E; Carroll, Judith E; Wiley, Joshua F

    2017-09-01

    Variable daily sleep (ie, higher intraindividual variability; IIV) is associated with negative health consequences, but potential physiological mechanisms are poorly understood. This study examined how the IIV of sleep timing, duration, and quality is associated with physiological dysregulation, with diurnal cortisol trajectories as a proximal outcome and allostatic load (AL) as a multisystem distal outcome. Participants are 436 adults (Mage ± standard deviation = 54.1 ± 11.7, 60.3% women) from the Midlife in the United States study. Sleep was objectively assessed using 7-day actigraphy. Diurnal cortisol was measured via saliva samples (four/day for 4 consecutive days). AL was measured using 23 biomarkers from seven systems (inflammatory, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic glucose and lipid, cardiovascular, parasympathetic, sympathetic) using a validated bifactor model. Linear and quadratic effects of sleep IIV were estimated using a validated Bayesian model. Controlling for covariates, more variable sleep timing (p = .04 for risetime, p = .097 for bedtime) and total sleep time (TST; p = .02), but not mean sleep variables, were associated with flatter cortisol diurnal slope. More variable sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset, later average bedtime, and shorter TST were associated with higher AL adjusting for age and sex (p-values sleep patterns were associated with blunted diurnal cortisol trajectories but not with higher multisystem physiological dysregulation. The associations between sleep IIV and overall health are likely complex, including multiple biopsychosocial determinants and require further investigation. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Relationships between school start time, sleep duration, and adolescent behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L; Berger, Aaron T; Widome, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    The objectives were 2-fold: (1) to examine how high school start times relate to adolescent sleep duration, and (2) to test associations between sleep duration and mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors in teens. This study examines selected questions from survey data collected between 2010 and 2013 high school students. Respondents included more than 9000 students in grades 9 to 12 in 8 high schools in 5 school districts across the United States. The survey instrument is the 97-item Teen Sleep Habits Survey. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Because of clustering within schools and the use of repeated measures, generalized estimating equations were used to account for variance inflation. Greater sleep duration was associated with fewer reports of various mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors (all P values sleep reported, there was a 28% reduction in the adjusted odds of a participant reporting that he or she felt "unhappy, sad, or depressed." Later wake-up times were associated with a reduction in risk for some, but not all factors. Later start times were significantly associated with greater sleep duration. Given that later start times allow for greater sleep duration and that adequate sleep duration is associated with more favorable mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors, it is important that school districts prioritize exploring and implementing policies, such as delayed start times, that may increase the amount of sleep of adolescent students, which is needed for their optimal development. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep, sleepiness and school start times: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Donn; Bijwadia, Jagdeep; Schilling, Dana; Applebaugh, Gwendolyn

    2003-01-01

    High school students are reported to be excessively sleepy, resulting in decreased academic performance, increased psycho-social problems and increased risk of morbidity and mortality from accidents. Early school start times have been noted to contribute to this problem. This report attempts to confirm the relationship of early school start times with decreased sleep and increased sleepiness. We examined sophomore and junior students in 2 local high schools with different start times and measured the amount of time slept and sleepiness. We found that students at the early start school reported reduced sleep time and more sleepiness than their counterparts at the later starting school. Early school start times are associated with student reports of less sleep and increased sleepiness. Further studies in larger groups are recommended in view of the potential significant impact of sleep deprivation in this age group.

  13. What wrist should you wear your actigraphy device on? Analysis of dominant vs. non-dominant wrist actigraphy for measuring sleep in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew William Driller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Differences in sleep results due to the placement of actigraphy devices (non-dominant vs. dominant wrist are yet to be determined. METHODS: 65 nights of data from 13 adult participants was collected while participants wore two actigraphy devices, one on each wrist. Sleep indices including total sleep time (TST, total time in bed (TTB, sleep efficiency (SE%, sleep latency (SL, wake after sleep onset (WASO, sleep onset time (SOT and wake time (WT were assessed between the two devices. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between devices for any of the measured sleep variables (p>0.05. SE%, SL and WASO resulted in high correlations between devices (0.89, 0.89 and 0.76, respectively, with all other sleep variables resulting in very high correlations (>0.90 between devices. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our results, it does not seem critical which wrist the actigraphy device is worn on for measuring key sleep variables.

  14. Short Sleep Times Predict Obesity in Internal Medicine Clinic Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Dolores; Kumar, Ashwani; Nugent, Rebecca; Nugent, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between short sleep times and obesity as defined by body mass index (BMI). We wanted to determine whether this association occurs in patients with chronic medical diagnoses since the number of confounding factors is likely higher in patients than the general population. Methods: Two hundred patients attending internal medicine clinics completed a survey regarding sleep habits, lifestyle characteristics, and medical diagnoses. An independent surveyor collected the information on the questionnaires and reviewed the medical records. Height and weight were measured by clinic personnel. Data were analyzed with multivariate logistic regression. Results: Subjects with short sleep times (< 7 hours) had an increased likelihood of obesity as defined by a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 when compared to the reference group of (8, 9] hours (odds ratio 2.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–8.09). There was a U-shaped relationship between obesity and sleep time in women but not in men. Young age (18 to 49 years), not smoking, drinking alcohol, hypertension, diabetes, and sleep apnea were also associated with obesity in the overall model. Conclusions: This study demonstrates an association between short sleep times and obesity in undifferentiated patients attending an internal medicine clinic using models adjusting for age, lifestyle characteristics, and some medical diagnoses. The U-shaped relationship in women suggests that sleep patterns may have gender specific associations. These observations provide the background for therapeutic trials in weight loss in patients with established medical problems. Citation: Buscemi D; Kumar A; Nugent R; Nugent K. Short sleep times predict obesity in internal medicine clinic patients. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(7):681–688. PMID:18198800

  15. Does Suspected Sleep Disordered Breathing Impact on the Sleep and Performance of Firefighting Volunteers during a Simulated Fire Ground Campaign?

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    Sarah M. Jay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate sleep is fundamental to workplace performance. For volunteer firefighters who work in safety critical roles, poor performance at work can be life threatening. Extended shifts and sleeping conditions negatively impact sleep during multi-day fire suppression campaigns. Having sleep disordered breathing (SDB could contribute further to sleep deficits. Our aim was to investigate whether those with suspected SDB slept and performed more poorly during a fire ground simulation involving sleep restriction. Participants, n = 20 participated in a 3-day-4-night fire ground simulation. Based on oximetry desaturation index data collected during their participation, participants were retrospectively allocated to either a SDB (n = 8 or a non-SDB group (n = 12. The simulation began with an 8 h Baseline sleep (BL followed by two nights of restricted (4 h sleep and an 8 h recovery sleep (R. All sleeps were recorded using a standard electroencephalography (EEG montage as well as oxygen saturation. During the day, participants completed neurobehavioral (response time, lapses and subjective fatigue tasks. Mixed effects ANOVA were used to compare differences in sleep and wake variables. Analyses revealed a main effect of group for Total sleep (TST, REM , wake after sleep onset (WASO and Arousals/h with the SDB group obtaining less TST and REM and greater WASO and Arousals/h. The group × night interaction was significant for N3 with the SDB group obtaining 42 min less during BL. There was a significant main effect of day for RRT, lapses and subjective fatigue and a significant day × group interaction for RRT. Overall, the SDB group slept less, experienced more disturbed sleep and had poorer response time performance, which was exacerbated by the second night of sleep restriction. This could present a safety concern, particularly during longer campaigns and is worthy of further investigation. In addition, we would recommend promotion of awareness of SDB, its

  16. Differential effects of physical activity and sleep duration on cognitive function in young adults

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    Kazuko Kato

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Although exercise and sleep duration habits are associated with cognitive function, their beneficial effects on cognitive function remain unclear. We aimed to examine the effect of sleep duration and daily physical activity on cognitive function, elucidating the neural mechanisms using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. Methods: A total of 23 healthy young adults (age 22.0 ± 2.2 years participated in this study. Exercise amount was assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer. We evaluated total sleep time (TST and sleep efficiency by actigraphy. Cognitive function was tested using the N-back task, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST, and the Continuous Performance Test–Identical Pairs (CPT-IP, and the cortical oxygenated hemoglobin levels during a word fluency task were measured with NIRS. Results: Exercise amount was significantly correlated with reaction time on 0- and 1-back tasks (r = −0.602, p = 0.002; r = −0.446, p = 0.033, respectively, whereas TST was significantly correlated with % corrects on the 2-back task (r = 0.486, p = 0.019. Multiple regression analysis, including exercise amount, TST, and sleep efficiency, revealed that exercise amount was the most significant factor for reaction time on 0- and 1-back tasks (β = −0.634, p = 0.002; β = −0.454, p = 0.031, respectively, and TST was the most significant factor for % corrects on the 2-back task (β = 0.542, p = 0.014. The parameter measured by WCST and CPT-IP was not significantly correlated with TST or exercise amount. Exercise amount, but not TST, was significantly correlated with the mean area under the NIRS curve in the prefrontal area (r = 0.492, p = 0.017. Conclusion: Exercise amount and TST had differential effects on working memory and cortical activation in the prefrontal area. Daily physical activity and appropriate sleep duration may play an important role in working memory. Keywords: Cortical

  17. Primary sleep enuresis in childhood: polysomnography evidences of sleep stage and time modulation

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    Rubens Reimäo

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate enuretic events and its relations to sleep stages, sleep cycles and time durations in a selected group of children with primary essential sleep enuresis. We evaluated 18 patients with mean age of 8.2 years old (ranging from 5 to 12 years; 10 were males and 8 females (n.s.. They were referred to the Sleep Disorders Center with the specific complaint of enuresis since the first years of life (primary. Pediatric, urologic and neurologic workup did not show objective abnormalities (essential. The standard all-night polysomnography including an enuresis sensor attached to the shorts in the crotch area was performed. Only enuretic events nights were included. All were drug free patients for two weeks prior to polysomnography. In this report, only one polysomnography per patient was considered. The enuretic events were phase related, occurring predominantly in non-REM (NREM sleep (p<0.05. There was no predominance of enuretic events among the NREM stages (n.s.. A tendency of these events to occur in the first two sleep cycles was detected but may be due to the longer duration of these cycles. The events were time modulated, adjusted to a normal distribution with a mean of 213.4 min of recording time.

  18. Short Sleep as an Environmental Exposure: A Preliminary Study Associating 5-HTTLPR Genotype to Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Depressed Mood in First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A.; Sharkey, Katherine M.; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene is associated with self-reported symptoms of depressed mood in first-year university students with a persistent pattern of short sleep. Design: Students provided DNA samples and completed on-line sleep diaries and a mood scale during the first semester. A priori phenotypes for nocturnal sleep and mood scores were compared for the distribution of genotypes. Setting: Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. Participants: A sample of 135 first-year students, 54 male, 71 Caucasian, mean age 18.1 (± 0.5) yr. Interventions: None. Measurements: Students completed on-line sleep diaries daily across the first term (21-64 days; mean = 51 days ± 11) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) mood scale after 8 wk. DNA was genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Low-expressing S and LGpolymorphisms were designated S′, and high-expressing LA was designated L′. Phenotype groups were identified from a combination of CES-D (median split: high > 12; low sleep time (TST) from diaries: (shorter ≤ 7 hr; longer ≥ 7.5 hr). Three genotypes were identified (S′S′, S′L′, L′L′); the S′S′ genotype was present in a higher proportion of Asian than non-Asian students. Results: Four phenotype groups were compared: 40 students with shorter TST/high CES-D; 34 with shorter TST/low CES-D; 29 with longer TST/high CES-D; 32 with longer TST/low CES-D. Female:male distribution did not vary across phenotype groups (chi-square = 1.39; df = 3; P = 0.71). S′S′ participants (n = 23) were overrepresented in the shorter TST/high CES-D group (chi- square = 15.04; df = 6; P sleep and higher depressed mood are more likely than others to carry a variant of the SLC6A4 gene associated with low expression of the serotonin transporter. Citation: Carskadon MA; Sharkey KM; Knopik VS; McGeary JE. Short sleep as an environmental exposure: a preliminary study associating 5-HTTLPR

  19. Sleep timing is more important than sleep length or quality for medical school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzel, L; Ahrberg, K; Roselli, C; Niedermaier, S; Steiger, A; Dresler, M; Roenneberg, T

    2013-07-01

    Overwhelming evidence supports the importance of sleep for memory consolidation. Medical students are often deprived of sufficient sleep due to large amounts of clinical duties and university load, we therefore investigated how study and sleep habits influence university performance. We performed a questionnaire-based study with 31 medical students of the University of Munich (second and third clinical semesters; surgery and internal medicine). The students kept a diary (in 30-min bins) on their daily schedules (times when they studied by themselves, attended classes, slept, worked on their thesis, or worked to earn money). The project design involved three 2-wk periods (A: during the semester; B: directly before the exam period--pre-exam; C: during the subsequent semester break). Besides the diaries, students completed once questionnaires about their sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), their chronotype (Munich Chronotype Questionnaire [MCTQ]), and their academic history (previous grades, including the previously achieved preclinical board exam [PBE]). Analysis revealed significant correlations between the actual sleep behavior during the semester (MS(diary); mid-sleep point averaged from the sleep diaries) during the pre-exam period and the achieved grade (p = 0.002) as well as between the grades of the currently taken exam and the PBE (p = 0.002). A regression analysis with MS(diary) pre-exam and PBE as predictors in a model explained 42.7% of the variance of the exam grade (effect size 0.745). Interestingly, MS(diary)--especially during the pre-exam period-was the strongest predictor for the currently achieved grade, along with the preclinical board exam as a covariate, whereas the chronotype did not significantly influence the exam grade.

  20. Subjective Positive and Negative Sleep Variables Differentially Affect Cellular Immune Activity in a Breast Cancer Survivor: A Time-series Analysis Approach

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    Magdalena Singer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study on a breast cancer survivor suffering from cancer-related fatigue (CaRF and depression investigated the bidirectional relationship between cellular immune activity and subjective sleep. The 49-year-old patient (breast cancer diagnosis 5 years before the study, currently in remission collected her full urine output for 28 days in 12-h intervals (8:00 p.m. to 8:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m.. These urine samples were used to determine urinary neopterin (cellular immune activation marker and creatinine concentrations via high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC. Each morning, the patient answered questions on five sleep variables: sleep quality (SQ, sleep recreational value (SRV, total sleep time (TST, total wake time (TWT, and awakenings during sleep period (ADS. For the purpose of this study, the time series of the nighttime urinary neopterin levels and the five sleep variables were determined. Using centered moving average (CMA smoothing and cross-correlational analysis, this study showed that increases in the positive sleep variables SQ and SRV were followed by urinary neopterin concentration decreases after 96–120 h (SQ, lag 4: r = −0.411; p = 0.044; SRV: lag 4: r = −0.472; p = 0.021 and 120–144 h (SRV, lag 5: r = −0.464; p = 0.026. Increases in the negative sleep variable TWT, by contrast, were followed by increases in urinary neopterin concentrations 72–96 h later (lag 3: r = 0.522; p = 0.009. No systematic effects in the other direction, i.e., from urinary neopterin levels to sleep, were observed in this study. Although preliminary, the findings of this study highlight the benefit of carefully investigating temporal delays and directions of effects when studying the dynamic relationship between sleep and immune variables in the natural context of everyday life.

  1. Sleep complaints and daytime sleepiness among pharmaceutical students in Tripoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Yousef A; Samud, Awatef M; Ratimy, Aya H; Seabe, Areeje M

    2012-01-01

    The effect of sleep difficulties has achieved a great deal of attention recently, with university students considered as a homogenized population, particularly affected by sleep habits. The objective of this study was to investigate whether Libyan college students experience sleep disturbance during their academic programmes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the college of Pharmacy, Tripoli University, during February 2010. A total of 201 students, including 179 females (89.05%) and 22 males (10.95%), were recruited from different academic levels. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and included a number of life-style variables. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) was used for the assessment of daytime sleepiness. This study showed that the total sleep time (TST) on a weeknight was 6.40 h and 67 students reported napping during daytime. The TST plus naps totalled 7.39 h. Out of eight possible dozing situations, we found that the mean score for ESS was 8.78. In addition, 79 students showed an ESS score of >10. Furthermore, our results showed that the majority of students (>92%) reported poor sleep satisfaction with quality and duration of sleep hours. Thinking about difficulty of study but not increasing education programs or tea/coffee consumption is associated with sleep difficulties reported. Moreover, 77.6% of students reported an irregular sleep-wake schedule. These findings indicate that students experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. The TST of pharmaceutical students in Libya, as in other developing countries, is less than those reported by Western students. Students experienced various environmental demands during their college years and, their quality of sleep was negatively affected.

  2. Neighborhood Stress and Autonomic Nervous System Activity during Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Thomas Alan; Bell, Kimberly Ann; Abu-Bader, Soleman Hassan; Kobayashi, Ihori

    2018-04-04

    Stressful neighborhood environments are known to adversely impact health and contribute to health disparities but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Healthy sleep can provide a respite from sustained sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Our objective was to evaluate relationships between neighborhood stress and nocturnal and daytime SNS and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. Eighty five urban-residing African Americans (56.5% female; mean age of 23.0) participated. Evaluation included surveys of neighborhood stress and sleep-related vigilance; and continuous ECG and actigraphic recording in participants' homes from which heart rate variability (HRV) analysis for low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF) ratio and normalized high frequency (nHF), as indicators of SNS and PNS activity, respectively, and total sleep time (TST), and wake after sleep onset were derived. All significant relationships with HRV measures were from the sleep period. Neighborhood disorder correlated negatively with nHF (r = -.24, p = .035). There were also significant correlations of HRV indices with sleep duration and sleep fears. Among females, LF/HF correlated with exposure to violence, r = .39, p = .008 and nHF with census tract rates for violent crime (r = -.35, p = .035). In a stepwise regression, TST accounted for the variance contributed by violent crime to nHF in the female participants. Further investigation of relationships between neighborhood environments and SNS/PNS balance during sleep and their consequences, and strategies for mitigating such effects would have implications for health disparities.

  3. Time to wake up: reactive countermeasures to sleep inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-12-07

    Sleep inertia is the period of impaired performance and grogginess experienced after waking. This period of impairment is of concern to workers who are on-call, or nap during work hours, and need to perform safety-critical tasks soon after waking. While several studies have investigated the best sleep timing and length to minimise sleep inertia effects, few have focused on countermeasures -especially those that can be implemented after waking (i.e. reactive countermeasures). This structured review summarises current literature on reactive countermeasures to sleep inertia such as caffeine, light, and temperature and discusses evidence for the effectiveness and operational viability of each approach. Current literature does not provide a convincing evidence-base for a reactive countermeasure. Caffeine is perhaps the best option, although it is most effective when administered prior to sleep and is therefore not strictly reactive. Investigations into light and temperature have found promising results for improving subjective alertness; further research is needed to determine whether these countermeasures can also attenuate performance impairment. Future research in this area would benefit from study design features highlighted in this review. In the meantime, it is recommended that proactive sleep inertia countermeasures are used, and that safety-critical tasks are avoided immediately after waking.

  4. Inter-device reliability of an automatic-scoring actigraph for measuring sleep in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Driller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Actigraphy has become a common method of measuring sleep due to its non-invasive, cost-effective nature. An actigraph (Readiband™ that utilizes automatic scoring algorithms has been used in the research, but is yet to be evaluated for its inter-device reliability. A total of 77 nights of sleep data from 11 healthy adult participants was collected while participants were concomitantly wearing two Readiband™ actigraphs attached together (ACT1 and ACT2. Sleep indices including total sleep time (TST, sleep latency (SL, sleep efficiency (SE%, wake after sleep onset (WASO, total time in bed (TTB, wake episodes per night (WE, sleep onset variance (SOV and wake variance (WV were assessed between the two devices using mean differences, 95% levels of agreement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, typical error of measurement (TEM and coefficient of variation (CV% analysis. There were no significant differences between devices for any of the measured sleep variables (p>0.05. TST, SE, SL, TTB, SOV and WV all resulted in very high ICC's (>0.90, with WASO and WE resulting in high ICC's between devices (0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Mean differences of −2.1 and 0.2 min for TST and SL were associated with a low TEM between devices (9.5 and 3.8 min, respectively. SE resulted in a 0.3% mean difference between devices. The Readiband™ is a reliable tool for researchers using multiple devices of this brand in sleep studies to assess basic measures of sleep quality and quantity in healthy adult populations.

  5. Work time control, sleep & accident risk: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Philip; Albrecht, Sophie; Kecklund, Göran; Beckers, Debby G J; Leineweber, Constanze

    We examined whether the beneficial impact of work time control (WTC) on sleep leads to lower accident risk, using data from a nationally representative survey conducted in Sweden. Logistic regressions examined WTC in 2010 and 2012 as predictors of accidents occurring in the subsequent 2 years (N = 4840 and 4337, respectively). Sleep disturbance and frequency of short sleeps in 2012 were examined as potential mediators of the associations between WTC in 2010 and subsequent accidents as reported in 2014 (N = 3636). All analyses adjusted for age, sex, education, occupational category, weekly work hours, shift work status, job control and perceived accident risk at work. In both waves, overall WTC was inversely associated with accidents (p = 0.048 and p = 0.038, respectively). Analyses of the sub-dimensions of WTC indicated that Control over Daily Hours (influence over start and finish times, and over length of shift) did not predict accidents in either wave, while Control over Time-off (CoT; influence over taking breaks, running private errands during work and taking paid leave) predicted fewer accidents in both waves (p = 0.013 and p = 0.010). Sleep disturbance in 2012 mediated associations between WTC/CoT in 2010 and accidents in 2014, although effects' sizes were small (effectWTC = -0.006, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.018 to -0.001; effectCoT = -0.009, 95%CI = -0.022 to -0.001; unstandardized coefficients), with the indirect effects of sleep disturbance accounting for less than 5% of the total direct and indirect effects. Frequency of short sleeps was not a significant mediator. WTC reduces the risk of subsequently being involved in an accident, although sleep may not be a strong component of the mechanism underlying this association.

  6. Age-related influences of prior sleep on brain activation during verbal encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle B Jonelis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Disrupted sleep is more common in older adults (OA than younger adults (YA, often co-morbid with other conditions. How these sleep disturbances affect cognitive performance is an area of active study. We examined whether brain activation during verbal encoding correlates with sleep quantity and quality the night before testing in a group of healthy OA and YA. Twenty-seven OA (ages 59-82 and twenty-seven YA (ages 19-36 underwent one night of standard polysomnography. Twelve hours post-awakening, subjects performed a verbal encoding task while undergoing functional MRI. Analyses examined the group (OA vs. YA by prior sleep quantity (Total Sleep Time (TST or quality (Sleep Efficiency (SE interaction on cerebral activation, controlling for performance. Longer TST promoted higher levels of activation in the bilateral anterior parahippocampi in OA and lower activation levels in the left anterior parahippocampus in YA. Greater SE promoted higher activation levels in the left posterior parahippocampus and right inferior frontal gyrus in YA, but not in OA. The roles of these brain regions in verbal encoding suggest, in OA, longer sleep duration may facilitate functional compensation during cognitive challenges. By contrast, in YA, shorter sleep duration may necessitate functional compensation to maintain cognitive performance, similar to what is seen following acute sleep deprivation. Additionally, in YA, better sleep quality may improve semantic retrieval processes, thereby aiding encoding.

  7. Sleep complaints and daytime sleepiness among pharmaceutical students in Tripoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef A. Taher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of sleep difficulties has achieved a great deal of attention recently, with university students considered as a homogenized population, particularly affected by sleep habits. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate whether Libyan college students experience sleep disturbance during their academic programmes. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the college of Pharmacy, Tripoli University, during February 2010. A total of 201 students, including 179 females (89.05% and 22 males (10.95%, were recruited from different academic levels. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and included a number of life-style variables. Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS was used for the assessment of daytime sleepiness. Results: This study showed that the total sleep time (TST on a weeknight was 6.40 h and 67 students reported napping during daytime. The TST plus naps totalled 7.39 h. Out of eight possible dozing situations, we found that the mean score for ESS was 8.78. In addition, 79 students showed an ESS score of >10. Furthermore, our results showed that the majority of students (>92% reported poor sleep satisfaction with quality and duration of sleep hours. Thinking about difficulty of study but not increasing education programs or tea/coffee consumption is associated with sleep difficulties reported. Moreover, 77.6% of students reported an irregular sleep–wake schedule. Conclusion: These findings indicate that students experienced excessive daytime sleepiness. The TST of pharmaceutical students in Libya, as in other developing countries, is less than those reported by Western students. Students experienced various environmental demands during their college years and, their quality of sleep was negatively affected.

  8. Time Alignment as a Necessary Step in the Analysis of Sleep Probabilistic Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rošt'áková, Zuzana; Rosipal, Roman

    2018-02-01

    Sleep can be characterised as a dynamic process that has a finite set of sleep stages during the night. The standard Rechtschaffen and Kales sleep model produces discrete representation of sleep and does not take into account its dynamic structure. In contrast, the continuous sleep representation provided by the probabilistic sleep model accounts for the dynamics of the sleep process. However, analysis of the sleep probabilistic curves is problematic when time misalignment is present. In this study, we highlight the necessity of curve synchronisation before further analysis. Original and in time aligned sleep probabilistic curves were transformed into a finite dimensional vector space, and their ability to predict subjects' age or daily measures is evaluated. We conclude that curve alignment significantly improves the prediction of the daily measures, especially in the case of the S2-related sleep states or slow wave sleep.

  9. Sleep Quality but Not Quantity Altered With a Change in Training Environment in Elite Australian Rules Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nathan W; Robertson, Sam J; Sargent, Charli; Cordy, Justin; Bishop, David J; Bartlett, Jonathan D

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effects of a change in training environment on the sleep characteristics of elite Australian Rules football (AF) players. In an observational crossover trial, 19 elite AF players had time in bed (TIB), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), and wake after sleep onset (WASO) assessed using wristwatch activity devices and subjective sleep diaries across 8-d home and camp periods. Repeated-measures ANOVA determined mean differences in sleep, training load (session rating of perceived exertion [RPE]), and environment. Pearson product-moment correlations, controlling for repeated observations on individuals, were used to assess the relationship between changes in sleep characteristics at home and camp. Cohen effect sizes (d) were calculated using individual means. On camp TIB (+34 min) and WASO (+26 min) increased compared with home. However, TST was similar between home and camp, significantly reducing camp SE (-5.82%). Individually, there were strong negative correlations for TIB and WASO (r = -.75 and r = -.72, respectively) and a moderate negative correlation for SE (r = -.46) between home and relative changes on camp. Camp increased the relationship between individual s-RPE variation and TST variation compared with home (increased load r = -.367 vs .051, reduced load r = .319 vs -.033, camp vs home respectively). Camp compromised sleep quality due to significantly increased TIB without increased TST. Individually, AF players with higher home SE experienced greater reductions in SE on camp. Together, this emphasizes the importance of individualized interventions for elite team-sport athletes when traveling and/or changing environments.

  10. Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool vs. Public/Private School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Shaheed, Keisha; Ambler, Devon

    2014-01-01

    Homeschool students provide a naturalistic comparison group for later/flexible school start times. This study compared sleep patterns and sleep hygiene for homeschool students and public/private school students (grades 6-12). Public/private school students (n=245) and homeschool students (n=162) completed a survey about sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. Significant school group differences were found for weekday bedtime, wake time, and total sleep time, with homeschool students waking later and obtaining more sleep. Homeschool students had later school start times, waking at the same time that public/private school students were starting school. Public/private school students had poorer sleep hygiene practices, reporting more homework and use of technology in the hour before bed. Regardless of school type, technology in the bedroom was associated with shorter sleep duration. Later school start times may be a potential countermeasure for insufficient sleep in adolescents. Future studies should further examine the relationship between school start times and daytime outcomes, including academic performance, mood, and health. PMID:25315902

  11. Sleep discontinuity and impaired sleep continuity affect transition to and from obesity over time: results from the Alameda county study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Maria; Kaplan, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    To investigate the impact of development in sleep continuity on transition to and from obesity over time. The study used self-reported sleep and body mass index (BMI) measures from the 1965, 1974, 1983, and 1994 waves of the longitudinal Alameda County Study. Sleep continuity was assessed by a question on whether the participants had any troubles falling or staying asleep. Change in sleep and BMI were estimated from the sleep and BMI questions in 1965 and 1994 respectively. Multinomial regression analyses were used to examine the risk/chance for a transition to and from obesity (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)) due to development in sleep continuity. After adjustment for confounding variables, consistent sleep discontinuity both increases the risk for a transition to obesity and reduces the chance of losing weight, whereas impaired sleep continuity lowers the chance for weight loss. Effects for obesity were non-significant for those with improved sleep continuity. Consistent sleep discontinuity and impaired sleep continuity increases the risk of transition to obesity or of remaining obese.

  12. American time use survey: sleep time and its relationship to waking activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Fomberstein, Kenneth M; Razavi, Farid M; Banks, Siobhan; William, Jeffrey H; Rosa, Roger R; Dinges, David F

    2007-09-01

    To gain some insight into how various behavioral (lifestyle) factors influence sleep duration, by investigation of the relationship of sleep time to waking activities using the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). Cross-sectional data from ATUS, an annual telephone survey of a population sample of US citizens who are interviewed regarding how they spent their time during a 24-hour period between 04:00 on the previous day and 04:00 on the interview day. Data were pooled from the 2003, 2004, and 2005 ATUS databases involving N=47,731 respondents older than 14 years of age. N/A. Adjusted multiple linear regression models showed that the largest reciprocal relationship to sleep was found for work time, followed by travel time, which included commute time. Only shorter than average sleepers (socializing, relaxing, and engaging in leisure activities, while both short ( or =8.5 h) watched more TV than the average sleeper. The extent to which sleep time was exchanged for waking activities was also shown to depend on age and gender. Sleep time was minimal while work time was maximal in the age group 45-54 yr, and sleep time increased both with lower and higher age. Work time, travel time, and time for socializing, relaxing, and leisure are the primary activities reciprocally related to sleep time among Americans. These activities may be confounding the frequently observed association between short and long sleep on one hand and morbidity and mortality on the other hand and should be controlled for in future studies.

  13. Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute (NHLBI). 1 Mood. Sleep affects your mood. Insufficient sleep can cause irritability that can lead to trouble with relationships, ... basics/understanding_sleep.htm#dynamic_activity Centers for Disease ... insufficient rest or sleep among adults—United States, 2008. MMWR, 58 (42), ...

  14. Objective Sleep Structure and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the General Population: The HypnoLaus Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba-Rubio, José; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Andries, Daniela; Tobback, Nadia; Preisig, Martin; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gérard; Luca, Gianina; Tafti, Mehdi; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between objective sleep measures and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: General population sample. Participants: There were 2,162 patients (51.2% women, mean age 58.4 ± 11.1). Interventions: Patients were evaluated for hypertension, diabetes, overweight/obesity, and MS, and underwent a full polysomnography (PSG). Measurements and Results: PSG measured variables included: total sleep time (TST), percentage and time spent in slow wave sleep (SWS) and in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, sleep efficiency and arousal index (ArI). In univariate analyses, MS was associated with decreased TST, SWS, REM sleep, and sleep efficiency, and increased ArI. After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, drugs that affect sleep and depression, the ArI remained significantly higher, but the difference disappeared in patients without significant sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Differences in sleep structure were also found according to the presence or absence of hypertension, diabetes, and overweight/obesity in univariate analysis. However, these differences were attenuated after multivariate adjustment and after excluding subjects with significant SDB. Conclusions: In this population-based sample we found significant associations between sleep structure and metabolic syndrome (MS), hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. However, these associations were cancelled after multivariate adjustment. We conclude that normal variations in sleep contribute little if any to MS and associated disorders. Citation: Haba-Rubio J, Marques-Vidal P, Andries D, Tobback N, Preisig M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Luca G, Tafti M, Heinzer R. Objective sleep structure and cardiovascular risk factors in the general population: the HypnoLaus study. SLEEP 2015;38(3):391–400. PMID:25325467

  15. Effect of smoking habits on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Conway

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of smoking habits on sleep, data from 1492 adults referred to the Sleep Institute were accessed and divided into 3 categories of smoking status: current, former and non-smokers. Categories of pack-years (<15 and ≥15 defined smoking severity. The association of smoking status and smoking severity with sleep was analyzed for sleep parameters, especially apnea and hypopnea index (AHI ≥5, more than 5% of total sleep time (TST spent with oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2 <90%, and arousal index. The arousal index was higher among current (21 ± 17 and former smokers (20 ± 17 than non-smokers (17 ± 15; P < 0.04. Former smokers had a higher percent of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (9 ± 18 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.04. Former smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher AHI (22 ± 24 vs 16 ± 21; P < 0.05 and arousal index (22 ± 19 vs 18 ± 15; P < 0.05. Current smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher arousal index (23 ± 18 vs 18 ± 16; P < 0.05 and percent of TST at SaO2 <90% (11 ± 17 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.05. Smoking status and pack-years were not associated with AHI ≥5 on logistic regression analysis, but current smokers with pack-years ≥15 were 1.9 times more likely to spend more than 5% of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (95%CI = 1.21-2.97; P = 0.005. The variability of arousal index was influenced by gender, AHI and current smokers with pack-years ≥15 (all P < 0.01. Smoking habits seem to be associated with arousal and oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep, but not with AHI. The effect was more pronounced in current than former smokers.

  16. Sleep Management on Multiple Machines for Energy and Flow Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Sze-Hang; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei

    2011-01-01

    In large data centers, determining the right number of operating machines is often non-trivial, especially when the workload is unpredictable. Using too many machines would waste energy, while using too few would affect the performance. This paper extends the traditional study of online flow-time...... scheduling on multiple machines to take sleep management and energy into consideration. Specifically, we study online algorithms that can determine dynamically when and which subset of machines should wake up (or sleep), and how jobs are dispatched and scheduled. We consider schedules whose objective...... is to minimize the sum of flow time and energy, and obtain O(1)-competitive algorithms for two settings: one assumes machines running at a fixed speed, and the other allows dynamic speed scaling to further optimize energy usage. Like the previous work on the tradeoff between flow time and energy, the analysis...

  17. Increased commuting to school time reduces sleep duration in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erico Felden; Moreno, Claudia; Louzada, Fernando Mazzilli

    2014-02-01

    Active travel to school has been referred to as one way of increasing the level of daily physical exercise, but the actual impacts on student's general health are not clear. Recently, a possible association between active travel to school and the duration of sleep was suggested. Thus, the aim was of this study to investigate the associations between the type of transportation and travel time to school, the time in bed and sleepiness in the classroom of high school students. Information on sleeping habits and travel to school of 1126 high school students were analyzed, where 55.1% were girls with an average age of 16.24 (1.39) years old, in Santa Maria Municipality, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Multiple linear regression and adjusted prevalence rates analyses were carried out. The frequency of active travel found was 61.8%. Associations between time in bed, sleepiness in the classroom and the type of transportation (active or passive) were not identified. Nevertheless, the time in bed was inversely associated with the travel time (p = 0.036) and with a phase delay. In the adjusted analysis, active travel was more incident for the students of schools in the suburbs (PR: 1.68; CI: 1.40-2.01) in comparison with the students of schools in the center. Therefore, longer trips were associated with a reduction of sleep duration of morning and night groups. Interventions concerning active travel to school must be carried out cautiously in order not to cause a reduction of the sleeping time.

  18. Sleep, training load and performance in elite female gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, J; Mariman, A; Boone, J; Delesie, L; Tobback, E; Vogelaers, D; Bourgois, J G

    2018-03-01

    Training load (TL) and recovery should be in optimal balance to obtain maximal performance gains. We aimed to study sleep as a recovery technique and its relationship with TL and performance in elite athletes. Twenty-six elite female artistic gymnasts were divided into an under 13 (n = 6), an under 14 (n = 6), a junior (n = 7; 14-15y) and a senior (=World Championship (WC) competitors, n = 7; ≥16y) category. Sleep, through sleep logs, and training parameters, using the session Rate of Perceived Exertion (sRPE) scale, were monitored to calculate total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE), TL, monotony and strain. Performance of WC competitors was evaluated through coach and WC qualification ranking. For the entire group, TST (effect sizes (ES) = -1.12, confidence intervals (CI) = -60:-47, P performance. Optimizing sleep and TL may therefore represent strategies to enhance performance.

  19. Short sleep as an environmental exposure: a preliminary study associating 5-HTTLPR genotype to self-reported sleep duration and depressed mood in first-year university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A; Sharkey, Katherine M; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E

    2012-06-01

    This study examined whether the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in the SLC6A4 gene is associated with self-reported symptoms of depressed mood in first-year university students with a persistent pattern of short sleep. Students provided DNA samples and completed on-line sleep diaries and a mood scale during the first semester. A priori phenotypes for nocturnal sleep and mood scores were compared for the distribution of genotypes. Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. A sample of 135 first-year students, 54 male, 71 Caucasian, mean age 18.1 (± 0.5) yr. None. Students completed on-line sleep diaries daily across the first term (21-64 days; mean = 51 days ± 11) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) mood scale after 8 wk. DNA was genotyped for the triallelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. Low-expressing S and L(G)polymorphisms were designated S', and high-expressing L(A) was designated L'. Phenotype groups were identified from a combination of CES-D (median split: high > 12; low sleep time (TST) from diaries: (shorter ≤ 7 hr; longer ≥ 7.5 hr). Three genotypes were identified (S'S', S'L', L'L'); the S'S' genotype was present in a higher proportion of Asian than non-Asian students. FOUR PHENOTYPE GROUPS WERE COMPARED: 40 students with shorter TST/high CES-D; 34 with shorter TST/low CES-D; 29 with longer TST/high CES-D; 32 with longer TST/low CES-D. Female:male distribution did not vary across phenotype groups (chi-square = 1.39; df = 3; P = 0.71). S'S' participants (n = 23) were overrepresented in the shorter TST/high CES-D group (chi- square = 15.04; df = 6; P sleep and higher depressed mood are more likely than others to carry a variant of the SLC6A4 gene associated with low expression of the serotonin transporter.

  20. Night sleep influences white matter microstructure in bipolar depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Francesco; Melloni, Elisa M T; Dallaspezia, Sara; Bollettini, Irene; Locatelli, Clara; Poletti, Sara; Colombo, Cristina

    2017-08-15

    Alteration of circadian rhythms and sleep disruption are prominent trait-like features of bipolar disorder (BD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures suggest a widespread alteration of white matter (WM) microstructure in patients with BD. Sleep promotes myelination and oligodendrocyte precursor cells proliferation. We hypothesized a possible association between DTI measures of WM microstructure and sleep quantity measures in BD. We studied 69 inpatients affected by a depressive episode in course of type I BD. We used whole brain tract-based spatial statistics on DTI measures of WM microstructure: axial, radial, and mean diffusivity (AD, RD, MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA). Self-assessed measures of time asleep (TA) and total sleep time (TST) were extracted from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Actigraphic recordings were performed on a subsample of 23 patients. We observed a positive correlation of DTI measures of FA with actigraphic measures of TA and TST, and with PSQI measure of TA. DTI measures of RD inversely associated with actigraphic measure of TA, and with PSQI measures of TA and TST. Several WM tracts were involved, including corpus callosum, cyngulate gyrus, uncinate fasciculus, left superior and inferior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi, thalamic radiation, corona radiata, retrolenticular part of internal capsule and corticospinal tract. The study is correlational in nature, and no conclusion about a causal connection can be drawn. Reduced FA with increased RD and MD indicate higher water diffusivity associated with less organized myelin and/or axonal structures. Our findings suggest an association between sleep disruption and these measures of brain microstructure in specific tracts contributing to the functional connectivity in BD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Role of Environmental Factors on Sleep Patterns and School Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background: Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. Aims: This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Sample and Method: Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Results: An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance. Conclusion: The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective

  2. The role of environmental factors on sleep patterns and school performance in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara eDimitriou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behaviour.Aims. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship.Sample and method. Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven’s Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. Results. An average of 7.08 hours of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behaviour problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance.Conclusion. The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may

  3. The Role of Environmental Factors on Sleep Patterns and School Performance in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Dagmara; Le Cornu Knight, Frances; Milton, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Modern life, with its many distractions, is seeing sleep quantity and quality decline during adolescence. This is a concern as research persuasively demonstrates the negative impact of reduced sleep on academic achievement, both in terms of learning and behavior. This study examined the relationship between sleep and school functioning in adolescence, with a focus on environmental factors that might mediate this relationship. Forty-seven adolescents took part. Sleep was measured using the School Sleep Habits Survey (SSHS) and a sleep diary. School records of year grade point averages provided a measure of academic achievement. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices gave a measure of general cognitive processing. Environmental sleep factors falling into three groups, namely, stimulant consumption, media use and exercise, were measured using a self-report questionnaire. An average of 7.08 h of sleep was reported. Correlations revealed that Total sleep time (TST) and bedtimes on weekdays were strongly associated with academic achievement. Morning/eveningness and sleep/wake behavior problems had a strong relationship with performance on the Ravens. Stimulant consumption and media use before bed revealed strong relationships with TST and bedtimes on weekdays. Crucially, mediation analyses confirmed that both caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bedtime were negatively associated with academic performance, via the mediating pathway by affecting sleep. Exercise was not associated with any of the sleep variables, but was associated with better academic performance. The current findings highlight that, now more than ever, parents, schools and policy makers must be aware of the negative effects of caffeinated substances marketed to students, and electronic media use on their sleep habits. Our findings suggest that targeting caffeine consumption and electronic media use before bed may represent effective routes in alleviating modern teenage sleep debt, and in

  4. Actigraphy combined with EEG compared to polysomnography in sleep apnea patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fietze, Ingo; Penzel, Thomas; Partinen, Markku; Sauter, Jochen; Küchler, Gert; Suvoro, Alexander; Hein, Holger

    2015-01-01

    An actigraph extended with electroencephalography (EEG), electroocculography (EOG) and electromyography (EMG) was compared to polysomnography in two studies on patients suffering from sleep disordered breathing. Study A with 30 subjects used a single lead EEG, and study B with 20 subjects used EOG and EMG in addition. Sleep was scored according to Rechtschaffen and Kales rules. Total sleep time (TST), sleep period time (SPT), sleep efficiency (SE), sustained sleep efficiency (SSE), sleep-onset latency (SL), and sleep stages were compared. For study A an epoch-by-epoch comparison of sleep stages revealed an overall agreement of 74.2%. Correlations were high for SE (0.98, p < 0.001), SSE (0.98, p < 0.001), TST (0.99, p < 0.001), SPT (0.99, p < 0.001), and SL (0.98, p < 0.001). Regarding the sleep stages, correlations were high for rapid eye movement (REM) (0.83, p < 0.001), light-sleep (0.78, p < 0.001), and deep sleep (0.73, p < 0.001). For study B, results of an epoch-by-epoch comparison of sleep stages showed an overall agreement of 75.5%. Correlations were high for SE (0.98, p < 0.001), SSE (0.98, p < 0.001), TST (0.87, p < 0.001), SL (0.98, p < 0.001), SPT (0.94, p < 0.001), and for rapid eye movement (REM) (0.91, p < 0.001), light-sleep (0.74, p < 0.001), and deep sleep (0.89, p < 0.001). In summary the study revealed high agreement between polysomnography and single lead EEG in sleep apnea patients. Deviations for REM were slightly higher for the single lead EEG compared to single lead EEG plus EOG/EMG. Both simplified systems proved to be reliable for comfortable out-patient sleep recording. (paper)

  5. Sleep deprivation and injuries in part-time Kentucky farmers: impact of self reported sleep habits and sleep problems on injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Susan E; Browning, Steven R; Reed, Deborah B

    2004-09-01

    Part-time farmers who hold off-farm jobs may be at risk for injuries because of impaired performance resulting from inadequate sleep. For this study, 1004 part-time male Kentucky farmers completed a telephone interview for the 1994 to 1995 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-funded Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Project. Questions were included about demographics, sleep habits, and injury occurrence. Twelve percent of the farmers reported an injury requiring medical intervention in the previous year. Farmers reported sleeping an average of 7.6 hours daily. Approximately 6.7% of the sample had three symptoms of sleep apnea. Although hours of sleep were not related to injury incidence, sleep medication use (odds ratio [OR] = 2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01 to 4.40) and presence of three sleep apnea symptoms (OR = 2.48, 95% CI = 1.13 to 5.41) were related to injury incidence. These data support the need for further research to examine sleep habits and promote strategies that reduce the risk for injuries caused by lack of sleep.

  6. The Sleep-Time Cost of Parenting: Sleep Duration and Sleepiness Among Employed Parents in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Erika W.; Mirer, Anna G.; Palta, Mari; Peppard, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Insufficient sleep is associated with poor health and increased mortality. Studies on whether parenthood (including consideration of number and ages of children) is associated with sleep duration or sleep problems are scant and inconclusive. Using data collected in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study (n = 4,809) between 1989 and 2008, we examined cross-sectional associations of number and ages of children with self-reported parental sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and dozing among employed adults. Longitudinal change in sleep duration over 19 years was examined to evaluate changes in parental sleep associated with children transitioning into adulthood (n = 833). Each child under age 2 years was associated with 13 fewer minutes of parental sleep per day (95% confidence interval (CI): 5, 21); each child aged 2–5 years was associated with 9 fewer minutes of sleep (95% CI: 5, 13); and each child aged 6–18 years was associated with 4 fewer minutes (95% CI: 2, 6). Adult children were not associated with shorter parental sleep duration. Parents of children over age 2 years were significantly more likely to experience daytime sleepiness and dozing during daytime activities. Parents of minor children at baseline had significantly greater increases in sleep duration over 19 years of follow-up. Parenting minor children is associated with shorter sleep duration. As children age into adulthood, the sleep duration of parents with more children approaches that of parents with fewer children. PMID:23378502

  7. Accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns: the effects of shifting the timing of sleep on training effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Shattuck, Lawrence G

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns by altering the timing of the major sleep period of US Army recruits. The quasi-experimental study compared recruits assigned to one of two training companies: one with a customary sleep regimen (20:30 to 04:30) while the other employed a phase-delayed sleep regimen (23:00 to 07:00), the latter aligning better with biologically driven sleep-wake patterns of adolescents. The study was conducted during Basic Combat Training (BCT) at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. TRAINEES: The study included 392 trainees: 209 received the intervention, while 183 composed the Comparison group. Demographic and psychophysiological measures were collected on all trainees. Weekly assessments of subjective fatigue and mood, periodic physical fitness, marksmanship scores, and attrition rates from BCT were studied. Actigraphy was collected on approximately 24% of trainees. Based on actigraphy, trainees on the phase-delayed sleep schedule obtained 31 m more sleep/night than trainees on the customary sleep schedule. The Intervention group reported less total mood disturbance relative to baseline. Improvements in marksmanship correlated positively with average nightly sleep during the preceding week when basic marksmanship skills were taught. No differences were seen in physical fitness or attrition rates. In contrast to the Intervention group, the Comparison group was 2.3 times more likely to experience occupationally significant fatigue and 5.5 times more likely to report poor sleep quality. Accommodating adolescent sleep patterns significantly improves mental health and performance in the training environment.

  8. Sleep on Long Haul Layovers and Pilot Fatigue at the Start of the Next Duty Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrave, Jan; Wu, Lora J; van den Berg, Margo; Signal, T Leigh; Gander, Philippa H

    2018-01-01

    Layovers are critical for pilot recovery between flights and minimum layover durations are required by regulation. However, research on the factors affecting layover sleep and safety performance indicators (SPIs) before subsequent flights is relatively sparse. The present project combined data from 6 studies, including 8 long-range and 5 ultra-long range out-and-back trips across a range of different layover destinations (299 pilots in 4-person crews, 410 layovers, 1-3 d layover duration). Sleep was monitored via actigraphy from 3 d pre-trip to at least 3 d post-trip. Pilots rated their sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, KSS) and fatigue (Samn-Perelli scale, SP) at duty start for the inbound flight. Mixed model ANOVAs identified independent associations between fatigue and sleepiness SPIs and operational factors (domicile time of duty start for the inbound flight in six 4-h bins, layover duration, and total sleep time (TST) in the 24 h prior to inbound duty start). TST was greatest on layovers ending between 1200-1559 domicile time (time in the city from which the outbound flight departed) and TST was a significant predictor of both KSS and SP ratings at duty start for the inbound flight. TST in the 24 h prior to the inbound flight was greatest when duty start time allowed for the inclusion of a full domicile night time period. In this dataset, circadian end-time of layovers is a key determinant of pilot fatigue status at the beginning of the inbound duty period.Cosgrove J, Wu LJ, van den Berg M, Signal TL, Gander PH. Sleep on long haul layovers and pilot fatigue at the start of the next duty period. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):19-25.

  9. Adolescents' technology and face-to-face time use predict objective sleep outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Royette; Heissel, Jennifer A; Sladek, Michael R; Grant, Kathryn E; Adam, Emma K

    2017-08-01

    The present study examined both within- and between-person associations between adolescents' time use (technology-based activities and face-to-face interactions with friends and family) and sleep behaviors. We also assessed whether age moderated associations between adolescents' time use with friends and family and sleep. Adolescents wore an actigraph monitor and completed brief evening surveys daily for 3 consecutive days. Adolescents (N=71; mean age=14.50 years old, SD=1.84; 43.7% female) were recruited from 3 public high schools in the Midwest. We assessed 8 technology-based activities (eg, texting, working on a computer), as well as time spent engaged in face-to-face interactions with friends and family, via questions on adolescents' evening surveys. Actigraph monitors assessed 3 sleep behaviors: sleep latency, sleep hours, and sleep efficiency. Hierarchical linear models indicated that texting and working on the computer were associated with shorter sleep, whereas time spent talking on the phone predicted longer sleep. Time spent with friends predicted shorter sleep latencies, while family time predicted longer sleep latencies. Age moderated the association between time spent with friends and sleep efficiency, as well as between family time and sleep efficiency. Specifically, longer time spent interacting with friends was associated with higher sleep efficiency but only among younger adolescents. Furthermore, longer family time was associated with higher sleep efficiency but only for older adolescents. Findings are discussed in terms of the importance of regulating adolescents' technology use and improving opportunities for face-to-face interactions with friends, particularly for younger adolescents. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the day, even if you have had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. The most common kinds are Insomnia - a hard time falling or staying asleep Sleep apnea - breathing interruptions during sleep Restless legs syndrome - ...

  11. Reduction in time-to-sleep through EEG based brain state detection and audio stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo Zhang; Cuntai Guan; Ti Eu Chan; Juanhong Yu; Aung Aung Phyo Wai; Chuanchu Wang; Haihong Zhang

    2015-08-01

    We developed an EEG- and audio-based sleep sensing and enhancing system, called iSleep (interactive Sleep enhancement apparatus). The system adopts a closed-loop approach which optimizes the audio recording selection based on user's sleep status detected through our online EEG computing algorithm. The iSleep prototype comprises two major parts: 1) a sleeping mask integrated with a single channel EEG electrode and amplifier, a pair of stereo earphones and a microcontroller with wireless circuit for control and data streaming; 2) a mobile app to receive EEG signals for online sleep monitoring and audio playback control. In this study we attempt to validate our hypothesis that appropriate audio stimulation in relation to brain state can induce faster onset of sleep and improve the quality of a nap. We conduct experiments on 28 healthy subjects, each undergoing two nap sessions - one with a quiet background and one with our audio-stimulation. We compare the time-to-sleep in both sessions between two groups of subjects, e.g., fast and slow sleep onset groups. The p-value obtained from Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test is 1.22e-04 for slow onset group, which demonstrates that iSleep can significantly reduce the time-to-sleep for people with difficulty in falling sleep.

  12. Initial results from the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Kasuya, N.

    2001-01-01

    A new spherical tokamak TST-2 was constructed at the University of Tokyo and started operation in September 1999. Reliable plasma initiation is achieved with typically 1 kW of ECH power at 2.45 GHz. Plasma currents of up to 90 kA and toroidal fields of up to 0.2 T have been achieved during the initial experimental campaign. The ion temperature is typically 100 eV. Internal reconnection events (IREs) are often observed. The internal magnetic field measured at r/a=2/3 indicated growth of fluctuations up to the 4 th harmonic, suggesting the existence of modes with several different mode numbers. In the presence of a toroidal field and a vertically oriented mirror field, noninductively driven currents of order 1 kA were observed with 1 kW of ECH power. The driven current increased with decreasing filling pressure, down to 3x10 -6 torr. A study of high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) excitation and propagation has begun. Initial results indicate highly efficient wave launching. (author)

  13. The Impact of Sleep Timing, Sleep Duration, and Sleep Quality on Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation amongst Japanese Freshmen: The EQUSITE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atin Supartini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bedtime, wake time, sleep duration, sleep-onset latency, and sleep quality on depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation amongst Japanese freshmen. Methods. This cross-sectional data was derived from the baseline survey of the Enhancement of Q-University Students Intelligence (EQUSITE study conducted from May to June, 2010. A total of 2,631 participants were recruited and completed the following self-reported questionnaires: the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, and the original Health Support Questionnaires developed by the EQUSITE study research team. Results. Of 1,992 participants eligible for analysis, 25.5% (n=507 reported depressive symptoms (CES-D total score ≥ 16, and 5.8% (n=115 reported suicidal ideation. The present study showed that late bedtime (later than 01:30, sleep-onset latency (≥30 minutes, and poor sleep quality showed a marginally significant association with depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality was seen to predict suicidal ideation even after adjusting for depressive symptoms. Conclusion. The current study has important implications for the role of bedtime in the prevention of depressive symptoms. Improving sleep quality may prevent the development of depressive symptoms and reduce the likelihood of suicidal ideation.

  14. Sleep timing is more important than sleep length or quality for medical school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genzel, L.K.E.; Ahrberg, K.; Roselli, C.; Niedermaier, S.; Steiger, A.; Dresler, M.; Roenneberg, T.

