WorldWideScience

Sample records for time transfer experiments

  1. Time Transfer Experiment by TCE on the ETS-VIII Satellite

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakagawa, Fumimaru; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Amagai, Jun; Tabuchi, Ryo; Hama, Shin'ichi; Hosokawa, Mizuhiko

    2007-01-01

    .... At NICT, we developed Time Comparison Equipment (TCE) both onboard ETS-VIII and in the Earth station for precise time transfer between the atomic clocks on the satellite and a ground reference clock...

  2. Two-way laser ranging and time transfer experiments between LOLA and an Earth-based satellite laser ranging station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D.; Sun, X.; Neumann, G. A.; Barker, M. K.; Mazarico, E. M.; Hoffman, E.; Zagwodzki, T. W.; Torrence, M. H.; Mcgarry, J.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) has established time-of-flight measurements with mm precision to targets orbiting the Earth and the Moon using single-ended round-trip laser ranging to passive optical retro-reflectors. These high-precision measurements enable advances in fundamental physics, solar system dynamics. However, the received signal strength suffers from a 1/R4 decay, which makes it impractical for measuring distances beyond the Moon's orbit. On the other hand, for a two-way laser transponder pair, where laser pulses are both transmitted to and received from each end of the laser links, the signal strength at both terminals only decreases by 1/R2, thus allowing a greater range of distances to be covered. The asynchronous transponder concept has been previously demonstrated by a test in 2005 between the Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) aboard the MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, Geochemistry, and Ranging) spacecraft and NASA's Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) at a distance of ˜0.16 AU. In October 2013, regular two-way transponder-type range measurements were obtained over 15 days between the Lunar Laser Communication Demonstration (LLCD) aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft and NASA's ground station at White Sands, NM. The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) provides us a unique capability to test time-transfer beyond near Earth orbit. Here we present results from two-way transponder-type experiments between LOLA and GGAO conducted in March 2014 and 2017. As in the time-transfer by laser link (T2L2) experiments between a ground station and an earth-orbiting satellite, LOLA and GGAO ranged to each other simultaneously in these two-way tests at lunar distance. We measured the time-of-flight while cross-referencing the spacecraft clock to the ground station time. On May 4th, 2017, about 20 minutes of two-way measurements were collected. The

  3. Blowdown heat transfer experiment, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Kunihisa; Yamamoto, Nobuo; Osaki, Hideki; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1976-09-01

    Blowdown heat transfer experiment has been carried out with a transparent test section to observe phenomena in coolant behavior during blowdown process. Experimental parameters are discharge position, initial system pressure, initial coolant temperature, power supply to heater rods and number of heater rods. At initial pressure 7-12 ata and initial power 6-50 kw per one heater rod, the flow condition in the test section is a major factor in determining time of DNB occurrence and physical process to DNB during blowdown. (auth.)

  4. Comparison of GLONASS and GPS Time Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, P.; Koshelyaevsky, N. B.; Lewandowski, W.; Petit, G.; Thomas, C.

    1993-01-01

    The Russian global space navigation system GLONASS could provide a technique similar to GPS for international time comparison. The main limitation to its use for time transfer is the lack of commercially available time receivers. The University of Leeds built a GPS/GLONASS receiver five years ago and since then has provided continuous information about GLONASS time and its comparison with GPS time. For the last two years the VNIIFTRI and several other Russian time laboratories have used Russian-built GLONASS navigation receivers for time comparisons. Since June 1991, the VNIIFTRI has operated a GPS time receiver which offers, for the first time, an opportunity for the direct comparison of time transfers using GPS and GLONASS. This seven-month experiment shows that even with relatively imprecise data recording and processing, in terms of time metrology, GLONASS can provide continental time transfer at a level of several tens of nanoseconds.

  5. The curious influence of timing on the magical experience evoked by conjuring tricks involving false transfer: decay of amodal object permanence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beth, Tessa; Ekroll, Vebjørn

    2015-07-01

    In magic tricks involving false transfer, the conjurer typically creates the illusion of transferring a coin from one hand into the other, which is then closed into a fist, while in reality the coin is kept hidden in the first hand. The magical experience occurs when the closed fist of the second hand is opened and shown to be empty. According to professional magicians, the magical experience evoked by this kind of tricks becomes noticeably weaker when the time interval between the false transfer and the opening of the fist increases. This observation is surprising, given that neither the length of this interval nor any obvious factors associated with it can be expected to change the spectators' intellectual conviction regarding the true location of the coin. We performed a controlled psychological experiment and obtained results corroborating these informal observations. Increasing the temporal interval from 1 to 32 s led to an average reduction of the strength of the magical experience of 38%. We discuss potential explanations of this curious phenomenon in terms of object persistence, object files and temporal amodal completion.

  6. Coordinating Transit Transfers in Real Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Transfers are a major source of travel time variability for transit passengers. Coordinating transfers between transit routes in real time can reduce passenger waiting times and travel time variability, but these benefits need to be contrasted with t...

  7. Photoinduced charge transfer in a transition metal complex investigated by time-resolved X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Setup and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeries, Dennis

    2015-02-01

    In the framework of this thesis the development of a time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiment and its application to fac-Ir(ppy) 3 is described. Such experiments require a very stable setup in terms of spatial and temporal accuracy. Therefore, the stability properties of the present installation were investigated in detail and continuously improved, in particular the synchronization of the ultrashort pulse laser system to the storage ring as well as the spatial stability of both X-ray and laser beam. Experiments utilizing the laser pump and X-ray probe configuration were applied on the green phosphorescence emitter complex fac-Ir(ppy) 3 dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. Structural and electronic changes were triggered by photoexcitation of the metal-to-ligand charge transfer band with ultrashort laser pulses at a wavelength of 343 nm. The excited triplet state spectrum was extracted from the measured pump-probe X-ray absorption spectrum using an ionic approximation. The results con rm the anticipated metal-to-ligand charge transfer as shown by an ionization potential shift of the iridium atom. The symmetry of the complex was found to be pseudo-octahedral. This allowed the first experimental determination of the bond length of fac-Ir(ppy) 3 in an octahedral approximation and revealed a decrease of bond length of the first coordination shell in the triplet state. The first and second-order decay kinetics of the triplet state were investigated in a combination of X-ray and laser based experiments and revealed self-quenching as well as triplet-triplet annihilation rate constants.

  8. Canadian Experience in Nuclear Power Technology Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, J.

    1987-01-01

    Technology transfer has and will continue to play a major role in the development of nuclear power programs. From the early beginnings of the development of the peaceful uses of nuclear power by just a few nations in the mid-1940s there has been a considerable transfer of technology and today 34 countries have nuclear programs in various stages of development. Indeed, some of the major nuclear vendors achieves their present position through a process of technology transfer and subsequent development. Canada, one of the early leaders in the development of nuclear power, has experience with a wide range of programs bout within its own borders and with other countries. This paper briefly describes this experience and the lessons learned from Canada's involvement in the transfer of nuclear power technology. Nuclear technology is complex and diverse and yet it can be assimilated by a nation given a fire commitment of both suppliers and recipients of technology to achieve success. Canada has reaped large benefits from its nuclear program and we believe this has been instrumentally linked to the sharing of goals and opportunity for participation over extended periods of time by many interests within the Canadian infrastructure. While Canada has accumulated considerable expertise in nuclear technology transfer, we believe there is still much for US to learn. Achieving proficiency in any of the many kinds of nuclear related technologies will place a heavy burden on the financial and human resources of a nation. Care must be taken to plan carefully the total criteria which will assure national benefits in industrial and economic development. Above all, effective transfer of nuclear technology requires a long term commitment by both parties

  9. Hydrogen maser clocks in space for solid-Earth research and time-transfer applications: Experiment overview and evaluation of Russian miniature sapphire loaded cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busca, G.; Bernier, L. G.; Silvestrin, P.; Feltham, S.; Gaygerov, B. A.; Tatarenkov, V. M.

    1994-05-01

    The Observatoire Cantonal de Neuchatel (ON) is developing for ESTEC a compact H-maser for space use based upon a miniature sapphire loaded microwave cavity, a technique pioneered at VNIIFTRI. Various contacts between West-European parties, headed by ESA, and the Russian parties, headed by ESA, led to the proposal for flying two H-masers on Meteor 3M, a Russian meteorology satellite in low polar orbit. The experiment will include two masers, one provided by ON and the other by VNIIFTRI. T/F transfer and precise positioning will be performed by both a microwave link, using PRARE equipment, and an optical link, using LASSO-like equipment. The main objectives of the experiment are precise orbit determination and point positioning for geodetic/geophysical research, ultra-accurate time comparison and dissemination as well as in-orbit demonstration of operation and performance of H-masers. Within the scope of a preliminary space H-maser development phase performed for ESTEC at ON in preparation to the joint experiment, a Russian miniature sapphire loaded microwave cavity, on loan from VNIIFTRI, was evaluated in a full-size EFOS hydrogen maser built by ON. The experimental evaluation confirmed the theoretical expectation that with a hydrogen storage volume of only 0.65 liter an atomic quality factor of 1.5 x 10(exp 9) can be obtained for a -105 dBm output power. This represents a theoretical Allan deviation of 1.7 x 10(exp -15) averaged on a 1000 s time interval. From a full-size design to a compact one, therefore, the sacrifice in performance due to the reduction of the storage volume is very small.

  10. Proton polarimeters for spin transfer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNaughton, M.W.

    1985-01-01

    The design and use of proton polarimeters for spin transfer (Wolfenstein parameter) measurements is discussed. Polarimeters are compared with polarized targets for spin dependent experiments. 32 refs., 4 figs

  11. Resource Transfers to the Elderly: Do Adult Children Substitute Financial Transfers for Time Transfers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zissimopoulos, Julie

    2001-01-01

    Using the Health and Retirement Study, this research investigates whether an adult child substitutes financial transfers to an elderly parent for time transfers as the cost of his or her time increases...

  12. On the sample transport time of a pneumatic transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yoshihide

    1983-01-01

    The counts accumulated in measuring system are affected by the variations in transport time of the sample on cyclic activation experiments with a mechanical sample transfer system. In use of the pneumatic transfer system, which has been set up, the transport time is variable according to the differences as follows: The form, size and weight of samples, the pneumatic pressure and so on. Comprehending the relationships between the transpot time and these variable factors is essentially important to make experiments with this transfer system. (author)

  13. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollyky, L.J.; Beary, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Experiments were conducted at the Hanford Site to determine the most efficient pH and temperature levels for the destruction of complexants in Hanford high-level defense waste. These complexants enhance migration of radionuclides in the soil and inhibit the growth of crystals in the evaporator-crystallizer. Ozone mass transfer and kinetics tests have been outlined for the determination of critical mass transfer and kinetics parameters of the ozone-complexant reaction

  14. Cornish heat transfer experiment - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Hodgkinson, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    The transfer of heat released in an in-site heating experiment simulating high level radioactive waste packages in granite in Cornwall has been found to be mainly by conduction but some appreciable convection does occur. Interim analysis of the data suggests that the latter may account for about 20% of the total. (author)

  15. Pakistan's experience in transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Khan, Nunir

    1977-01-01

    Of all technologies, nuclear technology is perhaps the most interdisciplinary in character as it encompasses such varied fields as nuclear physics, reactor physics, mechanical, electrical electronics controls, metallurgical and even civil and geological engineering. When we speak of transfer of acquisition of nuclear technology we imply cumulative know-how in many fields, most of which are not nuclear per se but are essential for building the necessry infrastructure and back-up facilities for developing and implementing any nuclear energy program. In Pakistan, efforts on utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful applications were initiated about twenty years ago. During these years stepwise development of nuclear technology has taken place. The experience gained by Pakistan so far in transfer of nuclear technology is discussed. Suggestions have been made for continuing the transfer of this most essential technology from the advanced to the developing countries while making sure that necessary safeguard requirements are fullfilled

  16. The Danish Experience with Transferable Fishing Concessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højrup, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The task of the concise chapter is to describe the Danish experiences with a basic regulation based upon the principle of Transferable Fisheries Concessions, TFC - at the backgruund of the introduction of Transfreable Quotas in 2003 (pelagic fisheries) and 2007 (demersal fisheries). To do this th...... dependent upon the struggles on the financial markets, replacing sustainable fishing methods with heavy buttom trawling and undermining the future of young people in the fishing industry....

  17. Rifkin strikes against gene transfer experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, T

    Jeremy Rifkin's lobbying organization, the Foundation on Economic Trends, has brought suit in U.S. District Court, together with the Humane Society of the U.S., to halt gene transfer experiments being carried out in livestock by the Department of Agriculture. The plaintiffs allege that the experiments--which entail injecting fusion genes that include the DNA structural sequence of the human growth hormone into the fertilized eggs of sheep and pigs--are morally objectionable, a potential threat to the biological stability of animal species, and likely to have undesirable economic and environmental consequences.

  18. Natural convection heat transfer in SIGMA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Dong; Lee, Gang Hee; Suh, Kune Yull

    2004-01-01

    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) results in core melt formation and relocation at various locations within the reactor core over a considerable period of time. If there is no effective cooling mechanism, the core debris may heat up and commence natural circulation. The high temperature pool of molten core material will threaten the structural integrity of the reactor vessel. The extent and urgency of this threat depend primarily upon the intensity of the internal heat sources and upon the consequent distribution of the heat fluxes on the vessel walls in contact with the molten core material pools. In such a steady molten pool convection state, the thermal loads against the vessel would be determined by the in-vessel heat transfer distribution involving convective and conductive heat transfer from the decay-heated core material pool to the lower head wall in contact with the core material. In this study, upward and downward heat transfer fraction ratio is focused on

  19. TWSTFT Data Treatment for UTC Time Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    BUREAU INTERNATIONAL DES POIDS ET MESURES ORGANISATION INTERGOUVERNEMENTALE DE LA CONVENTION DU METRE...in [UTC-UTC(k)],” Metrologia , 43, 278-286. [4] BIPM Circular T 244, Section 6, May 2008, http://www.bipm.org [5] D. Piester, A. Bauch, L... Metrologia , 45, 185-198. [6] F. Arias, Z. Jiang, G. Petit, and W. Lewandowski, 2005, “BIPM Comparison of Time Transfer Techniques,” in Proceedings

  20. Burnout detector design for heat transfer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, H.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the design of an burnout detector for heat transfer experiments, applied during tests for optimization of fuel elements for PWR reactors. The burnout detector avoids the fuel rods destruction during the experiments at the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear. The detector evaluates the temperature changes over the fuel rods in the temperature changes over the fuel rods in the area where the burnout phenomenon could be anticipated. As soon as the phenomenon appears, the system power supply is turned off. The thermal Circuit No. 1, during the experiments, had been composed by nine fuel rods feed parallelly by the same power supply. Fine copper wires had been attached at the centre and at the ends of the fuel rod to take two Wheat stone bridge arms. The detector had been applied across the bridge diagonals, which must be balanced the burnout excursion can be detected as a small but fast increase of the signal over the detector. Large scale experiments had been carried out to compare the resistance bridge performance against a thermocouple attached through the fuel rod wall. These experiments had been showed us the advantages of the first method over the last, because the bridge evaluates the whole fuel rod, while the thermocouple evaluates only the area where it had been attached. (author)

  1. Experience in transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckurts, K.H.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany was initiated in 1955. In spite of this late start, the country now has a broad potential in all branches of peaceful nuclear technology. Turkey nuclear power plants are erected by German industry, and the country has the basic technology at its disposal for all stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. In the areas of uranium enrichment and reprocessing, multilateral joint ventures with European countries have been formed. The country also has an active development program for advanced reactors. In general areas of technology transfer and development aid, in the nuclear field, there are interrelated activities of both government and industry. The government has concluded bilateral agreements with a number of countires e.g. Argentina, Brazil, India, Iran and Pakistan, covering the general field of nuclear science; in the framework of these agreements, which are being carried out mainly by the nuclear research centers at Juelich and Karlsruhe, active cooperation in research, development, education, and training are being pursued. The nonproliferation of nuclear weapons is a major objective of the Federal government which strongly affects its policies for international nuclear trade. The paper describes the nuclear technology potential available in the Federal Republic of Germany and reviews experience gathered in cooperation with developing countries. Future policies for nuclear technology transfer are discussed with special reference to the role of national R and D laboratories

  2. Simulations and experiments of laminar heat transfer for Therminol heat transfer fluids in a rifled tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Weiguo; Ren, Depeng; Ye, Qing; Liu, Guodong; Lu, Huilin; Wang, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Predicted laminar Nusselt number using regression correlation of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid is in agreement with experiments in the rifled tube. - Highlights: • Heat transfer coefficient and friction factor are measured and predicted in the rifled tube. • Correlations for Nusselt number and friction factor are proposed. • The roughness height of 0.425 mm in transition SST model is suggested as an input parameter. • k–kl–ω transition and transition SST models are recommended for laminar–turbulent transition. • Thermal enhancement factor and synergy angle are predicted in the rifled tube. - Abstract: Simulations and experiments of flow and heat transfer behavior of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid have been conducted in a horizontal rifled tube with outer diameter and inner diameter 25.0 and 20.0 mm, pitch and rib height of 12.0 and 1.0 mm, respectively. Numerical simulations of three-dimensional flow behavior of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid are carried out using FLUENT code in the rifled tube. Experimental results show that the heat transfer and thermal performance of Therminol-55 heat transfer fluid in the rifled tube are considerably improved compared to those of the smooth tube. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of Reynolds number, and is from 3.5 to 5.1 times over the smooth tube. Also, the pressure drop results reveal that the average friction factor of the ribbed tube is in a range of 2.2 and 4.2 times over the smooth tube. Predictive Nusselt number and friction factor correlations have been presented. The numerical results show that the laminar flow model is valid only at lower Reynolds number in the developed laminar flow of rifled tube. The k–kl–ω transition model and transition SST model with roughness of 0.425 mm are recommended for the predictions of transition process from laminar to turbulent flow in the rifled tube.

  3. Capillary Pumped Heat Transfer (CHT) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Kevin P.; Allen, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  4. The personal experience of time

    CERN Document Server

    Wessman, Alden

    1977-01-01

    The fundamental nature of human time experience has concerned artists, poets, philosophers, and scientists throughout the ages. Any consideration of human action requires awareness of its temporal aspects. However, simply to view time in the same units and dimensions as the physicist employs in describing events robs personal time of its "lived" quality. The use of physical time concepts in the description of human events is often artificial and misleading. It fails to account for the facts that human time estimates rarely match clock and calendar time; that societies and individuals demonstrate vast differences in their constructions and uses of time; and that temporal perceptions and attitudes change within an individual both during a single day and throughout his life span. The present volume does not view time as something that is sensed in the same way that one would sense or perceive spatial or sensory stimuli. Rather, it views time as a complex set of personally experienced cognitive constructs used by...

  5. Comparison of GLONASS and GPS time transfers between two west European time laboratories and VNIIFTRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, P.; Koshelyaevsky, N. B.; Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz; Petit, Gerard; Thomas, Claudine

    1992-01-01

    The University of Leeds built a Global Positioning System/Global Orbiting Navigation Satellite System (GPS/GLONASS) receiver about five years ago and since then has provided continuous information about GLONASS time and its comparison with GPS time. For the last two years, VNIIFTRI (All Union Institute for Physical, Technical and Radiotechnical Measurements) and some other Soviet time laboratories have used Soviet built GLONASS navigation receivers for time comparisons. Since June 1991, VNIIFTIR has been operating a GPS time receiver on loan from the BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures). This offered, for the first time, an opportunity for direct comparison of time transfers using GPS and GLONASS. This experiment shows that even with relatively imprecise data recording and processing, in terms of time metrology, GLONASS can provide continental time transfer at a level of several tens of nanoseconds.

  6. Solar sail time-optimal interplanetary transfer trajectory design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Shengpin; Gao Yunfeng; Li Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    The fuel consumption associated with some interplanetary transfer trajectories using chemical propulsion is not affordable. A solar sail is a method of propulsion that does not consume fuel. Transfer time is one of the most pressing problems of solar sail transfer trajectory design. This paper investigates the time-optimal interplanetary transfer trajectories to a circular orbit of given inclination and radius. The optimal control law is derived from the principle of maximization. An indirect method is used to solve the optimal control problem by selecting values for the initial adjoint variables, which are normalized within a unit sphere. The conditions for the existence of the time-optimal transfer are dependent on the lightness number of the sail and the inclination and radius of the target orbit. A numerical method is used to obtain the boundary values for the time-optimal transfer trajectories. For the cases where no time-optimal transfer trajectories exist, first-order necessary conditions of the optimal control are proposed to obtain feasible solutions. The results show that the transfer time decreases as the minimum distance from the Sun decreases during the transfer duration. For a solar sail with a small lightness number, the transfer time may be evaluated analytically for a three-phase transfer trajectory. The analytical results are compared with previous results and the associated numerical results. The transfer time of the numerical result here is smaller than the transfer time from previous results and is larger than the analytical result.

  7. Sex hormonal modulation of interhemispheric transfer time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, M; Hamm, J P; Waldie, K E; Kirk, I J

    2013-08-01

    It is still a matter of debate whether functional cerebral asymmetries (FCA) of many cognitive processes are more pronounced in men than in women. Some evidence suggests that the apparent reduction in women's FCA is a result of the fluctuating levels of gonadal steroid hormones over the course of the menstrual cycle, making their FCA less static than for men. The degree of lateralization has been suggested to depend on interhemispheric communication that may be modulated by gonadal steroid hormones. Here, we employed visual-evoked EEG potentials to obtain a direct measure of interhemispheric communication during different phases of the menstrual cycle. The interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT) was estimated from the interhemispheric latency difference of the N170 component of the visual-evoked potential from either left or right visual field presentation. Nineteen right-handed women with regular menstrual cycles were tested twice, once during the menstrual phase, when progesterone and estradiol levels are low, and once during the luteal phase when progesterone and estradiol levels are high. Plasma steroid levels were determined by blood-based immunoassay at each session. It was found that IHTT, in particular from right-to-left, was generally longer during the luteal phase relative to the menstrual phase. This effect occurred as a consequence of a slowed absolute N170 latency of the indirect pathway (i.e. left hemispheric response after LVF stimulation) and, in particular, a shortened latency of the direct pathway (i.e. right hemispheric response after LVF stimulation) during the luteal phase. These results show that cycle-related effects are not restricted to modulation of processes between hemispheres but also apply to cortical interactions, especially within the right hemisphere. The findings support the view that plastic changes in the female brain occur during relatively short-term periods across the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Improving the bulk data transfer experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guok, Chin; Guok, Chin; Lee, Jason R.; Berket, Karlo

    2008-05-07

    Scientific computations and collaborations increasingly rely on the network to provide high-speed data transfer, dissemination of results, access to instruments, support for computational steering, etc. The Energy Sciences Network is establishing a science data network to provide user driven bandwidth allocation. In a shared network environment, some reservations may not be granted due to the lack of available bandwidth on any single path. In many cases, the available bandwidth across multiple paths would be sufficient to grant the reservation. In this paper we investigate how to utilize the available bandwidth across multiple paths in the case of bulk data transfer.

  9. International Transfer Pricing Regulation: Nigerian Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multinational enterprises (MNEs), as any other international business concern, have among other objectives, the reduction of foreign exchange risk, duties or tariffs, foreign and domestic taxes, which ultimately maximise the enterprises profitability. The use of international transfer pricing strategy by MNEs remains on the ...

  10. Evolution of PHWR fuel transfer system based on operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvatikar, R.S.; Singh, Jaipal; Chaturvedi, P.C.; Bhambra, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel Transfer System facilitates loading of new fuel into Fuelling Machine, receipt of spent fuel from Fuelling Machine and its further transportation to Storage Bay. To overcome the limitations of transferring a pair of bundles in the single tube Airlock and Transfer Arm in RAPS-1 and 2/MAPS, a new concept of six tube Transfer Magazine was introduced in NAPS. This resulted in simultaneous loading of new fuel from Transfer Magazine into the Fuelling Machine and unloading of spent fuel from the Fuelling Machine through the exchange mode. It further facilitated the parallel/simultaneous operation of refuelling by Fuelling Machines on the reactor and transferring of spent fuel bundles from the Transfer Magazine to the bay. This new design of Fuel Transfer System was adopted for all standardised 220 MWe PHWRs. Based on the experience gained in 220 MWe PHWRs in the area of operation and maintenance, a number of improvements have been carried out over the years. These aspects have been further strengthened and refined in the Fuel Transfer System of 540 MWe units. The operating experience of the system indicates that the presence of heavy water in the Transfer Magazine poses limitations in its maintenance in the Fuel Transfer room. Further, Surveillance and maintenance of large number of under water equipment and associated valves, rams and underwater sensors is putting extra burden on the O and M efforts. A new concept of mobile light water filled Transfer Machine has been evolved for proposed 700 MWe PHWR units to simplify Fuel Transfer System. This has been made possible by adopting snout level control in the Fuelling Machine, elimination of Shuttle Transport System and locating the Storage Bay adjacent to the Reactor Building. This paper describes the evolution of Fuel Transfer System concepts and various improvements based on the experience gained in the operation and maintenance of the system. (author)

  11. Comparison of two-way satellite time transfer and GPS common-view time transfer between OCA and TUG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Dieter; Thyr, U.; Ressler, H.; Robnik, R.; Grudler, P.; Baumont, Francoise S.; Veillet, Christian; Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz W.; Hanson, W.; Clements, A.

    1992-01-01

    For about one year the time scales UTC(OCA) and UTC(TUG) were compared by means of GPS and two-way satellite time transfer. At the end of the experiment both links were independently 'calibrated' by measuring the differential delays of the GPS receivers and of the satellite earth stations by transportation of a GPS receiver and of one of the satellite terminals. The results obtained by both methods differ by about 3 ns, but reveal a seasonal variation of about 8 ns peak-to-peak which is likely the result of a temperature-dependence of the delays of the GPS receivers used. For the comparison of both methods the stabilities of the timescales are of great importance. Unfortunately, during the last three months of the experiment a less stable clock had to be used for the generation of UTC(TUG).

  12. Experience in SSAC training and technology transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, C.R.; Keepin, G.R.; Pontes, B.

    1983-01-01

    Each year since 1980 an international training course on the implementation of States' Systems of Accounting for and Control of Nuclear Materials (SSACs) has been offered in the USA under the auspices of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978. The courses are sponsored by the US Department of Energy in cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and conducted by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, with the assistance of other organizations. The purpose of the courses, which are described in detail in the paper, is ''to provide practical training in the design, implementation and operation of a national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials that satisfies both national and IAEA international safeguards objectives.'' On odd numbered years, the course emphasis is on bulk-processing facilities; on even years the emphasis is on item-dominant facilities. Internationally known authorities are selected as course lecturers from the IAEA and Los Alamos, as well as government, industry, and national laboratories in both the USA and abroad. Lectures are supplemented with workshops, panel discussions, tours of Los Alamos safeguards laboratories, and visits to operating nuclear fuel-cycle facilities. Attendance at the 1981, 1982 and 1983 SSAC courses has averaged 26 student participants, with almost as many nations represented. The overall response to the courses has been highly favorable, indicating that they are fulfilling a timely and important need. Key to the success has been a course format that encourages maximum exchange of safeguards technology and experience among all participants, both students and lecturers. (author)

  13. International water and sanitation technology transfers, experiences from Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krozer, Yoram; Hophmayer Tokich, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Possibilities of transferring cost-effective, innovative water and wastewater technologies on public water markets are discussed based on experiences of the Dutch water business cluster in the Central and Eastern European Countries. These transfers evolved under suitable conditions, among others

  14. CubeSat Handling of Multisystem Precision Time Transfer (CHOMPTT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The CubeSat Handling of Multisystem Precision Time Transfer (CHOMPTT) mission is a precision timing satellite equipped with atomic clocks synchronized with a ground...

  15. The life cycle dimension of time transfers in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Zannella

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reallocation of economic resources between generations and genders has important consequences for economic growth and inequality. Unpaid work is a relevant component of intergenerational transfers, but is invisible to traditional accounts. Time use data can complement accounts of monetary transfers. Objective: The main goal of this article is to provide estimates of life cycle profiles of consumption and production of unpaid activities. These profiles can be used to evaluate transfers of time by age and sex. Methods: We use data from the Multinational Time Use Study (MTUS to estimate profiles of time allocated to unpaid productive activities, by age, sex and household structure, for selected European countries. The unpaid working time is then distributed, with a statistical model, to those age groups that benefit from it, in order to estimate age-specific consumption profiles of time. Results: We observe large transfers of time from females to males, and from adults to children. Life course trajectories are qualitatively similar across countries, but with significant variations in levels. Differences in profiles by household structure may be associated with incentives or disincentives for particular fertility choices in different social and institutional settings. Conclusions: This article quantifies household production and non-market transfers. It offers insight into the underestimation of the economic contribution of women. Comments: This article provides some descriptive findings that could be incorporated with other research pursued by scholars in the National Transfer Accounts (NTA project to monetize the value of time and include it in standard transfer accounts.

  16. General post-Minkowskian expansion of time transfer functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teyssandier, Pierre; Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe Le

    2008-01-01

    Modeling most of the tests of general relativity requires us to know the function relating light travel time to the coordinate time of reception and to the spatial coordinates of the emitter and the receiver. We call such a function the reception time transfer function. Of course, an emission time transfer function may as well be considered. We present here a recursive procedure enabling us to expand each time transfer function into a perturbative series of ascending powers of the Newtonian gravitational constant G (general post-Minkowskian expansion). Our method is self-sufficient in the sense that neither the integration of null geodesic equations nor the determination of Synge's world function is necessary. To illustrate the method, the time transfer function of a three-parameter family of static, spherically symmetric metrics is derived within the post-linear approximation

  17. General post-Minkowskian expansion of time transfer functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teyssandier, Pierre; Poncin-Lafitte, Christophe Le [Departement Systemes de Reference Temps et Espace, CNRS/UMR 8630, Observatoire de Paris, 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2008-07-21

    Modeling most of the tests of general relativity requires us to know the function relating light travel time to the coordinate time of reception and to the spatial coordinates of the emitter and the receiver. We call such a function the reception time transfer function. Of course, an emission time transfer function may as well be considered. We present here a recursive procedure enabling us to expand each time transfer function into a perturbative series of ascending powers of the Newtonian gravitational constant G (general post-Minkowskian expansion). Our method is self-sufficient in the sense that neither the integration of null geodesic equations nor the determination of Synge's world function is necessary. To illustrate the method, the time transfer function of a three-parameter family of static, spherically symmetric metrics is derived within the post-linear approximation.

  18. Speeding-up exchange-mediated saturation transfer experiments by Fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Marta G.; Reddy, Jithender G.; Griesinger, Christian; Lee, Donghan

    2015-01-01

    Protein motions over various time scales are crucial for protein function. NMR relaxation dispersion experiments play a key role in explaining these motions. However, the study of slow conformational changes with lowly populated states remained elusive. The recently developed exchange-mediated saturation transfer experiments allow the detection and characterization of such motions, but require extensive measurement time. Here we show that, by making use of Fourier transform, the total acquisition time required to measure an exchange-mediated saturation transfer profile can be reduced by twofold in case that one applies linear prediction. In addition, we demonstrate that the analytical solution for R 1 ρ experiments can be used for fitting the exchange-mediated saturation transfer profile. Furthermore, we show that simultaneous analysis of exchange-mediated saturation transfer profiles with two different radio-frequency field strengths is required for accurate and precise characterization of the exchange process and the exchanging states

  19. Speeding-up exchange-mediated saturation transfer experiments by Fourier transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Marta G.; Reddy, Jithender G.; Griesinger, Christian; Lee, Donghan, E-mail: dole@nmr.mpibpc.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institute for Biophysical chemistry, Department of NMR-based Structural Biology (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Protein motions over various time scales are crucial for protein function. NMR relaxation dispersion experiments play a key role in explaining these motions. However, the study of slow conformational changes with lowly populated states remained elusive. The recently developed exchange-mediated saturation transfer experiments allow the detection and characterization of such motions, but require extensive measurement time. Here we show that, by making use of Fourier transform, the total acquisition time required to measure an exchange-mediated saturation transfer profile can be reduced by twofold in case that one applies linear prediction. In addition, we demonstrate that the analytical solution for R{sub 1}ρ experiments can be used for fitting the exchange-mediated saturation transfer profile. Furthermore, we show that simultaneous analysis of exchange-mediated saturation transfer profiles with two different radio-frequency field strengths is required for accurate and precise characterization of the exchange process and the exchanging states.

  20. Westinghouse experience in the transfer of nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    Westinghouse experience with transfer of technical information is two-sided. First is our experience in learning, and the second is our experience in teaching others. Westinghouse conducts a special school to which government, academic and industry people are invited. There are many problems involved in all technology transfers; these include: keeping information current, making certain changes are compatible with the supplier's manufacturing capability and also suitable to the receiver, patent right and proprietary information. The building, testing and maintenance of the unit on the line - and then a succession of its sister plant is the basis for the Westinghouse leadership

  1. Financial time series analysis based on effective phase transfer entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengbo; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing

    2017-02-01

    Transfer entropy is a powerful technique which is able to quantify the impact of one dynamic system on another system. In this paper, we propose the effective phase transfer entropy method based on the transfer entropy method. We use simulated data to test the performance of this method, and the experimental results confirm that the proposed approach is capable of detecting the information transfer between the systems. We also explore the relationship between effective phase transfer entropy and some variables, such as data size, coupling strength and noise. The effective phase transfer entropy is positively correlated with the data size and the coupling strength. Even in the presence of a large amount of noise, it can detect the information transfer between systems, and it is very robust to noise. Moreover, this measure is indeed able to accurately estimate the information flow between systems compared with phase transfer entropy. In order to reflect the application of this method in practice, we apply this method to financial time series and gain new insight into the interactions between systems. It is demonstrated that the effective phase transfer entropy can be used to detect some economic fluctuations in the financial market. To summarize, the effective phase transfer entropy method is a very efficient tool to estimate the information flow between systems.

  2. Time and Frequency Transfer Activities at NIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    differences. The graph shows data from MJD 54466 to MJD 54763 (January 1, 2008 to October 24, 2008). II.E. The Sistema Interamericano de...Metrologia (SIM) Time Network The Sistema Interamericano de Metrologia (SIM) consists of national metrology institutes (NMIs) located in the 34...designed to mitigate multipath signals. All SIM systems are connected to the Internet and upload their measurement results to Internet Web servers

  3. VLAD for epithermal neutron scattering experiments at large energy transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tardocchi, M; Gorini, G; Perelli-Cippo, E; Andreani, C; Imberti, S; Pietropaolo, A; Senesi, R; Rhodes, N R; Schooneveld, E M

    2006-01-01

    The Very Low Angle Detector (VLAD) bank will extend the kinematical region covered by today's epithermal neutron scattering experiments to low momentum transfer ( -1 ) together with large energy transfer 0 -4 0 . In this paper the design of VLAD is presented together with Montecarlo simulations of the detector performances. The results of tests made with prototype VLAD detectors are also presented, confirming the usefulness of the Resonance Detector for measurements at very low scattering angles

  4. Estimating Time To Complete for ATLAS data transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Bogado Garcia, Joaquin Ignacio; The ATLAS collaboration; Monticelli, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Transfer Time To Complete (T³C) is a new extension for the data management system Rucio that allows to make predictions about the duration of a file transfer. The extension has a modular architecture which allows to make predictions based on simple to more sophisticated models, depending on available data and computation power. The ability to predict file transfer times with reasonable accuracy provides a tool for better transfer scheduling  and thus reduces both the load on storage systems and the associated networks. The accuracy of the model requires fine tuning for its parameters on a link basis. As the underlying infrastructure varies depending on the source and destination of the transfer, the parameters modelling the network between these sites will also be studied.

  5. Optical stabilization for time transfer infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojtech, Josef; Altmann, Michal; Skoda, Pavel; Horvath, Tomas; Slapak, Martin; Smotlacha, Vladimir; Havlis, Ondrej; Munster, Petr; Radil, Jan; Kundrat, Jan; Altmannova, Lada; Velc, Radek; Hula, Miloslav; Vohnout, Rudolf

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we propose and present verification of all-optical methods for stabilization of the end-to-end delay of an optical fiber link. These methods are verified for deployment within infrastructure for accurate time and stable frequency distribution, based on sharing of fibers with research and educational network carrying live data traffic. Methods range from path length control, through temperature conditioning method to transmit wavelength control. Attention is given to achieve continuous control for relatively broad range of delays. We summarize design rules for delay stabilization based on the character and the total delay jitter.

  6. Two-Way Satellite Time Transfer Between USNO and PTB

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Piester, D; Bauch, A; Becker, J; Polewka, T; McKinley, A; Breakiron, L; Smith, A; Fonville, B; Matsakis, D

    2005-01-01

    Two completely independent two-way time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) links have been established between the institutions of USNO and PTB, with transponder frequencies in the Ku-band and X-band, respectively...

  7. Real-time transfer and display of radiography image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ximing; Wu Zhifang; Miao Jicheng

    2000-01-01

    The information process network of cobalt-60 container inspection system is a local area network based on PC. The system requires reliable transfer of radiography image between collection station and process station and the real-time display of radiography image on process station. Due to the very high data acquisition rate, in order to realize the real-time transfer and display of radiography image, 100 M Ethernet technology and network process communication technology are adopted in the system. Windows Sockets is the most common process communication technology up to now. Several kinds of process communication way under Windows Sockets technology are compared and tested. Finally the author realized 1 Mbyte/s' inerrant image transfer and real-time display with blocked datagram transfer technology

  8. Cancer survivors' experience of time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Dorte M.; Elverdam, Beth

    2007-01-01

    , and prioritize how and with whom they want to spend their time. CONCLUSION: With an increasing number of people being cured following a cancer diagnosis, nurses and oncology nurse specialists who work with cancer survivors must be aware of the fact that time is a central theme in understanding cancer survivors......' lives, and they must know how to guide these survivors in their new lives and take care of their well-being....

  9. Versatile Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) on Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerick, Adrienne R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines a new Desktop Experiment Module (DEMo) engineered for a chemical engineering junior-level Heat Transfer course. This new DEMo learning tool is versatile, fairly inexpensive, and portable such that it can be positioned on student desks throughout a classroom. The DEMo system can illustrate conduction of various materials,…

  10. Women Engineering Transfer Students: The Community College Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    An interpretative philosophical framework was applied to a case study to document the particular experiences and perspectives of ten women engineering transfer students who once attended a community college and are currently enrolled in one of two university professional engineering programs. This study is important because women still do not earn…

  11. Young adults’ experiences and satisfaction with the transfer of care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staa, A. van; Sattoe, J.N.T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Transition of care of adolescents with chronic conditions is a critical area for clinicians. Patient-reported outcomes may provide important information on the quality of services. This cohort study examines young adults’ experiences and satisfaction with the transfer to adult care and

  12. Transfer buffer containing methanol can be reused multiple times in protein electrotransfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettegrew, Colin J; Jayini, Renuka; Islam, M Rafiq

    2009-04-01

    We investigated the feasibility of repeated use of transfer buffer containing methanol in electrotransfer of proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels to polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane using a prestained protein marker of broad molecular sizes. Transfer of the antitumor protein p53 in HEK293T cell extracts, using fresh and used transfer buffer, followed by detection with anti-p53 antibody was also performed to test detectability in immunoblot. Results from these experiments indicate that the transfer buffer can be reused at least five times and maintain a similar extent of protein transfer to PVDF membrane. Repeated use of the transfer buffer containing methanol will significantly reduce the volume of hazardous waste generated and its disposal cost as well as its adverse effect on environment.

  13. On the potential of Galileo E5 for time transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Belda, Mari Carmen; Defraigne, Pascale; Bruyninx, Carine

    2013-01-01

    The main global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) technique currently used for accurate time and frequency transfer is based on an analysis of the ionosphere-free combinations of dual-frequency code and carrier phase measurements in a precise point positioning (PPP) mode. This technique analyses the observations of one GNSS station using external products for satellite clocks and orbits to determine the position and clock synchronization errors of this station. The frequency stability of this time transfer is limited by the noise and multipath of the Global Positioning System (GPS) and Globalnaya Navigatsionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema (GLONASS) codes. In the near future, Galileo will offer a broadband signal E5, with low noise in the centimeter range and with the lowest multipath error ever observed. This paper investigates new analysis procedures based on the E5 codeplus- carrier (CPC) combination for time transfer. The CPC combination with E5 provides a noise level 10 times lower than the ionosphere-free combination of Galileo E1 and E5, which is very promising for improving GNSS time transfer performances. From some tests with simulated Galileo data, it is shown here that the use of the CPC combination with E5 does not improve, at present, the medium- and long-term stability of time transfer with respect to the ionosphere-free combination of Galileo E1 and E5 codes, because of the need for a second frequency signal to correct for the ionospheric delays and ambiguities.

  14. Time's arrow: A numerical experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, G. Richard

    1994-04-01

    The dependence of time's arrow on initial conditions is illustrated by a numerical example in which plane waves produced by an initial pressure pulse are followed as they are multiply reflected at internal interfaces of a layered medium. Wave interactions at interfaces are shown to be analogous to the retarded and advanced waves of point sources. The model is linear and the calculation is exact and demonstrably time reversible; nevertheless the results show most of the features expected of a macroscopically irreversible system, including the approach to the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, ergodicity, and concomitant entropy increase.

  15. The Renewal Center: Time, Experience, Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tennant, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Time, Experience, Memory Through experience we are conscious of time. Through time, our experiences become memories, influencing both conscious and unconscious thought. It is through our five senses; touch, sight, hearing, smell and taste, that these experiences are gathered. Humans are also born with inherent knowledge that our species has collected from generation to generation. This inherent knowledge, also called the collective unconscious, has a direct effect on the way we perce...

  16. Relativistic time transfer for a Mars lander: from Areocentric Coordinate Time to Barycentric Coordinate Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Zheng; Xu, De-Wang; Yu, Qing-Shan; Liu, Jie; Xie, Yi

    2017-08-01

    As the second step of relativistic time transfer for a Mars lander, we investigate the transformation between Areocentric Coordinate Time (TCA) and Barycentric Coordinate Time (TCB) in the framework of IAU Resolutions. TCA is a local time scale for Mars, which is analogous to the Geocentric Coordinate Time (TCG) for Earth. This transformation has two parts: contributions associated with gravitational bodies and those depending on the position of the lander. After setting the instability of an onboard clock to 10-13 and considering that the uncertainty in time is about 3.2 microseconds after one Earth year, we find that the contributions of the Sun, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn in the leading term associated with these bodies can reach a level exceeding the threshold and must be taken into account. Other terms can be safely ignored in this transformation for a Mars lander.

  17. Mixed convection heat transfer experiments using analogy concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Bong Jin; Chung, Bum Jin; Lee, Won Jea

    2009-01-01

    A Series of the turbulent mixed convective heat transfer experiments in a vertical cylinder was carried out. In order to achieve high Gr and/or Ra with small scale test rigs, the analogy concept was adopted. Using the concept, heat transfer systems were simulated by mass transfer systems, and large Grashof numbers could be achieved with reasonable facility heights. The tests were performed with buoyancy-aided flow and opposed flow for Reynolds numbers from 4,000 to 10,000 with a constant Grashof number, Gr H of 6.2 x 10 9 and Prandtl number of about 2,000. The test results reproduced the typical of the mixed convection heat transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation and agree well with the experimental study performed by Y. Palratan et al. The analogy experimental method simulated the mixed convection heat transfer phenomena successfully and seems to be a useful tool for heat transfer studies for VHTR as well as the systems with high buoyancy condition and high Prandtl number

  18. Thermal striping heat transfer measurements in sodium AKB experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriff, N.; Sephton, K.P.; Gleave, C.

    1988-01-01

    Temperature fluctuations are produced in the sodium flow of fast reactors where hot and cold flow streams mix. A sodium experiment mounted on the Interatom facility AKB has been used to measure the heat transfer conditions in a flow stream with typical temperature fluctuations. The measurements were made at locations near to the leading edge of a plate, where in practice the most severe conditions are expected. With tests carried out over a wide range of flows good correlations of the heat transfer data with flow have been obtained. A simple theoretical model is proposed to explain the magnitude of the measured heat transfer coefficients, and the use of reasonable assumptions in the model produce good agreement with the experimental measurements

  19. Experience transfer in Norwegian oil and gas industry: Approaches and organizational mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aase, Karina

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of this thesis has been to explore how experience transfer works in Norwegian oil and gas industry. This includes how the concept of experience transfer is defined, what the barriers to achieve experience transfer are, how the oil and gas companies address experience transfer, and how these approaches work. The thesis is organized in five papers: (1) describes how organizational members perceive experience transfer and then specifies the organizational and structural barriers that must be overcome to achieve efficient transfer. (2) discusses the organizational means an oil company implements to address experience transfer. (3) describes a process of improving and using requirement and procedure handbooks for experience transfer. (4) explores how the use of information technology influences experience transfer. (5) compares organizational members` perceptions of experience transfer means in an oil company and an engineering company involved in offshore development projects. 277 refs., 3 figs., 29 tabs.

  20. Experience transfer in Norwegian oil and gas industry: Approaches and organizational mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aase, Karina

    1998-12-31

    The main objective of this thesis has been to explore how experience transfer works in Norwegian oil and gas industry. This includes how the concept of experience transfer is defined, what the barriers to achieve experience transfer are, how the oil and gas companies address experience transfer, and how these approaches work. The thesis is organized in five papers: (1) describes how organizational members perceive experience transfer and then specifies the organizational and structural barriers that must be overcome to achieve efficient transfer. (2) discusses the organizational means an oil company implements to address experience transfer. (3) describes a process of improving and using requirement and procedure handbooks for experience transfer. (4) explores how the use of information technology influences experience transfer. (5) compares organizational members` perceptions of experience transfer means in an oil company and an engineering company involved in offshore development projects. 277 refs., 3 figs., 29 tabs.

  1. The experience of transition in adolescents and young adults transferring from paediatric to adult care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fegran, Liv; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid; Aagaard, Hanne

    Introduction: Despite research and implementation of transition models in the last decades, transfer from paediatric to adult care still poses great challenges. Predominantly studies on health care transition have been based on the perspective of experts or health care professionals. Aim...... of familiar surroundings and relationships combined with insecurity and a feeling of being unprepared for what was ahead. Four sub-themes illustrating these experiences were identified: facing changes of significant relationships, moving from familiar to unknown ward cultures, timing of transfer and achieving...... as competent collaborators in their own transfer is crucial, and may protect them from additional health problems in a vulnerable phase of their life....

  2. Experiment on transient heat transfer in closed narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Masaaki

    1985-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients and transient pressures in closed narrow channels were obtained experimentally, in order to assess the gap heat transfer models in the computer code WTRLGD which were devised to analyze the internal pressure behavior of waterlogged fuel rods. Gap widths of channels are 0.1--0.5mm to simulate the gap region of waterlogged fuel rods, and test fluids are water (7--89.2 0 C) and Freon-113 (9.2 0 C). The results show that the heater temperature and the pressure measured in the experiments without the DNB occurrence are simulated fairly well by the calculational model of WTRLGD where the heat transfer in a closed narrow channel is evaluated with one-dimensional transient thermal conduction equation and Jens and Lottes' correlation for nucleate boiling. Consequently, it is also suggested that the above equations are available for evaluation of heat flux from fuel to internal water of waterlogged fuel rods. The film boiling heat transfer coefficient was in the same order of that evaluated by Bromley's correlation and the DNB heat flux was smaller than that obtained in quasi-steady experiments with ordinary systems, although the experimental data for them were not enough. (author)

  3. Subseabed Disposal Program In-Situ Heat Transfer Experiment (ISHTE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percival, C.M.

    1983-05-01

    A heat transfer experiment is being developed in support of the Subseabed Disposal Program. The primary objectives of this experiment are: to provide information on the in situ response of seabed sediment to localized heating; to provide an opportunity to evaluate theoretical models of the response and to observe any unanticipated phenomena which may occur; and to develop and demonstrate the technology necessary to perform waste isolation oriented experiments on the seafloor at depths up to 6000 m. As presently envisaged, the heat transfer experiment will be conducted at a location in the central North Pacific though it could be performed anywhere that the ocean bottom is of the type deemed suitable for the disposal of nuclear waste material. The experiment will be conducted of the seafloor from a recoverable space-frame platform at a depth of approximately 6000 m. A 400-W isotopic heat source will be implanted in the illite sediment and the subsequent response of the sediment to the induced thermal field evaluated. After remote initiation of the experiment, a permanent record of the data obtained will be recorded on board the platform, with selected information transmitted to a surface vessel by acoustic telemetry. The experiment will be operational for one year, after which the entire platform will be recovered. Current plans call for the deployment of the experiment in 1986. Specific activities which will be pursued during the course of the experiment include: measurement of the thermal field; determination of the effective thermal conductivity of the sediment; measurement of pore pressure; evaluation of radionuclide migration processes; pore water sampling; sediment chemistry studies; sediment shear strength measurements; and coring operations in the immediate vicinity of the experiment for postexperiment analysis

  4. Heat transfer experiment in a granite formation at Cornwall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Hodgkinson, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment simulating a waste package was started in 1978 in Cornish granite. To obtain measurable temperature rises through large volumes of rock, an electrical heater at 50m depth was run for four years. The heater was then switched off and the cooling was monitored for another year. The results show that most of the heat transfer was by conduction but that some convection occurred and that temperatures can be predicted with some confidence

  5. Finite life time effects in the coherent exciton transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barvik, I.; Herman, P.

    1992-04-01

    The paper addresses a specific problem in the exciton transfer in molecular aggregates, namely the influence of the finite life time effects, on the memory functions entering the Generalized Master Equation (GME) which connect different sites of the system. 7 refs, 2 figs

  6. Family Events and the Timing of Intergenerational Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Thomas; Schneider, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates how family events in adult children's lives influence the timing of their parents' financial transfers. We draw on retrospective data collected by the German Socio-Economic Panel Study and use event history models to study the effects of marriage, divorce and childbirth on the receipt of large gifts from parents. We find…

  7. Successful Skill Transfer: Military Service Experience and Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Kürşad Özlen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In today’s business life, employees from different sectors have the opportunity to work in other industries and can have different positions through the organization. This can be considered from the perspective of skill transfer (transfer of tacit knowledge. The success can be questioned in terms of company performance. If this process can be managed well performance will be higher. This research mainly aims to identify whether veterans with military service experience can contribute to employee motivation, organizational motivation and organizational benefits. In order to test the assumed associations, the research employs a survey study on the veterans who have served for Bosnian army and are currently employees of Bosnian firms. The results provide that military service experience is significantly influential on the motivations of employees and organizations and on company performance. It can be suggested that the adaptation of external knowledge (skill transfer, military service experience, into new organizational environment can be enhanced by the help of knowledge management. This research is valuable in that it is among the few studies in its respective field and in the region.

  8. Target selection biases from recent experience transfer across effectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2016-02-01

    Target selection is often biased by an observer's recent experiences. However, not much is known about whether these selection biases influence behavior across different effectors. For example, does looking at a red object make it easier to subsequently reach towards another red object? In the current study, we asked observers to find the uniquely colored target object on each trial. Randomly intermixed pre-trial cues indicated the mode of action: either an eye movement or a visually guided reach movement to the target. In Experiment 1, we found that priming of popout, reflected in faster responses following repetition of the target color on consecutive trials, occurred regardless of whether the effector was repeated from the previous trial or not. In Experiment 2, we examined whether an inhibitory selection bias away from a feature could transfer across effectors. While priming of popout reflects both enhancement of the repeated target features and suppression of the repeated distractor features, the distractor previewing effect isolates a purely inhibitory component of target selection in which a previewed color is presented in a homogenous display and subsequently inhibited. Much like priming of popout, intertrial suppression biases in the distractor previewing effect transferred across effectors. Together, these results suggest that biases for target selection driven by recent trial history transfer across effectors. This indicates that representations in memory that bias attention towards or away from specific features are largely independent from their associated actions.

  9. Effects of stimulus pair orientation and hand switching on reaction time estimates of interhemispheric transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc-Sirois, Yanick; Braun, Claude M J; Elie-Fortier, Jonathan

    2018-03-26

    Two behavioral estimates of interhemispheric transfer time, the crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD) and the unilateral field advantage (UFA), are thought to, respectively, index transfer of premotor and visual information across the corpus callosum in neurotypical participants. However, no attempt to manipulate visual and motor contingencies in a set of tasks while measuring the CUD and the UFA has yet been reported. In two go/no-go comparison experiments, stimulus pair orientations were manipulated. The hand of response changed after each correct response in the second, but not the first experiment. No correlation was found between the CUD and the UFA, supporting the hypothesis that these two measures index different types of information transfer across hemispheres. An effect of manipulation of stimulus pair orientation on UFAs was attributed to the homotopy of callosal fibers transferring visual information, while an effect of hand switching on CUDs was attributed mostly to spatial compatibility.

  10. Rod Bundle Heat Transfer: Steady-State Steam Cooling Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spring, J.P.; McLaughlin, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Through the joint efforts of the Pennsylvania State University and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, an experimental rod bundle heat transfer (RBHT) facility was designed and built. The rod bundle consists of a 7 x 7 square pitch array with spacer grids and geometry similar to that found in a modern pressurized water reactor. From this facility, a series of steady-state steam cooling experiments were performed. The bundle inlet Reynolds number was varied from 1 400 to 30 000 over a pressure range from 1.36 to 4 bars (20 to 60 psia). The bundle inlet steam temperature was controlled to be at saturation for the specified pressure and the fluid exit temperature exceeded 550 deg. C in the highest power tests. One important quantity of interest is the local convective heat transfer coefficient defined in terms of the local bulk mean temperature of the flow, local wall temperature, and heat flux. Steam temperatures were measured at the center of selected subchannels along the length of the bundle by traversing miniaturized thermocouples. Using an analogy between momentum and energy transport, a method was developed for relating the local subchannel centerline temperature measurement to the local bulk mean temperature. Wall temperatures were measured using internal thermocouples strategically placed along the length of each rod and the local wall heat flux was obtained from an inverse conduction program. The local heat transfer coefficient was calculated from the data at each rod thermocouple location. The local heat transfer coefficients calculated for locations where the flow was fully developed were compared against several published correlations. The Weisman and El-Genk correlations were found to agree best with the RBHT steam cooling data, especially over the range of turbulent Reynolds numbers. The effect of spacer grids on the heat transfer enhancement was also determined from instrumentation placed downstream of the spacer grid locations. The local

  11. Relativistic Time Transfer for Inter-satellite Links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yi, E-mail: yixie@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, School of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Space Navigation and Position Techniques, Shanghai (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China)

    2016-04-26

    Inter-Satellite links (ISLs) will be an important technique for a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) in the future. Based on the principles of general relativity, the time transfer in an ISL is modeled and the algorithm for onboard computation is described. It is found, in general, satellites with circular orbits and identical semi-major axes can benefit inter-satellite time transfer by canceling out terms associated with the transformations between the proper times and the Geocentric Coordinate Time. For a GPS-like GNSS, the Shapiro delay is as large as 0.1 ns when the ISL passes at the limb of the Earth. However, in more realistic cases, this value will decrease to about 50 ps.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer during Night-Time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artmann, Nikolai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Manz, H.

    2010-01-01

    is the heat transfer at the internal room surfaces. Increased convection is expected due to high air flow rates and the possibility of a cold air jet flowing along the ceiling, but the magnitude of these effects is hard to predict. In order to improve the predictability, heat transfer during night......-time ventilation in case of mixing and displacement ventilation has been investigated in a full scale test room. The results show that for low air flow rates displacement ventilation is more efficient than mixing ventilation. For higher air flow rates the air jet flowing along the ceiling has a significant effect...

  13. Long distance fast data transfer experiments for the ITER Remote Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Kenjiro, E-mail: yamanaka@nii.ac.jp [National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa (Japan); Nakanishi, Hideya [National Institute of Fusion Science, 322-6 Orochi, Toki, Gifu (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa (Japan); Ozeki, Takahisa [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi-Omotedate 2-166, Rokkasho, Kamikita, Aomori (Japan); Abe, Shunji; Urushidani, Shigeo [National Institute of Informatics, 2-1-2 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa (Japan); Yamamoto, Takashi [National Institute of Fusion Science, 322-6 Orochi, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Ohtsu, Hideo [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Obuchi-Omotedate 2-166, Rokkasho, Kamikita, Aomori (Japan); Nakajima, Noriyoshi [National Institute of Fusion Science, 322-6 Orochi, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • This paper presents fast data transfer experiments using packet pacing and mmcftp and results. • An upgrade plan of Japanese Academic Network SINET is also described. • To send the huge amount of data from ITER to the ITER Remote Experiment Center (REC), effective transfer method and super high-speed international network are required. • This paper presents a progress of the investigation for fast transfer method. - Abstract: Developing effective and fast data transfer system for the huge amount data between Europe and Japan is a critical issue for the ITER Remote Experimentation Center (REC). To implement the system, effective data transfer methods and wide bandwidth international network are required. This paper describes results of data transfer experiments. We have evaluated two data transfer methods: Packet Pacing and MMCFTP. By using Packet Pacing and 2.4 Gbps line, we achieved 2.2 Gbps data transfer from NIFS to IFERC. By using MMCFTP and 10 Gbps line, we achieved 2.5 Gbps data transfer from NIFS to Dublin, Ireland. Furthermore, by using MMCFTP and 100Gbps line, we successfully achieved the stable transmission of 1PB of data at approximately 84 Gbps, one of the world’s fastest transmission speeds. This paper also describes the upgrade plan of SINET (a Japanese academic backbone network), which is used for ITER and REC communications. SINET will be upgraded to the network based on 100-Gigabit Ethernet technology in April 2016. Furthermore, direct lines of 20 Gbps (10 Gbps × 2) between Japan and Europe will be introduced. These direct lines will reduce latency between Europe and Japan and will realize higher speed data transfer.

  14. Exploring the Lived Experiences and Intersectionalities of Mexican Community College Transfer Students: Qualitative Insights toward Expanding a Transfer Receptive Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Erin L.; Cortez, Edén

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the experiences of six Mexican community college transfer students attending a research-intensive institution in the Pacific Northwest. Using semi-structured interviews, the objectives of this study were to 1) understand how Mexican students made meaning of their transfer experiences and 2) how those experiences…

  15. Multiscale Symbolic Phase Transfer Entropy in Financial Time Series Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Lin, Aijing; Shang, Pengjian

    We address the challenge of classifying financial time series via a newly proposed multiscale symbolic phase transfer entropy (MSPTE). Using MSPTE method, we succeed to quantify the strength and direction of information flow between financial systems and classify financial time series, which are the stock indices from Europe, America and China during the period from 2006 to 2016 and the stocks of banking, aviation industry and pharmacy during the period from 2007 to 2016, simultaneously. The MSPTE analysis shows that the value of symbolic phase transfer entropy (SPTE) among stocks decreases with the increasing scale factor. It is demonstrated that MSPTE method can well divide stocks into groups by areas and industries. In addition, it can be concluded that the MSPTE analysis quantify the similarity among the stock markets. The symbolic phase transfer entropy (SPTE) between the two stocks from the same area is far less than the SPTE between stocks from different areas. The results also indicate that four stocks from America and Europe have relatively high degree of similarity and the stocks of banking and pharmaceutical industry have higher similarity for CA. It is worth mentioning that the pharmaceutical industry has weaker particular market mechanism than banking and aviation industry.