    2013-01-01

    Overwhelming evidence supports the importance of sleep for memory consolidation. Medical students are often deprived of sufficient sleep due to large amounts of clinical duties and university load, we therefore investigated how study and sleep habits influence university performance. We performed a

  15. Sleep benefit in Parkinson's disease: time to revive an enigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gilst, Merel M; Louter, Maartje; Baumann, Christian R; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Overeem, Sebastiaan

    2012-01-01

    Some patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) reportedly experience 'sleep benefit': an improved motor functioning upon awaking in the morning. In this questionnaire study, 114 out of 243 consecutive outpatients with PD (46.9%) subjectively experienced sleep benefit. Among those patients that regularly took an afternoon nap, 33.7% experienced sleep benefit after the nap as well. Between patients with and without sleep benefit, there were no differences in demographic or clinical variables, including age, disease duration, dopaminergic treatment, and nocturnal sleep quality. Sleep benefit remains an intriguing but elusive phenomenon, which deserves renewed attention and further research.

  16. Prevalence of abnormal sleep duration and excessive daytime sleepiness in pregnancy and the role of socio-demographic factors: comparing pregnant women with women in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, T Leigh; Paine, Sarah-Jane; Sweeney, Bronwyn; Priston, Monique; Muller, Diane; Smith, Alexander; Lee, Kathryn A; Huthwaite, Mark; Reid, Papaarangi; Gander, Philippa

    2014-12-01

    To compare the prevalence of self-reported abnormal sleep duration and excessive daytime sleepiness in pregnancy among Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and non-Māori women versus the general population, and to examine the influence of socio-demographic factors. Self-reported total sleep time (TST) in 24-hrs, Epworth Sleepiness Scale scores and socio-demographic information were obtained from nullipara and multipara women aged 20-46 yrs at 35-37 weeks pregnant (358 Māori and 717 non-Māori), and women in the general population (381 Māori and 577 non-Māori). After controlling for ethnicity, age, socio-economic status, and employment status, pregnant women average 30 min less TST than women in the general population. The distribution of TST was also greater in pregnant women, who were 3 times more likely to be short sleepers (≤6 h) and 1.9 times more likely to be long sleepers (>9 h). In addition, pregnant women were 1.8 times more likely to report excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Pregnant women >30 years of age experienced greater age-related declines in TST. Identifying as Māori, being unemployed, and working at night increased the likelihood of reporting abnormal sleep duration across all women population in this study. EDS also more likely occurred among Māori women and women who worked at night. Pregnancy increases the prevalence of abnormal sleep duration and EDS, which are also higher among Māori than non-Māori women and those who do night work. Health professionals responsible for the care of pregnant women need to be well-educated about the importance of sleep and discuss sleep issues with the women they care for. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in sleep time and sleep quality across the ovulatory cycle as a function of fertility and partner attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke N Gentle

    Full Text Available Research suggests that near ovulation women tend to consume fewer calories and engage in more physical activity; they are judged to be more attractive, express greater preferences for masculine and symmetrical men, and experience increases in sexual desire for men other than their primary partners. Some of these cycle phase shifts are moderated by partner attractiveness and interpreted as strategic responses to women's current reproductive context. The present study investigated changes in sleep across the ovulatory cycle, based on the hypothesis that changes in sleep may reflect ancestral strategic shifts of time and energy toward reproductive activities. Participants completed a 32-day daily diary in which they recorded their sleep time and quality for each day, yielding over 1,000 observations of sleep time and quality. Results indicated that, when the probability of conception was high, women partnered with less attractive men slept more, while women with more attractive partners slept less.

  18. Mental time travel to the future might be reduced in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speth, Jana; Schloerscheidt, Astrid M; Speth, Clemens

    2017-02-01

    We present a quantitative study of mental time travel to the future in sleep. Three independent, blind judges analysed a total of 563 physiology-monitored mentation reports from sleep onset, REM sleep, non-REM sleep, and waking. The linguistic tool for the mentation report analysis is based on established grammatical and cognitive-semantic theories and has been validated in previous studies. Our data indicate that REM and non-REM sleep must be characterized by a reduction in mental time travel to the future, which would support earlier physiological evidence at the level of brain function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Exposure to Dim Light at Night on Sleep in Female and Comparison with Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chul-Hyun; Yoon, Ho-Kyoung; Kang, Seung-Gul; Kim, Leen; Lee, Eun-Il; Lee, Heon-Jeong

    2018-03-19

    Light pollution has become a social and health issue. We performed an experimental study to investigate impact of dim light at night (dLAN) on sleep in female subjects, with measurement of salivary melatonin. The 25 female subjects (Group A: 12; Group B: 13 subjects) underwent a nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) session with no light (Night 1) followed by an NPSG session randomly assigned to two conditions (Group A: 5; Group B: 10 lux) during a whole night of sleep (Night 2). Salivary melatonin was measured before and after sleep on each night. For further investigation, the female and male subjects of our previous study were collected (48 subjects), and differences according to gender were compared. dLAN during sleep was significantly associated with decreased total sleep time (TST; F=4.818, p=0.039), sleep efficiency (SE; F=5.072, p=0.034), and Stage R latency (F=4.664, p=0.041) for female subjects, and decreased TST (F=14.971, pfemale as well as in merged subjects. REM sleep showed a pronounced increase under 10 lux than under 5 lux in merged subjects, suggesting the possibility of subtle influences of dLAN on REM sleep.

  20. Habitual short sleep impacts frontal switch mechanism in attention to novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Roth, Thomas; Korzyukov, Oleg; Jefferson, Catherine; Bowyer, Susan; Drake, Christopher L

    2011-12-01

    Reduced time in bed relative to biological sleep need is common. The impact of habitual short sleep on auditory attention has not been studied to date. In the current study, we utilized novelty oddball tasks to evaluate the effect of habitual short sleep on brain function underlying attention control processes measured by the mismatch negativity (MMN, index of pre-attentive stage), P3a (attention-dependent), and P3b (memory-dependent) event related brain potentials (ERPs). An extended time in bed in a separate study was used to evaluate the possible reversal of the impairments of these processes in habitual short sleepers. Ten self-defined short sleepers (total sleep time [TST] ≤ 6 h) and 9 normal-sleeping subjects with TST 7-8 h, participated. ERPs were recorded via a 64-channel EEG system. Two test conditions: "ignore" and "attend" were implemented. The ERPs were analyzed and compared between groups on the 2 task conditions and frontal/central/parietal electrodes by 3-factor ANOVA. Sleep diary data were compared between groups by t-test. Sleep was recorded by the Zeo sleep monitoring system for a week in both habitual and extended sleep conditions at home. The main findings of the present study show that short sleeping individuals had deficiency in activity of the MMN and P3a brain responses over frontal areas compared to normal-sleeping subjects. The P3b amplitude was increased over frontal areas and decreased over parietal with respect to the control group. Extension of time in bed for one week increased TST (from 5.7 h to 7.4 h), and concomitantly MMN amplitude increased from -0.1 μV up to -1.25 μV over frontal areas. Reduced time in bed is associated with deficiency of the neuronal process associated with change detection, which may recover after one week of sleep extension, whereas attention-dependent neural processes do not normalize after this period of time in habitually short sleeping individuals and may require longer recovery periods.

  1. The influence of school time on sleep patterns of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carissimi, Alicia; Dresch, Fabiane; Martins, Alessandra Castro; Levandovski, Rosa Maria; Adan, Ana; Natale, Vincenzo; Martoni, Monica; Hidalgo, Maria Paz

    2016-03-01

    This epidemiological study evaluated the impact of school time on sleep parameters of children and adolescents. This cross-sectional study involved 639 elementary and high school students (mean age 13.03 years, range 8-18, 58.5% female) from the south of Brazil. Participants answered the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and were asked about their sleeping habits on weekdays and weekends. Sleep deficit was defined as the difference between sleep duration on weekdays and weekends. The morning-school-time students presented significantly higher age, bedtime and wake up differences, sleep deficits, and social jetlag. The sleep deficit presented by girls was greater than that observed in boys of the same age. The difference between weekday and weekend waking times was also significantly greater in girls than in boys aged 13-18 years. Sleep deficit was significantly positively correlated with age and differences in wake up times, and significantly negatively correlated with MEQ scores, social jetlag, difference between weekday and weekend bedtimes, midpoint of sleep on weekends, and midpoint of sleep on weekends corrected for sleep deficit. A step-by-step multivariate logistic regression identified social jetlag, the difference between waking times on weekdays and weekends, and the midpoint of sleep on weekends as significant predictors of sleep deficit (Adjusted R(2) = 0.95; F = 1606.87; p school time influences the sleep parameters. The association of school schedules and physiological factors influence the sleep/wake cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Irregular sleep/wake patterns are associated with poorer academic performance and delayed circadian and sleep/wake timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew J K; Clerx, William M; O'Brien, Conor S; Sano, Akane; Barger, Laura K; Picard, Rosalind W; Lockley, Steven W; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Czeisler, Charles A

    2017-06-12

    The association of irregular sleep schedules with circadian timing and academic performance has not been systematically examined. We studied 61 undergraduates for 30 days using sleep diaries, and quantified sleep regularity using a novel metric, the sleep regularity index (SRI). In the most and least regular quintiles, circadian phase and light exposure were assessed using salivary dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) and wrist-worn photometry, respectively. DLMO occurred later (00:08 ± 1:54 vs. 21:32 ± 1:48; p sleep propensity rhythm peaked later (06:33 ± 0:19 vs. 04:45 ± 0:11; p academic performance and SRI was observed. These findings show that irregular sleep and light exposure patterns in college students are associated with delayed circadian rhythms and lower academic performance. Moreover, the modeling results reveal that light-based interventions may be therapeutically effective in improving sleep regularity in this population.

  3. Impact of sleep disordered breathing on behaviour among elementary school-aged children: a cross-sectional analysis of a large community-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dale L; Gozal, David; Hunter, Scott J; Philby, Mona F; Kaylegian, Jaeson; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila

    2016-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children has been associated with inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity, but the associations between SDB severity and the type and severity of behavioural disruption are unclear.1022 children aged 5-7 years old prospectively underwent sleep studies and behavioural assessments through completion of standardised instruments. Participants were subdivided into four categorical groups based on the apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI; measured per hour of total sleep time (hTST)), i.e. Group 1: nonsnoring and AHI hTST -1 ; Group 2: habitual snoring and AHI hTST -1 ; Group 3: habitual snoring and AHI 1-5 hTST -1 ; and Group 4: habitual snoring and AHI >5 hTST -1 , followed by comparisons of behavioural functioning across the groups.All 10 behavioural variables differed significantly between Group 1 and all other groups. Post hoc comparisons indicated that Group 2 was the most impaired for most behavioural measures. Furthermore, differences between Group 2 and more severe sleep pathology conditions were rarely significant.This large community-based paediatric cohort confirms earlier findings highlighting a significant impact of SDB on behavioural regulation, with the greatest impact being already apparent among habitually snoring children. Thus, a likely low asymptote exists regarding SDB behavioural impact, such that further increases in severity do not measurably increase parent-rated difficulties with behavioural regulation relative to controls. Our findings do support the need for considering early intervention, particularly among those children manifesting a behavioural impact of SDB. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Differentially Elevated in Objective Versus Habitual Subjective Reduced Sleep Duration in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Theresanne; Ghoul, Rawad El; Wang, Lu; Bena, James; Hazen, Stanley L; Tracy, Russel; Patel, Sanjay R; Auckley, Dennis; Mehra, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Data have demonstrated adverse health effects of sleep deprivation. We postulate that oxidative stress and systemic inflammation biomarkers will be elevated in relation to short-term and long-term sleep duration reduction. We analyzed data from the baseline examination of a randomized controlled trial involving participants with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Baseline polysomnography provided the total sleep time (PSG-TST, primary predictor); self-reported habitual sleep duration (SR-HSD) data was collected. Morning measures of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation included: myeloperoxidase (MPO, pmol/L), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, U/L), F2-isoprostane (ng/mg), paraoxonase 1 (PON1, nmol·min(-1)·mL(-1)), and aryl esterase (μmol·min(-1)·mL(-1)). Linear models adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), cardiovascular disease (CVD), smoking, statin/anti-inflammatory medications, and apnea-hypopnea index were utilized (beta estimates and 95% confidence intervals). One hundred forty-seven participants comprised the final analytic sample; they were overall middle-aged (51.0 ± 11.7 y), obese (BMI = 37.3 ± 8.1 kg/m(2)), and 17% had CVD. Multivariable models demonstrated a significant inverse association of PSG-TST and MPO (β [95% CI] = -20.28 [-37.48, -3.08], P = 0.021), i.e., 20.3 pmol/L MPO reduction per hour increase PSG-TST. Alternatively, a significant inverse association with ox-LDL and SR-HSD was observed (β [95% CI] = 0.98 [0.96, 0.99], P = 0.027), i.e., 2% ox-LDL reduction per hour increase SR-HSD. Even after consideration of obesity and OSA severity, inverse significant findings were observed such that reduced PSG-TST was associated with elevated MPO levels and SR-HSD with ox-LDL, suggesting differential up-regulation of oxidative stress and pathways of inflammation in acute versus chronic sleep curtailment. NIH clinical trials registry number NCT00607893. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Actigraphic Sleep Duration and Fragmentation in Older Women: Associations With Performance Across Cognitive Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, Adam P; Stone, Katie L; Redline, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Cauley, Jane A; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-08-01

    To determine the association of actigraphic sleep duration and fragmentation with cognition in community-dwelling older women. We studied 782 women (mean age = 87.4) of varied cognitive status from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures who completed wrist actigraphy and the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), California Verbal Learning Test-II-Short Form, digit span, verbal fluency tests, and the Trailmaking Test, Part B (Trails B). Total sleep time (TST) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) tertiles were our primary predictors. There were few significant associations in adjusted analyses. Compared to women with intermediate TST (mean = 430.1 minutes), those with the longest (508.7 minutes) had significantly poorer performance on the 3MS and phonemic and semantic fluency. Compared to women with the least WASO (31.5 minutes), those in the middle tertile (61.5 minutes) had significantly poorer delayed recall and those in the middle tertile and highest tertile (126.2 minutes) had poorer total recall and semantic fluency. We observed significant adjusted associations of TST with impaired 3MS performance and of WASO with impaired delayed recall, semantic fluency, and digit span. After excluding participants with adjudicated dementia diagnoses or indeterminate cognitive status, some adjusted associations remained but decreased in magnitude, others became nonsignificant, and a new association emerged. In community-dwelling older women, longer objectively measured sleep duration and greater sleep fragmentation are associated with poorer performance and impairment in only a subset of cognitive domains. Some of these associations may be driven by women with dementia in whom disturbed sleep and cognitive performance share an underlying neuropathological basis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Sleep Research Society (SRS) 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. A longitudinal assessment of sleep timing, circadian phase, and phase angle of entrainment across human adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J Crowley

    Full Text Available The aim of this descriptive analysis was to examine sleep timing, circadian phase, and phase angle of entrainment across adolescence in a longitudinal study design. Ninety-four adolescents participated; 38 (21 boys were 9-10 years ("younger cohort" and 56 (30 boys were 15-16 years ("older cohort" at the baseline assessment. Participants completed a baseline and then follow-up assessments approximately every six months for 2.5 years. At each assessment, participants wore a wrist actigraph for at least one week at home to measure self-selected sleep timing before salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO phase - a marker of the circadian timing system - was measured in the laboratory. Weekday and weekend sleep onset and offset and weekend-weekday differences were derived from actigraphy. Phase angles were the time durations from DLMO to weekday sleep onset and offset times. Each cohort showed later sleep onset (weekend and weekday, later weekend sleep offset, and later DLMO with age. Weekday sleep offset shifted earlier with age in the younger cohort and later in the older cohort after age 17. Weekend-weekday sleep offset differences increased with age in the younger cohort and decreased in the older cohort after age 17. DLMO to sleep offset phase angle narrowed with age in the younger cohort and became broader in the older cohort. The older cohort had a wider sleep onset phase angle compared to the younger cohort; however, an age-related phase angle increase was seen in the younger cohort only. Individual differences were seen in these developmental trajectories. This descriptive study indicated that circadian phase and self-selected sleep delayed across adolescence, though school-day sleep offset advanced until no longer in high school, whereupon offset was later. Phase angle changes are described as an interaction of developmental changes in sleep regulation interacting with psychosocial factors (e.g., bedtime autonomy.

  7. Sociodemographic Characteristics and Waking Activities and their Role in the Timing and Duration of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Spaeth, Andrea M.; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Chronic sleep restriction is prevalent in the U.S. population and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The primary reasons for reduced sleep are unknown. Using population data on time use, we sought to identify individual characteristics and behaviors associated with short sleep that could be targeted for intervention programs. Design: Analysis of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). Setting: Cross-sectional annual survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Participants: Representative cohort (N = 124,517) of Americans 15 years and older surveyed between 2003 and 2011. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Telephone survey of activities over 24 hours. Relative to all other waking activities, paid work time was the primary waking activity exchanged for sleep. Time spent traveling, which included commuting to/from work, and immediate pre- and post-sleep activities (socializing, grooming, watching TV) were also reciprocally related to sleep duration. With every hour that work or educational training started later in the morning, sleep time increased by approximately 20 minutes. Working multiple jobs was associated with the highest odds for sleeping ≤ 6 hours on weekdays (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44; 1.81). Self-employed respondents were less likely to be short sleepers compared to private sector employees (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72; 0.95). Sociodemographic characteristics associated with paid work (age 25-64, male sex, high income, and employment per se) were consistently associated with short sleep. Conclusions: U.S. population time use survey findings suggest that interventions to increase sleep time should concentrate on delaying the morning start time of work and educational activities (or making them more flexible), increasing sleep opportunities, and shortening morning and evening commute times. Reducing the need for multiple jobs may increase sleep time, but economic disincentives from working fewer hours

  8. Workplace bullying, sleep problems and leisure-time physical activity: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger; Kolstad, Henrik A; Willert, Morten Vejs; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying and Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours per week spent on LTPA estimated the degree of physical activity. Workplace bullying at baseline (T1) was associated with awakening problems and lack of restful sleep at follow-up (T2) but not with overall sleep problems and disturbed sleep. T1-LTPA did not moderate the association between T1-workplace bullying and T2-sleep problems. We found support that workplace bullying is related to development of T2-sleep problems, but this association seems not to be modified by LTPA.

  9. Sleep quality in nurses: a randomized clinical trial of day and night shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shu-Fen; Chu, Hsin; Chung, Min-Huey; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Shiun; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2013-07-01

    The study investigated the number of days off nurses working night shifts need to recover their sleep quality to the level of daytime workers during their days off. This study included 30 day-shift nurses and 32 night-shift nurses. It was conducted as a randomized clinical trial in the medical and surgical wards of a medical center in northern Taiwan in May and June 2010 using sleep diaries and sleep parameters collected by actigraphy on different workdays and days off. On workdays, the night-shift group had significantly less total sleep time (TST) on Day 5 and significantly lower sleep efficiency (SE) on Day 3 than the day-shift group. TSTs of the two groups on days off were higher than those on workdays. On the 4th consecutive day off, higher TST, a decrease in WASO, and an increase in SE suggests that the night-shift group had recovered their sleep quality to the level of the day-shift group on their days off. The SE of the night-shift group exceeded that of the day-shift group after the 4th consecutive day off, though the difference was not statistically significant in the present study. Based on these data, it is recommended that night-shift workers arrange a period of at least 4 days off after 5 consecutive night shifts and at least 5 days off if the staff who have previously worked night shifts are being assigned a set of different shifts.

  10. An Objective Short Sleep Insomnia Disorder Subtype Is Associated With Reduced Brain Metabolite Concentrations In Vivo: A Preliminary Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher B; Rae, Caroline D; Green, Michael A; Yee, Brendon J; Gordon, Christopher J; D'Rozario, Angela L; Kyle, Simon D; Espie, Colin A; Grunstein, Ronald R; Bartlett, Delwyn J

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate brain metabolites in objective insomnia subtypes defined from polysomnography (PSG): insomnia with short sleep duration (I-SSD) and insomnia with normal sleep duration (I-NSD), relative to good sleeping controls (GSCs). PSG empirically grouped insomnia patients into I-SSD (n = 12: mean [SD] total sleep time [TST] = 294.7 minutes [30.5]) or I-NSD (n = 19: TST = 394.4 minutes [34.9]). 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) acquired in the left occipital cortex (LOCC), left prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex was used to determine levels of creatine, aspartate, glutamate, and glutamine (referenced to water). Glutathione, glycerophosphocholine, lactate, myoinositol, and N-acetylaspartate measurements were also obtained. Sixteen GSCs were included for comparison. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to evaluate differences in creatine, aspartate, glutamate, and glutamine. Aspartate and glutamine concentrations were reduced in the LOCC in I-SSD compared with I-NSD (both p sleep onset (r = -.40, p sleep study: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12612000050853. 12612000050853. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Middle school start times: the importance of a good night's sleep for young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Amy R; Spaulding, Noah L; Dandrow, Craig; Baroni, Elizabeth M

    2007-01-01

    With the onset of adolescence, teenagers require 9.2 hr of sleep and experience a delay in the timing of sleep. In the "real world" with early school start times, however, they report less sleep, striking differences between their school-weekend sleep schedules, and significant daytime sleepiness. Prior studies demonstrated that high schoolers with later school starts do not further delay bedtime but obtain more sleep due to later wake times. This study examined sleep-wake patterns of young adolescents attending urban, public middle schools with early (7:15 a.m.) versus late (8:37 a.m.) start times. Students (N = 205) were assessed at 2 time periods. Students at the late-starting school reported waking up over 1 hr later on school mornings and obtaining 50 min more sleep each night, less sleepiness, and fewer tardies than students at the early school. All students reported similar school-night bedtime, sleep hygiene practices, and weekend sleep schedules.

  12. Adolescents' sleep in low-stress and high-stress (exam) times: a prospective quasi-experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewald, Julia F; Meijer, Anne Marie; Oort, Frans J; Kerkhof, Gerard A; Bögels, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    This prospective quasi-experiment (N = 175; mean age = 15.14 years) investigates changes in adolescents' sleep from low-stress (regular school week) to high-stress times (exam week), and examines the (moderating) role of chronic sleep reduction, baseline stress, and gender. Sleep was monitored over three consecutive weeks using actigraphy. Adolescents' sleep was more fragmented during the high-stress time than during the low-stress time, meaning that individuals slept more restless during stressful times. However, sleep efficiency, total sleep time, and sleep onset latency remained stable throughout the three consecutive weeks. High chronic sleep reduction was related to later bedtimes, later sleep start times, later sleep end times, later getting up times, and more time spent in bed. Furthermore, low chronic sleep reduction and high baseline stress levels were related to more fragmented sleep during stressful times. This study shows that stressful times can have negative effects on adolescents' sleep fragmentation, especially for adolescents with low chronic sleep reduction or high baseline stress levels.

  13. Direct Measurements of Smartphone Screen-Time: Relationships with Demographics and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Matthew A; Bettencourt, Laura; Kaye, Leanne; Moturu, Sai T; Nguyen, Kaylin T; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Pletcher, Mark J; Marcus, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are increasingly integrated into everyday life, but frequency of use has not yet been objectively measured and compared to demographics, health information, and in particular, sleep quality. The aim of this study was to characterize smartphone use by measuring screen-time directly, determine factors that are associated with increased screen-time, and to test the hypothesis that increased screen-time is associated with poor sleep. We performed a cross-sectional analysis in a subset of 653 participants enrolled in the Health eHeart Study, an internet-based longitudinal cohort study open to any interested adult (≥ 18 years). Smartphone screen-time (the number of minutes in each hour the screen was on) was measured continuously via smartphone application. For each participant, total and average screen-time were computed over 30-day windows. Average screen-time specifically during self-reported bedtime hours and sleeping period was also computed. Demographics, medical information, and sleep habits (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI) were obtained by survey. Linear regression was used to obtain effect estimates. Total screen-time over 30 days was a median 38.4 hours (IQR 21.4 to 61.3) and average screen-time over 30 days was a median 3.7 minutes per hour (IQR 2.2 to 5.5). Younger age, self-reported race/ethnicity of Black and "Other" were associated with longer average screen-time after adjustment for potential confounders. Longer average screen-time was associated with shorter sleep duration and worse sleep-efficiency. Longer average screen-times during bedtime and the sleeping period were associated with poor sleep quality, decreased sleep efficiency, and longer sleep onset latency. These findings on actual smartphone screen-time build upon prior work based on self-report and confirm that adults spend a substantial amount of time using their smartphones. Screen-time differs across age and race, but is similar across socio-economic strata suggesting that

  14. Direct Measurements of Smartphone Screen-Time: Relationships with Demographics and Sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Christensen

    Full Text Available Smartphones are increasingly integrated into everyday life, but frequency of use has not yet been objectively measured and compared to demographics, health information, and in particular, sleep quality.The aim of this study was to characterize smartphone use by measuring screen-time directly, determine factors that are associated with increased screen-time, and to test the hypothesis that increased screen-time is associated with poor sleep.We performed a cross-sectional analysis in a subset of 653 participants enrolled in the Health eHeart Study, an internet-based longitudinal cohort study open to any interested adult (≥ 18 years. Smartphone screen-time (the number of minutes in each hour the screen was on was measured continuously via smartphone application. For each participant, total and average screen-time were computed over 30-day windows. Average screen-time specifically during self-reported bedtime hours and sleeping period was also computed. Demographics, medical information, and sleep habits (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI were obtained by survey. Linear regression was used to obtain effect estimates.Total screen-time over 30 days was a median 38.4 hours (IQR 21.4 to 61.3 and average screen-time over 30 days was a median 3.7 minutes per hour (IQR 2.2 to 5.5. Younger age, self-reported race/ethnicity of Black and "Other" were associated with longer average screen-time after adjustment for potential confounders. Longer average screen-time was associated with shorter sleep duration and worse sleep-efficiency. Longer average screen-times during bedtime and the sleeping period were associated with poor sleep quality, decreased sleep efficiency, and longer sleep onset latency.These findings on actual smartphone screen-time build upon prior work based on self-report and confirm that adults spend a substantial amount of time using their smartphones. Screen-time differs across age and race, but is similar across socio-economic strata

  15. Sociodemographic characteristics and waking activities and their role in the timing and duration of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F

    2014-12-01

    Chronic sleep restriction is prevalent in the U.S. population and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The primary reasons for reduced sleep are unknown. Using population data on time use, we sought to identify individual characteristics and behaviors associated with short sleep that could be targeted for intervention programs. Analysis of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). Cross-sectional annual survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Representative cohort (N = 124,517) of Americans 15 years and older surveyed between 2003 and 2011. None. Telephone survey of activities over 24 hours. Relative to all other waking activities, paid work time was the primary waking activity exchanged for sleep. Time spent traveling, which included commuting to/ from work, and immediate pre- and post-sleep activities (socializing, grooming, watching TV) were also reciprocally related to sleep duration. With every hour that work or educational training started later in the morning, sleep time increased by approximately 20 minutes. Working multiple jobs was associated with the highest odds for sleeping ≤6 hours on weekdays (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44; 1.81). Self-employed respondents were less likely to be short sleepers compared to private sector employees (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72; 0.95). Sociodemographic characteristics associated with paid work (age 25-64, male sex, high income, and employment per se) were consistently associated with short sleep. U.S. population time use survey findings suggest that interventions to increase sleep time should concentrate on delaying the morning start time of work and educational activities (or making them more flexible), increasing sleep opportunities, and shortening morning and evening commute times. Reducing the need for multiple jobs may increase sleep time, but economic disincentives from working fewer hours will need to be offset. Raising awareness of the importance of sufficient sleep for health and safety may

  16. Sleep restriction and degraded reaction-time performance in Figaro solo sailing races.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdiel, Rémy; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Aron, Christophe; McCauley, Peter; Jacolot, Laure; Theunynck, Denis

    2014-01-01

    In solo offshore sailing races like those of the Solitaire du Figaro, sleep must be obtained in multiple short bouts to maintain competitive performance and safety. Little is known about the amount of sleep restriction experienced at sea and the effects that fatigue from sleep loss have on sailors' performance. Therefore, we assessed sleep in sailors of yachts in the Figaro 2 Beneteau class during races and compared response times on a serial simple reaction-time test before and after races. Twelve men (professional sailors) recorded their sleep and measured their response times during one of the three single-handed races of 150, 300 and 350 nautical miles (nominally 24-50 h in duration). Total estimated sleep duration at sea indicated considerable sleep insufficiency. Response times were slower after races than before. The results suggest that professional sailors incur severe sleep loss and demonstrate marked performance impairment when competing in one- to two-day solo sailing races. Competitive performance could be improved by actively managing sleep during solo offshore sailing races.

  17. Time, not sleep, unbinds contexts from item memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cox, R.; Tijdens, R.R.; Meeter, M.; Sweegers, C.M.; Talamini, L.M.

    2014-01-01

    Contextual cues are known to benefit memory retrieval, but whether and how sleep affects this context effect remains unresolved. We manipulated contextual congruence during memory retrieval in human volunteers across 12 h and 24 h intervals beginning with either sleep or wakefulness. Our data

  18. Total sleep time, alcohol consumption, and the duration and severity of alcohol hangover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schrojenstein Lantman, Marith; Mackus, Marlou; Roth, Thomas; Verster, Joris C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/241442702

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: An evening of alcohol consumption often occurs at the expense of sleep time. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between total sleep time and the duration and severity of the alcohol hangover. METHODS: A survey was conducted among Dutch University students to

  19. Interactive vs passive screen time and nighttime sleep duration among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yland, Jennifer; Guan, Stanford; Emanuele, Erin; Hale, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Insufficient sleep among school-aged children is a growing concern, as numerous studies have shown that chronic short sleep duration increases the risk of poor academic performance and specific adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between weekday nighttime sleep duration and 3 types of screen exposure: television, computer use, and video gaming. We used age 9 data from an ethnically diverse national birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to assess the association between screen time and sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using screen time data reported by both the child (n = 3269) and by the child's primary caregiver (n= 2770). Within the child-reported models, children who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had shorter sleep duration by approximately 11 minutes per night compared to those who watched less than 2 hours of television (β = -0.18; P computer use were associated with reduced sleep duration. For both child- and parent-reported screen time measures, we did not find statistically significant differences in effect size across various types of screen time. Screen time from televisions and computers is associated with reduced sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using 2 sources of estimates of screen time exposure (child and parent reports). No specific type or use of screen time resulted in significantly shorter sleep duration than another, suggesting that caution should be advised against excessive use of all screens.

  20. The effect of sleep quality on academic performance is mediated by Internet use time: DADOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelantado-Renau, Mireia; Diez-Fernandez, Ana; Beltran-Valls, Maria Reyes; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego

    2018-05-19

    The aims of the present study were to analyze the association of sleep patterns with academic and cognitive performance in adolescents, and to test the potential mediating effect of different activities of screen media usage on this association. A sample of 269 adolescents (140 boys) aged 14 years from the baseline data of the Deporte, ADOlescencia y Salud study completed questionnaires about sleep quality, cognitive performance, and leisure-time sedentary behaviors. Sleep duration was objectively computed using a wrist-worn GENEActiv accelerometer and academic performance was analyzed through school records. Sleep quality (but not sleep duration) was associated with all the academic performance indicators (all p<0.05). Analysis of covariance revealed higher grades among adolescents with better sleep quality (PSQI≤5; all p<0.05). These analyses showed no differences regarding cognitive performance. Internet use time was revealed as a mediator of the association between sleep quality and academic performance, being significant for all academic performance indicators (P M ranging from 15.5% to 16.0%). The association between sleep quality and academic performance in adolescents is mediated by time of Internet use. Overall, reducing Internet use in adolescents could be an achievable intervention for improving sleep quality, with potentially positive effects on academic performance. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Patient-ventilator asynchrony, leaks and sleep in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijsen, Bart; Testelmans, Dries; Belge, Catharina; Vanpee, Goele; Van Damme, Philip; Buyse, Bertien

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis appears to be accompanied by a high patient-ventilator asynchrony (PVA) index. This prospective observational cohort study quantifies PVA and leaks, and searches for effects of these events on sleep after polysomnographic NIV titration. Full-video polysomnography, with incorporation of transcutaneous carbon dioxide and ventilator software, was used to analyse sleep epoch-by-epoch and respiratory events and PVA breath-by-breath in 35 patients (17 non-bulbar). After diagnostic polysomnography, NIV was titrated during three consecutive nights. Sleep, PVA and leaks were evaluated at discharge and after one month. Results showed that non-bulbar patients improved in sleep architecture and oxygen and carbon dioxide levels while bulbar patients only improved oxygen saturation. PVA remained present at discharge (non-bulbar 54 (21-101) and bulbar 31 (9-39)/h sleep) and one month (non-bulbar 31 (9-39) and bulbar 32 (17-55)/h sleep), with ineffective effort as most prominent asynchrony. Leaks also persisted after titration (non-bulbar 16.6 (3.1-44.6) and bulbar 5.1 (0.0-19.5)% of total sleep time (TST)) and one month (non-bulbar 7.7 (1.4-29.3) and bulbar 12.7 (0.0-35.2)% TST). PVA and leaks have none to minor effect on sleep architecture. In conclusion, although PVA and leaks remain present after meticulous NIV titration, these events seem not to interfere with sleep.

  2. Workplace bullying, sleep problems and leisure-time physical activity: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie

    2015-01-01

    and Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours......OBJECTIVES: Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively...... whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). METHODS: The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying...

  3. Sleep restriction may lead to disruption in physiological attention and reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbind Kumar Choudhary

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Sleepiness is the condition where for some reason fails to go into a sleep state and will have difficulty in remaining awake even while carrying out activities. Sleep restriction occurs when an individual fails to get enough sleep due to high work demands. The mechanism between sleep restriction and underlying brain physiology deficits is not well assumed. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mental attention (P300 and reaction time [visual (VRT and auditory (ART] among night watchmen, at subsequent; first (1st day, fourth (4th day and seventh (7th day of restricted sleep period. After exclusion and inclusion criteria, the study was performed among 50 watchmen (age=18–35 years (n=50 after providing written informed consent and divided into two group. Group I-(Normal sleep (n=28 working in day time and used to have normal sleep in night (≥8 h; Group II-(Restricted sleep (n=22 - working in night time and used to have less sleep in night (≤3 h. Statistical significance between the different groups was determined by the independent student ʻtʼ test and the significance level was fixed at p≤0.05. We observed that among all normal and restricted sleep watchmen there was not any significant variation in Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS score, VRT and ART, along with latency and amplitude of P300 on 1st day of restricted sleep. However at subsequent on 4th day and 7th day of restricted sleep, there was significant increase in (KSSscore, and prolongation of VRT and ART as well as alteration in latency and amplitude of P300 wave in restricted sleep watchmen when compare to normal sleep watchmen. The present finding concludes that loss of sleep has major impact in dynamic change in mental attention and reaction time among watchmen employed in night shift. Professional regulations and work schedules should integrate sleep schedules before and during the work period as an essential dimension for their healthy life.

  4. Sleep restriction may lead to disruption in physiological attention and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Kishanrao, Sadawarte Sahebrao; Dadarao Dhanvijay, Anup Kumar; Alam, Tanwir

    2016-01-01

    Sleepiness is the condition where for some reason fails to go into a sleep state and will have difficulty in remaining awake even while carrying out activities. Sleep restriction occurs when an individual fails to get enough sleep due to high work demands. The mechanism between sleep restriction and underlying brain physiology deficits is not well assumed. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mental attention (P300) and reaction time [visual (VRT) and auditory (ART)] among night watchmen, at subsequent; first (1st) day, fourth (4th) day and seventh (7th) day of restricted sleep period. After exclusion and inclusion criteria, the study was performed among 50 watchmen (age=18-35 years) (n=50) after providing written informed consent and divided into two group. Group I-(Normal sleep) (n=28) working in day time and used to have normal sleep in night (≥8 h); Group II-(Restricted sleep) (n=22) - working in night time and used to have less sleep in night (≤3 h). Statistical significance between the different groups was determined by the independent student ' t ' test and the significance level was fixed at p≤0.05. We observed that among all normal and restricted sleep watchmen there was not any significant variation in Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) score, VRT and ART, along with latency and amplitude of P300 on 1st day of restricted sleep. However at subsequent on 4th day and 7th day of restricted sleep, there was significant increase in (KSS)score, and prolongation of VRT and ART as well as alteration in latency and amplitude of P300 wave in restricted sleep watchmen when compare to normal sleep watchmen. The present finding concludes that loss of sleep has major impact in dynamic change in mental attention and reaction time among watchmen employed in night shift. Professional regulations and work schedules should integrate sleep schedules before and during the work period as an essential dimension for their healthy life.

  5. Performance on a simple response time task: Is sleep or work more important for miners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sally A; Paech, Gemma M; Dorrian, Jillian; Roach, Gregory D; Jay, Sarah M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate the impact of work- and sleep-related factors on an objective measure of response time in a field setting. Thirty-five mining operators working 12-h shift patterns completed daily sleep and work diaries, wore activity monitors continuously and completed palm-based psychomotor vigilance tests (palmPVT) at the start and end of each shift. Linear mixed models were used to test the main effects on response time of roster, timing of test, sleep history and prior wake. The time at which the test occurred was a significant predictor of response time (F₃(,)₄₀₃(.)₄ = 6.72, p times than the start of night shifts, and the start or end of day shifts. Further, the amount of sleep obtained in the 24h prior to the test was also a significant predictor of response time (F₃(,)₄₀₇(.)₀ = 3.05, p time indicative of performance impairments. Of more interest however is that immediate sleep history was also predictive of changes in response time with lower amounts of prior sleep related to slower response times. The current data provides further evidence that sleep is a primary mediator of performance, independent of roster pattern. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of delaying school start time on adolescent sleep, mood, and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Judith A; Belon, Katherine; Moss, Patricia

    2010-07-01

    To examine the impact of a 30-minute delay in school start time on adolescents' sleep, mood, and behavior. Participants completed the online retrospective Sleep Habits Survey before and after a change in school start time. An independent high school in Rhode Island. Students (n = 201) in grades 9 through 12. Intervention Institution of a delay in school start time from 8 to 8:30 am. Sleep patterns and behavior, daytime sleepiness, mood, data from the Health Center, and absences/tardies. After the start time delay, mean school night sleep duration increased by 45 minutes, and average bedtime advanced by 18 minutes (95% confidence interval, 7-29 minutes [t(423) = 3.36; P students getting less than 7 hours of sleep decreased by 79.4%, and those reporting at least 8 hours of sleep increased from 16.4% to 54.7%. Students reported significantly more satisfaction with sleep and experienced improved motivation. Daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and depressed mood were all reduced. Most health-related variables, including Health Center visits for fatigue-related complaints, and class attendance also improved. A modest delay in school start time was associated with significant improvements in measures of adolescent alertness, mood, and health. The results of this study support the potential benefits of adjusting school schedules to adolescents' sleep needs, circadian rhythm, and developmental stage.

  7. Long-Term Pain Treatment Did Not Improve Sleep in Nursing Home Patients with Comorbid Dementia and Depression: A 13-Week Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersti M. Blytt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previous research indicates that pain treatment may improve sleep among nursing home patients. We aimed to investigate the long-term effect of pain treatment on 24-h sleep patterns in patients with comorbid depression and dementia.Design: A 13-week, multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial conducted between August 2014 and September 2016.Setting: Long-term patients from 47 nursing homes in Norway.Participants: We included 106 patients with comorbid dementia and depression according to the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE and the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD.Intervention: Patients who were not using analgesics were randomized to receive either paracetamol (3 g/day or placebo tablets. Those who already received pain treatment were randomized to buprenorphine transdermal system (maximum 10 μg/h/7 days or placebo transdermal patches.Measurements: Sleep was assessed continuously for 7 days by actigraphy, at baseline and in week 13. Total sleep time (TST, sleep efficiency (SE, sleep onset latency (SOL, wake after sleep onset (WASO, early morning awakening (EMA, and number of wake bouts (NoW were evaluated. In addition, daytime total sleep time (DTS was estimated. Pain was assessed with Mobilization-Observation-Behavior-Intensity-Dementia-2 Pain Scale (MOBID-2.Results: The linear mixed model analyses for TST, SE, SOL, WASO, EMA, NoW and DTS showed no statistically significant differences between patients who received active pain treatment and those who received placebo. Post hoc subgroup analyses showed that there were no statistically significant differences between active treatment and placebo from baseline to week 13 in patients who were in pain (MOBID-2 ≥ 3 at baseline, or in patients who had poor sleep (defined as SE < 85% at baseline. Patients who received active buprenorphine showed an increase in TST and SE compared to those who received active paracetamol

  8. Delayed sleep timing and symptoms in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a controlled actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Karen L; May, Roberta S; Besing, Rachel C; Tankersly, Amelia P; Fargason, Rachel E

    2013-05-01

    Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit disrupted sleep and circadian rhythms. Determination of whether sleep disturbance and/or circadian disruption are differentially associated with symptom severity is necessary to guide development of future treatment strategies. Therefore, we measured sleep and ADHD symptoms in participants aged 19-65 who met the DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) criteria for ADHD and insomnia without psychiatric comorbidities by monitoring actigraphy and daily sleep logs for 2 wks, as well as the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the ADHD Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), and a clinic-designed sleep behavior questionnaire. Principal components analysis identified correlated circadian- and sleep-related variables in all participants with ADHD who completed the study (n = 24). The identified components were entered into a backwards stepwise linear regression analysis, which indicated that delayed sleep timing and increased sleepiness (ESS) (but not sleep duration or sleep efficiency) significantly predicted greater severity of both hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive ADHD symptoms (p sleep quality (PSQI scores; p sleep" compared with 57.2% and 50% of inattentive and symptom-controlled participants, respectively (p sleep timing and daytime sleepiness, suggesting that treatment interventions aimed at advancing circadian phase may improve daytime sleepiness. In addition, ADHD adults with combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive symptoms have decreased sleep quality as well as the delayed sleep timing of predominately inattentive subtypes.

  9. Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Pamela V.; Onyper, Serge V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. Methods: We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the “Owl-Lark” Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010–2011 through 2013–2014. Results: Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Conclusions: Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. Citation: Thacher PV, Onyper SV. Longitudinal outcomes of start time delay on sleep, behavior, and achievement in high school. SLEEP 2016;39(2):271–281. PMID

  10. Later school start time is associated with improved sleep and daytime functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boergers, Julie; Gable, Christopher J; Owens, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic insufficient sleep is a growing concern among adolescents and is associated with a host of adverse health consequences. Early school start times may be an environmental contributor to this problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a delay in school start time on sleep patterns, sleepiness, mood, and health-related outcomes. Boarding students (n = 197, mean age = 15.6 yr) attending an independent high school completed the School Sleep Habits Survey before and after the school start time was experimentally delayed from 8:00 a.m. to 8:25 a.m. The delay in school start time was associated with a significant (29 min) increase in sleep duration on school nights. The percentage of students receiving 8 or more hours of sleep on a school night increased to more than double, from 18% to 44%. Students in 9th and 10th grade and those with lower baseline sleep amounts were more likely to report improvements in sleep duration after the schedule change. Daytime sleepiness, depressed mood, and caffeine use were all significantly reduced after the delay in school start time. Sleep duration reverted to baseline levels when the original (earlier) school start time was reinstituted. A modest (25 min) delay in school start time was associated with significant improvements in sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, mood, and caffeine use. These findings have important implications for public policy and add to research suggesting the health benefits of modifying school schedules to more closely align with adolescents' circadian rhythms and sleep needs.

  11. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy…

  12. Relationship between Travel Time from Home to a Regional Sleep Apnea Clinic in British Columbia, Canada, and the Severity of Obstructive Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, A J M Hirsch; Amram, Ofer; Tavakoli, Hamid; Almeida, Fernanda R; Hamoda, Mona; Ayas, Najib T

    2016-05-01

    In the majority of people with obstructive sleep apnea, the disorder remains undiagnosed. This may be partly a result of inadequate access to diagnostic sleep services. We thus hypothesized that even modest travel times to a sleep clinic may delay diagnosis and reduce detection of milder disease. We sought to determine whether travel time between an individual's home and a sleep clinic is associated with sleep apnea severity at presentation. We recruited patients referred for suspected sleep apnea to the University of British Columbia Hospital Sleep Clinic between May 2003 and July 2011. The patient's place of residence was geocoded at the postal code level. Travel times between the population-weighted dissemination areas for each patient and the sleep clinic were calculated using ArcGIS (ESRI, Redlands, CA) network analyst and the Origin-Destination matrix function. All patients underwent full polysomnography. There were 1,275 patients; 69% were male, the mean age was 58 years. (SD = 11.9), and the mean apnea-hypopnea index was 22 per hour (SD = 21.6). In the univariate model, travel time was a significant predictor of obstructive sleep apnea severity (P = 0.02). After controlling for confounders including sex, age, obesity, and education, travel time remained a significant predictor of sleep apnea severity (P travel time was associated with an increase in the apnea-hypopnea index of 1.4 events per hour. For reasons that remain to be determined, travel times are associated with the severity of obstructive sleep apnea at presentation to a sleep clinic. If the results can be verified at other centers, this may help guide the geographic distribution of sleep centers within a health care system.

  13. Sleep duration and its association with demographics, lifestyle factors, poor mental health and chronic diseases in older Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Wu, Yanhua; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Forester, Brent P; Gatchel, Jennifer R; Chiu, Helen F K; Kou, Changgui; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the total sleep time (TST) and its associated factors in an older Chinese adult population. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. A total of 4,115 older adults aged 60 to 79 years were selected and interviewed. Sleep duration was classified as short (8h per day) and medium sleep (7-8h per day). The total mean sleep time was 6.86±1.75h. Short and long sleepers accounted for 45.2% and 14.8% of the sample, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that inadequate fruit intake and poor mental health were positively associated with short sleep, and married/cohabitation status and living in rural areas was negatively associated with short sleep. In addition, aged 75-79 years old, inadequate fruit intake, poor mental health and multi-morbidity were positively associated with long sleep. Ischemic heart disease, COPD and chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer were positively associated with short sleep duration, while hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases, and urolithiasis were positively associated with long sleep duration. Given the high frequency of aberrant sleep duration and its negative health impact, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in older people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Obesity among adolescents: sedentary leisure time and sleeping as determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Yiing Mei; Liou, Tsan-Hon; Chang, Lu-Chuan

    2010-06-01

    Over the past 30 years, the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents has nearly tripled. Physical inactivity, unbalanced diet, and unhealthy lifestyles may cause lifelong obesity. A representative, national cross-sectional study was carried out between 2006 and 2007 with 40 middle high schools with 384 classes. We used a three-stage stratified systematic sampling design with a probability proportionate to the size from the northern, middle, southern, and eastern areas in Taiwan. Questionnaires were completed by 8640 students (51.7% boys and 48.3% girls) aged between 13 and 16 years. Obesity was identified in 7.2% of the participants and 16.1% were overweight. Using stepwise logistic regression, we found that those whose fathers or mothers were obese, watched television for more than 2 hours/day on weekdays and slept for less than 7.75 hours/day at weekends had a statistically significantly greater risk of obesity (females: ORs = 3.4, 4.2, 1.8, and 4.2, respectively; P leisure time and help them have sufficient sleep. Nurses can play a key role in health promotion in relation to childhood and adolescent obesity.

  15. The relationship between complaints of night-time heartburn and sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, W C; Goodrich, S; Estep, M E; Shepherd, K

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the complaint of night-time heartburn (NHB) as opposed to daytime heartburn (DHB) is a reliable reflection of actual sleep-related reflux events. Three groups of individuals were studied: individuals with complaints of NHB at least twice per week (n = 24), individuals with complaints of DHB (n = 23), and normal participants without any complaints of regular heartburn during the day or night (n = 25). All three groups were studied on one occasion with combined pH monitoring and polysomnography, and subjective questionnaires about sleep disturbance and sleep quality were given to all participants. The NHB group had significantly more sleep-related reflux events compared with both DHB and control groups (P < 0.01). DHB subjects had significantly (P < 0.05) more sleep-related reflux events than normal controls. Total acid contact time (ACT) was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the NHB group compared with both the DHB and control group. Sleep-related ACT was also significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the NHB group compared with the other two groups, while upright (daytime) ACT was not significantly different. The NHB group was significantly (P < 0.05) worse regarding measures of both objective and subjective sleep quality. Subjects with exclusively DHB do have sleep-related reflux that is greater than normal controls. Subjects with NHB have significantly more sleep-related reflux, and both objective and subjective sleep abnormalities compared with normal controls. Complaints of NHB reflect sleep-related reflux events and may be indicative of a more clinically significant condition. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  16. Acute physical exercise under hypoxia improves sleep, mood and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino-Lemos, Valdir; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lira, Fabio S; Luz Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time.

  17. Using Mid-Sleep Time to Determine Chronotype in Young Adults with Insomnia-Related Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sooyeon Suh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ uses sleep behavior to assess chronotype, but the extent to which such sleep behavior based assessments might be useful in populations with sleep disorders, such as insomnia, is currently unclear. We thus systematically assessed sleep disorders, MCTQ and the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ, another behavioral preferencebased assessment of chronotype, in 310 individuals. In a smaller substudy (n = 121, we compared the MCTQ to sleep diaries in insomnia patients and good sleepers. Insomnia patients had overall lower consistency in chronotypes compared to good sleepers on the MCTQ compared to the MEQ, which was also evident when compared to sleep diaries. As insomnia disorder is characterized by time gaps spent awake during the night due to difficulty maintaining sleep, there may be limitations in using mid-sleep time as an accurate indicator of chronotype in insomnia patients. Our study suggests that the MCTQ should be used in conjunction with another existing questionnaire or assessment tool when assessing chronotype in insomnia patients.

  18. Associations between physical activity, sedentary time, sleep duration and daytime sleepiness in US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, James J; Lewin, Daniel S; Laposky, Aaron D; Kahle, Lisa; Berrigan, David

    2014-09-01

    To examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity (PA) or sedentary behavior and self-reported sleep duration or daytime sleepiness in a nationally representative sample of healthy US adults (N=2128). We report analyses of four aspects of sedentary behavior and PA derived from accelerometry data (minutes of sedentary time, activity counts/minute, Minutes of Moderate and Vigorous PA [MVPA], and MVPA in 10-minute bouts) versus self-report of sleep duration and frequency of daytime sleepiness from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Age and sex dependence of associations between PA and sleep were observed. Aspects of PA were significantly lower in adults reporting more frequent daytime sleepiness in younger (20-39) and older (≥ 60) age groups, but not in middle-aged (40-59), respondents. In younger respondents, PA increased with sleep duration, but in middle aged and older respondents PA was either unrelated to sleep duration or lower in those reporting ≥ 8 h of sleep. Objectively measured sedentary time showed limited evidence of associations with sleep duration. Further research delineating the relationships between sleep and PA is important because both activities have been implicated in diverse health outcomes as well as in the etiology of obesity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Cross-cultural differences in the sleep of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindell, Jodi A; Sadeh, Avi; Kwon, Robert; Goh, Daniel Y T

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to characterize cross-cultural sleep patterns and sleep problems in a large sample of preschool children ages 3-6years in multiple predominantly Asian (P-A) and predominantly Caucasian (P-C) countries/regions. Parents of 2590 preschool-aged children (P-A countries/regions: China, Hong Kong, India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand; P-C countries: Australia-New Zealand, Canada, United Kingdom, United States) completed an Internet-based expanded version of the Brief Child Sleep Questionnaire (BCSQ). Overall, children from P-A countries had significantly later bedtimes, shorter nighttime sleep, and increased parental perception of sleep problems compared with those from P-C countries. Bedtimes varied from as early as 7:43pm in Australia and New Zealand to as late as 10:26pm in India, a span of almost 3h. There also were significant differences in daytime sleep with the majority of children in P-A countries continuing to nap, resulting in no differences in 24-h total sleep times (TST) across culture and minimal differences across specific countries. Bed sharing and room sharing are common in P-A countries, with no change across the preschool years. There also were a significant percentage of parents who perceived that their child had a sleep problem (15% in Korea to 44% in China). Overall, our results indicate significant cross-cultural differences in sleep patterns, sleeping arrangements, and parent-reported sleep problems in preschool-aged children. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying bases for these differences and especially for contributors to parents' perceptions of sleep problems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Light-cone reduction vs. TsT transformations: a fluid dynamics perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suvankar; Krishna, Hare

    2018-05-01

    We compute constitutive relations for a charged (2+1) dimensional Schrödinger fluid up to first order in derivative expansion, using holographic techniques. Starting with a locally boosted, asymptotically AdS, 4 + 1 dimensional charged black brane geometry, we uplift that to ten dimensions and perform TsT transformations to obtain an effective five dimensional local black brane solution with asymptotically Schrödinger isometries. By suitably implementing the holographic techniques, we compute the constitutive relations for the effective fluid living on the boundary of this space-time and extract first order transport coefficients from these relations. Schrödinger fluid can also be obtained by reducing a charged relativistic conformal fluid over light-cone. It turns out that both the approaches result the same system at the end. Fluid obtained by light-cone reduction satisfies a restricted class of thermodynamics. Here, we see that the charged fluid obtained holographically also belongs to the same restricted class.

  1. Clusters of Insomnia Disorder: An Exploratory Cluster Analysis of Objective Sleep Parameters Reveals Differences in Neurocognitive Functioning, Quantitative EEG, and Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher B; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Mullins, Anna E; Dodds, Kirsty L; Gordon, Christopher J; Kyle, Simon D; Kim, Jong Won; D'Rozario, Angela L; Lee, Rico S C; Comas, Maria; Marshall, Nathaniel S; Yee, Brendon J; Espie, Colin A; Grunstein, Ronald R

    2016-11-01

    To empirically derive and evaluate potential clusters of Insomnia Disorder through cluster analysis from polysomnography (PSG). We hypothesized that clusters would differ on neurocognitive performance, sleep-onset measures of quantitative ( q )-EEG and heart rate variability (HRV). Research volunteers with Insomnia Disorder (DSM-5) completed a neurocognitive assessment and overnight PSG measures of total sleep time (TST), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency (SOL) were used to determine clusters. From 96 volunteers with Insomnia Disorder, cluster analysis derived at least two clusters from objective sleep parameters: Insomnia with normal objective sleep duration (I-NSD: n = 53) and Insomnia with short sleep duration (I-SSD: n = 43). At sleep onset, differences in HRV between I-NSD and I-SSD clusters suggest attenuated parasympathetic activity in I-SSD (P insomnia clusters derived from cluster analysis differ in sleep onset HRV. Preliminary data suggest evidence for three clusters in insomnia with differences for sustained attention and sleep-onset q -EEG. Insomnia 100 sleep study: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) identification number 12612000049875. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=347742. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. Direct Measurements of Smartphone Screen-Time: Relationships with Demographics and Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Matthew A.; Bettencourt, Laura; Kaye, Leanne; Moturu, Sai T.; Nguyen, Kaylin T.; Olgin, Jeffrey E.; Pletcher, Mark J.; Marcus, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Smartphones are increasingly integrated into everyday life, but frequency of use has not yet been objectively measured and compared to demographics, health information, and in particular, sleep quality. Aims The aim of this study was to characterize smartphone use by measuring screen-time directly, determine factors that are associated with increased screen-time, and to test the hypothesis that increased screen-time is associated with poor sleep. Methods We performed a cross-sectio...

  3. The Time Course of the Probability of Transition Into and Out of REM Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Alejandro; Vivaldi, Ennio A.; Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: A model of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep expression is proposed that assumes underlying regulatory mechanisms operating as inhomogenous Poisson processes, the overt results of which are the transitions into and out of REM sleep. Design: Based on spontaneously occurring REM sleep episodes (“Episode”) and intervals without REM sleep (“Interval”), 3 variables are defined and evaluated over discrete 15-second epochs using a nonlinear logistic regression method: “Propensity” is the instantaneous rate of into-REM transition occurrence throughout an Interval, “Volatility” is the instantaneous rate of out-of-REM transition occurrence throughout an Episode, and “Opportunity” is the probability of being in non-REM (NREM) sleep at a given time throughout an Interval, a requisite for transition. Setting: 12:12 light:dark cycle, isolated boxes. Participants: Sixteen male Sprague-Dawley rats Interventions: None. Spontaneous sleep cycles. Measurements and Results: The highest levels of volatility and propensity occur, respectively, at the very beginning of Episodes and Intervals. The new condition stabilizes rapidly, and variables reach nadirs at minute 1.25 and 2.50, respectively. Afterward, volatility increases markedly, reaching values close to the initial level. Propensity increases moderately, the increment being stronger through NREM sleep bouts occurring at the end of long Intervals. Short-term homeostasis is evidenced by longer REM sleep episodes lowering propensity in the following Interval. Conclusions: The stabilization after transitions into Episodes or Intervals and the destabilization after remaining for some time in either condition may be described as resulting from continuous processes building up during Episodes and Intervals. These processes underlie the overt occurrence of transitions. Citation: Bassi A; Vivaldi EA; Ocampo-Garcées A. The time course of the probability of transition into and out of REM sleep. SLEEP 2009

  4. Cocaine potentiates ketamine-induced loss of the righting reflex and sleeping time in mice. Role of catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwende, C; Spoerlein, M T; Lapollo, J

    1982-07-01

    Cocaine in graded doses potentiated ketamine-induced loss of the righting reflex and sleeping time. Potentiation of drug-induced sleep with cocaine was not a generalized phenomenon inasmuch as it had no effect on sleep induced by pentobarbital or hexobarbital and decreased sleep induced by phenobarbital. Pentylenetetrazole reduced ketamine sleep but d-amphetamine had a potentiative action. dl-alpha-Methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester itself increased both the number losing the righting reflex and the sleeping time induced by ketamine. However, the effect cocaine on sleeping time was blocked 3 h after the dl-alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine methyl ester was given. The alpha and beta adrenergic blocking drugs, phenoxybenzamine and propranolol, increased the number of animals losing the righting reflex with ketamine, and phenoxybenzamine lengthened the sleeping time. Alpha and beta adrenergic agonists, l-phenylephrine and isoproterenol, increased the number of animals going to sleep with ketamine but did not significantly alter how long they would sleep. The agonists had no effect on the cocaine interaction with ketamine, whereas the antagonists blocked the effect of cocaine. Both stimulation and blockade of dopamine receptors led to increased loss of the righting reflex and sleeping time with ketamine but only receptor blockade antagonized the effect of cocaine on ketamine-induced sleep. Thus, both the noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems appear to be involved in the ability of cocaine to potentiate ketamine-induced sleep.

  5. Longitudinal Outcomes of Start Time Delay on Sleep, Behavior, and Achievement in High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacher, Pamela V; Onyper, Serge V

    2016-02-01

    To establish whether sleep, health, mood, behavior, and academics improved after a 45-minute delay in high school start time, and whether changes persisted longitudinally. We collected data from school records and student self-report across a number of domains at baseline (May 2012) and at two follow-up time points (November 2012 and May 2013), at a public high school in upstate New York. Students enrolled during academic years (AY) 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the DASS-21; the "Owl-Lark" Scale; the Daytime Sleepiness Index; and a brief self-report of health. Reports from school records regarding attendance, tardiness, disciplinary violations, and academic performance were collected for AY 2010-2011 through 2013-2014. Students delayed but did not extend their sleep period; we found lasting improvements in tardiness and disciplinary violations after the start-time delay, but no changes to other variables. At the first follow-up, students reported 20 minutes longer sleep, driven by later rise times and stable bed times. At the second follow-up, students maintained later rise times but delayed bedtimes, returning total sleep to baseline levels. A delay in rise time, paralleling the delay in the start time that occurred, resulted in less tardiness and decreased disciplinary incidents, but larger improvements to sleep patterns may be necessary to affect health, attendance, sleepiness, and academic performance. Later start times improved tardiness and disciplinary issues at this school district. A delay in start time may be a necessary but not sufficient means to increase sleep time and may depend on preexisting individual differences. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 267. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Opposite effects of sleep deprivation on the continuous reaction times in patients with liver cirrhosis and normal persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Mette Munk; Frøjk, Jesper; de Muckadell, Ove B Schaffalitzky; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2014-09-01

    The continuous reaction times (CRT) method describes arousal functions. Reaction time instability in a patient with liver disease indicates covert hepatic encephalopathy (cHE). The effects of sleep deprivation are unknown although cirrhosis patients frequently suffer from sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to determine if sleep deprivation influences the CRT test. Eighteen cirrhosis patients and 27 healthy persons were tested when rested and after one night's sleep deprivation. The patients filled out validated sleep quality questionnaires. Seven patients (38%) had unstable reaction times (a CRTindex sleep that was not related to their CRT tests before or after the sleep deprivation. In the healthy participants, the sleep deprivation slowed their reaction times by 11% (p sleep deprivation normalized or improved the reaction time stability of the patients with a CRTindex below 1.9 and had no effect in the patients with a CRTindex above 1.9. There was no relation between reported sleep quality and reaction time results. Thus, in cirrhosis patients, sleep disturbances do not lead to 'falsely' slowed and unstable reaction times. In contrast, the acute sleep deprivation slowed and destabilized the reaction times of the healthy participants. This may have negative consequences for decision-making.

  7. Clinical characteristics of sleep disorders in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhi-Juan; Liu, Chan-Chan; Ji, Su-Qiong; Yang, Qing-Mei; Ye, Hong-Xiang; Han, Hai-Yan; Xue, Zheng

    2017-02-01

    In order to investigate the sleep quality and influencing factors in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), 201 PD patients were enrolled and underwent extensive clinical evaluations. Subjective sleep evaluation was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). It was found that poor sleep quality (77.11%) and excessive daytime sleepiness (32.34%) were commonly seen in PD patients and positively correlated with disease severity. Then 70 out of the 201 PD patients and 70 age- and sex-matched controls underwent a polysomnographic recording. The parameters were compared between PD group and control group and the influencing factors of sleep in PD patients were analyzed. The results showed that sleep efficiency (SE) was significantly decreased (Psleep latency (SL) and the arousal index (AI) were increased (Psleep time (TST) were positively correlated with the Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stage. There was significant difference in the extent of hypopnea and hypoxemia between the PD group and the control group (Psleep quality and a high prevalence of sleep disorder, which may be correlated with the disease severity. Respiratory function and oxygen supply are also affected to a certain degree in PD patients.

  8. Sleep-time sizing and scheduling in green passive optical networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr; Khafagy, Mohammad G.; Shihada, Basem

    2012-01-01

    of traffic, control and data. Control traffic are delay intolerant with higher priority than the data traffic. Closed form model for average ONU sleeping time and end-to-end data traffic delay are presented and evaluated. Our framework decouples

  9. Dim light at night does not disrupt timing or quality of sleep in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Weil, Zachary M; Zhang, Ning; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-10-01

    Artificial nighttime illumination has recently become commonplace throughout the world; however, in common with other animals, humans have not evolved in the ecological context of chronic light at night. With prevailing evidence linking the circadian, endocrine, immune, and metabolic systems, understanding these relationships is important to understanding the etiology and progression of several diseases. To eliminate the covariate of sleep disruption in light at night studies, researchers often use nocturnal animals. However, the assumption that light at night does not affect sleep in nocturnal animals remains unspecified. To test the effects of light at night on sleep, we maintained Swiss-Webster mice in standard light/dark (LD) or dim light at night (DLAN) conditions for 8-10 wks and then measured electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) biopotentials via wireless telemetry over the course of two consecutive days to determine differences in sleep timing and homeostasis. Results show no statistical differences in total percent time, number of episodes, maximum or average episode durations in wake, slow-wave sleep (SWS), or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. No differences were evident in SWS delta power, an index of sleep drive, between groups. Mice kept in DLAN conditions showed a relative increase in REM sleep during the first few hours after the dark/light transition. Both groups displayed normal 24-h circadian rhythms as measured by voluntary running wheel activity. Groups did not differ in body mass, but a marked negative correlation of body mass with percent time spent awake and a positive correlation of body mass with time spent in SWS was evident. Elevated body mass was also associated with shorter maximum wake episode durations, indicating heavier animals had more trouble remaining in the wake vigilance state for extended periods of time. Body mass did not correlate with activity levels, nor did activity levels correlate with time spent in

  10. Media Use and Child Sleep: The Impact of Content, Timing, and Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liekweg, Kimberly; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Media use has been shown to negatively affect a child's sleep, especially in the context of evening use or with a television in the child's bedroom. However, little is known about how content choices and adult co-use affect this relationship. OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of media content, timing, and use behaviors on child sleep. METHODS: These data were collected in the baseline survey and media diary of a randomized controlled trial on media use in children aged 3 to 5 years. Sleep measures were derived from the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Media diaries captured time, content title, and co-use of television, video-game, and computer usage; titles were coded for ratings, violence, scariness, and pacing. Nested linear regression models were built to examine the impact of timing, content, and co-use on the sleep problem score. RESULTS: On average, children consumed 72.9 minutes of media screen time daily, with 14.1 minutes occurring after 7:00 pm. Eighteen percent of parents reported at least 1 sleep problem; children with a bedroom television consumed more media and were more likely to have a sleep problem. In regression models, each additional hour of evening media use was associated with a significant increase in the sleep problem score (0.743 [95% confidence interval: 0.373–1.114]), as was daytime use with violent content (0.398 [95% confidence interval: 0.121–0.676]). There was a trend toward greater impact of daytime violent use in the context of a bedroom television (P = .098) and in low-income children (P = .07). CONCLUSIONS: Violent content and evening media use were associated with increased sleep problems. However, no such effects were observed with nonviolent daytime media use. PMID:21708803

  11. Media use and child sleep: the impact of content, timing, and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Michelle M; Liekweg, Kimberly; Christakis, Dimitri A

    2011-07-01

    Media use has been shown to negatively affect a child's sleep, especially in the context of evening use or with a television in the child's bedroom. However, little is known about how content choices and adult co-use affect this relationship. To describe the impact of media content, timing, and use behaviors on child sleep. These data were collected in the baseline survey and media diary of a randomized controlled trial on media use in children aged 3 to 5 years. Sleep measures were derived from the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. Media diaries captured time, content title, and co-use of television, video-game, and computer usage; titles were coded for ratings, violence, scariness, and pacing. Nested linear regression models were built to examine the impact of timing, content, and co-use on the sleep problem score. On average, children consumed 72.9 minutes of media screen time daily, with 14.1 minutes occurring after 7:00 pm. Eighteen percent of parents reported at least 1 sleep problem; children with a bedroom television consumed more media and were more likely to have a sleep problem. In regression models, each additional hour of evening media use was associated with a significant increase in the sleep problem score (0.743 [95% confidence interval: 0.373-1.114]), as was daytime use with violent content (0.398 [95% confidence interval: 0.121-0.676]). There was a trend toward greater impact of daytime violent use in the context of a bedroom television (P=.098) and in low-income children (P=.07). Violent content and evening media use were associated with increased sleep problems. However, no such effects were observed with nonviolent daytime media use. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Variable School Start Times and Middle School Student's Sleep Health and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Daniel S; Wang, Guanghai; Chen, Yao I; Skora, Elizabeth; Hoehn, Jessica; Baylor, Allison; Wang, Jichuan

    2017-08-01

    Improving sleep health among adolescents is a national health priority and implementing healthy school start times (SSTs) is an important strategy to achieve these goals. This study leveraged the differences in middle school SST in a large district to evaluate associations between SST, sleep health, and academic performance. This cross-sectional study draws data from a county-wide surveillance survey. Participants were three cohorts of eighth graders (n = 26,440). The school district is unique because SST ranged from 7:20 a.m. to 8:10 a.m. Path analysis and probit regression were used to analyze associations between SST and self-report measures of weekday sleep duration, grades, and homework controlling for demographic variables (sex, race, and socioeconomic status). The independent contributions of SST and sleep duration to academic performance were also analyzed. Earlier SST was associated with decreased sleep duration (χ 2  = 173, p academic performance, and academic effort. Path analysis models demonstrated the independent contributions of sleep duration, SST, and variable effects for demographic variables. This is the first study to evaluate the independent contributions of SST and sleep to academic performance in a large sample of middle school students. Deficient sleep was prevalent, and the earliest SST was associated with decrements in sleep and academics. These findings support the prioritization of policy initiatives to implement healthy SST for younger adolescents and highlight the importance of sleep health education disparities among race and gender groups. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy change to address insufficient sleep in this population and potentially to improve students’ academic performance, reduce engagement in risk behaviors, and improve health. METHODS This paper reviews 38 reports examining the association between school start times, sleep, and other outcomes among adolescent students. RESULTS Most studies reviewed provide evidence that delaying school start time increases weeknight sleep duration among adolescents, primarily by delaying rise times. Most of the studies saw a significant increase in sleep duration even with relatively small delays in start times of half an hour or so. Later start times also generally correspond to improved attendance, less tardiness, less falling asleep in class, better grades, and fewer motor vehicle crashes. CONCLUSIONS Although additional research is necessary, research results that are already available should be disseminated to stakeholders to enable the development of evidence-based school policies. PMID:27040474

  14. Delayed school start times and adolescent sleep: A systematic review of the experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minges, Karl E; Redeker, Nancy S

    2016-08-01

    Many schools have instituted later morning start times to improve sleep, academic, and other outcomes in response to the mismatch between youth circadian rhythms and early morning start times. However, there has been no systematic synthesis of the evidence on the effects of this practice. To examine the impact of delayed school start time on students' sleep, health, and academic outcomes, electronic databases were systematically searched and data were extracted using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Six studies satisfied selection criteria and used pre-post, no control (n = 3), randomized controlled trial (n = 2), and quasi-experimental (n = 1) designs. School start times were delayed 25-60 min, and correspondingly, total sleep time increased from 25 to 77 min per weeknight. Some studies revealed reduced daytime sleepiness, depression, caffeine use, tardiness to class, and trouble staying awake. Overall, the evidence supports recent non-experimental study findings and calls for policy that advocates for delayed school start time to improve sleep. This presents a potential long-term solution to chronic sleep restriction during adolescence. However, there is a need for rigorous randomized study designs and reporting of consistent outcomes, including objective sleep measures and consistent measures of health and academic performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. School Start Times, Sleep, Behavioral, Health, and Academic Outcomes: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Croft, Janet B

    2016-05-01

    Insufficient sleep in adolescents has been shown to be associated with a wide variety of adverse outcomes, from poor mental and physical health to behavioral problems and lower academic grades. However, most high school students do not get sufficient sleep. Delaying school start times for adolescents has been proposed as a policy change to address insufficient sleep in this population and potentially to improve students' academic performance, reduce engagement in risk behaviors, and improve health. This article reviews 38 reports examining the association between school start times, sleep, and other outcomes among adolescent students. Most studies reviewed provide evidence that delaying school start time increases weeknight sleep duration among adolescents, primarily by delaying rise times. Most of the studies saw a significant increase in sleep duration even with relatively small delays in start times of half an hour or so. Later start times also generally correspond to improved attendance, less tardiness, less falling asleep in class, better grades, and fewer motor vehicle crashes. Although additional research is necessary, research results that are already available should be disseminated to stakeholders to enable the development of evidence-based school policies. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Effects of zolpidem on sleep architecture, night time ventilation, daytime vigilance and performance in heavy snorers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quera-Salva, M A; McCann, C; Boudet, J; Frisk, M; Borderies, P; Meyer, P

    1994-01-01

    1. In a double-blind, crossover, placebo controlled trial, zolpidem 10 mg, a new imidazopyridine hypnotic drug, was administered in a single dose to 10 healthy non-obese heavy snorers. 2. Nocturnal polysomnography showed that zolpidem increased total sleep time, sleep efficiency and the percentage of stage 2. 3. Respiratory monitoring showed that zolpidem did not modify the percentage of total sleep time spent snoring. The percentages of total sleep time with a SaO2 < 4% of the baseline value and with a SaO2 < 90% and the mean SaO2 were also unchanged with zolpidem. The respiratory disturbance index was modestly increased by zolpidem although in all but one subject it remained < 5 with both treatments. 4. Zolpidem intake did not impair daytime vigilance and performance evaluated the day after. PMID:7917771

  17. Time to Work or Time to Play: The Effect of Student Employment on Homework, Housework, Screen Time, and Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia; Charlene Marie Kalenkoski

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that working while in high school reduces the amount of time students spend doing homework. However, an additional hour of work leads to a reduction in homework by much less than one hour, suggesting a reduction in other activities. This paper uses data from the 2003-2007 American Time Use Surveys (ATUS) to investigate the effects of market work on the time students spend on homework, sleeping, household work, and screen time. Results show that an increase in paid wor...

  18. A Time for Learning and a Time for Sleep : The Effect of Sleep Deprivation on Contextual Fear Conditioning at Different Times of the Day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagewoud, Roelina; Whitcomb, Shamiso N.; Heeringa, Amarins N.; Havekes, Robbert; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meerlo, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep deprivation negatively affects memory consolidation, especially in the case of hippocampus-dependent memories. Studies in rodents have shown that 5 hours of sleep deprivation immediately following footshock exposure selectively impairs the formation of a contextual fear

  19. Moving beyond average values: assessing the night-to-night instability of sleep and arousal in DSM-IV-TR insomnia subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortuño, M Montserrat; Carney, Colleen E; Edinger, Jack D; Wyatt, James K; Harris, Andrea

    2011-04-01

    We explored differences between individuals with DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of primary insomnia (PI) and insomnia related to a mental disorder (IMD) by using serial measurements of self-reported sleep variables (sleep onset latency, SOL; wake after sleep onset, WASO; total sleep time, TST; sleep efficiency, SE), and visual analogue scale ratings of 2 forms of bedtime arousal (cognitive and emotional). Furthermore, we sought to examine the relationship between sleep and arousal within each diagnostic subgroup. Between-group and within-group comparisons. Duke and Rush University Medical Centers, USA. One hundred eighty-seven insomnia sufferers (126 women, average age 47.15 years) diagnosed by sleep specialists at 2 sleep centers as PI patients (n=126) and IMD patients (n=61). N/A. Multilevel models for sleep measures indicated that IMD displayed significantly more instability across nights in their TST (i.e., larger changes) than did PI patients. With respect to pre-sleep arousal, IMD patients exhibited higher mean levels of emotional arousal, as well as more instability on the nightly ratings of this measure. Within the PI group, correlational analyses revealed a moderate relationship between the 2 arousal variables and SOL (r values 0.29 and 0.26), whereas the corresponding correlations were negligible and statistically nonsignificant in the IMD group. We found a number of differences on nighttime variables between those diagnosed with primary insomnia and those diagnosed with insomnia related to a mental disorder. These differences imply different perpetuating mechanisms involved in their ongoing sleep difficulties. Additionally, they support the categorical distinctiveness and the concurrent validity of these insomnia subtypes.

  20. Cough Aerosol Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Insights on TST / IGRA Discordance and Transmission Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C Jones-López

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (TB infection (LTBI is complicated by the absence of a gold standard. Discordance between tuberculin skin tests (TST and interferon gamma release assays (IGRA occurs in 10-20% of individuals, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood.We analyzed data from a prospective household contact study that included cough aerosol culture results from index cases, environmental and contact factors. We assessed contacts for LTBI using TST and IGRA at baseline and six weeks. We examined TST/IGRA discordance in qualitative and quantitative analyses, and used multivariable logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations to analyze predictors of discordance.We included 96 TB patients and 384 contacts. Discordance decreased from 15% at baseline to 8% by six weeks. In adjusted analyses, discordance was related to less crowding (p = 0.004, non-cavitary disease (OR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.02-1.96; p = 0.03, and marginally with BCG vaccination in contacts (OR 1.40, 95% CI: 0.99-1.98, p = 0.06.We observed significant individual variability and temporal dynamism in TST and IGRA results in household contacts of pulmonary TB cases. Discordance was associated with a less intense infectious exposure, and marginally associated with a BCG-mediated delay in IGRA conversion. Cough aerosols provide an additional dimension to the assessment of infectiousness and risk of infection in contacts.

  1. International aircrew sleep and wakefulness after multiple time zone flights - A cooperative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, R. Curtis; Lauber, John K.; Connell, Linda J.; Gander, Philippa H.

    1986-01-01

    An international research team has carried out an electroencephalographic study of sleep and wakefulness in flight crews operating long-haul routes across seven or eight time zones. Following baseline recordings, volunteer crews (n = 56) from four airlines spent their first outbound layover at a sleep laboratory. This paper provides an overview of the project's history, its research design, and the standardization of procedures. The overall results are remarkably consistent among the four participating laboratories and strongly support the feasibility of cooperative international sleep research in the operational arena.

  2. A Fully Polynomial-Time Approximation Scheme for Speed Scaling with Sleep State

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniadis, Antonios; Huang, Chien-Chung; Ott, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    We study classical deadline-based preemptive scheduling of tasks in a computing environment equipped with both dynamic speed scaling and sleep state capabilities: Each task is specified by a release time, a deadline and a processing volume, and has to be scheduled on a single, speed-scalable processor that is supplied with a sleep state. In the sleep state, the processor consumes no energy, but a constant wake-up cost is required to transition back to the active state. In contrast to speed sc...

  3. Sleep Duration, Positive Attitude toward Life, and Academic Achievement: The Role of Daytime Tiredness, Behavioral Persistence, and School Start Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is…

  4. Adolescents' sleep in low-stress and high-stress (exam) times: a prospective quasi-experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald, J.F.; Meijer, A.M.; Oort, F.J.; Kerkhof, G.A.; Bögels, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective quasi-experiment (N=175; mean age: 15.14 years) investigates changes in adolescents' sleep from low-stress (regular school week) to high-stress times (exam week) and examines the (moderating) role of chronic sleep reduction, baseline stress, and gender. Sleep was monitored over

  5. Adolescents' Sleep in Low-Stress and High-Stress (Exam) Times: A Prospective Quasi-Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald, Julia F.; Meijer, Anne Marie; Oort, Frans J.; Kerkhof, Gerard A.; Bögels, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective quasi-experiment (N = 175; mean age = 15.14 years) investigates changes in adolescents' sleep from low-stress (regular school week) to high-stress times (exam week), and examines the (moderating) role of chronic sleep reduction, baseline stress, and gender. Sleep was monitored over

  6. Behavioural sleep treatments and night time crying in infants: challenging the status quo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Sarah L; Thompson, Kirrilly R; Dawson, Drew

    2011-10-01

    In Australia, as in many Westernised industrialised nations, the majority of families encourage infants to sleep alone or 'solo' from an early age. Sleeping solo can increase night time crying, which in turn disrupts sleep for both parent and infant. Night time waking and crying are frequently culturally constructed as behavioural sleep 'problems'. The pursuit of solo sleeping is thus achieved through 'behavioural sleep treatments' that teach an infant to sleep alone. Some behavioural extinction treatments necessitate a parent leaving an infant to cry for extended periods unattended, a practice reportedly difficult for parents. Despite parent's anxieties, and the potential (though little studied) stress to the infant, the pursuit of those behavioural sleep treatments are advocated by many psychologists and clinicians as acceptable and necessary interventions. This paper questions this necessity and critically reviews and debates these methods from biological, anthropological and cultural perspectives. Specifically, it considers Foucaultian, Leidloffian, attachment and behavioural perspectives. The central debate in this paper is if and why an infant's nocturnal cries should be ignored. It challenges the aetiology and acceptance of the status quo in the hope of revisiting the underlying belief that these methods are necessary. In doing so, the paper theorises the ways in which current sleep training techniques do or do not satisfy the needs of infants and their parents and questions the extent to which they can be reconciled. The paper posits an agenda for further research in the area that may facilitate the reconciliation of the needs of parents and those of their infants. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heritability of siesta and night-time sleep as continuously assessed by a circadian-related integrated measure

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Minguez, J.; Morosoli, J. J.; Madrid, J. A.; Garaulet, M.; Ordoñana, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Siesta is a relevant aspect of sleep due to its posited relationship with health or cognitive function. However, unlike night-time sleep, studies about daytime-sleep determinants and characteristics are scarce, and the genetic/environmental structure of siesta is still unknown. Our aim was to explore the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to variation in sleep-wake rhythm, measured by a continuous assessment of temperature-activity-position (TAP), which allows for diur...

  8. Timely sleep facilitates declarative memory consolidation in infants

    OpenAIRE

    Seehagen, Sabine; Konrad, Carolin; Herbert, Jane S.; Schneider, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The potential benefits of infant sleep for memory processing are largely unexplored. Here we show evidence that having an extended nap (≥30 min) within 4 h of learning helps 6- and 12-month-old infants to retain their memories for new behaviors across a 4- and 24-h delay. These results suggest that infants rely on frequent naps for the formation of long-term memories.

  9. Adjustment of sleep and the circadian temperature rhythm after flights across nine time zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Philippa H.; Myhre, Grete; Graeber, R. Curtis; Lauber, John K.; Andersen, Harald T.

    1989-01-01

    The adjustment of sleep-wake patterns and the circadian temperature rhythm was monitored in nine Royal Norwegian Airforce volunteers operating P-3 aircraft during a westward training deployment across nine time zones. Subjects recorded all sleep and nap times, rated nightly sleep quality, and completed personality inventories. Rectal temperature, heart rate, and wrist activity were continuously monitored. Adjustment was slower after the return eastward flight than after the outbound westward flight. The eastward flight produced slower readjustment of sleep timing to local time and greater interindividual variability in the patterns of adjustment of sleep and temperature. One subject apparently exhibited resynchronization by partition, with the temperature rhythm undergoing the reciprocal 15-h delay. In contrast, average heart rates during sleep were significantly elevated only after westward flight. Interindividual differences in adjustment of the temperature rhythm were correlated with some of the personality measures. Larger phase delays in the overall temperature waveform (as measured on the 5th day after westward flight) were exhibited by extraverts, and less consistently by evening types.

  10. Poor sleep quality predicts deficient emotion information processing over time in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Sadeh, Avi; Dahl, Ronald E; Rosenblat-Stein, Shiran

    2011-11-01

    There is deepening understanding of the effects of sleep on emotional information processing. Emotion information processing is a key aspect of social competence, which undergoes important maturational and developmental changes in adolescence; however, most research in this area has focused on adults. Our aim was to test the links between sleep and emotion information processing during early adolescence. Sleep and facial information processing were assessed objectively during 3 assessment waves, separated by 1-year lags. Data were obtained in natural environments-sleep was assessed in home settings, and facial information processing was assessed at school. 94 healthy children (53 girls, 41 boys), aged 10 years at Time 1. N/A. Facial information processing was tested under neutral (gender identification) and emotional (emotional expression identification) conditions. Sleep was assessed in home settings using actigraphy for 7 nights at each assessment wave. Waking > 5 min was considered a night awakening. Using multilevel modeling, elevated night awakenings and decreased sleep efficiency significantly predicted poor performance only in the emotional information processing condition (e.g., b = -1.79, SD = 0.52, confidence interval: lower boundary = -2.82, upper boundary = -0.076, t(416.94) = -3.42, P = 0.001). Poor sleep quality is associated with compromised emotional information processing during early adolescence, a sensitive period in socio-emotional development.

  11. Socio-Economic Status, Time Spending, and Sleep Duration in Indian Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Bapat, Radhika; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this article physical activity, screen time, and academic work are studied as mediators between socio-economic status and sleep duration among school children in India. Participants were 268 school children aged 10?15 from Pune, India. They were sampled from private schools and impoverished public schools. We found that the highest socio-economic status children reported almost an hour and a half less sleep than their lowest socio-economic status counterparts. The lower socio-economic stat...

  12. The timing of the circadian clock and sleep differ between napping and non-napping toddlers

    OpenAIRE

    Akacem, Lameese D; Simpkin, Charles T; Carskadon, Mary A; Wright, Kenneth P; Jenni, Oskar G; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2015-01-01

    The timing of the internal circadian clock shows large inter-individual variability across the lifespan. Although the sleep-wakefulness pattern of most toddlers includes an afternoon nap, the association between napping and circadian phase in early childhood remains unexplored. This study examined differences in circadian phase and sleep between napping and non-napping toddlers. Data were collected on 20 toddlers (34.2±2.0 months; 12 females; 15 nappers). Children followed their habitual napp...

  13. Is it time to awaken Sleeping Beauty? European psychiatry has been sleeping since 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III), published in 1980, has led to a dead end, the DSM-V. Following the allegory of Sleeping Beauty, the DSM-III put European psychiatry to sleep; it now must wake up to create a 21st century psychiatric language for descriptive psychopathology and psychiatric nosology. Four topics are reviewed. First, the review of descriptive psychopathology focuses on: a) Chaslin's and Jaspers's books, and b) Schneider's transmittal of Jaspers's ideas and involvement with Kraepelin in incorporating neuroscience into psychiatric nosology. Second, US psychiatry's historic steps include: a) the pseudoscience of psychoanalysis, b) the low level of pre-DSM-III diagnostic expertise, c) the neo-Kraepelinian revolution which led to DSM-III, d) the failure to improve diagnostic skills, and e) the reprise of Kraepelin's marketing ("neuroscience will save psychiatry"). Third, the DSM-III devastated European psychiatry by destroying: a) the national textbooks which increased consistency but eliminated creative European thinking; and b) the Arbeitsgemenschaft fur Methodic und Dokumentation in der Psychiatrie, the most reasonable attempt to reach diagnostic agreement: start with symptoms/signs (first level) rather than disorders (second level). Fourth, Berrios elaborated upon Jaspers, who described psychiatry as a hybrid science and heterogeneous. Berrios affirmed that psychiatric symptoms/signs are hybrid. Some symptoms are in the "semantic space" and cannot be "explained" by neuroscience. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  14. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Improved sleep quality was positively correlated with FA in left caudate nucleus, white matter tracts to the left orbito-frontal region, the left anterior cingulum bundle and the white matter tracts associated with the right operculum and insula, and negatively correlated with MD in left orbito-frontal white matter and the left anterior cingulum bundle. Our findings suggest that reduced cumulative total sleep time (cTST and poorer subjective sleep quality are associated with subtle white matter micro-architectural changes. The regions we identified as being related to habitual sleep patterns were restricted to the frontal and temporal lobes, and the functions they support are consistent with those which have previously been demonstrated as being affected by short sleep durations (e.g., attention, cognitive control, memory. Examining how inter-individual differences in brain structure are related to habitual sleep patterns could help to shed light on the mechanisms by which sleep habits are associated with brain function, behaviour and cognition, as well as potentially the networks and systems responsible for variations in sleep patterns themselves.

  15. Effect of Color Light Stimulation Using LED on Sleep Induction Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seonjin Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of color are already being used widely. For this reason, in this study, an attempt was made to use such effects of color to examine the changes in sleep onset through the use of the preferred and nonpreferred color light stimulation. Color light stimulations were randomly presented to the subjects, and based on these colors, the changes in sleep onset were examined through the EEG. Also, to quantify the physiological changes that were caused by each color light stimulation, the changes in the HRV were examined through ECG to determine the level of activation of the autonomous nervous system. The results showed that sleep onset time was changed based on the light stimulation. The result of the EEG analysis showed that sleep onset time was most significantly shortened in preferred color light stimulation. Also, the result of HRV was the fastest change about both the time domain and the frequency domain in the preferred color light stimulation. Therefore, because the preferred color light stimulation activated the parasympathetic nervous system, sleep was induced quickly. Also, by simply using the HRV, the differences in the index of HRV showed changes of sleep onset according to the color light stimulation.

  16. "I Have to Rest All the Time Because You Are Not Allowed to Play": Exploring Children's Perceptions of Autonomy during Sleep-Time in Long Day Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothard, Michaela; Irvine, Susan; Theobald, Maryanne; Staton, Sally; Pattinson, Cassandra; Thorpe, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Daytime sleep is a significant part of the daily routine for children attending early childhood education and care (ECEC) services in Australia and many other countries. The practice of sleep-time can account for a substantial portion of the day in ECEC and often involves a mandated sleep/rest period for all children, including older…

  17. The relationship between sleep time and self-rated health: an analysis based on Italian survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Citoni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: a growing and broadly discussed literature has shown that the relationship between sleep duration and health is not linear. Not only are insomnia and insufficient sleep harmful to one’s health, but excessive sleep too is also not beneficial. This study tests the association between selfrated state of health and the duration and pattern of sleep: we discuss the losses and costs in terms of quality of life deriving from excessive sleep time.Methods: we use an ordered probit specification, applied to the Italian Survey on the Use of Time (sample of Italians aged fifteen and over who keep a diary for a working day.Results: we show that greater sleep duration is negatively correlated both with self-reported state of health and with self-reported health satisfaction, while respondents’ subjective perceptions of too much and too little sleep are associated with health conditions in the usual u-shaped way.Conclusions: the negative impact of long sleep on self-reported health is confirmed. However, the effect of short sleep on health conditions is positive, while a measure of decreasing sleep quality - comprising number of interruptions of sleep, insomnia and napping - is correlated to some extent with decreasing health. The public health consequences are still to be explored: the potential gains from sleep restriction are substantial, but little is known about the causal link or the risks. Further research is needed before taking policy decisions.

  18. Opposite effects of sleep deprivation on the continuous reaction times in patients with liver cirrhosis and normal persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Mette Munk; Frøjk, Jesper; de Muckadell, Ove B Schaffalitzky

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to determine if sleep deprivation influences the CRT test. Eighteen cirrhosis patients and 27 healthy persons were tested when rested and after one night's sleep deprivation. The patients filled out validated sleep quality questionnaires. Seven patients (38 %) had unstable reaction times (a...... CRTindex change in the other patients' reaction speed or stability. Seven patients (38 %) reported poor sleep that was not related to their CRT tests before...... or after the sleep deprivation. In the healthy participants, the sleep deprivation slowed their reaction times by 11 % (p persons (25 %) destabilized them. The acute sleep deprivation normalized or improved the reaction time stability of the patients with a CRTindex below 1.9 and had...

  19. Sleep deprivation and time-on-task performance decrement in the rat psychomotor vigilance task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Davis, Christopher J; Krueger, James M; Wisor, Jonathan P; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2015-03-01

    The rat psychomotor vigilance task (rPVT) was developed as a rodent analog of the human psychomotor vigilance task (hPVT). We examined whether rPVT performance displays time-on-task effects similar to those observed on the hPVT. The rPVT requires rats to respond to a randomly presented light stimulus to obtain a water reward. Rats were water deprived for 22 h prior to each 30-min rPVT session to motivate performance. We analyzed rPVT performance over time on task and as a function of the response-stimulus interval, at baseline and after sleep deprivation. The study was conducted in an academic research vivarium. Male Long-Evans rats were trained to respond to a 0.5 sec stimulus light within 3 sec of stimulus onset. Complete data were available for n = 20 rats. Rats performed the rPVT for 30 min at baseline and after 24 h total sleep deprivation by gentle handling. Compared to baseline, sleep deprived rats displayed increased performance lapses and premature responses, similar to hPVT lapses of attention and false starts. However, in contrast to hPVT performance, the time-on-task performance decrement was not significantly enhanced by sleep deprivation. Moreover, following sleep deprivation, rPVT response times were not consistently increased after short response-stimulus intervals. The rPVT manifests similarities to the hPVT in global performance outcomes, but not in post-sleep deprivation effects of time on task and response-stimulus interval. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. The Timing of the Circadian Clock and Sleep Differ between Napping and Non-Napping Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akacem, Lameese D; Simpkin, Charles T; Carskadon, Mary A; Wright, Kenneth P; Jenni, Oskar G; Achermann, Peter; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2015-01-01

    The timing of the internal circadian clock shows large inter-individual variability across the lifespan. Although the sleep-wakefulness pattern of most toddlers includes an afternoon nap, the association between napping and circadian phase in early childhood remains unexplored. This study examined differences in circadian phase and sleep between napping and non-napping toddlers. Data were collected on 20 toddlers (34.2±2.0 months; 12 females; 15 nappers). Children followed their habitual napping and non-napping sleep schedules (monitored with actigraphy) for 5 days before an in-home salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) assessment. On average, napping children fell asleep during their nap opportunities on 3.6±1.2 of the 5 days before the DLMO assessment. For these napping children, melatonin onset time was 38 min later (p = 0.044; d = 0.93), actigraphically-estimated bedtime was 43 min later (p = 0.014; d = 1.24), sleep onset time was 59 min later (p = 0.006; d = 1.46), and sleep onset latency was 16 min longer (p = 0.030; d = 1.03) than those not napping. Midsleep and wake time did not differ by napping status. No difference was observed in the bedtime, sleep onset, or midsleep phase relationships with DLMO; however, the wake time phase difference was 47 min smaller for napping toddlers (p = 0.029; d = 1.23). On average, nappers had 69 min shorter nighttime sleep durations (p = 0.006; d = 1.47) and spent 49 min less time in bed (p = 0.019; d = 1.16) than non-nappers. Number of days napping was correlated with melatonin onset time (r = 0.49; p = 0.014). Our findings indicate that napping influences individual variability in melatonin onset time in early childhood. The delayed bedtimes of napping toddlers likely permits light exposure later in the evening, thereby delaying the timing of the clock and sleep. Whether the early developmental trajectory of circadian phase involves an advance associated with the decline in napping is a question necessitating

  1. The Timing of the Circadian Clock and Sleep Differ between Napping and Non-Napping Toddlers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lameese D Akacem

    Full Text Available The timing of the internal circadian clock shows large inter-individual variability across the lifespan. Although the sleep-wakefulness pattern of most toddlers includes an afternoon nap, the association between napping and circadian phase in early childhood remains unexplored. This study examined differences in circadian phase and sleep between napping and non-napping toddlers. Data were collected on 20 toddlers (34.2±2.0 months; 12 females; 15 nappers. Children followed their habitual napping and non-napping sleep schedules (monitored with actigraphy for 5 days before an in-home salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO assessment. On average, napping children fell asleep during their nap opportunities on 3.6±1.2 of the 5 days before the DLMO assessment. For these napping children, melatonin onset time was 38 min later (p = 0.044; d = 0.93, actigraphically-estimated bedtime was 43 min later (p = 0.014; d = 1.24, sleep onset time was 59 min later (p = 0.006; d = 1.46, and sleep onset latency was 16 min longer (p = 0.030; d = 1.03 than those not napping. Midsleep and wake time did not differ by napping status. No difference was observed in the bedtime, sleep onset, or midsleep phase relationships with DLMO; however, the wake time phase difference was 47 min smaller for napping toddlers (p = 0.029; d = 1.23. On average, nappers had 69 min shorter nighttime sleep durations (p = 0.006; d = 1.47 and spent 49 min less time in bed (p = 0.019; d = 1.16 than non-nappers. Number of days napping was correlated with melatonin onset time (r = 0.49; p = 0.014. Our findings indicate that napping influences individual variability in melatonin onset time in early childhood. The delayed bedtimes of napping toddlers likely permits light exposure later in the evening, thereby delaying the timing of the clock and sleep. Whether the early developmental trajectory of circadian phase involves an advance associated with the decline in napping is a question

  2. Insomnia Patients With Objective Short Sleep Duration Have a Blunted Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Christina J; Edinger, Jack D; Krystal, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with insomnia and objective short sleep duration insomnia (CBT-I) when compared to individuals with insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h. Secondary analyses of a randomized, clinical trial with 60 adult participants (n = 31 women) from a single academic medical center. Outpatient treatment lasted 8 weeks, with a final follow-up conducted at 6 months. Mixed-effects models controlling for age, sex, CBT-I treatment group assignment, and treatment provider examined sleep parameters gathered via actigraphy, sleep diaries, and an Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire (ISQ) across the treatment and follow-up period. Six months post-CBT-I treatment, individuals with insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h fared significantly better on clinical improvement milestones than did those with insomnia and short sleep duration insomnia and normal sleep duration had significantly higher insomnia remission (ISQ 80%; χ2[1, N = 60] = 21, p 50% decline in MWASO (χ2[1, N = 60] = 60, p insomnia and short sleep duration. Additionally, those with insomnia and normal sleep duration had more success decreasing their total wake time (TWT) at the 6-month follow-up compared to those with insomnia and short sleep duration (χ2[2, N = 60] = 44.1, p insomnia remission, with the area under the curve = 0.986. Findings suggest that individuals with insomnia and objective short sleep duration insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h. Using an actigraphy TST cutoff of 6 hours to classify sleep duration groups was highly accurate and provided good discriminant value for determining insomnia remission. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure in prehypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbrother K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly Fairbrother,1 Ben Cartner,1 Jessica R Alley,1 Chelsea D Curry,1, David L Dickinson,2 David M Morris,1 Scott R Collier1 1Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, 2Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Background: During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic exercise and sleep quality can impact this dipping response. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise timing on circadian BP changes and sleep architecture. Materials and methods: Twenty prehypertensive subjects completed the study. During four test sessions, participants first completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion and then performed 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 7 am (7A, 1 pm (1P, and 7 pm (7P in a random, counterbalanced order at 65% of the heart rate obtained at peak oxygen uptake. An ambulatory cuff was used to monitor BP responses during 24 hours following exercise, and an ambulatory sleep-monitoring headband was worn during sleep following each session. Results: Aerobic exercise at 7A invoked a greater dip in nocturnal systolic BP than exercise at 1P or 7P, although the greatest dip in nocturnal diastolic BP occurred following 7P. Compared to 1P, 7A also invoked greater time spent in deep sleep. Conclusion: These data indicate that early morning may be the most beneficial time to engage in aerobic exercise to enhance nocturnal BP changes and quality of sleep. Keywords: nocturnal dipping, prehypertension, aerobic exercise

  4. Sleep-time sizing and scheduling in green passive optical networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2012-08-01

    Next-generation passive optical network (PON) has been widely considered as a cost-effective broadband access technology. With the ever-increasing power saving concern, energy efficiency has been an important issue for its operations. In this paper, we present a novel sleep time sizing and scheduling framework that satisfies power efficient bandwidth allocation in PONs. We consider the downstream links from an optical line terminal (OLT) to an optical network unit (ONU). The ONU has two classes of traffic, control and data. Control traffic are delay intolerant with higher priority than the data traffic. Closed form model for average ONU sleeping time and end-to-end data traffic delay are presented and evaluated. Our framework decouples the dependency between ONU sleeping time and the QoS of the traffic.

  5. Youth Screen Time and Behavioral Health Problems: The Role of Sleep Duration and Disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Justin; Sanders, Wesley; Forehand, Rex

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the indirect effect of youth screen time (e.g., television, computers, smartphones, video games, and tablets) on behavioral health problems (i.e., internalizing, externalizing, and peer problems) through sleep duration and disturbances. The authors assessed a community sample of parents with a child in one of the following three developmental stages: young childhood (3-7 yrs; N = 209), middle childhood (8-12 yrs; N = 202), and adolescence (13-17 yrs; N = 210). Path analysis was used to test the hypothesized indirect effect model. Findings indicated that, regardless of the developmental stage of the youth, higher levels of youth screen time were associated with more sleep disturbances, which, in turn, were linked to higher levels of youth behavioral health problems. Children who have increased screen time are more likely to have poor sleep quality and problem behaviors.

  6. Class start times, sleep, and academic performance in college: a path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyper, Serge V; Thacher, Pamela V; Gilbert, Jack W; Gradess, Samuel G

    2012-04-01

    Path analysis was used to examine the relationship between class start times, sleep, circadian preference, and academic performance in college-aged adults. Consistent with observations in middle and high school students, college students with later class start times slept longer, experienced less daytime sleepiness, and were less likely to miss class. Chronotype was an important moderator of sleep schedules and daytime functioning; those with morning preference went to bed and woke up earlier and functioned better throughout the day. The benefits of taking later classes did not extend to academic performance, however; grades were somewhat lower in students with predominantly late class schedules. Furthermore, students taking later classes were at greater risk for increased alcohol consumption, and among all the factors affecting academic performance, alcohol misuse exerted the strongest effect. Thus, these results indicate that later class start times in college, while allowing for more sleep, also increase the likelihood of alcohol misuse, ultimately impeding academic success.

  7. Effects of serotonergic system on the sleeping time and EEG in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaei H

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of sleep is an active nervous and biologic rhythm, which is under influence of neurotransmitters of central nervous system. In this study, the influence of serotonergic system on sleeping time have been assessed by agonist-antagonist drugs using two methods of induction and non-induction behavioral and electrophysiology. The method used for measurement of total sleeing time was Angle method. For assessment of drugs impact on brain waves, after opening two holes in frontal and temporal regions, two non-polarized silvery electrodes were fixed in above regions and was connected to physiograph and computer by linkers for waves analysis. Injection intra-ventriculary is done by stereotax apparatus. Results indicate that diazepam (2.5 mg/kg increases sleeping time in two stages of induction and non-induction (P<0.01. 5-HTP (15, 45 mg/kg increases dose-dependence sleeping time. p-CPA (150, 300 mg/kg shows biphasic influence on sleeping time. The 300 mg/kg dose of p-CPA reduces sleeping time while 150 mg/kg dose inverts sleeping time (P<0.05. Interferential affects of drugs with (5-HTP 45 mg/kg and p-CPA (300 mg/kg doses are similar to control groups. Injection of 5-HTP inverts p-CPA affect. Intra-ventriculary Injection of 5-HTP in 150 µg/kg and 300 µg/kg doses, decreases frequency of delta waves and significantly increases the frequencies of other waves but conversely, 500 µg/kg decreases it. Due to findings of this study, interferential affects of agonist-antagonist of 5-HTP, can not invert p-CPA affect. Supported by GABA affects, diazepam induces its inhibitory affect in per-synaptic and post-synaptic membrane through ascending reticular both systems and blocking stimulation of brain cortical and limbic system. Affects of two other drugs on sleeping time and brain waves are probably caused by increment of released serotonin in pre-synaptic neurons. Although their interferential affects with other neurotransmitter system should be

  8. Time in bed, quality of sleep and school functioning of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, A M; Habekothé, H T; Van Den Wittenboer, G L

    2000-06-01

    This study describes the relationship of time in bed and quality of sleep with concentration and functioning at school. Neurotic and psychosomatic symptoms have been used as control variables. The sample consisted of 449 Dutch children in the seventh and eighth grades of elementary school. The age of the children varied between 9 y 5 mo and 14 y 5 mo. Seven schools participated in the research, with a total of 18 classes. The results indicated that 43% of the children had difficulty getting up in the morning. Furthermore, 15% of the children reported sleep problems and 25% did not feel rested at school. Time in bed and sleep quality show no relationship with concentration. Sleep quality, feeling rested at school and less distinct bedtimes were clearly related to school functioning. Another result was that children who had no difficulty getting up displayed more achievement motivation. Being open to the teacher's influence and achievement motivation depended mainly on sleep characteristics. Not getting bored at school, self-image as a pupil and control over aggressive behaviour were also influenced by gender, age, neuroticism and neurosomaticism.

  9. Quantitative analysis of sleep EEG microstructure in the time-frequency domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carli, Fabrizio; Nobili, Lino; Beelke, Manolo; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Smerieri, Arianna; Parrino, Liborio; Terzano, Mario Giovanni; Ferrillo, Franco

    2004-06-30

    A number of phasic events influence sleep quality and sleep macrostructure. The detection of arousals and the analysis of cyclic alternating patterns (CAP) support the evaluation of sleep fragmentation and instability. Sixteen polygraphic overnight recordings were visually inspected for conventional Rechtscaffen and Kales scoring, while arousals were detected following the criteria of the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA). Three electroencephalograph (EEG) segments were associated to each event, corresponding to background activity, pre-arousal period and arousal. The study was supplemented by the analysis of time-frequency distribution of EEG within each subtype of phase A in the CAP. The arousals were characterized by the increase of alpha and beta power with regard to background. Within NREM sleep most of the arousals were preceded by a transient increase of delta power. The time-frequency evolution of the phase A of the CAP sequence showed a strong prevalence of delta activity during the whole A1, but high amplitude delta waves were found also in the first 2/3 s of A2 and A3, followed by desynchronization. Our results underline the strict relationship between the ASDA arousals, and the subtype A2 and A3 within the CAP: in both the association between a short sequence of transient slow waves and the successive increase of frequency and decrease of amplitude characterizes the arousal response.

  10. Associations of sedentary time and moderate-vigorous physical activity with sleep-disordered breathing and polysomnographic sleep in community-dwelling adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Krafty, Robert T; Mulukutla, Suresh; Hall, Martica H

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between daytime activity (sedentary time, moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity [MVPA]) and indices of polysomnographically (PSG) assessed sleep, including sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). One hundred and thirty-six adults (65% female, 59.8 ± 9.1 years, body mass index [BMI] 30.3 ± 6.9 kg m -2 ) provided daily estimates of time spent in light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity activity for 6-14 days (mean 9.9 ± 1.8 days) prior to laboratory PSG. Daily sedentary time was calculated as the amount of time spent awake and not in light-, moderate-, or vigorous-intensity activity; time spent in moderate- and vigorous-intensity activity were combined for MVPA. Indices of PSG sleep included timing (sleep midpoint), duration (total sleep time), continuity (sleep efficiency), depth (% slow-wave sleep), and SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI]). Using median splits of sedentary time and MVPA, analyses of covariance examined their relationship with sleep following adjustment for age, sex, race, employment, education, BMI, existing cardiovascular disease, depression history, and mean daily wake time. Binary logistic regression examined the odds of having at least mild-severity SDB (AHI ≥ 5) according to sedentary time, MVPA, and their combination. Adults with above-median sedentary time (i.e., >841.9 min/day) had significantly greater AHI (P = .04) and lower odds of mild SDB (P = .03) compared to adults with low sedentary time; adults with high MVPA (>30.5 min/day) had significantly lower AHI compared to adults with low MVPA (P = .04). When examined in the same model, adults with high sedentary time and low MVPA had significantly higher AHI (P < .01) and higher odds of having mild SDB (P = .03) than all the other groups. No other sleep measures were related to sedentary time, MVPA, or their combination. Sedentary time and MVPA were associated with SDB. Whether reducing sedentary

  11. Inflammatory markers and obstructive sleep apnea in obese children: the NANOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gileles-Hillel, Alex; Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Peris, Eduard; Cordero-Guevara, José Aurelio; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Martinez, Mónica Gonzalez; Jurado-Luque, María José; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Gozal, David

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) are common coexisting conditions associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state underlying some of the cognitive, metabolic, and cardiovascular morbidities. To examine the levels of inflammatory markers in obese community-dwelling children with OSA, as compared to no-OSA, and their association with clinical and polysomnographic (PSG) variables. Methods. In this cross-sectional, prospective multicenter study, healthy obese Spanish children (ages 4-15 years) were randomly selected and underwent nocturnal PSG followed by a morning fasting blood draw. Plasma samples were assayed for multiple inflammatory markers. 204 children were enrolled in the study; 75 had OSA, defined by an obstructive respiratory disturbance index (RDI) of 3 events/hour total sleep time (TST). BMI, gender, and age were similar in OSA and no-OSA children. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in OSA children, with interleukin-6 concentrations being higher in moderate-severe OSA (i.e., AHI > 5/hrTST; P < 0.01), while MCP-1 levels were associated with more prolonged nocturnal hypercapnia (P < 0.001). IL-6, MCP-1, and PAI-1 are altered in the context of OSA among community-based obese children further reinforcing the proinflammatory effects of sleep disorders such as OSA. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01322763.

  12. Inflammatory Markers and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Children: The NANOS Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Gileles-Hillel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA are common coexisting conditions associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory state underlying some of the cognitive, metabolic, and cardiovascular morbidities. Aim. To examine the levels of inflammatory markers in obese community-dwelling children with OSA, as compared to no-OSA, and their association with clinical and polysomnographic (PSG variables. Methods. In this cross-sectional, prospective multicenter study, healthy obese Spanish children (ages 4–15 years were randomly selected and underwent nocturnal PSG followed by a morning fasting blood draw. Plasma samples were assayed for multiple inflammatory markers. Results. 204 children were enrolled in the study; 75 had OSA, defined by an obstructive respiratory disturbance index (RDI of 3 events/hour total sleep time (TST. BMI, gender, and age were similar in OSA and no-OSA children. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 levels were significantly higher in OSA children, with interleukin-6 concentrations being higher in moderate-severe OSA (i.e., AHI > 5/hrTST; P<0.01, while MCP-1 levels were associated with more prolonged nocturnal hypercapnia (P<0.001. Conclusion. IL-6, MCP-1, and PAI-1 are altered in the context of OSA among community-based obese children further reinforcing the proinflammatory effects of sleep disorders such as OSA. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01322763.