  16. Wireless Power Transfer Protocols in Sensor Networks: Experiments and Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Nikoletseas

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid technological advances in the domain of Wireless Power Transfer pave the way for novel methods for power management in systems of wireless devices, and recent research works have already started considering algorithmic solutions for tackling emerging problems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of efficient and balanced Wireless Power Transfer in Wireless Sensor Networks. We employ wireless chargers that replenish the energy of network nodes. We propose two protocols that configure the activity of the chargers. One protocol performs wireless charging focused on the charging efficiency, while the other aims at proper balance of the chargers’ residual energy. We conduct detailed experiments using real devices and we validate the experimental results via larger scale simulations. We observe that, in both the experimental evaluation and the evaluation through detailed simulations, both protocols achieve their main goals. The Charging Oriented protocol achieves good charging efficiency throughout the experiment, while the Energy Balancing protocol achieves a uniform distribution of energy within the chargers.

  17. RAPTOR. I. Time-dependent radiative transfer in arbitrary spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzwaer, T.; Davelaar, J.; Younsi, Z.; Mościbrodzka, M.; Falcke, H.; Kramer, M.; Rezzolla, L.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Observational efforts to image the immediate environment of a black hole at the scale of the event horizon benefit from the development of efficient imaging codes that are capable of producing synthetic data, which may be compared with observational data. Aims: We aim to present RAPTOR, a new public code that produces accurate images, animations, and spectra of relativistic plasmas in strong gravity by numerically integrating the equations of motion of light rays and performing time-dependent radiative transfer calculations along the rays. The code is compatible with any analytical or numerical spacetime. It is hardware-agnostic and may be compiled and run both on GPUs and CPUs. Methods: We describe the algorithms used in RAPTOR and test the code's performance. We have performed a detailed comparison of RAPTOR output with that of other radiative-transfer codes and demonstrate convergence of the results. We then applied RAPTOR to study accretion models of supermassive black holes, performing time-dependent radiative transfer through general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamical (GRMHD) simulations and investigating the expected observational differences between the so-called fast-light and slow-light paradigms. Results: Using RAPTOR to produce synthetic images and light curves of a GRMHD model of an accreting black hole, we find that the relative difference between fast-light and slow-light light curves is less than 5%. Using two distinct radiative-transfer codes to process the same data, we find integrated flux densities with a relative difference less than 0.01%. Conclusions: For two-dimensional GRMHD models, such as those examined in this paper, the fast-light approximation suffices as long as errors of a few percent are acceptable. The convergence of the results of two different codes demonstrates that they are, at a minimum, consistent. The public version of RAPTOR is available at the following URL: http://https://github.com/tbronzwaer/raptor

  18. Efficient Transfer Entropy Analysis of Non-Stationary Neural Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Raul; Díaz-Pernas, Francisco J.; Wibral, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Information theory allows us to investigate information processing in neural systems in terms of information transfer, storage and modification. Especially the measure of information transfer, transfer entropy, has seen a dramatic surge of interest in neuroscience. Estimating transfer entropy from two processes requires the observation of multiple realizations of these processes to estimate associated probability density functions. To obtain these necessary observations, available estimators typically assume stationarity of processes to allow pooling of observations over time. This assumption however, is a major obstacle to the application of these estimators in neuroscience as observed processes are often non-stationary. As a solution, Gomez-Herrero and colleagues theoretically showed that the stationarity assumption may be avoided by estimating transfer entropy from an ensemble of realizations. Such an ensemble of realizations is often readily available in neuroscience experiments in the form of experimental trials. Thus, in this work we combine the ensemble method with a recently proposed transfer entropy estimator to make transfer entropy estimation applicable to non-stationary time series. We present an efficient implementation of the approach that is suitable for the increased computational demand of the ensemble method's practical application. In particular, we use a massively parallel implementation for a graphics processing unit to handle the computationally most heavy aspects of the ensemble method for transfer entropy estimation. We test the performance and robustness of our implementation on data from numerical simulations of stochastic processes. We also demonstrate the applicability of the ensemble method to magnetoencephalographic data. While we mainly evaluate the proposed method for neuroscience data, we expect it to be applicable in a variety of fields that are concerned with the analysis of information transfer in complex biological, social, and

  19. Long conduction time POs experiments on MITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodall, H.N.; McDaniel, D.H.; Mendel, C.W.; Rochau, G.E.; Zagar, D.M.; Simpson, W.W.; Zuchowski, N.P.

    1990-01-01

    MITE is a power flow test bed that has been modified to conduct experiments in high power plasma opening switch (POS) technology and apply this technology to Inertial Confinement Fusion. The goal of the experiment is to develop a plasma opening switch that conducts megampere currents for 300 ns, then opens in 5--10 ns. MITE/POS is an advanced power flow experiment that uses a magnetically insulated transmission line (MITL) as the inductive energy store and as a means to shape the output pulse. This experiment demonstrates that a simplified, lower-cost facility can be built by eliminating water pulse-forming lines and water-switching. Another advantage of this approach is that high energy efficiency at peak power can be achieved. The disadvantage is that a new technology, the triggered POS, must be implemented. The triggered POS is necessary for synchronization of multiple modules with a long conduction-time POS. The MITE facility has been modified to drive a 250 nH, 16.6 Ohm MITL at 0.9 MA to accommodate this power flow experiment. A MITL inductive energy storage of 101 kJ is available for POS switching to a matched load. Experiments have been conducted using segmented flashboards and magnetic-field controlled plasma sources. These experiments will lead to the development of the triggered POS. The initial experiments with plasma conduction times of 120 ns to 800 ns are discussed

  20. HVDC interrupter experiments for large Magnetic Energy Transfer and Storage (METS) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannack, C.E.; Haarman, R.A.; Lindsay, J.D.G.; Weldon, D.M.

    1975-01-01

    Proposed fusion-test reactors will require energy storage systems of hundreds of megajoules with transfer times of the order of one millisecond. The size of the energy storage submodule (and hence, the overall system cost and complexity) is directly determined by the voltage and current limits of the switch used for the energy transfer. Experiments are being conducted on high voltage dc circuit breakers as a major part of the energy storage, pulsed power program. DC circuit interruption characteristics of a commercially available ac power vacuum interrupter are discussed. Preliminary data of interruption characteristics are reported for an interrupter developed specifically to match a present METS circuit requirement

  1. Enhacements to the TTS-502 time transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandierendonck, A. J.; Hua, Q. D.

    1985-04-01

    Two years ago STI introduced an affordable, relatively compact time transfer system on the market -- the TTS-502, and described that system at the 1981 PTTI conference. Over the past few months, that system has been improved, and new features have been added. In addition, new options have been made available to further enhance the capabilities of the system. These enhancements include the addition of a positioning algorithm and new options providing a corrected 5 MHz output that is phase coherent with the 1 pps output, and providing an internal Rubidium Oscillator. The Positioning Algorithm was developed because not all time transfer users had the luxury of the Defense Mapping Agency's (DMA) services for determining their position in WGS-72 coordinates. The enhanced TTS-502 determines the GPS position anywhere in the world, independent of how many GPS satellites are concurrently visible. However, convergence time to a solution is inversely proportional to the number of satellites concurrently visible and the quality of frequency standard used in conjunction with the TTS-502. Real World solution results will be presented for a variety of cases and satellite scheduling scenarios. Typically, positioning accuracies were achieved better than 5 to 10 meters r.s.s. using the C/A code only at Sunnyvale, California.

  2. Progress of BeiDou time transfer at NTSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guang, Wei; Dong, Shaowu; Wu, Wenjun; Zhang, Jihai; Yuan, Haibo; Zhang, Shougang

    2018-04-01

    Time transfer using global navigation satellite system (GNSS) is a primary method of remote atomic clock comparisons. As of today, there are four operational GNSS systems, namely GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS or BeiDou). All of them can continuously provide position, navigation and time services. This paper mainly focuses on the progress of BeiDou time transfer at the National Time Service Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences (NTSC). In order to realize the BeiDou common view (CV) time comparison, we developed the Rinex2CGGTTS software according to the guidelines of the Common GNSS Generic Time Transfer Standard, Version 2E (CGGTTS V2E). By comparing the solutions of the Rinex2CGGTTS software to the solutions of the sbf2cggtts software provided by the manufacturer of our multi-GNSS receiver, we found the sbf2cggtts (version 1.0.5) solutions contained biases in measurements to different BeiDou satellites. The biases are most likely caused by sbf2cggtts’ timing group delay corrections in data processing. The noise of the observation data is analyzed by code multipath and common clock difference. Finally, the BeiDou CV results are compared to the GPS/GLONASS/Galileo CV results between NTSC and three European UTC(k) laboratories, including Royal Observatory of Belgium (ORB), Real Institute y Observatory de la Armada (ROA), Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE or SP). For the comparisons of each baseline, we aligned the BeiDou/Galileo/GLONASS links to the calibrated GPS link with the double-difference method. The results show that the performance of BeiDou CV is correlated to the number of BeiDou satellites available in common view. With the current BeiDou constellation, the standard deviation of the differences between all BeiDou CV satellites averaging result and the GPS PPP result is 2.03 ns, 2.90 ns and 4.06 ns for ORB-NTSC, SP-NTSC and ROA-NTSC links respectively.

  3. Soil to plant transfer factor of radiocesium by pot experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalil, A.; Rahman, M.M.; Koddus, A.; Chand, M.M.; Zaman, M.A.; Ahmad, G.U.

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the soil to plant transfer factor (TF) of radiocesium (Cs 137 ) considered to be an important parameter while calculating radiological doses due to the potential release of radionuclides into the environment. In the present work, TF values were measured for the main foodstuffs in Bangladesh such as leafy vegetables (Lalshak, Palangshak), Ladyfinger, Radish, Potato, Potato Plant, Paddy, Paddy plant, Grass, Ginger, Ginger plant, Turmeric, and Turmeric plant by pot experiments grown in the AERE soil. Soil characteristics have also been investigated to assist the measured values of the corresponding radionuclide. TF values of the leafy parts and products of the corresponding plants were found in the range of 2.02x10 -1 to 1.8x10 -2 , which are reasonably comparable with the value found in the literature. It has been observed that the TF values in the leafy part of the plants are higher than the products. (author)

  4. Proton Transfer Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Thomas B. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTRMS) measures gas-phase compounds in ambient air and headspace samples before using chemical ionization to produce positively charged molecules, which are detected with a time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. This ionization method uses a gentle proton transfer reaction method between the molecule of interest and protonated water, or hydronium ion (H3O+), to produce limited fragmentation of the parent molecule. The ions produced are primarily positively charged with the mass of the parent ion, plus an additional proton. Ion concentration is determined by adding the number of ions counted at the molecular ion’s mass-to-charge ratio to the number of air molecules in the reaction chamber, which can be identified according to the pressure levels in the reaction chamber. The PTRMS allows many volatile organic compounds in ambient air to be detected at levels from 10–100 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). The response time is 1 to 10 seconds.

  5. Advances in NIF Shock Timing Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Harry

    2012-10-01

    Experiments are underway to tune the shock timing of capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These experiments use a modified cryogenic hohlraum geometry designed to precisely match the performance of ignition hohlraums. The targets employ a re-entrant Au cone to provide optical access to multiple shocks as they propagate in the liquid deuterium-filled capsule interior. The strength and timing of all four shocks is diagnosed with VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector). Experiments are now routinely conducted in a mirrored keyhole geometry, which allows for simultaneous diagnosis of the shock timing at both the hohlraum pole and equator. Further modifications are being made to improve the surrogacy to ignition hohlraums by replacing the standard liquid deuterium (D2) capsule fill with a deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer. These experiments will remove any possible surrogacy difference between D2 and DT as well as incorporate the physics of shock release from the ice layer, which is absent in current experiments. Experimental results and comparisons with numerical simulation are presented.

  6. On the time-dependent radiative transfer in photospheric plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, A.L.; Schweizer, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is the second of a series investigating time-dependent radiative transfer processes of x-rays in photospheric plasmas. A quantitative discussion is presented of analytical results derived earlier along with a comparison with Monte Carlo simulations. The geometry considered is a homogeneous plasma ball with radius R. The source is concentrated on a concentric shell with radius r 0 < R. Point sources at the centre of the ball or semi-infinite geometries are discussed as limiting cases. Diffusion profiles are given for every scattering order and the total profile appears as the sum over these individual profiles. The comparison with Monte Carlo results is used to test the accuracy of the analytical approach and to adjust the time profiles of the first few scattering orders. The analytical theory yields good results over a wide range of situations. (author)

  7. Time-To-Complete Prediction for Data Transfers

    CERN Document Server

    Toler, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no prediction provided to users for the amount of time a particular data transfer from one site in the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid to another will take to complete. To develop a time-to-complete prediction, network performance data and per-file information is gathered from two separate databases and fused, and the resulting cleaned data is fitted using random forest regression. Results are shown for two separate links: the link from CERN Data Centre to Brookhaven National Laboratory’s ATLAS data center, and the link from CERN Data Centre to SARA-MATRIX in Amsterdam. A total RMS error of 25.93 minutes between predicted and test data is found for the CERN-PROD -> BNL-ATLAS link, while the CERN-PROD -> SARA-MATRIX link yields a total RMS error of 3.00 minutes.

  8. Data transfer over the wide area network with a large round trip time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, H.; Isobe, T.; Mashimo, T.; Sakamoto, H.; Ueda, I.

    2010-04-01

    A Tier-2 regional center is running at the University of Tokyo in Japan. This center receives a large amount of data of the ATLAS experiment from the Tier-1 center in France. Although the link between the two centers has 10Gbps bandwidth, it is not a dedicated link but is shared with other traffic, and the round trip time is 290ms. It is not easy to exploit the available bandwidth for such a link, so-called long fat network. We performed data transfer tests by using GridFTP in various combinations of the parameters, such as the number of parallel streams and the TCP window size. In addition, we have gained experience of the actual data transfer in our production system where the Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is used as the Storage Element and the data transfer is controlled by the File Transfer Service (FTS). We report results of the tests and the daily activity, and discuss the improvement of the data transfer throughput.

  9. Data transfer over the wide area network with a large round trip time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, H; Isobe, T; Mashimo, T; Sakamoto, H; Ueda, I

    2010-01-01

    A Tier-2 regional center is running at the University of Tokyo in Japan. This center receives a large amount of data of the ATLAS experiment from the Tier-1 center in France. Although the link between the two centers has 10Gbps bandwidth, it is not a dedicated link but is shared with other traffic, and the round trip time is 290ms. It is not easy to exploit the available bandwidth for such a link, so-called long fat network. We performed data transfer tests by using GridFTP in various combinations of the parameters, such as the number of parallel streams and the TCP window size. In addition, we have gained experience of the actual data transfer in our production system where the Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is used as the Storage Element and the data transfer is controlled by the File Transfer Service (FTS). We report results of the tests and the daily activity, and discuss the improvement of the data transfer throughput.

  10. Position-dependent radiative transfer as a tool for studying Anderson localization: Delay time, time-reversal and coherent backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tiggelen, B. A.; Skipetrov, S. E.; Page, J. H.

    2017-05-01

    Previous work has established that the localized regime of wave transport in open media is characterized by a position-dependent diffusion coefficient. In this work we study how the concept of position-dependent diffusion affects the delay time, the transverse confinement, the coherent backscattering, and the time reversal of waves. Definitions of energy transport velocity of localized waves are proposed. We start with a phenomenological model of radiative transfer and then present a novel perturbational approach based on the self-consistent theory of localization. The latter allows us to obtain results relevant for realistic experiments in disordered quasi-1D wave guides and 3D slabs.

  11. Technology Transfer: Technocultures, Power and Communication--The Australian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Elizabeth; Irwin, Harry

    1995-01-01

    Discusses issues of communication and power in the organizational dimensions of international technology transfer, including technoculture differences and strategic political alliances. Theoretical discussion is supplemented by analysis of international technology transfer activities involving Australian participation in the aerospace and…

  12. Second Chances: Investigating Athletes' Experiences of Talent Transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áine MacNamara

    Full Text Available Talent transfer initiatives seek to transfer talented, mature individuals from one sport to another. Unfortunately talent transfer initiatives seem to lack an evidence-based direction and a rigorous exploration of the mechanisms underpinning the approach. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify the factors which successfully transferring athletes cite as facilitative of talent transfer. In contrast to the anthropometric and performance variables that underpin current talent transfer initiatives, participants identified a range of psycho-behavioral and environmental factors as key to successful transfer. We argue that further research into the mechanisms of talent transfer is needed in order to provide a strong evidence base for the methodologies employed in these initiatives.

  13. Recent multinucleon transfer experiments with heavy ions at Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, B.G.

    1975-04-01

    Recent research on multinucleon transfer using heavy ions is discussed with emphasis on two, three, and four nucleon transfer reactions. The presentation centers on the problem of obtaining information about clustering phenomena. (13 figures, 1 table) (U.S.)

  14. Second Chances: Investigating Athletes' Experiences of Talent Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Áine; Collins, Dave

    2015-01-01

    Talent transfer initiatives seek to transfer talented, mature individuals from one sport to another. Unfortunately talent transfer initiatives seem to lack an evidence-based direction and a rigorous exploration of the mechanisms underpinning the approach. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify the factors which successfully transferring athletes cite as facilitative of talent transfer. In contrast to the anthropometric and performance variables that underpin current talent transfer initiatives, participants identified a range of psycho-behavioral and environmental factors as key to successful transfer. We argue that further research into the mechanisms of talent transfer is needed in order to provide a strong evidence base for the methodologies employed in these initiatives.

  15. Second Chances: Investigating Athletes’ Experiences of Talent Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Talent transfer initiatives seek to transfer talented, mature individuals from one sport to another. Unfortunately talent transfer initiatives seem to lack an evidence-based direction and a rigorous exploration of the mechanisms underpinning the approach. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify the factors which successfully transferring athletes cite as facilitative of talent transfer. In contrast to the anthropometric and performance variables that underpin current talent transfer initiatives, participants identified a range of psycho-behavioral and environmental factors as key to successful transfer. We argue that further research into the mechanisms of talent transfer is needed in order to provide a strong evidence base for the methodologies employed in these initiatives. PMID:26600303

  16. Information transfer via implicit encoding with delay time modulation in a time-delay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kye, Won-Ho, E-mail: whkye@kipo.go.kr [Korean Intellectual Property Office, Government Complex Daejeon Building 4, 189, Cheongsa-ro, Seo-gu, Daejeon 302-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-20

    A new encoding scheme for information transfer with modulated delay time in a time-delay system is proposed. In the scheme, the message is implicitly encoded into the modulated delay time. The information transfer rate as a function of encoding redundancy in various noise scales is presented and it is analyzed that the implicit encoding scheme (IES) has stronger resistance against channel noise than the explicit encoding scheme (EES). In addition, its advantages in terms of secure communication and feasible applications are discussed. -- Highlights: ► We propose new encoding scheme with delay time modulation. ► The message is implicitly encoded with modulated delay time. ► The proposed scheme shows stronger resistance against channel noise.

  17. Transfer entropy in physical systems and the arrow of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinney, Richard E.; Lizier, Joseph T.; Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2016-08-01

    Recent developments have cemented the realization that many concepts and quantities in thermodynamics and information theory are shared. In this paper, we consider a highly relevant quantity in information theory and complex systems, the transfer entropy, and explore its thermodynamic role by considering the implications of time reversal upon it. By doing so we highlight the role of information dynamics on the nuanced question of observer perspective within thermodynamics by relating the temporal irreversibility in the information dynamics to the configurational (or spatial) resolution of the thermodynamics. We then highlight its role in perhaps the most enduring paradox in modern physics, the manifestation of a (thermodynamic) arrow of time. We find that for systems that process information such as those undergoing feedback, a robust arrow of time can be formulated by considering both the apparent physical behavior which leads to conventional entropy production and the information dynamics which leads to a quantity we call the information theoretic arrow of time. We also offer an interpretation in terms of optimal encoding of observed physical behavior.

  18. Transfer Entropy Estimation and Directional Coupling Change Detection in Biomedical Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Joon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of change in magnitude of directional coupling between two non-linear time series is a common subject of interest in the biomedical domain, including studies involving the respiratory chemoreflex system. Although transfer entropy is a useful tool in this avenue, no study to date has investigated how different transfer entropy estimation methods perform in typical biomedical applications featuring small sample size and presence of outliers. Methods With respect to detection of increased coupling strength, we compared three transfer entropy estimation techniques using both simulated time series and respiratory recordings from lambs. The following estimation methods were analyzed: fixed-binning with ranking, kernel density estimation (KDE, and the Darbellay-Vajda (D-V adaptive partitioning algorithm extended to three dimensions. In the simulated experiment, sample size was varied from 50 to 200, while coupling strength was increased. In order to introduce outliers, the heavy-tailed Laplace distribution was utilized. In the lamb experiment, the objective was to detect increased respiratory-related chemosensitivity to O2 and CO2 induced by a drug, domperidone. Specifically, the separate influence of end-tidal PO2 and PCO2 on minute ventilation (V˙E before and after administration of domperidone was analyzed. Results In the simulation, KDE detected increased coupling strength at the lowest SNR among the three methods. In the lamb experiment, D-V partitioning resulted in the statistically strongest increase in transfer entropy post-domperidone for PO2→V˙E. In addition, D-V partitioning was the only method that could detect an increase in transfer entropy for PCO2→V˙E, in agreement with experimental findings. Conclusions Transfer entropy is capable of detecting directional coupling changes in non-linear biomedical time series analysis featuring a small number of observations and presence of outliers. The results

  19. Sub-Riemannian geometry and time optimal control of three spin systems: Quantum gates and coherence transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaneja, Navin; Brockett, Roger; Glaser, Steffen J.

    2002-01-01

    Radio-frequency pulses are used in nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectroscopy to produce unitary transfer of states. Pulse sequences that accomplish a desired transfer should be as short as possible in order to minimize the effects of relaxation, and to optimize the sensitivity of the experiments. Many coherence-transfer experiments in NMR, involving a network of coupled spins, use temporary spin decoupling to produce desired effective Hamiltonians. In this paper, we demonstrate that significant time can be saved in producing an effective Hamiltonian if spin decoupling is avoided. We provide time-optimal pulse sequences for producing an important class of effective Hamiltonians in three-spin networks. These effective Hamiltonians are useful for coherence-transfer experiments in three-spin systems and implementation of indirect swap and Λ 2 (U) gates in the context of NMR quantum computing. It is shown that computing these time-optimal pulses can be reduced to geometric problems that involve computing sub-Riemannian geodesics. Using these geometric ideas, explicit expressions for the minimum time required for producing these effective Hamiltonians, transfer of coherence, and implementation of indirect swap gates, in a three-spin network are derived (Theorems 1 and 2). It is demonstrated that geometric control techniques provide a systematic way of finding time-optimal pulse sequences for transferring coherence and synthesizing unitary transformations in quantum networks, with considerable time savings (e.g., 42.3% for constructing indirect swap gates)

  20. The ISHTE [In-Situ Heat Transfer Experiment] lander: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, L.O.; Harrison, J.G.

    1986-12-01

    This report describes the design and development of a sea floor lander constructed to support the In-Situ Heat Transfer Experiment (ISHTE). The work entailed fabricating and testing a steel space frame that would support and accurately position delicate instruments which would monitor a heat source driven into the sediments of the deep ocean. This lander is capable of being (1) transported from Seattle to Hawaii and back several times; (2) deployed from a ship at sea; (3) operated on the sea floor to field delicate experimental equipment; and (4) recovered for retrofit to support a one-year experiment on the sea floor

  1. A heat transfer analysis of the CCI experiments 1-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevon, Tuomo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an attempt to evaluate the heat transfer rates and gas release rates in the CCI core-concrete interaction experiments 1-3, performed within the OECD MCCI project. A new method for calculating the heat transfer rates has been developed. It is based on calculating integrals of the concrete enthalpies with the help of piecewise exponential interpolation curves. The new method takes into account heat conduction in the concrete. Compared to traditional methods, the new method gives better results during slow concrete ablation, and its time resolution is significantly better. The gas release rates from the concrete were also calculated. A regression analysis was conducted for the heat transfer coefficients and gas release rates. Three correlations for the bubbling-enhanced heat transfer were developed. For the basemat, a single correlation can be used for both siliceous and limestone/common sand (LCS) concrete types. For the sidewall, two different correlations are needed for the two concrete types. With the same superficial gas velocity, the heat transfer rate to siliceous sidewalls is higher than to LCS sidewalls. This suggests that the reason for the different radial ablation rates of the concrete types observed in the tests is not the lower gas content of siliceous concrete

  2. Transferability of results of small scale experiments to real structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, W.; Siegele, D.; Kordisch, H.; Baudendistel, E.

    1983-01-01

    The good agreement of the experimental J-values and the numerical J confirms the experimental procedure to evaluate J from the work done on the specimen. This is important for the application of single specimen techniques. The next logical steps in the chain of transferability will now be - after the verification of the three-dimensional crack growth calculations - the experimental and numerical analysis of configuration closer to real structures, e.g. part-through surface flaws in plates and pipes. Starting from a semi-elliptical fatigue flaw the dark regime of stable tearing does no longer follow the original elliptical shape. The explanation of this behavior can only be expected if all possible three-dimensional effects are taken into account. Those three-dimensional effects are also apparent even in compact specimens if no sidegrooves are used. In a first test of the three-dimensional crack growth capabilities of the IWM version of ADINA this experiment has been simulated and loaded up to a displacement of about half the final displacement in the test. (orig./RW)

  3. Transfer Prices Implication Upon Tax System. The Romanian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumiter Florin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfer prices are a top field in financial and legal scientific research and practical activity. Although this research field is still in the beginning, due to its complexity, as well as it’s inter-, multi- and transdisciplinarity, it can be noted that empirical studies, as well as practical researches in economic and legal matters, have intensified. Moreover, this field of transfer prices is in close connection with the area of international double taxation, which shows its international character. In this article we sought a holistic approach to the transfer price phenomenon, dealing with economic and legal technical aspects that we believed are important to emphasise. Without addressing the issue of transfer prices in an exhaustive manner, in this article we presented both the legal and the economic framework of transfer prices in Romania. The added value of this article lies in the approach to transfer prices, both legally and economically.

  4. Investments, time preferences and public transfers paid to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubalcava, Luis; Teruel, Graciela; Thomas, Duncan

    2009-04-01

    The literature suggests men and women may have different preferences. This paper exploits a social experiment in which women in treatment households were given a large public cash transfer (PROGRESA). In an effort to disentangle the effect of additional income in the household from the effect of changing the distribution of income within the household, the impact of PROGRESA income on savings and investments decisions is compared with all other income sources (after taking into account participation in the program). Additional money in the hands of women is spent on small livestock (which are traditionally managed and cared for by women), improved nutrition and on child goods (particularly clothing). Among single headed households, PROGRESA income is not treated differently from other income. Direct evidence on inter-temporal preferences gathered in the Mexican Family Live Survey indicates that women are more patient than males when thinking about the future. Taken together, the results suggest that PROGRESA income results in a shift in the balance of power within households and women allocated more resources towards investments in the future.

  5. Comparison of transfer entropy methods for financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiayi; Shang, Pengjian

    2017-09-01

    There is a certain relationship between the global financial markets, which creates an interactive network of global finance. Transfer entropy, a measurement for information transfer, offered a good way to analyse the relationship. In this paper, we analysed the relationship between 9 stock indices from the U.S., Europe and China (from 1995 to 2015) by using transfer entropy (TE), effective transfer entropy (ETE), Rényi transfer entropy (RTE) and effective Rényi transfer entropy (ERTE). We compared the four methods in the sense of the effectiveness for identification of the relationship between stock markets. In this paper, two kinds of information flows are given. One reveals that the U.S. took the leading position when in terms of lagged-current cases, but when it comes to the same date, China is the most influential. And ERTE could provide superior results.

  6. Experiments on transference in interpersonal relations: Implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan M; Przybylinski, Elizabeth

    2012-09-01

    Ordinary interpersonal encounters with new people involve more than what meets the eye, and transference readily arises in such encounters, affecting everyday social perception and interpersonal responding, as well as perceptions of the self. Transference provides a mechanism whereby past relationships can play out in new ones. Research on the social-cognitive process of transference and the relational self clearly shows that transference occurs as a "normal" nonclinical process outside of the therapy setting. In this article, we review the theoretical framework and research approach to understanding transference, as well as what the evidence says about what triggers transference, how, why, and what the consequences of transference are as they occur, for better or for worse, in the context of daily living and in treatment. The clinical implications of the findings are also addressed, with a focus on how problematic transference patterns might be changed if they lead to personal suffering for the individual. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Lab. experiments of mass transfer in the London clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Gilling, D.; Jefferies, N.L.; Lineham, T.R.; Lever, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Aqueous phase mass transfer through the rocks surrounding a radioactive waste repository will take place by diffusion and convection. This paper presents a comprehensive set of measurements of the mass transfer characteristics for a single, naturally occurring, clay. These data are compared with the results predicted by mathematical models of mass transport in porous media, in order to build confidence in these models

  8. Autonomous GPS/INS navigation experiment for Space Transfer Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Triveni N.; Cotterill, Stephen; Deaton, A. W.

    1993-01-01

    An experiment to validate the concept of developing an autonomous integrated spacecraft navigation system using on board Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements is described. The feasibility of integrating GPS measurements with INS measurements to provide a total improvement in spacecraft navigation performance, i.e. improvement in position, velocity and attitude information, was previously demonstrated. An important aspect of this research is the automatic real time reconfiguration capability of the system designed to respond to changes in a spacecraft mission under the control of an expert system.

  9. Transfer Rate Edited experiment for the selective detection of Chemical Exchange via Saturation Transfer (TRE-CEST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joshua I.; Xia, Ding; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2015-07-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance experiments have become valuable tools in magnetic resonance for the detection of low concentration solutes with far greater sensitivity than direct detection methods. Accurate measures of rates of chemical exchange provided by CEST are of particular interest to biomedical imaging communities where variations in chemical exchange can be related to subtle variations in biomarker concentration, temperature and pH within tissues using MRI. Despite their name, however, traditional CEST methods are not truly selective for chemical exchange and instead detect all forms of magnetization transfer including through-space NOE. This ambiguity crowds CEST spectra and greatly complicates subsequent data analysis. We have developed a Transfer Rate Edited CEST experiment (TRE-CEST) that uses two different types of solute labeling in order to selectively amplify signals of rapidly exchanging proton species while simultaneously suppressing 'slower' NOE-dominated magnetization transfer processes. This approach is demonstrated in the context of both NMR and MRI, where it is used to detect the labile amide protons of proteins undergoing chemical exchange (at rates ⩾ 30 s-1) while simultaneously eliminating signals originating from slower (∼5 s-1) NOE-mediated magnetization transfer processes. TRE-CEST greatly expands the utility of CEST experiments in complex systems, and in-vivo, in particular, where it is expected to improve the quantification of chemical exchange and magnetization transfer rates while enabling new forms of imaging contrast.

  10. Transfer Rate Edited experiment for the selective detection of Chemical Exchange via Saturation Transfer (TRE-CEST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Joshua I; Xia, Ding; Regatte, Ravinder R; Jerschow, Alexej

    2015-07-01

    Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance experiments have become valuable tools in magnetic resonance for the detection of low concentration solutes with far greater sensitivity than direct detection methods. Accurate measures of rates of chemical exchange provided by CEST are of particular interest to biomedical imaging communities where variations in chemical exchange can be related to subtle variations in biomarker concentration, temperature and pH within tissues using MRI. Despite their name, however, traditional CEST methods are not truly selective for chemical exchange and instead detect all forms of magnetization transfer including through-space NOE. This ambiguity crowds CEST spectra and greatly complicates subsequent data analysis. We have developed a Transfer Rate Edited CEST experiment (TRE-CEST) that uses two different types of solute labeling in order to selectively amplify signals of rapidly exchanging proton species while simultaneously suppressing 'slower' NOE-dominated magnetization transfer processes. This approach is demonstrated in the context of both NMR and MRI, where it is used to detect the labile amide protons of proteins undergoing chemical exchange (at rates⩾30s(-1)) while simultaneously eliminating signals originating from slower (∼5s(-1)) NOE-mediated magnetization transfer processes. TRE-CEST greatly expands the utility of CEST experiments in complex systems, and in-vivo, in particular, where it is expected to improve the quantification of chemical exchange and magnetization transfer rates while enabling new forms of imaging contrast. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Food irradiation: Technology transfer in Asia, practical experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstadt, Peter; Eng, P.

    1993-10-01

    Nordion International Inc., in cooperation with the Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) recently completed a unique food irradiation technology transfer project in Thailand. This complete food irradiation technology transfer project included the design and construction of an automatic multipurpose irradiation facility as well as the services of construction and installation management and experts in facility operation, maintenance and training. This paper provides an insight into the many events that led to the succesful conclusion of the world's first complete food irradiation technology transfer project.

  12. Food irradiation: technology transfer in Asia, practical experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstadt, P.

    1993-01-01

    Nordion International Inc., in cooperation with the Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) recently completed a unique food irradiation technology transfer project in Thailand. This complete food irradiation technology transfer project included the design and construction of an automatic multipurpose irradiation facility as well as the services of construction and installation management and experts in facility operation, maintenance and training. This paper provides an insight into the many events that led to the successful conclusion of the world's first complete food irradiation technology transfer project. (Author)

  13. Tank 21 and Tank 24 Blend and Feed Study: Blending Times, Settling Times, and Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 (micro)m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion ( 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

  14. Experience Transfer in Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry: Approaches and Organizational Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aase, Karina

    1997-07-01

    The core aim of the study is to explore the concept of experience transfer in oil and gas industry, and how an oil company approaches this concept. The thesis consists of five papers which are combined in a general description entitled 'Experience transfer in Norwegian oil and gas industry: approaches and organizational mechanisms'. The first paper describes how organizational members perceive experience transfer, and then specifies the many organizational and structural barriers that have to be overcome to achieve efficient experience transfer. The second paper elaborates and assesses the organizational means an oil company implements to address experience transfer. The third paper describes a process of improving and using requirement and procedure handbooks for experience transfer. The fourth paper explores in more detail how the use of information technology influences experience transfer. And the fifth paper compares organizational members' perceptions of experience transfer means in an oil company and an engineering company involved in offshore development projects. Some of the papers are based upon the same data material. Therefore there are reiterations in parts of the contents, especially in the methodological sections.

  15. Experience Transfer in Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry: Approaches and Organizational Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aase, Karina

    1997-07-01

    The core aim of the study is to explore the concept of experience transfer in oil and gas industry, and how an oil company approaches this concept. The thesis consists of five papers which are combined in a general description entitled 'Experience transfer in Norwegian oil and gas industry: approaches and organizational mechanisms'. The first paper describes how organizational members perceive experience transfer, and then specifies the many organizational and structural barriers that have to be overcome to achieve efficient experience transfer. The second paper elaborates and assesses the organizational means an oil company implements to address experience transfer. The third paper describes a process of improving and using requirement and procedure handbooks for experience transfer. The fourth paper explores in more detail how the use of information technology influences experience transfer. And the fifth paper compares organizational members' perceptions of experience transfer means in an oil company and an engineering company involved in offshore development projects. Some of the papers are based upon the same data material. Therefore there are reiterations in parts of the contents, especially in the methodological sections.

  16. Experience Transfer in Norwegian Oil and Gas Industry: Approaches and Organizational Mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aase, Karina

    1997-01-01

    The core aim of the study is to explore the concept of experience transfer in oil and gas industry, and how an oil company approaches this concept. The thesis consists of five papers which are combined in a general description entitled 'Experience transfer in Norwegian oil and gas industry: approaches and organizational mechanisms'. The first paper describes how organizational members perceive experience transfer, and then specifies the many organizational and structural barriers that have to be overcome to achieve efficient experience transfer. The second paper elaborates and assesses the organizational means an oil company implements to address experience transfer. The third paper describes a process of improving and using requirement and procedure handbooks for experience transfer. The fourth paper explores in more detail how the use of information technology influences experience transfer. And the fifth paper compares organizational members' perceptions of experience transfer means in an oil company and an engineering company involved in offshore development projects. Some of the papers are based upon the same data material. Therefore there are reiterations in parts of the contents, especially in the methodological sections

  17. Experiences in transferring of AFA 3G fuel assembly fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaodong; Wu Zhiming; Luo Jiankang

    2002-01-01

    Implementation program is developed for the transferring of AFA 3G technology, together with the project management experts designated by Framatome Company, to facilitate the technology import under the guidance of strict program. Technical documents and quality insurance management documents are developed based on the full understanding of the information provided by Framatome to guide the fabrication of AFA 3G fuel elements. Technical requirement suggested by Framatome is adopted as much as possible, considering the practical process capability of YFP. The focus is the technology about fabrication difficulties in the AFA 3G technology, to insure the successful transfer of the AFA 3G fabrication technology

  18. Superfluid helium on on-orbit transfer (SHOOT) flight experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiPirro, M.J.; Kittel, P.

    1988-01-01

    The SHOOT flight demonstration is being undertaken to verify component and system level technology necessary to resupply large superfluid helium dewars in space. The baseline configuration uses two identical 210 liter dewars connected by a transfer line which contains a quick disconnect coupling. The helium is transferred back and forth between the dewars under various conditions of flow rate, parasitic heat load, and temperature. An astronaut Extra-Vehicular Activity is also planned to manually mate and demate the coupling. The components necessary for the flight and currently being developed are described

  19. Nursing home nurses' experiences of resident transfers to the emergency department: no empathy for our work environment difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsiu-Hsin; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Li

    2016-03-01

    To explore the experiences of nursing home nurses when they transfer residents from nursing homes to the emergency department in Taiwan. The transfer of residents between nursing homes and emergency departments challenges continuity of care. Understanding nursing home nurses' experiences during these transfers may help to improve residents' continuity of care. However, few empirical data are available on these nurses' transfer experiences worldwide, and none could be found in Asian countries. Qualitative descriptive study. Data were collected from August 2012-June 2013 in audiotaped, individual, in-depth interviews with 25 nurses at five nursing homes in Taiwan. Interview transcripts were analysed by constant comparative analysis. Analysis of interview transcripts revealed that the core theme of nursing home nurses' transfer experience was discontinuity in nursing home to emergency department transitions. This core theme comprised three themes: discontinuity in family involvement, discontinuity in medical resources and expectations, and discontinuity in nurses' professional role. Nursing home nurses need a working environment that is better connected to residents' family members and more immediate and/or easier access to acute care for residents. Communication between nurses and residents' family could be improved by using text messages or social media by mobile phones, which are widely used in Taiwan and worldwide. To improve access to acute care, we suggest developing a real-time telehealth transfer system tailored to the medical culture and policies of each country. This system should facilitate communication among nursing home staff, family members and hospital staff. Our findings on nurses' experiences during transfer of nursing home residents to the emergency department can be used to design more effective transfer policies such as telemedicine systems in Taiwan and other Asian countries or in those with large populations of Chinese immigrants. © 2016 John

  20. Toward Continuous GPS Carrier-Phase Time Transfer: Eliminating the Time Discontinuity at an Anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jian; Levine, Judah; Weiss, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The wide application of Global Positioning System (GPS) carrier-phase (CP) time transfer is limited by the problem of boundary discontinuity (BD). The discontinuity has two categories. One is "day boundary discontinuity," which has been studied extensively and can be solved by multiple methods [1-8]. The other category of discontinuity, called "anomaly boundary discontinuity (anomaly-BD)," comes from a GPS data anomaly. The anomaly can be a data gap (i.e., missing data), a GPS measurement error (i.e., bad data), or a cycle slip. Initial study of the anomaly-BD shows that we can fix the discontinuity if the anomaly lasts no more than 20 min, using the polynomial curve-fitting strategy to repair the anomaly [9]. However, sometimes, the data anomaly lasts longer than 20 min. Thus, a better curve-fitting strategy is in need. Besides, a cycle slip, as another type of data anomaly, can occur and lead to an anomaly-BD. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a new strategy, i.e., the satellite-clock-aided curve fitting strategy with the function of cycle slip detection. Basically, this new strategy applies the satellite clock correction to the GPS data. After that, we do the polynomial curve fitting for the code and phase data, as before. Our study shows that the phase-data residual is only ~3 mm for all GPS satellites. The new strategy also detects and finds the number of cycle slips by searching the minimum curve-fitting residual. Extensive examples show that this new strategy enables us to repair up to a 40-min GPS data anomaly, regardless of whether the anomaly is due to a data gap, a cycle slip, or a combination of the two. We also find that interference of the GPS signal, known as "jamming", can possibly lead to a time-transfer error, and that this new strategy can compensate for jamming outages. Thus, the new strategy can eliminate the impact of jamming on time transfer. As a whole, we greatly improve the robustness of the GPS CP time transfer.

  1. Far Transfer of Leadership Training: Concepts, Experiences, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Thorndike , 1932). For Army leadership training, transfer is the key goal captured in the motto Be-Know-Do (Department of the Army, 2006; FM 6-22...Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans. 52 Thorndike , E.L. (1932). The fundamentals of learning. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University

  2. Analysis of reciprocal-transfer experiments to estimate the length of phases having different responses to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims: The responsiveness of plant ontogeny to temperature may change with plant age. These changes may best be identified by experiments in which individual plants are transferred in a time series from low temperature (LT) to high temperature (HT), and vice versa. Any change in the

  3. Experiments on a forced convection heat transfer at supercritical pressures - 6.32 mm ID tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong; Kim, Hwan Yeol

    2009-08-15

    The size of a sub-channel of the conceptual SCWR core design studied at KAERI is 6.5 mm. In order to provide heat transfer information in such a narrow sub-channel at supercritical pressure, an experiment was performed with a test section made of Inconel 625 tube of 6.32 mm ID. The test pressures were 7.75 and 8.12 MPa corresponding to 1.05 and 1.1 times the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}, respectively. The mass flux and heat flux, which were in the range of 285 {approx} 1200 kg/m2s and 30 {approx} 170 kW/m2, were changed at a given system pressure. The corresponding Reynolds numbers are 1.8 x 10{sup 4} {approx} 7.5 x 10{sup 4}. The effect of mass flux and heat flux was dominant factor in the supercritical pressure heat transfer while the effect of pressure was negligible. The Bishop's correlation predicted the test result most closely and Bae and Kim's recent correlation was the next. The heat transfer deterioration occurred when GR)b/Re{sub b}{sup 2.7} > 2.0 x 10{sup -5}. As soon as the heat transfer was deteriorated, it entered a new regime and did not recover the normal heat transfer nevertheless Gr{sub b}/Re{sub b}{sup 2.7} reduced below 2.0 x 10{sup -5}. It may mean that the correlation must be developed for the normal and deterioration regime separately.

  4. Quantum superarrivals and information transfer through a time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the boundary condition being perturbed, propagates from the barrier to the detectors measuring re- flected and transmitted probabilities. The speed of propagation of this effect depends upon the rate of reducing or raising the barrier height, thus suggesting an application for secure information transfer using superarrivals.

  5. Quantum superarrivals and information transfer through a time ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... the boundary condition being perturbed, propagates from the barrier to the detectors measuring reflected and transmitted probabilities. The speed of propagation of this effect depends upon the rate of reducing or raising the barrier height, thus suggesting an application for secure information transfer using superarrivals.

  6. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  7. Near Real Time Ship Detection Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, S.; Lehner, S.; Schwarz, E.; Fritz, T.

    2010-04-01

    A new Near Real Time (NRT) ship detection processor SAINT (SAR AIS Integrated Toolbox) was developed in the framework of the ESA project MARISS. Data are received at DLRs ground segment DLR-BN (Neustrelitz, Germany). Results of the ship detection are available on ftp server within 30 min after the acquisition started. The detectability of ships on Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) ERS-2, ENVISAT ASAR and TerraSAR-X (TS-X) images is validated by coastal (live) AIS and space AIS. The monitoring areas chosen for surveillance are the North-, Baltic Sea, and Cape Town. The detectability in respect to environmental parameters like wind field, sea state, currents and changing coastlines due to tidal effects is investigated. In the South Atlantic a tracking experiment of the German research vessel Polarstern has been performed. Issues of piracy in particular in respect to ships hijacked at the Somali coast are discussed. Some examples using high resolution images from TerraSAR-X are given.

  8. Capillary-Driven Heat Transfer Experiment: Keeping It Cool in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekan, Jack F.; Allen, Jeffrey S.

    1998-01-01

    Capillary-pumped loops (CPL's) are devices that are used to transport heat from one location to another--specifically to transfer heat away from something. In low-gravity applications, such as satellites (and possibly the International Space Station), CPL's are used to transfer heat from electrical devices to space radiators. This is accomplished by evaporating one liquid surface on the hot side of the CPL and condensing the vapor produced onto another liquid surface on the cold side. Capillary action, the phenomenon that causes paper towels to absorb spilled liquids, is used to "pump" the liquid back to the evaporating liquid surface (hot side) to complete the "loop." CPL's require no power to operate and can transfer heat over distances as large as 30 ft or more. Their reliance upon evaporation and condensation to transfer heat makes them much more economical in terms of weight than conventional heat transfer systems. Unfortunately, they have proven to be unreliable in space operations, and the explanation for this unreliability has been elusive. The Capillary-Driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment is investigating the fundamental fluid physics phenomena thought to be responsible for the failure of CPL's in low-gravity operations. If the failure mechanism can be identified, then appropriate design modifications can be developed to make capillary phase-change heat-transport devices a more viable option in space applications. CHT was conducted onboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the first Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) mission, STS-94, which flew from July 1 to 17, 1997. The CHT glovebox investigation, which was conceived by Dr. Kevin Hallinan and Jeffrey Allen of the University of Dayton, focused on studying the dynamics associated with the heating and cooling at the evaporating meniscus within a capillary phase-change device in a low-gravity environment. The CHT experimental hardware was designed by a small team of engineers from Aerospace Design

  9. Experiment of forced convection heat transfer using microencapsulated phase-change-material slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Shinji; Akino, Norio; Tanaka, Amane; Nagashima, Akira.

    1997-01-01

    The present study describes an experiment on forced convective heat transfer using a water slurry of Microencapsulated Phase-change-material. A normal paraffin hydrocarbon is microencapsulated by melamine resin, melting point of 28.1degC. The heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in a circular tube were evaluated. The heat transfer coefficient using the slurry in case with and without phase change were compared to in case of using pure water. (author)

  10. Integrating experiences from operations into engineering design: modelling knowledge transfer in the offshore oil industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Broberg, Ole; Paravizo, Esdras

    2017-01-01

    of knowledge registered in the systems without standards to categorise and store this knowledge, to being difficult to access and retrieve the knowledge in the systems. Discussion: Transferring knowledge and experiences from users brings human factors into play and modelling the knowledge transfer process...... and workwise distance between operations and engineering design teams, integrating human factors and transferring knowledge are key aspects when designing for better performance systems. Research Objective: Based on an in-depth empirical investigation in an offshore oil company, this study aims to provide......Summative Statement: Integrating human factors and users’ experiences in design projects is a well-known challenge. This study focus on the specific challenges for transferring these experiences and how using a knowledge transfer model can help this integration on the design of high-risk productive...

  11. Studies of nuclear structure via polarization transfer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Inelastic scattering and charge exchange reactions at medium energies are discussed. Theoretical treatments of these phenomena based on the Dirac equation are presented. A LAMPF experiment in which polarization observables were employed in the search for collective effects in the nuclear pion field is discussed. This experiment is compared with the EMC (European Muon Collaboration) effect. 37 refs., 11 figs

  12. PWR Power Plant Reactor Maintenance: Site Experience and Technology Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callot, T. R.

    1986-01-01

    In France, Framatome participates in every scheduled outage. Abroad our participation which was restricted only to Belgium, a few years ago now includes several stations in Europe, South Africa and the United States. In conclusion, whatever the work may be and whenever it is to be performed far away from the home office, it is the policy of Fumarate to find an arrangement with a local company for technology transfer either on a case by cast basis or more suitable within the framework of a general cooperation agreement

  13. Watching proton transfer in real time: Ultrafast photoionization-induced proton transfer in phenol-ammonia complex cation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ching-Chi; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Wu, Jun-Yi; Ho, Jr-Wei; Chen, Yi-Wei; Cheng, Po-Yuan

    2017-10-28

    In this paper, we give a full account of our previous work [C. C. Shen et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 171103 (2014)] on the study of an ultrafast photoionization-induced proton transfer (PT) reaction in the phenol-ammonia (PhOH-NH 3 ) complex using ultrafast time-resolved ion photofragmentation spectroscopy implemented by the photoionization-photofragmentation pump-probe detection scheme. Neutral PhOH-NH 3 complexes prepared in a free jet are photoionized by femtosecond 1 + 1 resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization via the S 1 state. The evolving cations are then probed by delayed pulses that result in ion fragmentation, and the ionic dynamics is followed by measuring the parent-ion depletion as a function of the pump-probe delay time. By comparing with systems in which PT is not feasible and the steady-state ion photofragmentation spectra, we concluded that the observed temporal evolutions of the transient ion photofragmentation spectra are consistent with an intracomplex PT reaction after photoionization from the initial non-PT to the final PT structures. Our experiments revealed that PT in [PhOH-NH 3 ] + cation proceeds in two distinct steps: an initial impulsive wave-packet motion in ∼70 fs followed by a slower relaxation of about 1 ps that stabilizes the system into the final PT configuration. These results indicate that for a barrierless PT system, even though the initial PT motions are impulsive and ultrafast, the time scale to complete the reaction can be much slower and is determined by the rate of energy dissipation into other modes.

  14. Heat transfer in a seven-rod test bundle with supercritical pressure water (1). Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezato, Koichiro; Seki, Yohji; Dairaku, Masayuki; Suzuki, Satoshi; Enoeda, Mikio; Akiba, Masato; Mori, H.; Oka, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Heat transfer experiments in a seven-rod test bundle with supercritical pressure water has been carried out. The pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) in the test section are evaluated. In the present limited conditions, difference between HTCs at the surface facing the sub-channel center and those at the surface in the narrowest region between rods is not observed. (author)

  15. Experiment on heat transfer in simulated molten core/concrete interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Yukihiro; Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Kawaguchi, Takahiro.

    1993-01-01

    In order to investigate heat transfer between molten core and concrete in LWR severe accidents, experiments were performed using water as the molten core, paraffin as the concrete, and air as gases from the decomposition of concrete. It was found that the heat transfer on the interface between paraffin and water were promoted strongly by the air gas. (author)

  16. A real-time transfer function analyser program for PFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliam, D.

    1980-03-01

    A transfer function analyser software package has been produced which is believed to constitute a significant advance over others reported in the literature. The main advantages of the system are its operating speed, especially at low frequencies, which is due to its use of part-cycle integration and its high degree of interactive operator control. The driving sine wave, the return signals and the computed vector diagrams are displayed on TV type visual display units. Data output is by means of an incremental graph plotter or an IBM typewriter. (author)

  17. International Experience of the Establishing Technology Transfer Centers at the Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysenko, V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the experience of creation and operation of technology transfer centers on the basis of US universities with the aim of using positive methods for the creation of such centers in Ukraine is presented.

  18. Time-dependent evolution of strand transfer length in pretensioned prestressed concrete members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, L. A.; Martí-Vargas, J. R.; Serna, P.

    2013-11-01

    For design purposes, it is generally considered that prestressing strand transfer length does not change with time. However, some experimental studies on the effect of time on transfer lengths show contradictory results. In this paper, an experimental research to study transfer length changes over time is presented. A test procedure based on the ECADA testing technique to measure prestressing strand force variation over time in pretensioned prestressed concrete specimens has been set up. With this test method, an experimental program that varies concrete strength, specimen cross section, age of release, prestress transfer method, and embedment length has been carried out. Both the initial and long-term transfer lengths of 13-mm prestressing steel strands have been measured. The test results show that transfer length variation exists for some prestressing load conditions, resulting in increased transfer length over time. The applied test method based on prestressing strand force measurements has shown more reliable results than procedures based on measuring free end slips and longitudinal strains of concrete. An additional factor for transfer length models is proposed in order to include the time-dependent evolution of strand transfer length in pretensioned prestressed concrete members.

  19. Fundamental Drop Dynamics and Mass Transfer Experiments to Support Solvent Extraction Modeling Efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, Kristi; Rutledge, Veronica; Garn, Troy

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling Simulation Safeguards and Separations (NEAMS SafeSep) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to further a modeling effort designed to predict mass transfer behavior for selected metal species between individual dispersed drops and a continuous phase in a two phase liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) system. The purpose of the model is to understand the fundamental processes of mass transfer that occur at the drop interface. This fundamental understanding can be extended to support modeling of larger LLE equipment such as mixer settlers, pulse columns, and centrifugal contactors. The work performed at the INL involved gathering the necessary experimental data to support the modeling effort. A custom experimental apparatus was designed and built for performing drop contact experiments to measure mass transfer coefficients as a function of contact time. A high speed digital camera was used in conjunction with the apparatus to measure size, shape, and velocity of the drops. In addition to drop data, the physical properties of the experimental fluids were measured to be used as input data for the model. Physical properties measurements included density, viscosity, surface tension and interfacial tension. Additionally, self diffusion coefficients for the selected metal species in each experimental solution were measured, and the distribution coefficient for the metal partitioning between phases was determined. At the completion of this work, the INL has determined the mass transfer coefficient and a velocity profile for drops rising by buoyancy through a continuous medium under a specific set of experimental conditions. Additionally, a complete set of experimentally determined fluid properties has been obtained. All data will be provided to LANL to support the modeling effort.

  20. Evaluation of ceiling lifts: transfer time, patient comfort and staff perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Li, Olivia Wei; Yu, Shicheng; Gorman, Erin; Fast, Catherine; Kidd, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    Mechanical lifting devices have been developed to reduce healthcare worker injuries related to patient handling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ceiling lifts in comparison to floor lifts based on transfer time, patient comfort and staff perceptions in three long-term care facilities with varying ceiling lift coverage. The time required to transfer or reposition patients along with patient comfort levels were recorded for 119 transfers. Transfers performed with ceiling lifts required on average less time (bed to chair transfers: 156.9 seconds for ceiling lift, 273.6 seconds for floor lift) and were found to be more comfortable for patients. In the three facilities, 143 healthcare workers were surveyed on their perceptions of patient handling tasks and equipment. For both transferring and repositioning tasks, staff preferred to use ceiling lifts and also found them to be less physically demanding. Further investigation is needed on repositioning tasks to ensure safe practice.

  1. Radiative Transfer Theory Verified by Controlled Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Michael I.; Goldstein, Dennis H.; Chowdhary, Jacek; Lompado, Arthur

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of high-accuracy controlled laboratory measurements of the Stokes reflection matrix for suspensions of submicrometer-sized latex particles in water and compare them with the results of a numerically exact computer solution of the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE). The quantitative performance of the VRTE is monitored by increasing the volume packing density of the latex particles from 2 to 10. Our results indicate that the VRTE can be applied safely to random particulate media with packing densities up to 2. VRTE results for packing densities of the order of 5 should be taken with caution, whereas the polarized bidirectional reflectivity of suspensions with larger packing densities cannot be accurately predicted. We demonstrate that a simple modification of the phase matrix entering the VRTE based on the so-called static structure factor can be a promising remedy that deserves further examination.

  2. Robust wireless power transfer using a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assawaworrarit, Sid; Yu, Xiaofang; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-06-14

    Considerable progress in wireless power transfer has been made in the realm of non-radiative transfer, which employs magnetic-field coupling in the near field. A combination of circuit resonance and impedance transformation is often used to help to achieve efficient transfer of power over a predetermined distance of about the size of the resonators. The development of non-radiative wireless power transfer has paved the way towards real-world applications such as wireless powering of implantable medical devices and wireless charging of stationary electric vehicles. However, it remains a fundamental challenge to create a wireless power transfer system in which the transfer efficiency is robust against the variation of operating conditions. Here we propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that a parity-time-symmetric circuit incorporating a nonlinear gain saturation element provides robust wireless power transfer. Our results show that the transfer efficiency remains near unity over a distance variation of approximately one metre, without the need for any tuning. This is in contrast with conventional methods where high transfer efficiency can only be maintained by constantly tuning the frequency or the internal coupling parameters as the transfer distance or the relative orientation of the source and receiver units is varied. The use of a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit should enable robust wireless power transfer to moving devices or vehicles.

  3. Robust wireless power transfer using a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assawaworrarit, Sid; Yu, Xiaofang; Fan, Shanhui

    2017-06-01

    Considerable progress in wireless power transfer has been made in the realm of non-radiative transfer, which employs magnetic-field coupling in the near field. A combination of circuit resonance and impedance transformation is often used to help to achieve efficient transfer of power over a predetermined distance of about the size of the resonators. The development of non-radiative wireless power transfer has paved the way towards real-world applications such as wireless powering of implantable medical devices and wireless charging of stationary electric vehicles. However, it remains a fundamental challenge to create a wireless power transfer system in which the transfer efficiency is robust against the variation of operating conditions. Here we propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that a parity-time-symmetric circuit incorporating a nonlinear gain saturation element provides robust wireless power transfer. Our results show that the transfer efficiency remains near unity over a distance variation of approximately one metre, without the need for any tuning. This is in contrast with conventional methods where high transfer efficiency can only be maintained by constantly tuning the frequency or the internal coupling parameters as the transfer distance or the relative orientation of the source and receiver units is varied. The use of a nonlinear parity-time-symmetric circuit should enable robust wireless power transfer to moving devices or vehicles.

  4. Heat Transfer by Thermo-capillary Convection -Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreyer, Michael; Fuhrmann, Eckart

    The sounding rocket COMPERE experiment SOURCE was successfully flown on MASER 11, launched in Kiruna (ESRANGE), May 15th, 2008. SOURCE has been intended to partly ful-fill the scientific objectives of the European Space Agency (ESA) Microgravity Applications Program (MAP) project AO-2004-111 (Convective boiling and condensation). Three parties of principle investigators have been involved to design the experiment set-up: ZARM for thermo-capillary flows, IMFT (Toulouse, France) for boiling studies, EADS Astrium (Bremen, Ger-many) for depressurization. The topic of this paper is to study the effect of wall heat flux on the contact line of the free liquid surface and to obtain a correlation for a convective heat trans-fer coefficient. The experiment has been conducted along a predefined time line. A preheating sequence at ground was the first operation to achieve a well defined temperature evolution within the test cell and its environment inside the rocket. Nearly one minute after launch, the pressurized test cell was filled with the test liquid HFE-7000 until a certain fill level was reached. Then the free surface could be observed for 120 s without distortion. Afterwards, the first depressurization was started to induce subcooled boiling, the second one to start saturated boiling. The data from the flight consists of video images and temperature measurements in the liquid, the solid, and the gaseous phase. Data analysis provides the surface shape versus time and the corresponding apparent contact angle. Computational analysis provides information for the determination of the heat transfer coefficient in a compensated gravity environment where a flow is caused by the temperature difference between the hot wall and the cold liquid. The paper will deliver correlations for the effective contact angle and the heat transfer coefficient as a function of the relevant dimensionsless parameters as well as physical explanations for the observed behavior. The data will be used

  5. 60Co, 63Ni and 94Nb soil-to-plant transfer in pot experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Mohamad, S.A.; Mueck, K.; Horak, O.

    1995-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors for 60 Co, 63 Ni and 94 Nb were obtained via pot experiments with a Dystric Cambisol and a Calcic Chernozem, both from Lower Austria. Investigated plants were greenrape (Brassica napus oleifera L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The soil-to-plant transfer factors decreased from 63 Ni to 60 Co and 94 Nb. Mean values from all experiments ranged from 1.12 ( 63 Ni) to 0.0045 ( 94 Nb). The transfer values obtained for 60 Co and 63 Ni are comparable to literature values, but 94 Nb-transfer seems to be lower than previous estimates. All radionuclides showed differences between plant species and plant organs. Transfer values were also dependent on the soil type. (author)

  6. Heat transfer in underground heating experiments in granite, Stipa, Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, T.; Javandel, I.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1980-04-01

    Electrical heater experiments have been conducted underground in granite at Stripa, Sweden, to investigate the effects of heating associated with nuclear waste storage. Temperature data from these experiments are compared with closed-form and finite-element solutions. Good agreement is found between measured temperatures and both types of models, but especially for a nonlinear finite-element heat conduction model incorporating convective boundary conditions, measured nonuniform initial rock temperature distribution, and temperature-dependent thermal conductivity. In situ thermal properties, determined by least-squares regression, are very close to laboratory values. A limited amount of sensitivity analysis is undertaken

  7. Comparison of GPS and GLONASS Common-View Time Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    interest as an excellent additional source. For the past three years VNIIFTRI (Mendeleevo, Moscow Region, Russian Federation) and some other Russian time...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 comparisons. Since June 1991, VNIIFTRI has operated a commercial GPS time receiver on...loan from the BIPM. Since February 1992, the BIPM has operated Russian GLONASS receiver on loan from the VNIIFTRI . Thii provides, for the first time

  8. Development of BNL Heat Transfer Facility 1: flashing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, W.J.; Klein, J.H.; Zimmer, G.A.; Abuaf, N.; Jones, O.C. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A major area of interest to reactor safety technology is the prediction of actual vapor generation rates under conditions of thermal nonequilibrium as would be encountered during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a light water reactor. In support of the development of advanced codes dealing with LOCA induced flashing, analytical models of the nonequilibrium vapor generation processes of interest have been formulated, and an experimental facility has been constructed to provide data to verify these models. This facility is known as BNL Heat Transfer Facility. The experimental facility consists of a flow loop, test section and the data acquisition and analysis system. The main portion of the flow loop is constructed from three inch nominal (7.6 cm) stainless steel pipe. High purity water is circulated through the loop using a centrifugal pump rated 1500 l/min at 600 kPa. Very close and stable control of all loop parameters is required since flashing is sensitive to very small changes in such parameters as flow rate, subcooling, and pressure

  9. Parents' experiences of neonatal transfer. A meta-study of qualitative research 2000-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Hall, Elisabeth O C; Ludvigsen, Mette S; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth; Fegran, Liv

    2018-02-15

    Transfers of critically ill neonates are frequent phenomena. Even though parents' participation is regarded as crucial in neonatal care, a transfer often means that parents and neonates are separated. A systematic review of the parents' experiences of neonatal transfer is lacking. This paper describes a meta-study addressing qualitative research about parents' experiences of neonatal transfer. Through deconstruction and reflections of theories, methods, and empirical data, the aim was to achieve a deeper understanding of theoretical, empirical, contextual, historical, and methodological issues of qualitative studies concerning parents' experiences of neonatal transfer over the course of this meta-study (2000-2017). Meta-theory and meta-method analyses showed that caring, transition, and family-centered care were main theoretical frames applied and that interviewing with a small number of participants was the preferred data collection method. The meta-data-analysis showed that transfer was a scary, unfamiliar, and threatening experience for the parents; they were losing familiar context, were separated from their neonate, and could feel their parenthood disrupted. We identified 'wavering and wandering' as a metaphoric representation of the parents' experiences. The findings add knowledge about meta-study as an approach for comprehensive qualitative research and point at the value of meta-theory and meta-method analyses. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Remote rural women's choice of birthplace and transfer experiences in rural Otago and Southland New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Jean; Foureur, Maralyn; Skinner, Joan

    2017-09-01

    specialist care. Themes included, deciding about the safest place to give birth; making the decision to transfer; experiencing transfer in labour, and reflecting on their birth experience and considering future birthplace choices. The experiences of the women show that for some, distance from a base hospital influences their place of birth decisions in remote rural areas of New Zealand and increases the distress for those needing to transfer over large distances. These experiences can result in women choosing, or needing to make different choices for subsequent births; the consequences of which impact on the future sustainability of midwifery services in remote rural areas, a challenge which resonates with maternity service provision internationally. While choices about birth place cannot be reliably predicted, creative solutions are needed to provide rural midwifery care and birth options for women and more timely and efficient transfer services when required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Timing subsystem development: Network synchronization experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backe, K. R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a program in which several experimental timing subsystem prototypes were designed, fabricated, and field tested using a small network of troposcatter and microwave digital communication links. This equipment was responsible for modem/radio interfacing, time interval measurement, clock adjustment and distribution, synchronization technique, and node to node information exchange. Presented are discussions of the design approach, measurement plan, and performance assessment methods. Recommendations are made based on the findings of the test program and an evaluation of the design of both the hardware and software elements of the timing subsystem prototypes.

  12. Interhospital Transfer of Neurosurgical Patients: Implications of Timing on Hospital Course and Clinical Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Christopher M; Lovasik, Brendan P; Howard, Brian M; McClure, Evan W; Samuels, Owen B; Barrow, Daniel L

    2017-09-01

    Interhospital transfer of neurosurgical patients is common; however, little is known about the impact of transfer parameters on clinical outcomes. Lower survival rates have been reported for patients admitted at night and on weekends in other specialties. Whether time or day of admission affects neurosurgical patient outcomes, specifically those transferred from other facilities, is unknown. To examine the impact of the timing of interhospital transfer on the hospital course and clinical outcomes of neurosurgical patients. All consecutive admissions of patients transferred to our adult neurosurgical service were retrospectively analyzed for a 1-year study period using data from a central transfer database and the electronic health record. Patients arrived more often at night (70.8%) despite an even distribution of transfer requests. The lack of transfer imaging did not affect length of stay, intervention times, or patient outcomes. Daytime arrivals had shorter total transfer time, but longer intenstive care unit and overall length of stay (8.7 and 11.6 days, respectively), worse modified Rankin Scale scores, lower rates of functional independence, and almost twice the mortality rate. Weekend admissions had significantly worse modified Rankin Scale scores and lower rates of functional independence. The timing of transfer arrivals, both by hour or day of the week, is correlated with the time to intervention, hospital course, and overall patient outcomes. Patients admitted during the weekend suffered worse functional outcomes and a trend towards increased mortality. While transfer logistics clearly impact patient outcomes, further work is needed to understand these complex relationships. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  13. Geological Time, Biological Events and the Learning Transfer Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Claudia C.; Middendorf, Joan; Rehrey, George; Dalkilic, Mehmet M.; Cassidy, Keely

    2014-01-01

    Comprehension of geologic time does not come easily, especially for students who are studying the earth sciences for the first time. This project investigated the potential success of two teaching interventions that were designed to help non-science majors enrolled in an introductory geology class gain a richer conceptual understanding of the…

  14. Using Six Sigma methodology to reduce patient transfer times from floor to critical-care beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silich, Stephan J; Wetz, Robert V; Riebling, Nancy; Coleman, Christine; Khoueiry, Georges; Abi Rafeh, Nidal; Bagon, Emma; Szerszen, Anita

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns regarding delays in transferring critically ill patients to intensive care units (ICU), a quality improvement project, using the Six Sigma process, was undertaken to correct issues leading to transfer delay. To test the efficacy of a Six Sigma intervention to reduce transfer time and establish a patient transfer process that would effectively enhance communication between hospital caregivers and improve the continuum of care for patients. The project was conducted at a 714-bed tertiary care hospital in Staten Island, New York. A Six Sigma multidisciplinary team was assembled to assess areas that needed improvement, manage the intervention, and analyze the results. The Six Sigma process identified eight key steps in the transfer of patients from general medical floors to critical care areas. Preintervention data and a root-cause analysis helped to establish the goal transfer-time limits of 3 h for any individual transfer and 90 min for the average of all transfers. The Six Sigma approach is a problem-solving methodology that resulted in almost a 60% reduction in patient transfer time from a general medical floor to a critical care area. The Six Sigma process is a feasible method for implementing healthcare related quality of care projects, especially those that are complex. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  15. Automatic detection of health changes using statistical process control techniques on measured transfer times of elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldewijns, Greet; Luca, Stijn; Nagels, William; Vanrumste, Bart; Croonenborghs, Tom

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that gait speed and transfer times are good measures of functional ability in elderly. However, data currently acquired by systems that measure either gait speed or transfer times in the homes of elderly people require manual reviewing by healthcare workers. This reviewing process is time-consuming. To alleviate this burden, this paper proposes the use of statistical process control methods to automatically detect both positive and negative changes in transfer times. Three SPC techniques: tabular CUSUM, standardized CUSUM and EWMA, known for their ability to detect small shifts in the data, are evaluated on simulated transfer times. This analysis shows that EWMA is the best-suited method with a detection accuracy of 82% and an average detection time of 9.64 days.

  16. Orthographic Structure and Reading Experience Affect the Transfer from Iconic to Short Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefton, Lester A.; Spragins, Anne B.

    1974-01-01

    The basic hypothesis of these experiments was that the processing strategy for the transfer of alphabetic material from iconic storage to short-term memory involves a sequential left-to-right factor that develops with increases in experience with reading. (Author)

  17. The TIME-Pilot intensity mapping experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crites, A. T.; Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Chang, T. C.; Cooray, A. R.; Duband, L.; Gong, Y.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Hunacek, J.; Koch, P. M.; Li, C. T.; O'Brient, R. C.; Prouve, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Silva, M. B.; Staniszewski, Z.; Uzgil, B.; Zemcov, M.

    2014-08-01

    TIME-Pilot is designed to make measurements from the Epoch of Reionization (EoR), when the first stars and galaxies formed and ionized the intergalactic medium. This will be done via measurements of the redshifted 157.7 um line of singly ionized carbon ([CII]). In particular, TIME-Pilot will produce the first detection of [CII] clustering fluctuations, a signal proportional to the integrated [CII] intensity, summed over all EoR galaxies. TIME-Pilot is thus sensitive to the emission from dwarf galaxies, thought to be responsible for the balance of ionizing UV photons, that will be difficult to detect individually with JWST and ALMA. A detection of [CII] clustering fluctuations would validate current theoretical estimates of the [CII] line as a new cosmological observable, opening the door for a new generation of instruments with advanced technology spectroscopic array focal planes that will map [CII] fluctuations to probe the EoR history of star formation, bubble size, and ionization state. Additionally, TIME-Pilot will produce high signal-to-noise measurements of CO clustering fluctuations, which trace the role of molecular gas in star-forming galaxies at redshifts 0 z < 2. With its unique atmospheric noise mitigation, TIME-Pilot also significantly improves sensitivity for measuring the kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (kSZ) effect in galaxy clusters. TIME-Pilot will employ a linear array of spectrometers, each consisting of a parallel-plate diffraction grating. The spectrometer bandwidth covers 185-323 GHz to both probe the entire redshift range of interest and to include channels at the edges of the band for atmospheric noise mitigation. We illuminate the telescope with f/3 horns, which balances the desire to both couple to the sky with the best efficiency per beam, and to pack a large number of horns into the fixed field of view. Feedhorns couple radiation to the waveguide spectrometer gratings. Each spectrometer grating has 190 facets and provides resolving power

  18. Infrared wireless data transfer for real-time motion control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gajdusek, M.; Overboom, T.T.; Damen, A.A.H.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper several wireless solution are compared for their suitability for real-time control of a fast motion system. From the comparison, Very Fast Infrared (VFIR) communication link has been found to be an attractive solution for presented wirelessly controlled manipulator. Because standard

  19. Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne; Aarkrog, Vibe

    Bogen er den første samlede indføring i transfer på dansk. Transfer kan anvendes som praksis-filosofikum. Den giver en systematisk indsigt til den studerende, der spørger: Hvordan kan teoretisk viden bruges til at reflektere over handlinger i situationer, der passer til min fremtidige arbejdsplads?...

  20. The experiences of family members in the nursing home to hospital transfer decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Abrahamson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to better understand the experiences of family members in the nursing home to hospital transfer decision making process. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 family members who had recently been involved in a nursing home to hospital transfer decision. Results Family members perceived themselves to play an advocacy role in their resident’s care and interview themes clustered within three over-arching categories: Family perception of the nursing home’s capacity to provide medical care: Resident and family choices; and issues at ‘hand-off’ and the hospital. Multiple sub-themes were also identified. Conclusions Findings from this study contribute to knowledge surrounding the nursing home transfer decision by illuminating the experiences of family members in the transfer decision process.

  1. Heat Transfer Experiment with Supercritical CO{sub 2} Flowing Upward in a Circular Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Dong; Bae, Yoon Yeong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor) is one of the six reactor candidates selected in the Gen-IV project, which aims at the development of new reactors with enhanced economy and safety. Heat transfer experiments under supercritical conditions are required in relevant geometries for the proper prediction of thermo-hydraulic phenomena in a reactor core. A heat transfer test loop, named as SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), has been constructed in KAERI. The loop uses carbon dioxide as a surrogate fluid for water since the critical pressure and temperature of CO{sub 2} are much lower those of water. As a first stage of heat transfer experiments, a single tube test is being performed in the test loop. Controlled parameters for the tests are operating pressure, mass flux, and heat flux. Wall temperatures are measured along the tube. Experimental data are compared with existing correlations.

  2. Heat Transfer Experiment with Supercritical CO2 Flowing Upward in a Circular Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Song, Jin Ho; Kim, Hee Dong; Bae, Yoon Yeong

    2005-01-01

    SCWR (SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor) is one of the six reactor candidates selected in the Gen-IV project, which aims at the development of new reactors with enhanced economy and safety. Heat transfer experiments under supercritical conditions are required in relevant geometries for the proper prediction of thermo-hydraulic phenomena in a reactor core. A heat transfer test loop, named as SPHINX (Supercritical Pressure Heat Transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), has been constructed in KAERI. The loop uses carbon dioxide as a surrogate fluid for water since the critical pressure and temperature of CO 2 are much lower those of water. As a first stage of heat transfer experiments, a single tube test is being performed in the test loop. Controlled parameters for the tests are operating pressure, mass flux, and heat flux. Wall temperatures are measured along the tube. Experimental data are compared with existing correlations

  3. Time while waiting: patients' experiences of scheduled surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tracey; Teucher, Ulrich C; Casson, Alan G

    2014-12-01

    Research on patients' experiences of wait time for scheduled surgery has centered predominantly on the relative tolerability of perceived wait time and impacts on quality of life. We explored patients' experiences of time while waiting for three types of surgery with varied wait times--hip or knee replacement, shoulder surgery, and cardiac surgery. Thirty-two patients were recruited by their surgeons. We asked participants about their perceptions of time while waiting in two separate interviews. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), we discovered connections between participant suffering, meaningfulness of time, and agency over the waiting period and the lived duration of time experience. Our findings reveal that chronological duration is not necessarily the most relevant consideration in determining the quality of waiting experience. Those findings helped us create a conceptual framework for lived wait time. We suggest that clinicians and policy makers consider the complexity of wait time experience to enhance preoperative patient care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Wealth Transfers from Implementing Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Borenstein, Severin

    2005-01-01

    Adoption of real-time electricity pricing %u2014 retail prices that vary hourly to reflect changing wholesale prices %u2014 removes existing cross-subsidies to those customers that consume disproportionately more when wholesale prices are highest. If their losses are substantial, these customers are likely to oppose RTP initiatives unless there is a supplemental program to offset their loss. Using data on a random sample of 636 industrial and commercial customers in southern California, I sho...

  5. Scaling options for integral experiments for molten salt fluid mechanics and heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe Bardet; Per F Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Molten fluoride salts have potentially large benefits for use in high-temperature heat transport in fission and fusion energy systems, due to their very very low vapor pressures at high temperatures. Molten salts have high volumetric heat capacity compared to high-pressure helium and liquid metals, and have desirable safety characteristics due to their chemical inertness and low pressure. Therefore molten salts have been studied extensively for use in fusion blankets, as an intermediate heat transfer fluid for thermochemical hydrogen production in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, as a primary coolant for the Advanced High Temperature Reactor, and as a solvent for fuel in the Molten Salt Reactor. This paper presents recent progress in the design and analysis of scaled thermal hydraulics experiments for molten salt systems. We have identified a category of light mineral oils that can be used for scaled experiments. By adjusting the length, velocity, average temperature, and temperature difference scales of the experiment, we show that it is possible to simultaneously match the Reynolds (Re), Froude (Fr), Prandtl (Pr) and Rayleigh (Ra) numbers in the scaled experiments. For example, the light mineral oil Penreco Drakesol 260 AT can be used to simulate the molten salt flibe (Li 2 BeF 4 ). At 110 deg. C, the oil Pr matches 600 deg. C flibe, and at 165 deg. C, the oil Pr matches 900 deg. C flibe. Re, Fr, and Ra can then be matched at a length scale of Ls/Lp = 0.40, velocity scale of U s /U p = 0.63, and temperature difference scale of ΔT s /ΔT p = 0.29. The Weber number is then matched within a factor of two, We s /We p = 0.7. Mechanical pumping power scales as Qp s /Qp p = 0.016, while heat inputs scale as Qh s /Qh p = 0.010, showing that power inputs to scaled experiments are very small compared to the prototype system. The scaled system has accelerated time, t s /t p = 0.64. When Re, Fr, Pr and Ra are matched, geometrically scaled

  6. Simulation of the VISTA SG heat transfer experiment using MIDAS/SMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Hwa; Kim, Dong Ha; Chung, Young Jong; Park, Sun Hee; Cho, Seong Won

    2011-01-01

    As the SMART plant was designed with the helical type tubes in the steam generators, the heat transfer model in that geometry has been implemented in the TASS/SMR-S code and used for the safety analysis. The same correlation was implemented in the MIDAS/SMR, which is being used for the severe accident analyses, to model heat transfer at the steam generators. In this study, the VISTA SG experiment with the helical steam generator tube was simulated with MIDAS/SMR to compare the heat transfer rates through the helical tube

  7. Response time in online stated choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, Danny; Mørkbak, Morten Raun; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we use paradata relating to the length of time respondents required in a self-administered online stated preference surveys. Although this issue has been previously explored, there is little guidance on how to identify and deal with ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ respondents. In this paper, we...... in Denmark. Results from our analysis corroborate that response latency has a bearing on the estimates of utility coefficients and the error variance. Although the results highlight the non-triviality of identifying fast and slow respondents, they signal the need to estimate a large number of candidate...... models to identify the most appropriate ‘fast’ and ‘slow’ thresholds. Not doing so is likely to lead to an inferior model and has repercussions for marginal willingness to pay estimates and choice predictions....

  8. Temporality and Time in Fascist Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Santoro

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the theme of Temporality in Italian fascism, an argument that is significant in order to analyze its peculiar approach to mass culture, mass rites but also concerning the function of its elite culture. A number of fascist political leaders, intellectuals and agitators insisted in such argument as a fundamental element in the developing of the regime and the approaching of its most peculiar qualities such as new multifaceted   imperialism and the necessity to project a new Nation imbued of a new political and monolithic culture.  Fascism tried to gain a synthesis between very different cultural elements such as futurism, revolutionarism and classicism, romanità, which deserve a peculiar analysis able to deal with the complexity of mass society. For these reasons the essay proposes an articulated methodologically overview on the argument of Temporality in Historiography and social sciences. In fact it insists in analyzing. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  9. Time Transfer from Combined Analysis of GPS and TWSTFT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    2005/429 and BEFPI/2007/040 of the Consellería de Empresa , Universidad y Ciencia of the Generalitat Valenciana. The authors also acknowledge the time...and Z. Jiang2 1University of Alicante, Spain, E-mail: carmen.martinez@ua.es 2Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, France, E-mail: zjiang...failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 DEC 2008 2. REPORT

  10. Soil transference patterns on bras: Image processing and laboratory dragging experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kathleen R; Fitzpatrick, Robert W; Bottrill, Ralph S; Berry, Ron; Kobus, Hilton

    2016-01-01

    In a recent Australian homicide, trace soil on the victim's clothing suggested she was initially attacked in her front yard and not the park where her body was buried. However the important issue that emerged during the trial was how soil was transferred to her clothing. This became the catalyst for designing a range of soil transference experiments (STEs) to study, recognise and classify soil patterns transferred onto fabric when a body is dragged across a soil surface. Soil deposits of interest in this murder were on the victim's bra and this paper reports the results of anthropogenic soil transfer to bra-cups and straps caused by dragging. Transfer patterns were recorded by digital photography and photomicroscopy. Eight soil transfer patterns on fabric, specific to dragging as the transfer method, appeared consistently throughout the STEs. The distinctive soil patterns were largely dependent on a wide range of soil features that were measured and identified for each soil tested using X-ray Diffraction and Non-Dispersive Infra-Red analysis. Digital photographs of soil transfer patterns on fabric were analysed using image processing software to provide a soil object-oriented classification of all soil objects with a diameter of 2 pixels and above transferred. Although soil transfer patterns were easily identifiable by naked-eye alone, image processing software provided objective numerical data to support this traditional (but subjective) interpretation. Image software soil colour analysis assigned a range of Munsell colours to identify and compare trace soil on fabric to other trace soil evidence from the same location; without requiring a spectrophotometer. Trace soil from the same location was identified by linking soils with similar dominant and sub-dominant Munsell colour peaks. Image processing numerical data on the quantity of soil transferred to fabric, enabled a relationship to be discovered between soil type, clay mineralogy (smectite), particle size and

  11. Two-way time transfer via optical fiber providing subpicosecond precision and high temperature stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodet, J.; Pánek, Petr; Procházka, I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2015), s. 18-26 ISSN 0026-1394 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : optical fiber * time transfer * TWOTT Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2015

  12. Two-way time transfer via optical fiber providing subpicosecond precision and high temperature stability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kodet, J.; Pánek, Petr; Procházka, I.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2016), s. 18-26 ISSN 0026-1394 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : TWOTT * Time transfer * Optical fiber Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  13. Ressac program plants analytical experiments study of a code modelling the soil to plant transfer factor of cesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouve, A.; Troesch, O.; Legrand, B.

    1989-10-01

    The available data about the soil to plant transfer factor of cesium are numerous but very variable. The variation conditions of the transfer factor are studied with the help of laboratory experiments and the results analysed with the help of a multiple linear regression calculation. The results are applied to the soils and plants types the most frequently present around the French nuclear sites. A calculation model including the plant life conditions such as pH, water-soluble potassium and the available part of cesium in the water of the soil, is proposed. This model allows to predict the transfer factor with a better accuracy (up to ten times) than using the single ratio issue from the experimental data [fr

  14. Parents’ experiences of neonatal transfer. A meta-study of qualitative research 2000-2017

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Hanne; Hall, Elisabeth; Ludvigsen, Mette Spliid

    2018-01-01

    Transfers of critically ill neonates are frequent phenomena. Even though parents’ par- ticipation is regarded as crucial in neonatal care, a transfer often means that parents and neonates are separated. A systematic review of the parents’ experiences of neo- natal transfer is lacking. This paper ...... identified ‘wavering and wandering’ as a metaphoric representation of the parents’ experiences. The findings add knowledge about meta- study as an approach for com- prehensive qualitative research and point at the value of meta- theory and meta- method analyses....... describes a meta- study addressing qualitative re- search about parents’ experiences of neonatal transfer. Through deconstruction and reflections of theories, methods, and empirical data, the aim was to achieve a deeper understanding of theoretical, empirical, contextual, historical, and methodological is......- sues of qualitative studies concerning parents’ experiences of neonatal transfer over the course of this meta- study (2000–2017). Meta- theory and meta- method analyses showed that caring, transition, and family- centered care were main theoretical frames applied and that interviewing with a small...

  15. Structural integrity of callosal midbody influences intermanual transfer in a motor reaction-time task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonzano, Laura; Tacchino, Andrea; Roccatagliata, Luca; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Bove, Marco

    2011-02-01

    Training one hand on a motor task results in performance improvements in the other hand, also when stimuli are randomly presented (nonspecific transfer). Corpus callosum (CC) is the main structure involved in interhemispheric information transfer; CC pathology occurs in patients with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) and is related to altered performance of tasks requiring interhemispheric transfer of sensorimotor information. To investigate the role of CC in nonspecific transfer during a pure motor reaction-time task, we combined motor behavior with diffusion tensor imaging analysis in PwMS. Twenty-two PwMS and 10 controls, all right-handed, were asked to respond to random stimuli with appropriate finger opposition movements with the right (learning) and then the left (transfer) hand. PwMS were able to improve motor performance reducing response times with practice with a trend similar to controls and preserved the ability to transfer the acquired motor information from the learning to the transfer hand. A higher variability in the transfer process, indicated by a significantly larger standard deviation of mean nonspecific transfer, was found in the PwMS group with respect to the control group, suggesting the presence of subtle impairments in interhemispheric communication in some patients. Then, we correlated the amount of nonspecific transfer with mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values, indicative of microstructural damage, obtained in five CC subregions identified on PwMS's FA maps. A significant correlation was found only in the subregion including posterior midbody (Pearson's r = 0.74, P = 0.003), which thus seems to be essential for the interhemispheric transfer of information related to pure sensorimotor tasks. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Historical time-recessive recombinant nucleotidal gene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Michael A.

    2013-10-01

    Whether conscious of it or not, physicist Tim Berners-Lee basically applied principle of a nuclear chain reaction to electron transport, a remarkable outcome being the world wide web. On a less dense exponential than the nucleus, but still by out of control design (1999), the flow of electrons with high symmetry (hypertext) brought about astonishing new insights to the field. No one in the author's sphere of influence, including the author, ever learned or taught that such chain reactions have a time-recessive trajectory, such that key significant moments in the new science had impact not only the world at present, but on scale overlapping with ancestors. Dr. Chuck Darwin learned man indeed did arise in Africa (brown toastmasters); author suggests his creed ``survival of the fittest'' in post-20th century hindsight, for man initialized nuclear energy in Eurasia (white toastmasters), and nearly brought the world to collapse by dropping nuclear weapons on humans in Asia (yellow toastmasters), be best updated ``survival of the most communicative.'' If true, this informs that the measure of the appended science's power is as equally as important as the measure of its speed, ergo, there really is no energy crisis.

  17. State of the art on the heat transfer experiments under supercritical pressure condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hwan Yeol; Song, Chul Hwa

    2003-07-01

    The SCWR(Super-Critical Water cooled Reactor) is one of the six reactor candidates selected in the Gen-IV project which aims at the development of new reactors with enhanced economy and safety. The SCWR is considered to be a feasible concept of new nuclear power plant if the existing technologies developed in fossil fuel fired plant and LWR technologies together with additional research on several disciplines such as materials, water chemistry and safety. As KAERI takes part in the GIF(Generation IV Forum) for the Gen-IV project, domestic concerns about the SCWR have been recently increased. In order to establish a foundation for the development of SCWR, efforts should be concentrated on the conceptual design of systems and the associated key experiments as well. Heat transfer experiments, among others, under supercritical condition are required for the proper prediction of thermal hydraulic phenomena, which are essential for the thermal hydraulic designs of reactor core. Nevertheless, the experiments have not been performed in Korea yet. This report deals with fundamental surveys on the heat transfer experiments under supercritical conditions, which are required for the understanding of heat transfer characteristics for the thermal hydraulic designs of supercritical reactor core. Investigations on the physical properties of water and CO 2 showed that the physical properties such as density, specific heat, viscosity and thermal conductivity are significantly changed near the pseudo-critical points. The state of the art on the heat transfer characteristics in relation with heat transfer deterioration and heat transfer coefficient is briefly described. In addition, previous experiments with supercritical water as well as supercritical CO 2 and Freon used for an alternating fluid are presented

  18. State of the art on the heat transfer experiments under supercritical pressure condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwan Yeol; Song, Chul Hwa

    2003-07-01

    The SCWR(Super-Critical Water cooled Reactor) is one of the six reactor candidates selected in the Gen-IV project which aims at the development of new reactors with enhanced economy and safety. The SCWR is considered to be a feasible concept of new nuclear power plant if the existing technologies developed in fossil fuel fired plant and LWR technologies together with additional research on several disciplines such as materials, water chemistry and safety. As KAERI takes part in the GIF(Generation IV Forum) for the Gen-IV project, domestic concerns about the SCWR have been recently increased. In order to establish a foundation for the development of SCWR, efforts should be concentrated on the conceptual design of systems and the associated key experiments as well. Heat transfer experiments, among others, under supercritical condition are required for the proper prediction of thermal hydraulic phenomena, which are essential for the thermal hydraulic designs of reactor core. Nevertheless, the experiments have not been performed in Korea yet. This report deals with fundamental surveys on the heat transfer experiments under supercritical conditions, which are required for the understanding of heat transfer characteristics for the thermal hydraulic designs of supercritical reactor core. Investigations on the physical properties of water and CO{sub 2} showed that the physical properties such as density, specific heat, viscosity and thermal conductivity are significantly changed near the pseudo-critical points. The state of the art on the heat transfer characteristics in relation with heat transfer deterioration and heat transfer coefficient is briefly described. In addition, previous experiments with supercritical water as well as supercritical CO{sub 2} and Freon used for an alternating fluid are presented.

  19. The First Experience of Triple Nerve Transfer in Proximal Radial Nerve Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamhadi, Mohammadreza; Andalib, Sasan

    2018-01-01

    Injury to distal portion of posterior cord of brachial plexus leads to palsy of radial and axillary nerves. Symptoms are usually motor deficits of the deltoid muscle; triceps brachii muscle; and extensor muscles of the wrist, thumb, and fingers. Tendon transfers, nerve grafts, and nerve transfers are options for surgical treatment of proximal radial nerve palsy to restore some motor functions. Tendon transfer is painful, requires a long immobilization, and decreases donor muscle strength; nevertheless, nerve transfer produces promising outcomes. We present a patient with proximal radial nerve palsy following a blunt injury undergoing triple nerve transfer. The patient was involved in a motorcycle accident with complete palsy of the radial and axillary nerves. After 6 months, on admission, he showed spontaneous recovery of axillary nerve palsy, but radial nerve palsy remained. We performed triple nerve transfer, fascicle of ulnar nerve to long head of the triceps branch of radial nerve, flexor digitorum superficialis branch of median nerve to extensor carpi radialis brevis branch of radial nerve, and flexor carpi radialis branch of median nerve to posterior interosseous nerve, for restoration of elbow, wrist, and finger extensions, respectively. Our experience confirmed functional elbow, wrist, and finger extensions in the patient. Triple nerve transfer restores functions of the upper limb in patients with debilitating radial nerve palsy after blunt injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural convection heat transfer experiments of horizontal plates with fin arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Je Young; Chung, Bum Jin [Jeju National University 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Core melt in a severe accident condition, forms a molten pool in the reactor vessel lower head. The molten pool is divided by a metallic pool (top) and an oxide pool (bottom) by the density difference. The crust between the metallic layer and the oxide pool may be formed by solidification of the molten metallic materials. So the surface of the crust is formed irregularly. Experiments were performed to investigate the irregular crust as a preparatory study before an in-depth severe accident study. The natural convection heat transfer were investigated experimentally varying the height and spacing of fins, top plate of different kinds and the plate separation distance with/without the side walls. In order to simulate irregular crust surface condition, the finned plates was used. Using the analogy concept, heat transfer experiments were replaced by mass transfer experiments. A cupric acid.copper sulfate (H{sup 2S}O{sup 4-}CuSO{sup 4)} electroplating system was adopted as the mass transfer system and the electric currents were measured rather than the heat transfer rates.

  1. Time to delivery: Transfers for threatened preterm labour and prelabour rupture of membranes in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Jade; Pietsch, Rachel; Epee-Bekima, Mathias; Nathan, Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    To describe the outcomes of patients transferred to King Edward Memorial Hospital (KEMH) with signs of labour at preterm gestations. A retrospective observational study of the 69 cases transferred to KEMH during 2015. Patient transfers from all locations across Western Australia (WA) to the sole tertiary perinatal centre in Perth. Pregnant women within WA with threatened or actual preterm labour (PTL) or preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) between 23 and 32 weeks gestation. The occurrence of delivery during the admission and time-to-delivery as well as length of admission and association between clinical factors and time-to-delivery. The percentage of the study population delivered during the admission following transfer was 72.5%. Eighty-six per cent of those who delivered did so within 72 hours of transfer. The median time from transfer to delivery was 1 day. Sixty-three per cent of those who did not deliver during the admission progressed to 36 weeks gestation. Patients transferred with PPROM were less likely to deliver during the admission compared to those with uterine activity (50% versus 19.6%, P = 0.007) and nulliparas were more likely to deliver (93.5% versus 55.3%, P < 0.001). The majority of women transferred with signs of PTL progress to delivery during the same admission with the highest risk of delivery being the first 72 hours following transfer. If the pregnancy is ongoing at 72 hours, there is a reasonable chance of progression to late preterm gestation supporting the return of woman to their place of origin for antenatal care following discharge. © 2017 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  2. Exploring hurdles to transfer : student experiences of applying knowledge across disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappalainen, Jouni; Rosqvist, Juho

    2015-04-01

    This paper explores the ways students perceive the transfer of learned knowledge to new situations - often a surprisingly difficult prospect. The novel aspect compared to the traditional transfer studies is that the learning phase is not a part of the experiment itself. The intention was only to activate acquired knowledge relevant to the transfer target using a short primer immediately prior to the situation where the knowledge was to be applied. Eight volunteer students from either mathematics or computer science curricula were given a task of designing an adder circuit using logic gates: a new context in which to apply knowledge of binary arithmetic and Boolean algebra. The results of a phenomenographic classification of the views presented by the students in their post-experiment interviews are reported. The degree to which the students were conscious of the acquired knowledge they employed and how they applied it in a new context emerged as the differentiating factors.

  3. Review and proposal for heat transfer predictions at supercritical water conditions using existing correlations and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Wadim, E-mail: wadim.jaeger@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, DE-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, DE-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hurtado, Antonio [Technical University of Dresden, Institute of Power Engineering, DE-01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Implementation of heat transfer correlations for supercritical water into TRACE. > Simulation of several heat transfer experiments with modified TRACE version. > Most correlations are not able to reproduce the experimental results. > Bishop, Sandberg and Tong correlation is most suitable for TRACE applications. - Abstract: This paper summarizes the activities of the TRACE code validation at the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology related to supercritical water conditions. In particular, the providing of the thermo physical properties and its appropriate use in the wall-to-fluid heat transfer models in the frame of the TRACE code is the object of this investigation. In a first step, the thermo physical properties of the original TRACE code were modified in order to account for supercritical conditions. In a second step, existing Nusselt correlations were reviewed and implemented into TRACE and available experiments were simulated to identify the most suitable Nusselt correlation(s).

  4. Review and proposal for heat transfer predictions at supercritical water conditions using existing correlations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, Wadim; Sanchez Espinoza, Victor Hugo; Hurtado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Implementation of heat transfer correlations for supercritical water into TRACE. → Simulation of several heat transfer experiments with modified TRACE version. → Most correlations are not able to reproduce the experimental results. → Bishop, Sandberg and Tong correlation is most suitable for TRACE applications. - Abstract: This paper summarizes the activities of the TRACE code validation at the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology related to supercritical water conditions. In particular, the providing of the thermo physical properties and its appropriate use in the wall-to-fluid heat transfer models in the frame of the TRACE code is the object of this investigation. In a first step, the thermo physical properties of the original TRACE code were modified in order to account for supercritical conditions. In a second step, existing Nusselt correlations were reviewed and implemented into TRACE and available experiments were simulated to identify the most suitable Nusselt correlation(s).

  5. Gas transfer under breaking waves: experiments and an improved vorticity-based model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Tsoukala

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper a modified vorticity-based model for gas transfer under breaking waves in the absence of significant wind forcing is presented. A theoretically valid and practically applicable mathematical expression is suggested for the assessment of the oxygen transfer coefficient in the area of wave-breaking. The proposed model is based on the theory of surface renewal that expresses the oxygen transfer coefficient as a function of both the wave vorticity and the Reynolds wave number for breaking waves. Experimental data were collected in wave flumes of various scales: a small-scale experiments were carried out using both a sloping beach and a rubble-mound breakwater in the wave flume of the Laboratory of Harbor Works, NTUA, Greece; b large-scale experiments were carried out with a sloping beach in the wind-wave flume of Delft Hydraulics, the Netherlands, and with a three-layer rubble mound breakwater in the Schneideberg Wave Flume of the Franzius Institute, University of Hannover, Germany. The experimental data acquired from both the small- and large-scale experiments were in good agreement with the proposed model. Although the apparent transfer coefficients from the large-scale experiments were lower than those determined from the small-scale experiments, the actual oxygen transfer coefficients, as calculated using a discretized form of the transport equation, are in the same order of magnitude for both the small- and large-scale experiments. The validity of the proposed model is compared to experimental results from other researchers. Although the results are encouraging, additional research is needed, to incorporate the influence of bubble mediated gas exchange, before these results are used for an environmental friendly design of harbor works, or for projects involving waste disposal at sea.

  6. Time-resolved phosphorous magnetization transfer of the human calf muscle at 3 T and 7 T: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovič, Ladislav, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Dúbravska cesta 9 (Slovakia); Chmelík, Marek, E-mail: marek.chmelik@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Just Kukurova, Ivica, E-mail: ivica.kukurova@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Krššák, Martin, E-mail: martin.krssak@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Gruber, Stephan, E-mail: stephan@nmr.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Frollo, Ivan, E-mail: umerollo@savba.sk [Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Dúbravska cesta 9 (Slovakia); Trattnig, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Bogner, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang@nmr.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria)

    2013-05-15

    Phosphorous ({sup 31}P) magnetization transfer (MT) experiments enable the non-invasive investigation of human muscle metabolism in various physiological and pathological conditions. The purpose of our study was to investigate the feasibility of time-resolved MT, and to compare the results of MT experiments at 3 T and 7 T. Six healthy volunteers were examined on a 3 T and a 7 T MR scanner using the same setup and identical measurement protocols. In the calf muscle of all volunteers, four separate MT experiments (each ∼10 min duration) were performed in one session. The forward rate constant of the ATP synthesis reaction (k{sub ATP}) and creatine kinase reaction (k{sub CK}), as well as corresponding metabolic fluxes (F{sub ATP}, F{sub CK}), were estimated. A comparison of these exchange parameters, apparent T{sub 1}s, data quality, quantification precision, and reproducibility was performed. The data quality and reproducibility of the same MT experiments at 7 T was significantly higher (i.e., k{sub ATP} 2.7 times higher and k{sub CK} 3.4 times higher) than at 3 T (p < 0.05). The values for k{sub ATP} (p = 0.35) and k{sub CK} (p = 0.09) at both field strengths were indistinguishable. Even a single MT experiment at 7 T provided better data quality than did a 4 times-longer MT experiment at 3 T. The minimal time-resolution to reliably quantify both F{sub ATP} and F{sub CK} at 7 T was ∼6 min. Our results show that MT experiments at 7 T can be at least 4 times faster than 3 T MT experiments and still provide significantly better quantification. This enables time-resolved MT experiments for the observation of slow metabolic changes in the human calf muscle at 7 T.

  7. Time-resolved phosphorous magnetization transfer of the human calf muscle at 3 T and 7 T: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovič, Ladislav; Chmelík, Marek; Just Kukurova, Ivica; Krššák, Martin; Gruber, Stephan; Frollo, Ivan; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorous ( 31 P) magnetization transfer (MT) experiments enable the non-invasive investigation of human muscle metabolism in various physiological and pathological conditions. The purpose of our study was to investigate the feasibility of time-resolved MT, and to compare the results of MT experiments at 3 T and 7 T. Six healthy volunteers were examined on a 3 T and a 7 T MR scanner using the same setup and identical measurement protocols. In the calf muscle of all volunteers, four separate MT experiments (each ∼10 min duration) were performed in one session. The forward rate constant of the ATP synthesis reaction (k ATP ) and creatine kinase reaction (k CK ), as well as corresponding metabolic fluxes (F ATP , F CK ), were estimated. A comparison of these exchange parameters, apparent T 1 s, data quality, quantification precision, and reproducibility was performed. The data quality and reproducibility of the same MT experiments at 7 T was significantly higher (i.e., k ATP 2.7 times higher and k CK 3.4 times higher) than at 3 T (p < 0.05). The values for k ATP (p = 0.35) and k CK (p = 0.09) at both field strengths were indistinguishable. Even a single MT experiment at 7 T provided better data quality than did a 4 times-longer MT experiment at 3 T. The minimal time-resolution to reliably quantify both F ATP and F CK at 7 T was ∼6 min. Our results show that MT experiments at 7 T can be at least 4 times faster than 3 T MT experiments and still provide significantly better quantification. This enables time-resolved MT experiments for the observation of slow metabolic changes in the human calf muscle at 7 T

  8. Asymptotic equilibrium diffusion analysis of time-dependent Monte Carlo methods for grey radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densmore, Jeffery D.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2004-01-01

    The equations of nonlinear, time-dependent radiative transfer are known to yield the equilibrium diffusion equation as the leading-order solution of an asymptotic analysis when the mean-free path and mean-free time of a photon become small. We apply this same analysis to the Fleck-Cummings, Carter-Forest, and N'kaoua Monte Carlo approximations for grey (frequency-independent) radiative transfer. Although Monte Carlo simulation usually does not require the discretizations found in deterministic transport techniques, Monte Carlo methods for radiative transfer require a time discretization due to the nonlinearities of the problem. If an asymptotic analysis of the equations used by a particular Monte Carlo method yields an accurate time-discretized version of the equilibrium diffusion equation, the method should generate accurate solutions if a time discretization is chosen that resolves temperature changes, even if the time steps are much larger than the mean-free time of a photon. This analysis is of interest because in many radiative transfer problems, it is a practical necessity to use time steps that are large compared to a mean-free time. Our asymptotic analysis shows that: (i) the N'kaoua method has the equilibrium diffusion limit, (ii) the Carter-Forest method has the equilibrium diffusion limit if the material temperature change during a time step is small, and (iii) the Fleck-Cummings method does not have the equilibrium diffusion limit. We include numerical results that verify our theoretical predictions

  9. Quantum transfer energy in the framework of time-dependent dipole-dipole interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; Haddon, Robert C.; Al-Heniti, Saleh H.; Raffah, Bahaaudin M.; Berrada, K.; Abdel-Khalek, S.; Al-Hadeethi, Yas F.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we examine the process of the quantum transfer of energy considering time-dependent dipole-dipole interaction in a dimer system characterized by two-level atom systems. By taking into account the effect of the acceleration and speed of the atoms in the dimer coupling, we demonstrate that the improvement of the probability for a single-excitation transfer energy extremely benefits from the incorporation of atomic motion effectiveness and the energy detuning. We explore the relevance between the population and entanglement during the time-evolution and show that this kind of nonlocal correlation may be generated during the process of the transfer of energy. Our work may provide optimal conditions to implement realistic experimental scenario in the transfer of the quantum energy.

  10. Decreasing Postanesthesia Care Unit to Floor Transfer Times to Facilitate Short Stay Total Joint Replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibia, Udai S; Grover, Jennifer; Turcotte, Justin J; Seanger, Michelle L; England, Kimberly A; King, Jennifer L; King, Paul J

    2018-04-01

    We describe a process for studying and improving baseline postanesthesia care unit (PACU)-to-floor transfer times after total joint replacements. Quality improvement project using lean methodology. Phase I of the investigational process involved collection of baseline data. Phase II involved developing targeted solutions to improve throughput. Phase III involved measured project sustainability. Phase I investigations revealed that patients spent an additional 62 minutes waiting in the PACU after being designated ready for transfer. Five to 16 telephone calls were needed between the PACU and the unit to facilitate each patient transfer. The most common reason for delay was unavailability of the unit nurse who was attending to another patient (58%). Phase II interventions resulted in transfer times decreasing to 13 minutes (79% reduction, P care at other institutions. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Time constants and transfer functions for a homogeneous 900 MWt metallic fueled LMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nodal transfer functions are calculated for a 900 MWt U10Zr-fueled sodium cooled reactor. From the transfer functions the time constants, feedback reactivity transfer function coefficients, and power coefficients can be determined. These quantities are calculated for core fuel, upper and lower axial reflector steel, radial blanket fuel, radial reflector steel, and B 4 C rod shaft expansion effect. The quantities are compared to the analogous quantities of a 60 MWt metallic-fueled sodium cooled Experimental Breeder Reactor II configuration. 8 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Chemical Kinetics, Heat Transfer, and Sensor Dynamics Revisited in a Simple Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sad, Maria E.; Sad, Mario R.; Castro, Alberto A.; Garetto, Teresita F.

    2008-01-01

    A simple experiment about thermal effects in chemical reactors is described, which can be used to illustrate chemical reactor models, the determination and validation of their parameters, and some simple principles of heat transfer and sensor dynamics. It is based in the exothermic reaction between aqueous solutions of sodium thiosulfate and…

  13. Applying Toyota Production System principles to a psychiatric hospital: making transfers safer and more timely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, John Q; Wachter, Robert M

    2009-09-01

    Health care organizations have increasingly embraced industrial methods, such as the Toyota Production System (TPS), to improve quality, safety, timeliness, and efficiency. However, the use of such methods in psychiatric hospitals has been limited. A psychiatric hospital applied TPS principles to patient transfers to the outpatient medication management clinics (MMCs) from all other inpatient and outpatient services within the hospital's system. Sources of error and delay were identified, and a new process was designed to improve timely access (measured by elapsed time from request for transfer to scheduling of an appointment and to the actual visit) and patient safety by decreasing communication errors (measured by number of failed transfers). Complexity was substantially reduced, with one streamlined pathway replacing five distinct and more complicated pathways. To assess sustainability, the postintervention period was divided into Period 1 (first 12 months) and Period 2 (next 24 months). Time required to process the transfer and schedule the first appointment was reduced by 74.1% in Period 1 (p < .001) and by an additional 52.7% in Period 2 (p < .0001) for an overall reduction of 87% (p < .0001). Similarly, time to the actual appointment was reduced 31.2% in Period 1 (p < .0001), but was stable in Period 2 (p = .48). The number of transfers per month successfully processed and scheduled increased 95% in the postintervention period compared with the pre-implementation period (p = .015). Finally, data for failed transfers were only available for the postintervention period, and the rate decreased 89% in Period 2 compared with Period 1 (p = .017). The application of TPS principles enhanced access and safety through marked and sustained improvements in the transfer process's timeliness and reliability. Almost all transfer processes have now been standardized.

  14. The design of a heat transfer liquid metal MHD experiment for ALEX [Argonne Liquid-Metal Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.; Hua, T.Q.; Lavine, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    An experiment to study heat transfer in liquid metal MHD flow, under conditions relevant to coolant channels for tokamak first wall and high heat flux devices, is described. The experimental configuration is a rectangular duct in a transverse magnetic field, heated on one wall parallel to the field. The specific objective of the experiment is to resolve important issues related to the presence and heat transfer characteristics of wall jets and flow instabilities in MHD flows in rectangular duct with electrically conducting walls. Available analytical tools for MHD thermal hydraulics have been used in the design of the test article and its instrumentation. Proposed tests will cover a wide range of Peclet and Hartmann numbers and interaction parameters. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on further studies on long range energy transfer between curcumine as donor and another thiazine dye, thionine, which is closely related to methylene blue as energy harvester (Figure 1). Since thionine is known to have a higher quantum yield of singlet oxygen sensitization than methylene blue [8], it is ...

  16. Relativity time-delay experiments utilizing 'Mariner' spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, P. B.; Anderson, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Relativity predicts that the transit time of a signal propagated from the earth to a spacecraft and retransmitted back to earth ought to exhibit an additional, variable time delay. The present work describes some of the analytical techniques employed in experiments using Mariner spacecraft designed to test the accuracy of this prediction. Two types of data are analyzed in these relativity experiments; these include phase-coherent, two-way Doppler shift and round-trip, transit-time measurements. Results of Mariner 6 and 7 relativistic time-delay experiments are in agreement with Einstein's theory of general relativity with an uncertainty of 3%.

  17. Through the client's eyes: using narratives to explore experiences of care transfers during pregnancy, childbirth, and the neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stenus, Cherelle M V; Gotink, Mark; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M; Sools, Anneke; Need, Ariana

    2017-06-12

    The client experience is an important outcome in the evaluation and development of perinatal healthcare. But because clients meet different professionals, measuring such experiences poses a challenge. This is especially the case in the Netherlands, where pregnant women are often transferred between professionals due to the nation's approach to risk selection. This paper explores questions around how clients experience transfers of care during pregnancy, childbirth, and the neonatal period, as well as how these experiences compare to the established quality of care aspects the Dutch Patient Federation developed. Narratives from 17 Dutch women who had given birth about their experiences with transfers were collected in the Netherlands. The narratives, for which informed consent was obtained, were collected on paper and online. Storyline analysis was used to identify story types. Story types portray patterns that indicate how clients experience transfers between healthcare providers. A comparative analysis was performed to identify differences and similarities between existing quality criteria and those clients mentioned. Four story types were identified: 1) Disconnected transfers of care lead to uncertainties; 2) Seamless transfers of care due to proper collaboration lead to positive experiences; 3) Transfers of care lead to disruption of patient-provider connectedness; 4) Transfer of care is initiated by the client to make pregnancy and childbirth dreams come true. Most of the quality aspects derived from these story types were identified as being similar or complementary to the Dutch Patient Federation list. A 'new' aspect identified in the clients' stories was the influencing role of prior experiences with transfers of care on current expectations, fears, and wishes. Transfers of care affect clients greatly and influence their experiences. Good communication, seamless transfers, and maintaining autonomy contribute to more positive experiences. The stories also

  18. Process techniques of charge transfer time reduction for high speed CMOS image sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Zhongxiang; Li Quanliang; Han Ye; Qin Qi; Feng Peng; Liu Liyuan; Wu Nanjian

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes pixel process techniques to reduce the charge transfer time in high speed CMOS image sensors. These techniques increase the lateral conductivity of the photo-generated carriers in a pinned photodiode (PPD) and the voltage difference between the PPD and the floating diffusion (FD) node by controlling and optimizing the N doping concentration in the PPD and the threshold voltage of the reset transistor, respectively. The techniques shorten the charge transfer time from the PPD diode to the FD node effectively. The proposed process techniques do not need extra masks and do not cause harm to the fill factor. A sub array of 32 × 64 pixels was designed and implemented in the 0.18 μm CIS process with five implantation conditions splitting the N region in the PPD. The simulation and measured results demonstrate that the charge transfer time can be decreased by using the proposed techniques. Comparing the charge transfer time of the pixel with the different implantation conditions of the N region, the charge transfer time of 0.32 μs is achieved and 31% of image lag was reduced by using the proposed process techniques. (semiconductor devices)

  19. 47 CFR 76.502 - Time limits applicable to franchise authority consideration of transfer applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time limits applicable to franchise authority... Cable Systems § 76.502 Time limits applicable to franchise authority consideration of transfer applications. (a) A franchise authority shall have 120 days from the date of submission of a completed FCC Form...

  20. Intergenerational money and time transfers by gender in Spain: Who are the actual dependants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisenda Rentería

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The analysis of intergenerational transfers can shed light on the interaction between population age structure and welfare. Nevertheless, a thorough examination of this issue requires consideration of both monetary (market and time (non-market transfers. Objective: We analyse market and non-market production, consumption, and transfers by age and gender for Spain from 2009−2010 using National (Time Transfer Accounts (NTA and NTTA methodology. Methods: Using National Accounts, microdata from different surveys, and the Time Use Survey, we estimate age and sex-specific profiles of monetary and time production and consumption for Spain. Consequently, a surplus or deficit and the resulting transfers are obtained. Results: We observe higher labour income for men with respect to women throughout the age profile. Nevertheless, women spend more hours in total (market and non-market activities than men. This division drives an asymmetry in private transfers. While men are net donors of money to other age groups during their working life, women are net donors of time to other household members (mainly children and their partners over their lives. Conclusions: The inclusion of the non-market economy in the analysis of intergenerational transfers is crucial to observe real inequalities between genders throughout the life cycle. This challenges the 'economic dependency' of women based on a market economy. The results suggest that the public sector in Spain should reinforce policies that take into account women's contribution to the welfare of other population groups, and call for policies that reconcile professional and family obligations.

  1. Effect of the time spent by the photon in the absorbed state on the time-dependent transfer of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, D.M.; Rangarajan, K.E.; Peraiah, A.

    1990-01-01

    The time-dependent transfer equation is derived for a two-level atomic model which takes both bound-bound and bound-free transitions into account. A numerical scheme is proposed for solving the monochromatic time-dependent transfer equation when the time spent by the photon in the absorbed state is significant. The method can be easily extended to solve the problem of time-dependent line formation of the bound-free continuum. It is used here to study three types of boundary conditions of the incident radiation incident on a scattering atmosphere. The quantitative results show that the relaxation of the radiation field depends on the optical depth of the medium and on the ray's angle of emergence. 21 refs

  2. An air transfer experiment confirms the role of volatile cues in communication between plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karban, Richard; Shiojiri, Kaori; Ishizaki, Satomi

    2010-09-01

    Previous studies reported that sagebrush plants near experimentally clipped neighbors experienced less herbivory than did plants near unclipped neighbors. Blocking air flow with plastic bags made this effect undetectable. However, some scientists remained skeptical about the possibility of volatile communication between plants since the existence and identity of a cue that operates in nature have never been demonstrated. We conducted an air transfer experiment that collected air from the headspace of an experimentally clipped donor plant and delivered it to the headspace of an unclipped assay plant. We found that assay plants treated with air from clipped donors were less likely to be damaged by naturally occurring herbivores in a field experiment. This simple air transfer experiment fulfills the most critical of Koch's postulates and provides more definitive evidence for volatile communication between plants. It also provides an inexpensive experimental protocol that can be used to screen plants for interplant communication in the field.

  3. Experiments on nucleate boiling heat transfer with a highly-wetting dielectric fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, S.M.; Simon, T.W.; Bar-Cohen, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on experiments on pool boiling heat transfer in an electronic cooling fluid (Fluorinert, FC-72) that were conducted using a 0.51 mm diameter cylindrical heater. The effects of pressure, subcooling and dissolved gas content on nucleate boiling heat transfer are investigated. When boiling with dissolved gas in the bulk fluid, the fluid in the vicinity of the heating element appears to be liberated of dissolved gas by boiling. Thus, boiling under these conditions appears to be similar to subcooled boiling without dissolved gas. Nucleate boiling hysteresis is observed for subcooled and gassy-subcooled situations

  4. Time course influences transfer of visual perceptual learning across spatial location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, S J; Kennard, C; Bridge, H

    2017-06-01

    Visual perceptual learning describes the improvement of visual perception with repeated practice. Previous research has established that the learning effects of perceptual training may be transferable to untrained stimulus attributes such as spatial location under certain circumstances. However, the mechanisms involved in transfer have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we investigated the effect of altering training time course on the transferability of learning effects. Participants were trained on a motion direction discrimination task or a sinusoidal grating orientation discrimination task in a single visual hemifield. The 4000 training trials were either condensed into one day, or spread evenly across five training days. When participants were trained over a five-day period, there was transfer of learning to both the untrained visual hemifield and the untrained task. In contrast, when the same amount of training was condensed into a single day, participants did not show any transfer of learning. Thus, learning time course may influence the transferability of perceptual learning effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On the Relationship Between Transfer Function-derived Response Times and Hydrograph Analysis Timing Parameters: Are there Similarities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansah, S.; Ali, G.; Haque, M. A.; Tang, V.

    2017-12-01

    The proportion of precipitation that becomes streamflow is a function of internal catchment characteristics - which include geology, landscape characteristics and vegetation - and influence overall storage dynamics. The timing and quantity of water discharged by a catchment are indeed embedded in event hydrographs. Event hydrograph timing parameters, such as the response lag and time of concentration, are important descriptors of how long it takes the catchment to respond to input precipitation and how long it takes the latter to filter through the catchment. However, the extent to which hydrograph timing parameters relate to average response times derived from fitting transfer functions to annual hydrographs is unknown. In this study, we used a gamma transfer function to determine catchment average response times as well as event-specific hydrograph parameters across a network of eight nested watersheds ranging from 0.19 km2 to 74.6 km2 prairie catchments located in south central Manitoba (Canada). Various statistical analyses were then performed to correlate average response times - estimated using the parameters of the fitted gamma transfer function - to event-specific hydrograph parameters. Preliminary results show significant interannual variations in response times and hydrograph timing parameters: the former were in the order of a few hours to days, while the latter ranged from a few days to weeks. Some statistically significant relationships were detected between response times and event-specific hydrograph parameters. Future analyses will involve the comparison of statistical distributions of event-specific hydrograph parameters with that of runoff response times and baseflow transit times in order to quantity catchment storage dynamics across a range of temporal scales.

  6. VLBI and GPS-based Time-Transfer Using CONT08 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieck, Carsten; Haas, Ruediger; Jaldehag, Kenneth; Jahansson, Jan

    2010-01-01

    One important prerequisite for geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the use of frequency standards with excellent short term stability. This makes VLBI stations, which are often co-located with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiving stations, interesting for studies of time- and frequency-transfer techniques. We present an assessment of VLBI time-transfer based on the data of the two week long consecutive IVS CONT08 VLBI campaign by using GPS Carrier Phase (GPSCP). CONT08 was a 15 day long campaign in August 2008 that involved eleven VLBI stations on five continents. For CONT08 we estimated the worst case VLBI frequency link stability between the stations of Onsala and Wettzell to 1e-15 at one day. Comparisons with GPSCP confirm the VLBI results. We also identify time-transfer related challenges of the VLBI technique as used today.

  7. Modeling and Simulation of Bus Dispatching Policy for Timed Transfers on Signalized Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hsun-Jung; Lin, Guey-Shii

    2007-12-01

    The major work of this study is to formulate the system cost functions and to integrate the bus dispatching policy with signal control. The integrated model mainly includes the flow dispersion model for links, signal control model for nodes, and dispatching control model for transfer terminals. All such models are inter-related for transfer operations in one-center transit network. The integrated model that combines dispatching policies with flexible signal control modes can be applied to assess the effectiveness of transfer operations. It is found that, if bus arrival information is reliable, an early dispatching decision made at the mean bus arrival times is preferable. The costs for coordinated operations with slack times are relatively low at the optimal common headway when applying adaptive route control. Based on such findings, a threshold function of bus headway for justifying an adaptive signal route control under various time values of auto drivers is developed.

  8. Analysis of thermal fluctuations in the semiscale tests to determine flow transit delay times using a transfer function cross-correlation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raptis, A.C.; Popper, G.F.