  13. Concurrent Associations between Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Sleep Duration with Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R; Lee, Joey A; Gentile, Douglas A; Walsh, David A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To examine the simultaneous influence of physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations on the odds of childhood obesity (including overweight). Methods. Physical activity was assessed via pedometer and screen time, and sleep duration were assessed via survey in a cross sectional sample of 674 children (aged 7-12 years) from two Midwestern communities in the fall of 2005. Participants were cross tabulated into four groups depending on how many recommendations were being met (0, 1, 2, or all 3). Linear and logistic regression were used to examine the influence of physical activity, screen time and sleep duration on obesity and interactions among the three variables. Results. Children achieving all three recommendations simultaneously (9.2% of total sample) were the least likely to be obese. Approximately 16% of boys and 9% of girls achieving all recommendations were overweight or obese compared to 53% of boys and 42.5% of girls not achieving any. Conclusions. The odds of obesity increased in a graded manner for each recommendation which was not met. Meeting all three recommendations appears to have a protective effect against obesity. Continued efforts are warranted to promote healthy lifestyle behaviors that include meeting physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration recommendations concurrently.

  14. Children's Sleep and Cognitive Performance: A Cross-Domain Analysis of Change over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bub, Kristen L.; Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Relations between changes in children's cognitive performance and changes in sleep problems were examined over a 3-year period, and family socioeconomic status, child race/ethnicity, and gender were assessed as moderators of these associations. Participants were 250 second- and third-grade (8-9 years old at Time 1) boys and girls. At each…

  15. Comparison of TST and IGRA in Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in a High TB-Burden Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Surendra K; Vashishtha, Richa; Chauhan, L S; Sreenivas, V; Seth, Divya

    2017-01-01

    There are currently two tests for diagnosing latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI); TST and IGRA. However, it is still unclear that which one of these tests performs better in high TB-burden settings. 1511 household contacts of pulmonary TB patients were enrolled to compare the performance of TST and IGRA for LTBI. At baseline all participant underwent testing for IGRA [QuantiFERON-TB® Gold In-tube (QFT-GIT) assay] and TST [2 tuberculin unit (TU), purified protein derivative (PPD), RT23, Staten Serum Institute (SSI), Copenhagen, Denmark]. All the household contacts were followed-up for two years for incident TB cases. Active TB was diagnosed in 76 household contacts at an incidence rate of 2.14 per 1000 person-years. Both, TST [Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.72-1.79, p = 0.57], as well as QFT-GIT assay (HR: 1.66, 95% CI: 0.97-2.84, p = 0.06) results at baseline were not significantly associated with subsequent development of active TB among household contacts of pulmonary TB patients. Neither TST nor IGRA predicted subsequent development of active TB among household contacts of pulmonary TB patients during follow-up. However, keeping in view the cost, and other logistics, TST remains the most preferred method for LTBI diagnosis in resource-limited, high TB-burden settings.

  16. Plasma current start-up experiments without the central solenoid in the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Shiraiwa, S.; Adachi, Y.; Ishii, N.; Kasahara, H.; Nuga, H.; Ono, Y.; Oosako, T.; Sasaki, M.; Shimada, Y.; Sumitomo, N.; Taguchi, I.; Tojo, H.; Tsujimura, J.; Ushigome, M.; Yamada, T.; Hanada, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Idei, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Sasaki, K.; Sato, K.N.; Zushi, H.; Nishino, N.; Mitarai, O.

    2006-01-01

    Several techniques for initiating the plasma current without the use of the central solenoid are being developed in TST-2. While TST-2 was temporarily located at Kyushu University, two types of start-up scenarios were demonstrated. (1) A plasma current of 4 kA was generated and sustained for 0.28 s by either electron cyclotron wave or electron Bernstein wave, without induction. (2) A plasma current of 10 kA was obtained transiently by induction using only outboard poloidal field coils. In the second scenario, it is important to supply sufficient power for ionization (100 kW of EC power was sufficient in this case), since the vertical field during start-up is not adequate to maintain plasma equilibrium. In addition, electron heating experiments using the X-B mode conversion scenario were performed, and a heating efficiency of 60% was observed at a 100 kW RF power level. TST-2 is now located at the Kashiwa Campus of the University of Tokyo. Significant upgrades were made in both magnetic coil power supplies and RF systems, and plasma experiments have restarted. RF power of up to 400 kW is available in the high-harmonic fast wave frequency range around 20 MHz. Four 200 MHz transmitters are now being prepared for plasma current start-up experiments using RF power in the lower-hybrid frequency range. Preparations are in progress for a new plasma merging experiment (UTST) aimed at the formation and sustainment of ultra-high β ST plasmas

  17. The relationship between sleep and wake habits and academic performance in medical students: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S; Alaseem, Abdulrahman M; Alzakri, Abdulmajeed A; Almeneessier, Aljohara S; Sharif, Munir M

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between the sleep/wake habits and the academic performance of medical students is insufficiently addressed in the literature. This study aimed to assess the relationship between sleep habits and sleep duration with academic performance in medical students. This study was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 at the College of Medicine, King Saud University, and included a systematic random sample of healthy medical students in the first (L1), second (L2) and third (L3) academic levels. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess demographics, sleep/wake schedule, sleep habits, and sleep duration. Daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). School performance was stratified as "excellent" (GPA ≥ 3.75/5) or "average" (GPA students (males: 67%). One hundred fifteen students (28%) had "excellent" performance, and 295 students (72%) had "average" performance. The "average" group had a higher ESS score and a higher percentage of students who felt sleepy during class. In contrast, the "excellent" group had an earlier bedtime and increased TST during weekdays. Subjective feeling of obtaining sufficient sleep and non-smoking were the only independent predictors of "excellent" performance. Decreased nocturnal sleep time, late bedtimes during weekdays and weekends and increased daytime sleepiness are negatively associated with academic performance in medical students.

  18. The relationship between sleep and wake habits and academic performance in medical students: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BaHammam Ahmed S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between the sleep/wake habits and the academic performance of medical students is insufficiently addressed in the literature. This study aimed to assess the relationship between sleep habits and sleep duration with academic performance in medical students. Methods This study was conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 at the College of Medicine, King Saud University, and included a systematic random sample of healthy medical students in the first (L1, second (L2 and third (L3 academic levels. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to assess demographics, sleep/wake schedule, sleep habits, and sleep duration. Daytime sleepiness was evaluated using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. School performance was stratified as “excellent” (GPA ≥3.75/5 or “average” (GPA Results The final analysis included 410 students (males: 67%. One hundred fifteen students (28% had “excellent” performance, and 295 students (72% had “average” performance. The “average” group had a higher ESS score and a higher percentage of students who felt sleepy during class. In contrast, the “excellent” group had an earlier bedtime and increased TST during weekdays. Subjective feeling of obtaining sufficient sleep and non-smoking were the only independent predictors of “excellent” performance. Conclusion Decreased nocturnal sleep time, late bedtimes during weekdays and weekends and increased daytime sleepiness are negatively associated with academic performance in medical students.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Intensive Sleep Retraining (ISR): A Brief Conditioning Treatment for Chronic Insomnia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jodie; Lack, Leon; Kemp, Kristyn; Wright, Helen; Bootzin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of intensive sleep retraining in comparison and combination with traditional behavioral intervention for chronic primary insomnia. Participants: Seventy-nine volunteers with chronic sleep-onset insomnia (with or without sleep maintenance difficulties) were randomly assigned either to intensive sleep retraining (ISR), stimulus control therapy (SCT), ISR plus SCT, or the control (sleep hygiene) treatment condition. Intervention: ISR treatment consisted of 50 sleep onset trials over a 25-h sleep deprivation period. Measurements and Results: Treatment response was assessed with sleep diary, activity monitoring, and questionnaire measures. The active treatment groups (ISR, SCT, ISR+SCT) all resulted in significant improvements in sleep onset latency and sleep efficiency, with moderate to large effect sizes from pre- to post-treatment. Wake time after sleep onset decreased significantly in the SCT and ISR+SCT groups. Total sleep time increased significantly in the ISR and ISR+SCT treatment groups. Participants receiving ISR (ISR, ISR+SCT) experienced rapidly improved SOL and TST during treatment, suggesting an advantage of rapid improvements in sleep in response to ISR. Although there were few statistically significant differences between groups on individual variables, ISR+SCT resulted in consistently larger effect sizes of change than other treatments, including questionnaire measures of sleep quality, sleep self-efficacy, and daytime functioning. The combination treatment group (ISR+SCT) showed trends to outperform other active treatment groups with fewer treatment dropouts, and a greater proportion of treatment responders with 61% reaching “good sleeper” status. Treatment gains achieved at post-treatment in the active treatment groups were largely maintained throughout follow-up periods to 6 months. Conclusion: This 25-hour intensive conditioning treatment for chronic insomnia can produce rapid improvements in

  20. Ion temperature increase during MHD events on the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, A.; Shiraiwa, S.; Takase, Y.; Yamada, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Iijima, D.; Kobori, Y.; Nishi, T.; Taniguchi, T.; Aramasu, M.; Ohara, S.; Ushigome, M.; Yamagishi, K.

    2003-01-01

    Various types of MHD events including internal reconnection events are studied on the TST-2 spherical tokamak. In weak MHD events no positive current spike was observed, but in strong MHD events with positive current spikes, a rapid and significant impurity ion temperature increase was observed. The decrease in the poloidal magnetic energy is the most probable energy source for ion heating. The plasma current shows a stepwise change. The magnitude of this step correlates with the temperature increase and is found to be a good indicator of the strength of each event. (author)

  1. Sleep Spindle Detection and Prediction Using a Mixture of Time Series and Chaotic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Hekmatmanesh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that sleep spindles (bursts of oscillatory brain electrical activity are significant indicators of learning, memory and some disease states. Therefore, many attempts have been made to detect these hallmark patterns automatically. In this pilot investigation, we paid special attention to nonlinear chaotic features of EEG signals (in combination with linear features to investigate the detection and prediction of sleep spindles. These nonlinear features included: Higuchi's, Katz's and Sevcik's Fractal Dimensions, as well as the Largest Lyapunov Exponent and Kolmogorov's Entropy. It was shown that the intensity map of various nonlinear features derived from the constructive interference of spindle signals could improve the detection of the sleep spindles. It was also observed that the prediction of sleep spindles could be facilitated by means of the analysis of these maps. Two well-known classifiers, namely the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP and the K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN were used to distinguish between spindle and non-spindle patterns. The MLP classifier produced a~high discriminative capacity (accuracy = 94.93%, sensitivity = 94.31% and specificity = 95.28% with significant robustness (accuracy ranging from 91.33% to 94.93%, sensitivity varying from 91.20% to 94.31%, and specificity extending from 89.79% to 95.28% in separating spindles from non-spindles. This classifier also generated the best results in predicting sleep spindles based on chaotic features. In addition, the MLP was used to find out the best time window for predicting the sleep spindles, with the experimental results reaching 97.96% accuracy.

  2. Sleep Disturbances in Newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Yasova Barbeau, Daphna; Weiss, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to serve as an introduction to understanding sleep in the fetus, the preterm neonate and the term neonate. Sleep appears to have numerous important roles, particularly in the consolidation of new information. The sleep cycle changes over time, neonates spend the most time in active sleep and have a progressive shortening of active sleep and lengthening of quiet sleep. Additionally, the sleep cycle is disrupted by many things including disease state and environmen...

  3. Sleeping position and reported night-time asthma symptoms and medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalolella, Admirabilis Beno

    2016-01-01

    A 49 years old man, known case of bronchial asthma for 43 years, with history of frequent asthmatic attacks, usually responding to double dose of intravenous Aminophylline and double dose of Hydrocortisone was received at medical emergency care unit at midnight with night-time asthma attack. The attack did not settle with Aminophylline single Intravenous injection. He was then admitted and put in supine sleep position for re-evaluation while his asthma symptoms were monitored while waiting for the medical officer's evaluation of his asthma status. After 3 hours of observation, asthma symptoms were relieved, and patient was discharged home and advised to sleep in supine position throughout every night to prevent asthma symptoms. The patient was followed up through nighttime sleep diary for one month. After one month period of monitoring, the patient had significance reduction in asthma symptoms and reduced night time medication, reduced episodes of night awakening due to asthma symptoms, and improved capability for normal works. This case report describes a novel approach of management and prophylaxis of asthmatic episodes through sleeping position that reduces and control asthma symptoms resulting in reduced drug consumption.

  4. Signals from the brainstem sleep/wake centers regulate behavioral timing via the circadian clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra M Abbott

    Full Text Available Sleep-wake cycling is controlled by the complex interplay between two brain systems, one which controls vigilance state, regulating the transition between sleep and wake, and the other circadian, which communicates time-of-day. Together, they align sleep appropriately with energetic need and the day-night cycle. Neural circuits connect brain stem sites that regulate vigilance state with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN, the master circadian clock, but the function of these connections has been unknown. Coupling discrete stimulation of pontine nuclei controlling vigilance state with analytical chemical measurements of intra-SCN microdialysates in mouse, we found significant neurotransmitter release at the SCN and, concomitantly, resetting of behavioral circadian rhythms. Depending upon stimulus conditions and time-of-day, SCN acetylcholine and/or glutamate levels were augmented and generated shifts of behavioral rhythms. These results establish modes of neurochemical communication from brain regions controlling vigilance state to the central circadian clock, with behavioral consequences. They suggest a basis for dynamic integration across brain systems that regulate vigilance states, and a potential vulnerability to altered communication in sleep disorders.

  5. Signals from the brainstem sleep/wake centers regulate behavioral timing via the circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Sabra M; Arnold, Jennifer M; Chang, Qing; Miao, Hai; Ota, Nobutoshi; Cecala, Christine; Gold, Paul E; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Gillette, Martha U

    2013-01-01

    Sleep-wake cycling is controlled by the complex interplay between two brain systems, one which controls vigilance state, regulating the transition between sleep and wake, and the other circadian, which communicates time-of-day. Together, they align sleep appropriately with energetic need and the day-night cycle. Neural circuits connect brain stem sites that regulate vigilance state with the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock, but the function of these connections has been unknown. Coupling discrete stimulation of pontine nuclei controlling vigilance state with analytical chemical measurements of intra-SCN microdialysates in mouse, we found significant neurotransmitter release at the SCN and, concomitantly, resetting of behavioral circadian rhythms. Depending upon stimulus conditions and time-of-day, SCN acetylcholine and/or glutamate levels were augmented and generated shifts of behavioral rhythms. These results establish modes of neurochemical communication from brain regions controlling vigilance state to the central circadian clock, with behavioral consequences. They suggest a basis for dynamic integration across brain systems that regulate vigilance states, and a potential vulnerability to altered communication in sleep disorders.

  6. Physical Activity, Study Sitting Time, Leisure Sitting Time, and Sleep Time Are Differently Associated With Obesity in Korean Adolescents: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Il Gyu; Lee, Hyo-Jeong; Kim, So Young; Sim, Songyong; Choi, Hyo Geun

    2015-11-01

    Low physical activity, long leisure sitting time, and short sleep time are risk factors for obesity, but the association with study sitting time is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between these factors and obesity.We analyzed the association between physical activity, study sitting time, leisure sitting time, and sleep time and subject weight (underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese), using data from a large population-based survey, the 2013 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. Data from 53,769 participants were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression analyses with complex sampling. Age, sex, region of residence, economic level, smoking, stress level, physical activity, sitting time for study, sitting time for leisure, and sleep time were adjusted as the confounders.Low physical activity (adjusted odds ratios [AORs] = 1.03, 1.12) and long leisure sitting time (AORs = 1.15, 1.32) were positively associated with overweight and obese. Low physical activity (AOR = 1.33) and long leisure sitting time (AOR = 1.12) were also associated with underweight. Study sitting time was negatively associated with underweight (AOR = 0.86) but was unrelated to overweight (AOR = 0.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91-1.03) and obese (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.84-1.04). Sleep time (physical activity, decreasing leisure sitting time, and obtaining sufficient sleep would be beneficial in maintaining a healthy weight. However, study sitting time was not associated with overweight or obese.

  7. Night-time care routine interaction and sleep disruption in adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, Jesus M; Davis, Jean E; Zalewski, Aaron; Yang, James J

    2018-04-01

    To explore the context and the influence of night-time care routine interactions (NCRIs) on night-time sleep effectiveness (NSE) and daytime sleepiness (DSS) of patients in the cardiac surgery critical-care and progressive-care units of a hospital. There exists a paucity of empirical data regarding the influence of NCRIs on sleep and associated outcomes in hospitalised adult cardiac surgery patients. An exploratory repeated-measures research design was employed on the data provided by 38 elective cardiac surgery patients (mean age 60.0 ± 15.9 years). NCRI forms were completed by the bedside nurses and patients completed a 9-item Visual Analogue Sleep Scale (100-mm horizontal lines measuring NSE and DSS variables). All data were collected during postoperative nights/days (PON/POD) 1 through 5 and analysed with IBM SPSS software. Patient assessment, medication administration and laboratory/diagnostic procedures were the top three NCRIs reported between midnight and 6:00 a.m. During PON/POD 1 through 5, the respective mean NSE and DSS scores ranged from 52.9 ± 17.2 to 57.8 ± 13.5 and from 27.0 ± 22.6 to 45.6 ± 16.5. Repeated-measures ANOVA showed significant changes in DSS scores (p  .05). Finally, of 8 NCRIs, only 1 (postoperative exercises) was significantly related to sleep variables (r > .40, p disruptions and daytime sleepiness in adult cardiac surgery. Worldwide, acute and critical-care nurses are well positioned to lead initiatives aimed at improving sleep and clinical outcomes in cardiac surgery. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Minqi; Ma, Ning; Zhu, Yingying; Su, Ying-Chu; Chen, Qingwei; Hsiao, Fan-Chi; Ji, Yanran; Yang, Chien-Ming; Zhou, Guofu

    2018-03-15

    Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K) alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K) three times); continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 ± 3.4 years; seven males) were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures) with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time (TST). Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep.

  9. The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minqi Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K three times; continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 ± 3.4 years; seven males were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE and total sleep time (TST. Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep.

  10. Sleeping position and reported night-time asthma symptoms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 49 years old man, known case of bronchial asthma for 43 years, with history of frequent asthmatic attacks, usually responding to double dose of intravenous Aminophylline and double dose of Hydrocortisone was received at medical emergency care unit at midnight with night-time asthma attack. The attack did not settle ...

  11. Children benefit differently from night- and day-time sleep in motor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jin H

    2017-08-01

    Motor skill acquisition occurs while practicing (on-line) and when asleep or awake (off-line). However, developmental questions still remain about whether children of various ages benefit similarly or differentially from night- and day-time sleeping. The likely circadian effects (time-of-day) and the possible between-test-interference (order effects) associated with children's off-line motor learning are currently unknown. Therefore, this study examines the contributions of over-night sleeping and mid-day napping to procedural skill learning. One hundred and eight children were instructed to practice a finger sequence task using computer keyboards. After an equivalent 11-h interval in one of the three states (sleep, nap, wakefulness), children performed the same sequence in retention tests and a novel sequence in transfer tests. Changes in the movement time and sequence accuracy were evaluated between ages (6-7, 8-9, 10-11years) during practice, and from skill training to retrievals across three states. Results suggest that night-time sleeping and day-time napping improved the tapping speed, especially for the 6-year-olds. The circadian factor did not affect off-line motor learning in children. The interference between the two counter-balanced retrieval tests was not found for the off-line motor learning. This research offers possible evidence about the age-related motor learning characteristics in children and a potential means for enhancing developmental motor skills. The dynamics between age, experience, memory formation, and the theoretical implications of motor skill acquisition are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Clusters of Insomnia Disorder: An Exploratory Cluster Analysis of Objective Sleep Parameters Reveals Differences in Neurocognitive Functioning, Quantitative EEG, and Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christopher B.; Bartlett, Delwyn J.; Mullins, Anna E.; Dodds, Kirsty L.; Gordon, Christopher J.; Kyle, Simon D.; Kim, Jong Won; D'Rozario, Angela L.; Lee, Rico S.C.; Comas, Maria; Marshall, Nathaniel S.; Yee, Brendon J.; Espie, Colin A.; Grunstein, Ronald R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To empirically derive and evaluate potential clusters of Insomnia Disorder through cluster analysis from polysomnography (PSG). We hypothesized that clusters would differ on neurocognitive performance, sleep-onset measures of quantitative (q)-EEG and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: Research volunteers with Insomnia Disorder (DSM-5) completed a neurocognitive assessment and overnight PSG measures of total sleep time (TST), wake time after sleep onset (WASO), and sleep onset latency (SOL) were used to determine clusters. Results: From 96 volunteers with Insomnia Disorder, cluster analysis derived at least two clusters from objective sleep parameters: Insomnia with normal objective sleep duration (I-NSD: n = 53) and Insomnia with short sleep duration (I-SSD: n = 43). At sleep onset, differences in HRV between I-NSD and I-SSD clusters suggest attenuated parasympathetic activity in I-SSD (P insomnia clusters derived from cluster analysis differ in sleep onset HRV. Preliminary data suggest evidence for three clusters in insomnia with differences for sustained attention and sleep-onset q-EEG. Clinical Trial Registration: Insomnia 100 sleep study: Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) identification number 12612000049875. URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=347742. Citation: Miller CB, Bartlett DJ, Mullins AE, Dodds KL, Gordon CJ, Kyle SD, Kim JW, D'Rozario AL, Lee RS, Comas M, Marshall NS, Yee BJ, Espie CA, Grunstein RR. Clusters of Insomnia Disorder: an exploratory cluster analysis of objective sleep parameters reveals differences in neurocognitive functioning, quantitative EEG, and heart rate variability. SLEEP 2016;39(11):1993–2004. PMID:27568796

  13. Systematic review of TST responses in people living with HIV in under-resourced settings: implications for isoniazid preventive therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Kerkhoff

    Full Text Available People living with HIV (PLWH who have positive tuberculin skin tests (TST benefit from isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT whereas those testing TST-negative do not. Revised World Health Organization guidelines explicitly state that assessment of TST is not a requirement for initiation of IPT. However, it is not known what proportions of patients will benefit from IPT if implemented without targeting according to TST status. We therefore determined the proportions of PLWH who test TST-positive.We systematically reviewed the literature published between January 1990 and February 2012 to determine the proportions of patients without active tuberculosis attending HIV care services in low and middle-income countries who tested TST-positive (≥5 mm induration. Proportions were also determined for different CD4 count strata. Data from 19 studies with 9,478 PLWH from sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Central and South America were summarized. The vast majority were not receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART. A sub-analysis was conducted of 5 studies (5,567 subjects from high TB prevalence countries of PLWH with negative TB screens attending HIV care and treatment settings for whom CD4 stratified data were available. The median proportion of PLWH testing TST-positive overall was 22.8% (range, 19.5-32.6%. The median (range proportions with CD4 cell counts of <200, 200-499 or ≥500 cells/µL who tested positive were 12.4% (8.2-15.3%, 28.4% (20.1-36.9% and 37.4% (31.3-56.3%, respectively. Heterogeneity in the data precluded calculation of pooled summary estimates.In most settings, if IPT is administered to PLWH pre-ART without assessment of TST status, only a minority of those treated are likely to benefit, especially among those with the lowest CD4 cell counts. This may be inefficient use of resources and cost-effectiveness analyses should take this into account. Local knowledge of TST response rates may help inform policies. New simple means of identifying

  14. Initial Sleep Time Predicts Success in Manual-Guided Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothelius, Kristoffer; Kyhle, Kicki; Broman, Jan-Erik; Gordh, Torsten; Fredrikson, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy produces significant and long-lasting improvement for individuals with insomnia, but treatment resources are scarce. A "stepped care" approach has therefore been proposed, but knowledge is limited on how to best allocate patients to different treatment steps. In this study, 66 primary-care patients with insomnia attended a low-end treatment step: manual-guided cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for insomnia delivered by ordinary primary-care personnel. Based on clinically significant treatment effects, subjects were grouped into treatment responders or nonresponders. Baseline data were analyzed to identify predictors for treatment success. Long total sleep time at baseline assessment was the only statistically significant predictor for becoming a responder, and sleep time may thus be important to consider before enrolling patients in low-end treatments.

  15. Memory processing in great apes: the effect of time and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Ordas, Gema; Call, Josep

    2011-12-23

    Following encoding, memory remains temporarily vulnerable to disruption. Consolidation refers to offline time-dependent processes that continue after encoding and stabilize, transform or enhance the memory trace. Memory consolidation resulting from sleep has been reported for declarative and non-declarative memories in humans. We first investigated the temporal course of memory retrieval in chimpanzees, bonobos and orangutans. We found that the amount of retrieved information was time dependent: apes' performance degraded after 1 and 2 h, stabilized after 4 h, started to increase after 8 and 12 h and fully recovered after 24 h. Second, we show that although memories during wakefulness were highly vulnerable to interference from events similar to those witnessed during the original encoding event, an intervening period of sleep not only stabilized apes' memories into more permanent ones but also protected them against interference.

  16. Effect of 60Co γ radiation on hexobarbital-induced sleeping times in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, M.E.; Hayton, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    The duration of the loss of righting reflex (sleeping time) was determined after intraperitoneal administration of 100 mg(/kg hexobarbital to adult male Sprague--Dawley rats that were exposed to 60 Co γ radiation or sham irradiated. No difference between irradiated and control animals was detected at 1, 3, 5, and 7 days after 850 R. Also, no difference between irradiated and control animals was detected at 5 days after 1000 or 1400 R

  17. Pentobarbital Sleep Time in Mouse Lines Selected for Resistance and Susceptibility to Fescue Toxicosis

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur, Kimberly Ann

    2002-01-01

    In previous work with mouse lines selected for resistance (R) and susceptibility (S) to fescue toxicosis, R mice had higher activities of Phase II liver enzymes glutathione S-transferase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl-transferase than S mice. Objectives of this study were: 1. to determine whether selection for toxicosis response had also caused divergence between lines in hepatic Phase I enzyme activity (as assessed by sleep time following sodium pentobarbital anesthesia), 2. to determi...

  18. (Mis)perception of sleep in insomnia: a puzzle and a resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Allison G; Tang, Nicole K Y

    2012-01-01

    Insomnia is prevalent, causing severe distress and impairment. This review focuses on illuminating the puzzling finding that many insomnia patients misperceive their sleep. They overestimate their sleep onset latency (SOL) and underestimate their total sleep time (TST), relative to objective measures. This tendency is ubiquitous (although not universal). Resolving this puzzle has clinical, theoretical, and public health importance. There are implications for assessment, definition, and treatment. Moreover, solving the puzzle creates an opportunity for real-world applications of theories from clinical, perceptual, and social psychology as well as neuroscience. Herein we evaluate 13 possible resolutions to the puzzle. Specifically, we consider the possible contribution, to misperception, of (1) features inherent to the context of sleep (e.g., darkness); (2) the definition of sleep onset, which may lack sensitivity for insomnia patients; (3) insomnia being an exaggerated sleep complaint; (4) psychological distress causing magnification; (5) a deficit in time estimation ability; (6) sleep being misperceived as wake; (7) worry and selective attention toward sleep-related threats; (8) a memory bias influenced by current symptoms and emotions, a confirmation bias/belief bias, or a recall bias linked to the intensity/recency of symptoms; (9) heightened physiological arousal; (10) elevated cortical arousal; (11) the presence of brief awakenings; (12) a fault in neuronal circuitry; and (13) there being 2 insomnia subtypes (one with and one without misperception). The best supported resolutions were misperception of sleep as wake, worry, and brief awakenings. A deficit in time estimation ability was not supported. We conclude by proposing several integrative solutions.

  19. Investigating the associations between work hours, sleep status, and self-reported health among full-time employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori

    2012-04-01

    The extent to which work hours and sleep are associated with self-rated health (SRH) was investigated in full-time employees of small- and medium-scale businesses (SMBs) in a suburb of Tokyo. A total of 2,579 employees (1,887 men and 692 women), aged 18-79 (mean 45) years, in 296 SMBs were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire from August to December 2002. Work hours, sleep, and SRH were evaluated. Compared with those working 6-8 h/day, participants working >8 to 10 h/day and >10 h/day had significantly higher odds of suboptimal SRH [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.36 and 1.87, respectively]. Similarly, compared with those sleeping 6+ h/day and sufficient sleep, participants with short sleep (work hours with short sleep (aOR 3.30) or insufficient sleep (aOR 3.40) exerted synergistic negative associations on SRH. This study suggests that long work hours and poor sleep and its combination are associated with suboptimal SRH.

  20. Sleep Sleeping Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Sleep Sleeping Patch is a new kind of external patch based on modern sleep medicine research achievements, which uses the internationally advanced transdermal therapeutic system (TTS). The Sleep Sleeping Patch transmits natural sleep inducers such as peppermint and liquorice extracts and melatonin through the skin to induce sleep. Clinical research proves that the Sleep Sleeping Patch can effectively improve insomnia and the quality of sleep. Highly effective: With the modern TTS therapy,

  1. RF start-up and sustainment experiments on the TST-2-K spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejiri, A.; Takase, Y.; Kasahara, H.; Yamada, T.; Hanada, K.; Sato, K. N.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Iyomasa, A.; Imamura, N.; Esaki, K.; Kitaguchi, M.; Sasaki, K.; Hoshika, H.; Mitarai, O.; Nishino, N.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma start-up and sustainment without an inductive field have been studied in the TST-2-K spherical tokamak using high power RF sources (8.2 GHz/up to 170 kW). Steady state discharges with a plasma current of 4 kA were achieved. The line integrated density was about 3 x 10 17 m -2 and the electron temperature was 160 eV. A truncated equilibrium was introduced to reproduce magnetic measurements. It was found that a positive Pfirsch-Schlueter current in the open field line region at the outboard boundary makes a significant contribution to the current. Insensitivity of the current to variations in the vertical field and RF power variation was also found

  2. Lost sleep and cyberloafing: Evidence from the laboratory and a daylight saving time quasi-experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, David T; Barnes, Christopher M; Lim, Vivien K G; Ferris, D Lance

    2012-09-01

    The Internet is a powerful tool that has changed the way people work. However, the ubiquity of the Internet has led to a new workplace threat to productivity-cyberloafing. Building on the ego depletion model of self-regulation, we examine how lost and low-quality sleep influence employee cyberloafing behaviors and how individual differences in conscientiousness moderate these effects. We also demonstrate that the shift to Daylight Saving Time (DST) results in a dramatic increase in cyberloafing behavior at the national level. We first tested the DST-cyberloafing relation through a national quasi-experiment, then directly tested the relation between sleep and cyberloafing in a closely controlled laboratory setting. We discuss the implications of our findings for theory, practice, and future research.

  3. Effects of school start time on students' sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and attendance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Jennifer M; Moyer, Anne

    2017-12-01

    Research conducted over the past three decades finds that many children and adolescents do not meet recommended sleep guidelines. Lack of sleep is a predictor of a number of consequences, including issues at school such as sleepiness and tardiness. Considering the severity of this public health issue, it is essential to understand more about the factors that may compromise children's and adolescents' sleep. This meta-analysis examined the effects of school start time (SST) on sleep duration of students by aggregating the results of five longitudinal studies and 15 cross-sectional comparison group studies. Results indicated that later starting school times are associated with longer sleep durations. Additionally, later start times were associated with less daytime sleepiness (7 studies) and tardiness to school (3 studies). However, methodological considerations, such as a need for more longitudinal primary research, lead to a cautious interpretation. Overall, this systematic analysis of SST studies suggests that delaying SST is associated with benefits for students' sleep and, thus, their general well-being. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A deep learning architecture for temporal sleep stage classification using multivariate and multimodal time series

    OpenAIRE

    Chambon, Stanislas; Galtier, Mathieu; Arnal, Pierrick; Wainrib, Gilles; Gramfort, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Sleep stage classification constitutes an important preliminary exam in the diagnosis of sleep disorders. It is traditionally performed by a sleep expert who assigns to each 30s of signal a sleep stage, based on the visual inspection of signals such as electroencephalograms (EEG), electrooculograms (EOG), electrocardiograms (ECG) and electromyograms (EMG). We introduce here the first deep learning approach for sleep stage classification that learns end-to-end without computing spectrograms or...

  5. The study of subjective and objective evaluation of sleep disturbances in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Chun-feng

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Sleep disorder is one of the most common non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD patients. At present, there are subjective and objective tools to evaluate sleepdisorders. Nevertheless, previous studies commonly used single subjective questionnaires or objective examinations. Therefore, we used the combinations of subjective and objective tools to analyze clinical characteristics of sleep disturbances in PD and investigated differences and consistence between subjective and objective tools. Methods One hundred and sixteen PD patients were eligible to participate into this study. All participants were evaluated by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS in "on" condition, Hoehn-Yahr (H-Y stage, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD 24 items, Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS, and underwent a video-polysomnography (Video-PSG. Results According to PSQI score of 116 PD patients, the proportion of PD patients with sleep disturbances (PSQI ≥ 7 was 50% (N = 58. Compared to PD patients without sleep disturbances, PD patients with sleep disturbances had lower score of MoCA (23.34 ± 3.50 vs 24.89 ± 3.52; t = 2.377, P = 0.019, higher score of UPDRSⅠ[4.00 (2.00, 5.00 vs 3.00 (2.00, 5.00; U = - 2.306, P = 0.021], UPDRSⅡ[12.00 (9.00, 16.00 vs 10.00 (6.00, 13.00; U = - 1.995, P = 0.046], higher levodopa equivalent daily dose [LED, (508.14 ± 335.85 vs (394.06 ± 236.40 mg/d; t = - 2.115, P = 0.037]. Although PD patients with sleep disturbances had more score of UPDSR Ⅲ and higher H-Y stage, the differences were not significant (P > 0.05. On the other hand, decreased total sleep time (TST, reduced sleep efficiency (SE, increased sleep latency (SL, decreased non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep stage Ⅱ time were found for PD patients with sleep disturbances (P 0.05, for all. The score of PSQI was positively correlated with the score of ESS (r = 0.200, P = 0

  6. Time-on-task decrement in vigilance is modulated by inter-individual vulnerability to homeostatic sleep pressure manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheline eMaire

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Under sleep loss, vigilance is reduced and attentional failures emerge progressively. It becomes difficult to maintain stable performance over time, leading to growing performance variability (i.e. state instability in an individual and among subjects. Task duration plays a major role in the maintenance of stable vigilance levels, such that the longer the task, the more likely state instability will be observed. Vulnerability to sleep-loss-dependent performance decrements is highly individual and is also modulated by a polymorphism in the human clock gene PERIOD3 (PER3. By combining two different protocols, we manipulated sleep-wake history by once extending wakefulness for 40 h (high sleep pressure condition and once by imposing a short sleep-wake cycle by alternating 160 min of wakefulness and 80 min naps (low sleep pressure condition in a within-subject design. We observed that homozygous carriers of the long repeat allele of PER3 (PER35/5 experienced a greater time-on-task dependent performance decrement (i.e., a steeper increase in the number of lapses in the Psychomotor Vigilance Task compared to the carriers of the short repeat allele (PER34/4. These genotype-dependent effects disappeared under low sleep pressure conditions, and neither motivation, nor perceived effort accounted for these differences. Our data thus suggest that greater sleep-loss related attentional vulnerability based on the PER3 polymorphism is mirrored by a greater state instability under extended wakefulness in the short compared to the long allele carriers. Our results undermine the importance of time-on-task related aspects when investigating inter-individual differences in sleep loss-induced behavioural vulnerability.

  7. Effects of night work, sleep loss and time on task on simulated threat detection performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Rubinstein, Joshua; Fomberstein, Kenneth M; Coble, Matthew C; Ecker, Adrian; Avinash, Deepa; Dinges, David F

    2008-09-01

    To investigate the effects of night work and sleep loss on a simulated luggage screening task (SLST) that mimicked the x-ray system used by airport luggage screeners. We developed more than 5,800 unique simulated x-ray images of luggage organized into 31 stimulus sets of 200 bags each. 25% of each set contained either a gun or a knife with low or high target difficulty. The 200-bag stimuli sets were then run on software that simulates an x-ray screening system (SLST). Signal detection analysis was used to obtain measures of hit rate (HR), false alarm rate (FAR), threat detection accuracy (A'), and response bias (B"(D)). Experimental laboratory study 24 healthy nonprofessional volunteers (13 women, mean age +/- SD = 29.9 +/- 6.5 years). Subjects performed the SLST every 2 h during a 5-day period that included a 35 h period of wakefulness that extended to night work and then another day work period after the night without sleep. Threat detection accuracy A' decreased significantly (P work, while both A' (P = 0.001) and HR decreased (P = 0.008) during day work following sleep loss. There were prominent time-on-task effects on response bias B"(D) (P= 0.002) and response latency (P = 0.004), but accuracy A' was unaffected. Both HR and FAR increased significantly with increasing study duration (both P work and sleep loss adversely affect the accuracy of detecting complex real world objects among high levels of background clutter. If the results can be replicated in professional screeners and real work environments, fatigue in luggage screening personnel may pose a threat for air traffic safety unless countermeasures for fatigue are deployed.

  8. A quasi-experimental study of the impact of school start time changes on adolescent sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Judith A; Dearth-Wesley, Tracy; Herman, Allison N; Oakes, J Michael; Whitaker, Robert C

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether simultaneous school start time changes (delay for some schools; advance for others) impact adolescents' sleep. Quasi-experimental study using cross-sectional surveys before and after changes to school start times in September 2015. Eight middle (grades 7-8), 3 secondary (grades 7-12), and 8 high (grades 9-12) schools in Fairfax County (Virginia) public schools. A total of 2017 (6% of ~34,900) students were surveyed before start time changes, and 1180 (3% of ~35,300) were surveyed after. A 50-minute delay (7:20 to 8:10 am) in start time for high schools and secondary schools and a 30-minute advance (8:00 to 7:30 am) for middle schools. Differences before and after start time changes in self-reported sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Among respondents, 57.5% were non-Hispanic white, and 10.3% received free or reduced-priced school meals. Before start time changes, high/secondary and middle school students slept a mean (SD) of 7.4 (1.2) and 8.4 (1.0) hours on school nights, respectively, and had a prevalence of daytime sleepiness of 78.4% and 57.2%, respectively. Adjusted for potential confounders, students with a 50-minute delay slept 30.1 minutes longer (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.3-36.0) on school nights and had less daytime sleepiness (-4.8%; 95% CI, -8.5% to -1.1%), whereas students with a 30-minute advance slept 14.8 minutes less (95% CI, -21.6 to -8.0) and had more daytime sleepiness (8.0%; 95% CI, 2.5%-13.5%). Both advances and delays in school start times are associated with changes in adolescents' school-night sleep duration and daytime sleepiness. Larger changes might occur with later start times. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Adolescent sleep patterns and night-time technology use: results of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's Big Sleep Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda L Gamble

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Electronic devices in the bedroom are broadly linked with poor sleep in adolescents. This study investigated whether there is a dose-response relationship between use of electronic devices (computers, cellphones, televisions and radios in bed prior to sleep and adolescent sleep patterns. METHODS: Adolescents aged 11-17 yrs (n = 1,184; 67.6% female completed an Australia-wide internet survey that examined sleep patterns, sleepiness, sleep disorders, the presence of electronic devices in the bedroom and frequency of use in bed at night. RESULTS: Over 70% of adolescents reported 2 or more electronic devices in their bedroom at night. Use of devices in bed a few nights per week or more was 46.8% cellphone, 38.5% computer, 23.2% TV, and 15.8% radio. Device use had dose-dependent associations with later sleep onset on weekdays (highest-dose computer adjOR  = 3.75: 99% CI  = 2.17-6.46; cellphone 2.29: 1.22-4.30 and weekends (computer 3.68: 2.14-6.32; cellphone 3.24: 1.70-6.19; TV 2.32: 1.30-4.14, and later waking on weekdays (computer 2.08: 1.25-3.44; TV 2.31: 1.33-4.02 and weekends (computer 1.99: 1.21-3.26; cellphone 2.33: 1.33-4.08; TV 2.04: 1.18-3.55. Only 'almost every night' computer use (: 2.43: 1.45-4.08 was associated with short weekday sleep duration, and only 'almost every night' cellphone use (2.23: 1.26-3.94 was associated with wake lag (waking later on weekends. CONCLUSIONS: Use of computers, cell-phones and televisions at higher doses was associated with delayed sleep/wake schedules and wake lag, potentially impairing health and educational outcomes.

  10. Obstructive sleep apnea in obese community-dwelling children: the NANOS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Álvarez, María Luz; Cordero-Guevara, José Aurelio; Terán-Santos, Joaquin; Gonzalez-Martinez, Mónica; Jurado-Luque, María José; Corral-Peñafiel, Jaime; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2014-05-01

    Obesity in children is assumed to serve as a major risk factor in pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). However, the prevalence of OSAS in otherwise healthy obese children from the community is unknown. To determine the prevalence of OSAS in obese children identified and recruited from primary care centers. A cross-sectional, prospective, multicenter study. Spanish children ages 3-14 y with a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for age and sex were randomly selected, and underwent medical history, snoring, and Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ) assessments, as well as physical examination, nasopharyngoscopy, and nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) recordings. Two hundred forty-eight children (54.4% males) with mean age of 10.8 ± 2.6 y were studied with a BMI of 28.0 ± 4.7 kg/m(2) corresponding to 96.8 ± 0.6 percentile when adjusted for age and sex. The mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI), obstructive RDI (ORDI), and obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (OAHI) were 5.58 ± 9.90, 5.06 ± 9.57, and 3.39 ± 8.78/h total sleep time (TST), respectively. Using ≥ 3/h TST as the cutoff for the presence of OSAS, the prevalence of OSAS ranged from 21.5% to 39.5% depending on whether OAHI, ORDI, or RDI were used. The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in obese children from the general population is high. Obese children should be screened for the presence of OSAS. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01322763.

  11. The effects of spectral tuning of evening ambient light on melatonin suppression, alertness and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shadab A; St Hilaire, Melissa A; Lockley, Steven W

    2017-08-01

    We compared the effects of bedroom-intensity light from a standard fluorescent and a blue- (i.e., short-wavelength) depleted LED source on melatonin suppression, alertness, and sleep. Sixteen healthy participants (8 females) completed a 4-day inpatient study. Participants were exposed to blue-depleted circadian-sensitive (C-LED) light and a standard fluorescent light (FL, 4100K) of equal illuminance (50lx) for 8h prior to a fixed bedtime on two separate days in a within-subject, randomized, cross-over design. Each light exposure day was preceded by a dim light (LED conditions compared to FL 30min prior to bedtime. EEG-based correlates of alertness corroborated the reduced alertness under C-LED conditions as shown by significantly increased EEG spectral power in the delta-theta (0.5-8.0Hz) bands under C-LED as compared to FL exposure. There was no significant difference in total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE%), and slow-wave activity (SWA) between the two conditions. Unlike melatonin suppression and alertness, a significant order effect was observed on all three sleep variables, however. Individuals who received C-LED first and then FL had increased TST, SE% and SWA averaged across both nights compared to individuals who received FL first and then C-LED. These data show that the spectral characteristics of light can be fine-tuned to attenuate non-visual responses to light in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Temporal and bi-directional associations between sleep duration and physical activity/sedentary time in children: An international comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingyi; Tremblay, Mark S; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, Jose; Olds, Timothy; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this multinational and cross-sectional study was to investigate whether nighttime sleep duration was associated with physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) the following day, whether daytime PA/SED were associated with sleep duration the subsequent night, and whether the associations were modified by sex and study sites. Data from 5779 children aged 9-11years were analyzed. A waist-worn Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer was used to assess children's 24-h movement behaviours for 7days, i.e. sleep duration, total SED, light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Multilevel linear regression models were used to account for the repeated measures nested within participants (there were up to 7 sleep→PA/SED and PA/SED→sleep pairings per participant) and schools, and adjusted for covariates. To facilitate interpretation, all sleep and PA/SED variables were standardized. Results showed that the relationship between sleep and PA/SED is bi-directional in this international sample of children. Specifically, for each one standard deviation (SD) unit increase in sleep duration, SED the following day decreased by 0.04 SD units, while LPA and MVPA increased by 0.04 and 0.02 SD units, respectively. Sleep duration decreased by 0.02 SD units and increased by 0.04 SD units for each one SD unit increase in SED and MVPA, respectively. Sleep duration was not affected by changes in LPA. These associations differed across sex and study sites in both directions. However, since the observed effect sizes are subtle, public health initiatives should consider the clinical and practical relevance of these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) on sleep patterns and daytime functioning in American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polos, Peter G; Bhat, Sushanth; Gupta, Divya; O'Malley, Richard J; DeBari, Vincent A; Upadhyay, Hinesh; Chaudhry, Saqib; Nimma, Anitha; Pinto-Zipp, Genevieve; Chokroverty, Sudhansu

    2015-10-01

    This cross-sectional study explored the extent and impact of mobile device-based Sleep Time-Related Information and Communication Technology (STRICT) use among American adolescents (N = 3139, 49.3% female, mean age = 13.3 years). Nearly 62% used STRICT after bedtime, 56.7% texted/tweeted/messaged in bed, and 20.8% awoke to texts. STRICT use was associated with insomnia, daytime sleepiness, eveningness, academic underperformance, later bedtimes and shorter sleep duration. Moderation analysis demonstrated that the association between STRICT use and insomnia increased with age, the association between STRICT use and daytime sleepiness decreased with age, and the association between STRICT use and shorter sleep duration decreased with age and was stronger in girls. Insomnia and daytime sleepiness partially mediated the relationship between STRICT use and academic underperformance. Our results illustrate the adverse interactions between adolescent STRICT use and sleep, with deleterious effects on daytime functioning. These worrisome findings suggest that placing reasonable limitations on adolescent STRICT use may be appropriate. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Does the duration and time of sleep increase the risk of allergic rhinitis? Results of the 6-year nationwide Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeoung A Kwon

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis (AR is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18. We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007-2012. The sample size was 274,480, with an average response rate of 96.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between sleep and AR risk. Furthermore, to determine the best-fitted model among independent variables such as sleep duration, sleep time, and the combination of sleep duration and sleep time, we used Akaike Information Criteria (AIC to compare models. A total of 43,337 boys and 41,665 girls reported a diagnosis of AR at baseline. The odds ratio increased with age and with higher education and economic status of the parents. Further, students in mid-sized and large cities had stronger relationships to AR than those in small cities. In both genders, AR was associated with depression and suicidal ideation. In the analysis of sleep duration and sleep time, the odds ratio increased in both genders when sleep duration was <7 hours, and when the time of sleep was later than 24:00 hours. Our results indicate an association between sleep time and duration and AR. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between sleep duration and time and AR in national survey data collected over 6 years.

  15. Nocturnal Polyuria in Older Women with Urge Urinary Incontinence: Role of Sleep Quality, Time in Bed and Medications Used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Shachi; Perera, Subashan; Clarkson, Becky D; Tadic, Stasa D; Resnick, Neil M

    2017-03-01

    Nocturia is common and bothersome in older adults, especially those who are also incontinent. Since nocturnal polyuria is a major contributor, we examined factors associated with nocturnal polyuria in this population to identify those possibly amenable to intervention. We analyzed baseline data from 2 previously completed studies of urge urinary incontinence. The studies involved 284 women (mean age ± SD 72.9 ± 7.9 years) who also completed 3-day voiding diaries. Participants with a nocturnal polyuria index greater than 33% were categorized as having nocturnal polyuria (nocturnal polyuria index = nocturnal urinary volume per 24-hour urine volume). Associations between nocturnal polyuria and various demographic, clinical and sleep related parameters were determined. Overall 55% of the participants had nocturnal polyuria. Multivariable regression analysis revealed that age, body mass index, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, time spent in bed and duration of first uninterrupted sleep were independent correlates of nocturnal polyuria. Participants with a larger nocturnal excretion reported a shorter duration of uninterrupted sleep before first awakening to void and worse sleep quality despite spending similar time in bed. Body mass index, use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers, time in bed and duration of uninterrupted sleep before first awakening to void are independently associated with nocturnal polyuria in older women with urge urinary incontinence, and are potentially modifiable. These findings also confirm the association between sleep and nocturnal polyuria. Further studies should explore whether interventions to reduce nocturnal polyuria and/or increase the duration of uninterrupted sleep before first awakening to void would help to improve sleep quality in this population and thereby reduce or eliminate the need for sedative hypnotics. Copyright © 2017 American Urological

  16. Sleep and rhythm changes at the time of Trypanosoma brucei invasion of the brain parenchyma in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seke Etet, Paul F; Palomba, Maria; Colavito, Valeria; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Bentivoglio, Marina; Bertini, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is a severe disease caused by Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.). The disease hallmark is sleep alterations. Brain involvement in HAT is a crucial pathogenetic step for disease diagnosis and therapy. In this study, a rat model of African trypanosomiasis was used to assess changes of sleep-wake, rest-activity, and body temperature rhythms in the time window previously shown as crucial for brain parenchyma invasion by T.b. to determine potential biomarkers of this event. Chronic radiotelemetric monitoring in Sprague-Dawley rats was used to continuously record electroencephalogram, electromyogram, rest-activity, and body temperature in the same animals before (baseline recording) and after infection. Rats were infected with T.b. brucei. Data were acquired from 1 to 20 d after infection (parasite neuroinvasion initiates at 11-13 d post-infection in this model), and were compared to baseline values. Sleep parameters were manually scored from electroencephalographic-electromyographic tracings. Circadian rhythms of sleep time, slow-wave activity, rest-activity, and body temperature were studied using cosinor rhythmometry. Results revealed alterations of most of the analyzed parameters. In particular, sleep pattern and sleep-wake organization plus rest-activity and body temperature rhythms exhibited early quantitative and qualitative alterations, which became marked around the time interval crucial for parasite neuroinvasion or shortly after. Data derived from actigrams showed close correspondence with those from hypnograms, suggesting that rest-activity could be useful to monitor sleep-wake alterations in African trypanosomiasis.

  17. Differences in sleep habits, study time, and academic performance between US-born and foreign-born college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Arne H; Eliasson, Arn H; Lettieri, Christopher J

    2017-05-01

    To inform the design of a sleep improvement program for college students, we assessed academic performance, sleep habits, study hours, and extracurricular time, hypothesizing that there would be differences between US-born and foreign-born students. Questionnaires queried participants on bedtimes, wake times, nap frequency, differences in weekday and weekend sleep habits, study hours, grade point average, time spent at paid employment, and other extracurricular activities. Comparisons were made using chi square tests for categorical data and t tests for continuous data between US-born and foreign-born students. Of 120 participants (55 % women) with racial diversity (49 whites, 18 blacks, 26 Hispanics, 14 Asians, and 13 other), 49 (41 %) were foreign-born. Comparisons between US-born and foreign-born students showed no differences in average age or gender though US-born had more whites. There were no differences between US-born and foreign-born students for grade point averages, weekday bedtimes, wake times, or total sleep times. However, US-born students averaged 50 min less study time per day (p = 0.01), had almost 9 h less paid employment per week (14.5 vs 23.4 h per week, p = 0.001), and stayed up to socialize more frequently (63 vs 43 %, p = 0.03). Foreign-born students awakened an hour earlier and averaged 40 min less sleep per night on weekends. Cultural differences among college students have a profound effect on sleep habits, study hours, and extracurricular time. The design of a sleep improvement program targeting a population with diverse cultural backgrounds must factor in such behavioral variations in order to have relevance and impact.

  18. Solving the mystery of human sleep schedules one mutation at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallows, William C; Ptáček, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Sleep behavior remains one of the most enigmatic areas of life. The unanswered questions range from "why do we sleep?" to "how we can improve sleep in today's society?" Identification of mutations responsible for altered circadian regulation of human sleep lead to unique opportunities for probing these territories. In this review, we summarize causative circadian mutations found from familial genetic studies to date. We also describe how these mutations mechanistically affect circadian function and lead to altered sleep behaviors, including shifted or shortening of sleep patterns. In addition, we discuss how the investigation of mutations can not only expand our understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating the circadian clock and sleep duration, but also bridge the pathways between clock/sleep and other human physiological conditions and ailments such as metabolic regulation and migraine headaches.

  19. Timing Matters: Circadian Rhythm in Sepsis, Obstructive Lung Disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Kimberly K; Lam, Michael T; Grandner, Michael A; Sassoon, Catherine S; Malhotra, Atul

    2016-07-01

    Physiological and cellular functions operate in a 24-hour cyclical pattern orchestrated by an endogenous process known as the circadian rhythm. Circadian rhythms represent intrinsic oscillations of biological functions that allow for adaptation to cyclic environmental changes. Key clock genes that affect the persistence and periodicity of circadian rhythms include BMAL1/CLOCK, Period 1, Period 2, and Cryptochrome. Remarkable progress has been made in our understanding of circadian rhythms and their role in common medical conditions. A critical review of the literature supports the association between circadian misalignment and adverse health consequences in sepsis, obstructive lung disease, obstructive sleep apnea, and malignancy. Circadian misalignment plays an important role in these disease processes and can affect disease severity, treatment response, and survivorship. Normal inflammatory response to acute infections, airway resistance, upper airway collapsibility, and mitosis regulation follows a robust circadian pattern. Disruption of normal circadian rhythm at the molecular level affects severity of inflammation in sepsis, contributes to inflammatory responses in obstructive lung diseases, affects apnea length in obstructive sleep apnea, and increases risk for cancer. Chronotherapy is an underused practice of delivering therapy at optimal times to maximize efficacy and minimize toxicity. This approach has been shown to be advantageous in asthma and cancer management. In asthma, appropriate timing of medication administration improves treatment effectiveness. Properly timed chemotherapy may reduce treatment toxicities and maximize efficacy. Future research should focus on circadian rhythm disorders, role of circadian rhythm in other diseases, and modalities to restore and prevent circadian disruption.

  20. Does the duration and time of sleep increase the risk of allergic rhinitis? Results of the 6-year nationwide Korea youth risk behavior web-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jeoung A; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18). We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 2007-2012. The sample size was 274,480, with an average response rate of 96.2%. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between sleep and AR risk. Furthermore, to determine the best-fitted model among independent variables such as sleep duration, sleep time, and the combination of sleep duration and sleep time, we used Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) to compare models. A total of 43,337 boys and 41,665 girls reported a diagnosis of AR at baseline. The odds ratio increased with age and with higher education and economic status of the parents. Further, students in mid-sized and large cities had stronger relationships to AR than those in small cities. In both genders, AR was associated with depression and suicidal ideation. In the analysis of sleep duration and sleep time, the odds ratio increased in both genders when sleep duration was sleep was later than 24:00 hours. Our results indicate an association between sleep time and duration and AR. This study is the first to focus on the relationship between sleep duration and time and AR in national survey data collected over 6 years.

  1. Lack of sleep, work and the long hours culture: Evidence from the UK Time Use Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzitheochari, S; Arber, SL

    2009-01-01

    Sleep is functional for individual and societal well-being, with partial sleep deprivation associated with adverse health and safety consequences. Surprisingly, sleep is absent from work—life balance debates and has remained largely under-researched by sociologists. This article examines the relationship of insufficient sleep duration with occupational circumstances and family responsibilities, providing a contribution to the examination of the health consequences of working patterns in the U...

  2. Sleep and Sleepiness among First-Time Postpartum Parents: A Field- and Laboratory-Based Multimethod Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insana, Salvatore P.; Montgomery-Downs, Hawley E.

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to compare sleep, sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance among first-time mothers and fathers during their early postpartum period. Participants were 21 first-time postpartum mother-father dyads (N=42) and seven childless control dyads (N=14). Within their natural environment, participants completed one week of wrist actigraphy monitoring, along with multi-day self-administered sleepiness, fatigue, and neurobehavioral performance measures. The assessment week was followed by an objective laboratory based test of sleepiness. Mothers obtained more sleep compared to fathers, but mothers’ sleep was more disturbed by awakenings. Fathers had greater objectively measured sleepiness than mothers. Mothers and fathers did not differ on subjectively measured sleep quality, sleepiness, or fatigue; however, mothers had worse neurobehavioral performance than fathers. Compared to control dyads, postpartum parents experienced greater sleep disturbance, sleepiness, and sleepiness associated impairments. Study results inform social policy, postpartum sleep interventions, and research on postpartum family systems and mechanisms that propagate sleepiness. PMID:22553114

  3. Detection of toxic shock toxin (tst gene in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine milk samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baniardalan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a major causative pathogen of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle all over the world. This agent produces a variety of extracellular toxins and virulence factors in-cluding toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1 which is the major cause of toxic shock syndrome (TSS. In the present study, 76 S. aureus isolates have been obtained from milk samples collected from 7 dairy herds in Hamedan province of Iran. The isolates were identified based on the biochemical and molecular methods using PCR amplification of the femA gene. The staphylococcal isolates were also examined for the presence of TSST-1 (tst encoding gene. This gene was detected in only one S. aureus isolate (1.3%. The results revealed that S. aureus strains causing bovine mastitis may potentially produce staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin-1, indicating that it is very important to follow the presence of TSST-1 producing S. aureus isolates in foodstuffs to protect consumers against the risk of toxic shock syndrome

  4. Sleep Applications to Assess Sleep Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietze, Ingo

    2016-12-01

    This article highlights the potential uses that smartphone applications may have for helping those with sleep problems. Applications in smartphones offer the promised possibility of detection of sleep. From the author's own experience, one can also conclude that sleep applications are approximately as good as polysomnography in detection of sleep time, similar to the conventional wearable actimeters. In the future, sleep applications will help to further enhance awareness of sleep health and to distinguish those who actually poorly and only briefly sleep from those who suffer more likely from paradox insomnia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bedtime and sleep timing but not sleep duration are associated with eating habits in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Aucouturier, Julien; Pereira, Bruno; Lazaar, Nordine; Ratel, Sébastien; Doré, Eric; Duché, Pascale

    2015-04-01

    In the context of childhood obesity progression, sleep patterns have been associated with unhealthy eating habits and energy intake. The association between several eating habits and sleep patterns in children has been recently studied. The aim of this study was to explore the association between sleep patterns, eating habits, and physical fitness in primary school children. A total of 236 children of 6 to 10 years old were recruited. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were measured, and cardiorespiratory (20-m shuttle run test) and musculoskeletal (squat jump and cycling peak power) fitness tests were performed. Parents were asked to fill out an eating habits questionnaire, and children were classified into 4 categories as a function of the number of eating risk factors they presented. Parents completed a questionnaire about their child's bedtime and waking hours during weekdays and weekends. Weight (p habits (p habits in primary school children. It seems necessary to consider the number of unhealthy eating habits adopted by children when studying these associations.

  6. The effect of sleep apnea severity on cardiac autonomic activity during night time in obstructive sleep apnea patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Ozkececi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Impaired autonomic cardiac function is an important consequence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. This impairment is mainly due to intermittent hypoxia episodes following apneas. However, the impact of apnea severity on autonomic cardiac function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the severity of sleep apnea and heart rate turbulence (HRT and heart rate variability (HRV in OSA. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study conducted in the Departments of Cardiology and Pulmonary Diseases, Afyon Kocatepe University, Turkey. METHODS: 106 patients with OSA and 27 healthy volunteers were enrolled. Based on apnea hypopnea index (AHI values, obstructive sleep apnea severity was classified as follows: mild OSA (AHI ≥ 5 and 30. HRV and HRT parameters were assessed via 24-hour digital Holter electrocardiogram recordings for all subjects. RESULTS: HRV and HRT results were significantly lower among OSA patients than among control subjects (P < 0.05. However, there were no significant differences in HRT and HRV between the three patient subgroups. Correlations did emerge between AHI and the NN-interval parameter RMSSD and between oxygen desaturation and turbulence slope (respectively: r = -0.22, P = 0.037; and r = -0.28, P = 0.025. CONCLUSION: HRT and HRV results deteriorate in OSA. Correlations between apnea severity and these parameters seem to be present.

  7. Time to improvement of pain and sleep quality in clinical trials of pregabalin for the treatment of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Lesley M; Emir, Birol; Pauer, Lynne; Resnick, Malca; Clair, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    To determine the time to immediate and sustained clinical improvement in pain and sleep quality with pregabalin in patients with fibromyalgia. A post hoc analysis of four 8- to 14-week phase 2-3, placebo-controlled trials of fixed-dose pregabalin (150-600 mg/day) for fibromyalgia, comprising 12 pregabalin and four placebo treatment arms. A total of 2,747 patients with fibromyalgia, aged 18-82 years. Pain and sleep quality scores, recorded daily on 11-point numeric rating scales (NRSs), were analyzed to determine time to immediate improvement with pregabalin, defined as the first of ≥2 consecutive days when the mean NRS score was significantly lower for pregabalin vs placebo in those treatment arms with a significant improvement at endpoint, and time to sustained clinical improvement with pregabalin, defined as a ≥1-point reduction of the baseline NRS score of patient responders who had a ≥30% improvement on the pain NRS, sleep NRS, or Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) from baseline to endpoint, or who reported "much improved" or "very much improved" on the Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) at endpoint. Significant improvements in pain and sleep quality scores at endpoint vs placebo were seen in 8/12 and 11/12 pregabalin treatment arms, respectively (P < 0.05). In these arms, time to immediate improvements in pain or sleep occurred by day 1 or 2. Time to sustained clinical improvement occurred significantly earlier in pain, sleep, PGIC, and FIQ responders (P < 0.02) with pregabalin vs placebo. Both immediate and sustained clinical improvements in pain and sleep quality occurred faster with pregabalin vs placebo. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Measurement of ion temperature and flow in RF start-up plasmas in TST-2 and LATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Shintaro; Ejiri, Akira; Takase, Yuichi; Tsujii, Naoto; Takeuchi, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Uchida, Masaki; Maekawa, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ion temperature and flow of RF start-up plasmas in TST-2 and LATE were measured using a visible spectrometer. The plasma currents were 9 kA and 8 kA, respectively. The typical ion temperatures T i and toroidal flow V ϕ were 4 eV and 1 km/s, respectively, in the TST-2 plasma sustained by the lower hybrid wave (20 kW) and T i ∼ 10 eV and V ϕ ∼ 5 km/s in the LATE plasma sustained by the electron cyclotron wave (50 kW). The poloidal flow velocities were comparable to the toroidal velocities. The ion temperatures were relatively high and the ion orbit loss can be significant. (author)

  9. Does the Duration and Time of Sleep Increase the Risk of Allergic Rhinitis? Results of the 6-Year Nationwide Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon, Jeoung A.; Lee, Minjee; Yoo, Ki-Bong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2013-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common chronic disorder in the pediatric population. Although several studies have investigated the correlation between AR and sleep-related issues, the association between the duration and time of sleep and AR has not been analyzed in long-term national data. This study investigated the relationship between sleep time and duration and AR risk in middle- and high-school students (adolescents aged 12-18). We analyzed national data from the Korea Youth Risk Be...

  10. U-shaped associations between time in bed and the physical and mental functioning of Japanese civil servants: the roles of work, family, behavioral and sleep quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, M; Tatsuse, T; Cable, N; Chandola, T; Marmot, M

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate (i) whether work, family, behavioral and sleep quality characteristics differ among individuals with different time in bed (TIB), and (ii) whether and how much the U-shaped associations between TIB and health can be explained by these characteristics. Participants were 3510 employees (2371 males and 1139 females) aged 20-65 years working in local government in Japan. They completed a questionnaire regarding work, family, and behavioral characteristics. Sleep quality and physical and mental functioning were evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Short Form 36. High job demands, long work hours, and high work-family conflict were more prevalent among those with short TIB. Those with long TIB had daily drinking habits. Whereas those with short TIB had poor sleep, mainly due to poor subjective sleep quality and daytime dysfunction, those with long TIB had poor sleep, mainly due to long sleep latency, poor sleep efficiency and sleep disturbances. The U-shaped associations between TIB and poor physical and mental health, with the best health observed in those spending ~8 h in bed, weakened considerably after adjustment for sleep quality, followed by work and family characteristics. After adjusting for behavioral characteristics and long-standing illnesses, the associations hardly changed. The U-shaped associations between TIB and health may be explained by U-shaped associations between TIB and poor sleep and psychosocial stress in work and family life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of 9-hour time zone changes on fatigue and circadian rhythms of sleep/wake and core temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, P. H.; Myhre, G.; Graeber, R. C.; Andersen, H. T.; Lauber, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    Physiological and psychological disruptions caused by transmeridian flights may affect the ability of flight crews to meet operational demands. To study these effects, 9 Royal Norwegian Airforces P3-Orion crewmembers flew from Norway to California (-9 hr), and back (+9 hr). Rectal temperature, heart rate and wrist activity were recorded every 2 min, fatigue and mood were rated every 2 hr during the waking day, and logs were kept of sleep times and ratings. Subjects also completed 4 personality inventories. The time-zone shifts produced negative changes in mood which persisted longer after westward flights. Sleep quality (subjective and objective) and duration were slightly disrupted (more after eastward flights). The circadian rhythms of sleep/wake and temperature both completed the 9-hr delay by day 5 in California, although temperature adjusted more slowly. The size of the delay shift was significantly correlated with scores on extraversion and achievement need personality scales. Response to the 9-hr advance were more variable. One subject exhibited a 15-hr delay in his temperature rhythm, and an atypical sleep/nap pattern. On average, the sleep/wake cycle (but not the temperature rhythm), completed the 9-hr advance by the end of the study. Both rhythms adapted more slowly after the eastward flight.

  12. Seasonal variation in physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep in a sample of UK adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Sophie E; Griffiths, Paula L; Clemes, Stacy A

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), sleep and diet have all been associated with increased risk for chronic disease. Seasonality is often overlooked as a determinant of these behaviours in adults. Currently, no study has simultaneously monitored these behaviours in UK adults to assess seasonal variation. The present study investigated whether PA, SB, sleep and diet differed over season in UK adults. Forty-six adults (72% female; age = 41.7 ± 14.4 years, BMI = 24.9 ± 4.4 kg/m(2)) completed four 7-day monitoring periods; one during each season of the year. The ActiGraph GT1M was used to monitor PA and SB. Daily sleep diaries monitored time spent in bed (TIB) and total sleep time (TST). The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) assessed diet. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to identify seasonal differences in behaviours. Light-intensity PA was significantly higher in summer and spring (p diet (p > 0.05). Findings support the concept that health promotion campaigns need to encourage year-round participation in light intensity PA, whilst limiting SB, particularly during the winter months.

  13. On the identification of sleep stages in mouse electroencephalography time-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Thomas; Plano, Andrea; Austin, Jim; Platt, Bettina

    2015-05-15

    The automatic identification of sleep stages in electroencephalography (EEG) time-series is a long desired goal for researchers concerned with the study of sleep disorders. This paper presents advances towards achieving this goal, with particular application to EEG time-series recorded from mice. Approaches in the literature apply supervised learning classifiers, however, these do not reach the performance levels required for use within a laboratory. In this paper, detection reliability is increased, most notably in the case of REM stage identification, by naturally decomposing the problem and applying a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier to each of the EEG channels. Their outputs are integrated within a multiple classifier system. Furthermore, there exists no general consensus on the ideal choice of parameter values in such systems. Therefore, an investigation into the effects upon the classification performance is presented by varying parameters such as the epoch length; features size; number of training samples; and the method for calculating the power spectral density estimate. Finally, the results of these investigations are brought together to demonstrate the performance of the proposed classification algorithm in two cases: intra-animal classification and inter-animal classification. It is shown that, within a dataset of 10 EEG recordings, and using less than 1% of an EEG as training data, a mean classification errors of Awake 6.45%, NREM 5.82%, and REM 6.65% (with standard deviations less than 0.6%) are achieved in intra-animal analysis and, when using the equivalent of 7% of one EEG as training data, Awake 10.19%, NREM 7.75%, and REM 17.43% are achieved in inter-animal analysis (with mean standard deviations of 6.42%, 2.89%, and 9.69% respectively). A software package implementing the proposed approach will be made available through Cybula Ltd. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep-time BP: prognostic marker of type 2 diabetes and therapeutic target for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Mojón, Artemio; Fernández, José R

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the prognostic value of clinic and ambulatory BP (ABP) to predict new-onset diabetes and whether risk reduction is related to the progressive decrease of clinic BP or awake or asleep ABP. We prospectively evaluated 2,656 individuals without diabetes, 1,292 men and 1,364 women, 50.6 ± 14.3 years of age, with baseline BP ranging from normotension to hypertension according to ABP criteria. At baseline and annually (more frequently if hypertension treatment was adjusted based on ABP) thereafter, ABP and physical activity (wrist actigraphy) were simultaneously monitored for 48 h to accurately derive the awake and asleep BP means. During a 5.9-year median follow-up, 190 participants developed type 2 diabetes. The asleep systolic ABP mean was the most significant predictor of new-onset diabetes in a Cox proportional-hazard model adjusted for age, waist circumference, glucose, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension treatment. Daytime clinic BP and awake or 48 h ABP mean had no predictive value when corrected by the asleep ABP mean. Analyses of BP changes during follow-up revealed a 30% reduction in the risk of new-onset diabetes per 1-SD decrease in asleep systolic ABP mean, independent of changes in clinic BP or awake or 48 h ABP means. Sleep-time BP is a highly significant independent prognostic marker for new-onset diabetes. Alteration in sleep-time BP regulation seems to precede, rather than follow, the development of new-onset diabetes. Most important, lowering asleep BP, a novel therapeutic target requiring ABP evaluation, could be a significant method for reducing new-onset diabetes risk.

  15. Time-of-night variations in the story-like organization of dream experience developed during rapid eye movement sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolli, Carlo; Guazzelli, Mario; Bellucci, Claudia; Mazzetti, Michela; Palagini, Laura; Rosenlicht, Nicholas; Feinberg, Irwin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the cycles (2nd/4th) and duration-related (5/10 min) variations in the story-like organization of dream experience elaborated during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Dream reports were analysed using story grammar rules. Reports were provided by those subjects (14 of 22) capable of reporting a dream after each of the four awakenings provoked in 2 consecutive nights during REM sleep of the 2nd and 4th cycles, after periods of either 5 or 10 min, counterbalanced across the nights. Two researchers who were blind as to the sleep condition scored the dream reports independently. The values of the indicators of report length (measured as value of total word count) and of story-like organization of dream reports were matched taking time-of-night (2nd and 4th cycles) and REM duration (5 versus 10 min) as factors. Two-way analyses of variance showed that report length increased significantly in 4th-cycle REM sleep and nearly significantly for longer REM duration, whereas the number of dream-stories per report did not vary. The indices of sequential (number of statements describing the event structure developed in the story) and hierarchical (number of episodes per story) organization increased significantly only in dream-stories reported after 10 min of 4th-cycle REM sleep. These findings indicate that the characteristics of structural organization of dream-stories vary along with time of night, and suggest that the elaboration of a long and complex dream-story requires a fairly long time and the availability of a great amount of cognitive resources to maintain its continuity and coherence. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  16. The longer the better: Sleep-wake patterns during preparation of the World Rowing Junior Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Steinacker, Jürgen M; Endler, Stefan; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Kellmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Recovery is essential for high athletic performance, and therefore especially sleep has been identified as a crucial source for physical and psychological well-being. However, due to early-morning trainings, which are general practice in many sports, athletes are likely to experience sleep restrictions. Therefore, this study investigated the sleep-wake patterns of 55 junior national rowers (17.7 ± 0.6 years) via sleep logs and actigraphy during a four-week training camp. Recovery and stress ratings were obtained every morning with the Short Recovery and Stress Scale on a 7-point Likert-type scale ranging from 0 (does not apply at all) to 6 (fully applies). The first training session was scheduled for 6:30 h every day. With two to four training sessions per day, the training load was considerably increased from athletes' home training. Objective sleep measures (n = 14) revealed less total sleep time (TST) in the first two weeks (409.6 ± 19.1 and 416.0 ± 16.3 min), while training volume and intensity were higher. In the second half of the camp, less training sessions were implemented, more afternoons were training free and TSTs were longer (436.3 ± 15.8 and 456.9 ± 25.7 min). A single occasion of 1.5-h delayed bedtime and usual early morning training (6:30 h) resulted in reduced ratings of Overall Recovery (OR) (M = 3.3 ± 1.3) and greater Negative Emotional State (NES) (M = 1.3 ± 1.2, p sleep-offset times were shifted from ~5:30 to ~8:00 h, and each recovery and stress score improved (p sleep and recovery. Intercorrelations of these sleep parameters emphasised the relationship between restful sleep and falling asleep quickly (r = .34, p sleep on subjective recovery measures in the setting of a training camp. Providing the opportunity of extended sleep (and a day off) seems the most simple and effective strategy to enhance recovery and stress-related ratings.

  17. Delaying Middle School and High School Start Times Promotes Student Health and Performance: An American Academy of Sleep Medicine Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Martin, Jennifer L; Wise, Merrill S; Carden, Kelly A; Kirsch, Douglas B; Kristo, David A; Malhotra, Raman K; Olson, Eric J; Ramar, Kannan; Rosen, Ilene M; Rowley, James A; Weaver, Terri E; Chervin, Ronald D

    2017-04-15

    During adolescence, internal circadian rhythms and biological sleep drive change to result in later sleep and wake times. As a result of these changes, early middle school and high school start times curtail sleep, hamper a student's preparedness to learn, negatively impact physical and mental health, and impair driving safety. Furthermore, a growing body of evidence shows that delaying school start times positively impacts student achievement, health, and safety. Public awareness of the hazards of early school start times and the benefits of later start times are largely unappreciated. As a result, the American Academy of Sleep Medicine is calling on communities, school boards, and educational institutions to implement start times of 8:30 AM or later for middle schools and high schools to ensure that every student arrives at school healthy, awake, alert, and ready to learn. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  18. Characteristics of sleep dysfunction and sleep - disordered breathing in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang WANG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the characteristics of sleep architecture and sleep - disordered breathing (SDB in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS using polysomnography (PSG. Methods A total of 36 patients with ALS were recruited in this study. According to symptoms of medulla oblongata, the patients were divided into limb involvement group (N = 14 and bulbar palsy group (N = 22. Detailed record of the patients was made including general information and chief complaints of sleep dysfunction and SDB, which covered sleep initiation and maintenance disorders, arousals, difficulty in breathing and snoring, nocturnal polyuria, restless legs syndrome (RLS and muscle soreness. Appel Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (AALS Scores were used to assess bulbar function, breathing function,myodynamia and limbs function. PSG was performed to monitor EEG, EOG, EMG, ECG, position, snore, gas flow of mouth and nose, chest breathing, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 and sleep-related parameters including total sleep time (TST, sleep efficiency (SE, sleep latency (SL, awakening times, percentage of different non-rapid eye movement (NREM and rapial eye movement (REM, and apnea hypopnea index (AHI. Pearson correlation analysis evaluated the relationship between AHI of REM, periodic limb movements (PLM and clinical information, AALS Scores. Results Bulbar palsy group had higher scores in AALS Scores (P = 0.007, bulbar function (P = 0.000 and breathing function (P = 0.000, and lower score in upper limb myodynamia (P = 0.016 than limb involvement group. Both 2 groups showed disturbed sleep architecture in the performance of sleep fragmentation. Bulbar palsy group had more awakening times (P = 0.027, lower percentage of REM sleep (P = 0.009 and less PLM (P = 0.020 than limb involvement group. The main respiratory event of 2 groups was hypopnea. Bulbar palsy group had higher AHI (P = 0.038 and AHI of REM and NREM (P = 0.031, 0.049 than limb involvement group. Pearson

  19. Determinants of Sleep Duration among High School Students in Part-Time Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Luc; Ledoux, Élise; Auclair, Julie; Gaudreault, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who work while attending school are reported to sleep less than those who do not. This study aimed to identify factors associated with short sleep duration in students who work during the school year. A cross-sectional survey aiming to describe working conditions and occupational safety and health was completed by representative…

  20. Time to Talk: 5 Things to Know about Sleep Disorders and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... plus indirect costs due to missed days of work, decreased productivity, and other factors. People who have trouble sleeping ... with insomnia or sleep problems caused by shift work or jet lag. Research on the use of ... stress reduction (a type of meditation), yoga, massage therapy, ...

  1. Management of sleep-time masticatory muscle activity using stabilisation splints affects psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Masaki, C; Makino, M; Yoshida, M; Mukaibo, T; Kondo, Y; Nakamoto, T; Hosokawa, R

    2013-12-01

    To treat sleep bruxism (SB), symptomatic therapy using stabilisation splints (SS) is frequently used. However, their effects on psychological stress and sleep quality have not yet been examined fully. The objective of this study was to clarify the effects of SS use on psychological stress and sleep quality. The subjects (11 men, 12 women) were healthy volunteers. A crossover design was used. Sleep measurements were performed for three consecutive days or longer without (baseline) or with an SS or palatal splint (PS), and data for the final day were evaluated. We measured masseter muscle activity during sleep using portable electromyography to evaluate SB. Furthermore, to compare psychological stress before and after sleep, assessments were made based on STAI-JYZ and the measurement of salivary chromogranin A. To compare each parameter among the three groups (baseline, SS and PS), Friedman's and Dunn's tests were used. From the results of the baseline measurements, eight subjects were identified as high group and 15 as low group. Among the high group, a marked decrease in the number of bruxism events per hour and an increase in the difference in the total STAI Y-1 scores were observed in the SS group compared with those at baseline (P sleep stages. SS use may be effective in reducing the number of SB events, while it may increase psychological stress levels, and SS use did not apparently influence sleep stages. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Association of Sleep Quality and Waking Time with Prediabetes: The Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Ghorbani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. It is known that sleep has a major role in the regulation of endocrine functions and glucose metabolism. However, it is not clear whether the sleep pattern is affected at or prior to the onset of diabetes, among those with prediabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of sleep patterns and prediabetes in Qazvin, Iran. Methods. A representative sample of residents of Qazvin was selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Plasma glucose level and sleep quality were measured cross-sectionally as well as demographic characteristics. A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and prediabetes. Results. Mean age was 39.3 ± 10.1 years. Of 958, 474 (49.47% were female. Poor sleep quality was associated with 2.197-fold increased risk of prediabetes after adjustment for age, gender, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome. Conclusion. This study provides evidences that subjects with poor sleep quality are more likely to develop prediabetes than people with good sleep quality.

  3. Improvement in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Diagnosis and Management Wait Times: A Retrospective Analysis of a Home Management Pathway for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Alan Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea is a common condition within the Canadian population. The current gold standard for diagnosis and management of patients is in-laboratory (in-lab polysomnography; however, the limited availability of testing options for patients has led to long wait times and increased disease burden within the population. The Sleep Research Laboratory in Saskatoon (Saskatchewan implemented a home management program to run in parallel with the in-lab system several years ago in an effort to increase their capacity and reduce wait times. The present study was a retrospective analysis of all patients referred to the program between 2009 and 2012. The home management system has improved wait times by diagnosing and managing up to one-half of the referred patient population, reducing the wait for in-lab treatment from a median of 152 days in 2009 to 92 days in 2012 (P<0.0001. Moving forward, home management can provide a viable alternative to in-lab testing for patients who meet strict entry criteria, reducing the in-lab workload and, ultimately, reducing wait times.

  4. Sleep parameters, functional status and time post-stroke are associated with off-line motor skill learning in people with chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eSiengsukon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mounting evidence demonstrates that individuals with stroke benefit from sleep to enhance learning of a motor task. While stage NREM2 sleep and REM sleep have been associated with off-line motor skill learning in neurologically-intact individuals, it remains unknown which sleep parameters or specific sleep stages are associated with off-line motor skill learning in individuals with stroke. Methods: Twenty individuals with chronic stroke (> 6 months following stroke and 10 neurologically slept for three consecutive nights in a sleep laboratory with polysomnography. Participants practiced a tracking task the morning before the third night and underwent a retention test the morning following the third night. Off-line learning on the tracking task was assessed. Pearson’s correlations assessed for associations between the magnitude of off-line learning and sleep variables, age, upper extremity motor function, stroke severity, depression and time since stroke occurrence.Results: Individuals with stroke performed with significantly less error on the tracking task following a night of sleep (p=.006 while the control participants did not (p=.816. Increased sleep efficiency (r= -.285, less time spent in stage NREM3 sleep (r=.260, and more time spent in stage REM sleep (r= -.266 was weakly-to-moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Furthermore, higher upper-extremity motor function (r = -.400, lower stroke severity (r = .360, and less time since stroke occurrence (r=.311 were moderately associated with increased magnitude of off-line motor learning. Conclusion: This study is the first study to provide insight into which sleep stages and individual characteristics may be associated with off-line learning in people with stroke. Future work should continue to understand which factors or combination of factors promote off-line motor learning in people with neurologic injury to best promote motor recovery in

  5. Decreases in self-reported sleep duration among U.S. adolescents 2009-2015 and association with new media screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Krizan, Zlatan; Hisler, Garrett

    2017-11-01

    Insufficient sleep among adolescents carries significant health risks, making it important to determine social factors that change sleep duration. We sought to determine whether the self-reported sleep duration of U.S. adolescents changed between 2009 and 2015 and examine whether new media screen time (relative to other factors) might be responsible for changes in sleep. We drew from yearly, nationally representative surveys of sleep duration and time use among adolescents conducted since 1991 (Monitoring the Future) and 2007 (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control; total N = 369,595). Compared to 2009, adolescents in 2015 were 16%-17% more likely to report sleeping less than 7 h a night on most nights, with an increase in short sleep duration after 2011-2013. New media screen time (electronic device use, social media, and reading news online) increased over this time period and was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration, with a clear exposure-response relationship for electronic devices after 2 or more hours of use per day. Other activities associated with short sleep duration, such as homework time, working for pay, and TV watching, were relatively stable or reduced over this time period, making it unlikely that these activities caused the sudden increase in short sleep duration. Increased new media screen time may be involved in the recent increases (from 35% to 41% and from 37% to 43%) in short sleep among adolescents. Public health interventions should consider electronic device use as a target of intervention to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lip muscle training improves obstructive sleep apnea and objective sleep: a case report

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    Hiroshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The present study assessed the potential of lip muscle training for improving sleep. A patient with heavy snoring, daytime sleepiness and dry mouth underwent lip muscle training. Lip closure force LCFmax increased by 67.3% and LCFmin by 152% post-training. AHI decreased from 12.2 to 3.9 events/h by reducing hypopneic episodes. TST, sleep stage N3 and REM sleep increased, and WASO, sleep stage N1, and AI decreased. The patient switched from mouth to nose breathing during sleep and stopped snoring. Improved LCF, by moving the tongue into the anterior-superior oral cavity, may increase upper airway space and reduce the hypopnea index.

  7. Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anne-Marie; Aeschbach, Daniel; Duffy, Jeanne F; Czeisler, Charles A

    2015-01-27

    In the past 50 y, there has been a decline in average sleep duration and quality, with adverse consequences on general health. A representative survey of 1,508 American adults recently revealed that 90% of Americans used some type of electronics at least a few nights per week within 1 h before bedtime. Mounting evidence from countries around the world shows the negative impact of such technology use on sleep. This negative impact on sleep may be due to the short-wavelength-enriched light emitted by these electronic devices, given that artificial-light exposure has been shown experimentally to produce alerting effects, suppress melatonin, and phase-shift the biological clock. A few reports have shown that these devices suppress melatonin levels, but little is known about the effects on circadian phase or the following sleep episode, exposing a substantial gap in our knowledge of how this increasingly popular technology affects sleep. Here we compare the biological effects of reading an electronic book on a light-emitting device (LE-eBook) with reading a printed book in the hours before bedtime. Participants reading an LE-eBook took longer to fall asleep and had reduced evening sleepiness, reduced melatonin secretion, later timing of their circadian clock, and reduced next-morning alertness than when reading a printed book. These results demonstrate that evening exposure to an LE-eBook phase-delays the circadian clock, acutely suppresses melatonin, and has important implications for understanding the impact of such technologies on sleep, performance, health, and safety.

  8. Sleep timing and child and parent outcomes in Australian 4-9-year-olds: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Jon; Price, Anna M H; Bittman, Michael; Hiscock, Harriet

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to use national Australian time-diary data to examine both (1) cross-sectionally and (2) longitudinally whether being late versus early to sleep or wake is associated with poorer child behavior, quality of life, learning, cognition and weight status, and parental mental health. Data from the first three waves of the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children were taken. A national representative sample of 4983 4-5-year-olds, recruited in 2004 from the Australian Medicare database and followed up biennially, was taken; 3631 had analyzable sleep information and a concurrent measure of health and well-being for at least one wave. Parents completed 24-h child time-use diaries for one week and one weekend day at each wave. Using median splits, sleep timing was categorized into early-to-sleep/early-to-wake (EE), early-to-sleep/late-to-wake (EL), late-to-sleep/early-to-wake (LE), and late-to-sleep/late-to-wake (LL) at each wave. The outcomes included parent-reported child behavior, health-related quality of life, maternal/paternal mental health, teacher-reported child language, literacy, mathematical thinking, and approach to learning. The study assessed child body mass index and girth. (1) Using EE as the comparator, linear regression analyses revealed that being late-to-sleep was associated with poorer child quality of life from 6 to 9 years and maternal mental health at 6-7 years. There was inconsistent or no evidence for associations between sleep timing and all other outcomes. (2) Using the count of the number of times (waves) at which a child was categorized as late-to-sleep (range 0-3), longitudinal analyses demonstrated that there was a cumulative effect of late-to-sleep profiles on poorer child and maternal outcomes at the child age of 8-9 years. Examined cross-sectionally, sleep timing is a driver of children's quality of life and maternal depression. Examined longitudinally, there appears to be cumulative and adverse relationships

  9. Electrochemical corrosion studies of the TStE 355 fine-grained structural steel in sulfide containing brine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farvaque-Bera, A.M.; Berg, H. von.

    1994-04-01

    Previous corrosion studies have shown that the unalloyed fine-grained steel TStE 355 (Material No. 1.0566) is a promising material for the manufacturing of long-lived high-level waste (HLW) containers that could act as a barrier in a rock-salt repository. Considering this fact, further electrochemical corrosion tests were performed in order to determine the influence of sulfide ions (1 -200 ppm), present as salt impurities in disposal relevant NaCl-brine (T = 55 -90 C), on the corrosion behaviour of this steel grade. For comparison, tests were carried out in the sulfide-free brine, too. (orig.) [de

  10. Reviews/Essays: School Start Times and the Sleep-Wake Cycle of Adolescents--A Review and Critical Evaluation of Available Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Matthew; Maggi, Stefania; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2011-01-01

    The authors have integrated the major findings on the sleep-wake cycle and its performance correlates in adolescents. Basic research shows that lack of synchronicity between early school start times and the circadian rhythm of adolescents (and the sleep debt accumulated as a result) involves several cognitive correlates that may harm the academic…

  11. Screen media usage, sleep time and academic performance in adolescents: clustering a self-organizing maps analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Valencia-Peris, Alexandra; González, Luis M; García-Massó, Xavier; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Devís-Devís, José

    2014-01-01

    Screen media usage, sleep time and socio-demographic features are related to adolescents' academic performance, but interrelations are little explored. This paper describes these interrelations and behavioral profiles clustered in low and high academic performance. A nationally representative sample of 3,095 Spanish adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was surveyed on 15 variables linked to the purpose of the study. A Self-Organizing Maps analysis established non-linear interrelationships among these variables and identified behavior patterns in subsequent cluster analyses. Topological interrelationships established from the 15 emerging maps indicated that boys used more passive videogames and computers for playing than girls, who tended to use mobile phones to communicate with others. Adolescents with the highest academic performance were the youngest. They slept more and spent less time using sedentary screen media when compared to those with the lowest performance, and they also showed topological relationships with higher socioeconomic status adolescents. Cluster 1 grouped boys who spent more than 5.5 hours daily using sedentary screen media. Their academic performance was low and they slept an average of 8 hours daily. Cluster 2 gathered girls with an excellent academic performance, who slept nearly 9 hours per day, and devoted less time daily to sedentary screen media. Academic performance was directly related to sleep time and socioeconomic status, but inversely related to overall sedentary screen media usage. Profiles from the two clusters were strongly differentiated by gender, age, sedentary screen media usage, sleep time and academic achievement. Girls with the highest academic results had a medium socioeconomic status in Cluster 2. Findings may contribute to establishing recommendations about the timing and duration of screen media usage in adolescents and appropriate sleep time needed to successfully meet the demands of school academics and to improve

  12. Screen media usage, sleep time and academic performance in adolescents: clustering a self-organizing maps analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Peiró-Velert

    Full Text Available Screen media usage, sleep time and socio-demographic features are related to adolescents' academic performance, but interrelations are little explored. This paper describes these interrelations and behavioral profiles clustered in low and high academic performance. A nationally representative sample of 3,095 Spanish adolescents, aged 12 to 18, was surveyed on 15 variables linked to the purpose of the study. A Self-Organizing Maps analysis established non-linear interrelationships among these variables and identified behavior patterns in subsequent cluster analyses. Topological interrelationships established from the 15 emerging maps indicated that boys used more passive videogames and computers for playing than girls, who tended to use mobile phones to communicate with others. Adolescents with the highest academic performance were the youngest. They slept more and spent less time using sedentary screen media when compared to those with the lowest performance, and they also showed topological relationships with higher socioeconomic status adolescents. Cluster 1 grouped boys who spent more than 5.5 hours daily using sedentary screen media. Their academic performance was low and they slept an average of 8 hours daily. Cluster 2 gathered girls with an excellent academic performance, who slept nearly 9 hours per day, and devoted less time daily to sedentary screen media. Academic performance was directly related to sleep time and socioeconomic status, but inversely related to overall sedentary screen media usage. Profiles from the two clusters were strongly differentiated by gender, age, sedentary screen media usage, sleep time and academic achievement. Girls with the highest academic results had a medium socioeconomic status in Cluster 2. Findings may contribute to establishing recommendations about the timing and duration of screen media usage in adolescents and appropriate sleep time needed to successfully meet the demands of school academics and

  13. Time to work or time to play: the effect of student employment on homework, sleep, and screen time

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Wulff Pabilonia, Sabrina

    2009-01-01

    We use detailed time-diary information on high school students’ daily activities from the 2003–2008 American Time Use Surveys (ATUS) to investigate the effects of employment on the time a student spends on homework and other major activities. Time-diary data are more detailed and accurate than data derived from responses to “usual activity” survey questions underlying other analyses and capture the immediate effects of working that may well accumulate over time to affect future outcomes. Our ...

  14. Timed Light Therapy for Sleep and Daytime Sleepiness Associated With Parkinson Disease: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videnovic, Aleksandar; Klerman, Elizabeth B; Wang, Wei; Marconi, Angelica; Kuhta, Teresa; Zee, Phyllis C

    2017-04-01

    Impaired sleep and alertness are some of the most common nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson disease (PD) and currently have only limited treatment options. Light therapy (LT), a widely available treatment modality in sleep medicine, has not been systematically studied in the PD population. To determine the safety and efficacy of LT on excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) associated with PD. This randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical intervention study was set in PD centers at Northwestern University and Rush University. Participants were 31 patients with PD receiving stable dopaminergic therapy with coexistent EDS, as assessed by an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of 12 or greater, and without cognitive impairment or primary sleep disorder. Participants were randomized 1:1 to receive bright LT or dim-red LT (controlled condition) twice daily in 1-hour intervals for 14 days. This trial was conducted between March 1, 2007, and October 31, 2012. Data analysis of the intention-to-treat population was conducted from November 1, 2012, through April 30, 2016. The primary outcome measure was the change in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score comparing the bright LT with the dim-red LT. Secondary outcome measures included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score, the Parkinson's Disease Sleep Scale score, the visual analog scale score for daytime sleepiness, and sleep log-derived and actigraphy-derived metrics. Among the 31 patients (13 males and 18 females; mean [SD] disease duration, 5.9 [3.6] years), bright LT resulted in significant improvements in EDS, as assessed by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score (mean [SD], 15.81 [3.10] at baseline vs 11.19 [3.31] after the intervention). Both bright LT and dim-red LT were associated with improvements in sleep quality as captured by mean (SD) scores on the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (7.88 [4.11] at baseline vs 6.25 [4.27] after bright LT, and 8.87 [2.83] at baseline vs 7.33 [3.52] after dim-red LT) and the Parkinson's Disease

  15. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children's Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiano, Amanda E; Broyles, Stephanie T; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2015-07-30

    This cross-sectional study examined differences in children's health behaviors during school term (ST) versus school holiday (SH: June-July) and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5-18 years (n = 406) from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score (BMIz) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth's physical activity and TV viewing.

  16. Sleep Apnea Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include being overweight and having a large neck. Losing even 10 percent of body weight can help reduce the number of times a person with sleep apnea stops breathing during sleep. African-Americans, Pacific ...

  17. Effects of armodafinil and cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia on sleep continuity and daytime sleepiness in cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Sheila N; Roscoe, Joseph A; Heckler, Charles E; Barilla, Holly; Gehrman, Philip; Findley, James C; Peoples, Anita R; Morrow, Gary R; Kamen, Charles; Perlis, Michael L

    2016-04-01

    This study involves the analysis of a secondary outcome of a trial examining whether cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), a wake-promoting medication (armodafinil), or both results in greater improvement in prospectively assessed sleep continuity and daytime sleepiness than a placebo-alone group among a heterogeneous group of cancer survivors. Whether or not armodafinil alone, and/or when combined with CBT-I, affected adherence with CBT-I was evaluated. This study is a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. This study was conducted at two northeastern academic medical centers. Eighty-eight cancer survivors with chronic insomnia were recruited between October 2008 and November 2012. Participants were assigned to one of four conditions: 1) CBT-I and placebo (CBT-I+P); 2) CBT-I and armodafinil (CBT-I + A); 2) armodafinil alone (ARM); or 4) placebo alone (PLA). CBT-I was delivered in seven weekly individual therapy sessions (three in person, four via telephone). The armodafinil dosage was 50 mg BID. Sleep continuity was measured with daily sleep diaries assessing sleep latency (SL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and total sleep time (TST). The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) measured daytime sleepiness. Compared to the PLA group, the CBT-I+P and CBT-I+A groups reported a significant reduction in SL with effect sizes of 0.67 and 0.58, respectively. A significant reduction was observed in WASO in the CBT-I+A group with an effect size of 0.64. An increasing trend of TST was observed in the CBT-I+P, CBT-I+A, and PLA groups, but not in the ARM group. No statistically significant reductions in daytime sleepiness (ESS) were observed for any of the groups. CBT-I alone and in combination with armodafinil caused significant improvement in sleep continuity. The addition of armodafinil did not appear to improve daytime sleepiness or enhance adherence to CBT-I. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Study of time-frequency characteristics of single snores: extracting new information for sleep apnea diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo Escario, Y.; Blanco Almazan, D.; Camara Vazquez, M.A.; Jane Campos, R.

    2016-07-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a highly prevalent chronic disease, especially in elderly and obese population. Despite constituting a huge health and economic problem, most patients remain undiagnosed due to limitations in current strategies. Therefore, it is essential to find cost-effective diagnostic alternatives. One of these novel approaches is the analysis of acoustic snoring signals. Snoring is an early symptom of OSA which carries pathophysiological information of high diagnostic value. For this reason, the main objective of this work is to study the characteristics of single snores of different types, from healthy and OSA subjects. To do that, we analyzed snoring signals from previous databases and developed an experimental protocol to record simulated OSA-related sounds and characterize the response of two commercial tracheal microphones. Automatic programs for filtering, downsampling, event detection and time-frequency analysis were built in MATLAB. We found that time-frequency maps and spectral parameters (central, mean and peak frequency and energy in the 100-500 Hz band) allow distinguishing regular snores of healthy subjects from non-regular snores and snores of OSA subjects. Regarding the two commercial microphones, we found that one of them was a suitable snoring sensor, while the other had a too restricted frequency response. Future work shall include a higher number of episodes and subjects, but our study has contributed to show how important the differences between regular and non-regular snores can be for OSA diagnosis, and how much clinically relevant information can be extracted from time-frequency maps and spectral parameters of single snores. (Author)

  19. Work hours, sleep sufficiency, and prevalence of depression among full-time employees: a community-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori

    2011-05-01

    Depression due to long work hours and sleep deprivation is a major occupational health concern. The extent to which work hours and sleep are associated with depression was investigated in employees of small- and medium-scale businesses in the Japanese city of Yashio, Saitama, and in the Ohta ward of Tokyo, a suburb of Tokyo, controlling for various potential confounders. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2,643 full-time employees (1,928 men and 715 women), aged 18-79 years (mean = 45 years), in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses were surveyed from August 2002 to December 2002 using a self-administered questionnaire evaluating work hours, sleep status, and covariates including sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, biological factors, medication usage, and occupational factors. Depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Prevalence of depression by work hours, sleep status, and covariates was analyzed by χ² test. Risk of depression by work hours, sleep status, and both combined was estimated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Participants working > 10 hours per day, sleeping hours per day, and reporting insufficient sleep were, respectively, 37%, 43%, and 97% more likely to be depressed than those working 6 to 8 hours per day, sleeping 6 to hours per day, and reporting sufficient sleep (P working > 10 hours per day or > 8 to 10 hours per day with hours per day of sleep showed a 41%-169% higher prevalence of depression versus those working 6 to 8 hours per day with 6+ hours per day of sleep (P work-hour categories (6 to 8, > 8 to 10, and > 10 hours per day) showed a 62%-179% increase in the prevalence of depression versus those working 6 to 8 hours per day and reporting sufficient sleep (P work-hour category with 6+ hours of sleep or with subjective sufficient sleep. Depression associated with long work hours is primarily a result of sleep deprivation. Greater attention should be

  20. Impact of the Regulators SigB, Rot, SarA and sarS on the Toxic Shock Tst Promoter and TSST-1 Expression in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego O Andrey

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen manifesting virulence through diverse disease forms, ranging from acute skin infections to life-threatening bacteremia or systemic toxic shock syndromes. In the latter case, the prototypical superantigen is TSST-1 (Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1, encoded by tst(H, and carried on a mobile genetic element that is not present in all S. aureus strains. Transcriptional regulation of tst is only partially understood. In this study, we dissected the role of sarA, sarS (sarH1, RNAIII, rot, and the alternative stress sigma factor sigB (σB. By examining tst promoter regulation predominantly in the context of its native sequence within the SaPI1 pathogenicity island of strain RN4282, we discovered that σB emerged as a particularly important tst regulator. We did not detect a consensus σB site within the tst promoter, and thus the effect of σB is likely indirect. We found that σB strongly repressed the expression of the toxin via at least two distinct regulatory pathways dependent upon sarA and agr. Furthermore rot, a member of SarA family, was shown to repress tst expression when overexpressed, although its deletion had no consistent measurable effect. We could not find any detectable effect of sarS, either by deletion or overexpression, suggesting that this regulator plays a minimal role in TSST-1 expression except when combined with disruption of sarA. Collectively, our results extend our understanding of complex multifactorial regulation of tst, revealing several layers of negative regulation. In addition to environmental stimuli thought to impact TSST-1 production, these findings support a model whereby sporadic mutation in a few key negative regulators can profoundly affect and enhance TSST-1 expression.

  1. Different types of errors in saccadic task are sensitive to either time of day or chronic sleep restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wachowicz

    Full Text Available Circadian rhythms and restricted sleep length affect cognitive functions and, consequently, the performance of day to day activities. To date, no more than a few studies have explored the consequences of these factors on oculomotor behaviour. We have implemented a spatial cuing paradigm in an eye tracking experiment conducted four times of the day after one week of rested wakefulness and after one week of chronic partial sleep restriction. Our aim was to verify whether these conditions affect the number of a variety of saccadic task errors. Interestingly, we found that failures in response selection, i.e. premature responses and direction errors, were prone to time of day variations, whereas failures in response execution, i.e. omissions and commissions, were considerably affected by sleep deprivation. The former can be linked to the cue facilitation mechanism, while the latter to wake state instability and the diminished ability of top-down inhibition. Together, these results may be interpreted in terms of distinctive sensitivity of orienting and alerting systems to fatigue. Saccadic eye movements proved to be a novel and effective measure with which to study the susceptibility of attentional systems to time factors, thus, this approach is recommended for future research.

  2. A Deep Learning Architecture for Temporal Sleep Stage Classification Using Multivariate and Multimodal Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambon, Stanislas; Galtier, Mathieu N; Arnal, Pierrick J; Wainrib, Gilles; Gramfort, Alexandre

    2018-04-01

    Sleep stage classification constitutes an important preliminary exam in the diagnosis of sleep disorders. It is traditionally performed by a sleep expert who assigns to each 30 s of the signal of a sleep stage, based on the visual inspection of signals such as electroencephalograms (EEGs), electrooculograms (EOGs), electrocardiograms, and electromyograms (EMGs). We introduce here the first deep learning approach for sleep stage classification that learns end-to-end without computing spectrograms or extracting handcrafted features, that exploits all multivariate and multimodal polysomnography (PSG) signals (EEG, EMG, and EOG), and that can exploit the temporal context of each 30-s window of data. For each modality, the first layer learns linear spatial filters that exploit the array of sensors to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, and the last layer feeds the learnt representation to a softmax classifier. Our model is compared to alternative automatic approaches based on convolutional networks or decisions trees. Results obtained on 61 publicly available PSG records with up to 20 EEG channels demonstrate that our network architecture yields the state-of-the-art performance. Our study reveals a number of insights on the spatiotemporal distribution of the signal of interest: a good tradeoff for optimal classification performance measured with balanced accuracy is to use 6 EEG with 2 EOG (left and right) and 3 EMG chin channels. Also exploiting 1 min of data before and after each data segment offers the strongest improvement when a limited number of channels are available. As sleep experts, our system exploits the multivariate and multimodal nature of PSG signals in order to deliver the state-of-the-art classification performance with a small computational cost.

  3. X-ray measurements during plasma current start-up experiments using the lower hybrid wave on the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakatsuki, Takuma; Ejiri, Akira; Kakuda, Hidetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Non-inductive plasma current start-up experiments using RF power in the lower hybrid frequency range is being conducted on the TST-2 spherical tokamak. Plasma currents of up to 15 kA have been achieved. The effect of direct current drive can be seen by comparing the cases with co-drive and counter-drive. X-rays in various energy ranges were measured to investigate the interaction between the wave and the electrons. Soft X-ray (SX) measurements revealed that the perpendicular SX emission increased significantly as the plasma current increased, and that the tangential SX emission in the direction of RF drive was enhanced more strongly in the co-drive case compared to the counter-drive case. These observations imply that the fast electrons accelerated by the lower hybrid wave contribute to the plasma current. However, RF amplitude modulation experiments showed that the confinement time of these fast electrons are very short (less than 0.05 ms), much shorter than the collisional slowing down time. Hard X-ray spectral measurements showed that the radiation temperature of fast electrons in the co-direction for current drive was higher than that in the counter-direction. These observations are consistent with the existence of RF-driven fast electrons. (author)

  4. Macular Carotenoid Supplementation Improves Visual Performance, Sleep Quality, and Adverse Physical Symptoms in Those with High Screen Time Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringham, James M; Stringham, Nicole T; O'Brien, Kevin J

    2017-06-29

    The dramatic rise in the use of smartphones, tablets, and laptop computers over the past decade has raised concerns about potentially deleterious health effects of increased "screen time" (ST) and associated short-wavelength (blue) light exposure. We determined baseline associations and effects of 6 months' supplementation with the macular carotenoids (MC) lutein, zeaxanthin, and mesozeaxanthin on the blue-absorbing macular pigment (MP) and measures of sleep quality, visual performance, and physical indicators of excessive ST. Forty-eight healthy young adults with at least 6 h of daily near-field ST exposure participated in this placebo-controlled trial. Visual performance measures included contrast sensitivity, critical flicker fusion, disability glare, and photostress recovery. Physical indicators of excessive screen time and sleep quality were assessed via questionnaire. MP optical density (MPOD) was assessed via heterochromatic flicker photometry. At baseline, MPOD was correlated significantly with all visual performance measures ( p eye strain, eye fatigue, and all visual performance measures, versus placebo ( p < 0.05 for all). Increased MPOD significantly improves visual performance and, in turn, improves several undesirable physical outcomes associated with excessive ST. The improvement in sleep quality was not directly related to increases in MPOD, and may be due to systemic reduction in oxidative stress and inflammation.

  5. REM sleep complicates period adding bifurcations from monophasic to polyphasic sleep behavior in a sleep-wake regulatory network model for human sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Kalmbach, K.; Booth, V.; Behn, C. G. Diniz

    2017-01-01

    The structure of human sleep changes across development as it consolidates from the polyphasic sleep of infants to the single nighttime sleep period typical in adults. Across this same developmental period, time scales of the homeostatic sleep drive, the physiological drive to sleep that increases with time spent awake, also change and presumably govern the transition from polyphasic to monophasic sleep behavior. Using a physiologically-based, sleep-wake regulatory network model for human sle...

  6. Sleep deprivation during a specific 3-hour time window post-training impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Wimmer, Mathieu; Choi, Jennifer; Havekes, Robbert; Aton, Sara; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts hippocampal function and plasticity. In particular, long-term memory consolidation is impaired by sleep deprivation, suggesting that a specific critical period exists following learning during which sleep is necessary. To elucidate the impact of sleep deprivation on

  7. Sleep disorders and work performance: findings from the 2008 National Sleep Foundation Sleep in America poll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Leslie M; Arnedt, J Todd; Rosekind, Mark R; Belenky, Gregory; Balkin, Thomas J; Drake, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is common among workers, and has been associated with negative work outcomes, including absenteeism and occupational accidents. The objective of the present study is to characterize reciprocal relationships between sleep and work. Specifically, we examined how sleep impacts work performance and how work affects sleep in individuals not at-risk for a sleep disorder; assessed work performance outcomes for individuals at-risk for sleep disorders, including insomnia, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and restless legs syndrome (RLS); and characterized work performance impairments in shift workers (SW) at-risk for shift work sleep disorders relative to SW and day workers. One-thousand Americans who work 30 h per week or more were asked questions about employment, work performance and sleep in the National Sleep Foundation's 2008 Sleep in America telephone poll. Long work hours were associated with shorter sleep times, and shorter sleep times were associated with more work impairments. Thirty-seven percent of respondents were classified as at-risk for any sleep disorder. These individuals had more negative work outcomes as compared with those not at-risk for a sleep disorder. Presenteeism was a significant problem for individuals with insomnia symptoms, OSA and RLS as compared with respondents not at-risk. These results suggest that long work hours may contribute to chronic sleep loss, which may in turn result in work impairment. Risk for sleep disorders substantially increases the likelihood of negative work outcomes, including occupational accidents, absenteeism and presenteeism. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  8. Wireless Wearable Multisensory Suite and Real-Time Prediction of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trung Q; Cheng, Changqing; Sangasoongsong, Akkarapol; Wongdhamma, Woranat; Bukkapatnam, Satish T S

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder found in 24% of adult men and 9% of adult women. Although continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has emerged as a standard therapy for OSA, a majority of patients are not tolerant to this treatment, largely because of the uncomfortable nasal air delivery during their sleep. Recent advances in wireless communication and advanced ("bigdata") preditive analytics technologies offer radically new point-of-care treatment approaches for OSA episodes with unprecedented comfort and afforadability. We introduce a Dirichlet process-based mixture Gaussian process (DPMG) model to predict the onset of sleep apnea episodes based on analyzing complex cardiorespiratory signals gathered from a custom-designed wireless wearable multisensory suite. Extensive testing with signals from the multisensory suite as well as PhysioNet's OSA database suggests that the accuracy of offline OSA classification is 88%, and accuracy for predicting an OSA episode 1-min ahead is 83% and 3-min ahead is 77%. Such accurate prediction of an impending OSA episode can be used to adaptively adjust CPAP airflow (toward improving the patient's adherence) or the torso posture (e.g., minor chin adjustments to maintain steady levels of the airflow).