    1977-08-01

    On April 14, 1976, EG and G performed the Semiscale Blowdown 29-1 experiment to try to establish the feasibility of using a transit time flowmeter (TTF) to measure transient blowdown two-phase flow rates. The recorded signals from that experiment were made available to and analyzed by the Argonne National Laboratory using the transfer function cross-correlation technique. The theoretical background for the transfer function method of analysis and the results of the data analysis are presented. Histograms of transit time during the blowdown are shown and topics for further investigation are identified

  9. Experiment data report for Semiscale Mod-1 test S-02-5 (blowdown heat transfer test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-12-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-02-5 of the Semiscale Mod-1 blowdown heat transfer test series. Test S-02-5 is one of several Semiscale Mod-1 experiments conducted to investigate the thermal and hydraulic phenomena accompanying a hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident in a water-cooled nuclear reactor system and to provide data for the assessment of the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) design basis. Test S-02-5 was conducted from an initial cold leg fluid temperature of 544 0 F and an initial pressure of 2,253 psia. A simulated double-ended offset shear cold leg break was used to investigate the system response to a depressurization transient with full core power (1.6 MW). An electrically heated core was used in the pressure vessel to simulate the effects of a nuclear core. System flow was set to achieve the full design core temperature differential of 66 0 F. The flow resistance of the intact loop was based on core area scaling. During system depressurization, core power was reduced from the initial level of 1.6 MW in such a manner as to simulate the surface heat flux response of the LOFT nuclear fuel rods until such time that departure from nucleate boiling occurs

  10. Time-resolved imaging of flyer dynamics for femtosecond laser-induced backward transfer of solid polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feinaeugle, M., E-mail: m.feinaeugle@utwente.nl [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Gregorčič, P. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ljubljana, Aškerčeva 6, 1000, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Heath, D.J. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Mills, B., E-mail: bm602@orc.soton.ac.uk [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Eason, R.W. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Laser-induced backward transfer was investigated by time-resolved shadowgraphy. • Flyer velocity was a function of carrier, donor thickness, delay and fluence. • We investigated the fluence window for intact transfer and the role of the receiver. • Donor-crater profile variation was studied for different ejection regimes. • Conditions for intact and fragmented flyers were determined. - Abstract: We have studied the transfer regimes and dynamics of polymer flyers from laser-induced backward transfer (LIBT) via time-resolved shadowgraphy. Imaging of the flyer ejection phase of LIBT of 3.8 μm and 6.4 μm thick SU-8 polymer films on germanium and silicon carrier substrates was performed over a time delay range of 1.4–16.4 μs after arrival of the laser pulse. The experiments were carried out with 150 fs, 800 nm pulses spatially shaped using a digital micromirror device, and laser fluences of up to 3.5 J/cm{sup 2} while images were recorded via a CCD camera and a spark discharge lamp. Velocities of flyers found in the range of 6–20 m/s, and the intact and fragmented ejection regimes, were a function of donor thickness, carrier and laser fluence. The crater profile of the donor after transfer and the resulting flyer profile indicated different flyer ejection modes for Si carriers and high fluences. The results contribute to better understanding of the LIBT process, and help to determine experimental parameters for successful LIBT of intact deposits.

  11. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, O. A.; Wong, C. W.; Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S.; Cotlet, M.; Petrone, N.; Hone, J.; Gu, T.; Gesuele, F.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4× reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices

  12. Time-resolved energy transfer from single chloride-terminated nanocrystals to graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajayi, O. A., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu; Wong, C. W., E-mail: oaa2114@columbia.edu, E-mail: cww2104@columbia.edu [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Anderson, N. C.; Wolcott, A.; Owen, J. S. [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Cotlet, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, New York 11973 (United States); Petrone, N.; Hone, J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Gu, T.; Gesuele, F. [Optical Nanostructures Laboratory, Center for Integrated Science and Engineering, Solid-State Science and Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    We examine the time-resolved resonance energy transfer of excitons from single n-butyl amine-bound, chloride-terminated nanocrystals to two-dimensional graphene through time-correlated single photon counting. The radiative biexponential lifetime kinetics and blinking statistics of the individual surface-modified nanocrystal elucidate the non-radiative decay channels. Blinking modification as well as a 4× reduction in spontaneous emission were observed with the short chloride and n-butylamine ligands, probing the energy transfer pathways for the development of graphene-nanocrystal nanophotonic devices.

  13. Probing nuclear shell structure beyond the N=40 subshell using multiple Coulomb excitation and transfer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellgartner, Stefanie Christine

    2015-11-13

    In this work, the N=40 subshell closure is investigated with two complementary methods using a radioactive {sup 72}Zn ISOLDE beam: One- and two-neutron transfer reactions and multiple Coulomb excitation. In the one-neutron transfer reaction, two new levels of {sup 73}Zn were discovered. The two-neutron transfer channel allowed to study the differential cross section of the ground state and the 2{sup +}{sub 1} state of {sup 74}Zn. In the Coulomb excitation experiment, the measured B(E2) values and quadrupole moments of {sup 72}Zn showed that the yrast states 0{sup +}{sub 1}, 2{sup +}{sub 1} and 4{sup +}{sub 1} are moderately collective. Contrary, the 0{sup +}{sub 2} state has a different structure, since it features a stronger closed N=40 configuration compared to the ground state.

  14. Coupled heat transfer model and experiment study of semitransparent barrier materials in aerothermal environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Lin; Qi, Hong

    Semi-transparent materials (such as IR optical windows) are widely used for heat protection or transfer, temperature and image measurement, and safety in energy , space, military, and information technology applications. They are used, for instance, ceramic coatings for thermal barriers of spacecrafts or gas turbine blades, and thermal image observation under extreme or some dangerous environments. In this paper, the coupled conduction and radiation heat transfer model is established to describe temperature distribution of semitransparent thermal barrier medium within the aerothermal environment. In order to investigate this numerical model, one semi-transparent sample with black coating was considered, and photothermal properties were measured. At last, Finite Volume Method (FVM) was used to solve the coupled model, and the temperature responses from the sample surfaces were obtained. In addition, experiment study was also taken into account. In the present experiment, aerodynamic heat flux was simulated by one electrical heater, and two experiment cases were designed in terms of the duration of aerodynamic heating. One case is that the heater irradiates one surface of the sample continually until the other surface temperature up to constant, and the other case is that the heater works only 130 s. The surface temperature responses of these two cases were recorded. Finally, FVM model of the coupling conduction-radiation heat transfer was validated based on the experiment study with relative error less than 5%.

  15. Low-cost monitoring of the wavelength difference of two transmitters for two-way time transfer over optical fibre

    OpenAIRE

    Slavík, Radan; Vojtěch, Josef; Smotlacha, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Accurate time transfer is routinely performed using GPS, however an order of magnitude better accuracy can be achieved when signal transfer over optical fibres is used (e.g., in [1], fibre transfer over 73 km with <100 ps precision was achieved as compared to <700 ps for the GPS-based system). Unfortunately, the propagation delay through an optical fibre changes due to temperature variation. This is commonly compensated for by transferring the time information bi-directionally over a si...

  16. Coupling heat and chemical tracer experiments for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemeersch, S; Jamin, P; Orban, P; Hermans, T; Klepikova, M; Nguyen, F; Brouyère, S; Dassargues, A

    2014-11-15

    Geothermal energy systems, closed or open, are increasingly considered for heating and/or cooling buildings. The efficiency of such systems depends on the thermal properties of the subsurface. Therefore, feasibility and impact studies performed prior to their installation should include a field characterization of thermal properties and a heat transfer model using parameter values measured in situ. However, there is a lack of in situ experiments and methodology for performing such a field characterization, especially for open systems. This study presents an in situ experiment designed for estimating heat transfer parameters in shallow alluvial aquifers with focus on the specific heat capacity. This experiment consists in simultaneously injecting hot water and a chemical tracer into the aquifer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and concentration in the recovery well (and possibly in other piezometers located down gradient). Temperature and concentrations are then used for estimating the specific heat capacity. The first method for estimating this parameter is based on a modeling in series of the chemical tracer and temperature breakthrough curves at the recovery well. The second method is based on an energy balance. The values of specific heat capacity estimated for both methods (2.30 and 2.54MJ/m(3)/K) for the experimental site in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River (Belgium) are almost identical and consistent with values found in the literature. Temperature breakthrough curves in other piezometers are not required for estimating the specific heat capacity. However, they highlight that heat transfer in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River is complex and contrasted with different dominant process depending on the depth leading to significant vertical heat exchange between upper and lower part of the aquifer. Furthermore, these temperature breakthrough curves could be included in the calibration of a complex heat transfer model for

  17. Experiments on condensation heat transfer characteristics inside a microfin tube with R410A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, D H; Cho, Y J [Korea University Graduate School, Seoul (Korea); Lee, K J; Park, S S [Korea University, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-11-01

    Due to the ozone depletion and global warming potentials, some refrigerants (CFCs and HCFCs) have been rapidly substituted. R410A is considered as the alternative refrigerant of R22 for the air-conditioners used at home and in industry. Experiments on the condensation heat transfer characteristics inside a smooth or a micro-fin tube with R410A are performed in this study. The test tubes 7/9.52 mm in outer diameters and 3 m in length are used. Varying the mass flux of the refrigerant and the condensation temperatures, the average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop are investigated. It is shown that the heat transfer is enhanced and the amount of pressure drops are larger in the microfin tube than the smooth tube. From the heat transfer enhancement coefficient and the pressure penalty factor, it is found that the high heat transfer enhancement coefficients are obtained in the range of small mass flux while the penalty factors are almost equal. (author). 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Time-resolved UV-excited microarray reader for fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Adelina; Hokkanen, Ari P.; Pastinen, Tomi; Takkinen, Kristina; Soderlund, Hans

    2001-05-01

    Analytical systems based on immunochemistry are largely used in medical diagnostics and in biotechnology. There is a significant pressure to develop the present assay formats to become easier to use, faster, and less reagent consuming. Further developments towards high density array--like multianalyte measurement systems would be valuable. To this aim we have studied the applicability of fluorescence resonance energy transfer and time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer in immunoassays on microspots and in microwells. We have used engineered recombinant antibodies detecting the pentameric protein CRP as a model analyte system, and tested different assay formats. We describe also the construction of a time-resolved scanning epifluorometer with which we could measure the FRET interaction between the slow fluorescence decay from europium chelates and its energy transfer to the rapidly decaying fluorophore Cy5.

  19. Transferring experience labs for production engineering students to universities in newly industrialized countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiden, A.; Posselt, G.; Bhakar, V.; Singh, R.; Sangwan, K. S.; Herrmann, C.

    2018-01-01

    The Indian economy is one of the fastest growing economies in the world and the demand for the skilled engineers is increasing. Subsequently the Indian education sector is growing to provide the necessary number of skilled engineers. Current Indian engineering graduates have broad theoretical background but lack in methodological, soft and practical skills. To bridge this gap, the experience lab ideas from the engineering education at “Die Lernfabrik” (learning factory) of the Technische Universität Braunschweig (TU Braunschweig) is transferred to the Birla Institute of Technology and Science in Pilani (BITS Pilani), India. This Lernfabrik successfully strengthened the methodological, soft and practical skills of the TU Braunschweig production-engineering graduates. The target group is discrete manufacturing education with focusing on energy and resource efficiency as well as cyber physical production systems. As the requirements of industry and academia in India differs from Germany, the transfer of the experience lab to the Indian education system needs special attention to realize a successful transfer project. This publication provides a unique approach to systematically transfer the educational concept in Learning Factory from a specific university environment to a different environment in a newly industrialized country. The help of a bilateral university driven practice partnership between the two universities creates a lighthouse for the Indian university environment.

  20. The H2 + + He proton transfer reaction: quantum reactive differential cross sections to be linked with future velocity mapping experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Vera, Mario; Wester, Roland; Gianturco, Francesco Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We construct the velocity map images of the proton transfer reaction between helium and molecular hydrogen ion {{{H}}}2+. We perform simulations of imaging experiments at one representative total collision energy taking into account the inherent aberrations of the velocity mapping in order to explore the feasibility of direct comparisons between theory and future experiments planned in our laboratory. The asymptotic angular distributions of the fragments in a 3D velocity space is determined from the quantum state-to-state differential reactive cross sections and reaction probabilities which are computed by using the time-independent coupled channel hyperspherical coordinate method. The calculations employ an earlier ab initio potential energy surface computed at the FCI/cc-pVQZ level of theory. The present simulations indicate that the planned experiments would be selective enough to differentiate between product distributions resulting from different initial internal states of the reactants.

  1. The psychological value of time: two experiments on the appraisal of time during the train journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Ad; van Hagen, M.; Vos, Martijn; Moritz, Brit; Gostelie, Floor

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies that explore the impact of digital signage, environmental design and the use of background music on time perception and customer experience, thus exploring the psychological value of time.

  2. The psychological value of time : two experiments on the appraisal of time during the train journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Van Hagen, Mark; Vos, Martijn Christiaan; Moritz, Brit; Gostelie, Floor

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies that explore the impact of digital signage, environmental design and the use of background music on time perception and customer experience, thus exploring the psychological value of time.

  3. Response time patterns in a stated choice experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börjesson, Maria; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies how response times vary between unlabelled binary choice occasions in a stated choice (SC) experiment, with alternatives differing with respect to in-vehicle travel time and travel cost. The pattern of response times is interpreted as an indicator of the cognitive processes...... employed by the respondents when making their choices. We find clear signs of reference-dependence in response times in the form of a strong gain–loss asymmetry. Moreover, different patterns of response times for travel time and travel cost indicate that these attributes are processed in different ways...

  4. Proposal for probing energy transfer pathway by single-molecule pump-dump experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2016-01-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex has long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent m...

  5. Detection of three porcine vesicular viruses using multiplex real-time primer-probe energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun; Uttenthal, Åse; Aguero, M.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid identification of the etiologic agent in infected animals is important for the control of an outbreak of vesicular disease in livestock. We have in the present study developed a multiplex real-time reverse transcription-PCR, based on primer-probe energy transfer (PriProET), for simultaneous...

  6. Radiation-Resistant Photon-Counting Detector Package Providing Sub-ps Stability for Laser Time Transfer in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochzaka, Ivan; Kodat, Jan; Blazej, Josef; Sun, Xiaoli (Editor)

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting on a design, construction and performance of photon-counting detector packages based on silicon avalanche photodiodes. These photon-counting devices have been optimized for extremely high stability of their detection delay. The detectors have been designed for future applications in fundamental metrology and optical time transfer in space. The detectors have been qualified for operation in space missions. The exceptional radiation tolerance of the detection chip itself and of all critical components of a detector package has been verified in a series of experiments.

  7. Subjective Acceleration of Time Experience in Everyday Life across Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Dennis; Lang, Frieder R.

    2015-01-01

    Most people believe that time seems to pass more quickly as they age. Building on assumptions of socioemotional selectivity theory, we investigated whether awareness that one's future lifetime is limited is associated with one's experience of time during everyday activities across adulthood in 3 studies. In the first 2 studies (Study 1: N = 608;…

  8. Technology transference in soybean culture – COPACOL experience / Transferência de tecnologia para a cultura da soja – a experiência da COPACOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Guimarães

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed the technology transfer methodology, the Training and Visit System (T&V, applied by Agroindustrial Cooperative of Consolata – COPACOL. The objective was to demonstrate that the continuous and holistic application of a technology transfer system may speed up the awareness and the adoption of these technologies by the farmers and result in positive outcomes for all actors and institutions involved in the process. The methodology of technology transfer analyzed, the T&V System, is already used by Embrapa Soybean, a branch of Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation – EMBRAPA, Rural Extension and Technical Assistance Corporation - EMATER, Agronomic institute of Parana - IAPAR and Cooperative Organization of Parana – OCEPAR as partners. It was concluded that the T&V System may be an important tool for improvement of the validation and transfer of technologies generated by research institutions. In the COPACOL, the T&V contributed with the technological development of the technicians and farmers. It contributed also, with the growth of the profit obtained by the farmers who participated of the T&V as compared with the average growth obtained by the other farmers, members of the cooperative. Finally, it was observed that the time of adoption of new technologies was decreased with the application of the T&V System.Este trabalho analisou a metodologia Sistema de Treino e Visita (T&V aplicada pela Cooperativa Agroindustrial Consolata – COPACOL na transferência de tecnologia, tendo como objetivo mostrar que um processo de transferência de tecnologia, quando desenvolvido de forma contínua e sistêmica, pode dinamizar a chegada e adoção dessas tecnologias ao produtor rural com resultados positivos para todos os participantes do sistema. A análise focou o Sistema T&V, que é uma metodologia já utilizada pela EMBRAPA Soja, unidade da Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária – EMBRAPA, em parceria com o Instituto

  9. Time averaging procedure for calculating the mass and energy transfer rates in adiabatic two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.

    1986-07-01

    To take advantages of the semi-implicit computer models - to solve the two phase flow differential system - a proper averaging procedure is also needed for the source terms. In fact, in some cases, the correlations normally used for the source terms - not time averaged - fail using the theoretical time step that arises from the linear stability analysis used on the right handside. Such a time averaging procedure is developed with reference to the bubbly flow regime. Moreover, the concept of mass that must be exchanged to reach equilibrium from a non-equilibrium state is introduced to limit the mass transfer during a time step. Finally some practical calculations are performed to compare the different correlations for the average mass transfer rate developed in this work. (orig.) [de

  10. Programming for time resolved spectrum in pulse radiolysis experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betty, C.A.; Panajkar, M.S.; Shirke, N.D.

    1993-01-01

    A user friendly program in Pascal has been developed for data acquisition and subsequent processing of time resolved spectra of transient species produced in pulse radiolysis experiments. The salient features of the program are (i) thiocyanate dosimetry and (ii) spectrum acquisition. The thiocyanate dosimetry is carried out to normalize experimental conditions to a standard value as determined by computing absorbance of the transient signal CNS -2 that is produced from thiocyanate solution by a 7 MeV electron pulse. Spectrum acquisition allows the acquisition of the time resolved data at 20 different times points and subsequent display of the plots of absorbance vs. wavelength for the desired time points during the experiment. It is also possible to plot single time point spectrum as well as superimposed spectra for different time points. Printing, editing and merging facilities are also provided. (author). 2 refs., 7 figs

  11. Do First Time House Buyers Receive Financial Transfers from Their Parents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolodziejczyk, Christophe; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Using Danish longitudinal data with information about wealth for a sample of first-time house buyers and their parents, we test whether there are direct financial transfers from parents to children in connection with the house purchase, or in connection with unemployment spells occurring just after...... the purchase, when children typically hold few liquid assets. First, we document that child and parent financial resources are correlated. Then, we introduce conditioning variables and exploit the panel aspect of the data to also condition on fixed unobserved factors, which arguably govern preferences and....../or productivity. We find no evidence of direct financial transfers....

  12. Abnormal Time Experiences in Major Depression: An Empirical Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Northoff, Georg; Cutting, John

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenological psychopathology, through theoretical and idiographic studies, conceptualizes major depressive disorder (MDD) as a disorder of time experience. Investigations on abnormal time experience (ATE) in MDD adopting methodologies requested by the standards of empirical sciences are still lacking. Our study aimed to provide a qualitative analysis, on an empirical ground and on a large scale, of narratives of temporal experiences of persons affected by MDD. We interviewed 550 consecutive patients affected by affective and schizophrenic disorders. Clinical files were analysed by means of consensual qualitative research. Out of 100 MDD patients, 96 reported at least 1 ATE. The principal categories of ATE are vital retardation - the experience of a stagnation of endogenous vital processes (37 patients), the experience of present and future dominated by the past (29 patients), and the experience of the slackening of the flow oftime (25 patients). A comparison with ATE in schizophrenia patients showed that in MDD, unlike in schizophrenia, there is no disarticulation of time experience (disorder of temporal synthesis) but rather a disorder of conation or inhibition of becoming. The interview style was not meant to make a quantitative assessment ("false negatives" cannot be excluded). Our findings confirm the relevance of distinctive features of ATE in MDD, support the hypothesis of an intrinsic disordered temporal structure in depressive symptoms, and may have direct implications in clinical practice, especially in relation to differential diagnosis, setting the boundaries between "true" and milder forms of depression, and neurobiological research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Pomarning-eddington approximation for time-dependent radiation transfer in finite slab media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Wakil, S.A.; Degheidy, A.R.; Sallah, M.

    2005-01-01

    The time-dependent monoenergetic radiation transfer equation with linear anisotropic scattering is proposed. Pomraning-Eddington approximation is used to calculate the radiation intensity in finite plane-parallel media. Numerical results are done for the isotropic media. Shielding calculations are shown for reflectivity and transmissivity at different times. The medium is assumed to have specular-reflecting boundaries. Two different weight functions are introduced to force the boundary conditions to be fulfilled

  14. Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II subassembly types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1986-01-01

    Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel

  15. Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor] subassembly types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1986-09-01

    Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel

  16. Time constants and feedback transfer functions of EBR-II subassembly types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-01-01

    Time constants, feedback reactivity transfer functions and power coefficients are calculated for stereotypical subassemblies in the EBR-II reactor. These quantities are calculated from nodal reactivities obtained from a reactor kinetic code analysis for a step change in power. Due to the multiplicity of eigenvalues, there are several time constants for each nodal position in a subassembly. Compared with these calculated values are analytically derived values for the initial node of a given channel. (author)

  17. Time Discounting and Credit Market Access in a Large-Scale Cash Transfer Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Martorano, Bruno; Halpern, Carolyn; Pettifor, Audrey; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2017-01-01

    Summary Time discounting is thought to influence decision-making in almost every sphere of life, including personal finances, diet, exercise and sexual behavior. In this article we provide evidence on whether a national poverty alleviation program in Kenya can affect inter-temporal decisions. We administered a preferences module as part of a large-scale impact evaluation of the Kenyan Government’s Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children. Four years into the program we find that individuals in the treatment group are only marginally more likely to wait for future money, due in part to the erosion of the value of the transfer by inflation. However among the poorest households for whom the value of transfer is still relatively large we find significant program effects on the propensity to wait. We also find strong program effects among those who have access to credit markets though the program itself does not improve access to credit. PMID:28260842

  18. Time Discounting and Credit Market Access in a Large-Scale Cash Transfer Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, Sudhanshu; Martorano, Bruno; Halpern, Carolyn; Pettifor, Audrey; Thirumurthy, Harsha

    2016-06-01

    Time discounting is thought to influence decision-making in almost every sphere of life, including personal finances, diet, exercise and sexual behavior. In this article we provide evidence on whether a national poverty alleviation program in Kenya can affect inter-temporal decisions. We administered a preferences module as part of a large-scale impact evaluation of the Kenyan Government's Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children. Four years into the program we find that individuals in the treatment group are only marginally more likely to wait for future money, due in part to the erosion of the value of the transfer by inflation. However among the poorest households for whom the value of transfer is still relatively large we find significant program effects on the propensity to wait. We also find strong program effects among those who have access to credit markets though the program itself does not improve access to credit.

  19. Splitting Travel Time Based on AFC Data: Estimating Walking, Waiting, Transfer, and In-Vehicle Travel Times in Metro System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Sheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The walking, waiting, transfer, and delayed in-vehicle travel times mainly contribute to route’s travel time reliability in the metro system. The automatic fare collection (AFC system provides huge amounts of smart card records which can be used to estimate all these times distributions. A new estimation model based on Bayesian inference formulation is proposed in this paper by integrating the probability measurement of the OD pair with only one effective route, in which all kinds of times follow the truncated normal distributions. Then, Markov Chain Monte Carlo method is designed to estimate all parameters endogenously. Finally, based on AFC data in Guangzhou Metro, the estimations show that all parameters can be estimated endogenously and identifiably. Meanwhile, the truncated property of the travel time is significant and the threshold tested by the surveyed data is reliable. Furthermore, the superiority of the proposed model over the existing model in estimation and forecasting accuracy is also demonstrated.

  20. Time-resolved study of absorbing film assisted laser induced forward transfer of Trichoderma longibrachiatum conidia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, B [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Smausz, T [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Research Group on Laser Physics, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Barna, N [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Vass, Cs [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6720 Szeged, Dom ter 9 (Hungary); Antal, Zs [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Microbiological Research Group, PO Box 533, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Kredics, L [Hungarian Academy of Sciences and University of Szeged, Microbiological Research Group, PO Box 533, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Chrisey, D [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2005-03-21

    We have characterized the absorbing film assisted transfer of Trichoderma longibrachiatum conidia using a synchronized laser for illumination. The transfer laser used was a KrF excimer laser ({lambda} = 248 nm, FWHM = 30 ns) and the ejected material was illuminated parallel to the quartz plate by a nitrogen laser pumped Coumarine 153 dye laser beam ({lambda} = 453 nm, FWHM 1 ns) electronically delayed relative to the transfer UV pulse. Our time-resolved investigations determined that the ejection velocity front of the conidia plume from the donor surface during the transfer procedure was 1150 m s{sup -1} at 355 mJ cm{sup -2} applied laser fluence. On the basis of the measured data, the acceleration of the emitted conidia at the plume front was approximately 10{sup 9} x g. The conidia survived the absorbing film assisted forward transfer and associated mechanical shear without significant damages suggesting that the technique might be applicable to other more fragile types of biological objects and applications.

  1. Time-resolved study of absorbing film assisted laser induced forward transfer of Trichoderma longibrachiatum conidia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopp, B; Smausz, T; Barna, N; Vass, Cs; Antal, Zs; Kredics, L; Chrisey, D

    2005-01-01

    We have characterized the absorbing film assisted transfer of Trichoderma longibrachiatum conidia using a synchronized laser for illumination. The transfer laser used was a KrF excimer laser (λ = 248 nm, FWHM = 30 ns) and the ejected material was illuminated parallel to the quartz plate by a nitrogen laser pumped Coumarine 153 dye laser beam (λ = 453 nm, FWHM 1 ns) electronically delayed relative to the transfer UV pulse. Our time-resolved investigations determined that the ejection velocity front of the conidia plume from the donor surface during the transfer procedure was 1150 m s -1 at 355 mJ cm -2 applied laser fluence. On the basis of the measured data, the acceleration of the emitted conidia at the plume front was approximately 10 9 x g. The conidia survived the absorbing film assisted forward transfer and associated mechanical shear without significant damages suggesting that the technique might be applicable to other more fragile types of biological objects and applications

  2. Exploring the Academic and Social Experiences of Latino Engineering Community College Transfer Students at a 4-Year Institution: A Qualitative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, LaTesha R.

    As the number of historically underrepresented populations transfer from community college to university to pursue baccalaureate degrees in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), little research exists about the challenges and successes Latino students experience as they transition from 2-year colleges to 4-year universities. Thus, institutions of higher education have limited insight to inform their policies, practices, and strategic planning in developing effective sources of support, services, and programs for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines. This qualitative research study explored the academic and social experiences of 14 Latino engineering community college transfer students at one university. Specifically, this study examined the lived experiences of minority community college transfer students' transition into and persistence at a 4-year institution. The conceptual framework applied to this study was Schlossberg's Transition Theory, which analyzed the participant's social and academic experiences that led to their successful transition from community college to university. Three themes emerged from the narrative data analysis: (a) Academic Experiences, (b) Social Experiences, and (c) Sources of Support. The findings indicate that engineering community college transfer students experience many challenges in their transition into and persistence at 4-year institutions. Some of the challenges include lack of academic preparedness, environmental challenges, lack of time management skills and faculty serving the role as institutional agents.

  3. Electrochemical ion transfer across liquid/liquid interfaces confined within solid-state micropore arrays--simulations and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutwolf, Jörg; Scanlon, Micheál D; Arrigan, Damien W M

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturised liquid/liquid interfaces provide benefits for bioanalytical detection with electrochemical methods. In this work, microporous silicon membranes which can be used for interface miniaturisation were characterized by simulations and experiments. The microporous membranes possessed hexagonal arrays of pores with radii between 10 and 25 microm, a pore depth of 100 microm and pore centre-to-centre separations between 99 and 986 microm. Cyclic voltammetry was used to monitor ion transfer across arrays of micro-interfaces between two immiscible electrolyte solutions (microITIES) formed at these membranes, with the organic phase present as an organogel. The results were compared to computational simulations taking into account mass transport by diffusion and encompassing diffusion to recessed interfaces and overlapped diffusion zones. The simulation and experimental data were both consistent with the situation where the location of the liquid/liquid (l/l) interface was on the aqueous side of the silicon membrane and the pores were filled with the organic phase. While the current for the forward potential scan (transfer of the ion from the aqueous phase to the organic phase) was strongly dependent on the location of the l/l interface, the current peak during the reverse scan (transfer of the ion from the organic phase to the aqueous phase) was influenced by the ratio of the transferring ion's diffusion coefficients in both phases. The diffusion coefficient of the transferring ion in the gelified organic phase was ca. nine times smaller than in the aqueous phase. Asymmetric cyclic voltammogram shapes were caused by the combined effect of non-symmetrical diffusion (spherical and linear) and by the inequality of the diffusion coefficient in both phases. Overlapping diffusion zones were responsible for the observation of current peaks instead of steady-state currents during the forward scan. The characterisation of the diffusion behaviour is an important requirement

  4. Radiation and environment. Study of uranium transfer to humans by the food chain: experiment design and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Guzman, F.; Garcia, F.; Rodriguez, O.; Arruda-Neto, J.D.T.; Manso, M.V.; Mesa, J.; Deppman, A.; Likhachev, V.P.; Pereira, J.W.; Helene, O.M.; Araujo, G.W.; Camargo, S.P.; Cestari, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    During years, scientific assessments had considered plants, animal and other living organism as part of the environment in which radionuclides become dispersed. They were further seen as resources which, when contaminated, may contribute to human radiation exposure since some plants and animals are elements of food chains and represent pathways for the transfer of radionuclides to humans. Today, the assessments are development reflected the generally accepted position that priority should be given to evaluating the potential consequences for humans, which are among the most radiosensitive mammalian species. The transfer of radioisotopes from food to humans is still a well debated issue, because experimental results are even scarce. As a contribution to this issue, the Linear Accelerator Laboratory of the Physics Institute at the Sao Paulo University jointed to other institute of Brazil and Cuba development a project for study of uranium in the food-chain: food-animal/vegetables-human. This project involves experimentation with mammalians (wistar rats and beagles dogs), fishes and vegetables, plus extrapolation to humans by means of the General Multiple-Compartments Model. The pilot experiments in animal and vegetables are well described in the paper. As first results were obtained the transfer coefficients of uranium to the organs of animals as a function of the uranium concentration present in the administered food and the transfer coefficients of uranium for each part of the plant, as function of both growing time and uranium concentration in the nutrients solution. With this data it would be possible to evaluate the uranium ingestion by humans from animal products and plants, given their dietary habits, to infer human absorption of uranium associated with prolonged intake of uranium contained in food and estimates the content of uranium transferred to humans organs, thus allowing the evaluation of internally localized doses and the radiobiological damage and

  5. The lived experience of part-time baccalaureate nursing faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazza, Elizabeth A; Shellenbarger, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Hiring part-time nursing faculty may impact students, faculty careers, and the institution. Yet, little has been studied, particularly in nursing, regarding the experiences of these faculty. This hermeneutic phenomenological study seeks to understand the lived experience of being a part-time faculty member in a baccalaureate nursing program. Through purposive and snowball sampling, nine nursing faculty in part-time positions in northeastern baccalaureate nursing programs participated in in-depth personal interviews. Four themes were uncovered during data analysis, including achieving the dream, a group divided, for the love of the students, and jump in and figure it out. Results of the study seem to indicate that the experience of being a part-time faculty differs in several ways from being a full-time faculty. Understanding part-time faculty experiences provides insight into faculty needs, issues, and concerns while facilitating the development of research-based recruitment and retention strategies. Recommendations for those involved in nursing education, including nursing faculty and administrators, are provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The timing system of the RFX Nuclear Fusion Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, V.; Flor, G.; Manduchi, G.; Piacentini, I.

    1992-01-01

    The REX Nuclear Fusion Experiment [1] in Padova, Italy, employs a distributed system to produce precision trigger signals for the fast control of the experiment and for the experiment-wide synchronization of data acquisition channels. The hardware of the system is based on a set of CAMAC modules. The modules have been integrated into a hardware/software system which provides the following features: 1) generation of pre-programmed timing events, 2) distribution of asynchronous (not pre-programmed) timing events, 3) gating of timing event generation by Machine Protection System, 4) automatic stop of timing sequence in case of highway damage, 5) dual-speed time base for transient recorders, 6) system-wide precision of ≤ 3 μs, time resolution ≥ 10 μs. The operation of the timing system is fully integrated into the RFX data acquisition system software. The Timing System Software consists of three layers: the lowest one corresponds directly to the CAMAC modules, the intermediate one provides pseudo-devices which essentially correspond to specific features for the modules (e.g. a dual frequency clock source for transient recorders), the highest level provides system set-up support. The system is fully operational and was first used during the commissioning of the RFX Power Supplies in spring '91. (author)

  7. Children's Experiences of Time when a Parent Travels for Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvonkovic, Anisa; Swenson, Andrea; Cornwell, Zoë

    2017-08-01

    This qualitative study focuses on different ways time is experienced by children in families who face time challenges due to a family member's job that required work travel. Data are from a family-level study that includes interviews of all family members over the age of 7. Using grounded theory methodology, this study illustrates ways in which job demands and family processes interact. Analysis centers on the 75 children's perspectives from 43 families. Holding together assessments of having enough time while wanting more time with their parents, children express emotion, generally unrecognized by parents, around the topic of family time. Children's experience of time with parents is rushed or calm, depending on the activities done in time and the gender of the parent with whom they spend time. Findings are interpreted through a feminist social constructionist lens.

  8. Time-resolved stimulated emission depletion and energy transfer dynamics in two-photon excited EGFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, T. A.; Robinson, N. A.; Marsh, R. J.; Blacker, T. S.; Armoogum, D. A.; Larijani, B.; Bain, A. J.

    2018-04-01

    Time and polarization-resolved stimulated emission depletion (STED) measurements are used to investigate excited state evolution following the two-photon excitation of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). We employ a new approach for the accurate STED measurement of the hitherto unmeasured degree of hexadecapolar transition dipole moment alignment ⟨α40 ⟩ present at a given excitation-depletion (pump-dump) pulse separation. Time-resolved polarized fluorescence measurements as a function of pump-dump delay reveal the time evolution of ⟨α40 ⟩ to be considerably more rapid than predicted for isotropic rotational diffusion in EGFP. Additional depolarization by homo-Förster resonance energy transfer is investigated for both ⟨α20 ⟩ (quadrupolar) and ⟨α40 ⟩ transition dipole alignments. These results point to the utility of higher order dipole correlation measurements in the investigation of resonance energy transfer processes.

  9. Real-time measurement and control at Jet. Experiment Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Sartori, F.; Piccolo, F.; Farthing, J.; Budd, T.; Dorling, S.; McCullen, P.; Harling, J.; Dalley, S.; Goodyear, A.; Stephen, A.; Card, P.; Bright, M.; Lucock, R.; Jones, E.; Griph, S.; Hogben, C.; Beldishevski, M.; Buckley, M.; Davis, J.; Young, I.; Hemming, O.; Wheatley, M.; Heesterman, P.; Lloyd, G.; Walters, M.; Bridge, R.; Leggate, H.; Howell, D.; Zastrow, K.D.; Giroud, C.; Coffey, I.; Hawkes, N.; Stamp, M.; Barnsley, R.; Edlington, T.; Guenther, K.; Gowers, C.; Popovichef, S.; Huber, A.; Ingesson, C.; Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D.; Murari, A.; Riva, M.; Barana, O.; Bolzonella, T.; Valisa, M.; Innocente, P.; Zerbini, M.; Bosak, K.; Blum, J.; Vitale, E.; Crisanti, F.; La Luna, E. de; Sanchez, J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past few ears, the preparation of ITER-relevant plasma scenarios has been the main focus experimental activity on tokamaks. The development of integrated, simultaneous, real-time controls of plasma shape, current, pressure, temperature, radiation, neutron profiles, and also impurities, ELMs (edge localized modes) and MHD are now seen to be essential for further development of quasi-steady state conditions with feedback, or the stabilisation of transient phenomena with event-driven actions. For this thrust, the EFDA JET Real Time Project has developed a set of real-time plasma measurements, experiment control, and communication facilities. The Plasma Diagnostics used for real-time experiments are Far Infra Red interferometry, polarimetry, visible, UV and X-ray spectroscopy, LIDAR, bolometry, neutron and magnetics. Further analysis systems produce integrated results such as temperature profiles on geometry derived from MHD equilibrium solutions. The Actuators include toroidal, poloidal and divertor coils, gas and pellet fuelling, neutral beam injection, radiofrequency (ICRH) waves and microwaves (LH). The Heating/Fuelling Operators can either define a power or gas request waveform or select the real-time instantaneous power/gas request from the Real Time Experiment Central Control (RTCC) system. The Real Time Experiment Control system provides both a high-level, control-programming environment and interlocks with the actuators. A MATLAB facility is being developed for the development of more complex controllers. The plasma measurement, controller and plant control systems communicate in ATM network. The EFDA Real Time project is essential groundwork for future reactors such as ITER. It involves many staff from several institutions. The facility is now frequently used in experiments. (authors)

  10. Software-Based Wireless Power Transfer Platform for Various Power Control Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Han Hwang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of a software-based wireless power transfer platform that enables the development of a prototype involving various open- and closed-loop power control functions. Our platform is based on a loosely coupled planar wireless power transfer circuit that uses a class-E power amplifier. In conjunction with this circuit, we implement flexible control functions using a National Instruments Data Acquisition (NI DAQ board and algorithms in the MATLAB/Simulink. To verify the effectiveness of our platform, we conduct two types of power-control experiments: a no-load or metal detection using open-loop power control, and an output voltage regulation for different receiver positions using closed-loop power control. The use of the MATLAB/Simulink software as a part of the planar wireless power transfer platform for power control experiments is shown to serve as a useful and inexpensive alternative to conventional hardware-based platforms.

  11. Transfer from home to hospital: what is its effect on the experience of childbirth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegers, T A; van der Zee, J; Keirse, M J

    1998-03-01

    In the Netherlands women with low-risk pregnancies are free to choose where to give birth, at home or in hospital, attended by an independent midwife or general practitioner. On average one of five women who remains in the care of a midwife at the onset of labor will be referred to an obstetrician during or shortly after childbirth. If women had planned to give birth at home, they would then have to be transferred to the hospital. Postal questionnaires were sent to 2301 pregnant women before and after birth to measure the experience of childbirth, appropriateness of the chosen place of birth, satisfaction with the birth, midwife's care, and first days postpartum of women planning to give birth at home or in hospital. The response rate for both questionnaires was 89.3 percent. Of 745 nulliparous women and 895 multiparous women, 39.3 and 10.3 percent, respectively, experienced referral to an obstetrician during labor. Of these women, the ones who wanted to give birth at home but were transferred to hospital because of the referral were as positive about the birth, early puerperium, and attendance of the midwife as the women who wanted to give birth in hospital. Our research showed, contrary to expectations, that an unplanned transfer from a planned home birth to hospital has little influence on the experience of childbirth.

  12. The influence of mass transfer on solute transport in column experiments with an aggregated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Paul V.; Goltz, Mark N.; Summers, R. Scott; Crittenden, John C.; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter

    1987-06-01

    The spreading of concentration fronts in dynamic column experiments conducted with a porous, aggregated soil is analyzed by means of a previously documented transport model (DFPSDM) that accounts for longitudinal dispersion, external mass transfer in the boundary layer surrounding the aggregate particles, and diffusion in the intra-aggregate pores. The data are drawn from a previous report on the transport of tritiated water, chloride, and calcium ion in a column filled with Ione soil having an average aggregate particle diameter of 0.34 cm, at pore water velocities from 3 to 143 cm/h. The parameters for dispersion, external mass transfer, and internal diffusion were predicted for the experimental conditions by means of generalized correlations, independent of the column data. The predicted degree of solute front-spreading agreed well with the experimental observations. Consistent with the aggregate porosity of 45%, the tortuosity factor for internal pore diffusion was approximately equal to 2. Quantitative criteria for the spreading influence of the three mechanisms are evaluated with respect to the column data. Hydrodynamic dispersion is thought to have governed the front shape in the experiments at low velocity, and internal pore diffusion is believed to have dominated at high velocity; the external mass transfer resistance played a minor role under all conditions. A transport model such as DFPSDM is useful for interpreting column data with regard to the mechanisms controlling concentration front dynamics, but care must be exercised to avoid confounding the effects of the relevant processes.

  13. Transfer adjustment experiences of underrepresented students of color in the sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, June C.

    Two-year colleges have long served as the starting point for many students in higher education and particularly those of underrepresented backgrounds. In recent years, these institutions have been called upon to help address the high attrition rates facing the science and mathematics disciplines by promoting interest development and transfer of underrepresented students in these fields. This study examined the adjustment experiences of underrepresented students of color after transferring from community colleges to a four-year university in the sciences. By employing qualitative interviews with students of African, Latino, Pacific Island, and Southeast Asian descent, students' perceptions of the sciences at the two- and four-year campus, adjustment process, and benefits and detriments of taking the transfer route were the focus of this research. The findings show that transfer students experience a very different science culture at each institutional type in terms of pedagogy and curriculum and interactions with classmates and faculty. While students witnessed a collaborative science culture at the community college, they faced a highly competitive and individualistic environment at the university. The greater the difference encountered, the more difficult were students' adjustment. Adjustment was aided in two primary ways: socialization experiences before transferring and the development of common identity groups with other students who shared similar backgrounds, goals, and struggles. These groups formed organically at the two-year college but were more difficult to forge at the university. When present, however, they served as niches, sites of validation, and counter spaces within the larger university setting. It appears that starting at the community college benefited most participants by providing a nurturing environment that fostered their commitment to science. Some students felt that they would have been dissuaded from pursuing their majors had they only

  14. Alignment of time-resolved data from high throughput experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidi, Nada; Franke, Raimo; Findeisen, Peter; Klawonn, Frank

    2016-12-01

    To better understand the dynamics of the underlying processes in cells, it is necessary to take measurements over a time course. Modern high-throughput technologies are often used for this purpose to measure the behavior of cell products like metabolites, peptides, proteins, [Formula: see text]RNA or mRNA at different points in time. Compared to classical time series, the number of time points is usually very limited and the measurements are taken at irregular time intervals. The main reasons for this are the costs of the experiments and the fact that the dynamic behavior usually shows a strong reaction and fast changes shortly after a stimulus and then slowly converges to a certain stable state. Another reason might simply be missing values. It is common to repeat the experiments and to have replicates in order to carry out a more reliable analysis. The ideal assumptions that the initial stimulus really started exactly at the same time for all replicates and that the replicates are perfectly synchronized are seldom satisfied. Therefore, there is a need to first adjust or align the time-resolved data before further analysis is carried out. Dynamic time warping (DTW) is considered as one of the common alignment techniques for time series data with equidistant time points. In this paper, we modified the DTW algorithm so that it can align sequences with measurements at different, non-equidistant time points with large gaps in between. This type of data is usually known as time-resolved data characterized by irregular time intervals between measurements as well as non-identical time points for different replicates. This new algorithm can be easily used to align time-resolved data from high-throughput experiments and to come across existing problems such as time scarcity and existing noise in the measurements. We propose a modified method of DTW to adapt requirements imposed by time-resolved data by use of monotone cubic interpolation splines. Our presented approach

  15. A Contribution to Real-Time Experiments in Remote Laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán Janík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on realization of hard real-time control of experiments in on-line laboratories. The presented solution utilizes already developed on-line laboratory portal that is based on open-source Scilab environment. The customized solution is based on Linux RTAI platform with RTAI-XML server, Comedi and jRTAILab with support of ScicosLab environment. It generates real-time executable code that is used to operate student experiments performed on Humusoft CE152 Magnetic Levitation plant.

  16. Magnetization rotation or generation of incoherent spin waves? Suggestions for a spin-transfer effect experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazaliy, Y. B.; Jones, B. A.

    2002-01-01

    ''Spin-transfer'' torque is created when electric current is passed through metallic ferromagnets and may have interesting applications in spintronics. So far it was experimentally studied in ''collinear'' geometries, where it is difficult to predict whether magnetization will coherently rotate or spin-waves will be generated. Here we propose an easy modification of existing experiment in which the spin-polarization of incoming current will no longer be collinear with magnetization and recalculate the switching behavior of the device. We expect that a better agreement with the magnetization rotation theory will be achieved. That can be an important step in reconciling alternative points of view on the effect of spin-transfer torque

  17. Finite-difference time-domain analysis of time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Cooke, David G.; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we report on the numerical analysis of a time-resolved terahertz (THz) spectroscopy experiment using a modified finite-difference time-domain method. Using this method, we show that ultrafast carrier dynamics can be extracted with a time resolution smaller than the duration of the T...

  18. Effect of Sitting Pause Times on Balance After Supine to Standing Transfer in Dim Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric G; Albalwi, Abdulaziz A; Al-Dabbak, Fuad M; Daher, Noha S

    2017-06-01

    The risk of falling for older adults increases in dimly lit environments. Longer sitting pause times, before getting out of bed and standing during the night, may improve postural stability. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of sitting pause times on postural sway velocity immediately after a supine to standing transfer in a dimly lit room in older adult women. Eighteen healthy women aged 65 to 75 years who were able to independently perform supine to standing transfers participated in the study. On each of 2 consecutive days, participants assumed the supine position on a mat table and closed their eyes for 45 minutes. Then, participants were instructed to open their eyes and transfer from supine to sitting, with either 2- or 30-second pause in the sitting position followed by standing. The sitting pause time order was randomized. A significant difference was observed in postural sway velocity between the 2- and 30-second sitting pause times. The results revealed that there was less postural sway velocity after 30-second than 2-second sitting pause time (0.61 ± 0.19 vs 1.22 ± 0.68, P Falls related to bathroom usage at night are the most common reported falls among older adults. In the present study, the investigators studied the effect of sitting pause times on postural sway velocity after changing position from supine to standing in a dimly lit environment. The findings showed that the mean postural sway velocity was significantly less after 30-second sitting pause time compared with 2-second sitting pause time. Postural sway velocity decreased when participants performed a sitting pause of 30 seconds before standing in a dimly lit environment. These results suggest that longer sitting pause times may improve adaptability to dimly lit environments, contributing to improved postural stability and reduced risk of fall in older adult women when getting out of bed at night.

  19. Automated observatory in Antarctica: real-time data transfer on constrained networks in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bracke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2013 a project was started by the geophysical centre in Dourbes to install a fully automated magnetic observatory in Antarctica. This isolated place comes with specific requirements: unmanned station during 6 months, low temperatures with extreme values down to −50 °C, minimum power consumption and satellite bandwidth limited to 56 Kbit s−1. The ultimate aim is to transfer real-time magnetic data every second: vector data from a LEMI-25 vector magnetometer, absolute F measurements from a GEM Systems scalar proton magnetometer and absolute magnetic inclination–declination (DI measurements (five times a day with an automated DI-fluxgate magnetometer. Traditional file transfer protocols (for instance File Transfer Protocol (FTP, email, rsync show severe limitations when it comes to real-time capability. After evaluation of pro and cons of the available real-time Internet of things (IoT protocols and seismic software solutions, we chose to use Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT and receive the 1 s data with a negligible latency cost and no loss of data. Each individual instrument sends the magnetic data immediately after capturing, and the data arrive approximately 300 ms after being sent, which corresponds with the normal satellite latency.

  20. Automated observatory in Antarctica: real-time data transfer on constrained networks in practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracke, Stephan; Gonsette, Alexandre; Rasson, Jean; Poncelet, Antoine; Hendrickx, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    In 2013 a project was started by the geophysical centre in Dourbes to install a fully automated magnetic observatory in Antarctica. This isolated place comes with specific requirements: unmanned station during 6 months, low temperatures with extreme values down to -50 °C, minimum power consumption and satellite bandwidth limited to 56 Kbit s-1. The ultimate aim is to transfer real-time magnetic data every second: vector data from a LEMI-25 vector magnetometer, absolute F measurements from a GEM Systems scalar proton magnetometer and absolute magnetic inclination-declination (DI) measurements (five times a day) with an automated DI-fluxgate magnetometer. Traditional file transfer protocols (for instance File Transfer Protocol (FTP), email, rsync) show severe limitations when it comes to real-time capability. After evaluation of pro and cons of the available real-time Internet of things (IoT) protocols and seismic software solutions, we chose to use Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) and receive the 1 s data with a negligible latency cost and no loss of data. Each individual instrument sends the magnetic data immediately after capturing, and the data arrive approximately 300 ms after being sent, which corresponds with the normal satellite latency.

  1. Experiments with arbitrary networks in time-multiplexed delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph D.; Schmadel, Don C.; Murphy, Thomas E.; Roy, Rajarshi

    2017-12-01

    We report a new experimental approach using an optoelectronic feedback loop to investigate the dynamics of oscillators coupled on large complex networks with arbitrary topology. Our implementation is based on a single optoelectronic feedback loop with time delays. We use the space-time interpretation of systems with time delay to create large networks of coupled maps. Others have performed similar experiments using high-pass filters to implement the coupling; this restricts the network topology to the coupling of only a few nearest neighbors. In our experiment, the time delays and coupling are implemented on a field-programmable gate array, allowing the creation of networks with arbitrary coupling topology. This system has many advantages: the network nodes are truly identical, the network is easily reconfigurable, and the network dynamics occur at high speeds. We use this system to study cluster synchronization and chimera states in both small and large networks of different topologies.

  2. Nanohertz gravitational wave searches with interferometric pulsar timing experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo

    2011-05-13

    We estimate the sensitivity to nano-Hertz gravitational waves of pulsar timing experiments in which two highly stable millisecond pulsars are tracked simultaneously with two neighboring radio telescopes that are referenced to the same timekeeping subsystem (i.e., "the clock"). By taking the difference of the two time-of-arrival residual data streams we can exactly cancel the clock noise in the combined data set, thereby enhancing the sensitivity to gravitational waves. We estimate that, in the band (10(-9)-10(-8))  Hz, this "interferometric" pulsar timing technique can potentially improve the sensitivity to gravitational radiation by almost 2 orders of magnitude over that of single-telescopes. Interferometric pulsar timing experiments could be performed with neighboring pairs of antennas of the NASA's Deep Space Network and the forthcoming large arraying projects.

  3. Heat Transfer by Thermo-Capillary Convection. Sounding Rocket COMPERE Experiment SOURCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Eckart; Dreyer, Michael

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a sounding rocket experiment which was partly dedicated to study the heat transfer from a hot wall to a cold liquid with a free surface. Natural or buoyancy-driven convection does not occur in the compensated gravity environment of a ballistic phase. Thermo-capillary convection driven by a temperature gradient along the free surface always occurs if a non-condensable gas is present. This convection increases the heat transfer compared to a pure conductive case. Heat transfer correlations are needed to predict temperature distributions in the tanks of cryogenic upper stages. Future upper stages of the European Ariane V rocket have mission scenarios with multiple ballistic phases. The aims of this paper and of the COMPERE group (French-German research group on propellant behavior in rocket tanks) in general are to provide basic knowledge, correlations and computer models to predict the thermo-fluid behavior of cryogenic propellants for future mission scenarios. Temperature and surface location data from the flight have been compared with numerical calculations to get the heat flux from the wall to the liquid. Since the heat flux measurements along the walls of the transparent test cell were not possible, the analysis of the heat transfer coefficient relies therefore on the numerical modeling which was validated with the flight data. The coincidence between experiment and simulation is fairly good and allows presenting the data in form of a Nusselt number which depends on a characteristic Reynolds number and the Prandtl number. The results are useful for further benchmarking of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes such as FLOW-3D and FLUENT, and for the design of future upper stage propellant tanks.

  4. Physicians’ experience adopting the electronic transfer of care communication tool: barriers and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Grood C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloe de Grood, Katherine Eso, Maria Jose Santana Department of Community Health Sciences, W21C Research and Innovation Centre, Institute of Public Health, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess physicians' perceptions on a newly developed electronic transfer of care (e-TOC communication tool and identify barriers and opportunities toward its adoption. Participants and methods: The study was conducted in a tertiary care teaching center as part of a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy of an e-TOC communication tool. The e-TOC technology was developed through iterative consultation with stakeholders. This e-TOC summary was populated by acute care physicians (AcPs and communicated electronically to community care physicians (CcPs. The AcPs consisted of attending physicians, resident trainees, and medical students rotating through the Medical Teaching Unit. The CcPs were health care providers caring for patients discharged from hospital to the community. AcPs and CcPs completed validated surveys assessing their experience with the newly developed e-TOC tool. Free text questions were added to gather general comments from both groups of physicians. Units of analysis were individual physicians. Data from the surveys were analyzed using mixed methods. Results: AcPs completed 138 linked pre- and post-rotation surveys. At post-rotation, each AcP completed an average of six e-TOC summaries, taking an average of 37 minutes per e-TOC summary. Over 100 CcPs assessed the quality of the TOC summaries, with an overall rating of 8.3 (standard deviation: 1.48; on a scale of 1–10. Thematic analyses revealed barriers and opportunities encountered by physicians toward the adoption of the e-TOC tool. While the AcPs highlighted issues with timeliness, usability, and presentation, the CcPs identified barriers accessing the web-based TOC summaries, emphasizing that the summaries were timely and the

  5. The time-of-flight detector of the DIRAC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gallas, M.V.; Gomez, F.; Lopez-Agueera, A.; Nunez-Pardo, T.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Rodriguez, X.M.; Saborido, J.J.; Santamarina, C.; Tobar, M.J.; Vazquez, P.

    2002-01-01

    The construction and performance of a large area time-of-flight detector for the DIRAC experiment at CERN is reported. With an average time resolution of 123 ps per counter at rates up to 1 MHz, it allows excellent separation of pπ - from π + π - pairs up to 4.6 GeV/c momentum, as well as of Coulomb-correlated pion pairs from accidentals. The optimization of scintillator material, photomultiplier performance and readout electronics is described

  6. Time delay systems theory, numerics, applications, and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Ersal, Tulga; Orosz, Gábor

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects contributions related to selected presentations from the 12th IFAC Workshop on Time Delay Systems, Ann Arbor, June 28-30, 2015. The included papers present novel techniques and new results of delayed dynamical systems. The topical spectrum covers control theory, numerical analysis, engineering and biological applications as well as experiments and case studies. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of time delay systems, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students alike. .

  7. Analysis for Embedded Systems: Experiments with Priced Timed Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovatman, Tolga; Brekling, Aske Wiid; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2010-01-01

    costs of those models. In order to achieve this, a basic model is built using priced timed automata and some resource consumption scenarios are verified. Even though the experiments are performed on small and basic models, we believe we have taken a basis step in showing that it is promising to use...... priced timed automata and Uppaal Cora as a model checking tool in reasoning about resource consumption of embedded systems....

  8. Impact of Air Distribution on Heat Transfer during Night-Time Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Artmann, Nikolai; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2009-01-01

    Passive cooling by night-time ventilation is seen as a promising approach for energy efficient cooling of buildings. However, uncertainties in prediction of cooling potential and consequenses for thermal comfort restrain architects and engineers from applying this technique. Heat transfer...... at internal room surfaces determines the performance of night-time ventilation. In order to improve predictability, heat transfer mechanism in case of either mixing or displacement ventilation has been investigated in a full scale test room with an exposed ceiling as the dominating thermal mass. The influence...... of air distribution principle, air flow rate and inlet air temperature were investigated. Results show that for low air flow rates displacement ventilation is more efficient than mixing ventilation. For higher airflow rates the air jet flowing along the ceiling has a significant effect, and mixing...

  9. A general real-time formulation for multi-rate mass transfer problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Silva

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Many flow and transport phenomena, ranging from delayed storage in pumping tests to tailing in river or aquifer tracer breakthrough curves or slow kinetics in reactive transport, display non-equilibrium (NE behavior. These phenomena are usually modeled by non-local in time formulations, such as multi-porosity, multiple processes non equilibrium, continuous time random walk, memory functions, integro-differential equations, fractional derivatives or multi-rate mass transfer (MRMT, among others. We present a MRMT formulation that can be used to represent all these models of non equilibrium. The formulation can be extended to non-linear phenomena. Here, we develop an algorithm for linear mass transfer, which is accurate, computationally inexpensive and easy to implement in existing groundwater or river flow and transport codes. We illustrate this approach by application to published data involving NE groundwater flow and solute transport in rivers and aquifers.

  10. Use of fundamental condensation heat transfer experiments for the development of a sub-grid liquid jet condensation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buschman, Francis X., E-mail: Francis.Buschman@unnpp.gov; Aumiller, David L.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Direct contact condensation data on liquid jets up to 1.7 MPa in pure steam and in the presence of noncondensable gas. • Identified a pressure effect on the impact of noncondensables to suppress condensation heat transfer not captured in existing data or correlations. • Pure steam data is used to develop a new correlation for condensation heat transfer on subcooled liquid jets. • Noncondensable data used to develop a modification to the renewal time estimate used in the Young and Bajorek correlation for condensation suppression in the presence of noncondensables. • A jet injection boundary condition, using a sub-grid jet condensation model, is developed for COBRA-IE which provides a more detailed estimate of the condensation rate on the liquid jet and allows the use of jet specific closure relationships. - Abstract: Condensation on liquid jets is an important phenomenon for many different facets of nuclear power plant transients and analyses such as containment spray cooling. An experimental facility constructed at the Pennsylvania State University, the High Pressure Liquid Jet Condensation Heat Transfer facility (HPLJCHT), has been used to perform steady-state condensation heat transfer experiments in which the temperature of the liquid jet is measured at different axial locations allowing the condensation rate to be determined over the jet length. Test data have been obtained in a pure steam environment and with varying concentrations of noncondensable gas. This data extends the available jet condensation data from near atmospheric pressure up to a pressure of 1.7 MPa. An empirical correlation for the liquid side condensation heat transfer coefficient has been developed based on the data obtained in pure steam. The data obtained with noncondensable gas were used to develop a correlation for the renewal time as used in the condensation suppression model developed by Young and Bajorek. This paper describes a new sub-grid liquid jet

  11. Use of fundamental condensation heat transfer experiments for the development of a sub-grid liquid jet condensation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschman, Francis X.; Aumiller, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Direct contact condensation data on liquid jets up to 1.7 MPa in pure steam and in the presence of noncondensable gas. • Identified a pressure effect on the impact of noncondensables to suppress condensation heat transfer not captured in existing data or correlations. • Pure steam data is used to develop a new correlation for condensation heat transfer on subcooled liquid jets. • Noncondensable data used to develop a modification to the renewal time estimate used in the Young and Bajorek correlation for condensation suppression in the presence of noncondensables. • A jet injection boundary condition, using a sub-grid jet condensation model, is developed for COBRA-IE which provides a more detailed estimate of the condensation rate on the liquid jet and allows the use of jet specific closure relationships. - Abstract: Condensation on liquid jets is an important phenomenon for many different facets of nuclear power plant transients and analyses such as containment spray cooling. An experimental facility constructed at the Pennsylvania State University, the High Pressure Liquid Jet Condensation Heat Transfer facility (HPLJCHT), has been used to perform steady-state condensation heat transfer experiments in which the temperature of the liquid jet is measured at different axial locations allowing the condensation rate to be determined over the jet length. Test data have been obtained in a pure steam environment and with varying concentrations of noncondensable gas. This data extends the available jet condensation data from near atmospheric pressure up to a pressure of 1.7 MPa. An empirical correlation for the liquid side condensation heat transfer coefficient has been developed based on the data obtained in pure steam. The data obtained with noncondensable gas were used to develop a correlation for the renewal time as used in the condensation suppression model developed by Young and Bajorek. This paper describes a new sub-grid liquid jet

  12. Can experience overcome stereotypes in times of terror threat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirya R. Holman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on evaluations of leaders has frequently found that female leaders receive lower ratings in times of national security crisis. However, less is known about countervailing factors. We contend that partisanship and leadership experience in relevant domains are two factors that can counteract the negative effects of terrorist threat on evaluations of female political leaders. To test this expectation, we implemented a national study in 2012 containing terrorist threat and non-threat conditions, and then asked participants to evaluate political leaders. The results show that Republican leaders, including women, are unaffected by terrorist threat; in contrast, Democratic leaders are punished during times of terrorist threat, but this negative effect is smaller for then-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton compared to Nancy Pelosi, who lacks similar experience. In short, Republican partisanship is a strong countervailing factor, while leadership experience in national security more modestly countervails.

  13. Statistical aspects of quantitative real-time PCR experiment design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kitchen, R.R.; Kubista, Mikael; Tichopád, Aleš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2010), s. 231-236 ISSN 1046-2023 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA500520809 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Real-time PCR * Experiment design * Nested analysis of variance Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.527, year: 2010

  14. Experiments on microsecond conduction time plasma opening switch mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rix, W.; Coleman, M.; Miller, A.R.; Parks, D.; Robertson, K.; Thompson, J.; Waisman, E.; Wilson, A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a series of experiments carried out on ACE 2 and ACE 4 to elucidate the mechanisms controlling the conduction and opening phases on plasma opening switches in a radial geometry with conduction times on the order of a microsecond. The results indicate both conduction and opening physics are similar to that observed on lower current systems in a coaxial geometry

  15. Experiments and numerical simulations of flow field and heat transfer coefficients inside an autoclave model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamlouch, T.; Roux, S.; Bailleul, J.-L.; Lefèvre, N.; Sobotka, V.

    2017-10-01

    Today's aerospace industrial first priority is the quality improvement of the composite material parts with the reduction of the manufacturing time in order to increase their quality/cost ratio. A fabrication method that could meet these specifications especially for large parts is the autoclave curing process. In fact the autoclave molding ensures the thermal control of the composite parts during the whole curing cycle. However the geometry of the tools as well as their positioning in the autoclave induce non uniform and complex flows around composite parts. This heterogeneity implies non-uniform heat transfers which can directly impact on part quality. One of the main challenges is therefore to describe the flow field inside an autoclave as well as the convective heat transfer from the heated pressurized gas to the composite part and the mold. For this purpose, and given the technical issues associated with instrumentation and measurements in actual autoclaves, an autoclave model was designed and then manufactured based on similarity laws. This tool allows the measurement of the flow field around representative real industrial molds using the PIV technique and the characterization of the heat transfer thanks to thermal instrumentation. The experimental results are then compared with those derived from numerical simulations using a commercial RANS CFD code. This study aims at developing a semi-empirical approach for the prediction of the heat transfer coefficient around the parts and therefore predicts its thermal history during the process with a view of optimization.

  16. Experiments and Analyses of Data Transfers Over Wide-Area Dedicated Connections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Liu, Qiang [ORNL; Sen, Satyabrata [ORNL; Hanley, Jesse A. [ORNL; Foster, Ian [University of Chicago; Kettimuthu, R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wu, Qishi [University of Memphis; Yun, Daqing [Harrisburg University; Towsley, Don [University of Massachusetts, Amherst; Vardoyan, Gayane [University of Massachusetts, Amherst

    2017-08-01

    Dedicated wide-area network connections are increasingly employed in high-performance computing and big data scenarios. One might expect the performance and dynamics of data transfers over such connections to be easy to analyze due to the lack of competing traffic. However, non-linear transport dynamics and end-system complexities (e.g., multi-core hosts and distributed filesystems) can in fact make analysis surprisingly challenging. We present extensive measurements of memory-to-memory and disk-to-disk file transfers over 10 Gbps physical and emulated connections with 0–366 ms round trip times (RTTs). For memory-to-memory transfers, profiles of both TCP and UDT throughput as a function of RTT show concave and convex regions; large buffer sizes and more parallel flows lead to wider concave regions, which are highly desirable. TCP and UDT both also display complex throughput dynamics, as indicated by their Poincare maps and Lyapunov exponents. For disk-to-disk transfers, we determine that high throughput can be achieved via a combination of parallel I/O threads, parallel network threads, and direct I/O mode. Our measurements also show that Lustre filesystems can be mounted over long-haul connections using LNet routers, although challenges remain in jointly optimizing file I/O and transport method parameters to achieve peak throughput.

  17. Large scale commissioning and operational experience with tier-2 to tier-2 data transfer links in CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letts, J; Magini, N

    2011-01-01

    Tier-2 to Tier-2 data transfers have been identified as a necessary extension of the CMS computing model. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) Task Force in CMS was charged with commissioning Tier-2 to Tier-2 PhEDEx transfer links beginning in late 2009, originally to serve the needs of physics analysis groups for the transfer of their results between the storage elements of the Tier-2 sites associated with the groups. PhEDEx is the data transfer middleware of the CMS experiment. For analysis jobs using CRAB, the CMS Remote Analysis Builder, the challenges of remote stage out of job output at the end of the analysis jobs led to the introduction of a local fallback stage out, and will eventually require the asynchronous transfer of user data over essentially all of the Tier-2 to Tier-2 network using the same PhEDEx infrastructure. In addition, direct file sharing of physics and Monte Carlo simulated data between Tier-2 sites can relieve the operational load of the Tier-1 sites in the original CMS Computing Model, and already represents an important component of CMS PhEDEx data transfer volume. The experience, challenges and methods used to debug and commission the thousands of data transfers links between CMS Tier-2 sites world-wide are explained and summarized. The resulting operational experience with Tier-2 to Tier-2 transfers is also presented.

  18. Light-Time Effect and Mass Transfer in the Triple Star SW Lyncis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hwey Kim

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper all the photoelectric times of minimum for the triple star SW Lyn have been analyzed in terms of light-time e ect due to the third-body and secular period decreases induced by mass transfer process. The light-time orbit determined recently by Ogloza et al.(1998 were modi ed and improved. And it is found that the orbital period of SW Lyn have been decreasing secularly. The third-body revolves around the mass center of triple stars every 5y.77 in a highly eccentric elliptical orbit(e=0.61. The third-body with a minimum mass of 1.13M may be a binary or a white dwarf. The rate of secular period-decrease were obtained as ¡âP/P = -12.45 x 10^-11, implying the mass-transfer from the massive primary star to the secondary. The mass losing rate from the primary were calculated as about 1.24 x 10^-8M /y. It is noticed that the mass-transfer in SW Lyn system is opposite in direction to that deduced from it's Roche geometry by previous investigators.

  19. Multi-time-scale heat transfer modeling of turbid tissues exposed to short-pulsed irradiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghan; Guo, Zhixiong

    2007-05-01

    A combined hyperbolic radiation and conduction heat transfer model is developed to simulate multi-time-scale heat transfer in turbid tissues exposed to short-pulsed irradiations. An initial temperature response of a tissue to an ultrashort pulse irradiation is analyzed by the volume-average method in combination with the transient discrete ordinates method for modeling the ultrafast radiation heat transfer. This response is found to reach pseudo steady state within 1 ns for the considered tissues. The single pulse result is then utilized to obtain the temperature response to pulse train irradiation at the microsecond/millisecond time scales. After that, the temperature field is predicted by the hyperbolic heat conduction model which is solved by the MacCormack's scheme with error terms correction. Finally, the hyperbolic conduction is compared with the traditional parabolic heat diffusion model. It is found that the maximum local temperatures are larger in the hyperbolic prediction than the parabolic prediction. In the modeled dermis tissue, a 7% non-dimensional temperature increase is found. After about 10 thermal relaxation times, thermal waves fade away and the predictions between the hyperbolic and parabolic models are consistent.

  20. Measurement of multi-bunch transfer functions using time-domain data and Fourier analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindi, H.; Sapozhnikov, L.; Fox, J.; Prabhakar, S.; Oxoby, G.; Linscott, I.; Drago, A.

    1993-12-01

    Multi-bunch transfer functions are principal ingredients in understanding both the behavior of high-current storage rings as well as control of their instabilities. The measurement of transfer functions on a bunch-by-bunch basis is particularly important in the design of active feedback systems. Traditional methods of network analysis that work well in the single bunch case become difficult to implement for many bunches. We have developed a method for obtaining empirical estimates of the multi-bunch longitudinal transfer functions from the time-domain measurements of the bunches' phase oscillations. This method involves recording the response of the bunch of interest to a white-noise excitation. The transfer function can then be computed as the ratio of the fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) of the response and excitation sequences, averaged over several excitations. The calculation is performed off-line on bunch-phase data and is well-suited to the multi-bunch case. A description of this method and an analysis of its performance is presented with results obtained using the longitudinal quick prototype feedback system developed at SLAC

  1. Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry advancement in detection of hazardous substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, B.

    2012-01-01

    Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) is a mass spectrometric technique based on chemical ionization, which provides very rapid measurements (within seconds) of volatile organic compounds in air, usually without special sample preparation, and with a very low detection limit. The detection and study of product ion patterns of threat agents such as explosives and drugs and some major environmental pollutants (isocyanates and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) is explored in detail here using PTR-MS, specifically Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (PTR-TOF-MS). The proton transfer reaction (PTR) principle works on the detection of the compound in the vapor phase. For some compounds, which have extremely low vapor pressures, both sample and inlet line heating were needed. Generally, the protonated parent molecule (MH+) is found to be the dominant product ion, which therefore provides us with a higher level of confidence in the assignment of a trace compound. However, for several compounds, dissociative proton transfer can occur at various degrees resulting in other product ions. Analysis of other compounds, such as the presence of taggants and impurities were carried out, and in certain compounds unusual E/N anomalies were discovered (E/N is an instrumental set of parameters, where E is the electric field strength and N is the number density). Head space measurements above four different drinks (plain water, tea, red wine and white wine) spiked with four different 'date rape' drugs were also conducted. (author)

  2. Study on Transfer Rules of Coal Reservoir Pressure Drop Based on Coalbed Methane Well Drainage Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    A pumping test was carried out to explore the transfer rules of pressure drop in coal reservoir during the drainage. The experiment was divided into three stages. In the first stage, the pump displacement of 3m3/h was used to reduce the bottom hole flowing pressure and stopped until the continuous gas phase was produced; Undertaking the first stage, in the second stage, when the gas phase was continuously produced, the pump was stopped immediately. As the bottom hole flowing pressure going up without gas phase, pumping started again for a week. In the third stage ,the well pumping was carried out at the bottom hole pressure drop rate of 30Kpa/d after two months' recovery. Combined with the data of regional geology and fractured well, taking the characteristics of macroscopic coal rocks, development of pore and fracture in coal and isothermal adsorption test as the background, the features of reservoir output in each stage of the experiment were analyzed and compared, and then the transfer rules of pressure drop contained in the differences of the output was studied further. In the first and third stage of the experiment, the output of liquid phase was much larger than the space volume of coal reservoir pore and fracture in the range of 100m2. In the second stage, the output of the continuous gas phase appeared around 0.7Mpa when the continuous gas phase appears below the critical desorption pressure of 0.25Mpa during the whole experiment. The results indicate that, the transfer of pressure drop in the coal reservoir of this well is mainly horizontal, and the liquid phase produced in the reservoir mainly comes from the recharge of the reservoir at the far end of the relative high pressure area; the adsorption space of coalbed methane in the coal matrix as well as the main migration channel of fluid in the reservoir doesn't belong to the same pressure system and there exists the communication barrier between them. In addition, the increasing of the effective stress

  3. Freon Rig design for performing to heat transfer experiments for nuclear reactors fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, L.F.V.

    1981-01-01

    The main features of a Freon Rig design for performing to heat transfer experiments for PWR and BWR fuel bundles, are presented. The project is based on a Freon Rig pressurized at 30 bar with a flow rate up to 80 m 3 /h. The maximum power fed to test sections is of about 420 KW D.C. The rig was designed to use scaling techniques wich would enable a fluid of low latente heat to be used in place of water, thereby reducing the cost of testes. (Author) [pt

  4. Time Perception and the Experience of Time When Immersed in an Altered Sensory Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicksohn, Joseph; Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Mauro, Federica; Ben-Soussan, Tal D

    2017-01-01

    The notion that exposure to a monotonous sensory environment could elicit reports indicating aberrant subjective experience and altered time perception is the impetus for the present report. Research has looked at the influence of exposure to such environments on time perception, reporting that the greater the environmental variation, the shorter is the time estimation obtained by the method of production. Most conditions for creating an altered sensory environment, however, have not facilitated an immersive experience, one that directly impacts both time perception and subjective experience. In this study, we invited our participants to enter a whole-body altered sensory environment for a 20-min session, wherein they were asked to relax without falling asleep. The session included white-colored illumination of the chamber with eyes closed (5 min), followed by 10 min of illuminating the room with color, after which a short report of subjective experience was collected using a brief questionnaire; this was followed by an additional 5 min of immersion in white light with closed eyes. The participants were then interviewed regarding their subjective experience, including their experience of time within the chamber. Prior to entering the chamber, the participants completed a time-production (TP) task. One group of participants then repeated the task within the chamber, at the end of the session; a second group of participants repeated the task after exiting the chamber. We shall report on changes in TP, and present data indicating that when produced time is plotted as a function of target duration, using a log-log plot, the major influence of sensory environment is on the intercept of the psychophysical function. We shall further present data indicating that for those participants reporting a marked change in time experience, such as "the sensation of time disappeared," their TP data could not be linearized using a log-log plot, hence indicating that for these

  5. Time Perception and the Experience of Time When Immersed in an Altered Sensory Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Glicksohn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The notion that exposure to a monotonous sensory environment could elicit reports indicating aberrant subjective experience and altered time perception is the impetus for the present report. Research has looked at the influence of exposure to such environments on time perception, reporting that the greater the environmental variation, the shorter is the time estimation obtained by the method of production. Most conditions for creating an altered sensory environment, however, have not facilitated an immersive experience, one that directly impacts both time perception and subjective experience. In this study, we invited our participants to enter a whole-body altered sensory environment for a 20-min session, wherein they were asked to relax without falling asleep. The session included white-colored illumination of the chamber with eyes closed (5 min, followed by 10 min of illuminating the room with color, after which a short report of subjective experience was collected using a brief questionnaire; this was followed by an additional 5 min of immersion in white light with closed eyes. The participants were then interviewed regarding their subjective experience, including their experience of time within the chamber. Prior to entering the chamber, the participants completed a time-production (TP task. One group of participants then repeated the task within the chamber, at the end of the session; a second group of participants repeated the task after exiting the chamber. We shall report on changes in TP, and present data indicating that when produced time is plotted as a function of target duration, using a log–log plot, the major influence of sensory environment is on the intercept of the psychophysical function. We shall further present data indicating that for those participants reporting a marked change in time experience, such as “the sensation of time disappeared,” their TP data could not be linearized using a log–log plot, hence

  6. FIX-II. Loca-blowdown heat transfer and pump trip experiments. Summary report of phase 1: Design of experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waaranperae, Y.; Nilsson, L.; Gustafsson, P.Aa.; Jonsson, N.O.

    1979-06-01

    FIX-II is a loss of coolant blowdown heat transfer experiment, performed under contract for The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI. The purpose of the experiments is to provide measurements from simulations of a pipe rupture on an external recirculation line in a Swedish BWR. Pump trips in BWRs with internal recirculation pumps will also be simulated. The existing FIX-loop at the Thermal Engineering Laboratory of Studsvik Energiteknik AB will be modified and used for the experiments. Components are included to simulate the steam dome, downcomer, two recirculation lines with one pump each, lower plenum, core (36-rod full length bundle), control rod guide tubes, core bypass, upper plenum and steam separators. The results of the first phase of the project are reported here. The following tasks are included in Phase 1: reactor reference analysis, scaling calculations of the FIX loop, development of fuel rod simulators, design of test section and test loop layout and proposal for test program. Further details of the work and results obtained for the different sub-projects are published in a number ofdetailed reports. (author)

  7. Experiences of time loss among videogame players: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard T A; Griffiths, Mark D; Parke, Adrian

    2007-02-01

    Playing videogames is now a major leisure pursuit, yet research in the area is comparatively sparse. Previous correlational evidence suggests that subjective time loss occurs during playing videogames. This study examined experiences of time loss among a relatively large group of gamers (n = 280). Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through an online survey. Results showed that time loss occurred irrespective of gender, age, or frequency of play, but was associated with particular structural characteristics of games such as their complexity, the presence of multi-levels, missions and/or high scores, multiplayer interactions, and plot. Results also demonstrated that time loss could have both positive and negative outcomes for players. Positive aspects of time loss included helping players to relax and temporarily escape from reality. Negative aspects included the sacrificing of other things in their lives, guilty feelings about wasted time, and social conflict. It is concluded that for many gamers, losing track of time is a positive experience and is one of the main reasons for playing videogames.

  8. Design and operation of a transistorised bridge-type detector for burn-out in boiling heat transfer experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salt, K J; Wintle, C A [Reactor Development Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1964-04-15

    Theoretical, technical and operational details of an instrument to protect heater rods in heat transfer burn-out experiments from actual rupture under electrical heating, by a Wheatstone bridge method. (author)

  9. Design and operation of a transistorised bridge-type detector for burn-out in boiling heat transfer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt, K.J.; Wintle, C.A.

    1964-04-01

    Theoretical, technical and operational details of an instrument to protect heater rods in heat transfer burn-out experiments from actual rupture under electrical heating, by a Wheatstone bridge method. (author)

  10. Status of the proton and electron transfer lines for the AWAKE Experiment at CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.S., E-mail: janet.schmidt@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Bauche, J. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Biskup, B. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Bracco, C.; Doebert, S.; Goddard, B.; Gschwendtner, E.; Jensen, L.K.; Jones, O.R.; Mazzoni, S.; Meddahi, M.; Pepitone, K.; Petrenko, A.; Velotti, F.M.; Vorozhtsov, A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-09-01

    The AWAKE project at CERN is planned to study proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration with an externally injected electron beam. Therefore two transfer lines are being designed in order to provide the proton beam from the SPS and the electron beam from an RF gun to the plasma cell. The commissioning of the proton line will take place in 2016 for the first phase of the experiment, which is focused on the self-modulation of a 12 cm long proton bunch in the plasma. The electron line will be added for the second phase of AWAKE in 2017, when the wakefield will be probed with an electron beam of 10–20 MeV/c. The challenge for these transfer lines lies in the parallel operation of the proton, electron and laser beam used to ionize the plasma and seed the self-modulation. These beams, of different characteristics, need to be synchronized and positioned for optimized injection conditions into the wakefield. This task requires great flexibility in the transfer line optics. The status of these designs will be presented in this paper.

  11. Accelerating the transfer and diffusion of energy saving technologies steel sector experience-Lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Mitsutsune

    2011-01-01

    It is imperative to tackle the issue globally mobilizing all available policies and measures. One of the important ones among them is technology transfer and diffusion. By utilizing international co-operation, industry can promote such measures in two ways: through government policy and through industry's own voluntary initiative. Needless to say, various government policies and measures play essential role. By the same token, industry initiative can complement them. There is much literature documenting the former. On the contrary there are few on the latter. This paper sheds light on the latter. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of global voluntary sectoral approach for technology diffusion and transfer based on steel sector experience. The goal is to contribute toward building a worldwide low-carbon society by manufacturing goods with less energy through international cooperation of each sector. The authors believe that the voluntary sectoral approach is an effective method with political and practical feasibilities, and hope to see the continued growth of more initiatives based on this approach. - Highlights: → There exist huge reduction potentials in steel industries globally. → Technology transfer and diffusion are keys to achieve reductions. → Main barriers are economic, technological and policy-related. → Case studies in overcoming barriers are discussed. → In steel industry, a voluntary sectoral approach has shown to be effective.

  12. Influence of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Zerong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient of fireworks and crackers on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition, considering the heat transfer coefficient as the power function of temperature, mathematical thermal explosion steady state and unsteady-state model of finite cylindrical fireworks and crackers with complex shell structures are established based on two-dimensional steady state thermal explosion theory. The influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion critical ambient temperature and time to ignition are analyzed. When heat transfer coefficient is changing with temperature and in the condition of natural convection heat transfer, critical ambient temperature lessen, thermal explosion time to ignition shorten. If ambient temperature is close to critical ambient temperature, the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on time to ignition become large. For firework with inner barrel in example analysis, the critical ambient temperature of propellant is 463.88 K and the time to ignition is 4054.9s at 466 K, 0.26 K and 450.8s less than without considering the change of heat transfer coefficient respectively. The calculation results show that the influence of variable heat transfer coefficient on thermal explosion time to ignition is greater in this example. Therefore, the effect of variable heat transfer coefficient should be considered into thermal safety evaluation of fireworks to reduce potential safety hazard.

  13. Perceived barriers to communication between hospital and nursing home at time of patient transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faraaz; Burack, Orah; Boockvar, Kenneth S

    2010-05-01

    To identify perceived barriers to communication between hospital and nursing home at the time of patient transfer and examine associations between perceived barriers and hospital and nursing home characteristics. Mailed survey. Medicare- or Medicaid-certified nursing homes in New York State. Nursing home administrators, with input from other nursing home staff. Respondents rated the importance as a barrier to hospital-nursing home communication of (1) hospital providers' attitude, time, effort, training, payment, and familiarity with nursing home patients; (2) unplanned and off-hours transfers; (3) HIPAA privacy regulations; and (4) lost or failed information transmission. Associations were determined between barriers and the following organizational characteristics: (1) hospital-nursing home affiliations, pharmacy or laboratory agreements, cross-site staff visits, and cross-site physician care; (2) hospital size, teaching status, and frequency of geriatrics specialty care; (3) nursing home size, location, type, staffing, and Medicare quality indicators; and (4) hospital-to-nursing home communication, consistency of hospital care with health care goals, and communication quality improvement efforts. Of 647 questionnaires sent, 229 were returned (35.4%). The most frequently reported perceived barriers to communication were sudden or unplanned transfers (44.4%), transfers that occur at night or on the weekend (41.4%), and hospital providers' lack of effort (51.0%), lack of familiarity with patients (45.0%), and lack of time (43.5%). Increased hospital size, teaching hospitals, and urban nursing home location were associated with greater perceived importance of these barriers, and cross-site staff visits and hospital provision of laboratory and pharmacy services to the nursing home were associated with lower perceived importance of these barriers. Hospital and nursing home characteristics and interorganizational relationships were associated with nursing home

  14. The study of diagnosis status and, transfer time of stroke patients transferred by pre-hospital emergency medical system (EMS to Vali-Asr hospital in Arak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiedeh Bahrampouri

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stroke is main cause of death and disability in worldwide and emergency care can decrease complications. Emergency Medical System transferred half of stroke patients to hospital, so improve accuracy of diagnosis may accelerated treatment. This study aimed to determine diagnosis status and, transfer time of stroke patients transferred by prehospital Emergency Medical System to hospital in Arak City. Methods: This study was descriptive -analytic study and all 43 patient’s records with a diagnosis of stroke that transferred by Emergency Medical System to hospital in Arak City was selected. The study Checklist was contained information about age, sex, type of accident prehospital, response time, scene time, transfer time and total time from inpatients records and Emergency Center statistics .Regarding data analysis,SPSS19 software and descriptive statistical tests were used. Results: Mean (SD of age all patients were 73/7±3/8 and 51/2% were women. Ambulance paramedics' stroke diagnosis was correct in 15 (34/9%,20(46/5%of false and 8(18/6% not diagnosed for stroke patients who initially presented to them. The most common non stroke conditions were confusion. Mean response time and scene time, transfer time and total time were 6/9,16/9,9/1 and 35/3 minutes, respectively. In patients with correct diagnose stroke, mean response, scene, transfer and total time were 7,17/1,3/9 and 35/7 minutes. The people with the wrong diagnosis or no diagnosis of stroke by emergency medical personnel were taken to hospital, Mean response, scene, transfer and total time were 6/9, 16/8,9/7 and 33/5 minutes. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that, the correct diagnosis by EMS personnel could be resulted faster transferring patient to definite treatment center.It is recommended to develop prehospital diagnosis tool of stroke, which is contextually adapted and appropriate to facilitate diagnose of strokes and improve the quality of care.

  15. Computer experiments of the time-sequence of individual steps in multiple Coulomb-excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J. de; Dannhaueser, G.

    1982-01-01

    The way in which the multiple E2 steps in the Coulomb-excitation of a rotational band of a nucleus follow one another is elucidated for selected examples using semiclassical computer experiments. The role a given transition plays for the excitation of a given final state is measured by a quantity named ''importance function''. It is found that these functions, calculated for the highest rotational state, peak at times forming a sequence for the successive E2 transitions starting from the ground state. This sequential behaviour is used to approximately account for the effects on the projectile orbit of the sequential transfer of excitation energy and angular momentum from projectile to target. These orbits lead to similar deflection functions and cross sections as those obtained from a symmetrization procedure approximately accounting for the transfer of angular momentum and energy. (Auth.)

  16. How first time mothers experience the use of epidural analgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    How first time mothers experience the use of epidural analgesia during birth Ingrid Jepsen, Midwife, SD, MPH, Kurt Dauer Keller cand.psych, PhD Contact email irj@ucn.dk Aim: to investigate the experiences of epidural analgesia as to the choice of epidurals, the changes in pain, the period from...... and two months later. The midwives were interviewed two hours after the birth. Method of analysis: The “Idealtype-” method, the “importance-” method and the “process-” method described by Bo Eneroth. Results: Two ideal-types were discovered: the worried and the unworried mother. Important and common...

  17. The performance of GPS time and frequency transfer: comment on ‘A detailed comparison of two continuous GPS carrier-phase time transfer techniques’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Gérard; Defraigne, Pascale

    2016-06-01

    The paper ‘A detailed comparison of two continuous GPS carrier-phase time transfer techniques’ (Yao et al 2015 Metrologia 52 666) presents the revised RINEX-shift (RRS) method, a technique using ‘classical precise point positioning (PPP)’ solutions on sliding batches and aiming at providing continuous time links. The authors claim the superiority of the RRS technique with respect to ‘classical PPP’ in terms of frequency stability and solving for discontinuities due to data gaps. It is shown here that these conclusions do not rely on physical principles, and are erroneous as they are driven by misinterpreted or corrupted PPP solutions. Using state-of-the-art PPP computation on the same data sets used in Yao et al’s paper (2015 Metrologia 52 666), we show that the stability of RRS is at best similar to that of ‘classical PPP’ (within statistical uncertainties). Furthermore, the RRS method of removing discontinuities in case of data gaps by interpolating the phase data should not be applied systematically as it can cause erroneous clock solutions when the data gaps are associated with a true phase discontinuity.

  18. Time to failure of hierarchical load-transfer models of fracture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vázquez-Prada, M; Gómez, J B; Moreno, Y

    1999-01-01

    The time to failure, T, of dynamical models of fracture for a hierarchical load-transfer geometry is studied. Using a probabilistic strategy and juxtaposing hierarchical structures of height n, we devise an exact method to compute T, for structures of height n+1. Bounding T, for large n, we are a...... are able to deduce that the time to failure tends to a nonzero value when n tends to infinity. This numerical conclusion is deduced for both power law and exponential breakdown rules....

  19. Level of training and experience in physicians performing interhospital transfers of adult patients in the internal medicine department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, P; Folkestad, L; Brabrand, M

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To establish the level of training doctors who participate in interhospital transfers in Denmark. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to every hospital department in Denmark with acute internal medicine admissions. RESULTS: Eighty-nine internal medicine departments were contacted and 84...... responded (response rate 94.4%). Of the 84 hospitals, 75 (89.3%) indicated that they perform interhospital transfers. Most transfers were performed by interns (61.3%) or senior house officers (10.7%) with only a few months' experience in their current speciality. Training in interhospital transfer...

  20. Shock-timing experiments for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debras, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Laser Megajoule (LMJ), which should achieve energy gain in an indirect drive inertial confinement fusion configuration, is being built in France by the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives). To achieve thermonuclear ignition, the compression of a spherical target will have to be controlled by a series of accurately timed centripetal shocks, with a finely tuned level. A first experiment, performed in 2010 on the LIL (Ligne d'Integration Laser) facility at CEA, has allowed us to study the coalescence of two planar shocks in an indirectly-driven sample of polystyrene, within the framework of shock timing. The main objectives were to validate the experimental concept and the numerical simulations, as a proof-of-principle for future shock-timing campaigns. The main diagnostics used for this study are VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflection) and an optical shock breakout diagnostic, taking into account optical perturbations caused by X-rays. In another experiment, conducted on the LULI (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses) laser facility in 2010, we studied the timing of two planar directly-driven shocks using the same diagnostics. This latter study is related to the shock ignition concept, with the long-term perspective of energy production. This thesis presents these two experiments and their results. (author) [fr

  1. Time-dependent mixed convection heat transfer from a sphere in a micro-gravity environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hommel, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    A fundamental problem of interest for crystal growth in micro-gravity applications involves the mixed convection heat transfer from a sphere in a uniform flow of fluid at a differing temperature. Under the combined influence of the imposed free stream as well as an induced buoyancy force due to thermal expansion of the fluid, the heat transfer from the sphere will be different from that of either the pure forced convection flow or the pure free convection flow. For the present study, the method of matched asymptotic expansions is applied to the laminar flow problem of an impulsively heated, impulsively started sphere in an originally quiescent fluid. Time series expansions are developed for the dependent variables by acknowledging the existence of two district regions: one, an inner region, near the sphere, in which viscous effects are significant; and two, an outer region in which the fluid may be treated as inviscid. The time series expansions are developed in terms of the Reynolds number and Richardson number (Buoyancy Parameter), and the relevant heat transfer and drag coefficients are calculated and plotted

  2. Sub-picosecond timing fluctuation suppression in laser-based atmospheric transfer of microwave signal using electronic phase compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shijun; Sun, Fuyu; Bai, Qingsong; Chen, Dawei; Chen, Qiang; Hou, Dong

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrated a timing fluctuation suppression in outdoor laser-based atmospheric radio-frequency transfer over a 110 m one-way free-space link using an electronic phase compensation technique. Timing fluctuations and Allan Deviation are both measured to characterize the instability of transferred frequency incurred during the transfer process. With transferring a 1 GHz microwave signal over a timing fluctuation suppressed transmission link, the total root-mean-square (rms) timing fluctuation was measured to be 920 femtoseconds in 5000 s, with fractional frequency instability on the order of 1 × 10-12 at 1 s, and order of 2 × 10-16 at 1000 s. This atmospheric frequency transfer scheme with the timing fluctuation suppression technique can be used to fast build an atomic clock-based frequency free-space transmission link since its stability is superior to a commercial Cs and Rb clock.

  3. Evaluation of technology transferring: The experiences of the first Navy Domestic Technology Transfair. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    In August 1989 the Office of the Chief of Naval Research and the American Defense Preparedness Association conducted the first Navy Domestic Technology Transfair. The objective of the Transfair was to expose the US Navy`s years of solid experience across a broad span of technology to organizations outside of the Navy. It was an opportunity for private industry to capitalize on the Navy developed technology and this opening for industry was the primary focus of the Transfair. The event provided a unique forum to meet leading Navy scientific and engineering innovators face-to-face. Information was available concerning licensing of naval technology that was for sale to the private sector. Further, discussions covered opportunities for new cooperative research and development agreements with Navy laboratories and R&D activities. These agreements were authorized under the Federal Technology Transfer Act of 1986. The Transfair program was conducted in such a manner as to allow each Navy inventor, either scientist or engineer, to present a system, piece of hardware, or licensable concept in a formal paper presentation. Then, the Navy inventors were available in two, two-hour periods in which individual discussions were conducted, with attendees pursuing specific venues of cooperative agreements as desired. This report provides specifics concerning the technologies that were made available for transfer to the private sector during the Transfair. The Transfair concept sought to add special emphasis to the opening that the 1988 Technology Transfer Act brought to the marketplace. The experience was a step in the education of the possibilities for cooperation between the government and the private sector to share technology. Of additional significance is the economic enhancement for business expansion with the application of the technology to markets beyond defense.

  4. Potential and limitations of nucleon transfer experiments with radioactive beams at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Gund, C.; Cub, J.; Dietrich, A.; Hartlein, T.; Lenske, H.; Pansegrau, D.; Richter, A.; Scheit, H.; Schrieder, G.; Schwalm, D.

    2001-01-01

    As a tool for studying the structure of nuclei far off stability the technique of $\\gamma$-ray spectroscopy after low-energy single-nucleon transfer reactions with radioactive nuclear beams in inverse kinematics was investigated. Modules of the MINIBALL germanium array and a thin position-sensitive parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) to be employed in future experiments at REX-ISOLDE were used in a test experiment performed with a stable $^{36}$S beam on deuteron and $^{9}$Be targets. It is demonstrated that the Doppler broadening of $\\gamma$ lines detected by the MINIBALL modules is considerably reduced by exploiting their segmentation, and that for beam intensities up to 10$^{6}$ particles/s the PPAC positioned around zero degrees with respect to the beam axis allows not only to significantly reduce the gamma background by requiring coincidences with the transfer products but also to control the beam and its intensity by single particle counting. The predicted large neutron pickup cross-sections of neut...

  5. Core heat transfer experiment for JRR-3 to be upgraded at 20 MWt, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Yukio; Miyata, Keiichi; Ikawa, Hiromasa; Ohgawara, Masami; Kaminaga, Masanori

    1985-09-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate the condition of onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) and the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) heat flux under forced convection in a vertical rectangular channel, both of which take important roles in the core thermal-hydraulic design of the upgraded JRR-3. This report presents the validity and applicability of the correlations proposed for ONB condition and DNB heat flux, based on the analysis of the experimental results. The upgraded JRR-3 is a low-pressure, low-temperature research reactor and the core heat generation is removed by two cooling modes, one is natural circulation under upflow up to 200 kW and the other is forced circulation under downflow up to 20 MW. Therefore, the difference in heat transfer characteristics between upflow and downflow were investigated in the experiments, which were carried out by using a heated channel properly simulating a subchannel of fuel element because the heat transfer characteristics are considered to be strongly dependent on the configuration of flow channel. (author)

  6. On heat transfer characteristics of real and simulant melt pool experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, T.N.; Nourgaliev R.R.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-09-01

    The paper presents results of analytical studies of natural convection heat transfer in scaled and/or simulant melt pool experiments related to the PWR in-vessel melt retention issue. Specific reactor-scale effects of a large decay-heated core melt pool in the reactor pressure vessel lower plenum are first reviewed, and then the current analytical capability of describing physical processes under prototypical situations is examined. Experiments and experimental approaches are analysed by focusing on their ability to represent prototypical situations. Calculations are carried out in order to assess the significance of some selected effects, including variations in melt properties, pool geometry and heating conditions. Rayleigh numbers in the present analysis are limited to 10{sup 12}, where uncertainties in turbulence modeling are not overriding other uncertainties. The effects of fluid Prandtl number on heat transfer to the lowermost part of cooled pool walls are examined for square and semicircular cavities. Calculations are performed also to explore limitations of using side-wall heating and direct electrical heating in reproducing the physical picture of interest. Needs for further experimental and analytical efforts are discussed as well.

  7. [sup 60]Co, [sup 63]Ni and [sup 94]Nb soil-to-plant transfer in pot experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerzabek, M.H.; Mohamad, S.A.; Mueck, K.; Horak, O. (Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences)

    1994-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factors for [sup 60]Co, [sup 63]Ni and [sup 94]Nb were obtained via pot experiments with a Dystric Cambisol and a Calcic Chernozem, both from Lower Austria. Investigated plants were greenrape (Brassica napus oleifera L.), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The soil-to-plant transfer factors decreased from [sup 63]Ni to [sup 60]Co and [sup 94]Nb. Mean values from all experiments ranged from 1.12 ([sup 63]Ni) to 0.0045 ([sup 94]Nb). The transfer values obtained for [sup 60]Co and [sup 63]Ni are comparable to literature values, but [sup 94]Nb-transfer seems to be lower than previous estimates. All radionuclides showed differences between plant species and plant organs. Transfer values were also dependent on the soil type. (author).

  8. Advances in shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robey, H F; Celliers, P M; Moody, J D; Sater, J; Parham, T; Kozioziemski, B; Dylla- Spears, R; Ross, J S; LePape, S; Ralph, J E; Hohenberger, M; Dewald, E L; Berzak Hopkins, L; Kroll, J J; Yoxall, B E; Hamza, A V; Landen, O L; Edwards, M J; Boehly, T R; Nikroo, A

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique. (paper)

  9. Advances in shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Ross, J. S.; LePape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Hohenberger, M.; Dewald, E. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in shock timing experiments and analysis techniques now enable shock measurements to be performed in cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layered capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Previous measurements of shock timing in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions were performed in surrogate targets, where the solid DT ice shell and central DT gas were replaced with a continuous liquid deuterium (D2) fill. These previous experiments pose two surrogacy issues: a material surrogacy due to the difference of species (D2 vs. DT) and densities of the materials used and a geometric surrogacy due to presence of an additional interface (ice/gas) previously absent in the liquid-filled targets. This report presents experimental data and a new analysis method for validating the assumptions underlying this surrogate technique.

  10. Main real time software for high-energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    The general problems of organization of software complexes, as well as development of typical algorithms and packages of applied programs for real time systems used in experiments with charged particle accelerators are discussed. It is noted that numerous qualitatively different real time tasks are solved by parallel programming of the processes of data acquisition, equipment control, data exchange with remote terminals, data express processing and accumulation, operator's instruction interpretation, generation and buffering of resulting files for data output and information processing which is realized on the basis of multicomputer system utilization. Further development of software for experiments is associated with improving the algorithms for automatic recognition and analysis of events with complex topology and standardization of applied program packages

  11. Time of flight measurement on the SOFIA experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bail, A.; Taieb, J.; Chatillon, A.; Belier, G.; Laurent, B.; Pellereau, E.

    2011-01-01

    The SOFIA experiment, which will be held at GSI (Darmstadt (Germany)) will allow to completely determine the mass and charge numbers of fragments produced in the fission reaction of radioactive actinides in reverse kinematics. Therefore, a dedicated setup has been developed for the Time of Flight measurement of relativistic heavy ions. The studies, which led to the choice of the adequate plastic scintillators and photomultipliers, are presented. Tests have been undertaken with the ELSA laser and electron beam facility. They shown that a suitable choice would be EJ-232 plastic scintillator for the ToF wall and EJ-232Q for the start detector and Hamamatsu H6533 and H10580 photomultipliers. This was confirmed by two test experiments realized at GSI with relativistic heavy ion beam ( 56 Fe and 238 U), where a time of flight resolution better than 20 ps FWHM was reached. (authors)

  12. Time of flight measurement on the SOFIA experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bail, A.; Taieb, J.; Chatillon, A.; Belier, G.; Laurent, B.; Pellereau, E. [CEA/DAM/DIF, Arpajon (France)

    2011-07-01

    The SOFIA experiment, which will be held at GSI (Darmstadt (Germany)) will allow to completely determine the mass and charge numbers of fragments produced in the fission reaction of radioactive actinides in reverse kinematics. Therefore, a dedicated setup has been developed for the Time of Flight measurement of relativistic heavy ions. The studies, which led to the choice of the adequate plastic scintillators and photomultipliers, are presented. Tests have been undertaken with the ELSA laser and electron beam facility. They shown that a suitable choice would be EJ-232 plastic scintillator for the ToF wall and EJ-232Q for the start detector and Hamamatsu H6533 and H10580 photomultipliers. This was confirmed by two test experiments realized at GSI with relativistic heavy ion beam ({sup 56}Fe and {sup 238}U), where a time of flight resolution better than 20 ps FWHM was reached. (authors)

  13. Art in time and space: context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieber, David; Nadal, Marcos; Leder, Helmut; Rosenberg, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The experience of art emerges from the interaction of various cognitive and affective processes. The unfolding of these processes in time and their relation with viewing behavior, however, is still poorly understood. Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior. Two groups of participants viewed an art exhibition in one of two contexts: one in the museum, the other in the laboratory. In both cases viewing time was recorded with a mobile eye tracking system. After freely viewing the exhibition, participants rated each artwork on liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity scales. Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory. Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels. The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context. Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

  14. Waiting for Art: The Experience of Real Time in Sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Buhe

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Why and how does some contemporary art make us wait, and why does the beholder choose to stay? This study seeks to answer this question by exploring what happens to the viewer while waiting in front of a “time sculpture,” a term coined here to mean a three-dimensional artwork that is dynamic over a set period of time. Through an analysis of select works by artists Anish Kapoor, Amelia Whitelaw, Michael Sailstorfer, and Roman Signer, the article posits that while in front of these time sculptures, the viewer experiences an anxiety of waiting and temporal confusion that glues him to the spot. Ultimately, by drawing upon Henri Bergson’s concept of duration, the essay suggests that the viewership of time sculpture allows for a heightened state of perception. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  15. Potentiality of an orbiting interferometer for space-time experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi Strini, A.M.; Strini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.

    1979-01-01

    It is suggested that by putting a Michelson interferometer aboard a spacecraft orbiting around the earth, very substantial progress could be made in space-time experiments. It is estimated that in measurements of e.g. some anisotropy of the light velocity, a spacecraft-borne interferometer of quite small size (0.1 m arm-length) would reach a sensitivity greater by a factor of approximately 10 8 than the best achievements to date of ground-based devices. (author)

  16. Real-time observation of intersystem crossing induced by charge recombination during bimolecular electron transfer reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Alsam, Amani Abdu

    2016-09-21

    Real-time probing of intersystem crossing (ISC) and triplet-state formation after photoinduced electron transfer (ET) is a particularly challenging task that can be achieved by time-resolved spectroscopy with broadband capability. Here, we examine the mechanism of charge separation (CS), charge recombination (CR) and ISC of bimolecular photoinduced electron transfer (PET) between poly[(9,9-di(3,3′-N,N’-trimethyl-ammonium) propyl fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-co-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorenyl-2,7-diyl)] diiodide salt (PFN) and dicyanobenzene (DCB) using time-resolved spectroscopy. PET from PFN to DCB is confirmed by monitoring the transient absorption (TA) and infrared spectroscopic signatures for the radical ion pair (DCB─•-PFN+•). In addition, our time-resolved results clearly demonstrate that CS takes place within picoseconds followed by CR within nanoseconds. The ns-TA data exhibit the clear spectroscopic signature of PFN triplet-triplet absorption, induced by the CR of the radical ion pairs (DCB─•-PFN+•). As a result, the triplet state of PFN (3PFN*) forms and subsequently, the ground singlet state is replenished within microseconds. © 2016

  17. Cs-137 soil to plant transfer factors derived from pot experiments and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, O.; Gerzabek, M.H.; Mueck, K.

    1989-11-01

    Soil to plant transfer factors (TF) of 137 Cs for different crop plants were determined in pot experiments, in outdoor experiments with plastic containers of 50 l volume, and in field studies. In all cases the soil contamination with 137 Cs resulted from fallout after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Mean TF derived for outdoor plants on a fresh weight basis, ranged from 0,0017 (leaf vegetables) to 0,059 (rye straw) and showed characteristic differences depending on plant part and species. Generally, for fruits and potato tubers a lower TF was found than for vegetative plant parts. Moreover, the data were compared with those from former experiments, carried out before the Chernobyl accident. There is a good agreement for cereals (with exception of rye) fruit vegetables and fodder crops, while actual TF are substantially lower for potatoes, leaf and root vegetables, but higher for rye. A significant negative correlation was observed between the TF and the soil activity concentrations for 137 Cs. In container experiments the TF were found to be influenced mainly by the clay content of the soil. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (Authors)

  18. General relativistic radiative transfer code in rotating black hole space-time: ARTIST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Rohta; Umemura, Masayuki

    2017-02-01

    We present a general relativistic radiative transfer code, ARTIST (Authentic Radiative Transfer In Space-Time), that is a perfectly causal scheme to pursue the propagation of radiation with absorption and scattering around a Kerr black hole. The code explicitly solves the invariant radiation intensity along null geodesics in the Kerr-Schild coordinates, and therefore properly includes light bending, Doppler boosting, frame dragging, and gravitational redshifts. The notable aspect of ARTIST is that it conserves the radiative energy with high accuracy, and is not subject to the numerical diffusion, since the transfer is solved on long characteristics along null geodesics. We first solve the wavefront propagation around a Kerr black hole that was originally explored by Hanni. This demonstrates repeated wavefront collisions, light bending, and causal propagation of radiation with the speed of light. We show that the decay rate of the total energy of wavefronts near a black hole is determined solely by the black hole spin in late phases, in agreement with analytic expectations. As a result, the ARTIST turns out to correctly solve the general relativistic radiation fields until late phases as t ˜ 90 M. We also explore the effects of absorption and scattering, and apply this code for a photon wall problem and an orbiting hotspot problem. All the simulations in this study are performed in the equatorial plane around a Kerr black hole. The ARTIST is the first step to realize the general relativistic radiation hydrodynamics.

  19. Difference in peak weight transfer and timing based on golf handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Robin M; Butler, Robert J; Dai, Boyi; Barnes, C Lowry

    2013-09-01

    Weight shift during the golf swing has been a topic of discussion among golf professionals; however, it is still unclear how weight shift varies in golfers of different performance levels. The main purpose of this study was to examine the following: (a) the changes in the peak ground reaction forces (GRF) and the timing of these events between high (HHCP) and low handicap (LHCP) golfers and (b) the differences between the leading and trailing legs. Twenty-eight male golfers were recruited and divided based on having an LHCP 9. Three-dimensional GRF peaks and the timing of the peaks were recorded bilaterally during a golf swing. The golf swing was divided into different phases: (a) address to the top of the backswing, (b) top of the backswing to ball contact, and (c) ball contact to the end of follow through. Repeated measures analyses of variance (α = 0.05) were completed for each study variable: the magnitude and the timing of peak vertical GRF, peak lateral GRF, and peak medial GRF (α = 0.05). The LHCP group had a greater transfer of vertical force from the trailing foot to the leading foot in phase 2 than the HHCP group. The LHCP group also demonstrated earlier timing of peak vertical force throughout the golf swing than the HHCP group. The LHCP and HHCP groups demonstrated different magnitudes of peak lateral force. The LHCP group had an earlier timing of peak lateral GRF in phase 2 and earlier timing of peak medial GRF in phases 1 and 2 than the HHCP group. In general, LHCP golfers demonstrated greater and earlier force generation than HHCP golfers. It may be relevant to consider both the magnitude of the forces and the timing of these events during golf-specific training to improve performance. These data reveal weight shifting differences that can be addressed by teaching professionals to help their students better understand weight transfer during the golf swing to optimize performance.

  20. Time resolved investigations on biogenic trace gases exchanges using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl, T.

    2000-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from vegetation, including wound-induced VOCs, can have important effects on atmospheric chemistry. The analytical methods for measuring wound-induced VOCs, especially the hexenal family of VOCs (hexenals, hexenols and hexenyl esters) but also compounds like acetaldehyde, are complicated by their chemical instability and the transient nature of their formation after leaf and stem wounding. The goal of this thesis was to assess, quantify and complement our understanding on the origin of tropospheric VOCs. This thesis demonstrates that formation and emission of hexenal family compounds can be monitored on-line using proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), avoiding the need for preconcentration or chromatography. These measurements revealed the rapid emission of the parent compound, (Z)-3-hexenal, within 1-2 seconds of wounding of leaves from various woody and nonwoody plants, and its metabolites including (E)-2-hexenal, hexenols and hexenyl acetates. Emission of (Z)-3-hexenal from detached, drying leaves averaged 500 μg (gram dry weight)-1. PTR-MS showed to be a useful tool for the analysis of VOC emissions resulting from grazing, herbivory, harvesting and senescing leaves. The release of reactive VOCs during lawn mowing was observed in on-line ambient air measurements in July and August 1998 in the outskirts of Innsbruck. Also obtained were data on emission rates of reactive aldehydes (hexenyl compounds) and other abundant VOCs such as methanol, acetaldehyde and acetone from drying grass in various chamber experiments. Fluxes were measured after cutting of grass using eddy covariance measurements and the micrometeorological gradient method (Obhukov-Similarity-Method). Comparison of data obtained by these different methods showed satisfactory agreement. The highest fluxes for methanol during drying were 5 mg/m2h, for (Z)-3-hexenal 1.5 mg/m2h. Experiments conducted on the Sonnblick Observatory in Fall and Winter

  1. Household production and consumption over the life cycle: National Time Transfer Accounts in 14 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Vargha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: While the importance of unpaid household labour is recognised in total economic output, little is known about the demographics of household production and consumption. Objective: Our goal is to give a comprehensive estimation on the value of household production and its consumption by age and gender and analyse nonmarket economic transfers in 14 European countries based on publicly available harmonised data. Methods: We introduce a novel imputation method of harmonised European time use (HETUS data to the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC in order to assign time spent on home production to consumers in households and estimate time transfers. Moreover, monetary values are attributed to household production activities using data on earnings from the Structure of Earnings Survey (SES. Results: We show that the nonmarket economic life cycle of men differs from that of women. The gender gap in household production is not evenly distributed over the life cycle. Women of working age contribute the most in net terms, while the main beneficiaries of household goods and services are children and to a lesser extent adult men. These patterns are similar across countries, with variations in the gender- and age-specific levels of home production and consumption. Conclusions: In Europe, in the national economy, intergenerational flows are important in sustaining both childhood and old age. In contrast, in the household economy, intergenerational transfers flow mostly towards children. Contribution: We add a new focus to the research on household production: While keeping the gender aspect, we demonstrate the importance of the life cycle component in household production.

  2. Migrants and Their Experiences of Time: Edward T. Hall Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Schilling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we reassess the scientific heritage of Edward T. HALL and his contribution to the area of intercultural communication. The key objectives of our study are to demonstrate the applicability of HALL's theory of culture to empirical research and to establish its compatibility with other methods. Specifically, we propose that Alfred SCHÜTZ's phenomenology of sociality be taken as an extension to HALL. The connection between HALL and SCHÜTZ is made possible by the mutual emphases on the temporal dimension of culture and the temporal aspects of migration. With these foci we analyze six narratives by two groups of migrants: German and Russian. By combining HALL's theory of the cultural time with SCHÜTZ's phenomenological perspective on time and the Other and then applying them to empirical data, we show the terms in which different cultures experience time. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901357

  3. Subjective Experiences of Space and Time: Self, Sensation, and Phenomenal Time

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Lakhan Pandey Vimal

    2008-01-01

    The investigation of subjective experiences (SEs) of space and time is at the core of consciousness research. The term ‘space’ includes the subject and objects. The SE of subject, I-ness, is defined as ‘Self’. The SEs of objects, subject’s external body, and subject’s internal states such as feelings, thoughts, and so on can be investigated using the proto-experience (PE)-SE framework. The SE of time is defined as ‘phenomenal time’ (...

  4. A Qualitative Study of Multidisciplinary Providers' Experiences With the Transfer Process for Injured Children and Ideas for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawel, Marcie; Emerson, Beth; Giuliano, John S; Rosenberg, Alana; Minges, Karl E; Feder, Shelli; Violano, Pina; Morrell, Patricia; Petersen, Judy; Christison-Lagay, Emily; Auerbach, Marc

    2018-02-01

    Most injured children initially present to a community hospital, and many will require transfer to a regional pediatric trauma center. The purpose of this study was 1) to explore multidisciplinary providers' experiences with the process of transferring injured children and 2) to describe proposed ideas for process improvement. This qualitative study involved 26 semistructured interviews. Subjects were recruited from 6 community hospital emergency departments and the trauma and transport teams of a level I pediatric trauma center in New Haven, Conn. Participants (n = 34) included interprofessional providers from sending facilities, transport teams, and receiving facilities. Using the constant comparative method, a multidisciplinary team coded transcripts and collectively refined codes to generate recurrent themes across interviews until theoretical saturation was achieved. Participants reported that the transfer process for injured children is complex, stressful, and necessitates collaboration. The transfer process was perceived to involve numerous interrelated components, including professions, disciplines, and institutions. The 5 themes identified as areas to improve this transfer process included 1) Creation of a unified standard operating procedure that crosses institutions/teams, 2) Enhancing 'shared sense making' of all providers, 3) Improving provider confidence, expertise, and skills in caring for pediatric trauma transfer cases, 4) Addressing organization and environmental factors that may impede/delay transfer, and 5) Fostering institutional and personal relationships. Efforts to improve the transfer process for injured children should be guided by the experiences of and input from multidisciplinary frontline emergency providers.

  5. Exciplex formation in bimolecular photoinduced electron-transfer investigated by ultrafast time-resolved infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marius; Letrun, Romain; Vauthey, Eric

    2014-03-12

    The dynamics of bimolecular photoinduced electron-transfer reactions has been investigated with three donor/acceptor (D/A) pairs in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and acetonitrile (ACN) using a combination of ultrafast spectroscopic techniques, including time-resolved infrared absorption. For the D/A pairs with the highest driving force of electron transfer, all transient spectroscopic features can be unambiguously assigned to the excited reactant and the ionic products. For the pair with the lowest driving force, three additional transient infrared bands, more intense in THF than in ACN, with a time dependence that differs from those of the other bands are observed. From their frequency and solvent dependence, these bands can be assigned to an exciplex. Moreover, polarization-resolved measurements point to a relatively well-defined mutual orientation of the constituents and to a slower reorientational time compared to those of the individual reactants. Thanks to the minimal overlap of the infrared signature of all transient species in THF, a detailed reaction scheme including the relevant kinetic and thermodynamic parameters could be deduced for this pair. This analysis reveals that the formation and recombination of the ion pair occur almost exclusively via the exciplex.

  6. Relativistic algorithm for time transfer in Mars missions under IAU Resolutions: an analytic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jun-Yang; Xie Yi

    2015-01-01

    With tremendous advances in modern techniques, Einstein's general relativity has become an inevitable part of deep space missions. We investigate the relativistic algorithm for time transfer between the proper time τ of the onboard clock and the Geocentric Coordinate Time, which extends some previous works by including the effects of propagation of electromagnetic signals. In order to evaluate the implicit algebraic equations and integrals in the model, we take an analytic approach to work out their approximate values. This analytic model might be used in an onboard computer because of its limited capability to perform calculations. Taking an orbiter like Yinghuo-1 as an example, we find that the contributions of the Sun, the ground station and the spacecraft dominate the outcomes of the relativistic corrections to the model. (research papers)

  7. Smart Wireless Power Transfer Operated by Time-Modulated Arrays via a Two-Step Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Masotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a novel method for agile and precise wireless power transmission operated by a time-modulated array. The unique, almost real-time reconfiguration capability of these arrays is fully exploited by a two-step procedure: first, a two-element time-modulated subarray is used for localization of tagged sensors to be energized; the entire 16-element TMA then provides the power to the detected tags, by exploiting the fundamental and first-sideband harmonic radiation. An investigation on the best array architecture is carried out, showing the importance of the adopted nonlinear/full-wave computer-aided-design platform. Very promising simulated energy transfer performance of the entire nonlinear radiating system is demonstrated.

  8. [Part-time medical specialist training; experiences with job-sharing for trainee internists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, K; Nauta, S; Stuyt, P M

    2004-02-14

    Due to various factors such as social changes, an increasing number of couples with two incomes, and a growing proportion of female doctors, there has been a growing demand for part-time work in recent years. This is also true for resident physicians. Objections such as a discontinuity in care and the decline in the quality of education frequently prevent resident physicians from working part-time. Over the past two years, the University Medical Centre Nijmegen, the Netherlands, has experimented with job-sharing on clinical wards for resident physicians in internal medicine. This approach works well in practice, as long as a number of conditions, including the proper transfer of medical information and good communication, are satisfied. Job-sharing is one means of satisfying the growing demand for part-time work among resident physicians and specialists.

  9. Shock timing on the National Ignition Facility: First experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celliers P.M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental campaign to tune the initial shock compression sequence of capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF was initiated in late 2010. The experiments use a NIF ignition-scale hohlraum and capsule that employs a re-entrant cone to provide optical access to the shocks as they propagate in the liquid deuterium-filled capsule interior. The strength and timing of the shock sequence is diagnosed with velocity interferometry that provides target performance data used to set the pulse shape for ignition capsule implosions that follow. From the start, these measurements yielded significant new information on target performance, leading to improvements in the target design. We describe the results and interpretation of the initial tuning experiments.

  10. Shock timing on the National Ignition Facility: First Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celliers, P.M.; Robey, H.F.; Boehly, T.R.; Alger, E.; Azevedo, S.; Berzins, L.V.; Bhandarkar, S.D.; Bowers, M.W.; Brereton, S.J.; Callahan, D.; Castro, C.; Chandrasekaran, H.; Choate, C.; Clark, D.; Coffee, K.R.; Datte, P.S.; Dewald, E.L.; DiNicola, P.; Dixit, S.; Doeppner, T.; Dzenitis, E.; Edwards, M.J.; Eggert, J.H.; Fair, J.; Farley, D.R.; Frieders, G.; Gibson, C.R.; Giraldez, E.; Haan, S.; Haid, B.; Hamza, A.V.; Haynam, C.; Hicks, D.G.; Holunga, D.M.; Horner, J.B.; Jancaitis, K.; Jones, O.S.; Kalantar, D.; Kline, J.L.; Krauter, K.G.; Kroll, J.J.; LaFortune, K.N.; Pape, S.L.; Malsbury, T.; Maypoles, E.R.; Milovich, J.L.; Moody, J.D.; Moreno, K.; Munro, D.H.; Nikroo, A.; Olson, R.E.; Parham, T.; Pollaine, S.; Radousky, H.B.; Ross, G.F.; Sater, J.; Schneider, M.B.; Shaw, M.; Smith, R.F.; Thomas, C.A.; Throop, A.; Town, R.J.; Trummer, D.; Van Wonterghem, B.M.; Walters, C.F.; Widmann, K.; Widmayer, C.; Young, B.K.; Atherton, L.J.; Collins, G.W.; Landen, O.L.; Lindl, J.D.; MacGowan, B.J.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Moses, E.I.

    2011-01-01

    An experimental campaign to tune the initial shock compression sequence of capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) was initiated in late 2010. The experiments use a NIF ignition-scale hohlraum and capsule that employs a reentrant cone to provide optical access to the shocks as they propagate in the liquid deuterium-filled capsule interior. The strength and timing of the shock sequence is diagnosed with velocity interferometry that provides target performance data used to set the pulse shape for ignition capsule implosions that follow. From the start, these measurements yielded significant new information on target performance, leading to improvements in the target design. We describe the results and interpretation of the initial tuning experiments.

  11. First time mothers' experiences of breastfeeding their newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Hanne; Harder, Ingegerd; Hall, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite efforts to improve continued breastfeeding, the percentages of exclusively breastfeeding remain low. To help the breastfeeding mother and reshape professional practice, we need more knowledge of maternal experiences of breastfeeding in the first months. The objective...... was to explore mothers' early breastfeeding experiences. Method Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse data from 108 Danish first time mothers who had answered an open-ended question 6 months after birth. Results All the mothers started breastfeeding. We identified three overlapping phases presented...... as dominant themes: (1) on shaky ground, characterised by breastfeeding interwoven with mothering, painful breastfeeding, and conflicting advice, (2) searching for a foothold, characterised by reading the baby's cues, concerns about milk production, for or against breastfeeding, and looking for professional...