  9. Adolescents' sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Heather; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph; Telljohann, Susan K

    2009-05-01

    Sleep duration affects the health of children and adolescents. Shorter sleep durations have been associated with poorer academic performance, unintentional injuries, and obesity in adolescents. This study extends our understanding of how adolescents perceive and deal with their sleep issues. General education classes were randomly selected from a convenience sample of three high schools in the Midwest. Three hundred eighty-four ninth- to twelfth-grade students (57%) completed a self-administered valid and reliable questionnaire on sleep behaviors and perceptions of sleep. Most respondents (91.9%) obtained inadequate sleep (sleep each week night. The majority indicated that not getting enough sleep had the following effects on them: being more tired during the day (93.7%), having difficulty paying attention (83.6%), lower grades (60.8%), increase in stress (59.0%), and having difficulty getting along with others (57.7%). Some students reported engaging in harmful behaviors to help them sleep: taking sleeping pills (6.0%), smoking a cigarette to relax (5.7%), and drinking alcohol in the evening (2.9%). Students who received fewer hours of sleep were significantly more likely to report being stressed (p = .02) and were more likely to be overweight (p = .04). Inadequate sleep time may be contributing to adolescent health problems such as increased stress and obesity. Findings indicate a need for sleep hygiene education for adolescents and their parents. A long-term solution to chronic sleep deprivation among high school students could include delaying high school start times, such as was done successfully in the Minneapolis Public School District.

  10. Combining time-frequency and spatial information for the detection of sleep spindles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eO'Reilly

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available EEG sleep spindles are short (0.5-2.0 s bursts of activity in the 11-16 Hz band occurring during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. This sporadic activity is thought to play a role in memory consolidation, brain plasticity, and protection of sleep integrity. Many automatic detectors have been proposed to assist or replace experts for sleep spindle scoring. However, these algorithms usually detect too many events making it difficult to achieve a good tradeoff between sensitivity (Se and false detection rate (FDr. In this work, we propose a semi-automatic detector comprising a sensitivity phase based on well-established criteria followed by a specificity phase using spatial and spectral criteria.In the sensitivity phase, selected events are those which amplitude in the 10 – 16 Hz band and spectral ratio characteristics both reject a null hypothesis (p <0.1 stating that the considered event is not a spindle. This null hypothesis is constructed from events occurring during rapid eye movement (REM sleep epochs. In the specificity phase, a hierarchical clustering of the selected candidates is done based on events’ frequency and spatial position along the anterior-posterior axis. Only events from the classes grouping most (at least 80% spindles scored by an expert are kept. We obtain Se = 93.2% and FDr = 93.0% in the first phase and Se = 85.4% and FDr = 86.2% in the second phase. For these two phases, Matthew’s correlation coefficients are respectively 0.228 and 0.324. Results suggest that spindles are defined by specific spatio-spectral properties and that automatic detection methods can be improved by considering these features.

  11. Non-inductive plasma initiation and plasma current ramp-up on the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Oosako, T.; Shinya, T.; Ambo, T.; Furui, H.; Kato, K.; Nakanishi, A.; Sakamoto, T.; Kakuda, H.; Wakatsuki, T.; Hashimoto, T.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kasahara, H.; Kumazawa, R.; Mutoh, T.; Saito, K.; Seki, T.; Moeller, C.P.; Nagashima, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Plasma current (I p ) start-up in a spherical tokamak (ST) by waves in the lower-hybrid (LH) frequency range was investigated on TST-2. A low current (∼1 kA) ST configuration can be formed by waves over a broad frequency range (21 MHz–8.2 GHz in TST-2), but further I p ramp-up (to ∼10 kA) is most efficient with waves in the LH frequency range. I p ramp-up to 15 kA was achieved with 60 kW of net RF power P RF in the fast wave (FW) polarization at 200 MHz excited by the inductively coupled combline antenna. X-ray measurements showed that the photon flux and temperature are higher in the direction opposite to I p , consistent with acceleration of electrons by a uni-directional RF wave. There is evidence that the LH wave is excited nonlinearly by the FW, based on the frequency spectra measured by magnetic probes. Similar efficiencies of I p ramp-up were obtained with the inductive combline antenna and the dielectric-loaded waveguide array (‘grill’) antenna, and tendencies for the current drive efficiency to increase with plasma current and toroidal field were observed. During operation of the grill antenna, wavevector components were measured by an array of magnetic probes. Results were qualitatively consistent with expectations based on dispersion relations for the FW and the LH wave. A capacitively coupled combline antenna has been developed to improve coupling to the plasma and the wavenumber spectrum of the excited LH wave, and will be tested in 2013. (paper)

  12. The combined effect of sleep and time of day on emotion decoding from dynamic visual cues in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokanaki P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paraskevi Tsokanaki,1 Despina Moraitou,1 Georgia Papantoniou2 1Section of Cognitive and Experimental Psychology, School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 2Department of Early Childhood Education, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: It is well known that night sleep is a decisive factor for the effective functioning of the human body and mind. In addition to the role of sleep, older adults report that they are “morning types” and that their cognitive and emotional abilities seem to be at a higher level in the morning hours. In this vein, this study is aimed at examining the effect of sleep combined with the “time of day” condition on a specific ability that is crucial for interpersonal communication, namely, emotion recognition, in older adults. Specifically, the study compared older adults’ performance in decoding emotions from ecologically valid, dynamic visual cues, in two conditions: “early in the morning and after night sleep”, and “in the afternoon and after many hours since night sleep”. An emotion recognition task was administered twice to 37 community-dwelling older adults. The results showed a statistically significant higher performance in the morning in decoding all emotions presented, compared to the afternoon condition. Pleasant surprise, sadness, and anxiety were revealed as the most difficult emotions to be recognized in the afternoon condition. Keywords: aging, cognition, emotion recognition

  13. Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Sleep Problems Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... 101 KB) En Español Medicines to Help You Sleep Tips for Better Sleep Basic Facts about Sleep ...

  14. Early morning awakening and nonrestorative sleep are associated with increased minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Wang, Mei-Yeh; Chang, Cheng-Kuei; Chen, Ching-Min; Chou, Kuei-Ru; Tsai, Jen-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between a composite measure of insomnia and occupational or fatal accidents has been investigated previously; however, little is known regarding the effect of various insomnia symptoms on minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time. We investigated the predicting role of insomnia symptoms on minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time. Data from the 2005 Taiwan Social Development Trend Survey of 36,473 Taiwanese aged ≥18 years were analyzed in 2013. Insomnia symptoms, including difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), and nonrestorative sleep (NRS) were investigated. A minor non-fatal accident was defined as any mishap such as forgetting to turn off the gas or faucets, accidental falls, and abrasions or cuts occurring during work and leisure time in the past month that do not require immediate medical attention. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) of minor non-fatal accidents (as a binary variable) for each insomnia symptom compared with those of people presenting no symptoms, while controlling for possible confounders. EMA and NRS increased the odds of minor non-fatal accidents occurring during work and leisure time (adjusted OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.08-1.32 and adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.17-1.37, respectively). EMA and NRS are two symptoms that are significantly associated with an increased likelihood of minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time after adjusting for of a range of covariates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mistimed food intake and sleep alters 24-hour time-of-day patterns of the human plasma proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depner, Christopher M; Melanson, Edward L; McHill, Andrew W; Wright, Kenneth P

    2018-06-05

    Proteomics holds great promise for understanding human physiology, developing health biomarkers, and precision medicine. However, how much the plasma proteome varies with time of day and is regulated by the master circadian suprachiasmatic nucleus brain clock, assessed here by the melatonin rhythm, is largely unknown. Here, we assessed 24-h time-of-day patterns of human plasma proteins in six healthy men during daytime food intake and nighttime sleep in phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i.e., circadian alignment) versus daytime sleep and nighttime food intake out of phase with the endogenous circadian clock (i.e., circadian misalignment induced by simulated nightshift work). We identified 24-h time-of-day patterns in 573 of 1,129 proteins analyzed, with 30 proteins showing strong regulation by the circadian cycle. Relative to circadian alignment, the average abundance and/or 24-h time-of-day patterns of 127 proteins were altered during circadian misalignment. Altered proteins were associated with biological pathways involved in immune function, metabolism, and cancer. Of the 30 circadian-regulated proteins, the majority peaked between 1400 hours and 2100 hours, and these 30 proteins were associated with basic pathways involved in extracellular matrix organization, tyrosine kinase signaling, and signaling by receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2. Furthermore, circadian misalignment altered multiple proteins known to regulate glucose homeostasis and/or energy metabolism, with implications for altered metabolic physiology. Our findings demonstrate the circadian clock, the behavioral wake-sleep/food intake-fasting cycle, and interactions between these processes regulate 24-h time-of-day patterns of human plasma proteins and help identify mechanisms of circadian misalignment that may contribute to metabolic dysregulation.

  16. Sleep and Salivary Cortisol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Karlson, Bernt; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present chapter was to analyze whether measures of cortisol in saliva were associated with measures of sleep and to explore if divergent results were related to underlying differences in theoretic assumptions and methods. Measures of sleep quality included sleep duration, overall...... sleep quality, difficulty falling asleep, disturbed sleep, and sleep deprivation. Twenty-three papers were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Cortisol measures were grouped into single time points at different times during the day, deviations at different time periods during the day, reactivity...... and recovery after a standardized laboratory test, area under the curve and response to dexamethasone test. A large proportion of the studies included showed non-significant findings, which, in several cases, may be a result of low power. The most consistent results were a positive association between sleep...

  17. Relationships Between Sleep Quality and Pain-Related Factors for People with Chronic Low Back Pain: Tests of Reciprocal and Time of Day Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, James I; Burns, John W; Post, Kristina M; Smith, David A; Porter, Laura S; Burgess, Helen J; Schuster, Erik; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Fras, Anne Marie; Keefe, Francis J

    2017-06-01

    Poor sleep quality among people with chronic low back pain appears to be related to worse pain, affect, poor physical function, and pain catastrophizing. The causal direction between poor sleep and pain remains an open question, however, as does whether sleep quality exerts effects on low back pain differently across the course of the day. This daily diary study examined lagged temporal associations between prior night sleep quality and subsequent day pain, affect, physical function and pain catastrophizing, the reverse lagged temporal associations between prior day pain-related factors and subsequent night sleep quality, and whether the time of day during which an assessment was made moderated these temporal associations. Chronic low back pain patients (n = 105) completed structured electronic diary assessments five times per day for 14 days. Items included patient ratings of their pain, affect, physical function, and pain catastrophizing. Collapsed across all observations, poorer sleep quality was significantly related to higher pain ratings, higher negative affect, lower positive affect, poorer physical function, and higher pain catastrophizing. Lagged analyses averaged across the day revealed that poorer prior night sleep quality significantly predicted greater next day patient ratings of pain, and poorer physical function and higher pain catastrophizing. Prior poorer night sleep quality significantly predicted greater reports of pain, and poorer physical function, and higher pain catastrophizing, especially during the early part of the day. Sleep quality × time of day interactions showed that poor sleepers reported high pain, and negative mood and low function uniformly across the day, whereas good sleepers reported relatively good mornings, but showed pain, affect and function levels comparable to poor sleepers by the end of the day. Analyses of the reverse causal pathway were mostly nonsignificant. Sleep quality appears related not only to pain intensity

  18. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascetti GG

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gian Gastone Mascetti Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy Abstract: Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use

  19. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CHRONOTHERAPY IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS WITH AN INSUFFICIENT DEGREE OF SLEEP-TIME SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE DECLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrenko O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP circadian rhythm violation, manifested as an insufficient degree of its sleep-time relative decline, is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. The main method of the correction is chronotherapeutic approach, when at least one antihypertensive drug is taken at bedtime. However, most researchers focus on normalizing the daily profile of systolic blood pressure (SBP and do not pay enough attention to changes in the daily profile of diastolic blood pressure (DBP and blood pressure in general. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the chronotherapeutic approach on the SBP and DBP levels and the DBP daily profile in hypertensive patients with an insufficient degree of sleep-time relative SBP decline. The study included 12 patients with arterial hypertension (AH with an insufficient degree of sleep-time relative SBP decline. Participants were divided into two groups: group 1 included patients who take at least one antihypertensive drug at bedtime, group 2 – patients who take all antihypertensive drugs in the morning. All patients underwent 24-hour blood pressure monitoring using the computer system «Cardiosens» (KhAI Medica, Ukraine, with the oscillometric method of BP measuring when enrolling in the study and after 3 months. The type of SBP and DBP diurnal profile, the mean values of SBP, DBP and hyperbaric indices were determined and compared between groups 1 and 2 at each visit, as well as within groups between visits. The results showed that the SBP daily profile normalization in patients with insufficient degree of sleep-time relative SBP decline from group 2 was achieved only in 11 % of cases, and in group 1 SBP and DBP daily profile normalized in 1/3 patients. In some patients from group 2 SBP and DBP daily profile converted into the overdipper type, while in group 1 overdippers did not appear at the end of the study. It was concluded that conversion of daily DBP profile to overdipper as a consequence

  20. A cross-cultural comparison of sleep duration between US And Australian adolescents: the effect of school start time, parent-set bedtimes, and extracurricular load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Gradisar, Michael; Lack, Leon C; Wright, Helen R; Dewald, Julia F; Wolfson, Amy R; Carskadon, Mary A

    2013-06-01

    To test whether sleep duration on school nights differs between adolescents in Australia and the United States and, if so, whether this difference is explained by cultural differences in school start time, parental involvement in setting bedtimes, and extracurricular commitments. Three hundred eighty-five adolescents aged 13 to 18 years (M = 15.57, SD = 0.95; 60% male) from Australia and 302 adolescents aged 13 to 19 years (M = 16.03, SD = 1.19; 35% male) from the United States. Adolescents completed the School Sleep Habits Survey during class time, followed by an 8-day sleep diary. After controlling for age and gender, Australian adolescents obtained an average of 47 minutes more sleep per school night than those in the United States. Australian adolescents were more likely to have a parent-set bedtime (17.5% vs. 6.8%), have a later school start time (8:32 a.m. vs. 7:45 a.m.), and spend less time per day on extracurricular commitments (1 h 37 min vs. 2 h 41 min) than their U.S. peers. The mediating factors of parent-set bedtimes, later school start times, and less time spent on extracurricular activities were significantly associated with more total sleep. In addition to biological factors, extrinsic cultural factors significantly affect adolescent sleep. The present study highlights the importance of a cross-cultural, ecological approach and the impact of early school start times, lack of parental limit setting around bedtimes, and extracurricular load in limiting adolescent sleep.

  1. Effect of working consecutive night shifts on sleep time, prior wakefulness, perceived levels of fatigue and performance on a psychometric test in emergency registrars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire, Julia Christine Lydia; Ferguson, Sally Anne; Tilleard, James D; Negus, Paul; Dorrian, Jillian; Thomas, Matthew Jw

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of working consecutive night shifts on sleep time, prior wakefulness, perceived levels of fatigue and psychomotor performance in a group of Australian emergency registrars. A prospective observational study with a repeated within-subjects component was conducted. Sleep time was determined using sleep diaries and activity monitors. Subjective fatigue levels and reciprocal reaction times were evaluated before and after day and night shifts. A total of 11 registrars participated in the study with 120 shifts analysed. Sleep time was found to be similar during consecutive night and day shifts. The mean number of hours spent awake before the end of a night shift was 14.33. Subjective fatigue scores were worst at the end of a night shift. There was no difference in reciprocal reaction time between the end of night shift and the start of day shift. Registrars sleep a similar amount of time surrounding night and day shifts. Despite reporting the highest levels of fatigue at the end of a night shift, there is no significant difference in reaction times at the end of night shift compared with the beginning of day shift. This correlates with the finding that at the end of night shift the registrars have been awake for less than 16 h, which is the point at which psychomotor performance is expected to decline. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  2. Sleep length and quality, sleepiness and urinary melatonin among healthy Danish nurses with shift work during work and leisure time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hansen, Johnni

    2009-01-01

    Sleep problems are common effects of shift work. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how different types of shift affect sleep and sleepiness, and to relate sleepiness to urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin....

  3. Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems in Healthy Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, C L Srinivasa; Bharti, Bhavneet; Malhi, Prahbhjot; Khadwal, Alka

    2015-07-01

    To describe the sleep patterns and problems in children aged between 12 and 36 mo of age. This cross sectional survey was collected over a span of 1 y in Advanced Pediatric Centre, PGIMER, Chandigarh and crèches of Chandigarh. Children in the age group of 12 to 36 mo were included in study. Children with chronic illness, developmental delay, seizure disorder and lack of consent were excluded. A total of 368 children were enrolled. Main outcome measures were sleep duration over 1 to 3 y of life; sleep behavior at onset, during and waking of sleep and parent reported sleep problems and their predictors. The average duration of sleep was 12.5 h (S.D = 1.9). The mean total sleep duration and mean day time sleep duration decreased, while mean night time sleep increased as the age advanced from 12 to 36 mo. Following were the frequency of sleep habits seen in the index study; bed time routine was seen only in 68(18.5 %), a regular bed time ritual was seen in 281(76.4 %), 329(89.4 %) children frequently required 0-20 min time to fall asleep, 11(3 %) parents used sleep inducing drugs. Night waking (1 to 3 times a night) was seen in 297(80.7 %) and its frequency declined with age. Parent reported sleep problems were seen in 12.8 % (47/368). Lack of co-sleeping and night waking were considered as strongest predictors of parent reported sleep problems. Toddlers' sleep duration, night waking behavior, and day time naps decrease as the age progress while night time sleep duration increases with age. Lack of co-sleeping and night waking are considered as strongest predictors of parent reported sleep problems.

  4. A Lunchtime Walk in Nature Enhances Restoration of Autonomic Control during Night-Time Sleep: Results from a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwell, Valerie F; Kuoppa, Pekka; Tarvainen, Mika P; Rogerson, Mike

    2016-03-03

    Walking within nature (Green Exercise) has been shown to immediately enhance mental well-being but less is known about the impact on physiology and longer lasting effects. Heart rate variability (HRV) gives an indication of autonomic control of the heart, in particular vagal activity, with reduced HRV identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Night-time HRV allows vagal activity to be assessed whilst minimizing confounding influences of physical and mental activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a lunchtime walk in nature increases night-time HRV. Participants (n = 13) attended on two occasions to walk a 1.8 km route through a built or a natural environment. Pace was similar between the two walks. HRV was measured during sleep using a RR interval sensor (eMotion sensor) and was assessed at 1-2 h after participants noted that they had fallen asleep. Markers for vagal activity were significantly greater after the walk in nature compared to the built walk. Lunchtime walks in nature-based environments may provide a greater restorative effect as shown by vagal activity than equivalent built walks. Nature walks may improve essential recovery during night-time sleep, potentially enhancing physiological health.

  5. Sleep and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Pregnancy Cognitive Development parenting poor sleep Work stress Time change beds School Symptoms mental fatigue Headache mortality pain Apetite Technology Telemedicine Movies Imported Diagnostics ...

  6. Unihemispheric sleep and asymmetrical sleep: behavioral, neurophysiological, and functional perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascetti, Gian Gastone

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is a behavior characterized by a typical body posture, both eyes' closure, raised sensory threshold, distinctive electrographic signs, and a marked decrease of motor activity. In addition, sleep is a periodically necessary behavior and therefore, in the majority of animals, it involves the whole brain and body. However, certain marine mammals and species of birds show a different sleep behavior, in which one cerebral hemisphere sleeps while the other is awake. In dolphins, eared seals, and manatees, unihemispheric sleep allows them to have the benefits of sleep, breathing, thermoregulation, and vigilance. In birds, antipredation vigilance is the main function of unihemispheric sleep, but in domestic chicks, it is also associated with brain lateralization or dominance in the control of behavior. Compared to bihemispheric sleep, unihemispheric sleep would mean a reduction of the time spent sleeping and of the associated recovery processes. However, the behavior and health of aquatic mammals and birds does not seem at all impaired by the reduction of sleep. The neural mechanisms of unihemispheric sleep are unknown, but assuming that the neural structures involved in sleep in cetaceans, seals, and birds are similar to those of terrestrial mammals, it is suggested that they involve the interaction of structures of the hypothalamus, basal forebrain, and brain stem. The neural mechanisms promoting wakefulness dominate one side of the brain, while those promoting sleep predominates the other side. For cetaceans, unihemispheric sleep is the only way to sleep, while in seals and birds, unihemispheric sleep events are intermingled with bihemispheric and rapid eye movement sleep events. Electroencephalogram hemispheric asymmetries are also reported during bihemispheric sleep, at awakening, and at sleep onset, as well as being associated with a use-dependent process (local sleep).

  7. Heart-Rate Variability During Deep Sleep in World-Class Alpine Skiers: A Time-Efficient Alternative to Morning Supine Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzig, David; Testorelli, Moreno; Olstad, Daniela Schäfer; Erlacher, Daniel; Achermann, Peter; Eser, Prisca; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-05-01

    It is increasingly popular to use heart-rate variability (HRV) to tailor training for athletes. A time-efficient method is HRV assessment during deep sleep. To validate the selection of deep-sleep segments identified by RR intervals with simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and to compare HRV parameters of these segments with those of standard morning supine measurements. In 11 world-class alpine skiers, RR intervals were monitored during 10 nights, and simultaneous EEGs were recorded during 2-4 nights. Deep sleep was determined from the HRV signal and verified by delta power from the EEG recordings. Four further segments were chosen for HRV determination, namely, a 4-h segment from midnight to 4 AM and three 5-min segments: 1 just before awakening, 1 after waking in supine position, and 1 in standing after orthostatic challenge. Training load was recorded every day. A total of 80 night and 68 morning measurements of 9 athletes were analyzed. Good correspondence between the phases selected by RR intervals vs those selected by EEG was found. Concerning root-mean-squared difference of successive RR intervals (RMSSD), a marker for parasympathetic activity, the best relationship with the morning supine measurement was found in deep sleep. HRV is a simple tool for approximating deep-sleep phases, and HRV measurement during deep sleep could provide a time-efficient alternative to HRV in supine position.

  8. Reciprocal Associations Between Adolescents' Night-Time Sleep and Daytime Affect and the Role of Gender and Depressive Symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zundert, Rinka M P; van Roekel, Eeske; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H J

    During adolescence, students not only obtain less sleep and sleep of poorer quality but also experience increases in negative affect, decreases in positive affect, and increases in depressive symptoms. Given that sleep and affect may both influence one another, a disruption of either one of the two

  9. The Neuroprotective Aspects of Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugene, Andy R; Masiak, Jolanta

    2015-03-01

    Sleep is an important component of human life, yet many people do not understand the relationship between the brain and the process of sleeping. Sleep has been proven to improve memory recall, regulate metabolism, and reduce mental fatigue. A minimum of 7 hours of daily sleep seems to be necessary for proper cognitive and behavioral function. The emotional and mental handicaps associated with chronic sleep loss as well as the highly hazardous situations which can be contributed to the lack of sleep is a serious concern that people need to be aware of. When one sleeps, the brain reorganizes and recharges itself, and removes toxic waste byproducts which have accumulated throughout the day. This evidence demonstrates that sleeping can clear the brain and help maintain its normal functioning. Multiple studies have been done to determine the effects of total sleep deprivation; more recently some have been conducted to show the effects of sleep restriction, which is a much more common occurrence, have the same effects as total sleep deprivation. Each phase of the sleep cycle restores and rejuvenates the brain for optimal function. When sleep is deprived, the active process of the glymphatic system does not have time to perform that function, so toxins can build up, and the effects will become apparent in cognitive abilities, behavior, and judgment. As a background for this paper we have reviewed literature and research of sleep phases, effects of sleep deprivation, and the glymphatic system of the brain and its restorative effect during the sleep cycle.

  10. Sleep disorders in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa e Silva, Jorge Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Sleep is an active state that is critical for our physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Sleep is also important for optimal cognitive functioning, and sleep disruption results in functional impairment. Insomnia is the most common sleep disorder in psychiatry. At any given time, 50% of adults are affected with 1 or more sleep problems such as difficulty in falling or staying asleep, in staying awake, or in adhering to a consistent sleep/wake schedule. Narcolepsy affects as many individuals as does multiple sclerosis or Parkinson disease. Sleep problems are especially prevalent in schizophrenia, depression, and other mental illnesses, and every year, sleep disorders, sleep deprivation, and sleepiness add billions to the national health care bill in industrialized countries. Although psychiatrists often treat patients with insomnia secondary to depression, most patients discuss their insomnia with general care physicians, making it important to provide this group with clear guidelines for the diagnosis and management of insomnia. Once the specific medical, behavioral, or psychiatric causes of the sleep problem have been identified, appropriate treatment can be undertaken. Chronic insomnia has multiple causes arising from medical disorders, psychiatric disorders, primary sleep disorders, circadian rhythm disorders, social or therapeutic use of drugs, or maladaptive behaviors. The emerging concepts of sleep neurophysiology are consistent with the cholinergic-aminergic imbalance hypothesis of mood disorders, which proposes that depression is associated with an increased ratio of central cholinergic to aminergic neurotransmission. The characteristic sleep abnormalities of depression may reflect a relative predominance of cholinergic activity. Antidepressant medications presumably reduce rapid eye movement (REM) sleep either by their anticholinergic properties or by enhancing aminergic neurotransmission. Intense and prolonged dreams often accompany abrupt withdrawal

  11. The Zfhx3-Mediated Axis Regulates Sleep and Interval Timing in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Balzani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An AT motif-dependent axis, modulated by the transcription factor Zfhx3, influences the circadian clock in mice. In particular, gain of function of Zfhx3 significantly shortens circadian rhythms and alters the transcriptional activity of an important class of neuropeptides that controls intercellular signaling in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. The ZFHX3/AT axis revealed an important, largely cell-nonautonomous control of the circadian clock. Here, by studying the recently identified circadian mouse mutant Zfhx3Sci/+, we identify significant effects on sleep homeostasis, a phenomenon that is outside the canonical circadian clock system and that is modulated by the activity of those neuropeptides at a circuit level. We show that the Zfhx3Sci/+ mutation accelerates the circadian clock at both the hourly scale (i.e., advancing circadian rhythms and the seconds-to-minutes scale (i.e., anticipating behavioral responses in mice. The in vivo results are accompanied by a significant presence of sleep targets among protein-protein interactions of the Zfhx3Sci/+-dependent network.

  12. Excessive homework, inadequate sleep, physical inactivity and screen viewing time are major contributors to high paediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hong; Zhou, Zhixiong; Liu, Wenxi Kevin; Wang, Xiujiang; Yin, Zenong

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs) outside school hours and obesity in Chinese primary school students. We also explored the influence of gender on those relationships. The study sample was a cross-sectional cohort of 5032 Chinese children who were enrolled in grades 1-6 in primary schools in five Chinese cities and whose mean ages ranged from seven years and three months to 11.9 years. The children's parents completed a survey on their child's height, weight and EBRBs outside school hours. The response rate was 97%, and the reported rates of overweight and obesity were 13.6% and 13.8%, respectively. The obesity rates were higher in boys and lower grade children. Most EBRBs varied between boys and girls and with increased grade levels. The amount of time spent on academic-related activities, screen viewing, outdoor activities and sleep was mostly associated with obesity on weekdays and varied by gender. Rate of obesity was alarmingly high in the primary school Chinese children in this cohort, especially in younger children. Excessive time spent on academic-related activities outside school hours, inadequate sleep, physical inactivity and higher levels of screen viewing were major contributors to obesity in these Chinese children. ©2016 The Authors. Acta Paediatrica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  13. Impact of the number of painful stimuli on life satisfaction among Korean industrial accident workers completing convalescence: dual mediating effects of self-esteem and sleeping time

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHOI, Wan-Suk; KIM, Bo-Kyung; KIM, Ki-Do; MOON, Ok-Kon; YEUM, Dong-Moon

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the number of painful stimuli on life satisfaction among workers who experienced an industrial accident and investigated how self-esteem and sleeping time affected life satisfaction. The Korea Workers’ Compensation & Welfare Service conducted the first nationwide panel survey on occupational health and safety insurance in 2013–2014 through a stratified systematic sampling on 2,000 industrial accident workers who completed convalescence. Based on the dataset, our study analyzed 1,832 workers experiencing an industrial accident after excluding 168 disease patients. For the research model analysis, a four-stage hierarchical regression analysis technique was applied using the SPSS regression analysis Macro program of PROCESS Procedure. To test mediated indirect effects of the self-esteem and sleeping time, the bootstrapping technique was applied. Life satisfaction, self-esteem and sleeping time decreased as the number of painful stimuli increased. Life satisfaction decreased as self-esteem and sleeping time decreased. On balance, the partial mediation model confirmed that self-esteem and sleeping time both mediate the impact of the number of painful stimuli on life satisfaction. PMID:27021061

  14. Impact of the number of painful stimuli on life satisfaction among Korean industrial accident workers completing convalescence: dual mediating effects of self-esteem and sleeping time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Wan-Suk; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Kim, Ki-Do; Moon, Ok-Kon; Yeum, Dong-Moon

    2016-10-08

    This study examined the impact of the number of painful stimuli on life satisfaction among workers who experienced an industrial accident and investigated how self-esteem and sleeping time affected life satisfaction. The Korea Workers' Compensation & Welfare Service conducted the first nationwide panel survey on occupational health and safety insurance in 2013-2014 through a stratified systematic sampling on 2,000 industrial accident workers who completed convalescence. Based on the dataset, our study analyzed 1,832 workers experiencing an industrial accident after excluding 168 disease patients. For the research model analysis, a four-stage hierarchical regression analysis technique was applied using the SPSS regression analysis Macro program of PROCESS Procedure. To test mediated indirect effects of the self-esteem and sleeping time, the bootstrapping technique was applied. Life satisfaction, self-esteem and sleeping time decreased as the number of painful stimuli increased. Life satisfaction decreased as self-esteem and sleeping time decreased. On balance, the partial mediation model confirmed that self-esteem and sleeping time both mediate the impact of the number of painful stimuli on life satisfaction.

  15. Sleep Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek Kornum, Birgitte; Mignot, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    mediates circadian regulation of sleep. Misalignment with the rhythm of the sun results in circadian disorders and jet lag. The molecular basis of homeostatic sleep regulation is mostly unknown. A network of mutually inhibitory brain nuclei regulates sleep states and sleep-wake transitions. Abnormalities...... in these networks create sleep disorders, including rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, sleep walking, and narcolepsy. Physiological changes associated with sleep can be imbalanced, resulting in excess movements such as periodic leg movements during sleep or abnormal breathing in obstructive sleep apneas....... As every organ in the body is affected by sleep directly or indirectly, sleep and sleep-associated disorders are frequent and only now starting to be understood....

  16. Identification of waves by RF magnetic probes during lower hybrid wave injection experiments on the TST-2 spherical tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinya, Takahiro; Ejiri, Akira; Takase, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    RF magnetic probes can be used to measure not only the wavevector, but also the polarization of waves in plasmas. A 5-channel RF magnetic probe (5ch-RFMP) was installed in the TST-2 spherical tokamak and the waves were studied in detail during lower hybrid wave injection experiments. From the polarization measurements, the poloidal RF magnetic field is found to be dominant. In addition to polarization, components of k perpendicular to the major radial direction were obtained from phase differences among the five channels. The radial wavenumber was obtained by scanning the radial position of the 5ch-RFMP on a shot by shot basis. The measured wavevector and polarization in the plasma edge region were consistent with those calculated from the wave equation for the slow wave branch. While the waves with small and large k ∥ were excited by the antenna, only the small k ∥ component was measured by the 5ch-RFMP; this suggests that the waves with larger k ∥ were absorbed by the plasma. (author)

  17. Time-frequency dynamics during sleep spindles on the EEG in rodents with a genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy (WAG/Rij rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hramov, Alexander E.; Sitnikova, Evgenija Y.; Pavlov, Alexey N.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Khramova, Marina V.

    2015-03-01

    Sleep spindles are known to appear spontaneously in the thalamocortical neuronal network of the brain during slow-wave sleep; pathological processes in the thalamocortical network may be the reason of the absence epilepsy. The aim of the present work is to study developed changes in the time-frequency structure of sleep spindles during the progressive development of the absence epilepsy in WAG/Rij rats. EEG recordings were made at age 7 and 9 months. Automatic recognition and subsequent analysis of sleep spindles on the EEG were performed using the continuous wavelet transform. The duration of epileptic discharges and the total duration of epileptic activity were found to increase with age, while the duration of sleep spindles, conversely, decreased. In terms of the mean frequency, sleep spindles could be divided into three classes: `slow' (mean frequency 9.3Hz), `medium' (11.4Hz), and `fast' (13.5Hz). Slow and medium (transitional) spindles in five-month-old animals showed increased frequency from the beginning to the end of the spindle. The more intense the epilepsy is, the shorter are the durations of spindles of all types. The mean frequencies of `medium' and `fast' spindles were higher in rats with more intense signs of epilepsy. Overall, high epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats was linked with significant changes in spindles of the transitional type, with less marked changes in the two traditionally identified types of spindle, slow and fast.

  18. Validation of sleep-2-Peak: A smartphone application that can detect fatigue-related changes in reaction times during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, Jean-François; Dagenais, Dominique; Therrien, Marc; Gartenberg, Daniel; Forest, Geneviève

    2017-08-01

    Despite its high sensitivity and validity in the context of sleep loss, the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) could be improved. The aim of the present study was to validate a new smartphone PVT-type application called sleep-2-Peak (s2P) by determining its ability to assess fatigue-related changes in alertness in a context of extended wakefulness. Short 3-min versions of s2P and of the classic PVT were administered at every even hour during a 35-h total sleep deprivation protocol. In addition, subjective measures of sleepiness were collected. The outcomes on these tests were then compared using Pearson product-moment correlations, t tests, and repeated measures within-groups analyses of variance. The results showed that both tests significantly correlated on all outcome variables, that both significantly distinguished between the alert and sleepy states in the same individual, and that both varied similarly through the sleep deprivation protocol as sleep loss accumulated. All outcome variables on both tests also correlated significantly with the subjective measures of sleepiness. These results suggest that a 3-min version of s2P is a valid tool for differentiating alert from sleepy states and is as sensitive as the PVT for tracking fatigue-related changes during extended wakefulness and sleep loss. Unlike the PVT, s2P does not provide feedback to subjects on each trial. We discuss how this feature of s2P raises the possibility that the performance results measured by s2P could be less impacted by motivational confounds, giving this tool added value in particular clinical and/or research settings.

  19. Physical activity, sedentary time, and sleep and the association with inflammatory markers and adiponectin in 8- to 11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Søndergaard; Quist, Jonas Salling; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    the association between accelerometer determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary time, and sleep (7 days/8 nights) and fasting C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adiponectin in 806 school children. A sleep variability score was calculated. RESULTS: MVPA was negatively...... associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (Psleep duration, sedentary time, age, fat mass index (FMI), and pubertal status. Sedentary time was positively associated with adiponectin in boys and girls (both Psleep duration...... with adiponectin in boys independent of age, FMI, and pubertal status (PSleep duration variability was positively associated with CRP in girls independent of all covariates (P

  20. Tai chi qigong as a means to improve night-time sleep quality among older adults with cognitive impairment: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan AWK

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aileen WK Chan, Doris SF Yu, KC Choi, Diana TF Lee, Janet WH Sit, Helen YL Chan The Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Age-related cognitive decline is a growing public health concern worldwide. More than a quarter of adults with cognitive impairment experience sleep disturbance. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the preliminary effects of tai chi qigong (TCQ on improving the night-time sleep quality of older adults with cognitive impairment. Participants: Older adults with cognitive impairment who complain of sleep disturbance. Methods: A randomized controlled trial with two groups. Fifty-two subjects were recruited from two district elderly community centers and randomly assigned to either the TCQ group (n=27 or the control group (n=25. The intervention group received TCQ training consisting of two 60-minute sessions each week for 2 months. The control group was advised to maintain their usual activities. Sleep quality was measured by the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Quality of life was measured by Short-form 12, cognitive functions measured by mini-mental state examination, and subjective memory deficits measured by the memory inventory for Chinese. Results: Data were collected at baseline, 2 months, and 6 months. Significant results were noted at 6 months in the Chinese Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index global score (P=0.004, sleep duration (P=0.003, habitual sleep efficiency (P=0.002, and the Short-form 12 mental health component (P<0.001. The TCQ participants reported better sleep quality and a better (quality of life mental health component than the control group. Conclusion: TCQ can be considered a useful nonpharmacological approach for improving sleep quality in older adults with cognitive impairment.Clinical trial registration: CUHK_CCT00448 (https://www2.ccrb.cuhk.edu.hk/registry/public/287. Keywords: cognitive decline, mind

  1. Automatic sleep staging using empirical mode decomposition, discrete wavelet transform, time-domain, and nonlinear dynamics features of heart rate variability signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farideh; Setarehdan, Seyed-Kamaledin; Ayala-Moyeda, Jose; Nazeran, Homer

    2013-10-01

    The conventional method for sleep staging is to analyze polysomnograms (PSGs) recorded in a sleep lab. The electroencephalogram (EEG) is one of the most important signals in PSGs but recording and analysis of this signal presents a number of technical challenges, especially at home. Instead, electrocardiograms (ECGs) are much easier to record and may offer an attractive alternative for home sleep monitoring. The heart rate variability (HRV) signal proves suitable for automatic sleep staging. Thirty PSGs from the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS) database were used. Three feature sets were extracted from 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments: time-domain features, nonlinear-dynamics features and time-frequency features. The latter was achieved by using empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) methods. Normalized energies in important frequency bands of HRV signals were computed using time-frequency methods. ANOVA and t-test were used for statistical evaluations. Automatic sleep staging was based on HRV signal features. The ANOVA followed by a post hoc Bonferroni was used for individual feature assessment. Most features were beneficial for sleep staging. A t-test was used to compare the means of extracted features in 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments. The results showed that the extracted features means were statistically similar for a small number of features. A separability measure showed that time-frequency features, especially EMD features, had larger separation than others. There was not a sizable difference in separability of linear features between 5- and 0.5-min HRV segments but separability of nonlinear features, especially EMD features, decreased in 0.5-min HRV segments. HRV signal features were classified by linear discriminant (LD) and quadratic discriminant (QD) methods. Classification results based on features from 5-min segments surpassed those obtained from 0.5-min segments. The best result was obtained from features using 5-min HRV

  2. The associations between self-reported sleep duration and adolescent health outcomes: what is the role of time spent on Internet use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Shin, Eunhae; Bautista, Mary Ann; Foo, Kelvin

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations of self-reported sleep duration with adolescent health outcomes, taking into account time spent on Internet use. We used data from the 2008-2009 Korea Youth Behavioral Risk Factor Survey, a cross-sectional online survey of middle and high school students aged 13-18years in South Korea (N=136,589) to examine the associations of self-reported sleep duration with four mental and physical health measures, e.g. self-report of depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, weight status, and self-rated health. The binary logit and generalized ordered logit models controlled for time spent on Internet use for non-study purposes and other factors. Shorter self-reported sleep duration was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting depressive symptoms, suicidal ideation, and overweight or obese status, and a lower likelihood of reporting better self-rated health, even after accounting for time spent on Internet use. Excessive Internet use was found to be an independent risk factor for these outcomes. Among in-school adolescents in South Korea, shorter sleep duration and excessive Internet use are independently and additively associated with multiple indicators of adverse health status. Excessive Internet use may have not only direct adverse health consequences, but also have indirect negative effects through sleep deprivation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Time course of EEG slow-wave activity in pre-school children with sleep disordered breathing: a possible mechanism for daytime deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N; Walter, Lisa M; Nisbet, Lauren C; Jackman, Angela R; Anderson, Vicki; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; Trinder, John; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2012-09-01

    Daytime deficits in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are theorized to result from hypoxic insult to the developing brain or fragmented sleep. Yet, these do not explain why deficits occur in primary snorers (PS). The time course of slow wave EEG activity (SWA), a proxy of homeostatic regulation and cortical maturation, may provide insight. Clinical and control subjects (N=175: mean age 4.3±0.9 y: 61% male) participated in overnight polysomnography (PSG). Standard sleep scoring and power spectral analyses were conducted on EEG (C4/A1; 0.5-sleep stages and respiratory parameters. Repeated-measures ANCOVA evaluated group differences in the time course of SWA. Four groups were classified: controls (OAHI ≤ 1 event/h; no clinical history); PS (OAHI ≤ 1 event/h; clinical history); mild OSA (OAHI=1-5 events/h); and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA: OAHI>5 events/h). Group differences were found in the percentage of time spent in NREM Stages 1 and 4 (psleep pressure but impaired restorative sleep function in pre-school children with SDB, providing new insights into the possible mechanism for daytime deficits observed in all severities of SDB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Sleep Quiz Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... on. Photo: iStock Take the National Center on Sleep Disorders Research Sleep Quiz TRUE OR FALSE ? _____1. ...

  5. Sitting Time, Physical Activity and Sleep by Work Type and Pattern—The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn K. Clark

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Data from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health were used to examine how work was associated with time spent sleeping, sitting and in physical activity (PA, in working women. Young (31–36 years; 2009 and mid-aged (59–64 years; 2010 women reported sleep (categorised as shorter ≤6 h/day and longer ≥8 h/day and sitting time (work, transport, television, non-work computer, and other; summed for total sitting time on the most recent work and non-work day; and moderate and vigorous PA (categorised as meeting/not meeting guidelines in the previous week. Participants reported occupation (manager/professional; clerical/sales; trades/transport/labourer, work hours (part-time; full-time and work pattern (shift/night; not shift/night. The odds of shorter sleep on work days was higher in both cohorts for women who worked shift or night hours. Longer sitting time on work days, made up primarily of sitting for work, was found for managers/professionals, clerical/sales and full-time workers. In the young cohort, clerical/sales workers and in the mid-aged cohort, full-time workers were less likely to meet PA guidelines. These results suggest multiple behaviour interventions tailored to work patterns and occupational category may be useful to improve the sleep, sitting and activity of working women.

  6. Do later wake times and increased sleep duration of 12th graders result in more studying, higher grades, and improved SAT/ACT test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration, wake time, and hours studying on high school grades and performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)/ American College Testing (ACT) college entrance exams. Data were collected from 13,071 recently graduated high school seniors who were entering college in the fall of 2014. A column proportions z test with a Bonferroni adjustment was used to analyze proportional differences. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine mean group differences. Students who woke up prior to 6 a.m. and got less than 8 h of sleep (27 %) were significantly more likely to report studying 11 or more hours per week (30 %), almost double the rate compared to students who got more than 8 h of sleep and woke up the latest (16 %). Post hoc results revealed students who woke up at 7 a.m. or later reported significantly higher high school grades than all other groups (p students who woke up between 6:01 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. and got eight or more hours of sleep. The highest reported SAT/ACT scores were from the group that woke up after 7 a.m. but got less than 8 h sleep (M = 1099.5). Their scores were significantly higher than all other groups. This study provides additional evidence that increased sleep and later wake time are associated with increased high school grades. However, this study also found that students who sleep the longest also reported less studying and lower SAT/ACT scores.

  7. Effects of different sleep deprivation protocols on sleep perception in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Leonardo I; Pinto, Luciano R; Perlis, Michael L; Martins, Raquel; Caboclo, Luis Otavio; Tufik, Sergio; Andersen, Monica L

    2014-10-01

    To investigate whether different protocols of sleep deprivation modify sleep perception. The effects of total sleep deprivation (TD) and selective rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation (RD) on sleep perception were analyzed in normal volunteers. Thirty-one healthy males with normal sleep were randomized to one of three conditions: (i) normal uninterrupted sleep; (ii) four nights of RD; or (iii) two nights of TD. Morning perception of total sleep time was evaluated for each condition. Sleep perception was estimated using total sleep time (in hours) as perceived by the volunteer divided by the total sleep time (in hours) measured by polysomnography (PSG). The final value of this calculation was defined as the perception index (PI). There were no significant differences among the three groups of volunteers in the total sleep time measured by PSG or in the perception of total sleep time at baseline condition. Volunteers submitted to RD exhibited lower sleep PI scores as compared with controls during the sleep deprivation period (P sleep deprivation reduced the ability of healthy young volunteers to perceive their total sleep time when compared with time measured by PSG. The data reinforce the influence of sleep deprivation on sleep perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic variants in RBFOX3 are associated with sleep latency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Amin (Najaf); K.V. Allebrandt; A. van der Spek (Ashley); B. Müller-Myhsok (B.); K. Hek (Karin); M. Teder-Laving (Maris); C. Hayward (Caroline); T. Esko (Tõnu); J. van Mill; H. Mbarek; N.F. Watson (Nathaniel F); S.A. Melville (Scott); F.M. Del Greco (Fabiola); E.M. Byrne (Enda); E. Oole (Edwin); I. Kolcic (Ivana); T.H. Chen; D.S. Evans (Daniel); J. Coresh (Josef); N. Vogelzangs (Nicole); J. Karjalainen (Juha); G.A.H.M. Willemsen (Gonneke); S.A. Gharib (Sina); L. Zgaga (Lina); E. Mihailov (Evelin); K.L. Stone (Katie L); H. Campbell (Harry); R.W.W. Brouwer (Rutger); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); Z. Dogas; K. Marciante (Kristin); S. Campbell (Susan); F. Borovecki (Fran); A.I. Luik (Annemarie I); M. Li (Man); J.J. Hottenga (Jouke Jan); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); M.C.G.N. van den hout (Mirjam); S.R. Cummings (Steven R.); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); P.R. Gehrman (Philip); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); M. Müller-Nurasyid (Martina); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); A. Hofman (Albert); W.H.L. Kao (Wen Hong Linda); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Wright (Alan); J.M. Vink (Jacqueline); J.F. Wilson (James F); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); O. Polasek (Ozren); N.M. Punjabi (Naresh); S. Redline (Susan); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); A.C. Heath (Andrew C.); M. Merrow; G.J. Tranah (Gregory); D.J. Gottlieb (Daniel J); D.I. Boomsma (Dorret); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); I. Rudan (Igor); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); B.W.J.H. Penninx; A. Metspalu (Andres); T. Meitinger (Thomas); L. Franke (Lude); T. Roenneberg; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractTime to fall asleep (sleep latency) is a major determinant of sleep quality. Chronic, long sleep latency is a major characteristic of sleep-onset insomnia and/or delayed sleep phase syndrome. In this study we aimed to discover common polymorphisms that contribute to the genetics of sleep

  9. Genetic variants in RBFOX3 are associated with sleep latency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amin, N.; Allebrandt, K.V.; Spek, A.; Müller-Myhsok, B.; Hek, K.; Teder-Laving, M.; Hayward, C.; Esko, T.; van Mill, J.G.; Mbarek, H.; Watson, N.F.; Melville, S.A.; Del Greco, M.F.; Byrne, E.M.; Oole, E.; Kolcic, I.; Chen, T.; Evans, D.S.; Coresh, J.; Vogelzangs, N.; Karjalainen, J.; Willemsen, G.; Gharib, S.A.; Zgaga, L.; Mihailov, E.; Stone, K.L.; Campbell, H.; Brouwer, R.W.W.; Demirkan, A.; Isaacs, A.; Dogas, Z.; Marciante, K.; Campbell, S.; Borovecki, F.; Luik, A.I.; Li, M.; Hottenga, J.J.; Huffman, J.E.; van den Hout, M.C.G.N.; Cummings, S.R.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Gehrman, P.R.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Wichmann, H.E.; Müller-Nurasyid, M.; Fehrmann, R.S.N.; Montgomery, G.W.; Hofman, A.; Hong, W.; Kao, L.; Oostra, B.A.; Wright, A.F.; Vink, J.M.; Wilson, J.F.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Hicks, A.A.; Polasek, O.; Punjabi, N.M.; Redline, S.; Psaty, B.M.; Heath, A.C.; Merrow, M.; Tranah, G.J.; Gottlieb, D.J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Martin, N.G.; Rudan, I.; Tiemeier, H.; van Ijcken, W.F.J.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Metspalu, A.; Meitinger, T.; Franke, L.; Roenneberg, T.; van Duijn, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Time to fall asleep (sleep latency) is a major determinant of sleep quality. Chronic, long sleep latency is a major characteristic of sleep-onset insomnia and/or delayed sleep phase syndrome. In this study we aimed to discover common polymorphisms that contribute to the genetics of sleep latency. We

  10. Benefits of Sleep Extension on Sustained Attention and Sleep Pressure Before and During Total Sleep Deprivation and Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, Pierrick J; Sauvet, Fabien; Leger, Damien; van Beers, Pascal; Bayon, Virginie; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Millet, Guillaume Y; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the effects of 6 nights of sleep extension on sustained attention and sleep pressure before and during total sleep deprivation and after a subsequent recovery sleep. Subjects participated in two experimental conditions (randomized cross-over design): extended sleep (EXT, 9.8 ± 0.1 h (mean ± SE) time in bed) and habitual sleep (HAB, 8.2 ± 0.1 h time in bed). In each condition, subjects performed two consecutive phases: (1) 6 nights of either EXT or HAB (2) three days in-laboratory: baseline, total sleep deprivation and after 10 h of recovery sleep. Residential sleep extension and sleep performance laboratory (continuous polysomnographic recording). 14 healthy men (age range: 26-37 years). EXT vs. HAB sleep durations prior to total sleep deprivation. Total sleep time and duration of all sleep stages during the 6 nights were significantly higher in EXT than HAB. EXT improved psychomotor vigilance task performance (PVT, both fewer lapses and faster speed) and reduced sleep pressure as evidenced by longer multiple sleep latencies (MSLT) at baseline compared to HAB. EXT limited PVT lapses and the number of involuntary microsleeps during total sleep deprivation. Differences in PVT lapses and speed and MSLT at baseline were maintained after one night of recovery sleep. Six nights of extended sleep improve sustained attention and reduce sleep pressure. Sleep extension also protects against psychomotor vigilance task lapses and microsleep degradation during total sleep deprivation. These beneficial effects persist after one night of recovery sleep. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Low physical activity and high screen time can increase the risks of mental health problems and poor sleep quality among Chinese college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wu

    Full Text Available To test the independent and interactive associations of physical activity (PA and screen time (ST with self-reported mental health and sleep quality among Chinese college students.Data were collected in October, 2013. The gender, age, residential background, body mass index (BMI, perceived family economy and perceived study burden were obtained from a total of 4747 college students (41.6% males and 58.4% females. The outcomes were self-reported PA status, ST, anxiety, depression, psychopathological symptoms and sleep quality. Analyses were conducted with logistic regression models.Overall, 16.3%, 15.9% and 17.3% of the students had psychological problems, such as anxiety, depression and psychopathological symptoms, respectively. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 9.8%. High ST was significantly positively associated with anxiety (OR=1.38, 95%CI: 1.15-1.65, depression (OR=1.76, 95%CI: 1.47-2.09, psychopathological symptoms (OR=1.69, 95%CI: 1.43-2.01 and poor sleep quality (OR=1.32, 95%CI: 1.06-1.65. High PA was insignificantly negatively associated with anxiety, depression, psychopathological symptoms and poor sleep. Low PA and high ST were independently and interactively associated with increased risks of mental health problems and poor sleep quality (p<0.05 for all.Interventions are needed to reduce ST and increase PA in the lifestyles of young people. Future research should develop and measure the impacts of interventions and their potential consequences on sleep, health, and well being.

  12. Sleep in athletes and the effects of Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roky, Rachida; Herrera, Christopher Paul; Ahmed, Qanta

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is now considered as a new frontier in performance enhancement. This article presents background content on sleep function, sleep needs and methods of sleep investigation along with data on the potential effects of Ramadan fasting on sleep in normal individuals and athletes. Accumulated sleep loss has negative impacts on cognitive function, mood, daytime sleepiness and performance. Sleep studies in athletes fasting during Ramadan are very rare. Most of them have demonstrated that during this month, sleep duration decreased and sleep timing shifted. But the direct relation between sleep changes and performance during Ramadan is not yet elucidated. Objective sleep patterns can be investigated using polysomnography, actigraphy, and standardised questionnaires and recorded in daily journals or sleep logs. The available data on sleep indicate that team doctors and coaches should consider planning sleep schedule and napping; implementing educational programmes focusing on the need for healthy sleep; and consider routine screening for sleep loss in athletes of all age groups and genders.

  13. Low Sleeping Time, High TV Viewing Time, and Physical Inactivity in School Are Risk Factors for Obesity in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Srichan, Weerachat; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Khouw, Ilse Tan; Deurenberg, Pual

    2016-03-01

    Explore the association between physically active behavior and obesity in 7- to 12-years-old Thai children. As part of SEANUTS Thailand, information on anthropometry, physical activity, and sociodemographic variables were collected in 7- to 12-years-old urban and rural Thai children. Multi-stage sampling technique was used and 1,345 children (32% urban, and 50.3% boys) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, and BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZ) using World Health Organization Growth Reference. Obesity was defined as BAZ > 2SD. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). The PAQ provided an activity score, activity time in school, sleeping hours, and TV watching time as categorical variable, low, moderate, and high. Chi-square by likelihood ratio test and logistic regression were used to compare obese and non-obese groups. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.2 and 10.8% respectively, whereas 8.2% was classified as thin. Maternal education and religion did not differ between obese and non-obese children. However, obese children's family income was higher. After controlling for family income, maternal education, and religion, obese children were significantly less active during break times in school, slept less, and watched more TV than non-obese. However, there was no difference in the activity score of obese and non-obese children. The study showed that physical activity during break time in school, sleep duration, and hours of TV viewing were associated with obesity in pre-adolescent Thai children. It is important to note that activity score was not associated with obesity. One of the most important benefits to be physically active in childhood is the potential to maintain this behavior into adulthood. Therefore, programs that encourage healthy behaviors and address these modifiable risk factors should be incorporated in the school curriculum.