  12. Modelling of atmospheric mid-infrared radiative transfer: the AMIL2DA algorithm intercomparison experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarmann, T. von; Hoepfner, M.; Funke, B.; Lopez-Puertas, M.; Dudhia, A.; Jay, V.; Schreier, F.; Ridolfi, M.; Ceccherini, S.; Kerridge, B.J.; Reburn, J.; Siddans, R.

    2003-01-01

    When retrieving atmospheric parameters from radiance spectra, the forward modelling of radiative transfer through the Earth's atmosphere plays a key role, since inappropriate modelling directly maps on to the retrieved state parameters. In the context of pre-launch activities of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) experiment, which is a high resolution limb emission sounder for measurement of atmospheric composition and temperature, five scientific groups intercompared their forward models within the framework of the Advanced MIPAS Level 2 Data Analysis (AMIL2DA) project. These forward models have been developed, or, in certain respects, adapted in order to be used as part of the groups' MIPAS data processing. The following functionalities have been assessed: the calculation of line strengths including non-local thermodynamic equilibrium, the evaluation of the spectral line shape, application of chi-factors and semi-empirical continua, the interpolation of pre-tabulated absorption cross sections in pressure and temperature, line coupling, atmospheric ray tracing, the integration of the radiative transfer equation through an inhomogeneous atmosphere, the convolution of monochromatic spectra with an instrument line shape function, and the integration of the incoming radiances over the instrument field of view

  13. NACOWA experiments on LMFBR cover gas aerosols, heat transfer, and fission product enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minges, J.; Schuetz, W.

    1993-12-01

    Fifteen different NACOWA test series were carried out. The following items were investigated: sodium mass concentration in the cover gas, sodium aerosol particle size, radiative heat transfer across the cover gas, total heat transfer across the cover gas, sodium deposition on the cover plate, temperature profiles across the cover gas, phenomena if the argon cover gas is replaced by helium, enrichment of cesium, iodine, and zinc in the aerosol and in the deposits. The conditions were mainly related to the design parameters of the EFR. According to the first consistent design, a pool temperature of 545 C and a roof temperature of only 120 C were foreseen at a cover gas height of 85 cm. The experiments were carried out in a stainless steel test vessel of 0.6 m diameter and 1.14 m height. Pool temperature (up to 545 C), cover gas height (12.5 cm, 33 cm, and others), and roof temperature (from 110 C to 450 C) were the main parameters. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Mass transfer experiments for the heat load during in-vessel retention of core melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hae Kyun; Chung, Bum Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We investigated the heat load imposed on the lower head of a reactor vessel by the natural convection of the oxide pool in a severe accident. Mass transfer experiments using a CuSO{sub 4}–H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electroplating system were performed based on the analogy between heat and mass transfer. The Ra′{sub H} of 10{sup 14} order was achieved with a facility height of only 0.1 m. Three different volumetric heat sources were compared; two had identical configurations to those previously reported, and the other was designed by the authors. The measured Nu's of the lower head were about 30% lower than those previously reported. The measured angular heat flux ratios were similar to those reported in existing studies except for the peaks appearing near the top. The volumetric heat sources did not affect the Nu of the lower head but affected the Nu of the top plate by obstructing the rising flow from the bottom.

  15. Innovation and knowledge transference in a cluster user-driven innovation perspective – the Inovcluster experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Paiva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Our purpose with this article is to show the importance of assessing trends and promoting innovation in a real business context, through a cluster ecosystem, mainly composed of micro-enterprises in the agro-industrial Portuguese sector.As many studies show, Inovcluster (which has 158 associates, from which 120 are enterprises is also a geographic region cluster, which improves innovation performance of businesses seeking to gain competitiveness and ability to improve their exportations in the agro-industrial Portuguese sector.The role of the cluster is fundamental to creating a model for knowledge transfer of innovation capacity, interconnecting its institutional, scientific and business associates. This model has to be adapted to the sector and enterprise characteristics, relying in an interconnecting structure which is more or less decentralized according to the mentioned features. Here we present an experience and case study of the Inovcluster ecosystem and its trends and innovation transfer to business value creation, contextualized within the regional strategy for smart specialization.We have shown how, through the establishment of an Inovcluster network, it is possible to integrate the contribution of different research and academic centres, channelled to assist micro-enterprises by innovating within a geographical constraint.

  16. Decision dynamics of departure times: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Han, Xiao; Bao, Jian-Zhang; Jiang, Rui; Jia, Bin; Yan, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Boyu; Wang, Wen-Xu; Gao, Zi-You

    2017-10-01

    A fundamental problem in traffic science is to understand user-choice behaviors that account for the emergence of complex traffic phenomena. Despite much effort devoted to theoretically exploring departure time choice behaviors, relatively large-scale and systematic experimental tests of theoretical predictions are still lacking. In this paper, we aim to offer a more comprehensive understanding of departure time choice behaviors in terms of a series of laboratory experiments under different traffic conditions and feedback information provided to commuters. In the experiment, the number of recruited players is much larger than the number of choices to better mimic the real scenario, in which a large number of commuters will depart simultaneously in a relatively small time window. Sufficient numbers of rounds are conducted to ensure the convergence of collective behavior. Experimental results demonstrate that collective behavior is close to the user equilibrium, regardless of different scales and traffic conditions. Moreover, the amount of feedback information has a negligible influence on collective behavior but has a relatively stronger effect on individual choice behaviors. Reinforcement learning and Fermi learning models are built to reproduce the experimental results and uncover the underlying mechanism. Simulation results are in good agreement with the experimentally observed collective behaviors.

  17. Cavity Resonator Wireless Power Transfer System for Freely Moving Animal Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Henry; Thackston, Kyle A; Bercich, Rebecca A; Jefferys, John G R; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this paper is to create a large wireless powering arena for powering small devices implanted in freely behaving rodents. We design a cavity resonator based wireless power transfer (WPT) system and utilize our previously developed optimal impedance matching methodology to achieve effective WPT performance for operating sophisticated implantable devices, made with miniature receive coils (powering fidelity of 93.53% over nine recording sessions across nine weeks, indicating nearly continuous device operation for a freely behaving rat within the large cavity resonator space. We have developed and demonstrated a cavity resonator based WPT system for long term experiments involving freely behaving small animals. This cavity resonator based WPT system offers an effective and simple method for wirelessly powering miniaturized devices implanted in freely moving small animals within the largest space.

  18. Radioactive beam EXperiments at ISOLDE : Coulomb excitation and neutron transfer reactions of exotic nuclei.

    CERN Multimedia

    Kugler, E; Ratzinger, U; Wenander, F J C

    2002-01-01

    % IS347 \\\\ \\\\We propose to perform a pilot experiment to study very neutron rich (A<32) Na-Mg and (A<52) K-Ca isotopes in the region around the neutron shell closures of N=20 and N=28 after Coulomb excitation and neutron transfer, and to demonstrate highly efficient and cost-effective ways to bunch, charge-state breed and accelerate already existing mass-separated singly-charged radioactive ion beams. \\\\ \\\\To do this we plan to accelerate the ISOLDE beams up to 2~MeV/u by means of a novel acceleration scheme and to install an efficient $\\gamma$-ray array for low-multiplicity events around the target position.

  19. Beam Transfer Line Design for a Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Brethoux, D; Clerc, V; Goddard, B; Gschwendtner, E; Jensen, L K; Kosmicki, A; Le Godec, G; Meddahi, M; Muggli, P; Mutin, C; Osborne, O; Papastergiou, K; Pardons, A; Velotti, F M; Vincke, H

    2013-01-01

    The world’s first proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration experiment (AWAKE) is presently being studied at CERN. The experimentwill use a high energy proton beam extracted from the SPS as driver. Two possible locations for installing the AWAKE facility were considered: the West Area and the CNGS beam line. The previous transfer line from the SPS to the West Area was completely dismantled in 2005 and would need to be fully re-designed and re-built. For this option, geometric constraints for radiation protection reasons would limit the maximum proton beam energy to 300 GeV. The existing CNGS line could be used by applying only minor changes to the lattice for the final focusing and the interface between the proton beam and the laser, required for plasma ionisation and bunch-modulation seeding. The beam line design studies performed for the two options are presented.

  20. Proposal for probing energy transfer pathway by single-molecule pump-dump experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ming-Jie; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo; Cheng, Yuan-Chung

    2016-06-01

    The structure of Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) light-harvesting complex had long been recognized as containing seven bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) molecules. Recently, an additional BChl molecule was discovered in the crystal structure of the FMO complex, which may serve as a link between baseplate and the remaining seven molecules. Here, we investigate excitation energy transfer (EET) process by simulating single-molecule pump-dump experiment in the eight-molecules complex. We adopt the coherent modified Redfield theory and non-Markovian quantum jump method to simulate EET dynamics. This scheme provides a practical approach of detecting the realistic EET pathway in BChl complexes with currently available experimental technology. And it may assist optimizing design of artificial light-harvesting devices.

  1. Hydrogen transfer experiments and modelization in clay rocks for radioactive waste deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulin, P.

    2008-10-01

    Gases will be generated by corrosion of high radioactive waste containers in deep geological repositories. A gas phase will be generated. Gas pressure will build up and penetrated the geological formation. If gases do not penetrate the geological barrier efficiently, the pressure build up may create a risk of fracturing and of creation of preferential pathways for radionuclide migration. The present work focuses on Callovo-Oxfordian argillites characterisation. An experiment, designed to measure very low permeabilities, was used with hydrogen/helium and analysed using the Dusty Gas Model. Argillites close to saturation have an accessible porosity to gas transfer that is lower than 0,1% to 1% of the porosity. Analysis of the Knudsen effect suggests that this accessible network should be made of 50 nm to 200 nm diameter pores. The permeabilities values were integrated to an ANDRA operating model. The model showed that the maximum pressure expected near the repository would be 83 bar. (author)

  2. Statistical aspects of quantitative real-time PCR experiment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Robert R; Kubista, Mikael; Tichopad, Ales

    2010-04-01

    Experiments using quantitative real-time PCR to test hypotheses are limited by technical and biological variability; we seek to minimise sources of confounding variability through optimum use of biological and technical replicates. The quality of an experiment design is commonly assessed by calculating its prospective power. Such calculations rely on knowledge of the expected variances of the measurements of each group of samples and the magnitude of the treatment effect; the estimation of which is often uninformed and unreliable. Here we introduce a method that exploits a small pilot study to estimate the biological and technical variances in order to improve the design of a subsequent large experiment. We measure the variance contributions at several 'levels' of the experiment design and provide a means of using this information to predict both the total variance and the prospective power of the assay. A validation of the method is provided through a variance analysis of representative genes in several bovine tissue-types. We also discuss the effect of normalisation to a reference gene in terms of the measured variance components of the gene of interest. Finally, we describe a software implementation of these methods, powerNest, that gives the user the opportunity to input data from a pilot study and interactively modify the design of the assay. The software automatically calculates expected variances, statistical power, and optimal design of the larger experiment. powerNest enables the researcher to minimise the total confounding variance and maximise prospective power for a specified maximum cost for the large study. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ultrafast time-resolved carotenoid to-bacteriochlorophyll energy transfer in LH2 complexes from photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Hong; Niedzwiedzki, Dariusz M; Gibson, George N; LaFountain, Amy M; Kelsh, Rhiannon M; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Frank, Harry A

    2008-08-28

    Steady-state and ultrafast time-resolved optical spectroscopic investigations have been carried out at 293 and 10 K on LH2 pigment-protein complexes isolated from three different strains of photosynthetic bacteria: Rhodobacter (Rb.) sphaeroides G1C, Rb. sphaeroides 2.4.1 (anaerobically and aerobically grown), and Rps. acidophila 10050. The LH2 complexes obtained from these strains contain the carotenoids, neurosporene, spheroidene, spheroidenone, and rhodopin glucoside, respectively. These molecules have a systematically increasing number of pi-electron conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds. Steady-state absorption and fluorescence excitation experiments have revealed that the total efficiency of energy transfer from the carotenoids to bacteriochlorophyll is independent of temperature and nearly constant at approximately 90% for the LH2 complexes containing neurosporene, spheroidene, spheroidenone, but drops to approximately 53% for the complex containing rhodopin glucoside. Ultrafast transient absorption spectra in the near-infrared (NIR) region of the purified carotenoids in solution have revealed the energies of the S1 (2(1)Ag-)-->S2 (1(1)Bu+) excited-state transitions which, when subtracted from the energies of the S0 (1(1)Ag-)-->S2 (1(1)Bu+) transitions determined by steady-state absorption measurements, give precise values for the positions of the S1 (2(1)Ag-) states of the carotenoids. Global fitting of the ultrafast spectral and temporal data sets have revealed the dynamics of the pathways of de-excitation of the carotenoid excited states. The pathways include energy transfer to bacteriochlorophyll, population of the so-called S* state of the carotenoids, and formation of carotenoid radical cations (Car*+). The investigation has found that excitation energy transfer to bacteriochlorophyll is partitioned through the S1 (1(1)Ag-), S2 (1(1)Bu+), and S* states of the different carotenoids to varying degrees. This is understood through a consideration of the

  4. Development of real time detector for fluorescent particles applied to pollutant transfers characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevost, C.

    1996-06-01

    The studies on aerosol transfer carried out in the field of staff protection and nuclear plants safety become more and more important. So techniques of pollutants simulation by specific tracers with the same aeraulic behaviour are an interesting tool in order to characterize their transfers. Resorting to aerosols tagged by a fluorescent dye allows to realize different studies in ventilation and filtration field. The feasibility of detection in real time for a particulate tracer is the main aim of this work. The need of such a technique is obvious because it can provide the specific aerosol behaviour. Furthermore, direct measurements in real time are required for model validation in calculation codes: they give the most realistic informations on interaction between contaminant and ventilation air flows. Up to now, the principle of fluorescent aerosol concentration measurement allows only an integral response in a delayed time, by means of sampling on filters and a fluorimetric analysis after a specific conditioning of these filters. In order to have the opportunity to detect in real time specific tracer, we have developed a new monitor able to count these particles on the following basis: fluorescent particles pass through a sampling nozzle up to a measurement chamber specially designed; sheath flow rate is defined to confine the test aerosol in the test aerosol in the sample flow rate at nozzle outlet; the interception of this stream by a highly focused laser beam allows aerosol detection and characterization particle by particle; the signature of a passing aerosol is the burst of photons that occurs when the fluoro-phore contained in the glycerol particle is excited by a light of adapted wavelength; these signals are transmitted to a photodetector by a patented optical arrangement. Then, an acquisition interfaced board connected to a computer, converts them into frequencies histograms. In the end, two kind of results could be provided simultaneously : the

  5. Debris and pool formation/heat transfer in FARO-LWR: experiments and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magallon, D.; Annunziato, A.; Corradini, M.

    1999-01-01

    The FARO-LWR experiments examine the debris and pool formation from a pour of core melt materials (UO 2 /ZrO 2 and UO 2 /ZrO 2 /Zr) into a pool of water at prototypic accident conditions. The experiments give unique data on the debris bed initial conditions, morphology and heat transfer after the core melt has slump and (partly) quenched into the water of the lower head. Quantities of up to 170 kg of corium melt are poured by gravity into water of depth between 1 and 2 m through a nozzle of diameter 0.1 m at different system pressures. The debris is collected in a flat bottom catcher of diameter 0.66 m. It reaches heights up to 0.2 m depending on the melt quantity. In general, the melt reaches the bottom only partially fragmented. The debris which forms consists of a conglomerate ('cake') in contact with the collecting structure and overlaying fragments (loose debris). The mean particle size of the loose debris is in the range 3.5 - 4.8 mm. The upper surface of the debris is flat. A gap is present between the cake and the bottom plate. The paper reviews the debris formation and heat transfer to the bottom steel structure from these tests and describes the development of a model to predict the debris and pool formation process. Sensitivity analyses have been performed by the COMETA code to study the behaviour of the ratio between the cake mass and the total mass. (authors)

  6. The Time Projection Chamber for the ALICE Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lippmann, C

    2008-01-01

    The Time Projection Chamber of the ALICE Experiment has been installed in the experimental setup in the underground area at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. The Alice TPC ReadOut (ALTRO) chip implements intelligent signal processing on the Front-End-Electronics. During the years of 2007 and 2008 commissioning and calibration of the TPC have been carried out with cosmic rays, radioactive Krypton isotopes and with tracks produced by a UV laser system. In addition to these in this publication we present first results on energy loss measurements and on the momentum resolution.

  7. Cesium, manganese and cobalt water-sediment transfer kinetics and diffusion into mangrove sediments inferred by radiotracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, E.C.; Machado, W.; Patchineelam, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    A study on the trace elements transfer from tidal water to mangrove sediments from Guanabara Bay (southeastern Brazil) was performed in laboratory microcosms. Sediment cores were covered with tidal water spiked with 137 Cs, 54 Mn and 57 Co during 5-h experiments, and water samples were taken at regular intervals to measure uptake kinetics at the sediment-water interface. At the end of the experiments, the uptake and diffusional penetration into the sediments was evaluated. Half-removal times from water to sediments were slightly higher for 137 Cs (3.4 ± 1.7 h) than observed for 54 Mn (2.3 ± 0.2 h) and 57 Co (2.6 ± 1.1 h). After these experiments, all radioisotopes presented decreasing activities with increasing sediment depth, being the distribution of 137 Cs indicative of higher diffusion within the upper 2 cm. This study on the removal of 137 Cs, 54 Mn and 57 Co from tidal water by mangrove sediments suggests that while 57 Co and 54 Mn presented closer behaviors, there was a slightly higher mobility of 137 Cs. (author)

  8. Gradient flux measurements of sea–air DMS transfer during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Smith

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct measurements of marine dimethylsulfide (DMS fluxes are sparse, particularly in the Southern Ocean. The Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP voyage in February–March 2012 examined the distribution and flux of DMS in a biologically active frontal system in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Three distinct phytoplankton blooms were studied with oceanic DMS concentrations as high as 25 nmol L−1. Measurements of DMS fluxes were made using two independent methods: the eddy covariance (EC technique using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization–mass spectrometry (API-CIMS and the gradient flux (GF technique from an autonomous catamaran platform. Catamaran flux measurements are relatively unaffected by airflow distortion and are made close to the water surface, where gas gradients are largest. Flux measurements were complemented by near-surface hydrographic measurements to elucidate physical factors influencing DMS emission. Individual DMS fluxes derived by EC showed significant scatter and, at times, consistent departures from the Coupled Ocean–Atmosphere Response Experiment gas transfer algorithm (COAREG. A direct comparison between the two flux methods was carried out to separate instrumental effects from environmental effects and showed good agreement with a regression slope of 0.96 (r2 = 0.89. A period of abnormal downward atmospheric heat flux enhanced near-surface ocean stratification and reduced turbulent exchange, during which GF and EC transfer velocities showed good agreement but modelled COAREG values were significantly higher. The transfer velocity derived from near-surface ocean turbulence measurements on a spar buoy compared well with the COAREG model in general but showed less variation. This first direct comparison between EC and GF fluxes of DMS provides confidence in compilation of flux estimates from both techniques, as well as in the stable periods when the observations are not well predicted by the COAREG

  9. Gradient flux measurements of sea-air DMS transfer during the Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Murray J.; Walker, Carolyn F.; Bell, Thomas G.; Harvey, Mike J.; Saltzman, Eric S.; Law, Cliff S.

    2018-04-01

    Direct measurements of marine dimethylsulfide (DMS) fluxes are sparse, particularly in the Southern Ocean. The Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) voyage in February-March 2012 examined the distribution and flux of DMS in a biologically active frontal system in the southwest Pacific Ocean. Three distinct phytoplankton blooms were studied with oceanic DMS concentrations as high as 25 nmol L-1. Measurements of DMS fluxes were made using two independent methods: the eddy covariance (EC) technique using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (API-CIMS) and the gradient flux (GF) technique from an autonomous catamaran platform. Catamaran flux measurements are relatively unaffected by airflow distortion and are made close to the water surface, where gas gradients are largest. Flux measurements were complemented by near-surface hydrographic measurements to elucidate physical factors influencing DMS emission. Individual DMS fluxes derived by EC showed significant scatter and, at times, consistent departures from the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment gas transfer algorithm (COAREG). A direct comparison between the two flux methods was carried out to separate instrumental effects from environmental effects and showed good agreement with a regression slope of 0.96 (r2 = 0.89). A period of abnormal downward atmospheric heat flux enhanced near-surface ocean stratification and reduced turbulent exchange, during which GF and EC transfer velocities showed good agreement but modelled COAREG values were significantly higher. The transfer velocity derived from near-surface ocean turbulence measurements on a spar buoy compared well with the COAREG model in general but showed less variation. This first direct comparison between EC and GF fluxes of DMS provides confidence in compilation of flux estimates from both techniques, as well as in the stable periods when the observations are not well predicted by the COAREG model.

  10. Experiments and procedures for bottom-heating heat-transfer experiments through UO2 debris beds in sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowa, E.S.; Pedersen, D.R.; Pavlik, J.; Purviance, R.

    1982-01-01

    Real materials experiments in heat transfer through beds of UO 2 in sodium have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory over a period of years. The most recent method utilizes the resistive heating in a sheet tungsten filament located at the base of the debris container. A schematic diagram of the apparatus is shown. The tungsten is clamped between two water cooled copper electrodes. The filament is a sheet of tungsten 0.15 mm thick, 5 cm wide and 18 cm long. Two 6.5 mm thick sheets of boron nitride sandwich the filament. The upper face of the upper boron nitride sheet is in intimate contact with the bottom of the debris container. Temperatures are measured at various levels in the bed as well as in the boron nitride plate. In addition, the sodium pool temperature is measured by the thermocouple. The heat transferral through the bed is measured by the temperature difference and mass flowrate in a NaK condenser located above the debris bed. The NaK inlet and outlet temperatures are recorded individually, as well as, differentially

  11. Psychopathology of Lived Time: Abnormal Time Experience in Persons With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Raballo, Andrea; Blasi, Stefano; Cutting, John

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal time experience (ATE) in schizophrenia is a long-standing theme of phenomenological psychopathology. This is because temporality constitutes the bedrock of any experience and its integrity is fundamental for the sense of coherence and continuity of selfhood and personal identity. To characterize ATE in schizophrenia patients as compared to major depressives we interviewed, in a clinical setting over a period of 15 years, 550 consecutive patients affected by schizophrenic and affective disorders. Clinical files were analyzed by means of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR), an inductive method suited to research that requires rich descriptions of inner experiences. Of the whole sample, 109 persons affected by schizophrenic (n = 95 acute, n = 14 chronic) and 37 by major depression reported at least 1 ATE. ATE are more represented in acute (N = 109 out of 198; 55%) than in chronic schizophrenic patients (N = 14 out of 103; 13%). The main feature of ATE in people with schizophrenia is the fragmentation of time experience (71 out of 109 patients), an impairment of the automatic and prereflexive synthesis of primal impression-retention-protention. This includes 4 subcategories: disruption of time flowing, déjà vu/vecu, premonitions about oneself and the external world. We contrasted ATE in schizophrenia and in major depression, finding relevant differences: in major depressives there is no disarticulation of time experience, rather timelessness because time lacks duration, not articulation. These core features of the schizophrenic pheno-phenotype may be related to self-disorders and to the manifold of characteristic schizophrenic symptoms, including so called bizarre delusions and verbal-acoustic hallucinations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Enhanced signal dispersion in saturation transfer difference experiments by conversion to a 1D-STD-homodecoupled spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Pastor, Manuel; Vega-Vazquez, Marino [Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Laboratorio Integral de Dinamica e Estructura de Biomoleculas Jose R. Carracido, Unidade de Resonancia Magnetica, Edificio CACTUS, RIAIDT (Spain); Capua, Antonia De [Seconda Universita degli Studi di Napoli, Dipartimento di Scienze Ambientali (Italy); Canales, Angeles [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, Departamento de Estructura y funcion de proteinas (Spain); Andre, Sabine; Gabius, Hans-Joachim [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Institut fuer Physiologische Chemie, Tieraerztliche Fakultaet (Germany); Jimenez-Barbero, Jesus [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas, CSIC, Departamento de Estructura y funcion de proteinas (Spain)], E-mail: JJbarbero@cib.csic.es

    2006-10-15

    The saturation transfer difference (STD) experiment is a rich source of information on topological aspects of ligand binding to a receptor. The epitope mapping is based on a magnetization transfer after signal saturation from the receptor to the ligand, where interproton distances permit this process. Signal overlap in the STD spectrum can cause difficulties to correctly assign and/or quantitate the measured enhancements. To address this issue we report here a modified version of the routine experiment and a processing scheme that provides a 1D-STD homodecoupled spectrum (i.e. an experiment in which all STD signals appear as singlets) with line widths similar to those in original STD spectrum. These refinements contribute to alleviate problems of signal overlap. The experiment is based on 2D-J-resolved spectroscopy, one of the fastest 2D experiments under conventional data sampling in the indirect dimension, and provides excellent sensitivity, a key factor for the difference experiments.

  13. Matrix-algebra-based calculations of the time evolution of the binary spin-bath model for magnetization transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dirk K; Pampel, André; Möller, Harald E

    2013-05-01

    Quantification of magnetization-transfer (MT) experiments are typically based on the assumption of the binary spin-bath model. This model allows for the extraction of up to six parameters (relative pool sizes, relaxation times, and exchange rate constants) for the characterization of macromolecules, which are coupled via exchange processes to the water in tissues. Here, an approach is presented for estimating MT parameters acquired with arbitrary saturation schemes and imaging pulse sequences. It uses matrix algebra to solve the Bloch-McConnell equations without unwarranted simplifications, such as assuming steady-state conditions for pulsed saturation schemes or neglecting imaging pulses. The algorithm achieves sufficient efficiency for voxel-by-voxel MT parameter estimations by using a polynomial interpolation technique. Simulations, as well as experiments in agar gels with continuous-wave and pulsed MT preparation, were performed for validation and for assessing approximations in previous modeling approaches. In vivo experiments in the normal human brain yielded results that were consistent with published data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of an in-situ heat transfer experiment (ISHTE) for illite clays of MPG-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, L.O.; Ewart, T.E.

    1981-01-01

    During 1979 the Applied Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington has been working on the design and development of components for an In-Situ Heat Transfer Experiment (ISHTE). The goal of the experiment is to test the validity of using laboratory experiments and analytical studies to predict the thermal response of red clay sediments in the deep ocean. All areas of the conceptual ISHTE developed during 1978 have been investigated this year at some level, with the greatest emphasis on the key components. Because the platform tracking and acoustic communication system is the most crucial component of the experiment, the major effort has been spent on developing this equipment. Hardware and software for the system are nearly operational. Some preliminary testing to evaluate transducers has been performed in Puget Sound and at shallow ocean depths. The transducers purchased initially were not adequate, but units from another company have been purchased and tested with good results. Deep ocean transponder tests will be run in the spring of 1980, and tests of the full tracking system will be conducted in July of 1980 at MPG-1. Several other hardware systems developed this year were an electric heater to simulate the isotope heatsource for system testing, the heater implantment arm, the heater's thermal sensor system, the thermal sensors for the sediment, and a 1/5 scale model of the planned ISHTE platform for visulization of component interaction. The hydrostatic corers are being designed but no construction will be started on prototypes until late 1980. No severe problems have been found thus far with the conceptualized system for the ISHTE platform, and work is progressing on building and testing all of these component systems before the seafloor platform is designed in detail. Present plans are to start designing the platform in FY 81

  15. Danish parents' experiences when their newborn or critically ill child is transferred to the PICU - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe Danish parents' experiences when their newborn or small child was critically ill. Thirteen parents were interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The child's transfer to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) meant either help...... or death for the parents. The back transfer was experienced as joy and despair. The parents had confidence in most nurses, and they were kind, helpful, informative and capable. Less capable and distressed nurses made the parents feel uncomfortale and insecure. Parents need help and support during...... their child's transfer to and from the PICU. Critical care nurses have to discuss the policy of family-centred care....

  16. Time-resolved pump-probe experiments at the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glownia, James; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Cryan, J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Andreasson, J.; /Uppsala U.; Belkacem, A.; /LBNL, Berkeley; Berrah, N.; /Western Michigan U.; Blaga, C.L.; /Ohio State U.; Bostedt, C.; Bozek, J.; /SLAC; DiMauro, L.F.; /Ohio State U.; Fang, L.; /Western Michigan U.; Frisch, J.; /SLAC; Gessner, O.; /LBNL; Guhr, M.; /SLAC; Hajdu, J.; /Uppsala U.; Hertlein, M.P.; /LBNL; Hoener, M.; /Western Michigan U. /LBNL; Huang, G.; Kornilov, O.; /LBNL; Marangos, J.P.; /Imperial Coll., London; March, A.M.; /Argonne; McFarland, B.K.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /IRAMIS, Saclay /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Georgia Tech /Argonne /Kansas State U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /SLAC /LBNL /Argonne /SLAC /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-08-12

    The first time-resolved x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) used a combination of feedback methods and post-analysis binning techniques to synchronize an ultrafast optical laser to the linac-based x-ray laser. Transient molecular nitrogen alignment revival features were resolved in time-dependent x-ray-induced fragmentation spectra. These alignment features were used to find the temporal overlap of the pump and probe pulses. The strong-field dissociation of x-ray generated quasi-bound molecular dications was used to establish the residual timing jitter. This analysis shows that the relative arrival time of the Ti:Sapphire laser and the x-ray pulses had a distribution with a standard deviation of approximately 120 fs. The largest contribution to the jitter noise spectrum was the locking of the laser oscillator to the reference RF of the accelerator, which suggests that simple technical improvements could reduce the jitter to better than 50 fs.

  17. Real-time virtual EAST physical experiment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dan, E-mail: lidan@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J., E-mail: bjxiao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xia, J.Y., E-mail: jyxia@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Yang, Fei, E-mail: fyang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Department of Computer Science, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2014-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 3D model of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak is established. • Interaction behavior is created that the users can get information from database. • The system integrates data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and simulation. • Browser-oriented system is web-based and more interactive, immersive and convenient. • The system provides the framework for virtual physical experimental environment. - Abstract: As a large fusion reaction device, experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST)’s internal structure is complicated and not easily accessible. Moreover, various diagnostic systems and complicated configuration bring about the inconveniency to the scientists who are unfamiliar with the system but interested in the data. We propose a virtual system to display the 3D model of EAST facility and enable people to view its inner structure and get access to the information of its components in various view sights. We would also provide most of the diagnostic configuration details together with their signal names and physical properties. Compared to the previous ways of viewing information by reference to collected drawings and videos, virtual EAST system is more interactive and immersive. We constructed the browser-oriented virtual EAST physical experiment system, integrated real-time experiment data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and experiment result simulation in order to reproduce physical experiments in a web browser. This system used B/S (Browser/Server) structure in combination with the technology of virtual reality – VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and Java 3D. In order to avoid the bandwidth limit across internet, we balanced the rendering speed and the precision of the virtual model components. Any registered user can view the experimental information visually and efficiently by logining the system through a web browser. The establishment of the system provides the

  18. Real-time virtual EAST physical experiment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Xiao, B.J.; Xia, J.Y.; Yang, Fei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 3D model of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak is established. • Interaction behavior is created that the users can get information from database. • The system integrates data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and simulation. • Browser-oriented system is web-based and more interactive, immersive and convenient. • The system provides the framework for virtual physical experimental environment. - Abstract: As a large fusion reaction device, experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST)’s internal structure is complicated and not easily accessible. Moreover, various diagnostic systems and complicated configuration bring about the inconveniency to the scientists who are unfamiliar with the system but interested in the data. We propose a virtual system to display the 3D model of EAST facility and enable people to view its inner structure and get access to the information of its components in various view sights. We would also provide most of the diagnostic configuration details together with their signal names and physical properties. Compared to the previous ways of viewing information by reference to collected drawings and videos, virtual EAST system is more interactive and immersive. We constructed the browser-oriented virtual EAST physical experiment system, integrated real-time experiment data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and experiment result simulation in order to reproduce physical experiments in a web browser. This system used B/S (Browser/Server) structure in combination with the technology of virtual reality – VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and Java 3D. In order to avoid the bandwidth limit across internet, we balanced the rendering speed and the precision of the virtual model components. Any registered user can view the experimental information visually and efficiently by logining the system through a web browser. The establishment of the system provides the

  19. Time-variable stress transfer across a megathrust from seismic to Wilson cycle scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, Matthias; Angiboust, Samuel; Moreno, Marcos; Schurr, Bernd; Oncken, Onno

    2013-04-01

    During the lifetime of a convergent plate margin stress transfer across the plate interface (a megathrust) can be expected to vary at multiple timescales. At short time scales (years to decades), a subduction megathrust interface appears coupled (accumulating shear stress) at shallow depth (seismogenic zone proportional to effective normal load but also to relative shear stress. For areas of near complete stress drop locking might systematically decrease over the interseismic period from >80-95 % shortly after an earthquake to backslip at significant fractions of plate convergence rate (non-volcanic tremor and slow slip below the seismogenic zone represent short term episodes of metamorphic fluid infiltration into the shallow megathrust. A megathrust fault valve mechanism clocked by the greatest earthquakes then accounts for cyclic fluid pressure build up and drainage at sub-seismic cycle scale. As pore pressure dynamics are controlled primarily by permeability which in turn is controlled by structure and material properties, then more long term coupling transients associated with structural evolution of the plate margin can be implied. Fluid controlled transients might interfere with transients and secular trends resulting from changes in material strength and plate tectonic forces over the Wilson cycle resulting in a multispectral stress-transfer pattern associated with convergent margin evolution. Because of the viscous damping effect of the underlying asthenosphere, however, only longterm transients (periods >1-10 ka) are transmitted into the engaged plates. We therefore speculate that the multispectral nature of stress transfer across a megathrust filtered through the asthenosphere explains transient fault activity in some intraplate settings.

  20. Photo-induced charge transfer at heterogeneous interfaces: Dye-sensitized tin disulfide, the theory and the experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzafame, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The study of photo-induced charge transfer is an endeavor that spans the entire industrial period of man's history. Its great importance demands an ever greater understanding of its underlying principles. The work discussed here attempts to probe elementary aspects of the charge transfer process. Investigations into the theory of charge transfer reactions are made in an attempt to isolate the relevant parameters. An analytical discussion is made of a simple Golden Rule type rate equation to describe the transfer kinetics. Then a quantum simulation is carried out to follow the wavefunction propagation as a test of the applicability of the assumptions made in deriving the simpler rate equation. Investigation of charge transfer at surfaces is bet served by the application of ultrafast optical spectroscopies to probe carrier dynamics. A discussion of the properties of the short pulse laser systems employed is included along with a discussion of the different optical spectroscopies available. These tools are then brought to bear upon dye-sensitized SnS 2 , a model system for the study of charge injection processes. The unique properties of the semiconductor are discussed with respect to the charge transfer process. The unique properties of the semiconductor are discussed with respect to the charge transfer process. The optical experiments performed on the dye/SnS 2 systems elucidate the fundamental carrier dynamics and these dynamics are discussed within the theoretical framework to provide a complete picture of the charge transfer kinetics

  1. Simulating time-dependent energy transfer between crossed laser beams in an expanding plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittinger, J.A.F.; Dorr, M.R.; Berger, R.L.; Williams, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    A coupled mode system is derived to investigate a three-wave parametric instability leading to energy transfer between co-propagating laser beams crossing in a plasma flow. The model includes beams of finite width refracting in a prescribed transverse plasma flow with spatial and temporal gradients in velocity and density. The resulting paraxial light equations are discretized spatially with a Crank-Nicholson-type scheme, and these algebraic constraints are nonlinearly coupled with ordinary differential equations in time that describe the ion acoustic response. The entire nonlinear differential-algebraic system is solved using an adaptive, backward-differencing method coupled with Newton's method. A numerical study is conducted in two dimensions that compares the intensity gain of the fully time-dependent coupled mode system with the gain computed under the further assumption of a strongly damped ion acoustic response. The results demonstrate a time-dependent gain suppression when the beam diameter is commensurate with the velocity gradient scale length. The gain suppression is shown to depend on time-dependent beam refraction and is interpreted as a time-dependent frequency shift

  2. Experiments and Modelling Techniques for Heat and Mass Transfer in Light Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosini, W.; Bucci, M.; Forgione, N.; Manfredini, A.; Oriolo, F.

    2009-01-01

    The paper summarizes the lesson learned from theoretical and experimental activities performed at the University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy, in past decades in order to develop a general methodology of analysis of heat and mass transfer phenomena of interest for nuclear reactor applications. An overview of previously published results is proposed, highlighting the rationale at the basis of the performed work and its relevant conclusions. Experimental data from different sources provided information for model development and assessment. They include condensation experiments performed at SIET (Piacenza, Italy) on the PANTHERS prototypical PCCS module, falling film evaporation tests for simulating AP600-like outer shell spraying conditions, performed at the University of Pisa, experimental data concerning condensation on finned tubes, collected by CISE (Piacenza, Italy) in the frame of the INCON EU Project, and experimental tests performed in the CONAN experimental facility installed at the University of Pisa. The experience gained in these activities is critically reviewed and discussed to highlight the relevant obtained conclusions and the perspectives for future work

  3. A population balance approach considering heat and mass transfer-Experiments and CFD simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepper, Eckhard; Beyer, Matthias; Lucas, Dirk; Schmidtke, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The MUSIG approach was extended by mass transfer between the size groups to describe condensation or re-evaporation. → Experiments on steam bubble condensation in vertical co-current steam/water flows have been carried out. The cross sectional gas fraction distribution, the bubble size distribution ad the gas velocity profiles were measured. → The following phenomena could be reproduced with good agreement to the experiments: (a) Dependence of the condensation rate on the initial bubble size distribution and (b) re-evaporation over the height in tests with low inlet temperature subcooling. - Abstract: Bubble condensation in sub-cooled water is a complex process, to which various phenomena contribute. Since the condensation rate depends on the interfacial area density, bubble size distribution changes caused by breakup and coalescence play a crucial role. Experiments on steam bubble condensation in vertical co-current steam/water flows have been carried out in an 8 m long vertical DN200 pipe. Steam is injected into the pipe and the development of the bubbly flow is measured at different distances to the injection using a pair of wire mesh sensors. By varying the steam nozzle diameter the initial bubble size can be influenced. Larger bubbles come along with a lower interfacial area density and therefore condensate slower. Steam pressures between 1 and 6.5 MPa and sub-cooling temperatures from 2 to 12 K were applied. Due to the pressure drop along the pipe, the saturation temperature falls towards the upper pipe end. This affects the sub-cooling temperature and can even cause re-evaporation in the upper part of the test section. The experimental configurations are simulated with the CFD code CFX using an extended MUSIG approach, which includes the bubble shrinking or growth due to condensation or re-evaporation. The development of the vapour phase along the pipe with respect to vapour void fractions and bubble sizes is qualitatively well reproduced

  4. Embryo transfer simulation improves pregnancy rates and decreases time to proficiency in Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility fellow embryo transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Ryan J; Hill, Micah J; Csokmay, John M; Pilgrim, Justin; DeCherney, Alan H; Deering, Shad

    2017-05-01

    To design and evaluate an ET simulator to train Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility (REI) fellows' techniques of ET. Simulation model development and retrospective cohort analysis. Not applicable. Patients undergoing IVF. Simulation model evaluation and implementation of ET simulation training. Pregnancy rates. The REI fellow and faculty evaluation responses (n = 19/21 [90%]) of the model demonstrated realistic characteristics, with evaluators concluding the model was suitable for training in almost all evaluated areas. A total of 12 REI fellows who performed ET were analyzed: 6 before ET trainer and 6 after ET trainer. Pregnancy rates were 31% in the initial 10 ETs per fellow before simulator vs. 46% after simulator. One of six pre-ET trainer fellows (17%) had pregnancy rates ≥40% in their first 10 ETs; whereas four of six post-ET trainer fellows had pregnancy rates ≥40% in their first 10 ETs. The average number of ETs to obtain >40% pregnancy efficiency was 27 ETs before trainer vs. 15 ETs after trainer. Pregnancy rates were similar in the two groups after 20 ETs, and collective terminal pregnancy rates were >50% after 40 ETs. Embryo transfer simulation improved REI fellow pregnancy rates in their first 10 transfers and led to a more rapid ET proficiency. These data suggest potential value in adopting ET simulation, even in programs with a robust history of live ET in fellowship training. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Touchscreen Facilitates Young Children’s Transfer of Learning to Tell Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxing Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Young children are devoting increasing time to playing on handheld touchscreen devices (e.g., iPads. Though thousands of touchscreen apps are claimed to be educational, there is a lack of sufficient evidence examining the impact of touchscreens on children’s learning outcomes. In the present study, the two questions we focused on were (a whether using a touchscreen was helpful in teaching children to tell time, and (b to what extent young children could transfer what they had learned on the touchscreen to other media. A pre- and posttest design was adopted. After learning to read the time on the iPad touchscreen for 10 minutes, three groups of 5- to 6-year-old children (N = 65 were respectively tested with an iPad touchscreen, a toy clock or a drawing of a clock on paper. The results revealed that posttest scores in the iPad touchscreen test group were significantly higher than those at pretest, indicating that the touchscreen itself could provide support for young children’s learning. Similarly, regardless of being tested with a toy clock or paper drawing, children’s posttest performance was also better than pretest, suggesting that children could transfer what they had learned on an iPad touchscreen to other media. However, comparison among groups showed that children tested with the paper drawing underperformed those tested with the other two media. The theoretical and practical implications of the results, as well as limitations of the present study, are discussed.

  6. 3D static and time-dependent modelling of a dc transferred arc twin torch system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, V; Ghedini, E; Boselli, M; Sanibondi, P; Concetti, A

    2011-01-01

    The transferred arc plasma torch device consists of two electrodes generating a plasma arc sustained by means of an electric current flowing through the body of the discharge. Modelling works investigating transferred electric arc discharges generated between two suspended metallic electrodes, in the so-called twin torch configuration, are scarce. The discharge generated by this particular plasma source configuration is characterized by a complex shape and fluid dynamics and needs a 3D description in order to be realistically predicted. The extended discharge length that goes from the tungsten pencil cathode to the flat copper anode without any particular confinement wall and the fluid dynamics and magnetic forces acting on the arc may induce an unsteady behaviour. In order to capture the dynamic behaviour of a twin torch discharge, a 3D time-dependent plasma arc model has been developed using a customized commercial code FLUENT form in both local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE. A two temperature (2T) model has been developed taking into account only the thermal non-equilibrium effects in argon plasma. The main differences between LTE and 2T models' results concern the increased extension of the horizontal section of the discharge and the predicted reduced (of about 60-80 V) voltage drop between the electrodes when using a 2T model.

  7. Real-time control environment for the RFX experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barana, O.; Cavinato, M.; Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Taliercio, C.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive set of control schemes can be presently implemented on RFX due to the enhanced load assembly and renewed power supply system. The schemes include: plasma equilibrium control and resistive wall mode stabilization, aiming at controlling actively the discharge when the passive action of the shell vanishes; the rotation of the localised helical deformation to minimize the enhanced plasma-wall interaction; the MHD mode control and the 'intelligent shell', aiming at achieving a better comprehension of the underlying physics. To the purpose, an integrated, distributed, digital system has been developed consisting of a set of computing nodes. Each node can act either as pre-processing or control station, the former acquiring raw data and computing intermediate control parameters, the latter executing control algorithms and driving the power amplifiers. An overview of the system architecture is presented in the paper with reference to the software real-time environment providing both basic functions, such as data read-out and real-time communication, and useful tools to program control algorithms, to perform simulations and to commission the system. To simulate the control schemes, the real-time environment is extended to include a so called 'simulation mode', in which the real-time nodes exchange their input/output signals with one station running a suitable model of the experiment, for instance the two dimensional FEM code MAXFEA in the case of the equilibrium control. In this way the control system can be tested offline and the time needed for the commissioning of algorithms reduced

  8. The Influence of Framing on Transfer: Initial Evidence from a Tutoring Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Randi A.; Nguyen, Phi D.; Mendelson, Adam

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the idea that the framing of learning and transfer contexts can influence students' propensity to transfer what they have learned. We predicted that transfer would be promoted by framing contexts in an expansive manner in which students are positioned as having the opportunity to contribute to larger conversations that…

  9. Variations in soil-to-red pepper transfer factors of radionuclides with time of their application and fruit harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Won Yun; Lim, Kwang Muk; Park, Soo Won; Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Chang Woo; Lee, Hyun Duk; Lee, Jeong Ho

    1997-01-01

    A mixed solution of 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs was applied to the soil of culture boxes in a greenhouse 2 days before transplanting red pepper and at 3 different times during its growth for investigating transfer factors (m 2 /kg-dry) for its green and red fruits. Transfer factors varied with radionuclide, application time and harvest time by factors of about 20-100. They decreased mostly radionuclide, application time and harvest time by factors of about 20-100. They decreased mostly in the order of 85 Sr> 54 Mn> 60 Co> 137 Cs while 54 Mn and 60 Co was higher than 85 Sr when time lapse between application and harvest was short. Transfer factors of 85 Sr and 137 Cs at the last application were lower than those at the previous one by factors of 3-20 depending on harvest time. Variations in 54 Mn and 60 Co transfer factors with application time after transplanting were comparatively low. Transfer factors of 54 Mn, 60 Co and 85 Sr mixed with topsoil before transplanting were up to 3-9 times higher than those for the application onto soil surface 2 days after transplanting root-uptake concentrations of the radionuclides in red pepper fruit and taking proper measures for its harvest and consumption at the event of an accidental release during the growing season of red pepper

  10. Extracorporeal circulatory systems in the interhospital transfer of critically ill patients: experience of a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haneya, Assad; Philipp, Alois; Foltan, Maik; Camboni, Daniele; Rupprecht, Leopold; Puehler, Thomas; Hirt, Stephan; Hilker, Michael; Kobuch, Reinhard; Schmid, Christof; Arlt, Matthias; Mueller, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure cannot be moved to other institutions unless stabilized by mechanical support systems. Extracorporeal heart and lung assist systems are increasingly used as a bridge to end-organ recovery or transplantation, and as an ultimate rescue tool in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. From July 2001 to April 2008, we had 38 requests for extracorporeal support for interhospital transfer carried out by the air medical service. Respiratory failure was present in 29 patients, who were provided with pumpless extracorporeal lung assist (PECLA) or veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Cardiac failure dominated in 9 patients, who underwent implantation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Underlying diseases were acute respiratory distress syndrome in 15 patients, pneumonia in 7, prior lung transplant status in 4, cardiogenic shock in 7, and septic shock in 4. All assist systems were connected via peripheral vessels by the Seldinger technique. Transport was uneventful in all cases with no technical failures. On arrival at the specialized care hospital, two patients had leg ischemia and underwent relocation of the arterial cannula. After a mean (SD) support of 5.1 (3.0) days for PECLA, 3.5 (2.9) days for ECLS, and 7.3 (5.8) days for ECMO, 60%, 66%, and 66% of patients, respectively, could be successfully weaned from the systems. Discharge rates were 45% for PECLA, 44% for ECLS, and 56% for ECMO. Our experience proves that minimized extracorporeal assist devices allow safe assistance of patients with isolated or combined heart and lung failure in need of interhospital transfer. Critically ill patients get a chance to reach a center of maximum medical care. (author)

  11. Near real time/low latency data collection for climate warming manipulations and an elevated CO2 SPRUCE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krassovski, M.; Hanson, P. J.; Riggs, J. S.; Nettles, W. R., IV

    2017-12-01

    Climate change studies are one of the most important aspects of modern science and related experiments are getting bigger and more complex. One such experiment is the Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Climatic and Environmental Change experiment (SPRUCE, http://mnspruce.ornl.gov) conducted in in northern Minnesota, 40 km north of Grand Rapids, in the USDA Forest Service Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF). The SPRUCE experimental mission is to assess ecosystem-level biological responses of vulnerable, high carbon terrestrial ecosystems to a range of climate warming manipulations and an elevated CO2 atmosphere. This manipulation experiment generates a lot of observational data and requires a reliable onsite data collection system, dependable methods to transfer data to a robust scientific facility, and real-time monitoring capabilities. This presentation shares our experience of establishing near real time/low latency data collection and monitoring system using satellite communication.

  12. Heat transfer analytical models for the rapid determination of cooling time in crystalline thermoplastic injection molding and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Delaunay; Baptiste, Pignon; Nicolas, Boyard; Vincent, Sobotka

    2018-05-01

    Heat transfer during the cooling of a thermoplastic injected part directly affects the solidification of the polymer and consequently the quality of the part in term of mechanical properties, geometric tolerance and surface aspect. This paper proposes to mold designers a methodology based on analytical models to provide quickly the time to reach the ejection temperature depending of the temperature and the position of cooling channels. The obtained cooling time is the first step of the thermal conception of the mold. The presented methodology is dedicated to the determination of solidification time of a semi-crystalline polymer slab. It allows the calculation of the crystallization time of the part and is based on the analytical solution of the Stefan problem in a semi-infinite medium. The crystallization is then considered as a phase change with an effective crystallization temperature, which is obtained from Fast Scanning Calorimetry (FSC) results. The crystallization time is then corrected to take the finite thickness of the part into account. To check the accuracy of such approach, the solidification time is calculated by solving the heat conduction equation coupled to the crystallization kinetics of the polymer. The impact of the nature of the contact between the polymer and the mold is evaluated. The thermal contact resistance (TCR) appears as significant parameter that needs to be taken into account in the cooling time calculation. The results of the simplified model including or not TCR are compared in the case of a polypropylene (PP) with experiments carried out with an instrumented mold. Then, the methodology is applied for a part made with PolyEtherEtherKetone (PEEK).

  13. Modelling of bentonite-granite solutes transfer from an in situ full-scale experiment to simulate a deep geological repository (Grimsel Test Site, Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buil, B.; Gomez, P.; Pena, J.; Garralon, A.; Turrero, M.J.; Escribano, A.; Sanchez, L.; Duran, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The FEBEX experiment is a 1:1 simulation of a high level waste disposal facility in crystalline rock according to the Spanish radwaste disposal concept. → Solute transfer processes occurrs at the bentonite-granite interface. → An increase of Cl and Na is observed in granitic water of the surrounding of the experiment. → Solute transfer does not affect the sealing and thermo-hydromechanical properties of the engineered barriers. → A diffusive transport of Cl and Na simulated by 1D transport modeling with an effective diffusion coefficient of D e ≅ 5.0 E-11 m 2 /s. - Abstract: The FEBEX experiment is a 1:1 simulation of a high level waste disposal facility in crystalline rock according to the Spanish radwaste disposal concept. This experiment has been performed in a gallery drilled in the underground laboratory Grimsel Test Site (Switzerland). Two boreholes parallel to the FEBEX drift were drilled 20 and 60 cm away from the granite-bentonite interface to provide data on potential bentonite-granite solutes transfer. Periodic sampling and analysis of the major ions showed: (a) the existence of solutes transfer from the bentonite porewater towards the granite groundwater, explaining the Cl - and Na + contents of the latter; (b) that the concentration of the natural tracers coming into the granite groundwater from the bentonite porewater increased over time. This bentonite-granite solutes transfer was modelled in order to predict the increase in the Cl - and Na + concentrations of the granite groundwater. The modelled results seem to confirm that the mechanism of solute migration in this scenario is that of diffusive transport. An effective diffusion coefficient of D e = 5 x 10 -11 m 2 /s was that which best fitted the data obtained.

  14. Time-dependent simplified PN approximation to the equations of radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, Martin; Klar, Axel; Larsen, Edward W.; Yasuda, Shugo

    2007-01-01

    The steady-state simplified P N approximation to the radiative transport equation has been successfully applied to many problems involving radiation. This paper presents the derivation of time-dependent simplified P N (SP N ) equations (up to N = 3) via two different approaches. First, we use an asymptotic analysis, similar to the asymptotic derivation of the steady-state SP N equations. Second, we use an approach similar to the original derivation of the steady-state SP N equations and we show that both approaches lead to similar results. Special focus is put on the well-posedness of the equations and the question whether it can be guaranteed that the solution satisfies the correct physical bounds. Several numerical test cases are shown, including an analytical benchmark due to Su and Olson [B. Su, G.L. Olson, An analytical benchmark for non-equilibrium radiative transfer in an isotropically scattering medium, Ann. Nucl. Energy 24 (1997) 1035-1055.

  15. Measurement and investigation of proton irradiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency in PPD CIS at different integration times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zujun; Zhang, Fengqi; Bian, Jingying; Yao, Zhibin; He, Baoping; Liu, Minbo; Sheng, Jiangkun; Ma, Wuying; Dong, Guantao; Jin, Junshan

    2018-04-01

    Charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) is an important parameter for photodiode (PPD) CMOS image sensors (CISs). A test system was built and used to measure the CTI of PPD CIS devices at different integration times. The radiation effects of 3 MeV and 10 MeV protons on the CTI were investigated. The experiments were carried out at the EN Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator at proton fluences in the range 1010 to 1011 p/cm2. The CTI was measured within the 2 h following proton radiations. The dependence of CTI on integration time, proton energy and fluence were investigated. The CTI was observed to increase after proton irradiation: with the effect of irradiation with 3 MeV proton being more severe than that with 10 MeV protons. The CTI was also observed to decrease with increasing integration time, which is thought to be related to the charge density in the space charge region (SCR) of the CIS devices. This work has provided a simple method to measure the CTI and helped us to understand proton radiation effects on the CTI of PPD CISs.

  16. Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of IR-driven electron dynamics in a charge transfer model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falge, Mirjam; Fröbel, Friedrich Georg; Engel, Volker; Gräfe, Stefanie

    2017-08-02

    If the adiabatic approximation is valid, electrons smoothly adapt to molecular geometry changes. In contrast, as a characteristic of diabatic dynamics, the electron density does not follow the nuclear motion. Recently, we have shown that the asymmetry in time-resolved photoelectron spectra serves as a tool to distinguish between these dynamics [Falge et al., J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2012, 3, 2617]. Here, we investigate the influence of an additional, moderately intense infrared (IR) laser field, as often applied in attosecond time-resolved experiments, on such asymmetries. This is done using a simple model for coupled electronic-nuclear motion. We calculate time-resolved photoelectron spectra and their asymmetries and demonstrate that the spectra directly map the bound electron-nuclear dynamics. From the asymmetries, we can trace the IR field-induced population transfer and both the field-driven and intrinsic (non-)adiabatic dynamics. This holds true when considering superposition states accompanied by electronic coherences. The latter are observable in the asymmetries for sufficiently short XUV pulses to coherently probe the coupled states. It is thus documented that the asymmetry is a measure for phases in bound electron wave packets and non-adiabatic dynamics.

  17. Interactive dual-volume rendering visualization with real-time fusion and transfer function enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macready, Hugh; Kim, Jinman; Feng, David; Cai, Weidong

    2006-03-01

    Dual-modality imaging scanners combining functional PET and anatomical CT constitute a challenge in volumetric visualization that can be limited by the high computational demand and expense. This study aims at providing physicians with multi-dimensional visualization tools, in order to navigate and manipulate the data running on a consumer PC. We have maximized the utilization of pixel-shader architecture of the low-cost graphic hardware and the texture-based volume rendering to provide visualization tools with high degree of interactivity. All the software was developed using OpenGL and Silicon Graphics Inc. Volumizer, tested on a Pentium mobile CPU on a PC notebook with 64M graphic memory. We render the individual modalities separately, and performing real-time per-voxel fusion. We designed a novel "alpha-spike" transfer function to interactively identify structure of interest from volume rendering of PET/CT. This works by assigning a non-linear opacity to the voxels, thus, allowing the physician to selectively eliminate or reveal information from the PET/CT volumes. As the PET and CT are rendered independently, manipulations can be applied to individual volumes, for instance, the application of transfer function to CT to reveal the lung boundary while adjusting the fusion ration between the CT and PET to enhance the contrast of a tumour region, with the resultant manipulated data sets fused together in real-time as the adjustments are made. In addition to conventional navigation and manipulation tools, such as scaling, LUT, volume slicing, and others, our strategy permits efficient visualization of PET/CT volume rendering which can potentially aid in interpretation and diagnosis.

  18. Transfer time estimation of 129I, 99Tc and 14C in the geological layers of the Saligny site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogaru, Daniela; Niculae, Ortenzia; Terente, M.; Jinescu, Gh.; Duliu, O.G.

    2009-01-01

    The paper describes the assessment of transfer time of 129 I, 99 Tc and 14 C in the geological layers of Saligny site, selected as Near Surface Final Repository for short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste generated by the operation and decommissioning of the four units of Cernavoda NPP equipped with the CANDU-6 Canadian type reactors. The geological aspects of Saligny site are presented for which the transfer time of radio-nuclides is necessary to assess. The conceptual model of the repository as well as the associated mathematical model which describes the transfer of radio-nuclides from radioactive waste disposal system to aquifer is also presented in the paper. The transfer time of these radionuclides is derived from the time difference when a radionuclide reaches the highest peak value of concentration into two adjacent compartments. The transfer time is compared with the half-life of radio-nuclides in order to asses the role of geological layers of the site in delaying the transfer of radio-nuclides. The evaluation was performed using the AMBER computing code. also a comparison with results from HYDRUS computer code is done. (authors)

  19. Model validation of GAMMA code with heat transfer experiment for KO TBM in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yum, Soo Been; Lee, Eo Hwak; Lee, Dong Won; Park, Goon Cherl

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study, helium supplying system was constructed. ► Preparation for heat transfer experiment in KO TBM condition using helium supplying system was progressed. ► To get more applicable results, test matrix was made to cover the condition for KO TBM. ► Using CFD code; CFX 11, validation and modification for system code GAMMA was performed. -- Abstract: By considering the requirements for a DEMO-relevant blanket concept, Korea (KO) has proposed a He cooled molten lithium (HCML) test blanket module (TBM) for testing in ITER. A performance analysis for the thermal–hydraulics and a safety analysis for the KO TBM have been carried out using a commercial CFD code, ANSYS-CFX, and a system code, GAMMA (GAs multicomponent mixture analysis), which was developed by the gas cooled reactor in Korea. To verify the codes, a preliminary study was performed by Lee using a single TBM first wall (FW) mock-up made from the same material as the KO TBM, ferritic martensitic steel, using a 6 MPa nitrogen gas loop. The test was performed at pressures of 1.1, 1.9 and 2.9 MPa, and under various ranges of flow rate from 0.0105 to 0.0407 kg/s with a constant wall temperature condition. In the present study, a thermal–hydraulic test was performed with the newly constructed helium supplying system, in which the design pressure and temperature were 9 MPa and 500 °C, respectively. In the experiment, the same mock-up was used, and the test was performed under the conditions of 3 MPa pressure, 30 °C inlet temperature and 70 m/s helium velocity, which are almost same conditions of the KO TBM FW. One side of the mock-up was heated with a constant heat flux of 0.3–0.5 MW/m 2 using a graphite heating system, KoHLT-2 (Korea heat load test facility-2). Because the comparison result between CFX 11 and GAMMA showed a difference tendency, the modification of heat transfer correlation included in GAMMA was performed. And the modified GAMMA showed the strong parity with CFX

  20. Transfer in planned home births in Sweden--effects on the experience of birth: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Helena E; Rådestad, Ingela J; Hildingsson, Ingegerd M

    2011-08-01

    More than 10% of all planned home births in high-income countries are completed in the hospital. The aim of this study was to compare the birth experiences among women who planned to give birth at home and completed the birth at home and women who were transferred to hospital during or immediately after the birth. All women in Sweden who had a planned home birth between 1998 and 2005 (n=671) were invited to participate in the study. The women who agreed to participate received one questionnaire for each planned home birth. Mixed methods were used for the analysis. Women who had been transferred during or immediately after the planned home birth had a more negative birth experience in general. In comparison with women who completed the birth at home, the odds ratio for being less satisfied was 13.5, CI 8.1-22.3. Reasons for being dissatisfied related to organizational factors, the way the women were treated or personal ability. Being transferred during a planned home birth negatively affects the birth experience. Treatments as well as organizational factors are considered to be obstacles for a positive birth experience when transfer is needed. Established links between the home birth setting and the hospital might enhance the opportunity for a positive birth experience irrespective of where the birth is completed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. T2 relaxation time analysis in patients with multiple sclerosis: correlation with magnetization transfer ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papadaki, Eufrosini; Karampekios, Spyros; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Spilioti, Martha

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to perform T2 relaxation time measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and correlate them with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements, in order to investigate in more detail the various histopathological changes that occur in lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A total number of 291 measurements of MTR and T2 relaxation times were performed in 13 MS patients and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers. Measurements concerned MS plaques (105), NAWM (80), and ''dirty'' white matter (DWM; 30), evenly divided between the MS patients, and normal white matter (NWM; 76) in the healthy volunteers. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time analysis was performed, and also possible linearity between MTR and mean T2 relaxation times was evaluated using linear regression analysis in all subgroups. Biexponential relaxation was more pronounced in ''black-hole'' lesions (16.6%) and homogeneous enhancing plaques (10%), whereas DWM, NAWM, and mildly hypointense lesions presented biexponential behavior with a lower frequency(6.6, 5, and 3.1%, respectively). Non-enhancing isointense lesions and normal white matter did not reveal any biexponentional behavior. Linear regression analysis between monoexponential T2 relaxation time and MTR measurements demonstrated excellent correlation for DWM(r=-0.78, p<0.0001), very good correlation for black-hole lesions(r=-0.71, p=0.002), good correlation for isointense lesions(r=-0.60, p=0.005), moderate correlation for mildly hypointense lesions(r=-0.34, p=0.007), and non-significant correlation for homogeneous enhancing plaques, NAWM, and NWM. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time behavior is seen in only very few lesions (mainly on plaques with high degree of demyelination and axonal loss). A strong correlation between MTR and monoexponential T2 values was found in regions where either inflammation or demyelination predominates; however, when both pathological conditions coexist, this linear

  2. Note: Space qualified photon counting detector for laser time transfer with picosecond precision and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan; Blazej, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The laser time transfer link is under construction for the European Space Agency in the frame of Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space. We have developed and tested the flying unit of the photon counting detector optimized for this space mission. The results are summarized in this Note. An extreme challenge was to build a detector package, which is rugged, small and which provides long term detection delay stability on picosecond level. The device passed successfully all the tests required for space missions on the low Earth orbits. The detector is extremely rugged and compact. Its long term detection delay stability is excellent, it is better than ±1 ps/day, in a sense of time deviation it is better than 0.5 ps for averaging times of 2000 s to several hours. The device is capable to operate in a temperature range of -55 °C up to +60 °C, the change of the detection delay with temperature is +0.5 ps/K. The device is ready for integration into the space structure now.

  3. The effects of individual differences, prior experience and cognitive load on the transfer of dynamic decision-making performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Brad; O'Hare, David

    2014-01-01

    Situational awareness is recognised as an important factor in the performance of individuals and teams in dynamic decision-making (DDM) environments (Salmon et al. 2014 ). The present study was designed to investigate whether the scores on the WOMBAT™ Situational Awareness and Stress Tolerance Test (Roscoe and North 1980 ) would predict the transfer of DDM performance from training under different levels of cognitive load to a novel situation. Participants practised a simulated firefighting task under either low or high conditions of cognitive load and then performed a (transfer) test in an alternative firefighting environment under an intermediate level of cognitive load. WOMBAT™ test scores were a better predictor of DDM performance than scores on the Raven Matrices. Participants with high WOMBAT™ scores performed better regardless of their training condition. Participants with recent gaming experience who practised under low cognitive load showed better practice phase performance but worse transfer performance than those who practised under high cognitive load. The relationship between task experience, situational awareness ability, cognitive load and the transfer of dynamic decision-making (DDM) performance was investigated. Results showed that the WOMBAT™ test predicted transfer of DDM performance regardless of task cognitive load. The effects of cognitive load on performance varied according to previous task-relevant experience.

  4. Modeling and Assessment of Precise Time Transfer by Using BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Triple-Frequency Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    This study proposes two models for precise time transfer using the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System triple-frequency signals: ionosphere-free (IF) combined precise point positioning (PPP) model with two dual-frequency combinations (IF-PPP1) and ionosphere-free combined PPP model with a single triple-frequency combination (IF-PPP2). A dataset with a short baseline (with a common external time frequency) and a long baseline are used for performance assessments. The results show that IF-PPP1 and IF-PPP2 models can both be used for precise time transfer using BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency signals, and the accuracy and stability of time transfer is the same in both cases, except for a constant system bias caused by the hardware delay of different frequencies, which can be removed by the parameter estimation and prediction with long time datasets or by a priori calibration. PMID:29596330

  5. The mange of the peartree (Venturia Pyrina, experience in transfer of technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinosa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A program of technology transfer was implemented in themunicipality of Nuevo Colón, with the purpose to maintainthe roña or scabies of the peach tree with levels of damagebelow the economic threshold, by means of participatorymethodologies, identifying the current processes used byproducers in the control of Venturia, as well as the alternativesfor the roña or scabies control that allow to establish aprogram of the illness management and, at the same time,to develop transfer program by means of the fruit-culturerstraining in methods for the cultivation handling with emphasison the control of Venturia pyrina, conducting a permanentevaluation and feedback with the results of the validatedalternatives.The purpose was to implement control practices in 10 demonstrativeplots by marking 10 trees of each one of them,as well as to replicate the control in 400 orchards during thethree years of the project, train 400 fruit-culturers in phytosanitaryproduction and cultivation alternative techniques.The incidence of the disease decreased 40% the first year,60% the second one and 80% the third one. There were 400primers and 3 videos left as memories an reinforcement oftraining.The results were the establishment of control practices in300 orchards during the three-year period of the project, thetraining of 300 fruit-culturers in production, alternative techniquesfor cultivation and phytosanitary control, the decreaseof the disease incidence by 30% the first year, 70% thesecond year and 85% the third year. In addition, there wereleft as memory 500 primers with optimal and convenientsolutions as successful technological alternatives that wereadopted and implemented by the 87% of pear producers.

  6. NORDA contribution to the in-situ heat transfer experiment (ISHTE): FY84 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valent, P.J.; Bennett, R.H.; Li, H.; Burns, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) of the DOE, managed by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA), is studying the feasibility of disposing of high-level radioactive wastes by burial in fine-grained deep-sea sediments. The thermo-mechanical response of these sediments to the thermal gradient and temperatures generated by the decaying radionucleides in a buried waste container is being determined by the SDP-supported In Situ Heat Transfer Experiment (ISHTE). The Naval Ocean Research and Development Activity (NORDA) is responsible for the development and fielding of piezometer probes for measuring the pore water pressure gradients induced by the thermal gradient in the sediment. Pore pressure gradients measured in ISHTE will permit validation of theoretical models predicting the rate of radionucleide leakage from a buried waste container to the overlying seawater column. This report of describes the results of a laboratory simulation of ISHTE, conducted at SNLA, in which sediment cracking due to probe insertion was determined to not be a problem to the experiment. Specialized equipment developed for ISHTE, in particular a pressure transducer calibrator for ambient pressures to 69 MPa (10,000 psi), is described. Preliminary results gleaned from excess pore pressure data obtained during the ISHTE component test cruise, Sept 84, confirm that sediment cracking due to probe insertion will be slight and will have an insignificant influence on the measured excess pore pressure dissipation rates. Excess preenerated by insertion of the piezometer probes vary by a factor of two. No significant faults in the NORDA piezometer system were detected either in the laboratory stimulation or in the test in 5800 m water depth north of Hawaii

  7. Transferability of results of PTS experiments to the integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, E.; Eisele, U.; Stumpfrock, L.

    1997-01-01

    The integrity assessment of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is based on the fracture mechanics concept as provided in the code. However this concept covers only the linear-elastic fracture mechanics regime on the basis of the reference temperature RT NDT as derived from charpy impact and drop-weight test. The conservatism of this concept was demonstrated for a variety of different materials covering optimized and lower bound material states with regard to unirradiated and irradiated conditions. For the elastic-plastic regime, methodologies have been developed to describe ductile crack initiation and stable crack growth. The transferability of both, the linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics concept was investigated with the help of large scale specimens focusing on complex loading situations as they result from postulated thermal shock events for the RPV. A series of pressurized thermal shock (PTS) experiments were performed in which the applicability of the fracture mechanics parameters derived from small scale specimen testing could be demonstrated. This includes brittle (static and dynamic) crack initiation and crack arrest in the low charpy energy regime as well as stable crack initiation, stable crack growth and crack arrest in the upper shelf toughness regime. The paper provides the basic material data, the load paths, representative for large complex components as well as experimental and theoretical results of PTS experiments. From these data it can be concluded that the available fracture mechanics concepts can be used to describe the component behavior under transient loading conditions. (author). 26 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  8. Transferability of results of PTS experiments to the integrity assessment of reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E; Eisele, U; Stumpfrock, L [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    The integrity assessment of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) is based on the fracture mechanics concept as provided in the code. However this concept covers only the linear-elastic fracture mechanics regime on the basis of the reference temperature RT{sub NDT} as derived from charpy impact and drop-weight test. The conservatism of this concept was demonstrated for a variety of different materials covering optimized and lower bound material states with regard to unirradiated and irradiated conditions. For the elastic-plastic regime, methodologies have been developed to describe ductile crack initiation and stable crack growth. The transferability of both, the linear-elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics concept was investigated with the help of large scale specimens focusing on complex loading situations as they result from postulated thermal shock events for the RPV. A series of pressurized thermal shock (PTS) experiments were performed in which the applicability of the fracture mechanics parameters derived from small scale specimen testing could be demonstrated. This includes brittle (static and dynamic) crack initiation and crack arrest in the low charpy energy regime as well as stable crack initiation, stable crack growth and crack arrest in the upper shelf toughness regime. The paper provides the basic material data, the load paths, representative for large complex components as well as experimental and theoretical results of PTS experiments. From these data it can be concluded that the available fracture mechanics concepts can be used to describe the component behavior under transient loading conditions. (author). 26 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab.

  9. Lysimeter experiments on root uptake of Co-60, Sr-90 and Cs-137 from soil into vine and apple trees and on the transfer into grapes and apples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Foerstel, H.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1993-01-01

    In lysimeters filled with two different soil types (Parabraunerde and Podzol) the transfer of 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs from soil into vine and apple trees was investigated over a time period of 5 years (1988-1992). The soil was contaminated in 1978, so that at the beginning of the experiment the radionuclides were already aged. Due to the low availability for root uptake, the transfer of 60 Co and 137 Cs into vine and apple trees was very low. 90 Sr was fairly available for root uptake which caused a considerable uptake and translocation into vegetative plant parts. The physiological behaviour of the radionuclides investigated determined generally a low transfer into must and apples. This was confirmed by the transfer factors variing between 0.001 and 0.029 for 60 Co, 0.01 and 0.036 for 90 Sr and 0.001 and 0.109 for 137 Cs, respectively. The corresponding values in apples were in the same order of magnitude. The influence of the soil type is shown by the higher incorporation of 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs into the single plant organs and by the higher transfer factors in must and apples grown on the podzolic soil. (orig.) [de

  10. Practical implementation of liquid biofuels: The transferability of the Brazilian experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Pippo, Walfrido; Luengo, Carlos A.; Alonsoamador Morales Alberteris, Lidice; García del Pino, Gilberto; Duvoisin, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper was to carry out a systematic analysis of the particularities and trends pertaining to the development of biofuels in Brazil—a country which has demonstrated its leadership in this field during the last 40 years. The Brazilian experiences with biofuels are often used as references for decision making by other developed and developing countries. The transferability of Brazil's biofuels practices would be appreciated by many researchers and energy policy markers across the world. This work uses an adapted 5W2H (what, when, where, why, who, how, and how much) analysis technique to answer a variety of questions about the subject. The data, facts, and figures herein are offered as resources for other researchers and policy makers seeking benchmarking. Also, this work discusses the main certainties and uncertainties of the sugarcane agro-industry, and also goes into detail about the ethanol supply chain structure, its management, and particularities. Finally, this research analyzes the central aspects of biofuels implementation in Brazil, lists the most important aspects to consider during a selection of possible standard biofuels, and presents the main aspects of the National Program of Biodiesel Production and its sustainability. - Highlights: • A systemic cause–effect analysis was carried out on biofuel program success. • Main questions concerning implementation of liquid biofuels in Brazil were studied. • Main weakness aspects of biofuel logistic were treated. • During selection of benchmarking strategy. What needs to take into account?

  11. Simulation of the ACE L2 and ACE L5 MCCI experiment under dry surface conditions with ASTEC MEDICIS using an effective heat transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agethen, Kathrin; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Reactor Simulation and Safety Group

    2013-07-01

    In a postulated severe accident the loss of cooling can lead to a melting of the core and to a failure of the vessel. The molten core material discharges to the containment cavity and interacts with the concrete basemat. The heat up of the concrete leads to the release of sparing gases (H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, SiO), which stir the pool und causes chemical reactions. Especially the metals (Zr, Fe, Ni, Cr) in the corium are oxidized und the exothermic energy is released to the melt, which raises the melt temperature further. The release of combustible gases (H{sub 2}, CO) and fission products to the containment atmosphere occurs as a result. In the long time (>10 h) containment failure and basemat penetration may occur, which can lead to fission product release to the environment. For further development and validation, simulations of experiments in which molten core concrete interaction (MCCI) is investigated, are necessary. In this work the new available effective heat transfer model in MEDICIS is used to calculate experiments of the ACE program, in which generic corium material is heated up and interacts with the concrete basemat. Here, especially the ACE L2 experiment with siliceous concrete and the ACE L5 experiment with limestone common sand (LCS) concrete will be presented. These experiments enable to analyze the heat transfer from the interior of the melt to the upper surface under dry conditions. Secondary the modeling in ASTEC version 2.p2 with the effective heat transfer module in MEDICIS is described. Results of MEDICIS simulations will be discussed by means of phenomena like ablation behavior and erosions depth, layer temperature and surface heat loss. Finally the issue of an effective heat transfer coefficient for the surface under dry conditions without top flooding is figured out. (orig.)

  12. An overview of the SABER experiment for the TIMED mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Russell, James M., III

    1995-01-01

    The Sounding of the Atmosphere Using Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) experiment has been selected for flight on the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) mission expected to fly in the latter part of this decade. The primary science goal of SABER is to achieve fundamental and important advances in understanding of the energetics, chemistry, and dynamics, in the atmospheric region extending from 60 km to 180 km altitude, which has not been comprehensively observed on a global basis. This will be accomplished using the space flight proven experiment approach of broad spectral band limb emission radiometry. SABER will scan the horizon in 12 selected bands ranging from 1.27 microns to 17 microns wavelength. The observed vertical horizon emission profiles will be mathematically inverted in ground data processing to provide vertical profiles with 2 km vertical resolution, of temperature, O3, H2O, NO, NO2, CO, and CO2. SABER will also observe key emissions needed for energetics studies at 1.27 microns (O2((sup 1)delta)), 2 microns (OH(v = 7,8,9)) 1.6 microns (OH(v = 3,4,5)), 4.3 microns (CO2(v(sub 3))) 5.3 microns (NO) 9.6 microns (O3), and 15 microns (CO2(v(sub 2))). These measurements will be used to infer atomic hydrogen and atomic oxygen, the latter inferred three different ways using only SABER observations. Measurements will be made both night and day over the latitude range from the southern to northern polar regions.

  13. Heat transfer experiments in a wire-inserted tube at supercritical pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Yoon Yeong; Kim, Hwan Yeol; Yoo, Tae Ho

    2009-07-15

    The hydraulic diameter of a subchannel in a core concept developed at KAERI is 6.5 mm. The sub-channel is much smaller than that of the conventional PWR, and naturally a helical wire was considered as one of the candidates for a spacer. For simplicity the subchannel is simulated by a commercially available Inconel 625 tube of 6.32 mm ID with a helically-coiled spring steel wire insert of 1.3 mm OD. The medium is CO{sub 2}. The test pressures are 7.75 and 8.12 MPa corresponding to 1.05 and 1.1 times the critical pressure of CO{sub 2}, respectively. The mass flux and heat flux, which were in the range of 400 {approx} 1200 kg/m{sup 2}s and 30 {approx} 90 kW/m{sup 2} respectively, were varied at a given system pressure. The corresponding Reynolds numbers at the inlet spans between 2.5 x 10{sup 4} and 7.5 x 10{sup 4}. It was observed that the heat transfer was enhanced by almost twice in most of the tested enthalpy range except for in the the region far from the pseudocritical point. The test results revealed that the wire effect was sustained in the downstream up to 40-60 times the wire diameter. The temperature decreased in the first half of the span between contact points and it increased in the second half of the span.

  14. Efficacy of Radiative Transfer Model Across Space, Time and Hydro-climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, B.; Neelam, M.

    2017-12-01

    The efficiency of radiative transfer model for better soil moisture retrievals is not yet clearly understood over natural systems with great variability and heterogeneity with respect to soil, land cover, topography, precipitation etc. However, this knowledge is important to direct and strategize future research direction and field campaigns. In this work, we present global sensitivity analysis (GSA) technique to study the influence of heterogeneity and uncertainties on radiative transfer model (RTM) and to quantify climate-soil-vegetation interactions. A framework is proposed to understand soil moisture mechanisms underlying these interactions, and influence of these interactions on soil moisture retrieval accuracy. Soil moisture dynamics is observed to play a key role in variability of these interactions, i.e., it enhances both mean and variance of soil-vegetation coupling. The analysis is conducted for different support scales (Point Scale, 800 m, 1.6 km, 3.2 km, 6.4 km, 12.8 km, and 36 km), seasonality (time), hydro-climates, aggregation (scaling) methods and across Level I and Level II ecoregions of contiguous USA (CONUS). For undisturbed natural environments such as SGP'97 (Oklahoma, USA) and SMEX04 (Arizona, USA), the sensitivity of TB to land surface variables remain nearly uniform and are not influenced by extent, support scales or averaging method. On the contrary, for anthropogenically-manipulated environments such as SMEX02 (Iowa, USA) and SMAPVEX12 (Winnipeg, Canada), the sensitivity to variables are highly influenced by the distribution of land surface heterogeneity and upscaling methods. The climate-soil-vegetation interactions analyzed across all ecoregions are presented through a probability distribution function (PDF). The intensity of these interactions are categorized accordingly to yield "hotspots", where the RTM model fails to retrieve soil moisture. A ecoregion specific scaling function is proposed for these hotspots to rectify RTM for

  15. Key Issues in Transfer Stage of BOT Project: Experience from China

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Liguang; Zhang Xueqing

    2017-01-01

    The build-operate-transfer (BOT) project delivery system has provided effective routes to mobilize private sector funds, innovative technologies, management skills and operational efficiencies for public infrastructure development and have been widely used in China during the last 20 years. Many BOT projects in China will be smoothly transferred to the government soon and the transfer stage, which is considered as the last stage, must be studied carefully and handled well to achieve the overa...

  16. The Rural Health Care Delivery System in the Dingxian Experiment: A Case Study of Educational Transfer in Republican China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wai-man; Lo, L. Nai-kwai

    1988-01-01

    Discusses dependency theory in comparative education studies. Examines U.S. educational transfer to China during the Republican period as it functioned through the public health delivery model of the Dingxian Experiment. Notes that resistance to dependency in this case could serve as a model for avoiding the technological misfitting of programs.…

  17. Bimodal Exciplex Formation in Bimolecular Photoinduced Electron Transfer Revealed by Ultrafast Time-Resolved Infrared Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Marius; Licari, Giuseppe; Vauthey, Eric

    2015-09-03

    The dynamics of a moderately exergonic photoinduced charge separation has been investigated by ultrafast time-resolved infrared absorption with the dimethylanthracene/phthalonitrile donor/acceptor pair in solvents covering a broad range of polarity. A distinct spectral signature of an exciplex could be identified in the -C≡N stretching region. On the basis of quantum chemistry calculations, the 4-5 times larger width of this band compared to those of the ions and of the locally excited donor bands is explained by a dynamic distribution of exciplex geometry with different mutual orientations and distances of the constituents and, thus, with varying charge-transfer character. Although spectrally similar, two types of exciplexes could be distinguished by their dynamics: short-lived, "tight", exciplexes generated upon static quenching and longer-lived, "loose", exciplexes formed upon dynamic quenching in parallel with ion pairs. Tight exciplexes were observed in all solvents, except in the least polar diethyl ether where quenching is slower than diffusion. The product distribution of the dynamic quenching depends strongly on the solvent polarity: whereas no significant loose exciplex population could be detected in acetonitrile, both exciplex and ion pair are generated in less polar solvents, with the relative population of exciplex increasing with decreasing solvent polarity. These results are compared with those reported previously with donor/acceptor pairs in different driving force regimes to obtain a comprehensive picture of the role of the exciplexes in bimolecular photoinduced charge separation.

  18. National Spherical Torus Experiment Real Time Plasma Control Data Acquisition Hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Marsala; J. Schneider

    2002-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is currently providing researchers data on low aspect-ratio toroidal plasmas. NSTX's Plasma Control System adjusts the firing angles of thyristor rectifier power supplies, in real time, to control plasma position, shape and density. A Data Acquisition system comprised of off-the-shelf and custom hardware provides the magnetic diagnostics data required in calculating firing angles. This VERSAmodule Eurocard (VME) bus-based system utilizes Front Panel Data Port (FPDP) for high-speed data transfer. Data coming from physically different locations is referenced to several different ground potentials necessitating the need for a custom FPDP multiplexer. This paper discusses the data acquisition system configuration, the in-house designed 4-to-1 FPDP Input Multiplexing Module (FIMM), and future expansion plans

  19. Geometry Survey of the Time-of-Flight Neutron-Elastic Scattering (Antonella) Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshinowo, Babatunde O. [Fermilab; Izraelevitch, Federico [Buenos Aires U.

    2016-10-17

    The Antonella experiment is a measurement of the ionization efficiency of nuclear recoils in silicon at low energies [1]. It is a neutron elastic scattering experiment motivated by the search for dark matter particles. In this experiment, a proton beam hits a lithium target and neutrons are produced. The neutron shower passes through a collimator that produces a neutron beam. The beam illuminates a silicon detector. With a certain probability, a neutron interacts with a silicon nucleus of the detector producing elastic scattering. After the interaction, a fraction of the neutron energy is transferred to the silicon nucleus which acquires kinetic energy and recoils. This kinetic energy is then dissipated in the detector producing ionization and thermal energy. The ionization produced is measured with the silicon detector electronics. On the other hand, the neutron is scattered out of the beam. A neutron-detector array (made of scintillator bars) registers the neutron arrival time and the scattering angle to reconstruct the kinematics of the neutron-nucleus interaction with the time-of-flight technique [2]. In the reconstruction equations, the energy of the nuclear recoil is a function of the scattering angle with respect to the beam direction, the time-of-flight of the neutron and the geometric distances between components of the setup (neutron-production target, silicon detector, scintillator bars). This paper summarizes the survey of the different components of the experiment that made possible the off-line analysis of the collected data. Measurements were made with the API Radian Laser Tracker and I-360 Probe Wireless. The survey was completed at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA in February 2015.

  20. Experiment and mathematical model for the heat transfer in water around 4 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Naohisa; Kaneko, Fumitoshi

    2017-03-01

    Water, which is the habitat for a variety of living creatures, has a maximum density at 4.0 °C. This crucial property is considered to play a very important role in the biology of a lake and also has a close relationship with the areas of environmentology and geoscience. It would be desirable for students to confirm this important property of water themselves by carrying out simple experiments. However, it is not easy to detect the maximum density at 4.0 °C because the temperature dependence of the water density is very small close to its freezing point. For example, the density of water is 0.999 975 g cm-3 at 4.0 °C and 0.999 850 g cm-3 at 0.1 °C. The aim in this manuscript is to demonstrate a simple experiment to detect 4.0 °C as the temperature of maximum density, in which the time dependence of the water temperature is measured at several different depths by chilling the water surface. This is a simple experiment that can also be performed by high school students. We also present a mathematical model that can explain the results of this experiment.

  1. Software of structure experiMents in a neutron time-of-flight diffractometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balagurov, A.M.; Dlouga, M.; Zlokazov, V.B.; Mironova, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    A set of programs is discussed to be used in diffraction experiment in a neutron time-of-flight diffractometer. The DIFRAT program, which processes spectra of poly and monocrystals, locates all spectrum maxima and assesses their width on the basis of given experimental data and elementary cell parameters. Accurate location of maxima, evaluation of their area and width is done by the IREAK program. The most important feature of this program is a capability to set an experimental model of maxima patterns. The EXPDAT program is developed to investigate structural characteristics of a sample. It calculates corrections for absorbtion and extinction

  2. The Time Projection Chamber of the HARP Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lundborg, A

    2002-01-01

    The hadron production experiment HARP aims to measure hadron collision cross sections with a 2-15 GeV particle beam and several targets. This energy regime is in a borderline zone between the low energy region dominated by resonance formation and the high energy domain where perturbative Quantum Chromo Dynamics is applicable. The emphasis of this master thesis is put on the HARP central tracker, the Time Projection Chamber (TPC). In the thesis work, Finite Element Method computations of the electric field in critical regions of the TPC have been performed to provide design input concerning the electrostatic configuration of the field cages and of the wire chamber. A first step in the chain of reconstruction of the information produced by the detector is the equalisation and monitoring of about 4000 analogue signals. An algorithm that processes the raw digitised signals, filters out electronics noise and extracts the pad gain from signal distributions has been produced and analysed for this purpose. The algori...

  3. Time domain structures in a colliding magnetic flux rope experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shawn Wenjie; Gekelman, Walter; Dehaas, Timothy; Vincena, Steve; Pribyl, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    Electron phase-space holes, regions of positive potential on the scale of the Debye length, have been observed in auroras as well as in laboratory experiments. These potential structures, also known as Time Domain Structures (TDS), are packets of intense electric field spikes that have significant components parallel to the local magnetic field. In an ongoing investigation at UCLA, TDS were observed on the surface of two magnetized flux ropes produced within the Large Plasma Device (LAPD). A barium oxide (BaO) cathode was used to produce an 18 m long magnetized plasma column and a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) source was used to create 11 m long kink unstable flux ropes. Using two probes capable of measuring the local electric and magnetic fields, correlation analysis was performed on tens of thousands of these structures and their propagation velocities, probability distribution function and spatial distribution were determined. The TDS became abundant as the flux ropes collided and appear to emanate from the reconnection region in between them. In addition, a preliminary analysis of the permutation entropy and statistical complexity of the data suggests that the TDS signals may be chaotic in nature. Work done at the Basic Plasma Science Facility (BaPSF) at UCLA which is supported by DOE and NSF.

  4. Menstruation across time: menarche, menstrual attitudes, experiences, and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Marianne E; Korfine, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between early and current menstrual experiences. The primary hypothesis was that women who reported positive menarcheal experiences (including menstrual education and menarche) would tend to report positive current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and/or behaviors, and vice versa for women who reported negative menarcheal experiences. In this survey-based study, college-aged women (n = 327) were screened by completing a questionnaire concerning their menarcheal experiences. Women who had extremely negative ("negative group," n = 46) or extremely positive ("positive group," n = 38) early menstrual experiences returned to complete questionnaires concerning current menstrual attitudes, experiences, and behaviors. Early and current menstrual experiences were most strongly associated in the domain of menstrual attitudes. Women in the negative group reported more negative menstrual attitudes than did women in the positive group. There were additional associations between early menstrual experiences and measures of body image and health behaviors. Positive group participants reported more positive body image and better general health behaviors. Results suggest that early menstrual experiences may be related to menstrual experiences later in life. This study invites further investigation of the psychology of menstruation and suggests connecting menstruation with other women's health issues.

  5. An empirical model for trip distribution of commuters in the Netherlands: Transferability in time and space reconsidered.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, Tom; Tutert, Bas

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the distribution of commute trips in The Netherlands, to assess its transferability in space and time. We used Dutch Travel Surveys from 1995 and 2004–2008 to estimate the empirical distribution from a spatial interaction model as function of travel time and distance. We

  6. Simultaneously precise frequency transfer and time synchronization using feed-forward compensation technique via 120 km fiber link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Lu, Jinlong; Cui, Yifan; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Xing; Tian, Xusheng; Ci, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Wu, Hong; Tang, Tingsong; Shi, Kebin; Zhang, Zhigang

    2015-12-22

    Precision time synchronization between two remote sites is desired in many applications such as global positioning satellite systems, long-baseline interferometry, coherent radar detection and fundamental physics constant measurements. The recently developed frequency dissemination technologies based on optical fiber link have improved the transfer instability to the level of 10(-19)/day at remote location. Therefore it is possible to keep clock oscillation at remote locations continuously corrected, or to reproduce a "virtual" clock on the remote location. However the initial alignment and the correction of 1 pps timing signal from time to time are still required, besides the highly stabilized clock frequency transfer between distant locations. Here we demonstrate a time synchronization based on an ultra-stable frequency transfer system via 120-km commercial fiber link by transferring an optical frequency comb. Both the phase noise compensation in frequency dissemination and temporal basis alignment in time synchronization were implemented by a feed-forward digital compensation (FFDC) technique. The fractional frequency instability was measured to be 6.18 × 10(-20) at 2000 s. The timing deviation of time synchronization was measured to be 0.6 ps in 1500 s. This technique also can be applied in multi-node fiber network topology.

  7. Experience-Oriented Knowledge Organisation for the Transference of Scientific Knowledge from Universities to SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Løkkegaard, Sarai; Jantzen, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Transferring scientific knowledge between universities and industry is known to be problematic, specifically for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that have limited resources and absorption capacity. A variety of channels is used for knowledge transfer. These include what is commonly refe...

  8. Large Scale Commissioning and Operational Experience with Tier-2 to Tier-2 Data Transfer Links in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Letts, James

    2010-01-01

    Tier-2 to Tier-2 data transfers have been identified as a necessary extension of the CMS computing model. The Debugging Data Transfers (DDT) Task Force in CMS was charged with commissioning Tier-2 to Tier-2 PhEDEx transfer links beginning in late 2009, originally to serve the needs of physics analysis groups for the transfer of their results between the storage elements of the Tier-2 sites associated with the groups. PhEDEx is the data transfer middleware of the CMS experiment. For analysis jobs using CRAB, the CMS Remote Analysis Builder, the challenges of remote stage out of job output at the end of the analysis jobs led to the introduction of a local fallback stage out, and will eventually require the asynchronous transfer of user data over essentially all of the Tier-2 to Tier-2 network using the same PhEDEx infrastructure. In addition, direct file sharing of physics and Monte Carlo simulated data between Tier-2 sites can relieve the operational load of the Tier-1 sites in the original CMS Computing Model...

  9. Frame-Transfer Gating Raman Spectroscopy for Time-Resolved Multiscalar Combustion Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet; Fischer, David G.; Kojima, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Accurate experimental measurement of spatially and temporally resolved variations in chemical composition (species concentrations) and temperature in turbulent flames is vital for characterizing the complex phenomena occurring in most practical combustion systems. These diagnostic measurements are called multiscalar because they are capable of acquiring multiple scalar quantities simultaneously. Multiscalar diagnostics also play a critical role in the area of computational code validation. In order to improve the design of combustion devices, computational codes for modeling turbulent combustion are often used to speed up and optimize the development process. The experimental validation of these codes is a critical step in accepting their predictions for engine performance in the absence of cost-prohibitive testing. One of the most critical aspects of setting up a time-resolved stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) diagnostic system is the temporal optical gating scheme. A short optical gate is necessary in order for weak SRS signals to be detected with a good signal- to-noise ratio (SNR) in the presence of strong background optical emissions. This time-synchronized optical gating is a classical problem even to other spectroscopic techniques such as laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Traditionally, experimenters have had basically two options for gating: (1) an electronic means of gating using an image intensifier before the charge-coupled-device (CCD), or (2) a mechanical optical shutter (a rotary chopper/mechanical shutter combination). A new diagnostic technology has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center that utilizes a frame-transfer CCD sensor, in conjunction with a pulsed laser and multiplex optical fiber collection, to realize time-resolved Raman spectroscopy of turbulent flames that is free from optical background noise (interference). The technology permits not only shorter temporal optical gating (down

  10. USING CENTER HOLE HEAT TRANSFER TO REDUCE FORMATION TIMES FOR CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FROM PYROPROCESSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth J. Bateman; Charles W. Solbrig

    2006-01-01

    through the center hole, also works well as long as the heat capacity times the velocity of the gas is equivalent to that of the flowing aluminum, and the velocity is high enough to produce an intermediate size heat transfer coefficient. The fourth method, using an electric heater, works well and heater sizes between 500 to 1000 Watts are adequate. These later three methods all can reduce the heatup time to 44 hours

  11. Transfer Students in Higher Education: Building Foundations for Policies, Programs, and Services that Foster Student Success. The First-Year Experience Monograph Series No. 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poisel, Mark Allen, Ed.; Joseph, Sonya, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Transfer Students in Higher Education" presents what individuals know about transfer students, addresses assumptions and myths about the transfer experience, and explores the changing demographics of this student group. Adopting a student-centered approach, the monograph offers strategies to begin (and continue) the work of serving students and…

  12. Autonomous GPS/INS navigation experiment for Space Transfer Vehicle (STV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Triveni N.; Cotterill, Stephen; Deaton, A. Wayne

    1991-01-01

    An experiment to validate the concept of developing an autonomous integrated spacecraft navigation system using on board Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) measurements is described. The feasibility of integrating GPS measurements with INS measurements to provide a total improvement in spacecraft navigation performance, i.e. improvement in position, velocity and attitude information, was previously demonstrated. An important aspect of this research is the automatic real time reconfiguration capability of the system designed to respond to changes in a spacecraft mission under the control of an expert system.

  13. Statistical Metadata Analysis of the Variability of Latency, Device Transfer Time, and Coordinate Position from Smartphone-Recorded Infrasound Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, E. L.; Garces, M. A.; Christe, A.

    2017-12-01

    The RedVox infrasound recorder app uses microphones and barometers in smartphones to record infrasound, low-frequency sound below the threshold of human hearing. We study a device's metadata, which includes position, latency time, the differences between the device's internal times and the server times, and the machine time, searching for patterns and possible errors or discontinuities in these scaled parameters. We highlight metadata variability through scaled multivariate displays (histograms, distribution curves, scatter plots), all created and organized through software development in Python. This project is helpful in ascertaining variability and honing the accuracy of smartphones, aiding the emergence of portable devices as viable geophysical data collection instruments. It can also improve the app and cloud service by increasing efficiency and accuracy, allowing to better document and foresee drastic natural movements like tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, storms, rocket launches, and meteor impacts; recorded data can later be used for studies and analysis by a variety of professions. We expect our final results to produce insight on how to counteract problematic issues in data mining and improve accuracy in smartphone data-collection. By eliminating lurking variables and minimizing the effect of confounding variables, we hope to discover efficient processes to reduce superfluous precision, unnecessary errors, and data artifacts. These methods should conceivably be transferable to other areas of software development, data analytics, and statistics-based experiments, contributing a precedent of smartphone metadata studies from geophysical rather than societal data. The results should facilitate the rise of civilian-accessible, hand-held, data-gathering mobile sensor networks and yield more straightforward data mining techniques.

  14. Experiment data report for semiscale Mod-1 test S-02-3 (blowdown heat transfer test)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crapo, H.S.; Jensen, M.F.; Sackett, K.E.

    1975-09-01

    Recorded test data are presented for Test S-02-3 of the Semiscale Mod-1 blowdown heat transfer test series. Test S-02-3 was conducted from an initial cold leg fluid temperature of 544 0 F and an initial pressure of 2,263 psig. A simulated double-ended offset shear cold leg break was used to investigate the system response to a depressurization transient with a moderately heated core (75 percent design power level). An electrically heated core was used in the pressure vessel to simulate the effects of a nuclear core. System flow was also set at the 75 percent design level to achieve full core temperature differential. The flow resistance of the intact loop was based on core area scaling. During system depressurization, core power was reduced from the initial level of 1.2 MW in such a manner as to simulate the surface heat flux response of the LOFT nuclear fuel rods until such time that departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) occurs. Blowdown to the pressure suppression system was accomplished without simulated emergency core coolant injection or pressure suppression system coolant spray

  15. Ocean wave-radar modulation transfer functions from the West Coast experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. W.; Plant, W. J.; Keller, W. C.; Jones, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Short gravity-capillary waves, the equilibrium, or the steady state excitations of the ocean surface are modulated by longer ocean waves. These short waves are the predominant microwave scatterers on the ocean surface under many viewing conditions so that the modulation is readily measured with CW Doppler radar used as a two-scale wave probe. Modulation transfer functions (the ratio of the cross spectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed and backscattered microwave power to the autospectrum of the line-of-sight orbital speed) were measured at 9.375 and 1.5 GHz (Bragg wavelengths of 2.3 and 13 cm) for winds up to 10 m/s and ocean wave periods from 2-18 s. The measurements were compared with the relaxation-time model; the principal result is that a source of modulation other than straining by the horizontal component of orbital speed, possibly the wave-induced airflow, is responsible for most of the modulation by waves of typical ocean wave period (10 s). The modulations are large; for unit coherence, spectra of radar images of deep-water waves should be proportional to the quotient of the slope spectra of the ocean waves by the ocean wave frequency.

  16. Steady natural convection heat transfer experiments in a horizontal annulus for the United States Spent Fuel Shipping Cask Technology Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.D.

    1981-04-01

    This experimental study deals with the measurement of the heat transfer across a horizontal annulus which is formed by an inner hexagonal cylinder and an outer concentric circular cylinder. The geometry simulates, in two dimensions, a liquid metal fast breeder reactor radioactive fuel subassembly inside a shipping container. This geometry is also similar to a radioactive fuel pin inside a horizontal reactor subassembly. The objective of the experiments is to measure the local and mean heat transfer at the surface of the inner hexagonal cylinder

  17. A Long-Term Comparison of GPS Carrierphase Frequency Transfer and Two-Way Satellite Time/Frequency Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    14 1.E-13 1.E+03 1.E+04 1.E+05 1.E+06 1.E+07 AVERAGING TIME τ (s) O V E R LA P P IN G σ y ( τ )/T H E O _B R (F R A C F R E Q ) METAS-NIST NPL-NIST... Metrologia , 42, 411-422. [2] C. Hackman, J. Levine, T. E. Parker, D. Piester and J. Becker, 2006, “A Straightforward Frequency- Estimation Technique for... Metrologia , 43, 109-120. [6] http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov [7] G. Blewitt, 1989, “Carrier-Phase Ambiguity Resolution for the Global Positioning System Applied

  18. Nuclear event time histories and computed site transfer functions for locations in the Los Angeles region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, A.M.; Covington, P.A.; Park, R.B.; Borcherdt, R.D.; Perkins, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a collection of Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosion recordings obtained at sites in the greater Los Angeles, Calif., region. The report includes ground velocity time histories, as well as, derived site transfer functions. These data have been collected as part of a study to evaluate the validity of using low-level ground motions to predict the frequency-dependent response of a site during an earthquake. For this study 19 nuclear events were recorded at 98 separate locations. Some of these sites have recorded more than one of the nuclear explosions, and, consequently, there are a total of 159, three-component station records. The location of all the recording sites are shown in figures 1–5, the station coordinates and abbreviations are given in table 1. The station addresses are listed in table 2, and the nuclear explosions that were recorded are listed in table 3. The recording sites were chosen on the basis of three criteria: (1) that the underlying geological conditions were representative of conditions over significant areas of the region, (2) that the site was the location of a strong-motion recording of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, or (3) that more complete geographical coverage was required in that location.

  19. Transfers to psychiatry through the consultation-liaison psychiatry service: 11 years of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michopoulos Ioannis

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are only a few reports on issues related to patient transfer from medical and surgical departments to the psychiatric ward by the consultation-liaison psychiatry service, although it is a common practice. Here, we present a study assessing the factors that influence such transfers. Method We examined the demographic and clinical backgrounds of a group of patients transferred from internal medicine and surgery to the psychiatric ward over an 11-year period. A comparison was made of this data with data obtained from a group of non-transferred patients, also seen by the same consultation-liaison psychiatry service. Results According to our findings, the typical transferred patient, either female or male, is single, divorced or widowed, lives alone, belongs to a lower socioeconomic class, presents initially with (on the whole a disturbed and disruptive behaviour, has had a recent suicide attempt with persistent suicidal ideas, suffers from a mood disorder (mainly depressive and dysthymic disorders, has a prior psychiatric history as well as a prior psychiatric inpatient treatment, and a positive diagnosis on axis II of the five axis system used for mental health diagnosis. Conclusion The transfer of a patient to the psychiatric ward is a decision depending on multiple factors. Medical diagnoses do not seem to play a major role in the transfer to the psychiatric ward. From the psychiatric diagnosis, depressive and dysthymic disorders are the most common in the transferred population, whilst the transfer is influenced by social factors regarding the patient, the patient's behaviour, the conditions in the ward she/he is treated in and any recent occurrence(s that increase the anxiety of the staff.

  20. Mass transfer in electromembrane extraction - The link between theory and experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Jensen, Henrik; Seip, Knut Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    typically been combined with chromatography, mass spectrometry, and electrophoresis for analyte separation and detection. At the moment, close to 125 research papers have been published with focus on electromembrane extraction. Electromembrane extraction is a hybrid technique between electrophoresis....... This review summarizes recent efforts to describe the fundamentals of mass transfer in electromembrane extraction, and aim to give an up-to-date understanding of the processes involved....... and liquid–liquid extraction, and the fundamental principles for mass transfer have only partly been investigated. Thus, although there is great interest in electromembrane extraction, the fundamental principle for mass transfer has to be described in more detail for the scientific acceptance of the concept...

  1. Population Transfer between Two Quantum States by Piecewise Chirping of Femtosecond Pulses: Theory and Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanovich, S.; Shapiro, E. A.; Shapiro, M.; Hepburn, J. W.; Milner, V.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate the method of population transfer by piecewise adiabatic passage between two quantum states. Coherent excitation of a two-level system with a train of ultrashort laser pulses is shown to reproduce the effect of an adiabatic passage, conventionally achieved with a single frequency-chirped pulse. By properly adjusting the amplitudes and phases of the pulses in the excitation pulse train, we achieve complete and robust population transfer to the target state. The piecewise nature of the process suggests a possibility for the selective population transfer in complex quantum systems

  2. Radionuclide soil-to-plant transfer - experiences from the Chernobyl accident in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1994-03-01

    In field studies after the Chernobyl fallout in Austria distinct differences in soil-to-plant transfer of 137 Cs and 90 Sr between crops were observed. However, within single plant species transfer values varied over one to three orders of magnitude. The main influencing factors are the soil properties, the soil adhesion phenomenon and probably the unhomogeneous vertical distribution of the radionuclides after plowing. On the basis of the presented results we should be aware of the uncertainties of the simple soil-to-plant transfer model, which partly mask the influence of soil parameters on root uptake and translocation. (author)

  3. Time-dependent transfer of 54Mn, 60Co, 85Sr and 137Cs from a sandy soil to soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Keum, Dong-Kwon; Han, Moon-Hee

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were performed to investigate the dependence of 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs transfer from sandy soil to soybean plants on the growth stage when a radioactive deposition occurs. A solution containing 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs was applied onto the soil surfaces in the lysimeters at six different times -2 d before sowing and 13, 40, 61, 82 and 96 d after sowing. Soil-to-plant transfer was quantified with a transfer factor (m 2 kg -1 -dry) specified for the deposition time. The transfer factor values of 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs for the seeds were in the range of 1.5×10 -3 -1.0×10 -2 , 4.7×10 -4 -3.2×10 -3 , 5.7×10 -4 -1.0×10 -2 and 3.0×10 -5 -2.7×10 -4 , respectively, for different deposition times. The corresponding values for the leaves were 6.4×10 -3 -3.2×10 -2 , 4.3×10 -4 -2.0×10 -3 , 5.1×10 -3 -5.3×10 -2 and 9.2×10 -5 -1.9×10 -4 , respectively. The values for the seeds were on the whole highest following the middle-growth-stage deposition. After the pre-sowing deposition, the transfer factor values of 54 Mn, 60 Co and 137 Cs for the seeds decreased annually so those in the fourth year were 53%, 75% and 34% of those in the first year, respectively. The present results may be useful for predicting the radionuclide concentrations in soybean plants due to their root uptake following an acute soil-deposition during the vegetation period, and for validating a relevant model. (author)

  4. Design of pulsed perforated-plate columns for industrial scale mass transfer applications - present experience and the need for a model based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    transfer requirements. While following HETS-NTS concept of design, the HETS data is obtained from pilot plant experiment and NTS is obtained from graphical/analytical methods using equilibrium data and operating conditions. The height of the mass transfer section is computed by multiplying HETS with NTS, and then applying a suitable design margin. The total height of the column is then obtained by adding phase separation sections at the top and bottom of mass transfer section. Diameter of the column is computed from the design capacity of the column and flooding correlations or data. The flooding correlations are complex function of system properties, plate geometry, pulse energy input and mass transfer. Due to limitations in the applicability as well as predictability of the correlations, it is often supplemented by experimental data. An integrated design approach is followed to ensure that the process parameters, that is, phase flow rates, pulse velocity, phase separation, dispersed phase hold-up and solvent loading is continuously monitored remotely during column operation. The requirements of fabrication, O and M and safety are also addressed at the time of design. The column performance is assessed in terms of mass transfer efficiency and separation factor. Columns are designed to operate in the dispersion regime for stable and best performance. The HETS-NTS approach is based on experimental data and thus has limitations when compared with model based approach. Whereas, a model based design approach using drop population balance (DPB) and CFD provides an in-depth understanding of hydrodynamics and mass transfer, which is essential for trying various design alternatives and new concepts leading to process intensification and design innovation. (author)

  5. Evaluation of small scale laboratory and pot experiments to determine realistic transfer factors for the radionuclides 90Sr, 137Cs, 60Co and 54Mn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, W.; Fuehr, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.

    1980-01-01

    Transfer factors for the root uptake of 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co and 54 Mn were compared using outdoor lysimeters, Kick-Brauckmann experimental pots under greenhouse conditions and Neubauer cups under growth chamber conditions. The uptake was studied in barley, potatoes, sugar beet and salad vegetables grown on either podsolic or loess soil. The transfer factors for these radionuclides under the specific conditions of the small scale Neubauer cup experiments differed greatly from those obtained from the outdoor lysimeter. In the pot experiments, the transfer factors for 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 54 Mn showed less deviation from the lysimeter results especially in crops grown on podsolic soil. For 60 Co, the transfer factors varied for the different crops grown. Transfer factors obtained in pot experiments can only be applicable to a limited extent to field conditions; factors influencing the transfer factors in pot experiments include soil volume, root density, root/shoot ratio, water supply and fertilizer application rate. (UK)

  6. The elastic transfer model of angular rate modulation in F1-ATPase stalling and controlled rotation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkán-Kacsó, S.

    2017-06-01

    The recent experimental, theoretical and computational advances in the field of F1-ATPase single-molecule microscopy are briefly surveyed. The role of theory is revealed in the statistical analysis, interpretation and prediction of single-molecule experimental trajectories, and in linking them with atomistic simulations. In particular, a theoretical model of elastically coupled molecular group transfer is reviewed and a detailed method for its application in stalling and controlled rotation experiments is provided. It is shown how the model can predict, using previous experiments, the rates of ligand binding/release processes (steps) and their exponential dependence on rotor angle in these experiments. The concept of Brønsted slopes is reviewed in the context of the single-molecule experiments, and the rate versus rotor angle relations are explained using the elastic model. These experimental data are treated in terms of the effect of thermodynamic driving forces on the rates assuming that the rotor shaft is elastically coupled to stator ring subunits in which the steps occur. In the application of the group transfer model on an extended angular range processes leading up to the transfer are discussed. Implications for large-scale atomistic simulation are suggested for the treatment of torque-generating steps.

  7. OECD/NEA data bank scientific and integral experiments databases in support of knowledge preservation and transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartori, E.; Kodeli, I.; Mompean, F.J.; Briggs, J.B.; Gado, J.; Hasegawa, A.; D'hondt, P.; Wiesenack, W.; Zaetta, A.

    2004-01-01

    The OECD/Nuclear Energy Data Bank was established by its member countries as an institution to allow effective sharing of knowledge and its basic underlying information and data in key areas of nuclear science and technology. The activities as regards preserving and transferring knowledge consist of the: 1) Acquisition of basic nuclear data, computer codes and experimental system data needed over a wide range of nuclear and radiation applications; 2) Independent verification and validation of these data using quality assurance methods, adding value through international benchmark exercises, workshops and meetings and by issuing relevant reports with conclusions and recommendations, as well as by organising training courses to ensure their qualified and competent use; 3) Dissemination of the different products to authorised establishments in member countries and collecting and integrating user feedback. Of particular importance has been the establishment of basic and integral experiments databases and the methodology developed with the aim of knowledge preservation and transfer. Databases established thus far include: 1) IRPhE - International Reactor Physics Experimental Benchmarks Evaluations, 2) SINBAD - a radiation shielding experiments database (nuclear reactors, fusion neutronics and accelerators), 3) IFPE - International Fuel Performance Benchmark Experiments Database, 4) TDB - The Thermochemical Database Project, 5) ICSBE - International Nuclear Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluations, 6) CCVM - CSNI Code Validation Matrix of Thermal-hydraulic Codes for LWR LOCA and Transients. This paper will concentrate on knowledge preservation and transfer concepts and methods related to some of the integral experiments and TDB. (author)

  8. Time variation of the electromagnetic transfer function of the earth estimated by using wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Noriko; Harada, Makoto; Izutsu, Jun; Nagao, Toshiyasu

    2006-07-01

    In order to accurately estimate the geomagnetic transfer functions in the area of the volcano Mt. Iwate (IWT), we applied the interstation transfer function (ISTF) method to the three-component geomagnetic field data observed at Mt. Iwate station (IWT), using the Kakioka Magnetic Observatory, JMA (KAK) as remote reference station. Instead of the conventional Fourier transform, in which temporary transient noises badly degrade the accuracy of long term properties, continuous wavelet transform has been used. The accuracy of the results was as high as that of robust estimations of transfer functions obtained by the Fourier transform method. This would provide us with possibilities for routinely monitoring the transfer functions, without sophisticated statistical procedures, to detect changes in the underground electrical conductivity structure.

  9. Testing Benefits Transfer of Forest Recreation Values over a 20-year time Horizon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Termansen, Mette; Jensen, F.S.

    2007-01-01

    We conduct a functional benefit transfer over 20 years of total willingness to pay based on car-borne forest recreation in 52 forests, using a mixed logit specification of a random utility model and geographic information systems to allow heterogeneous preferences across the population and for he......We conduct a functional benefit transfer over 20 years of total willingness to pay based on car-borne forest recreation in 52 forests, using a mixed logit specification of a random utility model and geographic information systems to allow heterogeneous preferences across the population...... and for heterogeneity over space. Results show that preferences for some forest attributes, such as species diversity and age, as well as transport mode have changed significantly over the period. Updating the transfer model with present total demand for recreation improves the error margins by an average of 282......%. Average errors of the best transfer model remain 25%....

  10. UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF TRANSFER OF ACADEMIC WRITING SKILLS ACROSS TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharwat EL-Sakran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates university students' perceptions towards an English for advanced academic writing purposes (AAW course taught in a private university in the United Arab Emirates. It probes into the relevance of the skills taught to the students' academic disciplines. Data was gathered through a short survey administered to students who successfully completed the course. The transferability of skills was measured in light of some of the learning objectives of the AAW stated in its syllabus. Findings indicated positive students' attitudes towards the AAW course. They also revealed that some learning outcomes did transfer to students' writing tasks in their major courses. However, transfer of these skills was more noticeable in some university disciplines (e.g. English more than others (e.g. Business Administration. Detailed explanations of reasons and contexts for skill transfer are presented. This research concludes with some pedagogical recommendations and suggestions for course improvement and further research.

  11. Interhemispheric Transfer Time Asymmetry of Visual Information Depends on Eye Dominance: An Electrophysiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumillon, Romain; Blouin, Jean; Guillaume, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The interhemispheric transfer of information is a fundamental process in the human brain. When a visual stimulus appears eccentrically in one visual-hemifield, it will first activate the contralateral hemisphere but also the ipsilateral one with a slight delay due to the interhemispheric transfer. This interhemispheric transfer of visual information is believed to be faster from the right to the left hemisphere in right-handers. Such an asymmetry is considered as a relevant fact in the context of the lateralization of the human brain. We show here using current source density (CSD) analyses of visually evoked potential (VEP) that, in right-handers and, to a lesser extent in left-handers, this asymmetry is in fact dependent on the sighting eye dominance, the tendency we have to prefer one eye for monocular tasks. Indeed, in right-handers, a faster interhemispheric transfer of visual information from the right to left hemisphere was observed only in participants with a right dominant eye (DE). Right-handers with a left DE showed the opposite pattern, with a faster transfer from the left to the right hemisphere. In left-handers, albeit a smaller number of participants has been tested and hence confirmation is required, only those with a right DE showed an asymmetrical interhemispheric transfer with a faster transfer from the right to the left hemisphere. As a whole these results demonstrate that eye dominance is a fundamental determinant of asymmetries in interhemispheric transfer of visual information and suggest that it is an important factor of brain lateralization.

  12. Interhemispheric Transfer Time Asymmetry of Visual Information Depends on Eye Dominance: An Electrophysiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Chaumillon

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The interhemispheric transfer of information is a fundamental process in the human brain. When a visual stimulus appears eccentrically in one visual-hemifield, it will first activate the contralateral hemisphere but also the ipsilateral one with a slight delay due to the interhemispheric transfer. This interhemispheric transfer of visual information is believed to be faster from the right to the left hemisphere in right-handers. Such an asymmetry is considered as a relevant fact in the context of the lateralization of the human brain. We show here using current source density (CSD analyses of visually evoked potential (VEP that, in right-handers and, to a lesser extent in left-handers, this asymmetry is in fact dependent on the sighting eye dominance, the tendency we have to prefer one eye for monocular tasks. Indeed, in right-handers, a faster interhemispheric transfer of visual information from the right to left hemisphere was observed only in participants with a right dominant eye (DE. Right-handers with a left DE showed the opposite pattern, with a faster transfer from the left to the right hemisphere. In left-handers, albeit a smaller number of participants has been tested and hence confirmation is required, only those with a right DE showed an asymmetrical interhemispheric transfer with a faster transfer from the right to the left hemisphere. As a whole these results demonstrate that eye dominance is a fundamental determinant of asymmetries in interhemispheric transfer of visual information and suggest that it is an important factor of brain lateralization.

  13. Interhemispheric Transfer Time Asymmetry of Visual Information Depends on Eye Dominance: An Electrophysiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaumillon, Romain; Blouin, Jean; Guillaume, Alain

    2018-01-01

    The interhemispheric transfer of information is a fundamental process in the human brain. When a visual stimulus appears eccentrically in one visual-hemifield, it will first activate the contralateral hemisphere but also the ipsilateral one with a slight delay due to the interhemispheric transfer. This interhemispheric transfer of visual information is believed to be faster from the right to the left hemisphere in right-handers. Such an asymmetry is considered as a relevant fact in the context of the lateralization of the human brain. We show here using current source density (CSD) analyses of visually evoked potential (VEP) that, in right-handers and, to a lesser extent in left-handers, this asymmetry is in fact dependent on the sighting eye dominance, the tendency we have to prefer one eye for monocular tasks. Indeed, in right-handers, a faster interhemispheric transfer of visual information from the right to left hemisphere was observed only in participants with a right dominant eye (DE). Right-handers with a left DE showed the opposite pattern, with a faster transfer from the left to the right hemisphere. In left-handers, albeit a smaller number of participants has been tested and hence confirmation is required, only those with a right DE showed an asymmetrical interhemispheric transfer with a faster transfer from the right to the left hemisphere. As a whole these results demonstrate that eye dominance is a fundamental determinant of asymmetries in interhemispheric transfer of visual information and suggest that it is an important factor of brain lateralization. PMID:29515351

  14. Derivation of soil to plant transfer factors of radiocaesium in Northern Greece after the Chernobyl accident, and comparison with greenhouse experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonoloulos-Domis, M.; Clouvas, A.; Gagianas, A.

    1990-01-01

    Radiocesium contamination of cereals, due to the Chernobyl accident, was systematically studied in two selected experimental agricultural farms in Northern Greece for the years 1987, 1988 and 1989. Radiocesium contamination of all annual crops is very low, of the order of 1 Bq kg -1 , and appears to be, for the first 3 years after the Chernobyl accident, time independent, the differences lying within the experimental error. Transfer factors, relating radiocesium deposition to contamination of crops, are deduced from the experimental results. Results are also discussed in the framework of UNSCEAR's empirical model, and the corresponding parameters are deduced. In addition greenhouse experiments show that the Transfer Factors obtained are independent of the initial radiocesium deposition and that radiocesium from the Chernobyl fallout behaves differently from usual experimental sources, such as 137 CsCl. (author)

  15. Experimental Investigation of the Heat Transfer in a Room using Night-Time Coling by Mixing Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Nørgaard, Jesper; Daniels, Ole

    2011-01-01

    of full-scale measurements. The efficiency of night-time ventilation depends on the outdoor temperature and the heat transfer between the room air and the building constructions. In a full-scale test room the heat transfer was investigated during 12 hour of discharging by night-time ventilation. Three...... areas and the convective heat transfer coefficient ranged between 5 and 30 W/m2. The ratio of convective to total heat flow from the ceiling depends on the air change rate, ranging from approximately 40% at the low air change rates to approximately 70% at the high air change rate. Even though radiation......For many years focus has been on reducing the energy need for heating in buildings. This has lead to buildings with low energy demands for heating but often at the expense of the need for cooling of the building. In order to design buildings with low or zero energy need energy efficient strategies...

  16. Experiment of flow regime map and local condensing heat transfer coefficients inside three dimensional inner microfin tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Xin, Ming Dao

    1999-03-01

    This paper developed a new type of three dimensional inner microfin tube. The experimental results of the flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside these tubes are reported in the paper. The flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside the new made tubes are divided into annular flow, stratified flow and intermittent flow within the test conditions. The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients for the different flow patterns have been systematically carried out. The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients changing with the vapor dryness fraction have also been carried out. As compared with the heat transfer coefficients of the two dimensional inner microfin tubes, those of the three dimensional inner microfin tubes increase 47-127% for the annular flow region, 38-183% for the stratified flow and 15-75% for the intermittent flow, respectively. The enhancement factor of the local heat transfer coefficients is from 1.8-6.9 for the vapor dryness fraction from 0.05 to 1.