  14. Plasma Vitamin D Deficiency Is Associated With Poor Sleep Quality and Night-Time Eating at Mid-Pregnancy in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuck Seng Cheng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD deficiency, poor sleep quality, and night-time eating, have been independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, but their inter-relationships are yet to be evaluated. We aimed to investigate the associations between maternal plasma 25OHD status and sleep quality and circadian eating patterns during pregnancy. Data on pregnant women (n = 890 from a prospective cohort (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes were analyzed. Plasma 25OHD concentration was measured, while the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI and 24-h dietary recall were administered to women at 26–28 weeks’ gestation. Plasma 25OHD status was defined as sufficient (>75 nmol/L, insufficient (50–75 nmol/L, or deficient (<50 nmol/L. Poor sleep quality was defined by a total global PSQI score >5. Predominantly day-time (pDT and predominantly night-time (pNT were defined according to consumption of greater proportion of calories (i.e., >50% from 07:00–18:59 and from 19:00–06:59, respectively. After adjustment for confounders, women with plasma 25OHD deficiency had higher odds of poor sleep quality (odds ratio (OR 3.49; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.84–6.63 and pNT eating (OR: 1.85; 95% CI 1.00–3.41 than those who were 25OHD sufficient. Our findings show the association of maternal plasma 25OHD deficiency with poor sleep quality and pNT eating at mid-pregnancy.

  15. [Sleep disorders in epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, O V; Akarachkova, E S

    2014-01-01

    The review of the literature on sleep disorders in epilepsy over the last two decades is presented. Paroxysmal phenomena of epileptic origin, nonepileptic paroxysms, antiepileptic drugs, polypragmasia and comorbid depression may affect sleep in epilepsy.Shortening of sleep time may cause seizures, hallucinations and depression because sleep plays an important role in the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory processes in the brain both in healthy people and in patients with epilepsy. According to the literature data, drugs (short treatment courses of hypnotics) or nonpharmacological methods should be used for treatment insomnia inpatients with epilepsy.

  16. SLEEP DISORDERS IN MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kelmanson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of the association between sleep disturbances and mental retardation in children. Attention is paid to the instant connection between sleep neurophysiology and intellectual progress, as well as between sleep disorders and the pathogenesis of mental retardation in children. The data on characteristic forms of sleep disturbances, including bed-time resistance, frequent night awakenings, parasomnias, abnormal sleep structure, and notably reduced REM-sleep proportion are provided. The potential role of abnormal melatonin production in the origins of sleep disturbances in children with mental retardation is discussed. Certain approaches to pharmacological and non-pharmacological corrections of sleep disorders are outlined.

  17. Association of sleep quality components and wake time with metabolic syndrome: The Qazvin Metabolic Diseases Study (QMDS), Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohal, Mohammadali; Ghorbani, Azam; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Ziaee, Amir; Mohammadi, Zahrasadat

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of sleep quality and sleep quantity with metabolic syndrome in Qazvin, Iran. this cross sectional study was conducted in 1079 residents of Qazvin selected by multistage cluster random sampling method in 2011. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the criteria proposed by the national cholesterol education program third Adult treatment panel. Sleep was assessed using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). A logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of sleep status and metabolic syndrome. Mean age was 40.08±10.33years. Of 1079, 578 (52.2%) were female, and 30.6% had metabolic syndrome. The total global PSQI score in the subjects with metabolic syndrome was significantly higher than subjects without metabolic syndrome (6.30±3.20 vs. 5.83±2.76, P=0.013). In logistic regression analysis, sleep disturbances was associated with 1.388 fold increased risk of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index. Sleep disturbances component was a predictor of metabolic syndrome in the present study. More longitudinal studies are necessary to understand the association of sleep quality and its components with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A cross-cultural comparison of sleep duration between U.S. and Australian adolescents: the effect of school start time, parent-set bedtimes and extracurricular load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Short, M.A.; Gradisar, M.; Lack, L.C.; Wright, H.R.; Dewald, J.F.; Wolfson, A.R.; Carskadon, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective. To test whether sleep duration on school nights differs between adolescents in Australia and the United States and, if so, whether this difference is explained by cultural differences in school start time, parental involvement in setting bedtimes, and extracurricular commitments.

  19. The Impact of Students' Choice of Time of Day for Class Activity and Their Sleep Quality on Academic Performance in Multidisciplinary Distance Education Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the impact of students' choice of time of day for class activity and their sleep quality on academic performance in multidisciplinary distance education courses at a southeastern U.S. state college. The research addressed the relationship of other individual student characteristics (i.e., age, gender,…

  20. Prevalence of sleep apnea and excessive day time sleepiness in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Al-Jahdali

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep apnea (SA and excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS are common sleep disorders among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD. This cross-sectional study, carried out in two dialysis centers in Saudi Arabia, assessed the prevalence of sleep apnea and sleepiness in Saudi patients with ESRD who are on maintenance dialysis with either peritoneal or hemodialysis. We used questionnaires to assess the prevalence of SA and EDS. The association between sleep apnea, EDS, and other sleep disorders, the underlying causes of renal failure, and other demo-graphic data were also examined. Among 227 enrolled patients, the mean patient age was 55.7 years ΁ 17.2 years; 53.7% were male, and 46.3% were female. The overall prevalence of SA as defined by the Berlin questionnaire (BQ was 37% in males and 34% in females, which was not a statistically significant difference (P = 0.459. Sleep apnea was significantly associated with age, neck size, afternoon and evening hemodialysis shift, obesity, diabetes, and hypertension (P-values, 0.001, 0.029, < 0.0001, < 0.0001, < 0.008, 0.002, and < 0.001, respectively. Sleep apnea was also significantly associated with other sleep disorders such as restless leg syndrome, insomnia, habitual snoring, and EDS (P-values, < 0.001, < 0.001, < 0.001, and < 0.001, respectively. The prevalence of EDS was 44%, and EDS was significantly more prevalent in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (P < 0.001; it was also associated with older age, diabetes mellitus, and other sleep disorders. SA and EDS are common in dialysis patients and are significantly associated with other sleep disorders.

  1. Sleep regulation and insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Someren, E.J.W.; Cluydts, R.; Pfaff, D.W.

    2013-01-01

    For years, the subject of sleep failed to generate much interest from either the field of medicine or that of psychology - a curious fact, as a 60-year-old has spent some 20 years out of those 60 sleeping. In fact, up until the age of approximately three years, a child spends more time asleep than

  2. Sleep education in college: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ling-Ling; Li, Sheng-Ping

    2004-12-01

    In this study we evaluated the effect of a two-credit (100 min./week) "Sleep Management" course on the sleep patterns of college students as the course progressed over an 18-wk. semester. Curricular activity included lectures, group discussions, and practice of self-evaluation of sleep. Instead of giving the students the whole list of sleep hygiene at the outset of the course, each concept of sleep hygiene was introduced and discussed under related lecture topics. A total of 241 students (131 men and 110 women) took the course and kept 7-day sleep logs three times. Concurrently, sleep-log data were collected from 65 students (32 men and 33 women) who were not taking the course. Both groups showed similar varieties of academic backgrounds and characteristics of sleep patterns at the beginning. Similarly, their sleep patterns, namely, rise time, nighttime awakenings, time asleep, time in bed, sleep efficiency, and rise time regularity, changed over the semester. Women in both groups had more nighttime awakenings. In contrast, sleep quality was progressively better for the group in the course but not for the control group. Only women in the course decreased their nap time in the second and third months. Thus, the course of "Sleep Management" only had a mild and limited effect on sleep patterns. The course content needs refinement to maximize influence on students' sleep patterns and habits, particularly, on reduction of insufficient sleep and daytime sleepiness which are the highest ranking sleep problems among college students.

  3. Sleep, Recovery, and Performance in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Raman K

    2017-08-01

    Poor sleep can lead to decreases in performance and recovery for athletes. Sleep disorders and symptoms are commonly seen in athletes, and may be unrecognized. It is important to educate athletes on adequate duration, quality, and timing of sleep. Interventions may include changes to practice times or careful planning for travel to games in different time zones. It is important to screen and treat sleep disorders such as sleep apnea and insomnia that are seen in some athletes. In patients who suffer concussion, it is important to address sleep issues, as poor sleep can prolong or exacerbate other concussion symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Human genetics and sleep behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guangsen; Wu, David; Ptáček, Louis J; Fu, Ying-Hui

    2017-06-01

    Why we sleep remains one of the greatest mysteries in science. In the past few years, great advances have been made to better understand this phenomenon. Human genetics has contributed significantly to this movement, as many features of sleep have been found to be heritable. Discoveries about these genetic variations that affect human sleep will aid us in understanding the underlying mechanism of sleep. Here we summarize recent discoveries about the genetic variations affecting the timing of sleep, duration of sleep and EEG patterns. To conclude, we also discuss some of the sleep-related neurological disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and the potential challenges and future directions of human genetics in sleep research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sleep is not just for the brain: transcriptional responses to sleep in peripheral tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Anafi, Ron C; Pellegrino, Renata; Shockley, Keith R; Romer, Micah; Tufik, Sergio; Pack, Allan I

    2013-01-01

    Background Many have assumed that the primary function of sleep is for the brain. We evaluated the molecular consequences of sleep and sleep deprivation outside the brain, in heart and lung. Using microarrays we compared gene expression in tissue from sleeping and sleep deprived mice euthanized at the same diurnal times. Results In each tissue, nearly two thousand genes demonstrated statistically significant differential expression as a function of sleep/wake behavioral state. To mitigate the...

  6. Sleep Insufficiency, Sleep Health Problems and Performance in High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ming, Xue; Koransky, Rebecca; Kang, Victor; Buchman, Sarah; Sarris, Christina E.; Wagner, George C.

    2011-01-01

    A survey on sleep schedule, sleep health, school performance and school start times was conducted in 1,941 adolescents. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported, especially in upper classmen. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays, alarm clock use, and napping were prevalent. Night awakening and prolonged sleep onset were common and associated with poor school per...

  7. Fruit Flies Help Human Sleep Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like us, without enough sleep, flies feel the effects of sleep deprivation. Cirelli has shown that they are a good model for researching human sleep. She has found fruit fly genes that seem to have a powerful effect on sleep. In time, her research could lead ...

  8. The cumulative impact of physical activity, sleep duration, and television time on adolescent obesity: 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R; Lee, Joey A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2015-03-01

    Physical activity (PA), television time (TV), and sleep duration (SLP) are considered individual risk factors for adolescent obesity. Our aim was to investigate the concurrent influence of meeting PA, SLP, and TV recommendations on adolescent obesity utilizing 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) data. Subjects included 9589 (4874 females) high school students. PA, SLP, and TV were categorized utilizing established national recommendations and youth were cross-tabulated into 1 of 8 groups based on meeting or not meeting each recommendation. Logistic models were used to examine the odds of obesity for each group. Youth meeting the PA recommendation were not at increased odds of obesity, regardless of SLP or TV status. However, not meeting any single recommendation, in general, led to increased odds of not meeting the other two. In boys, 11.8% met all recommendations while 14.1% met 0 recommendations. In girls, only 5.0% met all recommendations while 17.8% met none. Boys and girls not meeting any of the recommendations were 4.0 and 3.8 times more likely to be obese compared with their respective referent groups. Further research considering the simultaneous influence these risk factors may have on obesity and on one another is warranted.

  9. Sing, Soothe and Sleep: A Lullaby Education Programme for First-Time Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Felicity; Mackinlay, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on an education programme conducted with first-time mothers. The study aimed to establish whether mothers found an education session on lullaby singing beneficial for them and their babies as well as reporting what lullabies were sung and why. Twenty first-time mothers were provided with examples of lullabies and asked to sing…

  10. Eveningness and Later Sleep Timing Are Associated with Greater Risk for Alcohol and Marijuana Use in Adolescence: Initial Findings from the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Brant P; Franzen, Peter L; de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Prouty, Devin; Brown, Sandra A; Tapert, Susan F; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Pohl, Kilian M; Sullivan, Edith V; De Bellis, Michael D; Nagel, Bonnie J; Baker, Fiona C; Colrain, Ian M; Clark, Duncan B

    2017-06-01

    Abundant cross-sectional evidence links eveningness (a preference for later sleep-wake timing) and increased alcohol and drug use among adolescents and young adults. However, longitudinal studies are needed to examine whether eveningness is a risk factor for subsequent alcohol and drug use, particularly during adolescence, which is marked by parallel peaks in eveningness and risk for the onset of alcohol use disorders. This study examined whether eveningness and other sleep characteristics were associated with concurrent or subsequent substance involvement in a longitudinal study of adolescents. Participants were 729 adolescents (368 females; age 12 to 21 years) in the National Consortium on Alcohol and Neurodevelopment in Adolescence study. Associations between the sleep variables (circadian preference, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, sleep timing, and sleep duration) and 3 categorical substance variables (at-risk alcohol use, alcohol bingeing, and past-year marijuana use [y/n]) were examined using ordinal and logistic regression with baseline age, sex, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and psychiatric problems as covariates. At baseline, greater eveningness was associated with greater at-risk alcohol use, greater bingeing, and past-year use of marijuana. Later weekday and weekend bedtimes, but not weekday or weekend sleep duration, showed similar associations across the 3 substance outcomes at baseline. Greater baseline eveningness was also prospectively associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up, after covarying for baseline bingeing and marijuana use. Later baseline weekday and weekend bedtimes, and shorter baseline weekday sleep duration, were similarly associated with greater bingeing and past-year use of marijuana at the 1-year follow-up after covarying for baseline values. Findings suggest that eveningness and sleep timing may be under recognized risk factors and future areas of intervention for

  11. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  12. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  13. Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ... find out more. Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a ...

  14. School Term vs. School Holiday: Associations with Children’s Physical Activity, Screen-Time, Diet and Sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E. Staiano

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study examined differences in children’s health behaviors during school term (ST versus school holiday (SH: June–July and how associations changed when weather characteristics were considered. Children aged 5–18 years (n = 406 from a subtropical climate reported behaviors over 20 months. Multivariable regression models controlling for age, sex, race and body mass index z-score(BMIz ) were used to examine associations between SH and each behavior. A second model included heat index, precipitation and daylight hours. Strenuous activity, moderate activity, total activity and TV viewing were significantly higher during SH than ST. After adjusting for weather characteristics, total activity remained significantly higher during SH, but the association with TV viewing was attenuated. Youth surveyed during high precipitation were significantly less likely to meet physical activity guidelines. There were no significant associations between SH and meeting sleep, physical activity or screen-time guidelines. Weather characteristics influenced associations between SH and youth’s physical activity and TV viewing.

  15. Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing ... an hour. The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or ...

  16. Physical Activity, TV Watching Time, Sleeping, and Risk of Obesity and Hyperglycemia in the Offspring of Mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wang, Peng; Liu, Huikun; Wang, Leishen; Li, Weiqin; Leng, Junhong; Li, Nan; Zhang, Shuang; Qi, Lu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Yu, Zhijie; Yang, Xilin; Hu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the association of physical activity, TV watching time, sleeping time with the risks of obesity and hyperglycemia among 1263 offspring aged 1-5 years of mothers with gestational diabetes (GDM) in a cross-sectional study. Logistic regression models were used to obtain the odd ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CI]) of childhood obesity and hyperglycemia associated with different levels of indoor activity, outdoor activity, TV watching, and sleeping time. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of obesity based on different levels of TV watching time (0, <1.0, and ≥1.0 hour/day) were 1.00, 1.21 (95% CI 0.72-2.05), and 2.20 (95% CI 1.33-3.63) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia based on different levels of indoor activity (<5.0, 5.0-6.9, and ≥7.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.74 (95% CI 0.45-1.21), and 0.49 (95% CI 0.28-0.84) (Ptrend = 0.034), respectively. The multivariable-adjusted ORs of hyperglycemia associated with different levels of sleeping time (<11.0, 11.0-11.9, and ≥12.0 hours/day) were 1.00, 0.67 (95% CI 0.42-1.05), and 0.39 (95% CI 0.23-0.67) (Ptrend = 0.003), respectively. The present study indicated a positive association of TV watching with the risk of obesity, and an inverse association of either indoor activity or sleeping time with the risk of hyperglycemia among offspring born to GDM mothers in Tianjin, China.

  17. The Syndrome Burnout as Deterioration of Work Environment and the TST Position of the Use of the Principles And Concepts Environmental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Fabiola Brito Tuma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the applicability of environmental principles in cases of syndrome of "burnout". For this, it will analyze the concepts of general environment and its categories, highlighting the working environment in which the characteristics of its healthiness will be appointed. They will be treated also the concepts of degradation of environmental quality and pollution, and how they occur in the middle working environment, emphasizing the protection of quality of life and health of workers. So relate the "burnout" syndrome as the middle work environment degradation factor, and discussed the consequences of this framework. Finally, recent decisions will be presented the Superior Labor Court (TST about this psychological pathology.

  18. Availability and night-time use of electronic entertainment and communication devices are associated with short sleep duration and obesity among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, H; Fung, C; Kuhle, S; Veugelers, P J

    2013-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity. Television (TV) in the bedroom has been shown to be associated with excess body weight in children. Children increasingly use other electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) such as video games, computers, and smart phones. What this study adds Access to and night-time use of EECDs are associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels. Our findings reinforce existing recommendations pertaining to TV and Internet access by the American Academy of Pediatrics and suggest to have these expanded to restricted availability of video games and smart phones in children's bedrooms. While the prevalence of childhood obesity and access to and use of electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) have increased in the past decades, no earlier study has examined their interrelationship. To examine whether night-time access to and use of EECDs are associated with sleep duration, body weights, diet quality, and physical activity of Canadian children. A representative sample of 3398 grade 5 children in Alberta, Canada, was surveyed. The survey included questions on children's lifestyles and health behaviours, the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency questionnaire, a validated questionnaire on physical activity, and measurements of heights and weights. Random effect models were used to assess the associations of night-time access to and use of EECDs with sleep, diet quality, physical activity, and body weights. Sixty-four percent of parents reported that their child had access to one or more EECDs in their bedroom. Access to and night-time use of EECDs were associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels in a statistically significant manner. Limiting the availability of EECDs in children's bedrooms and discouraging their

  19. Atypical sexual behavior during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilleminault, Christian; Moscovitch, Adam; Yuen, Kin; Poyares, Dalva

    2002-01-01

    This article reports a case series of atypical sexual behavior during sleep, which is often harmful to patients or bed partners. Eleven subjects underwent clinical evaluation of complaints of sleep-related atypical sexual behavior. Complaints included violent masturbation, sexual assaults, and continuous (and loud) sexual vocalizations during sleep. One case was a medical-legal case. Sleep logs, clinical evaluations, sleep questionnaires, structured psychiatric interviews, polysomnography, actigraphy, home electroencephalographic monitoring during sleep, and clinical electroencephalographic monitoring while awake and asleep were used to determine clinical diagnoses. Atypical sexual behaviors during sleep were associated with feelings of guilt, shame, and depression. Because of these feelings, patients and bed partners often tolerated the abnormal behavior for long periods of time without seeking medical attention. The following pathologic sleep disorders were demonstrated on polysomnography: partial complex seizures, sleep-disordered breathing, stage 3 to 4 non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep parasomnias, and REM sleep behavior disorder. These findings were concurrent with morning amnesia. The atypical behaviors were related to different syndromes despite the similarity of complaints from bed partners. In most cases the disturbing and often harmful symptoms were controlled when counseling was instituted and sleep disorders were treated. In some cases treatment of seizures or psychiatric disorders was also needed. Clonazepam with simultaneous psychotherapy was the most common successful treatment combination. The addition of antidepressant or antiepileptic medications was required in specific cases.

  20. Characterizing Sleep Issues Using Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, David J; Hawkins, Jared B; Chunara, Rumi; Chatterjee, Arnaub K; Bhandari, Aman; Fitzgerald, Timothy P; Jain, Sachin H; Brownstein, John S

    2015-06-08

    Sleep issues such as insomnia affect over 50 million Americans and can lead to serious health problems, including depression and obesity, and can increase risk of injury. Social media platforms such as Twitter offer exciting potential for their use in studying and identifying both diseases and social phenomenon. Our aim was to determine whether social media can be used as a method to conduct research focusing on sleep issues. Twitter posts were collected and curated to determine whether a user exhibited signs of sleep issues based on the presence of several keywords in tweets such as insomnia, "can't sleep", Ambien, and others. Users whose tweets contain any of the keywords were designated as having self-identified sleep issues (sleep group). Users who did not have self-identified sleep issues (non-sleep group) were selected from tweets that did not contain pre-defined words or phrases used as a proxy for sleep issues. User data such as number of tweets, friends, followers, and location were collected, as well as the time and date of tweets. Additionally, the sentiment of each tweet and average sentiment of each user were determined to investigate differences between non-sleep and sleep groups. It was found that sleep group users were significantly less active on Twitter (P=.04), had fewer friends (Pcost-effective, and customizable data to be gathered.

  1. Employees with Sleep Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... syndrome was often 10-15 minutes late for work every day due to amount and quality of sleep. The employer provided this employee with a half an hour flexible start time. Depending on when the employee arrived, ...

  2. Immediate postarousal sleep dynamics: an important determinant of sleep stability in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Magdy; Hanly, Patrick J

    2016-04-01

    Arousability from sleep is increasingly recognized as an important determinant of the clinical spectrum of sleep disordered breathing (SDB). Patients with SDB display a wide range of arousability. The reason for these differences is not known. We hypothesized that differences in the speed with which sleep deepens following arousals/awakenings (postarousal sleep dynamics) is a major determinant of these differences in arousability in patients with SDB. We analyzed 40 preexisting clinical polysomnography records from patients with a range of SDB severity (apnea-hypopnea index 5-135/h). Sleep depth was determined every 3 s using the odds ratio product (ORP) method, a continuous index of sleep depth (0 = deep sleep, 2.5 = full wakefulness) that correlates strongly (r = 0.98) with arousability (Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, and Hanly P. Sleep 38: 641-654, 2015). Time course of ORP was determined from end of arousal until the next arousal. All arousals were analyzed (142 ± 65/polysomnogram). ORP increased from 0.58 ± 0.32 during sleep to 1.67 ± 0.35 during arousals. ORP immediately (first 9 s) following arousals/awakenings (ORP-9) ranged from 0.21(very deep sleep) to 1.71 (highly arousable state) in different patients. In patients with high ORP-9, sleep deepened slowly (over minutes) beyond 9 s but only if no arousals/awakenings recurred. ORP-9 correlated strongly with average non-rapid eye movement sleep depth (r = 0.87, P sleep architecture. We conclude that postarousal sleep dynamics are highly variable among patients with sleep-disordered breathing and largely determine average sleep depth and continuity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Prioritizing sleep for healthy work schedules

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi Masaya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work). Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amoun...

  4. Sleep duration, nightshift work, and the timing of meals and urinary levels of 8-isoprostane and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chisato; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Nagao, Yasuko; Ishihara, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that disruption of circadian rhythms affects human health. Shift work and sleep deprivation are thought to disrupt the normal light-dark cycle, although the disruption due to shiftwork may be dependent on sleep deprivation. Both conditions have been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Non-photic environmental factors, such as the timing of eating, are also thought to regulate circadian rhythm and thus, may have effects on health, but the evidence from human studies is scarce. Oxidative stress is a risk factor of cardiometabolic disorders. Some laboratory studies suggest an involvement of circadian clock genes in the regulation of the redox system. The present study aimed to examine the association of sleeping habits, nightshift work, and the timing of meals with urinary levels of 8-isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress, and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, the principal metabolite of melatonin. Study subjects were 542 women who had previously attended a breast cancer mass screening in a community in Japan. Information on bedtimes and wake-up times, history of nightshift work, and the timing of meals was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The 8-isoprostane and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin were measured using the first morning void of urine and expressed per mg of creatinine. The geometric mean of 8-isoprostane levels was 12.1% higher in women with ≤6 hours of sleep than that in those with >8 hours of sleep on weekdays, and longer sleep duration on weekdays was significantly associated with lower urinary levels of 8-isoprostane after controlling for covariates (p for trend = 0.04). Women who were currently working the nightshift had a 33.3% higher geometric mean of 8-isoprostane levels than those who were not working nightshift (p = 0.03). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were unrelated to sleep habits or nightshift work. Women who ate breakfast at irregular times had a 19.8% higher

  5. Wake Up and Get Some Sleep: Improve the Quality of Your Sleep and Life as a Shift Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family about your sleep schedule and why your sleep time is so important. Establish guidelines for everyone in your household to help maintain a peaceful sleeping environment — such as wearing headphones to listen to music or watch ... Keep a sleep schedule. Let family and friends know your sleep ...

  6. Trigeminal induced arousals during human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Baja, Jan; Lenz, Franziska; Sommer, J Ulrich; Hörmann, Karl; Herr, Raphael M; Stuck, Boris A

    2015-05-01

    Arousals caused by external stimuli during human sleep have been studied for most of the sensorial systems. It could be shown that a pure nasal trigeminal stimulus leads to arousals during sleep. The frequency of arousals increases dependent on the stimulus concentration. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of different stimulus durations on arousal frequency during different sleep stages. Ten young healthy volunteers with 20 nights of polysomnography were included in the study. Pure trigeminal stimulation with both different concentrations of CO2 (0, 10, 20, 40% v/v) and different stimulus durations (1, 3, 5, and 10 s) were applied during different sleep stages to the volunteers using an olfactometer. The application was performed during different sleep stages (light sleep, deep sleep, REM sleep). The number of arousals increased with rising stimulus duration and stimulus concentration during each sleep stage. Trigeminal stimuli during sleep led to arousals in dose- and time-dependent manner.

  7. Sleep need in adolescents: a longitudinal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, I; Meier, B

    1988-08-01

    A sample of 190 male and female "high school" students completed a sleep questionnaire for the first time when they were 10 to 14 years old. The survey was repeated five times at 2 year intervals. Ninety-three subjects answered the questionnaire each time. Subjective sleep need was assessed by the indicated wish for more sleep. The wish for more sleep was very pronounced, varying between 54.3% and 74.5% across the years. Individual consistency, however, was low since only 14.5% of the adolescents indicated the wish for more sleep in each survey, emphasizing the state dependency of this variable. Within each total sample, subjects with the wish for more sleep (MSL) and with sufficient sleep (SSL) were compared. Subjective sleep need was consistently validated by a syndrome of morning-tiredness. In the last two surveys, there was reduced time in bed (TIB) on weekdays in MSL subjects and longer TIB during vacation in surveys 2 through 5. Furthermore, MSL subjects more often showed irregular sleep habits. The previous sleep history of the MSL subjects in the last survey indicated that concomitants of the wish for more sleep were already experienced earlier in adolescence. The desired sleep duration of these subjects was 1.7 h longer than their current sleep on weekdays, an amount they had not obtained on weekdays since early adolescence. It is concluded that a substantial proportion of the adolescents seem to have had difficulties adapting to the general sleep time reduction occurring in adolescence.

  8. Sleep habits and strategies of ultramarathon runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Tristan; Arnal, Pierrick J.; Hoffman, Martin D.; Millet, Guillaume Y.

    2018-01-01

    Among factors impacting performance during an ultramarathon, sleep is an underappreciated factor that has received little attention. The aims of this study were to characterize habitual sleep behaviors in ultramarathon runners and to examine strategies they use to manage sleep before and during ultramarathons. Responses from 636 participants to a questionnaire were considered. This population was found to sleep more on weekends and holidays (7–8 h to 8–9 h) than during weekdays (6–7 h to 7–8 h; p sleep disorders, with more women (38.9%) reporting sleep problems than men (22.0%; p sleep preceding an ultramarathon, with 54.7% trying to increase their opportunities for sleep. Only 21% of participants reported that they had a strategy to manage sleep during ultramarathons, with micronaps being the most common strategy specified. Sub-analyses from 221 responses indicated that sleep duration during an ultramarathon was correlated with finish time for races lasting 36–60 h (r = 0.48; p 60 h (r = 0.44; p sleep duration among ultramarathon runners was comparable to the general population and other athletic populations, yet they reported a lower prevalence of sleep disorders. Daytime sleepiness was among the lowest rates encountered in athletic populations, which may be related to the high percentage of nappers in our population. Sleep extension, by increasing sleep time at night and daytime napping, was the main sleep strategy to prepare for ultramarathons. PMID:29742118

  9. The effects of caffeine ingestion on the reaction time and short-term maximal performance after 36 h of sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souissi, Makram; Chtourou, Hamdi; Abedelmalek, Salma; Ghozlane, Imen Ben; Sahnoun, Zouhair

    2014-05-28

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of caffeine ingestion on cognitive and physical performances after 36h of sleep deprivation. In randomized order, thirteen healthy male physical education students (age: 21.1±1.1years, body mass: 77.1±7.2kg, height: 1.77±0.06m) completed four test sessions at 18:00h: after placebo or 5mg·kg(-1) of caffeine ingestion during a baseline night (RN) (bed time: from 22:30h to 07:00h) or a night of 36h of sleep deprivation (TSD). During each test session, participants performed the squat jump (SJ), the reaction time, and the 30-s Wingate tests (i.e., for the measurement of the peak (PP) and mean (MP) powers and the fatigue index (FI)). The results showed that PP and MP decreased and FI increased during the TSD compared to RN in the placebo condition (pcaffeine ingestion improved PP after TSD compared to RN (pcaffeine ingestions (pcaffeine ingestion during RN and TSD (pcaffeine ingestion only during the TSD (pcaffeine is an effective strategy to counteract the effect of 36h of sleep loss on physical and cognitive performances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Repeated sleep restriction in rats leads to homeostatic and allostatic responses during recovery sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsoo; Laposky, Aaron D; Bergmann, Bernard M; Turek, Fred W

    2007-06-19

    Recent studies indicate that chronic sleep restriction can have negative consequences for brain function and peripheral physiology and can contribute to the allostatic load throughout the body. Interestingly, few studies have examined how the sleep-wake system itself responds to repeated sleep restriction. In this study, rats were subjected to a sleep-restriction protocol consisting of 20 h of sleep deprivation (SD) followed by a 4-h sleep opportunity each day for 5 consecutive days. In response to the first 20-h SD block on day 1, animals responded during the 4-h sleep opportunity with enhanced sleep intensity [i.e., nonrapid eye movement (NREM) delta power] and increased rapid eye movement sleep time compared with baseline. This sleep pattern is indicative of a homeostatic response to acute sleep loss. Remarkably, after the 20-h SD blocks on days 2-5, animals failed to exhibit a compensatory NREM delta power response during the 4-h sleep opportunities and failed to increase NREM and rapid eye movement sleep times, despite accumulating a sleep debt each consecutive day. After losing approximately 35 h of sleep over 5 days of sleep restriction, animals regained virtually none of their lost sleep, even during a full 3-day recovery period. These data demonstrate that the compensatory/homeostatic sleep response to acute SD does not generalize to conditions of chronic partial sleep loss. We propose that the change in sleep-wake regulation in the context of repeated sleep restriction reflects an allostatic process, and that the allostatic load produced by SD has direct effects on the sleep-wake regulatory system.

  11. Mammalian sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Hugh

    2005-05-01

    This review examines the biological background to the development of ideas on rapid eye movement sleep (REM sleep), so-called paradoxical sleep (PS), and its relation to dreaming. Aspects of the phenomenon which are discussed include physiological changes and their anatomical location, the effects of total and selective sleep deprivation in the human and animal, and REM sleep behavior disorder, the latter with its clinical manifestations in the human. Although dreaming also occurs in other sleep phases (non-REM or NREM sleep), in the human, there is a contingent relation between REM sleep and dreaming. Thus, REM is taken as a marker for dreaming and as REM is distributed ubiquitously throughout the mammalian class, it is suggested that other mammals also dream. It is suggested that the overall function of REM sleep/dreaming is more important than the content of the individual dream; its function is to place the dreamer protagonist/observer on the topographical world. This has importance for the developing infant who needs to develop a sense of self and separateness from the world which it requires to navigate and from which it is separated for long periods in sleep. Dreaming may also serve to maintain a sense of ‘I’ness or “self” in the adult, in whom a fragility of this faculty is revealed in neurological disorders.

  12. One Night of Sleep Deprivation Affects Reaction Time, but Not Interference or Facilitation in a Stroop Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Sean W.; Silva, Edward J.; Chang, Anne-Marie; Ronda, Joseph M.; Duffy, Jeanne F.

    2011-01-01

    The Stroop color-naming task is one of the most widely studied tasks involving the inhibition of a prepotent response, regarded as an executive function. Several studies have examined performance on versions of the Stroop task under conditions of acute sleep deprivation. Though these studies revealed effects on Stroop performance, the results…

  13. Effect of escitalopram combined with zolpidem on sleep structure, sleep process and neurotransmitter in elderly patients with chronic insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Peng Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effect of escitalopram combined with zolpidem on sleep structure, sleep process and neurotransmitter in elderly patients with chronic insomnia. Methods: A total of 112 elderly patients with chronic insomnia treated in our hospital were included in the study and randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=56. Control group received zolpidem therapy alone, observation group received escitalopram combined with zolpidem therapy, and then differences in sleep structure and process, neurotransmitter, stress hormones, hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis indexes and so on were compared between two groups of patients. Results: The sleep structure and sleep process parameters SL, RL and S2 levels of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those of control group while TST, S3 and REM levels were significantly higher than those of control group; Orexin, ACTH, 5-HT, NE, CRH, E, AngⅡ, Cor, ALD, DA and TGA content in serum were significantly lower than those of control group while T3, T4, TSH and TRH content were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusions: Escitalopram combined with zolpidem can optimize the sleep structure and process in elderly patients with chronic insomnia, and also plays a prominent role in regulating the body's homeostasis.

  14. Effect of escitalopram combined with zolpidem on sleep structure, sleep process and neurotransmitter in elderly patients with chronic insomnia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Peng Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the effect of escitalopram combined with zolpidem on sleep structure, sleep process and neurotransmitter in elderly patients with chronic insomnia.Methods:A total of 112 elderly patients with chronic insomnia treated in our hospital were included in the study and randomly divided into observation group and control group (n=56). Control group received zolpidem therapy alone, observation group received escitalopram combined with zolpidem therapy, and then differences in sleep structure and process, neurotransmitter, stress hormones, hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis indexes and so on were compared between two groups of patients.Results: The sleep structure and sleep process parameters SL, RL and S2 levels of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those of control group while TST, S3 and REM levels were significantly higher than those of control group; Orexin, ACTH, 5-HT, NE, CRH, E, AngⅡ, Cor, ALD, DA and TGA content in serum were significantly lower than those of control group while T3, T4, TSH and TRH content were significantly higher than those of control group.Conclusions:Escitalopram combined with zolpidem can optimize the sleep structure and process in elderly patients with chronic insomnia, and also plays a prominent role in regulating the body's homeostasis.

  15. The role of nocturnal oximetry in obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea syndrome screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestina Ventura

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of our study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of Nocturnal Oximetry (NO as a diagnostic screening tool for obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS, compared with polysomnography (PSG as the gold standard. Methodology: 63 patients with clinical suspicion of OSAHS and exclusion of respiratory disease underwent PSG and NO. We then determined NO sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV. Results: OSAHS was diagnosed in 47 patients with a mean age of 54 years. In the evaluation of the percentage of Total Sleep Time (TST with oxygen desaturation below 90%, we found significant differences between patients with OSAHS (25.4 ± 29.7% and without OSAHS (1 ± 1.5%, p<0,001. We used two cutoff points to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV and negative predictive values (NPV, based on the severity of O2 desaturation (StO2<90%. Using the first cutoff point we diagnosed with NO as positive all the patients with TST desaturation values ≥1% of the TST. Under these circumstances we found a sensitivity of 76.6%, a specificity of 75%, a PPV of 90% and an NPV value of 52.2% for our screening test (NO. Using the second cutoff point, we diagnosed with NO as positive all the patients with TST desaturation values ≥5% of the TST. With this method we found a sensitivity of 65.9%, a specificity of 100%, a PPV of 100% and an NPV of 50%. Conclusion: NO is a useful screening test for the diagnosis of OSAHS in patients without respiratory disease. Resumo: Objectivo: Foi objectivo deste estudo determinar a sensibilidade e a especificidade da oximetria nocturna (ON como método de screening diagnóstico para a síndroma de apneia-hipopneia obstrutiva do sono (SAHOS, utilizando como método de referência a polissonografia (PSG. Metodologia: Foram incluídos 63 doentes com suspeita clínica de SAHOS e exclusão de doença respiratória, sendo

  16. Sleep disorders - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insomnia; Narcolepsy; Hypersomina; Daytime sleepiness; Sleep rhythm; Sleep disruptive behaviors; Jet lag ... excessive daytime sleepiness) Problems sticking to a regular sleep schedule (sleep rhythm problem) Unusual behaviors during sleep ( ...

  17. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  18. Sleep Apnea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Obstructive Sleep Apnea KidsHealth / For Parents / Obstructive Sleep Apnea What's ... How Is Sleep Apnea Treated? Print What Is Sleep Apnea? Brief pauses in breathing during sleep are ...

  19. Sleep is not just for the brain: transcriptional responses to sleep in peripheral tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anafi, Ron C; Pellegrino, Renata; Shockley, Keith R; Romer, Micah; Tufik, Sergio; Pack, Allan I

    2013-05-30

    Many have assumed that the primary function of sleep is for the brain. We evaluated the molecular consequences of sleep and sleep deprivation outside the brain, in heart and lung. Using microarrays we compared gene expression in tissue from sleeping and sleep deprived mice euthanized at the same diurnal times. In each tissue, nearly two thousand genes demonstrated statistically significant differential expression as a function of sleep/wake behavioral state. To mitigate the influence of an artificial deprivation protocol, we identified a subset of these transcripts as specifically sleep-enhanced or sleep-repressed by requiring that their expression also change over the course of unperturbed sleep. 3% and 6% of the assayed transcripts showed "sleep specific" changes in the lung and heart respectively. Sleep specific transcripts in these tissues demonstrated highly significant overlap and shared temporal dynamics. Markers of cellular stress and the unfolded protein response were reduced during sleep in both tissues. These results mirror previous findings in brain. Sleep-enhanced pathways reflected the unique metabolic functions of each tissue. Transcripts related to carbohydrate and sulfur metabolic processes were enhanced by sleep in the lung, and collectively favor buffering from oxidative stress. DNA repair and protein metabolism annotations were significantly enriched among the sleep-enhanced transcripts in the heart. Our results also suggest that sleep may provide a Zeitgeber, or synchronizing cue, in the lung as a large cluster of transcripts demonstrated systematic changes in inter-animal variability as a function of both sleep duration and circadian time. Our data support the notion that the molecular consequences of sleep/wake behavioral state extend beyond the brain to include peripheral tissues. Sleep state induces a highly overlapping response in both heart and lung. We conclude that sleep enhances organ specific molecular functions and that it has a

  20. Sleep and Cognitive Decline: A Strong Bidirectional Relationship. It Is Time for Specific Recommendations on Routine Assessment and the Management of Sleep Disorders in Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Biancamaria; Sorbi, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances and disruption of the neural regulation of the sleep-wake rhythm appear to be involved in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cognitive decline. Although sleep problems are highly prevalent in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and many types of dementia, they have not been systematically investigated in the clinical setting and are often only investigated by sleep specialists upon individual request. This review discusses sleep disorders in the context of cognitive decline and provides an overview of the clinical diagnosis and management of these disorders in patients with dementia and MCI. Key Messages: Sleep disorders are largely underestimated and do not receive sufficient attention in the global management of dementia patients. Sleep disturbances have a significant impact on cognitive and physical functions in individuals with cognitive decline and may be associated with important psychological distress and depression. They are positively associated with the severity of behavioral problems and cognitive impairment. The recent recommendations by the Sleep Study Group of the Italian Dementia Research Association can be used as a guideline for the clinical assessment and management of sleep disorders in MCI and dementia patients. Sleep disorders should be carefully investigated using an in-depth sleep history, physical examination, questionnaires and clinical scales and should be validated with the support of a direct caregiver. The recommendations for older adults can be used as a framework to guide the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disorders in individuals with dementia and MCI. The management strategy should be based on the choice of different treatments for each sleep problem present in the same patient, while avoiding adverse interactions between treatments. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. In Brief: Your Guide to Healthy Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... again. What Is Sleep? Sleep was long considered just a block of time when your brain and body shut down. Thanks ... before leaving. Or, if you are traveling for just a few days, you might want to ... the new time zone. Get a Good Night’s Sleep Like eating ...

  2. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  3. Kinetics of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube test during treatment of patients with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis in relation to initial TST result and severity of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idh, Jonna; Abate, Ebba; Westman, Anna

    2010-01-01

    . Smear-positive TB patients (n = 71) were recruited at Gondar University Hospital, Ethiopia. The TST, QFN, CD4+ cell count and clinical symptoms (TB score) were assessed and followed up during treatment. From baseline to 7 months after treatment, there was a significant decrease in QFN reactivity (93.......8% to 62.5% in HIV-negative/TB; 70.3% to 33.3% in HIV-positive/TB patients) down to a level comparable to a control group of blood donors (51.2%). The agreement between TST and QFN was poor in TB patients compared to healthy controls. A negative TST correlated to more advanced TB in contrast to a negative...

  4. [Working time and sleep in nursing staff employed in "3 x 8" and "2 x 12" fast rotating shift schedules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, G; Anelli, M M; Punzi, S; Boari, P; Camerino, D; Costa, G

    2011-01-01

    The study is aimed at assessing, in 200 nurses shift workers, the impact on sleep of two different working areas ("emergency" and "hospitalization") having the same "3 x 8" shift system, and of two different shift schedules at quick rotation ("2 x 12" and "3 x 8") in the same working area ("emergency"). Night and morning shifts prove to interfere to a greater extent with sleep in relation to both "2 x 12" and "3 x 8" shift systems as well as to the two operative areas. Hence the importance to consider in shift work planning, the direction of shift rotation and the length of the duty period according to the type of activity.

  5. Sleep and Mental Health in Undergraduate Students with Generally Healthy Sleep Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevich, Helen M; Lukowski, Angela F

    2016-01-01

    Whereas previous research has indicated that sleep problems tend to co-occur with increased mental health issues in university students, relatively little is known about relations between sleep quality and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits. Understanding relations between sleep and mental health in individuals with generally healthy sleep habits is important because (a) student sleep habits tend to worsen over time and (b) even time-limited experience of sleep problems may have significant implications for the onset of mental health problems. In the present research, 69 university students with generally healthy sleep habits completed questionnaires about sleep quality and mental health. Although participants did not report clinically concerning mental health issues as a group, global sleep quality was associated with mental health. Regression analyses revealed that nighttime sleep duration and the frequency of nighttime sleep disruptions were differentially related to total problems and clinically-relevant symptoms of psychological distress. These results indicate that understanding relations between sleep and mental health in university students with generally healthy sleep habits is important not only due to the large number of undergraduates who experience sleep problems and mental health issues over time but also due to the potential to intervene and improve mental health outcomes before they become clinically concerning.

  6. Sleep, sport, and the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halson, Shona L; Juliff, Laura E

    2017-01-01

    The recognition that sleep is one of the foundations of athlete performance is increasing both in the elite athlete arena as well as applied performance research. Sleep, as identified through sleep deprivation and sleep extension investigations, has a role in performance, illness, injury, metabolism, cognition, memory, learning, and mood. Elite athletes have been identified as having poorer quality and quantity of sleep in comparison to the general population. This is likely the result on training times, competition stress/anxiety, muscle soreness, caffeine use, and travel. Sleep, in particular slow wave sleep, provides a restorative function to the body to recover from prior wakefulness and fatigue by repairing processes and restoring energy. In addition, research in the general population is highlighting the importance of sleep on neurophysiology, cognitive function, and mood which may have implications for elite athlete performance. It is thus increased understanding of both the effects of sleep deprivation and potential mechanisms of influence on performance that may allow scientists and practitioners to positively influence sleep in athletes and ultimately maximize performances. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Trypanosoma brucei Invasion and T-Cell Infiltration of the Brain Parenchyma in Experimental Sleeping Sickness: Timing and Correlation with Functional Changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Laperchia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The timing of Trypanosoma brucei entry into the brain parenchyma to initiate the second, meningoencephalitic stage of human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is currently debated and even parasite invasion of the neuropil has been recently questioned. Furthermore, the relationship between neurological features and disease stage are unclear, despite the important diagnostic and therapeutic implications.Using a rat model of chronic Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection we determined the timing of parasite and T-cell neuropil infiltration and its correlation with functional changes. Parasite DNA was detected using trypanosome-specific PCR. Body weight and sleep structure alterations represented by sleep-onset rapid eye movement (SOREM periods, reported in human and experimental African trypanosomiasis, were monitored. The presence of parasites, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the neuropil was assessed over time in the brain of the same animals by immunocytochemistry and quantitative analyses.Trypanosome DNA was present in the brain at day 6 post-infection and increased more than 15-fold by day 21. Parasites and T-cells were observed in the parenchyma from day 9 onwards. Parasites traversing blood vessel walls were observed in the hypothalamus and other brain regions. Body weight gain was reduced from day 7 onwards. SOREM episodes started in most cases early after infection, with an increase in number and duration after parasite neuroinvasion.These findings demonstrate invasion of the neuropil over time, after an initial interval, by parasites and lymphocytes crossing the blood-brain barrier, and show that neurological features can precede this event. The data thus challenge the current clinical and cerebrospinal fluid criteria of disease staging.

  8. Trypanosoma brucei Invasion and T-Cell Infiltration of the Brain Parenchyma in Experimental Sleeping Sickness: Timing and Correlation with Functional Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperchia, Claudia; Palomba, Maria; Seke Etet, Paul F; Rodgers, Jean; Bradley, Barbara; Montague, Paul; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Kennedy, Peter G E; Bentivoglio, Marina

    2016-12-01

    The timing of Trypanosoma brucei entry into the brain parenchyma to initiate the second, meningoencephalitic stage of human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is currently debated and even parasite invasion of the neuropil has been recently questioned. Furthermore, the relationship between neurological features and disease stage are unclear, despite the important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Using a rat model of chronic Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection we determined the timing of parasite and T-cell neuropil infiltration and its correlation with functional changes. Parasite DNA was detected using trypanosome-specific PCR. Body weight and sleep structure alterations represented by sleep-onset rapid eye movement (SOREM) periods, reported in human and experimental African trypanosomiasis, were monitored. The presence of parasites, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the neuropil was assessed over time in the brain of the same animals by immunocytochemistry and quantitative analyses. Trypanosome DNA was present in the brain at day 6 post-infection and increased more than 15-fold by day 21. Parasites and T-cells were observed in the parenchyma from day 9 onwards. Parasites traversing blood vessel walls were observed in the hypothalamus and other brain regions. Body weight gain was reduced from day 7 onwards. SOREM episodes started in most cases early after infection, with an increase in number and duration after parasite neuroinvasion. These findings demonstrate invasion of the neuropil over time, after an initial interval, by parasites and lymphocytes crossing the blood-brain barrier, and show that neurological features can precede this event. The data thus challenge the current clinical and cerebrospinal fluid criteria of disease staging.

  9. The effect of westward travel across five time zones on sleep and subjective jet-lag ratings in athletes before and during the 2015's World Rowing Junior Championships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölling, Sarah; Treff, Gunnar; Winkert, Kay; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael

    2017-11-01

    This study examined sleep-wake habits and subjective jet-lag ratings of 55 German junior rowers (n = 30 male, 17.8 ± 0.5 years) before and during the World Rowing Junior Championships 2015 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Athletes answered sleep logs every morning, and Liverpool John Moore's University Jet-Lag Questionnaires each evening and morning. Following an 11-h westward flight with 5-h time shift, advanced bedtimes (-1 h, P travel fatigue probably had a major effect on perceptual decrements, sleep during travel and time to recover upon arrival should be emphasised. Coaches and practitioners should consider higher sleep propensity in the early evening by scheduling training sessions and meetings until the late afternoon.

  10. Effects of adenotonsillectomy on plasma inflammatory biomarkers in obese children with obstructive sleep apnea: A community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish-Gozal, L; Gileles-Hillel, A; Alonso-Álvarez, M L; Peris, E; Bhattacharjee, R; Terán-Santos, J; Duran-Cantolla, J; Gozal, D

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) are highly prevalent and frequently overlapping conditions in children that lead to systemic inflammation, the latter being implicated in the various end-organ morbidities associated with these conditions. To examine the effects of adenotonsillectomy (T&A) on plasma levels of inflammatory markers in obese children with polysomnographically diagnosed OSA who were prospectively recruited from the community. Obese children prospectively diagnosed with OSA, underwent T&A and a second overnight polysomnogram (PSG) after surgery. Plasma fasting morning samples obtained after each of the two PSGs were assayed for multiple inflammatory and metabolic markers including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), adiponectin, apelin C, leptin and osteocrin. Out of 122 potential candidates, 100 obese children with OSA completed the study with only one-third exhibiting normalization of their PSG after T&A (that is, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≤1/hour total sleep time). However, overall significant decreases in MCP-1, PAI-1, MMP-9, IL-18 and IL-6, and increases in adropin and osteocrin plasma concentrations occurred after T&A. Several of the T&A-responsive biomarkers exhibited excellent sensitivity and moderate specificity to predict residual OSA (that is, AHI⩾5/hTST). A defined subset of systemic inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers is reversibly altered in the context of OSA among community-based obese children, further reinforcing the concept on the interactive pro-inflammatory effects of sleep disorders such as OSA and obesity contributing to downstream end-organ morbidities.

  11. Sleep duration, subjective sleep need, and sleep habits of 40- to 45-year-olds in the Hordaland Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, Reidun; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Holsten, Fred

    2005-10-01

    To report the distribution of various sleep parameters in a population-based study. Population-based cross-sectional study with self-administered questionnaires. Conducted as part of the Hordaland Health Study '97-'99 in collaboration with the Norwegian National Health Screening Service. 8860 subjects, aged 40 to 45 years, answered the sleep questionnaire part of the study. N/A. Reports on habitual bedtimes, rise times, subjective sleep need, and various sleep characteristics were used in this study. Mean (+/- SD) nocturnal sleep duration during weekdays in men was 6 hours 52 minutes (+/- 55 minutes); in women 7 hours 11 minutes (+/- 57 minutes). Mean subjective sleep need was 7 hours 16 minutes (+/- 52 minutes) in men; 7 hours 45 minutes (+/- 52 minutes) in women. Sleep duration was shorter in shift workers and longer in married subjects and in those living in rural areas. Subjective sleep need was higher in subjects reporting poor subjective health and in subjects living in rural areas. In total, these variables accounted for only around 3% of the variance in sleep duration and sleep need. Ten percent of the men and 12.2% of the women reported frequent insomnia. The wide distribution of sleep duration and subjective sleep need indicate large interindividual variations in these parameters. There were pronounced sex differences in these variables and in most of the sleep characteristics studied. Shift work, urban-rural living, marital status, and education in men were sources of significant, but small, variations in sleep duration.

  12. Time to Work or Time to Play: The Effect of Student Employment on Homework, Housework, Screen Time, and Sleep. Working Paper 423

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that working while in high school reduces the amount of time students spend doing homework. However, an additional hour of work leads to a reduction in homework by much less than one hour, suggesting a reduction in other activities. This paper uses data from the 2003-2007 American Time Use Surveys (ATUS) to investigate the…

  13. Voluntary Sleep Loss in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonk, Marcella; Krueger, James M.; Davis, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Animal sleep deprivation (SDEP), in contrast to human SDEP, is involuntary and involves repeated exposure to aversive stimuli including the inability of the animal to control the waking stimulus. Therefore, we explored intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS), an operant behavior, as a method for voluntary SDEP in rodents. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with electroencephalography/electromyography (EEG/EMG) recording electrodes and a unilateral bipolar electrode into the lateral hypothalamus. Rats were allowed to self-stimulate, or underwent gentle handling-induced SDEP (GH-SDEP), during the first 6 h of the light phase, after which they were allowed to sleep. Other rats performed the 6 h ICSS and 1 w later were subjected to 6 h of noncontingent stimulation (NCS). During NCS the individual stimulation patterns recorded during ICSS were replayed. Results: After GH-SDEP, ICSS, or NCS, time in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep increased. Further, in the 24 h after SDEP, rats recovered all of the REM sleep lost during SDEP, but only 75% to 80% of the NREM sleep lost, regardless of the SDEP method. The magnitude of EEG slow wave responses occurring during NREM sleep also increased after SDEP treatments. However, NREM sleep EEG slow wave activity (SWA) responses were attenuated following ICSS, compared to GH-SDEP and NCS. Conclusions: We conclude that ICSS and NCS can be used to sleep deprive rats. Changes in rebound NREM sleep EEG SWA occurring after ICSS, NCS, and GH-SDEP suggest that nonspecific effects of the SDEP procedure differentially affect recovery sleep phenotypes. Citation: Oonk M, Krueger JM, Davis CJ. Voluntary sleep loss in rats. SLEEP 2016;39(7):1467–1479. PMID:27166236

  14. Sleep-time blood pressure: prognostic value and relevance as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Fernández, José R; Mojón, Artemio

    2013-03-01

    Correlation between blood pressure (BP) level and target organ damage, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and long-term prognosis is greater for ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) than clinical BP measurements. Nevertheless, the latter continue to be the "gold standard" to diagnose hypertension, assess CVD risk, and evaluate hypertension treatment. Independent ABPM studies have found that elevated sleep-time BP is a better predictor of CVD risk than either the awake or 24-h BP mean. A major limitation of all previous ABPM-based prognostic studies is the reliance only upon a single baseline profile from each participant at the time of inclusion, without accounting for potential changes in the level and pattern of ambulatory BP thereafter during follow-up. Accordingly, impact of the alteration over time, i.e., during long-term follow-up, of specific features of the 24-h BP variation on CVD risk has never been properly investigated. We evaluated the comparative prognostic value of (i) clinic and ambulatory BP; (ii) different ABPM-derived characteristics, e.g., asleep or awake BP mean; and (iii) specific changes in ABPM characteristic during follow-up, mainly whether reduced CVD risk is more related to the progressive decrease of asleep or awake BP. We prospectively studied 3344 subjects (1718 men/1626 women), 52.6 ± 14.5 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, during a median follow-up of 5.6 yrs. Those with hypertension at baseline were randomized to ingest all their prescribed hypertension medications upon awakening or ≥1 of them at bedtime. At baseline, BP was measured at 20-min intervals from 07:00 to 23:00 h and at 30-min intervals at night for 48-h, and physical activity was simultaneously monitored every min by wrist actigraphy to accurately derive awake and asleep BP means. Identical assessment was scheduled annually and more frequently (quarterly) if treatment adjustment was required. Data collected either at baseline or the last ABPM evaluation per participant

  15. Level of agreement between methods for measuring moderate to vigorous physical activity and sedentary time in people with obstructive sleep apnea and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igelström, Helena; Emtner, Margareta; Lindberg, Eva; Asenlöf, Pernilla

    2013-01-01

    There is ambiguity about what measures to use to best identify physical activity and sedentary behavior, and agreement between methods for measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior in people with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and obesity has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to examine the level of agreement between an accelerometer and a self-report questionnaire (International Physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]) or a logbook for measuring time spent on moderate to vigorous physical activity and time spent sedentary in people with OSAS and obesity. This prospective study was a psychometric evaluation of agreement between measurement methods. Thirty-nine people who were obese (body mass index: X=36.1 kg/m², SD=4.35) and had moderate to severe OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index of ≥15) were consecutively recruited from a sleep clinic in Sweden. All were treated with continuous positive airway pressure and were waiting for a follow-up sleep evaluation. Agreement between the measurement methods was limited. For physical activity, the mean difference between the accelerometer and the IPAQ was 47 minutes, and the mean difference between the accelerometer and the logbook was 32 minutes. Agreement was limited for sedentary time as well; the mean difference between the accelerometer and the IPAQ was 114 minutes, and the mean difference between the accelerometer and the logbook was 86 minutes. The small sample size may affect the interpretation and generalizability of the results. The results imply that the methods cannot be used interchangeably. A combination of an accelerometer and a daily logbook seems to provide a detailed description of physical activity and sedentary behavior.