  17. 'Edutainment' as a Proxy to Transfer of Experience in Marine Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, D. R.; Buskop, J.; Drutjons, M.; Culp, J.; Seidel, J.

    2013-12-01

    It is hard to convey the difficulties that accompany marine exploration. Veterans joke about the difficulties with mixing electricity, computers, saltwater, and boats. Often, it's declared a minor miracle when a seafloor-mapping program is successfully completed. During the summer of 2013 2 high school students and 1 undergraduate worked alongside a field scientist using geophysical techniques to try and identify a shipwreck found in shallow waters of the Chester River near Chestertown, Maryland. Over the course of 2 weeks, these 'interns' became intimately familiar with the trials and tribulations of marine fieldwork. They learned how to mobilize a small survey boat from scratch, installing and troubleshooting multiple systems from inception to operation. For example; they mobilized the Side Scan Sonar that involved shop mobilization and system checks, transfer to the boat, connecting the tow-cable, rub tests, troubleshooting the power supply, computer 'handshake' and configuring the comm ports for GPS connectivity. They designed the survey plan, directed us to the site, deployed the system, devised the file naming protocol, and collected the data. In addition to the Side Scan, they did the same for the Sub Bottom Profiler. Once the wreck was confidently located they deployed a buoy to ease the wreck location for underwater camera work. This work was compromised when the wreck was not found at the marked site and it was determined that the buoy had moved from the original deployment. When the camera was dropped, wreck identification was impossible because of the lack of visibility and the biologic growth on the boat's structure. In short, they learned that in the field 'If something could go wrong, it would'. The Interns were tasked with creating a board game that conveyed the real world activity that accompanies the good, bad, and ugly of an actual exploration including; technical, social, ethical, environmental, archaeological, historical, legal, and social

  18. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO GOAT PRODUCERS IN BRAZIL – CAPRITEC EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria Cândido Ribeiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Capritec is a company devoted to dissemination of technology in the form of courses, consulting, lectures and events for producers, students and technicians involved with goat production. Capritec headquarters are located in Espírito Santo do Pinhal, in the state of São Paulo, in Southeastern Brazil. In the state of São Paulo, dairy goat production is well developed. Meat goat production is more modest, but has increased steadily in recent years. The main objective of Capritec is to transfer technology a to enable interested producers, students, technicians and entrepreneurs to invest in goat production, b to give them the necessary tools to avoid business failures in these enterprises and c to contribute to the development of Brazil goat production. The company’s owners and collaborators have extensive experience with goats in the areas of animal production, reproduction and food processing. Between 2003 and 2006, 58 extension courses were offered, attended by 422 participants. The courses themes were goat production for beginners (4 courses, meat goat  production (9 courses, dairy goat production (5 courses, goat milk processing into cheese (12 courses, yoghurt, ice cream and sweets from goat milk (1 course, cosmetics from goat milk (2 courses, artificial insemination (7 courses, ultrasonography (2 courses, semen quality examination and fresh semen processing (2 courses, general handling practices (7 courses, preparation and economical evaluation of projects (6 courses, and goat health (2 courses. Courses emphasize practical hands-on activities and are taught in small groups. Women were in the minority, accounting for 23.51% of course participants, whereas men accounted for 71.49%. Between 2003 and 2006, 4 extension workshops were organized, attended by 826 participants. After each event, the participants were invited to answer a questionnaire, to mention the strengths and weaknesses of the course, and to score and give

  19. Study and development of the data transfer for the NA50 experiment: transputer network of the multiplicity detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capony, V.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents the works performed for the experiment NA50 at CERN, in he framework of the development of its multiplicity detector. The two first chapters describe the physical aims of the experiment and the apparatus used. The remaining part of this document shows the data readout device, developed for the multiplicity detector. Built on a T8 transputer network, this system is able to treat 8 Mbytes of data at each SPS accelerator cycle. It integrates an on-line event-builder. A filtering algorithm estimates the validity of the information and allows the flagging of all the data. The last function of this transputers network is to transfer data from the detector to the data acquisition system. Our system is able to control a data rate transfer of 35 Gbytes per day. (author)

  20. Generic mechanism of optimal energy transfer efficiency: a scaling theory of the mean first-passage time in exciton systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianlan; Silbey, Robert J; Cao, Jianshu

    2013-05-17

    An asymptotic scaling theory is presented using the conceptual basis of trapping-free subspace (i.e., orthogonal subspace) to establish the generic mechanism of optimal efficiency of excitation energy transfer in light-harvesting systems. A quantum state orthogonal to the trap will exhibit noise-assisted transfer, clarifying the significance of initial preparation. For such an initial state, the efficiency is enhanced in the weak damping limit (⟨t⟩ ∼ 1/Γ), and suppressed in the strong damping limit (⟨t⟩ ∼ Γ), analogous to Kramers turnover in classical rate theory. An interpolating expression ⟨t⟩ = A/Γ + B + CΓ quantitatively describes the trapping time over the entire range of the dissipation strength, and predicts the optimal efficiency at Γ(opt) ∼ J for homogenous systems. In the presence of static disorder, the scaling law of transfer time with respect to dephasing rate changes from linear to square root, suggesting a weaker dependence on the environment. The prediction of the scaling theory is verified in a symmetric dendrimer system by numerically exact quantum calculations. Though formulated in the context of excitation energy transfer, the analysis and conclusions apply in general to open quantum processes, including electron transfer, fluorescence emission, and heat conduction.

  1. Experience with RTD response time testing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Kerlin, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    The reactor coolant temperatures in pressurized water reactors are measured with platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). The information furnished by these RTDs is used for plant protection as well as control. As a part of the plant protection system, the RTDs must respond to temperature changes in a timely fashion. The RTD response time requirements are different for the various plant types. These requirements are specified in the plant technical specifications in terms of an RTd time constant. The current time constant requirements for nuclear plant RTDs varies from 0.5 seconds to 13.0 seconds depending on the type of the plant. Therefore, different types of RTDs are used in different plants to achieve the required time constants. In addition, in-situ response time tests are periodically performed on protective system RTDs to ensure that the in-service time constants are within acceptable limits as the plant is operating. The periodic testing is important because response time degradation may occur while the RTD ages in the process. Recent response time tests in operating plants revealed unacceptable time constants for several protection system RTDs. As a result, these plants had to be shut down to resolve the problem which in one case was due to improper installation and in another case was because of degradation of a thermal compound used in the thermowell

  2. Core heat transfer analysis during a BWR LOCA simulation experiment at ROSA-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonomoto, T.; Koizumi, Y.; Tasaka, K.

    1987-01-01

    The ROSA-III test facility is a 1/424-th volumetrically scaled BWR/6 simulator with an electrically heated core to study the thermal-hydraulic response during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Heat transfer analyses for 5, 15, 50 and 200% break tests were conducted to understand the basic heat transfer behavior in the core under BWR LOCA conditions and to obtain a data base of post-critical heat flux (CHF) heat transfer coefficients and quench temperature. The results show that the convective heat transfer coefficient of dried-out rods at the core midplane during a steam cooling period is less than approximately 120 W/m 2 K. It is larger than existing data measured at lower pressures during a spray cooling period. Bottom-up quench temperatures are given by a simple equations: The sum of the saturation temperature and a constant of 262 K. Then the heat transfer model in the RELAP4/MOD6/U4/J3 code was revised using the present results. The rod surface temperature behavior in the 200% break test was calculated better by using the revised model although the model is very simple. (orig.)

  3. Energy transfer properties and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Since no single experimental technique is the best method for energy transfer experiments, we have used both time-dependent infrared fluorescence (IRF) and time-dependent thermal lensing (TDTL) to study energy transfer in various systems. We are investigating pump-probe techniques employing resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI). IRF was used to study benzene, azulene, and toluene. TDTL was used to study CS 2 and SO 2 (data not given for latter). Large molecule energy transfer mechanisms are discussed. 10 figs

  4. Are Clinical Trial Experiences Utilized?: A Differentiated Model of Medical Sites’ Information Transfer Ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Schultz, Carsten; Getz, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    The collaboration with medical professionals in pharmaceutical clinical trials facilitates opportunities to gain valuable market information concerning product functionality issues, as well as issues related to market implementation and adoption. However, previous research on trial management lacks......’ information transfer ability, their methods of communicating, are included. The model is studied on a unique dataset of 395 medical site representatives by applying Rasch scale modeling to differentiate the stickiness of the heterogenic information issues. The results reveal that economic measures...... a differentiated perspective on the potential for information transfer from site to producer. An exploration of the variation in stickiness of information, and therefore the complexity of information transfer in clinical trials, is the main aim of this study. To further enrich the model of the dispersed sites...

  5. Phonetic Accounts of Timed Responses in Syllable Monitoring Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietveld, A.C.M.; Schiller, N.O.; Caspers, J.; Chen, Y.; Heeren, W.; Pacilly, J.; Schiller, N.O.; Zanten, E. van

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a syllable monitoring experiment that examines the role of segmental phonetic information in Dutch. Participants were presented with lists of spoken words and were required to detect auditorily specified targets that matched or did not match the initial syllable of the spoken

  6. Analysis of flow boiling heat transfer in narrow annular gaps applying the design of experiments method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunar Boye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The axial heat transfer coefficient during flow boiling of n-hexane was measured using infrared thermography to determine the axial wall temperature in three geometrically similar annular gaps with different widths (s = 1.5 mm, s = 1 mm, s = 0.5 mm. During the design and evaluation process, the methods of statistical experimental design were applied. The following factors/parameters were varied: the heat flux q · = 30 − 190 kW / m 2 , the mass flux m · = 30 − 700 kg / m 2 s , the vapor quality x · = 0 . 2 − 0 . 7 , and the subcooled inlet temperature T U = 20 − 60 K . The test sections with gap widths of s = 1.5 mm and s = 1 mm had very similar heat transfer characteristics. The heat transfer coefficient increases significantly in the range of subcooled boiling, and after reaching a maximum at the transition to the saturated flow boiling, it drops almost monotonically with increasing vapor quality. With a gap width of 0.5 mm, however, the heat transfer coefficient in the range of saturated flow boiling first has a downward trend and then increases at higher vapor qualities. For each test section, two correlations between the heat transfer coefficient and the operating parameters have been created. The comparison also shows a clear trend of an increasing heat transfer coefficient with increasing heat flux for test sections s = 1.5 mm and s = 1.0 mm, but with increasing vapor quality, this trend is reversed for test section 0.5 mm.

  7. Time evolution of photon-pulse propagation in scattering and absorbing media: The dynamic radiative transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, A.; Politopoulos, K.; Georgiou, E.

    2018-03-01

    A new dynamic-system approach to the problem of radiative transfer inside scattering and absorbing media is presented, directly based on first-hand physical principles. This method, the Dynamic Radiative Transfer System (DRTS), employs a dynamical system formality using a global sparse matrix, which characterizes the physical, optical and geometrical properties of the material-volume of interest. The new system state is generated by the above time-independent matrix, using simple matrix-vector multiplication for each subsequent time step. DRTS is capable of calculating accurately the time evolution of photon propagation in media of complex structure and shape. The flexibility of DRTS allows the integration of time-dependent sources, boundary conditions, different media and several optical phenomena like reflection and refraction in a unified and consistent way. Various examples of DRTS simulation results are presented for ultra-fast light pulse 3-D propagation, demonstrating greatly reduced computational cost and resource requirements compared to other methods.

  8. Experience in the transfer of oil sludge from Kemaman supply base (KSB) Terengganu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustami Abu; Ibrahim Martibi; Mazlan Mohamad; Nik Marzukee

    2005-01-01

    EPMI and MINT had signed a contract for transferring 2400 drums containing oil sludge waste from Kemaman Supply Base (KSB), Terengganu to MINT, Bangi with a cost of RM 2.5 million. The work was done in two stages; the first stage involved 800 drums and the second stage involved 1600 drums. The preparation and implementation work involved application to obtain approval from the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) and Department of Environment (DOE) as the transportation has to comply with transport regulations for radioactive and toxic waste, appointing transport company, providing information and briefing to supervisors / workers regarding radiation as well as other safety aspects during transfer of waste. (Author)

  9. A high speed, selective multi-ADC to computer data transfer interface, for nuclear physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arctaedius, T.; Ekstroem, R.E.

    1986-08-01

    A link connecting up to fifteen Analog to Digital Converters with a computer, through a Direct Memory Access interface, is described. The interface decides which of the connected ADC:s that participate in an event, and transfers the output-data from these to the computer, accompanied with a 2-byte word identifying the participating ADC:s. This data format can be recorded on tape without further transformations, and is easy to unfold at the off-line analysis. Data transfer is accomplished in less than a few microseconds, which is made possible by the use of high speed TTL circuits. (authors)

  10. Solution-mass transfer and grain boundary sliding in mafic shear zones - comparison between experiments and nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Sina; Heilbronner, Renée; Stünitz, Holger; Plümper, Oliver; Drury, Martyn

    2017-04-01

    Grain size sensitive creep (GSSC) mechanisms are widely recognized to be the most efficient deformation mechanisms in shear zones. With or without initial fracturing and fluid infiltration, the onset of heterogeneous nucleation leading to strong grain size reduction is a frequently described process for the initiation of GSSC. Phase mixing due to reaction and heterogeneous nucleation during GSSC impedes grain growth, sustaining small grain sizes as a prerequisite for GSSC. Here we present rock deformation experiments on 'wet' plagioclase - pyroxene mixtures at T=800°C, P=1.0 and 1.5GPa and strain rates of 2e-5 - 2e-6 1/s, performed with a Griggs-type solid medium deformation apparatus. Microstructural criteria are used to show that both, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and solution-mass transfer processes are active and are interpreted to be the dominant strain accommodating processes. Displacement is localized within shear bands formed by fine-grained ( 300 - 500nm) plagioclase (Pl) and the syn-kinematic reaction products amphibole (Amph), quartz (Qz) and zoisite (Zo). We compare our experiments with a natural case - a sheared mafic pegmatite (P-T during deformation 0.7 - 0.9 GPa, 610 - 710 °C; Getsinger et al., 2013) from Northern Norway. Except for the difference in grain size of the experimental and natural samples, microstructures are strikingly alike. The experimental and natural P- and especially T-conditions are very similar. Consequently, extrapolation from experiments to nature must be made without a significant 'temperature-time' trade-off, which is normally taken advantage of when relating experimental to natural strain rates. We will discuss under which assumptions extrapolation to nature in our case is likely feasible. Syn-kinematic reactions during GBS and solution-mass transport are commonly interpreted to result in an ordered (anticlustered) phase mixture. However, phase mixing in our case is restricted: Mixing is extensive between Pl + Zo + Qz and

  11. A Survey of Utility Experience with Real Time Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Neenan, Bernie

    2004-12-01

    While more than 70 utilities in the U.S. have offered voluntary RTP tariffs on either a pilot or permanent basis, most have operated in relative obscurity. To bring this broad base of experience to bear on policymakers current efforts to stimulate price responsive demand, we conducted a survey of 43 voluntary RTP tariffs offered in 2003. The survey involved telephone interviews with RTP program managers and other utility staff, as well as a review of regulatory documents, tariff sheets, program evaluations, and other publicly available sources. Based on this review of RTP program experience, we identify key trends related to: utilities motivations for implementing RTP, evolution of RTP tariff design, program participation, participant price response, and program outlook. We draw from these findings to discuss implications for policymakers that are currently considering voluntary RTP as a strategy for developing price responsive demand.

  12. Neural network real time event selection for the DIRAC experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kokkas, P; Tauscher, Ludwig; Vlachos, S

    2001-01-01

    The neural network first level trigger for the DIRAC experiment at CERN is presented. Both the neural network algorithm used and its actual hardware implementation are described. The system uses the fast plastic scintillator information of the DIRAC spectrometer. In 210 ns it selects events with two particles having low relative momentum. Such events are selected with an efficiency of more than 0.94. The corresponding rate reduction for background events is a factor of 2.5. (10 refs).

  13. International Education Policy Transfer--Borrowing Both Ways: The Hong Kong and England Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, Katherine; Crossley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how the impact of international student achievement studies and the recent economic crisis in Europe are influencing the development of educational policy transfer and borrowing, from East to West. This is contrasted with education reform movements in East Asia, which have long legacies of borrowing from so-called…

  14. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects including introduction and recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the heat transfer rate through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20% to 50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15% to 20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: the effect of initial boundary layer thickness, the effect of freestream velocity, the effect of freestream acceleration, the effect of unheated starting length, and the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. An existing curvature prediction model was tested against this broad heat transfer data base to determine where it could appropriately be used for heat transfer predictions.

  15. Analytical Solution of Heat Conduction for Hollow Cylinders with Time-Dependent Boundary Condition and Time-Dependent Heat Transfer Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Wen Tu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution for the heat transfer in hollow cylinders with time-dependent boundary condition and time-dependent heat transfer coefficient at different surfaces is developed for the first time. The methodology is an extension of the shifting function method. By dividing the Biot function into a constant plus a function and introducing two specially chosen shifting functions, the system is transformed into a partial differential equation with homogenous boundary conditions only. The transformed system is thus solved by series expansion theorem. Limiting cases of the solution are studied and numerical results are compared with those in the literature. The convergence rate of the present solution is fast and the analytical solution is simple and accurate. Also, the influence of physical parameters on the temperature distribution of a hollow cylinder along the radial direction is investigated.

  16. Clinical, behavioural and social indicators for poor glycaemic control around the time of transfer to adult care: a longitudinal study of 126 young people with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castensøe-Seidenfaden, P.; Jensen, A. K.; Smedegaard, H.

    2017-01-01

    participants aged 14–22 years from 2 years before to 2 years after transfer from paediatric to adult care. Changes in glycaemic control were calculated using repeated measurements. We adjusted for gender, age at diabetes onset, age at transfer, duration of diabetes at transfer, gap (amount of time) between...... levels and thereby reduce hospitalization rates....

  17. Laser wakefield excitation and measurement on a femtosecond time scale: Theory and experiment. Progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, T.; Downer, M.

    1995-04-01

    A brief discussion was given for each of the following topics: superluminous wake excitation; photon frequency-shift (photon accelerator) spectroscopy; focusing, diffraction and 2D spectral shift; Raman self-modulation effects; optical preaccelerator; accelerator physics developments; experimental facilities; experimental results--pressure-tunable harmonic generation; experiments in progress--time-domain Rayleigh interferometry; Russian collaboration; and technology transfer.

  18. Laser wakefield excitation and measurement on a femtosecond time scale: Theory and experiment. Progress report, September 1, 1994--August 31, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.; Downer, M.

    1995-04-01

    A brief discussion was given for each of the following topics: superluminous wake excitation; photon frequency-shift (photon accelerator) spectroscopy; focusing, diffraction and 2D spectral shift; Raman self-modulation effects; optical preaccelerator; accelerator physics developments; experimental facilities; experimental results--pressure-tunable harmonic generation; experiments in progress--time-domain Rayleigh interferometry; Russian collaboration; and technology transfer

  19. Liquid-Metal/Water Direct Contact Heat Exchange: Flow Visualization, Flow Stability, and Heat Transfer Using Real-Time X-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulla, Sherif H.; Liu Xin; Anderson, Mark H.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Corradini, Michael L.; Cho, Dae; Page, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Advanced reactor system designs are being considered with liquid-metal cooling connected to a steam power cycle. In addition, current reactor safety systems are considering auxiliary cooling schemes that assure ex-vessel debris coolability utilizing direct water injection into molten material pools to achieve core quenching and eventual coolability. The phenomenon common in both applications is direct contact heat exchange. The current study focuses on detailed measurements of liquid-metal/water direct contact heat exchange that is directly applicable to improvements in effective heat transfer in devices that are being considered for both of these purposes.In this study, a test facility was designed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison to map the operating range of liquid-metal/water direct contact heat exchange. The test section (184-cm height, 45.75-cm width, and 10-cm depth) is a rectangular slice of a larger heat exchange device. This apparatus was used not only to provide measurements of integral thermal performance (i.e., volumetric heat transfer coefficient), but also local heat transfer coefficients in a bubbly flow regime with X-ray imaging based on measured parameters such as bubble formation time, bubble rise velocity, and bubble diameters.To determine these local heat transfer coefficients, a complete methodology of the X-ray radiography for two-phase flow measurement has been developed. With this methodology, a high-energy X-ray imaging system is optimized for our heat exchange experiments. With this real-time, large-area, high-energy X-ray imaging system, the two-phase flow was quantitatively visualized. An efficient image processing strategy was developed by combining several optimal digital image-processing algorithms into a software computational tool written in MATLAB called T-XIP. Time-dependent heat transfer-related variables such as bubble volumes and velocities, were determined. Finally, an error analysis associated with these measurements

  20. Ultrasonic power transfer from a spherical acoustic wave source to a free-free piezoelectric receiver: Modeling and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahab, S.; Gray, M.; Erturk, A., E-mail: alper.erturk@me.gatech.edu [G. W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2015-03-14

    Contactless powering of small electronic components has lately received growing attention for wireless applications in which battery replacement or tethered charging is undesired or simply impossible, and ambient energy harvesting is not a viable solution. As an alternative to well-studied methods of contactless energy transfer, such as the inductive coupling method, the use of ultrasonic waves transmitted and received by piezoelectric devices enables larger power transmission distances, which is critical especially for deep-implanted electronic devices. Moreover, energy transfer by means of acoustic waves is well suited in situations where no electromagnetic fields are allowed. The limited literature of ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer is mainly centered on proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this method, lacking experimentally validated modeling efforts for the resulting multiphysics problem that couples the source and receiver dynamics with domain acoustics. In this work, we present fully coupled analytical, numerical, and experimental multiphysics investigations for ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer from a spherical wave source to a piezoelectric receiver bar that operates in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity. The fluid-loaded piezoelectric receiver under free-free mechanical boundary conditions is shunted to an electrical load for quantifying the electrical power output for a given acoustic source strength of the transmitter. The analytical acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling framework is validated experimentally, and the effects of system parameters are reported along with optimal electrical loading and frequency conditions of the receiver.

  1. Ultrasonic power transfer from a spherical acoustic wave source to a free-free piezoelectric receiver: Modeling and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahab, S.; Gray, M.; Erturk, A.

    2015-01-01

    Contactless powering of small electronic components has lately received growing attention for wireless applications in which battery replacement or tethered charging is undesired or simply impossible, and ambient energy harvesting is not a viable solution. As an alternative to well-studied methods of contactless energy transfer, such as the inductive coupling method, the use of ultrasonic waves transmitted and received by piezoelectric devices enables larger power transmission distances, which is critical especially for deep-implanted electronic devices. Moreover, energy transfer by means of acoustic waves is well suited in situations where no electromagnetic fields are allowed. The limited literature of ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer is mainly centered on proof-of-concept experiments demonstrating the feasibility of this method, lacking experimentally validated modeling efforts for the resulting multiphysics problem that couples the source and receiver dynamics with domain acoustics. In this work, we present fully coupled analytical, numerical, and experimental multiphysics investigations for ultrasonic acoustic energy transfer from a spherical wave source to a piezoelectric receiver bar that operates in the 33-mode of piezoelectricity. The fluid-loaded piezoelectric receiver under free-free mechanical boundary conditions is shunted to an electrical load for quantifying the electrical power output for a given acoustic source strength of the transmitter. The analytical acoustic-piezoelectric structure interaction modeling framework is validated experimentally, and the effects of system parameters are reported along with optimal electrical loading and frequency conditions of the receiver

  2. Alignment of Memory Transfers of a Time-Predictable Stack Cache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbaspourseyedi, Sahar; Brandner, Florian

    2014-01-01

    of complex cache states. Instead, only the occupancy level of the cache has to be determined. The memory transfers generated by the standard stack cache are not generally aligned. These unaligned accesses risk to introduce complexity to the otherwise simple WCET analysis. In this work, we investigate three...

  3. Case Study: The Transfer of Tacit Knowledge from Community College Full-Time to Adjunct Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzo, Linda R.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is a valuable resource that fosters innovation and growth in organizations. There are two forms of knowledge: explicit knowledge or documented information and tacit knowledge or undocumented information which resides in individuals' minds. There is heightened interest in knowledge management and specifically the transfer of tacit…

  4. Modeling and Assessment of Precise Time Transfer by Using BeiDou Navigation Satellite System Triple-Frequency Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Tu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes two models for precise time transfer using the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System triple-frequency signals: ionosphere-free (IF combined precise point positioning (PPP model with two dual-frequency combinations (IF-PPP1 and ionosphere-free combined PPP model with a single triple-frequency combination (IF-PPP2. A dataset with a short baseline (with a common external time frequency and a long baseline are used for performance assessments. The results show that IF-PPP1 and IF-PPP2 models can both be used for precise time transfer using BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS triple-frequency signals, and the accuracy and stability of time transfer is the same in both cases, except for a constant system bias caused by the hardware delay of different frequencies, which can be removed by the parameter estimation and prediction with long time datasets or by a priori calibration.

  5. Neutron Time-Of-Flight (n_TOF) experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    Brugger, M; Kaeppeler, F K; Jericha, E; Cortes rossell, G P; Riego perez, A; Baccomi, R; Laurent, B G; Griesmayer, E; Leeb, H; Dressler, M; Cano ott, D; Variale, V; Ventura, A; Carrillo de albornoz trillo, A; Andrzejewski, J J; Pavlik, A F; Kadi, Y; Zanni vlastou, R; Krticka, M; Kokkoris, M; Praena rodriguez, A J; Cortes giraldo, M A; Perkowski, J; Losito, R; Audouin, L; Weiss, C; Tagliente, G; Wallner, A; Woods, P J; Mengoni, A; Guerrero sanchez, C G; Tain enriquez, J L; Vlachoudis, V; Calviani, M; Junghans, A R; Reifarth, R; Mendoza cembranos, E; Quesada molina, J M; Babiano suarez, V; Schumann, M D; Tsinganis, A; Rauscher, T; Calvino tavares, F; Mingrone, F; Gonzalez romero, E M; Colonna, N; Negret, A L; Chiaveri, E; Milazzo, P M; De almeida carrapico, C A; Castelluccio, D M

    The neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN, Switzerland, operational since 2001, delivers neutrons using the Proton Synchrotron (PS) 20 GeV/c proton beam impinging on a lead spallation target. The facility combines a very high instantaneous neutron flux, an excellent time of flight resolution due to the distance between the experimental area and the production target (185 meters), a low intrinsic background and a wide range of neutron energies, from thermal to GeV neutrons. These characteristics provide a unique possibility to perform neutron-induced capture and fission cross-section measurements for applications in nuclear astrophysics and in nuclear reactor technology.

  6. Carbon transfer between 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo alloy and austenitic steels (experiments in anisothermal loops)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baque, P.; Besson, M.; Champeix, L.; Donati, J.R.; Oberlin, C.; Saint-Paul, P.

    1976-01-01

    Studies on carbon transfer between the ferritic steel 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo and the austenitic steels 316L and 321H have shown that there is not any measurable carbon transfer in the operating conditions of the secondary circuit of PHENIX (475 deg C was the maximal temperature of the 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel). A significant carbon transfer has been observed between the ferritic steel and the 316L steel when the 321H was replaced by the 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel in the same thermohydraulic conditions (the ferritic steel was then used up to 545 deg C). This experiment has demonstrated the importance of the temperature and the initial carbon content of the ferritic steel as parameters in the decarburization process. It appears that decarburization may not be sensitive to the thermohydraulic conditions at least in the range investigated in those experiments. In the other hand the 316L steel is observed to have been carburized, the degree of carburization remaining appreciably constant and independent on the temperature between 400 deg C and 550 deg C [fr

  7. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inferring a Drive-Response Network from Time Series of Topological Measures in Complex Networks with Transfer Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinbo Ai

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Topological measures are crucial to describe, classify and understand complex networks. Lots of measures are proposed to characterize specific features of specific networks, but the relationships among these measures remain unclear. Taking into account that pulling networks from different domains together for statistical analysis might provide incorrect conclusions, we conduct our investigation with data observed from the same network in the form of simultaneously measured time series. We synthesize a transfer entropy-based framework to quantify the relationships among topological measures, and then to provide a holistic scenario of these measures by inferring a drive-response network. Techniques from Symbolic Transfer Entropy, Effective Transfer Entropy, and Partial Transfer Entropy are synthesized to deal with challenges such as time series being non-stationary, finite sample effects and indirect effects. We resort to kernel density estimation to assess significance of the results based on surrogate data. The framework is applied to study 20 measures across 2779 records in the Technology Exchange Network, and the results are consistent with some existing knowledge. With the drive-response network, we evaluate the influence of each measure by calculating its strength, and cluster them into three classes, i.e., driving measures, responding measures and standalone measures, according to the network communities.

  9. Early experience in centralized real time energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaywan, Z.; Hernandez, L.; Martin, M.

    2005-01-01

    The current structure of the California Independent System Operator (ISO) was described. The study provided an outline of California's transition from a decentralized pool operation to a forward bilateral market through the implementation of a centralized real time market. Details of the institutional, economic and technological history of the power system were provided. Although the California real time market was implemented in order to simplify the power system, a number of operational challenges were observed. Discontinuities in the energy curve resulted in the implementation of a target price process, which aimed to resolve the overlap in energy bids. The design of the ISO's real time market did not provide a mechanism for bidders to execute real time energy trades. Regulation bidders also internalized energy in their regulation capacity bids. The real time market application (RTMA) provided the ISO with a substantial computer program to determine and account for nearly all aspects of generation unit scheduling and physical characteristics with a multiple ramp rate. The program combined optimal power flow (OPF) logic for energy flows in addition to mixed-integer nonlinear optimization of trading schedules, and system and security constraints. The RTMA used a multi-period security constrained economic dispatch (SCED) function to optimize energy dispatch schedules. Other features of the RTMA included security constrained unit commitment, security constrained economic dispatch, and dispatch schedule post processes. It was concluded that implementation of the RTMA has increased the efficiency of the ISO. A case study of the RTMA during an outage in November 2004 was provided. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  10. Experience-Oriented Knowledge Organisation for the Transference of Scientific Knowledge from Universities to SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Løkkegaard, Sarai; Jantzen, Christian

    2018-01-01

    registered in an university research information management system. The analysis focuses on how to meet the characteristics of SMEs in the design and organisation of the subject terms in the navigation and searching system and in the presentation of the scientific knowledge. The design suggestions are based......Transferring scientific knowledge between universities and industry is known to be problematic, specifically for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that have limited resources and absorption capacity. A variety of channels is used for knowledge transfer. These include what is commonly...... referred to as generic pathways (e.g. scientific publications) and relational pathways (e.g. faculty consulting). The purpose of this research is to extend our knowledge about the design of knowledge organization for a generic pathway interface providing access to scientific knowledge and publications...

  11. Experience-Oriented Knowledge Organisation for the Transference of Scientific Knowledge from Universities to SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Løkkegaard, Sarai; Jantzen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    referred to as generic pathways (e.g. scientific publishing) and relational pathways (e.g. faculty consulting). The purpose of this research is to extend our knowledge about the design of generic pathways. The analysis is concentrated on the knowledge organisation system for a research management system......Transferring scientific knowledge between universities and industry is known to be problematic, specifically for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that have limited resources and absorption capacity. A variety of channels is used for knowledge transfer. These include what is commonly...... - how to meet the characteristics of SMEs in the design of subject categories in the navigation system and in the presentation of the scientific knowledge by controlled and uncontrolled keywords and descriptive annotations. The design suggestions are based on findings from a qualitative situation...

  12. SRF Accelerator Technology Transfer Experience from the Achievement of the SNS Cryomodule Production Run

    CERN Document Server

    Hogan, John; Daly, Edward; Drury, Michael A; Fischer, John; Hiatt, Tommy; Kneisel, Peter; Mammosser, John; Preble, Joseph P; Whitlatch, Timothy; Wilson, Katherine; Wiseman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This paper will discuss the technology transfer aspect of superconducting RF expertise, as it pertains to cryomodule production, beginning with the original design requirements through testing and concluding with product delivery to the end user. The success of future industrialization, of accelerator systems, is dependent upon a focused effort on accelerator technology transfer. Over the past twenty years the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) has worked with industry to successfully design, manufacture, test and commission more superconducting RF cryomodules than any other entity in the United States. The most recent accomplishment of Jefferson Lab has been the successful production of twenty-four cryomodules designed for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Jefferson Lab was chosen, by the United States Department of Energy, to provide the superconducting portion of the SNS linac due to its reputation as a primary resource for SRF expertise. The successful partnering with, and d...

  13. A real-time tracker for hadronic collider experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardi, A.; Belforte, S.; Galeotti, S.; Giannetti, P.; Morsani, F.; Spinella, F.; Dell'Orso, M.; Meschi, E.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the authors propose highly parallel dedicated processors, able to provide precise on-line track reconstruction for future hadronic collider experiments. The processors, organized in a 2-level pipelined architecture, execute very fast algorithms based on the use of a large bank of pre-stored patterns of trajectory points. An associative memory implements the first stage by recognized track candidates at low resolution to match the demanding task of tracking at the detector readout rate. Alternative technological implementations for the associative memory are compared. The second stage receives track candidates and high resolution hits to refine pattern recognition at the associative memory output rate. A parallel and pipelines hardware implements a binary search strategy inside a hierarchically structured pattern bank, stored in the high density commercial RAMs

  14. Large-scale digitizer system (LSD) for charge and time digitization in high-energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althaus, R.F.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wagner, L.J.; Wolverton, J.M.

    1976-10-01

    A large-scale digitizer (LSD) system for acquiring charge and time-of-arrival particle data from high-energy-physics experiments has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The objective in this development was to significantly reduce the cost of instrumenting large-detector arrays which, for the 4π-geometry of colliding-beam experiments, are proposed with an order of magnitude increase in channel count over previous detectors. In order to achieve the desired economy (approximately $65 per channel), a system was designed in which a number of control signals for conversion, for digitization, and for readout are shared in common by all the channels in each 128-channel bin. The overall-system concept and the distribution of control signals that are critical to the 10-bit charge resolution and to the 12-bit time resolution are described. Also described is the bit-serial transfer scheme, chosen for its low component and cabling costs

  15. Transfer of obturator nerve for femoral nerve injury: an experiment study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Depeng; Zhou, Jun; Lin, Yaofa; Xie, Zheng; Chen, Huihao; Yu, Ronghua; Lin, Haodong; Hou, Chunlin

    2018-07-01

    Quadriceps palsy is mainly caused by proximal lesions in the femoral nerve. The obturator nerve has been previously used to repair the femoral nerve, although only a few reports have described the procedure, and the outcomes have varied. In the present study, we aimed to confirm the feasibility and effectiveness of this treatment in a rodent model using the randomized control method. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups: the experimental group, wherein rats underwent femoral neurectomy and obturator nerve transfer to the femoral nerve motor branch; and the control group, wherein rats underwent femoral neurectomy without nerve transfer. Functional outcomes were measured using the BBB score, muscle mass, and histological assessment. At 12 and 16 weeks postoperatively, the rats in the experimental group exhibited recovery to a stronger stretch force of the knee and higher BBB score, as compared to the control group (p nerve with myelinated and unmyelinated fibers was observed in the experimental group. No significant differences were observed between groups at 8 weeks postoperatively (p > 0.05). Obturator nerve transfer for repairing femoral nerve injury was feasible and effective in a rat model, and can hence be considered as an option for the treatment of femoral nerve injury.

  16. ANL ITER high-heat-flux blanket-module heat transfer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasza, K.E.

    1992-02-01

    An Argonne National Laboratory facility for conducting tests on multilayered slab models of fusion blanket designs is being developed; some of its features are described. This facility will allow testing under prototypic high heat fluxes, high temperatures, thermal gradients, and variable mechanical loadings in a helium gas environment. Steady and transient heat flux tests are possible. Electrical heating by a two-sided, thin stainless steel (SS) plate electrical resistance heater and SS water-cooled cold panels placed symmetrically on both sides of the heater allow achievement of global one-dimensional heat transfer across blanket specimen layers sandwiched between the hot and cold plates. The heat transfer characteristics at interfaces, as well as macroscale and microscale thermomechanical interactions between layers, can be studied in support of the ITER engineering design effort. The engineering design of the test apparatus has shown that it is important to use multidimensional thermomechanical analysis of sandwich-type composites to adequately analyze heat transfer. This fact will also be true for the engineering design of ITER

  17. Knowledge creation and management in the five LHC experiments at CERN implications for technology innovation and transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Bressan, Beatrice Alessandra; Lavonen, J; Nordberg, M; Saarikko, H; Streit-Bianchi, M

    2008-01-01

    The present study analyses knowledge creation, acquisition and transfer in the five LHC physics experiments at CERN: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS, LHCb, and TOTEM. A questionnaire was provided during collaboration meetings and a total of 291 replies were obtained and analysed. The results of this research study provide evidence that the social process of participation in meetings, acquisition of skills in different areas, and the development of interests by interaction with colleagues are key elements of the learning process. Furthermore, the results indicate that knowledge acquisition in a multicultural environment plays a mediating role in the interaction between social capital constructs (social interaction, relationship quality, and network ties) and competitive advantage outcomes (invention development and technological distinctiveness). Social interaction, relationship quality, and network ties are connected to greater knowledge acquisition, and also contribute to innovation and transfer of the knowledge to indust...

  18. Adaptive digital image processing in real time: First clinical experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.P.; Baily, N.A.; Hier, R.G.; Edwards, D.K.; Tainer, L.B.; Sartoris, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The promise of computer image processing has generally not been realized in radiology, partly because the methods advanced to date have been expensive, time-consuming, or inconvenient for clinical use. The authors describe a low-cost system which performs complex image processing operations on-line at video rates. The method uses a combination of unsharp mask subtraction (for low-frequency suppression) and statistical differencing (which adjusts the gain at each point of the image on the basis of its variation from a local mean). The operator interactively adjusts aperture size, contrast gain, background subtraction, and spatial noise reduction. The system is being evaluated for on-line fluoroscopic enhancement, for which phantom measurements and clinical results, including lithotripsy, are presented. When used with a video camera, postprocessing of radiographs was advantageous in a variety of studies, including neonatal chest studies. Real-time speed allows use of the system in the reading room as a ''variable view box.''

  19. Time resolved electron microscopy for in situ experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Geoffrey H.; McKeown, Joseph T.; Santala, Melissa K.

    2014-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy has functioned for decades as a platform for in situ observation of materials and processes with high spatial resolution. Yet, the dynamics often remain elusive, as they unfold too fast to discern at these small spatial scales under traditional imaging conditions. Simply shortening the exposure time in hopes of capturing the action has limitations, as the number of electrons will eventually be reduced to the point where noise overtakes the signal in the image. Pulsed electron sources with high instantaneous current have successfully shortened exposure times (thus increasing the temporal resolution) by about six orders of magnitude over conventional sources while providing the necessary signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic imaging. We describe here the development of this new class of microscope and the principles of its operation, with examples of its application to problems in materials science

  20. Time resolved electron microscopy for in situ experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, Geoffrey H., E-mail: ghcampbell@llnl.gov; McKeown, Joseph T.; Santala, Melissa K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Transmission electron microscopy has functioned for decades as a platform for in situ observation of materials and processes with high spatial resolution. Yet, the dynamics often remain elusive, as they unfold too fast to discern at these small spatial scales under traditional imaging conditions. Simply shortening the exposure time in hopes of capturing the action has limitations, as the number of electrons will eventually be reduced to the point where noise overtakes the signal in the image. Pulsed electron sources with high instantaneous current have successfully shortened exposure times (thus increasing the temporal resolution) by about six orders of magnitude over conventional sources while providing the necessary signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic imaging. We describe here the development of this new class of microscope and the principles of its operation, with examples of its application to problems in materials science.

  1. Detection of C',Cα correlations in proteins using a new time- and sensitivity-optimal experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Donghan; Voegeli, Beat; Pervushin, Konstantin

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity- and time-optimal experiment, called COCAINE (CO-CA In- and aNtiphase spectra with sensitivity Enhancement), is proposed to correlate chemical shifts of 13 C' and 13 C α spins in proteins. A comparison of the sensitivity and duration of the experiment with the corresponding theoretical unitary bounds shows that the COCAINE experiment achieves maximum possible transfer efficiency in the shortest possible time, and in this sense the sequence is optimal. Compared to the standard HSQC, the COCAINE experiment delivers a 2.7-fold gain in sensitivity. This newly proposed experiment can be used for assignment of backbone resonances in large deuterated proteins effectively bridging 13 C' and 13 C α resonances in adjacent amino acids. Due to the spin-state selection employed, the COCAINE experiment can also be used for efficient measurements of one-bond couplings (e.g. scalar and residual dipolar couplings) in any two-spin system (e.g. the N/H in the backbone of protein)

  2. What impact do posters have on academic knowledge transfer? A pilot survey on author attitudes and experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilic Dragan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research knowledge is commonly facilitated at conferences via oral presentations, poster presentations and workshops. Current literature exploring the efficacy of academic posters is however limited. The purpose of this initial study was to explore the perceptions of academic poster presentation, together with its benefits and limitations as an effective mechanism for academic knowledge transfer and contribute to the available academic data. Methods A survey was distributed to 88 delegates who presented academic posters at two Releasing Research and Enterprise Potential conferences in June 2007 and June 2008 at Bournemouth University. This survey addressed attitude and opinion items, together with their general experiences of poster presentations. Descriptive statistics were performed on the responses. Results A 39% return was achieved with the majority of respondents believing that posters are a good medium for transferring knowledge and a valid form of academic publication. Visual appeal was cited as more influential than subject content, with 94% agreeing that poster imagery is most likely to draw viewer's attention. Respondents also believed that posters must be accompanied by their author in order to effectively communicate the academic content. Conclusion This pilot study is the first to explore perceptions of the academic poster as a medium for knowledge transfer. Given that academic posters rely heavily on visual appeal and direct author interaction, the medium requires greater flexibility in their design to promote effective knowledge transfer. This paper introduces the concept of the IT-based 'MediaPoster' so as to address the issues raised within published literature and subsequently enhance knowledge-transfer within the field of academic medicine.

  3. What impact do posters have on academic knowledge transfer? A pilot survey on author attitudes and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Nicholas; Ilic, Dragan

    2009-12-08

    Research knowledge is commonly facilitated at conferences via oral presentations, poster presentations and workshops. Current literature exploring the efficacy of academic posters is however limited. The purpose of this initial study was to explore the perceptions of academic poster presentation, together with its benefits and limitations as an effective mechanism for academic knowledge transfer and contribute to the available academic data. A survey was distributed to 88 delegates who presented academic posters at two Releasing Research and Enterprise Potential conferences in June 2007 and June 2008 at Bournemouth University. This survey addressed attitude and opinion items, together with their general experiences of poster presentations. Descriptive statistics were performed on the responses. A 39% return was achieved with the majority of respondents believing that posters are a good medium for transferring knowledge and a valid form of academic publication. Visual appeal was cited as more influential than subject content, with 94% agreeing that poster imagery is most likely to draw viewer's attention. Respondents also believed that posters must be accompanied by their author in order to effectively communicate the academic content. This pilot study is the first to explore perceptions of the academic poster as a medium for knowledge transfer. Given that academic posters rely heavily on visual appeal and direct author interaction, the medium requires greater flexibility in their design to promote effective knowledge transfer. This paper introduces the concept of the IT-based 'MediaPoster' so as to address the issues raised within published literature and subsequently enhance knowledge-transfer within the field of academic medicine.

  4. Gating in time domain as a tool for improving the signal-to-noise ratio of beam transfer function measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Oeftiger, U; Caspers, Fritz

    1992-01-01

    For the measurement of Beam Transfer Functions the signal-to-noise ratio is of great importance. In order to get a reasonable quality of the measured data one may apply averaging and smoothing. In the following another technique called time gating to improve the quality of the measurement will be described. By this technique the measurement data are Fourier transformed and then modified in time domain. Tune gating suppresses signal contributions that are correlated to a time interval when no interesting information is expected. Afterivards an inverse Fourier transform leads to data in frequency domain with an improved signal to noise ratio.

  5. The Time-of-Flight Detector for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M C S

    2002-01-01

    The Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) will be used to build a large Time-of-Flight detector for the ALICEexperiment. It will cover an area of 150 m2 consisting of 160,000 channels of 3.5 x 2.5 cm2 read-out pads. We present the results of the last 2 years of R&D during which we investigated problems associated with scaling up from single cells of 3 x 3 cm2 to strips with active area of 7 × 120 cm2 read out with 96 pads.

  6. Real-Time Surveillance of Infectious Diseases: Taiwan's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Shu-Wan; Chen, Chiu-Mei; Lee, Cheng-Yi; Liu, Ding-Ping

    Integration of multiple surveillance systems advances early warning and supports better decision making during infectious disease events. Taiwan has a comprehensive network of laboratory, epidemiologic, and early warning surveillance systems with nationwide representation. Hospitals and clinical laboratories have deployed automatic reporting mechanisms since 2014 and have effectively improved timeliness of infectious disease and laboratory data reporting. In June 2016, the capacity of real-time surveillance in Taiwan was externally assessed and was found to have a demonstrated and sustainable capability. We describe Taiwan's disease surveillance system and use surveillance efforts for influenza and Zika virus as examples of surveillance capability. Timely and integrated influenza information showed a higher level and extended pattern of influenza activity during the 2015-16 season, which ensured prompt information dissemination and the coordination of response operations. Taiwan also has well-developed disease detection systems and was the first country to report imported cases of Zika virus from Miami Beach and Singapore. This illustrates a high level of awareness and willingness among health workers to report emerging infectious diseases, and highlights the robust and sensitive nature of Taiwan's surveillance system. These 2 examples demonstrate the flexibility of the surveillance systems in Taiwan to adapt to emerging infectious diseases and major communicable diseases. Through participation in the GHSA, Taiwan can more actively collaborate with national counterparts and use its expertise to strengthen global and regional surveillance capacity in the Asia Pacific and in Southeast Asia, in order to advance a world safe and secure from infectious disease.

  7. B-side charge separation in bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers: nanosecond time scale electron transfer from HB- to QB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirmaier, Christine; Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K; Holten, Dewey

    2003-02-25

    We report time-resolved optical measurements of the primary electron transfer reactions in Rhodobacter capsulatus reaction centers (RCs) having four mutations: Phe(L181) --> Tyr, Tyr(M208) --> Phe, Leu(M212) --> His, and Trp(M250) --> Val (denoted YFHV). Following direct excitation of the bacteriochlorophyll dimer (P) to its lowest excited singlet state P, electron transfer to the B-side bacteriopheophytin (H(B)) gives P(+)H(B)(-) in approximately 30% yield. When the secondary quinone (Q(B)) site is fully occupied, P(+)H(B)(-) decays with a time constant estimated to be in the range of 1.5-3 ns. In the presence of excess terbutryn, a competitive inhibitor of Q(B) binding, the observed lifetime of P(+)H(B)(-) is noticeably longer and is estimated to be in the range of 4-8 ns. On the basis of these values, the rate constant for P(+)H(B)(-) --> P(+)Q(B)(-) electron transfer is calculated to be between approximately (2 ns)(-)(1) and approximately (12 ns)(-)(1), making it at least an order of magnitude smaller than the rate constant of approximately (200 ps)(-)(1) for electron transfer between the corresponding A-side cofactors (P(+)H(A)(-) --> P(+)Q(A)(-)). Structural and energetic factors associated with electron transfer to Q(B) compared to Q(A) are discussed. Comparison of the P(+)H(B)(-) lifetimes in the presence and absence of terbutryn indicates that the ultimate (i.e., quantum) yield of P(+)Q(B)(-) formation relative to P is 10-25% in the YFHV RC.

  8. Inferring Weighted Directed Association Networks from Multivariate Time Series with the Small-Shuffle Symbolic Transfer Entropy Spectrum Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanzhu Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complex network methodology is very useful for complex system exploration. However, the relationships among variables in complex systems are usually not clear. Therefore, inferring association networks among variables from their observed data has been a popular research topic. We propose a method, named small-shuffle symbolic transfer entropy spectrum (SSSTES, for inferring association networks from multivariate time series. The method can solve four problems for inferring association networks, i.e., strong correlation identification, correlation quantification, direction identification and temporal relation identification. The method can be divided into four layers. The first layer is the so-called data layer. Data input and processing are the things to do in this layer. In the second layer, we symbolize the model data, original data and shuffled data, from the previous layer and calculate circularly transfer entropy with different time lags for each pair of time series variables. Thirdly, we compose transfer entropy spectrums for pairwise time series with the previous layer’s output, a list of transfer entropy matrix. We also identify the correlation level between variables in this layer. In the last layer, we build a weighted adjacency matrix, the value of each entry representing the correlation level between pairwise variables, and then get the weighted directed association network. Three sets of numerical simulated data from a linear system, a nonlinear system and a coupled Rossler system are used to show how the proposed approach works. Finally, we apply SSSTES to a real industrial system and get a better result than with two other methods.

  9. Climatic associations of British species distributions show good transferability in time but low predictive accuracy for range change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Rapacciuolo

    Full Text Available Conservation planners often wish to predict how species distributions will change in response to environmental changes. Species distribution models (SDMs are the primary tool for making such predictions. Many methods are widely used; however, they all make simplifying assumptions, and predictions can therefore be subject to high uncertainty. With global change well underway, field records of observed range shifts are increasingly being used for testing SDM transferability. We used an unprecedented distribution dataset documenting recent range changes of British vascular plants, birds, and butterflies to test whether correlative SDMs based on climate change provide useful approximations of potential distribution shifts. We modelled past species distributions from climate using nine single techniques and a consensus approach, and projected the geographical extent of these models to a more recent time period based on climate change; we then compared model predictions with recent observed distributions in order to estimate the temporal transferability and prediction accuracy of our models. We also evaluated the relative effect of methodological and taxonomic variation on the performance of SDMs. Models showed good transferability in time when assessed using widespread metrics of accuracy. However, models had low accuracy to predict where occupancy status changed between time periods, especially for declining species. Model performance varied greatly among species within major taxa, but there was also considerable variation among modelling frameworks. Past climatic associations of British species distributions retain a high explanatory power when transferred to recent time--due to their accuracy to predict large areas retained by species--but fail to capture relevant predictors of change. We strongly emphasize the need for caution when using SDMs to predict shifts in species distributions: high explanatory power on temporally-independent records

  10. Numerical simulation of time fractional dual-phase-lag model of heat transfer within skin tissue during thermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we investigated the thermal behavior in living biological tissues using time fractional dual-phase-lag bioheat transfer (DPLBHT) model subjected to Dirichelt boundary condition in presence of metabolic and electromagnetic heat sources during thermal therapy. We solved this bioheat transfer model using finite element Legendre wavelet Galerkin method (FELWGM) with help of block pulse function in sense of Caputo fractional order derivative. We compared the obtained results from FELWGM and exact method in a specific case, and found a high accuracy. Results are interpreted in the form of standard and anomalous cases for taking different order of time fractional DPLBHT model. The time to achieve hyperthermia position is discussed in both cases as standard and time fractional order derivative. The success of thermal therapy in the treatment of metastatic cancerous cell depends on time fractional order derivative to precise prediction and control of temperature. The effect of variability of parameters such as time fractional derivative, lagging times, blood perfusion coefficient, metabolic heat source and transmitted power on dimensionless temperature distribution in skin tissue is discussed in detail. The physiological parameters has been estimated, corresponding to the value of fractional order derivative for hyperthermia treatment therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Simultaneous Scheduling of Jobs, AGVs and Tools Considering Tool Transfer Times in Multi Machine FMS By SOS Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivarami Reddy, N.; Ramamurthy, D. V., Dr.; Prahlada Rao, K., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses simultaneous scheduling of machines, AGVs and tools where machines are allowed to share the tools considering transfer times of jobs and tools between machines, to generate best optimal sequences that minimize makespan in a multi-machine Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS). Performance of FMS is expected to improve by effective utilization of its resources, by proper integration and synchronization of their scheduling. Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) algorithm is a potent tool which is a better alternative for solving optimization problems like scheduling and proven itself. The proposed SOS algorithm is tested on 22 job sets with makespan as objective for scheduling of machines and tools where machines are allowed to share tools without considering transfer times of jobs and tools and the results are compared with the results of existing methods. The results show that the SOS has outperformed. The same SOS algorithm is used for simultaneous scheduling of machines, AGVs and tools where machines are allowed to share tools considering transfer times of jobs and tools to determine the best optimal sequences that minimize makespan.

  12. An Analytical Solution for Transient Heat Conduction in a Composite Slab with Time-Dependent Heat Transfer Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoichi Chiba

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical solution is derived for one-dimensional transient heat conduction in a composite slab consisting of n layers, whose heat transfer coefficient on an external boundary is an arbitrary function of time. The composite slab, which has thermal contact resistance at n-1 interfaces, as well as an arbitrary initial temperature distribution and internal heat generation, convectively exchanges heat at the external boundaries with two different time-varying surroundings. To obtain the analytical solution, the shifting function method is first used, which yields new partial differential equations under conventional types of external boundary conditions. The solution for the derived differential equations is then obtained by means of an orthogonal expansion technique. Numerical calculations are performed for two composite slabs, whose heat transfer coefficient on the heated surface is either an exponential or a trigonometric function of time. The numerical results demonstrate the effects of temporal variations in the heat transfer coefficient on the transient temperature field of composite slabs.

  13. Estimating a Smooth Common Transfer Function with a Panel of Time Series - Inflow of Larvae Cod as an Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Hansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} The annual response variable in an ecological monitoring study often relates linearly to the weighted cumulative effect of some daily covariate, after adjusting for other annual covariates. Here we consider the problem of non-parametrically estimating the weights involved in computing the aforementioned cumulative effect, with a panel of short and contemporaneously correlated time series whose responses share the common cumulative effect of a daily covariate. The sequence of (unknown daily weights constitutes the so-called transfer function. Specifically, we consider the problem of estimating a smooth common transfer function shared by a panel of short time series that are contemporaneously correlated. We propose an estimation scheme using a likelihood approach that penalizes the roughness of the common transfer function. We illustrate the proposed method with a simulation study and a biological example of indirectly estimating the spawning date distribution of North Sea cod.

  14. [Testing of the effect of classic conditioning stimuli in human experiment by means of the transfer of control paradigm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, J

    1999-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning in animals is often evaluated by means of transfer of control experiments. With human subjects, however, only very few studies have been conducted and the outcomes were often not in accordance with theoretical explanations based on studies with animals. A theoretical framework is presented that tries to integrate the results of the human conditioning paradigm and the animal conditioning paradigm as well, with reference to the well-known Yerkes-Dodson law. The experimental study with human subjects (N = 24) confirmed the predictions out of this framework, when a procedure similar to animal research is applied.

  15. Percutaneous nephrostomy - experience of 19 times in 14 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seoung Oh; Park, Jae Hyung; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1984-01-01

    Percutaneous nephrostomy for relief of obstruction and functional preservation of the kidney was effectively performed 19 times in 14 patients for recent 1 year since July 1982 at Department of Radiology in Seoul National University Hospital. The etiologies of the total 14 obstructive uropathies were metastatc cervix cancer in 6-cases, metastatic rectal cancer in 2 cases, and metastatic bladder cancer, malignant mixed mesodermal tumor of perimetrium, pyonephrosis, bilateral staghorn stone, UVJ obstruction of undetermined cause, congenital UPJ obstruction in 1 case respectively. Percutaneous nephrostomy was done bilaterally in 1 case of congenital UPJ obstruction and unilaterally in 13 case. We used ultrasound as puncture guide in 13 cases and computed tomography in 1 case. Major complication was absent, but minor complications occurred in 4 patients: gross hematuria persisting 24 hours (1 case), catheter dislodgment after several weeks (2 cases) and luminal narrowing after 3 months (1 case). Satisfactory outcomes were made in 13 patients except 1 patient who succumbed one day after the procedure due to preexisting severe sepsis. The procedure proved to be safe and effective alternative to operative nephrostomy in some patients with urinary obstruction

  16. The Part-Time Student's Experience 1996-2007: An Issue of Identity and Marginalisation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James; Kane, David

    2010-01-01

    Part-time study is one of the foci of the widening participation agenda in the UK. The experiences of part-time students, however, have received remarkably little attention from scholars, especially in a comparative context. This paper explores existing historical data going back over a decade to identify the main themes of part-time experience at…

  17. A Full-Time Dilemma: Examining the Experiences of Part-Time Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Krista M.; Fairchild, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Part-time faculty now account for more than half of all faculty in American colleges and universities. Existing scholarship primarily has focused on the teaching effectiveness of part-time faculty. In this exploratory study, the authors employ a qualitative approach to examine the perspectives of part-time faculty members at a public, regional…

  18. A grey diffusion acceleration method for time-dependent radiative transfer calculations: analysis and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    A grey diffusion acceleration method is presented and is shown by Fourier analysis and test calculations to be effective in accelerating radiative transfer calculations. The spectral radius is bounded by 0.9 for the continuous equations, but is significantly smaller for the discretized equations, especially in the optically thick regimes characteristic to radiation transport problems. The GDA method is more efficient than the multigroup DSA method because its slightly higher iteration count is more than offset by the much lower cost per iteration. A wide range of test calculations confirm the efficiency of GDA compared to multifrequency DSA. (orig.)

  19. Unsteady axisymmetric flow and heat transfer over time-dependent radially stretching sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeem Shahzad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article address the boundary layer flow and heat transfer of unsteady and incompressible viscous fluid over an unsteady stretching permeable surface. First of all modeled nonlinear partial differential equations are transformed to a system of ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations. Analytic solution of the reduced problem is constructed by using homotopy analysis method (HAM. To validate the constructed series solution a numerical counterpart is developed using shooting algorithm based on Runge-Kutta method. Both schemes are in an excellent agreement. The effects of the pertinent parameters on the velocity and energy profile are shown graphically and examined in detail.

  20. Experience of mating rivals causes males to modulate sperm transfer in the fly Drosophila pseudoobscura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Tom A R; Lizé, Anne; Marcello, Marco; Bretman, Amanda

    2012-12-01

    Male responses to risk of sperm competition play an important role in sexual selection, sexual conflict, and the evolution of mating systems. Such responses can combine behavioural and physiological processes, and can be mediated through different components of the ejaculate such as sperm numbers and seminal proteins. An additional level of ejaculate complexity is sperm heteromorphism, with the inclusion of non-fertilising parasperm in the ejaculate. We now test the response to rivals in a sperm heteromorphic species, Drosophila pseudoobscura, measuring the behavioural response and sperm transfer and, crucially, relating these to short-term fitness. Males respond to exposure to conspecific rivals by increasing mating duration, but do not respond to heterospecific rivals. In addition, after exposure to a conspecific rival, males increased the transfer of fertilising eusperm, but not non-fertilising parasperm. Males exposed to a conspecific rival also achieve higher offspring production. This suggests that the evolution of parasperm in flies was not driven by sperm competition and adds to the increasing evidence that males can make extremely sophisticated responses to mating competition. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.