  16. Sleep Insufficiency, Sleep Health Problems and Performance in High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Ming

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey on sleep schedule, sleep health, school performance and school start times was conducted in 1,941 adolescents. A high level of early and circadian-disadvantaged sleep/wake schedules during weekdays was observed. Shorter sleep duration on weekdays was reported, especially in upper classmen. Complaints of inadequate sleep and sleepiness during weekdays, alarm clock use, and napping were prevalent. Night awakening and prolonged sleep onset were common and associated with poor school performance. Students with a sleep length of less than 7 hours on both weekdays and weekends exhibited poorer performance, while those who made up this sleep loss on weekends did not. The total number of poor sleep factors in an individual also correlated with poor school performance. Earlier school start times were associated with a perception of poor sleep quality, shorter sleep duration and more sleep health problems. We conclude that sleep inadequacies and sleep health problems were prevalent in this population, especially in those who started school earlier in the morning, and that these poor sleep factors were associated with school performance.

  17. Sleep During Pregnancy: The nuMoM2b Pregnancy and Sleep Duration and Continuity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kathryn J; Facco, Francesca L; Grobman, William A; Parker, Corette B; Herbas, Marcos; Hunter, Shannon; Silver, Robert M; Basner, Robert C; Saade, George R; Pien, Grace W; Manchanda, Shalini; Louis, Judette M; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Lang; Chung, Judith H; Wing, Deborah A; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Haas, David M; Iams, Jay; Parry, Samuel; Zee, Phyllis C

    2017-05-01

    To characterize sleep duration, timing and continuity measures in pregnancy and their association with key demographic variables. Multisite prospective cohort study. Women enrolled in the nuMoM2b study (nulliparous women with a singleton gestation) were recruited at the second study visit (16-21 weeks of gestation) to participate in the Sleep Duration and Continuity substudy. Women sleep log for 7 consecutive days. Time in bed, sleep duration, fragmentation index, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep midpoint were averaged across valid primary sleep periods for each participant. Valid data were available from 782 women with mean age of 27.3 (5.5) years. Median sleep duration was 7.4 hours. Approximately 27.9% of women had a sleep duration of sleep duration of >9 hours. In multivariable models including age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, insurance status, and recent smoking history, sleep duration was significantly associated with race/ethnicity and insurance status, while time in bed was only associated with insurance status. Sleep continuity measures and sleep midpoint were significantly associated with all covariates in the model, with the exception of age for fragmentation index and smoking for wake after sleep onset. Our results demonstrate the relationship between sleep and important demographic characteristics during pregnancy. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven D. Brass

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual’s risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.

  19. Obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Matthew L; Brass, Steven D

    2011-11-29

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) affects millions of Americans and is estimated to be as prevalent as asthma and diabetes. Given the fact that obesity is a major risk factor for OSA, and given the current global rise in obesity, the prevalence of OSA will increase in the future. Individuals with sleep apnea are often unaware of their sleep disorder. It is usually first recognized as a problem by family members who witness the apneic episodes or is suspected by their primary care doctor because of the individual's risk factors and symptoms. The vast majority remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite the fact that this serious disorder can have significant consequences. Individuals with untreated OSA can stop breathing hundreds of times a night during their sleep. These apneic events can lead to fragmented sleep that is of poor quality, as the brain arouses briefly in order for the body to resume breathing. Untreated, sleep apnea can have dire health consequences and can increase the risk of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, and heart failure. OSA management has also become important in a number of comorbid neurological conditions, including epilepsy, stroke, multiple sclerosis, and headache. Diagnosis typically involves use of screening questionnaires, physical exam, and an overnight polysomnography or a portable home study. Treatment options include changes in lifestyle, positive airway pressure, surgery, and dental appliances.

  20. Obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David P; Younes, Magdy K

    2012-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder characterized by repetitive collapse of the pharyngeal airway during sleep. Control of pharyngeal patency is a complex process relating primarily to basic anatomy and the activity of many pharyngeal dilator muscles. The control of these muscles is regulated by a number of processes including respiratory drive, negative pressure reflexes, and state (sleep) effects. In general, patients with OSA have an anatomically small airway the patency of which is maintained during wakefulness by reflex-driven augmented dilator muscle activation. At sleep onset, muscle activity falls, thereby compromising the upper airway. However, recent data suggest that the mechanism of OSA differs substantially among patients, with variable contributions from several physiologic characteristics including, among others: level of upper airway dilator muscle activation required to open the airway, increase in chemical drive required to recruit the pharyngeal muscles, chemical control loop gain, and arousal threshold. Thus, the cause of sleep apnea likely varies substantially between patients. Other physiologic mechanisms likely contributing to OSA pathogenesis include falling lung volume during sleep, shifts in blood volume from peripheral tissues to the neck, and airway edema. Apnea severity may progress over time, likely due to weight gain, muscle/nerve injury, aging effects on airway anatomy/collapsibility, and changes in ventilatory control stability. © 2012 American Physiological Society

  1. Assessment of sleep quality in powernapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooravand Takht Sabzy, Bashaer; Thomsen, Carsten E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the Sleep Quality (SQ) in powernapping. The contributed factors for SQ assessment are time of Sleep Onset (SO), Sleep Length (SL), Sleep Depth (SD), and detection of sleep events (K-complex (KC) and Sleep Spindle (SS)). Data from daytime nap for 10 subjects, 2...... days each, including EEG and ECG were recorded. The SD and sleep events were analyzed by applying spectral analysis. The SO time was detected by a combination of signal spectral analysis, Slow Rolling Eye Movement (SREM) detection, Heart Rate Variability (HRV) analysis and EEG segmentation using both...... Autocorrelation Function (ACF), and Crosscorrelation Function (CCF) methods. The EEG derivation FP1-FP2 filtered in a narrow band and used as an alternative to EOG for SREM detection. The ACF and CCF segmentation methods were also applied for detection of sleep events. The ACF method detects segment boundaries...

  2. Sleep and Women’s Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nowakowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sex differences in sleep begin at a very early age and women report poorer sleep quality and have higher risk for insomnia than do men. Sleep may be affected by variation in reproductive hormones, stress, depression, aging, life/role transitions, and other factors. The menstrual cycle is associated with changes in circadian rhythms and sleep architecture. Menstruating women (even without significant menstrual-related complaints often report poorer sleep quality and greater sleep disturbance during the premenstrual week compared to other times of her menstrual cycle. In addition to these sleep disturbances, women with severe premenstrual syndrome often report more disturbing dreams, sleepiness, fatigue, decreased alertness and concentration during the premenstrual phase. Sleep disturbances are also commonly reported during pregnancy and increase in frequency and duration as the pregnancy progresses. The precipitous decline in hormones and unpredictable sleep patterns of the newborn contribute to and/or exacerbate poor sleep and daytime sleepiness during the early postpartum period. Insomnia is also among the most common health complaints that are reported by perimenopausal women. Women are particularly vulnerable to developing insomnia disorder during these times of reproductive hormonal change. In this review, we present a discussion on the most relevant and recent publications on sleep across the woman’s lifespan, including changes in sleep related to menstruation, pregnancy, postpartum, and the menopausal transition. Treatment for sleep disturbances and insomnia disorder and special considerations for treating women will also be discussed.

  3. Sleep-monitoring, experiment M133. [electronic recording system for automatic analysis of human sleep patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Salamy, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab sleep-monitoring experiment simulated the timelines and environment expected during a 56-day Skylab mission. Two crewmembers utilized the data acquisition and analysis hardware, and their sleep characteristics were studied in an online fashion during a number of all night recording sessions. Comparison of the results of online automatic analysis with those of postmission visual data analysis was favorable, confirming the feasibility of obtaining reliable objective information concerning sleep characteristics during the Skylab missions. One crewmember exhibited definite changes in certain sleep characteristics (e.g., increased sleep latency, increased time Awake during first third of night, and decreased total sleep time) during the mission.

  4. Altered sleep composition after traumatic brain injury does not affect declarative sleep-dependent memory consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna eMantua

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI often report sleep disturbances, which may be caused by changes in sleep architecture or reduced sleep quality (greater time awake after sleep onset, poorer sleep efficiency, and sleep stage proportion alterations. Sleep is beneficial for memory formation, and herein we examine whether altered sleep physiology following TBI has deleterious effects on sleep-dependent declarative memory consolidation. Participants learned a list of word pairs in the morning or evening, and recall was assessed 12-hrs later, following an interval awake or with overnight sleep. Young adult participants (18-22 yrs were assigned to one of four experimental groups: TBI Sleep (n=14, TBI Wake (n=12, non-TBI Sleep (n=15, non-TBI Wake (n=15. Each TBI participant was >1 yr post-injury. Sleep physiology was measured with polysomnography. Memory consolidation was assessed by comparing change in word-pair recall over 12-hr intersession intervals. The TBI group spent a significantly greater proportion of the night in SWS than the non-TBI group at the expense of NREM1. The TBI group also had marginally lower EEG delta power during SWS in the central region. Intersession changes in recall were greater for intervals with sleep than without sleep in both groups. However, despite abnormal sleep stage proportions for individuals with a TBI history, there was no difference in the intersession change in recall following sleep for the TBI and non-TBI groups. In both Sleep groups combined, there was a positive correlation between Intersession Change and the proportion of the night in NREM2 + SWS. Overall, sleep composition is altered following TBI but such deficits do not yield insufficiencies in sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

  5. Medicines for sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzodiazepines; Sedatives; Hypnotics; Sleeping pills; Insomnia - medicines; Sleep disorder - medicines ... are commonly used to treat allergies. While these sleep aids are not addictive, your body becomes used ...

  6. Determinants of perceived sleep quality in normal sleepers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelema, M S; Regis, M; Haakma, R; van den Heuvel, E R; Markopoulos, P; Overeem, S

    2017-09-20

    This study aimed to establish the determinants of perceived sleep quality over a longer period of time, taking into account the separate contributions of actigraphy-based sleep measures and self-reported sleep indices. Fifty participants (52 ± 6.6 years; 27 females) completed two consecutive weeks of home monitoring, during which they kept a sleep-wake diary while their sleep was monitored using a wrist-worn actigraph. The diary included questions on perceived sleep quality, sleep-wake information, and additional factors such as well-being and stress. The data were analyzed using multilevel models to compare a model that included only actigraphy-based sleep measures (model Acti) to a model that included only self-reported sleep measures to explain perceived sleep quality (model Self). In addition, a model based on the self-reported sleep measures and extended with nonsleep-related factors was analyzed to find the most significant determinants of perceived sleep quality (model Extended). Self-reported sleep measures (model Self) explained 61% of the total variance, while actigraphy-based sleep measures (model Acti) only accounted for 41% of the perceived sleep quality. The main predictors in the self-reported model were number of awakenings during the night, sleep onset latency, and wake time after sleep onset. In the extended model, the number of awakenings during the night and total sleep time of the previous night were the strongest determinants of perceived sleep quality, with 64% of the variance explained. In our cohort, perceived sleep quality was mainly determined by self-reported sleep measures and less by actigraphy-based sleep indices. These data further stress the importance of taking multiple nights into account when trying to understand perceived sleep quality.

  7. The relationship between hours of sleep, screen time and frequency of food and drink consumption in Spain in the 2011 and 2013 ALADINO: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Villar-Villalba, Carmen; López Sobaler, Ana María; Dal Re Saavedra, María Ángeles; Aparicio, Aránzazu; Santos Sanz, Sara; Robledo de Dios, Teresa; Castrodeza-Sanz, José Javier; Ortega Anta, Rosa María

    2017-01-06

    The frequency of intake of food and beverages depends on a number of ill-defined behaviour patterns. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of screen time and sleep duration on food consumption frequency, and to describe frequencies and types of food consumption according to BMI category and parents' level of education. We studied 6287 and 2806 children drawn from the 2011 and 2013 cross-sectional ALADINO studies respectively. Data were collected on number of hours of sleep, screen time, and weekly frequency of consumption of 17 food groups. Weight status was measured, and information was also collected on parents' educational level. Average food consumption frequencies were calculated by reference to hours of sleep and hours of screen time, and were defined as ≥4 times or education. High levels of screen time were associated with a greater frequency of consumption of energy-dense, micronutrient-poor products and a lower frequency of consumption of fruit and vegetables. Sleeping a sufficient number of hours was associated with a higher consumption of fruit and vegetables. The results for 2011 were concordant with those for 2013. If efforts to ensure healthier eating habits among children are to be at all successful, they should focus on promoting a sufficient amount of sleep for children, limiting the time they spend watching television and/or playing with computers or video games, and educating parents accordingly.

  8. Sleep deprivation impairs object recognition in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palchykova, S; Winsky-Sommerer, R; Meerlo, P; Durr, R; Tobler, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Many studies in animals and humans suggest that sleep facilitates learning, memory consolidation, and retrieval. Moreover, sleep deprivation (SD) incurred after learning, impaired memory in humans, mice, rats, and hamsters. We investigated the importance of sleep and its timing in in object

  9. Meeting Teen Sleep Needs Creatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Amy R.; Carskadon, Mary A.

    2005-01-01

    Research on the sleep needs of adolescents and the influence of sleep on learning and behavior have captured the interest of school districts nationwide and in other countries as well. As a result, school officials are being urged to acknowledge the evidence and to adjust school schedules accordingly (e.g., to delay high school start times). The…

  10. Sleep and Media Screens in Pediatric Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Cerca

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sleep plays an essential role in children’s physical, emotional and behavioral health. Understanding the sleep architecture, sleep duration requirements as well as the interference of media screens activity with sleep across pediatric ages is essential in order to provide an adequate anticipatory guidance for the children’s parents. Objectives: To review current knowledge on sleep physiology with a particular focus in sleep duration requirements across pediatric ages and on the influence of media screen activity on children and adolescent sleep. Methods: Revision of meta-analysis research studies, systematic reviews, standards of clinical orientation and original research published in Portuguese or English between 01/2000 and 08/2017 on Pubmed / Medline using the following MeSH terms: sleep; sleep requirements; sleep physiology; media screen; child and neurodevelopment. Development: Sleep architecture and sleep duration requirements undergo constant change with age. Despite interindividual differences, optimal sleep duration intervals as well as nap times, which constitute an essential component of children’s sleep, should be followed. Along children’s age progression, other parameters need to be considered in order to maintain optimal sleep quality. The restriction of media screen use at bedtime assumes special relevance, as there is growing evidence pointing towards an association between shortened sleep time and the misuse of screen devices. Adolescents represent a particularly vulnerable population to media screens effects. Importantly, screen overuse and media content may be responsible for higher propensity for obesity, risky behavior, depression, impaired academic performance, decreased social skills and attention difficulties. Conclusion: Anticipatory guidance for parents addressing sleep optimization and media exposure should be routinely provided as a part of health follow-up. Physicians should be capacitated to

  11. Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic ...

  12. Feasibility and Emotional Impact of Experimentally Extending Sleep in Short-Sleeping Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyk, Tori R; Zhang, Nanhua; Catlin, Perry A; Cornist, Kaylin; McAlister, Shealan; Whitacre, Catharine; Beebe, Dean W

    2017-09-01

    Published experimental sleep manipulation protocols for adolescents have been limited to the summer, limiting causal conclusions about how short sleep affects them on school nights, when they are most likely to restrict their sleep. This study assesses the feasibility and emotional impact of a school-night sleep manipulation protocol to test the effects of lengthening sleep in habitually short-sleeping adolescents. High school students aged 14-18 years who habitually slept 5-7 hours on school nights participated in a 5-week experimental sleep manipulation protocol. Participants completed a baseline week followed in randomized counterbalanced order by two experimental conditions lasting 2 weeks each: prescribed habitual sleep (HAB; sleep time set to match baseline) and sleep extension (EXT; 1.5-hour increase in time in bed from HAB). All sleep was obtained at home, monitored with actigraphy. Data on adherence, protocol acceptability, mood and behavior were collected at the end of each condition. Seventy-six adolescents enrolled in the study, with 54 retained through all 5 weeks. Compared to HAB, during EXT, participants averaged an additional 72.6 minutes/night of sleep (p sleep manipulation protocol can be feasibly implemented which directly tests the potential protective effects of lengthening sleep. Many short-sleeping adolescents would benefit emotionally from sleeping longer, supporting public health efforts to promote adolescent sleep on school nights. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Estimating adolescent sleep need using dose-response modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Weber, Nathan; Reynolds, Chelsea; Coussens, Scott; Carskadon, Mary A

    2018-04-01

    This study will (1) estimate the nightly sleep need of human adolescents, (2) determine the time course and severity of sleep-related deficits when sleep is reduced below this optimal quantity, and (3) determine whether sleep restriction perturbs the circadian system as well as the sleep homeostat. Thirty-four adolescents aged 15 to 17 years spent 10 days and nine nights in the sleep laboratory. Between two baseline nights and two recovery nights with 10 hours' time in bed (TIB) per night, participants experienced either severe sleep restriction (5-hour TIB), moderate sleep restriction (7.5-hour TIB), or no sleep restriction (10-hour TIB) for five nights. A 10-minute psychomotor vigilance task (PVT; lapse = response after 500 ms) and the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale were administered every 3 hours during wake. Salivary dim-light melatonin onset was calculated at baseline and after four nights of each sleep dose to estimate circadian phase. Dose-dependent deficits to sleep duration, circadian phase timing, lapses of attention, and subjective sleepiness occurred. Less TIB resulted in less sleep, more lapses of attention, greater subjective sleepiness, and larger circadian phase delays. Sleep need estimated from 10-hour TIB sleep opportunities was approximately 9 hours, while modeling PVT lapse data suggested that 9.35 hours of sleep is needed to maintain optimal sustained attention performance. Sleep restriction perturbs homeostatic and circadian systems, leading to dose-dependent deficits to sustained attention and sleepiness. Adolescents require more sleep for optimal functioning than typically obtained.

  14. Sleep, Torpor and Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchykova, S.; Tobler, I.

    It is now well known that daily torpor induces a sleep deficit. Djungarian hamsters emerging from this hypometabolic state spend most of the time in sleep. This sleep is characterized by high initial values of EEG slow-wave activity (SWA) that monotonically decline during recovery sleep. These features resemble the changes seen in numerous species during recovery after prolonged wakefulness or sleep deprivation (SD). When hamsters are totally or partially sleep deprived immediately after emerging from torpor, an additional increase in SWA can be induced. It has been therefore postulated, that these slow- waves are homeostatically regulated, as predicted by the two-process model of sleep regulation, and that during daily torpor a sleep deficit is accumulated as it is during prolonged waking. The predominance of SWA in the frontal EEG observed both after SD and daily torpor provides further evidence for the similarity of these conditions. It has been shown in several animal and human studies that sleep can enhance memory consolidation, and that SD leads to memory impairment. Preliminary data obtained in the Djungarian hamster showed that both SD and daily torpor result in object recognition deficits. Thus, animals subjected to SD immediately after learning, or if they underwent an episode of daily torpor between learning and retention, displayed impaired recognition memory for complex object scenes. The investigation of daily torpor can reveal mechanisms that could have important implications for hypometabolic state induction in other mammalian species, including humans.

  15. Impact of Sleep Telemedicine Protocol in Management of Sleep Apnea: A 5-Year VA Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza M; Antonescu-Turcu, Andrea; Ratarasarn, Kavita

    2016-05-01

    There is growing evidence that demonstrates an important role for telemedicine technologies in enhancing healthcare delivery. A comprehensive sleep telemedicine protocol was implemented at the Veterans Administration Medical Center (VAMC), Milwaukee, WI, in 2008 in an effort to improve access to sleep specialty care. The telemedicine protocol relied heavily on sleep specialist interventions based on chart review (electronic consult [e-consult]). This was done in response to long wait time for sleep clinic visits as well as delayed sleep study appointments. Since 2008 all consults are screened by sleep service to determine the next step in intervention. Based on chart review, the following steps are undertaken: (1) eligibility for portable versus in-lab sleep study is determined, and a sleep study order is placed accordingly, (2) positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy is prescribed for confirmed sleep apnea, and (3) need for in-person evaluation in the sleep clinic is determined, and the visit is scheduled. This study summarizes the 5-year trend in various aspects of access to sleep care after implementation of sleep telemedicine protocol at the Milwaukee VAMC. This is a retrospective system efficiency study. The electronic medical record was interrogated 5 years after starting the sleep telemedicine protocol to study annual trends in the following outcomes: (1) interval between sleep consult and prescription of PAP equipment, (2) total sleep consults, and (3) sleep clinic wait time. Two part-time sleep physicians provided sleep-related care at the Milwaukee VAMC between 2008 and 2012. During this period, the interval between sleep consult and PAP prescription decreased from ≥60 days to ≤7 days. This occurred in spite of an increase in total sleep consults and sleep studies. There was also a significant increase in data downloads, indicating overall improved follow-up. There was no change in clinic wait time of ≥60 days. Implementation of a sleep telemedicine

  16. The effect of a change in sleep-wakefulness timing, bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskra-Golec, I; Fafrowicz, M; Marek, T; Costa, G; Folkard, S; Foret, J; Kundi, M; Smith, L

    2001-12-01

    Experiments consisting of baseline, bright light and physical exercise studies were carried out to compare the effect of a 9-hour delay in sleep-wakefulness timing, and the effects of bright light and physical exercise interventions on 24-hour patterns of performance, mood and body temperature were examined. Each study comprised a 24-hour constant routine at the beginning followed by 3 night shifts and 24-hour constant routine at the end. Performance on tasks differing in cognitive load, mood and body temperature was measured during each constant routine and the interventions were applied during the night shifts. The 24-hour pattern of alertness and performance on the tasks with low cognitive load in post-treatment conditions followed the change in sleep-wakefulness timing while more cognitively loaded tasks tended to show a reverse trend when compared to pre-treatment conditions. There was a phase delay around 4 hours in circadian rhythms of body temperature in post-treatment conditions.

  17. Leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, sleep, and cardiometabolic risk factors at baseline in the PREDIMED-PLUS intervention trial: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rosique-Esteban

    Full Text Available Limited data exists on the interrelationships between physical activity (PA, sedentary behaviors and sleep concerning cardiometabolic risk factors in aged adults at high cardiovascular disease risk. Our aim was to examine independent and joint associations between time spent in leisure-time PA, sedentary behaviors and sleep on the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D and components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS in Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on baseline data from 5776 Spanish adults (aged 55-75y in men; 60-75y in women with overweight/obesity and MetS, from October 2013 to October 2016, in the PREDIMED-PLUS trial. Employing multivariable-adjusted Cox regression with robust variance and constant time (given the cross-sectional design, higher prevalence of obesity, T2D and abdominal obesity as component of the MetS were associated with greater time in TV-viewing (Relative Risk, RR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.01, 1.03; RR:1.04, 95%CI: 1.02, 1.06 and RR: 1.01 95%CI: 1.00, 1.02; respectively, all P < .01. Conversely, greater time in moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA was associated with lower prevalence of obesity, T2D, abdominal obesity and low HDL-cholesterol (RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.93, 0.97; RR: 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89, 0.99; RR: 0.97, 95%CI: 0.96, 0.98; and RR: 0.95, 95%CI: 0.91, 0.99, respectively, all P < .05. For these outcomes, theoretically substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day TV-viewing was also significantly associated with lower prevalence (RR 0.91 to 0.97, all P < .05. Similar lower RR in these outcomes was observed when substituting 1-h/day of MVPA for 1-h/day of sleeping. Longer time watching TV and not meeting MVPA recommendations were jointly associated with higher RR of the prevalence of obesity and T2D. We concluded that, in senior individuals at high cardiovascular risk, greater time spent on MVPA and fewer on sedentary behaviors was inversely associated with prevalence of obesity

  18. Time to talk about work-hour impact on anesthesiologists: The effects of sleep deprivation on Profile of Mood States and cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Haleh; Bissonnette, Bruno; Tumin, Dmitry; Thung, Arlyne; Rice, Julie; Barry, N'Diris; Tobias, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    A physician's fatigue raises significant concerns regarding personal and patient safety. Effects of sleep deprivation on clinical performance and the quality of patient care are major considerations of today's health care environment. To evaluate the impact of partial sleep deprivation after a 17-h overnight call (3 pm-7 am) on the mood status and cognitive skills of anesthesiologists in an academic clinical hospital setting, as compared to these parameters during regular working hours. Taking circadian rhythm into account, the following measures were assessed in 21 pediatric anesthesiologists at two time points over the course of the study; (i) between 7 and 8 am on a regular non call day, and (ii) between 7 and 8 am after a 17-h in-house call (3 pm-7 am). Six mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States. A Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) score was obtained as the sum of all mood scores minus vigor. The total score provides a global estimate of affective state. Simple cognitive tests were similarly administered to assess cognitive skills. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to compare data between regular and post call days. A P sleep deprivation affects the total mood status of anesthesiologists and impacts their cognitive skills. These findings are particularly relevant in a context of increased work expectation, particularly on clinical performance in our modern medical system. Such observations suggest that there may be changes that impact the safety of our patients and the quality of health care that is provided. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. REM Sleep Phase Preference in the Crepuscular Octodon degus Assessed by Selective REM Sleep Deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo-Garcés, Adrián; Hernández, Felipe; Palacios, Adrian G.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: To determine rapid eye movement (REM) sleep phase preference in a crepuscular mammal (Octodon degus) by challenging the specific REM sleep homeostatic response during the diurnal and nocturnal anticrepuscular rest phases. Design: We have investigated REM sleep rebound, recovery, and documented REM sleep propensity measures during and after diurnal and nocturnal selective REM sleep deprivations. Subjects: Nine male wild-captured O. degus prepared for polysomnographic recordings Interventions: Animals were recorded during four consecutive baseline and two separate diurnal or nocturnal deprivation days, under a 12:12 light-dark schedule. Three-h selective REM sleep deprivations were performed, starting at midday (zeitgeber time 6) or midnight (zeitgeber time 18). Measurements and Results: Diurnal and nocturnal REM sleep deprivations provoked equivalent amounts of REM sleep debt, but a consistent REM sleep rebound was found only after nocturnal deprivation. The nocturnal rebound was characterized by a complete recovery of REM sleep associated with an augment in REM/total sleep time ratio and enhancement in REM sleep episode consolidation. Conclusions: Our results support the notion that the circadian system actively promotes REM sleep. We propose that the sleep-wake cycle of O. degus is modulated by a chorus of circadian oscillators with a bimodal crepuscular modulation of arousal and a unimodal promotion of nocturnal REM sleep. Citation: Ocampo-Garcés A; Hernández F; Palacios AG. REM sleep phase preference in the crepuscular Octodon degus assessed by selective REM sleep deprivation. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1247-1256. PMID:23904685

  20. Sleep in childhood and adolescence: age-specific sleep characteristics, common sleep disturbances and associated difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gregory, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Sleep changes throughout the lifespan, with particularly salient alterations occurring during the first few years of life, as well as during the transition from childhood to adolescence. Such changes are partly the result of brain maturation; complex changes in the organisation of the circadian system; as well as changes in daily routine, environmental demands and responsibilities. Despite the automaticity of sleep, given that it is governed by a host of complex mechanisms, there are times when sleep becomes disturbed. Sleep disturbances in childhood are common and may stem from behavioural difficulties or abnormalities in physiological processes-and, in some cases manifest into diagnosable sleep disorders. As well as occurring exclusively, childhood sleep disturbances often co-occur with other difficulties. The purpose of this chapter is to outline the neurobiology of typical sleep/wake processes, and describe changes in sleep physiology and architecture from birth to adulthood. Furthermore, common childhood sleep disorders are described as are their associations with other traits, including all of the syndromes presented in this handbook: ASDs, ADHD, schizophrenia and emotional/behavioural difficulties. Throughout, we attempt to explain possible mechanisms underlying these disorders and their associations.

  1. Healthy Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality sleep, ask yourself Do you have trouble getting up in the morning? Do you have trouble focusing during the day? Do you doze off during the day? If you answered yes to these three questions, you should work on ...

  2. The role of sleep and sleep deprivation in consolidating fear memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, M M; Rihm, J S; Salari, N; Born, J; Kalisch, R; Pape, H C; Marshall, L; Büchel, C

    2013-07-15

    Sleep, in particular REM sleep, has been shown to improve the consolidation of emotional memories. Here, we investigated the role of sleep and sleep deprivation on the consolidation of fear memories and underlying neuronal mechanisms. We employed a Pavlovian fear conditioning paradigm either followed by a night of polysomnographically monitored sleep, or wakefulness in forty healthy participants. Recall of learned fear was better after sleep, as indicated by stronger explicitly perceived anxiety and autonomous nervous responses. These effects were positively correlated with the preceding time spent in REM sleep and paralleled by activation of the basolateral amygdala. These findings suggest REM sleep-associated consolidation of fear memory in the human amygdala. In view of the critical participation of fear learning mechanisms in the etiology of anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder, deprivation of REM sleep after exposure to distressing events is an interesting target for further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pediatric sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - pediatric; Apnea - pediatric sleep apnea syndrome; Sleep-disordered breathing - pediatric ... Untreated pediatric sleep apnea may lead to: High blood pressure Heart or lung problems Slow growth and development

  4. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... falling asleep; Sleep hygiene References American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Insomnia. Updated March 4, 2015. SleepEducation.org. sleepeducation. ... T, Dement WC, eds. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 86. ...

  5. Obstructive Sleep Apnoea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cheyne-Stokes respiration), obstructive sleep apnoea and mixed or complex sleep apnoea.1. Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is the most common of these three disorders and is defined as airway obstruction during sleep, accompanied by at least ...

  6. Snoring and Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Snoring and Sleep Apnea Snoring and Sleep Apnea Patient Health Information ... newsroom@entnet.org . Insight into sleeping disorders and sleep apnea Forty-five percent of normal adults snore ...

  7. The combined impact of diet, physical activity, sleep and screen time on academic achievement: a prospective study of elementary school students in Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Erin L; Ekwaru, John P; Gleddie, Douglas; Storey, Kate E; Asbridge, Mark; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-03-09

    Few studies have investigated the independent associations of lifestyle behaviors (diet, physical activity, sleep, and screen time) and body weight status with academic achievement. Even fewer have investigated the combined effect of these behaviors on academic achievement. We hypothesize that the combined effect of these behaviors will have a higher impact on academic achievement than any behavior alone, or that of body weight status. In 2011, 4253 grade 5 (10-11 years old) students and their parents were surveyed about the child's diet, physical activity, screen time and sleep. Students' heights and weights were measured by research assistants. Academic achievement was measured using provincial standardized exams in mathematics, reading and writing, and was expressed as 'meeting' or 'not meeting' expectations as per standardized criterion. Exams were written 1 year following the measurement of lifestyle behaviors. Lifestyle behaviors were measured with self- and parental proxy reports and expressed as meeting recommendations (yes/no) for each behavior. Mixed effects logistic regression models adjusting for demographic confounders and caloric intake were used to determine the independent and combined associations. Meeting dietary recommendations was associated with increased likelihood of meeting academic expectations for each of math, reading and writing. Meeting recommendations for screen time and sleep was associated with meeting expectations for writing. For all three subjects, meeting additional lifestyle behavior recommendations was associated with higher likelihood of meeting expectations. Children who met 7-9 lifestyle behavior recommendations had greater than three-times the odds of meeting expectations for reading compared to those who met 0-3 recommendations (OR: 3.07, 95% CI: 2.09, 4.51), and 1.47 and 2.77 times the odds of meeting expectations in mathematics and writing, respectively. Body weight status was not associated with academic achievement

  8. Secondhand Smoke Exposure, Restless Sleep, and Sleep Duration in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Schwartz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine whether secondhand smoke (SHS exposure is associated with restless sleep and/or nighttime sleep duration among adolescents. Methods. Data were analyzed from 1,592 adolescents who completed an internet-delivered survey as part of the British Columbia Adolescent Substance Use Survey cohort study. Ordinal logistic and linear regression models were used to examine associations between frequency of SHS exposure in the past month and frequency of restless sleep and nighttime sleep duration, respectively. Results. SHS exposure was significantly positively associated with restless sleep and significantly negatively associated with sleep duration. In fully adjusted models, compared with students who reported never being exposed to SHS in the past month, students who reported a low, medium, or high frequency of SHS exposure were 1.53, 1.76, and 2.51 times as likely, respectively, to report more frequent restless sleep (OR=1.53, 95% CI 1.08–2.16; OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.22–2.53; OR=2.51, 95% CI 1.59–3.98. With regard to sleep duration, as frequency of SHS exposure increased by one category, nighttime sleep duration during the week and weekend decreased by 4 minutes (B=-0.06, 95% CI=-0.01–-0.11 and 6 minutes (B=-0.09, 95% CI=-0.03–-0.14, respectively. Conclusions. This study suggests that frequency of SHS exposure has a significant dose-response relationship with restless sleep and sleep duration in adolescents.

  9. Automatic detection of slow-wave sleep and REM-sleep stages using polysomnographic ECG signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khemiri, S.; Aloui, K.; Naceur, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    We describe in this paper a new approach of classifying the different sleep stages only by focusing on the polysomnographic ECG signals. We show the pre-processing technique of the ECG signals. At the same time the identifcation and elimination of the different types of artifacts which contain the signal and its reconstruction are shown. The automatic classification of the slow-deep sleep and the rapid eye movement sleep called in this work REM-sleep consists in extracting physiological indicators that characterize these two sleep stages through the polysomnographic ECG signal. In other words, this classification is based on the analysis of the cardiac rhythm during a night's sleep.

  10. Sleep in Othello

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep. Citation: Dimsdale JE. Sleep in Othello. J Clin Sleep Med 2009;5(3):280-281. PMID:19960651

  11. Sleep Tips: 7 Steps to Better Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn every night. Consider simple tips for better sleep, from setting a sleep schedule to including physical activity in your daily ... factors that can interfere with a good night's sleep — from work stress and family responsibilities to unexpected ...

  12. Sleep Deprivation in Young and Healthy Subjects Is More Sensitively Identified by Higher Frequencies of Electrodermal Activity than by Skin Conductance Level Evaluated in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed multiple measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS based on electrodermal activity (EDA and heart rate variability (HRV for young healthy subjects undergoing 24-h sleep deprivation. In this study, we have utilized the error awareness test (EAT every 2 h (13 runs total, to evaluate the deterioration of performance. EAT consists of trials where the subject is presented words representing colors. Subjects are instructed to press a button (“Go” trials or withhold the response if the word presented and the color of the word mismatch (“Stroop No-Go” trial, or the screen is repeated (“Repeat No-Go” trials. We measured subjects' (N = 10 reaction time to the “Go” trials, and accuracy to the “Stroop No-Go” and “Repeat No-Go” trials. Simultaneously, changes in EDA and HRV indices were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between reactiveness and vigilance measures and indices of sympathetic control based on HRV were analyzed. We found the performance improved to a stable level from 6 through 16 h of deprivation, with a subsequently sustained impairment after 18 h. Indices of higher frequencies of EDA related more to vigilance measures, whereas lower frequencies index (skin conductance leve, SCL measured the reactiveness of the subject. We conclude that indices of EDA, including those of the higher frequencies, termed TVSymp, EDASymp, and NSSCRs, provide information to better understand the effect of sleep deprivation on subjects' autonomic response and performance.

  13. Sleep in Othello

    OpenAIRE

    Dimsdale, Joel E.

    2009-01-01

    Some of our best descriptions of sleep disorders come from literature. While Shakespeare is well known for his references to insomnia and sleep walking, his works also demonstrate a keen awareness of many other sleep disorders. This paper examines sleep themes in Shakespeare's play Othello. The play indicates Shakespeare's astute eye for sleep deprivation, sexual parasomnias, and effects of stress and drugs on sleep.

  14. Prioritizing sleep for healthy work schedules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work). Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules. PMID:22738292

  15. Prioritizing sleep for healthy work schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Masaya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work. Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules.

  16. Prioritizing sleep for healthy work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masaya

    2012-03-13

    Good sleep is advantageous to the quality of life. Sleep-related benefits are particularly helpful for the working class, since poor or inadequate amounts of sleep degrade work productivity and overall health. This review paper explores the essential role of sleep in healthy work schedules and primarily focuses on the timing of sleep in relation to the work period (that is, before, during and after work). Data from laboratory, field and modeling studies indicate that consistent amounts of sleep prior to work are fundamental to improved performance and alertness in the workplace. In addition, planned naps taken during work maintain appropriate levels of waking function for both daytime and night-time work. Clearly, sufficient sleep after work is vital in promoting recovery from fatigue. Recent data also suggest that the time interval between shifts should be adjusted according to the biological timing of sleep. Although sleep is more likely to be replaced by job and other activities in the real life, research shows that it is worthwhile to revise the work schedules in order to optimize sleep before, sometime during and after the work period. Therefore, we suggest establishing work-sleep balance, similar to work-life balance, as a principle for designing and improving work schedules.

  17. The Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire (CSRQ): a cross-cultural comparison and validation in Dutch and Australian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald, Julia F.; Short, Michelle A.; Gradisar, Michael; Oort, Frans J.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Although adolescents often experience insufficient and/or poor sleep, sleep variables such as total sleep time do not account for individuals' sleep need and sleep debt and may therefore be an inadequate representation of adolescents' sleep problems and its daytime consequences. This problem can be

  18. The Chronic Sleep Reduction Questionnaire (CSRQ): a cross-cultural comparison and validation in Dutch and Australian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald, J.F.; Short, M.A.; Gradisar, M.; Oort, F.J.; Meijer, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Although adolescents often experience insufficient and/or poor sleep, sleep variables such as total sleep time do not account for individuals’ sleep need and sleep debt and may therefore be an inadequate representation of adolescents’ sleep problems and its daytime consequences. This problem can be

  19. Effects of long work hours and poor sleep characteristics on workplace injury among full-time male employees of small- and medium-scale businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long work hours and poor sleep characteristics on workplace injury. A total of 1891 male employees, aged 18-79 years (mean 45 years), in 296 small- and medium-scale businesses in a suburb of Tokyo were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire during August-December 2002. Work hours and sleep characteristics, including daily sleep hours, subjective sleep sufficiency, sleep quality and easiness to wake up in the morning, were evaluated. Information on workplace injury in the past 1-year period was self-reported. The risk of workplace injury associated with work hours and poor sleep was estimated using multivariate logistic regression with odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals as measures of associations. Compared with those working 6-8 h day(-1) with good sleep characteristics, positive interactive effects for workplace injury were found between long work hours (>8-10 h day(-1) or >10 h day(-1) ) and short sleep duration (Long work hours (aOR, 1.31-1.48), subjective insufficient sleep (aOR, 1.49) and sleeping poorly at night (aOR, 1.72) were also independently associated with workplace injury. This study suggests that long work hours coupled with poor sleep characteristics are synergistically associated with increased risk of workplace injury. Greater attention should be paid to manage/treat poor sleep and reduce excessive work hours to improve safety at the workplace. 2011 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Sleep and Premenstrual Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehan, Shazia; Auguste, Evan; Hussain, Mahjabeen; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R.; Brzezinski, Amon; Gupta, Ravi; Attarian, Hrayr; Jean-Louis, Giradin; McFarlane, Samy I.

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is unknown; it may be due to the normal effect of hormones during the menstrual cycle as it occurs in the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.PMS affects women of childbearing age and remits with the onset of menstruation. The menstrual phase is known to influence stage 2 and REM sleep in women, irrespective of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Women with PMDD showed a decreased response to melatonin in their luteal phase as compared to the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. However, melatonin duration or timing of offset in the morning has not been reported to correlate with the mood. Rather, improvement in mood-related symptoms of PMDD has been found to be influenced by sleep deprivation, be it sleep restrictions in early or late night. Sleep disturbance and decreased melatonin secretions due to hormonal fluctuations during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle could explain the sleep complaints of PMDD. PMID:28239684

  1. Objective measures of sleep and dim light melatonin onset in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Pallesen, Ståle; Vedaa, Oystein; Nordhus, Inger H; Sørensen, Eli; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-08-01

    Delayed sleep phase disorder is characterized by a delay in the timing of the major sleep period relative to conventional norms. The sleep period itself has traditionally been described as normal. Nevertheless, it is possible that sleep regulatory mechanism disturbances associated with the disorder may affect sleep duration and/or architecture. Polysomnographic data that may shed light on the issue are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine polysomnographic measures of sleep in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder, and to compare findings to that of healthy controls. A second aim was to estimate dim light melatonin onset as a marker of circadian rhythm and to investigate the phase angle relationship (time interval) between dim light melatonin onset and the sleep period. Data from 54 adolescents and young adults were analysed, 35 diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder and 19 healthy controls. Results show delayed timing of sleep in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but once sleep was initiated no group differences in sleep parameters were observed. Dim light melatonin onset was delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but no difference in phase angle was observed between the groups. In conclusion, both sleep and dim light melatonin onset were delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder. The sleep period appeared to occur at the same circadian phase in both groups, and once sleep was initiated no differences in sleep parameters were observed. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Chronic Maternal Low-Protein Diet in Mice Affects Anxiety, Night-Time Energy Expenditure and Sleep Patterns, but Not Circadian Rhythm in Male Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy F Crossland

    Full Text Available Offspring of murine dams chronically fed a protein-restricted diet have an increased risk for metabolic and neurobehavioral disorders. Previously we showed that adult offspring, developmentally exposed to a chronic maternal low-protein (MLP diet, had lower body and hind-leg muscle weights and decreased liver enzyme serum levels. We conducted energy expenditure, neurobehavioral and circadian rhythm assays in male offspring to examine mechanisms for the body-weight phenotype and assess neurodevelopmental implications of MLP exposure. C57BL/6J dams were fed a protein restricted (8%protein, MLP or a control protein (20% protein, C diet from four weeks before mating until weaning of offspring. Male offspring were weaned to standard rodent diet (20% protein and single-housed until 8-12 weeks of age. We examined body composition, food intake, energy expenditure, spontaneous rearing activity and sleep patterns and performed behavioral assays for anxiety (open field activity, elevated plus maze [EPM], light/dark exploration, depression (tail suspension and forced swim test, sociability (three-chamber, repetitive (marble burying, learning and memory (fear conditioning, and circadian behavior (wheel-running activity during light-dark and constant dark cycles. We also measured circadian gene expression in hypothalamus and liver at different Zeitgeber times (ZT. Male offspring from separate MLP exposed dams had significantly greater body fat (P = 0.03, less energy expenditure (P = 0.004, less rearing activity (P = 0.04 and a greater number of night-time rest/sleep bouts (P = 0.03 compared to control. MLP offspring displayed greater anxiety-like behavior in the EPM (P<0.01 but had no learning and memory deficit in fear-conditioning assay (P = 0.02. There was an effect of time on Per1, Per 2 and Clock circadian gene expression in the hypothalamus but not on circadian behavior. Thus, transplacental and early developmental exposure of dams to chronic MLP reduces

  3. Sleep-related declarative memory consolidation and verbal replay during sleep talking in patients with REM sleep behavior disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevra Uguccioni

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine if sleep talkers with REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD would utter during REM sleep sentences learned before sleep, and to evaluate their verbal memory consolidation during sleep. METHODS: Eighteen patients with RBD and 10 controls performed two verbal memory tasks (16 words from the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test and a 220-263 word long modified Story Recall Test in the evening, followed by nocturnal video-polysomnography and morning recall (night-time consolidation. In 9 patients with RBD, daytime consolidation (morning learning/recall, evening recall was also evaluated with the modified Story Recall Test in a cross-over order. Two RBD patients with dementia were studied separately. Sleep talking was recorded using video-polysomnography, and the utterances were compared to the studied texts by two external judges. RESULTS: Sleep-related verbal memory consolidation was maintained in patients with RBD (+24±36% words as in controls (+9±18%, p=0.3. The two demented patients with RBD also exhibited excellent nighttime consolidation. The post-sleep performance was unrelated to the sleep measures (including continuity, stages, fragmentation and apnea-hypopnea index. Daytime consolidation (-9±19% was worse than night-time consolidation (+29±45%, p=0.03 in the subgroup of 9 patients with RBD. Eleven patients with RBD spoke during REM sleep and pronounced a median of 20 words, which represented 0.0003% of sleep with spoken language. A single patient uttered a sentence that was judged to be semantically (but not literally related to the text learned before sleep. CONCLUSION: Verbal declarative memory normally consolidates during sleep in patients with RBD. The incorporation of learned material within REM sleep-associated sleep talking in one patient (unbeknownst to himself at the semantic level suggests a replay at a highly cognitive creative level.

  4. Characterizing recovery of sleep after four successive night shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tomohide; Takahashi, Masaya; Tachi, Norihide; Takeyama, Hidemaro; Ebara, Takeshi; Inoue, Tatsuki; Takanishi, Toshimasa; Murasaki, Gen-i; Itani, Toru

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the recovery pattern of sleep following simulated, four successive night shifts in ten healthy men (22.9 + or - 3.2 yr). Poor sleep was defined as sleep efficiency of 80% or lower as determined actigraphically. The results showed that four (rapid, slow, pseudo, and incomplete) patterns of sleep recovery were observed over three recovery sleep periods. The rapid and slow recovery pattern represented immediate and slow return to baseline level prior to the nightshifts, respectively. The pseudo recovery pattern demonstrated poor sleep at the 3rd recovery sleep period, despite transient recovery at the 2nd sleep period. The incomplete recovery pattern was characterized by consistently poorer sleep during the entire recovery period. The correlation analysis indicated that sleep habits (bed time and variation of wake time) prior to the experiment were significantly related to the recovery patterns, rather than performance and alertness during the night shifts.

  5. Sleep, immunity and inflammation in gastrointestinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Tauseef; Choe, James; Awab, Ahmed; Wagener, Theodore L; Orr, William C

    2013-12-28

    Sleep disorders have become a global issue, and discovering their causes and consequences are the focus of many research endeavors. An estimated 70 million Americans suffer from some form of sleep disorder. Certain sleep disorders have been shown to cause neurocognitive impairment such as decreased cognitive ability, slower response times and performance detriments. Recent research suggests that individuals with sleep abnormalities are also at greater risk of serious adverse health, economic consequences, and most importantly increased all-cause mortality. Several research studies support the associations among sleep, immune function and inflammation. Here, we review the current research linking sleep, immune function, and gastrointestinal diseases and discuss the interdependent relationship between sleep and these gastrointestinal disorders. Different physiologic processes including immune system and inflammatory cytokines help regulate the sleep. The inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 (IL-1), and IL-6 have been shown to be a significant contributor of sleep disturbances. On the other hand, sleep disturbances such as sleep deprivation have been shown to up regulate these inflammatory cytokines. Alterations in these cytokine levels have been demonstrated in certain gastrointestinal diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, gastro-esophageal reflux, liver disorders and colorectal cancer. In turn, abnormal sleep brought on by these diseases is shown to contribute to the severity of these same gastrointestinal diseases. Knowledge of these relationships will allow gastroenterologists a great opportunity to enhance the care of their patients.

  6. Sleep and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jessica L; Reynolds, Amy C; Ferguson, Sally A; Dawson, Drew

    2013-12-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic mental illness that can have a debilitating effect on daily functioning. A body of research reveals altered sleep behaviour in OCD sufferers; however, findings are inconsistent and there is no consensus on the nature of this relationship. Understanding sleep disturbance in OCD is of critical importance given the known negative consequences of disturbed sleep for mood and emotional wellbeing. A systematic literature search was conducted of five databases for studies assessing sleep in adults diagnosed with OCD. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria and qualitative data analysis methods were used to identify common themes. There was some evidence of reduced total sleep time and sleep efficiency in OCD patients. Many of the sleep disturbances noted were characteristic of depression. However, some OCD sufferers displayed delayed sleep onset and offset and an increased prevalence of delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Severe OCD symptoms were consistently associated with greater sleep disturbance. While the sleep of OCD patients has not been a major focus to date, the existing literature suggests that addressing sleep disturbance in OCD patients may ensure a holistic approach to treatment, enhance treatment efficacy, mitigate relapse and protect against the onset of co-morbid psychiatric illnesses. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. SLEEP APNEA IN ENDOCRINE DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Misnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, an association between sleep apnea and a  number of endocrine diseases has been established. The secretion of many hormones after falling asleep is considerably changed, compared to the period of wakefulness. In patients with endocrine disorders, abnormal hormonal secretion and its pathological consequences may contribute to sleep apnea. Sleep fragmentation and intermittent hypoxia arising in sleep apnea result in a decrease in insulin sensitivity, which contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of sleep apnea increases in acromegaly, which may affect the risk of cardio-pulmonary complications. There is an association between sleep apnea and testosterone treatment in men, as well as in postmenopausal women. Sleep apnea in hypothyroidism is most frequently related to the development of hypothyroidism per se and can therefore be reversed with thyroid hormone replacement therapy. Timely detection and treatment of sleep apnea in patients with endocrine disorders can improve their survival prognosis and quality of life.

  8. Prioritizing Sleep Health: Public Health Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Christopher M; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-11-01

    The schedules that Americans live by are not consistent with healthy sleep patterns. In addition, poor access to educational and treatment aids for sleep leaves people engaging in behavior that is harmful to sleep and forgoing treatment for sleep disorders. This has created a sleep crisis that is a public health issue with broad implications for cognitive outcomes, mental health, physical health, work performance, and safety. New public policies should be formulated to address these issues. We draw from the scientific literature to recommend the following: establishing national standards for middle and high school start times that are later in the day, stronger regulation of work hours and schedules, eliminating daylight saving time, educating the public regarding the impact of electronic media on sleep, and improving access to ambulatory in-home diagnostic testing for sleep disorders. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Association of napping and night-time sleep with impaired glucose regulation, insulin resistance and glycated haemoglobin in Chinese middle-aged adults with no diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoying, Huang; Hongjie, Chen; Changsheng, Qiu; Peijian, Wu; Qingfei, Lin; Yinghua, Lin; Huibin, Huang; Jixing, Liang; Liantao, Li; Ling, Chen; Kaka, Tang; Zichun, Chen; Lixiang, Lin; Jieli, Lu; Yufang, Bi; Guang, Ning; Penli, Zhu; Junping, Wen; Gang, Chen

    2014-07-23

    To assess associations between napping and night-time sleep duration with impaired glucose regulation, insulin resistance (IR) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Cross-sectional study. Fujian Province, China, from June 2011 to January 2012. This study enrolled 9028 participants aged 40-65 years. Data of 7568 participants with no diabetes were included for analysis. Type 2 diabetes was defined applying WHO criteria. Participants' daytime napping and night-time sleep duration data were collected using a standardised self-reported Chinese-language questionnaire about sleep frequency and quality. Anthropometric and laboratory parameters were also measured. IR was defined as a HOMA-IR index value >2.50. ORs and 95% CIs were derived from multivariate logistic regression models. Participants (mean age 51.1±7.0 years) included 3060 males and 4508 females with average night-time sleep of 7.9 h. A higher proportion of males napped than females. After adjustment for potential confounders, ORs for HbA1c >6.0% were 1.28 and 1.26 for those napping ≤1 h and >1 h (p=0.002 and p=0.018), respectively. Statistically significant differences in IR between nappers and non-nappers were only marginal clinically. Odds for HbA1c >6.0% were significantly lower in participants with longer night-time sleep durations than in the reference group (>8 h vs 6-8 h). Odds for IR were significantly lower in participants whose night-time sleep hours deviated from the reference group (8 h vs 6-8 h) Chinese middle-aged adults with no diabetes who napped had higher HbA1c and IR; those with shorter night-time sleep durations had increased HbA1c. Night-time sleep hours that are either 8 tend to be associated with lower odds for IR. Further studies are necessary to determine the underlying clinical significance and mechanisms behind these associations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Normative data on the sleep habits of Australian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Tim; Maher, Carol; Blunden, Sarah; Matricciani, Lisa

    2010-10-01

    To provide normative sleep data on 9-18 year old Australians. Cohort study. Participants' homes. 4032 Australians aged 9-18 years. N/A. Participants completed a 48h use of time recall,