Sample records for time testing accommodations

  1. ADHD symptoms and benefit from extended time testing accommodations. (United States)

    Lovett, Benjamin J; Leja, Ashley M


    To investigate the relationship between ADHD symptoms, executive functioning problems, and benefit from extended time testing accommodations. College students completed a battery of measures assessing processing speed and reading fluency, reading comprehension (under two different time limits), symptoms of ADHD, executive functioning deficits, and perceptions of need for extended time. Students reporting more symptoms of ADHD and executive functioning deficits actually benefited less from extended time, and students' perceptions of their timing needs did not predict benefit. Students with more ADHD symptoms are less likely to use extended time effectively, possibly because of their associated executive functioning problems. These results suggest there may be little justification for examining a student's ADHD symptoms when making extended time accommodation decisions. © 2013 SAGE Publications.

  2. Computer Testing as a Form of Accommodation for English Language Learners (United States)

    Abedi, Jamal


    This study compared performance of both English language learners (ELLs) and non-ELL students in Grades 4 and 8 under accommodated and nonaccommodated testing conditions. The accommodations used in this study included a computerized administration of a math test with a pop-up glossary, a customized English dictionary, extra testing time, and…

  3. Comparison of tests of accommodation for computer users. (United States)

    Kolker, David; Hutchinson, Robert; Nilsen, Erik


    With the increased use of computers in the workplace and at home, optometrists are finding more patients presenting with symptoms of Computer Vision Syndrome. Among these symptomatic individuals, research supports that accommodative disorders are the most common vision finding. A prepresbyopic group (N= 30) and a presbyopic group (N = 30) were selected from a private practice. Assignment to a group was determined by age, accommodative amplitude, and near visual acuity with their distance prescription. Each subject was given a thorough vision and ocular health examination, then administered several nearpoint tests of accommodation at a computer working distance. All the tests produced similar results in the presbyopic group. For the prepresbyopic group, the tests yielded very different results. To effectively treat symptomatic VDT users, optometrists must assess the accommodative system along with the binocular and refractive status. For presbyopic patients, all nearpoint tests studied will yield virtually the same result. However, the method of testing accommodation, as well as the test stimulus presented, will yield significantly different responses for prepresbyopic patients. Previous research indicates that a majority of patients prefer the higher plus prescription yielded by the Gaussian image test.

  4. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo


    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  5. The Use of Test Accommodations as a Gaming Strategy: A State-Level Exploration of Potential Gaming Tendencies in the 2007-2009 Period and Implications for Re-Directing Research on Gaming through Test Accommodations (United States)

    Saatcioglu, Argun; Skrtic, Thomas M.; DeLuca, Thomas A.


    The overuse of test accommodations (e.g., test readers, extra time, and calculators) for students with disabilities is a potential means of gaming the accountability system because it can inflate proficiency gains. However, no direct evidence on this problem exists, and findings on whether or not test accommodations improve test scores are…

  6. Testing the Contingency Theory of Accommodation in Public Relations. (United States)

    Cancel, Amanda E.; Mitrook, Michael A.; Cameron, Glen T.


    Interviews 18 public-relations professionals to provide grounding and refinement of the contingency theory of accommodation in public relations. Supports a continuum from pure accommodation to pure advocacy and a matrix of variables affecting the continuum. Concludes that the practitioners' view of their communication world offers validity to the…

  7. Indiana Teachers' Perspectives on Testing Accommodations for Limited English Proficient Students Taking the Graduation Qualifying Exam (United States)

    Hetler, Angela Dawn


    This qualitative case study examines teachers' perspectives on testing accommodations for Limited English Proficient (LEP) students taking Indiana's Graduation Qualifying Exam (GQE). The Indiana Department of Education (IDOE) states that the purpose of testing accommodations is to "level the playing field" between LEP students and their…

  8. Gain and movement time of convergence-accommodation in preschool children. (United States)

    Suryakumar, R; Bobier, W R


    Convergence-accommodation is the synkinetic change in accommodation driven by vergence. A few studies have investigated the static and dynamic properties of this cross-link in adults but little is known about convergence-accommodation in children. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for measuring convergence-accommodation and to study its dynamics (gain and movement time) in a sample of pre-school children. Convergence-accommodation measures were examined on thiry-seven normal pre-school children (mean age = 4.0 +/- 1.31 yrs). Stimulus CA/C (sCA/C) ratios and movement time measures of convergence-accommodation were assessed using a photorefractor while subjects viewed a DOG target. Repeated measures were obtained on eight normal adults (mean age = 23 +/- 0.2 yrs). The mean sCA/C ratios and movement times were not significantly different between adults and children (0.10 D/Delta [0.61 D/M.A.], 743 +/- 70 ms and 0.11 D/Delta [0.50 D/M.A.], 787 +/- 216 ms). Repeated measures on adults showed a non-significant mean difference of 0.001 D/Delta. The results suggest that the possible differences in crystalline lens (plant) characteristics between children and adults do not appear to influence convergence-accommodation gain or duration.

  9. The Effect of "Read-Aloud" as a Test Accommodation for Students with Visual Impairments in South Korea (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sook


    Arguing the issue of fairness and the additional advantage for test takers with visual impairments, some professionals have expressed negative attitudes toward test accommodation. However, researchers have found that the validity of test accommodations increases when the test scores of students who need a particular accommodation increases, while…

  10. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, T.J.; Reed, W.C.; Welland, H.J.


    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway

  11. Space nuclear thermal propulsion test facilities accommodation at INEL (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.; Reed, William C.; Welland, Henry J.


    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has proposed to develop the technology and demonstrate the feasibility of a particle bed reactor (PBR) propulsion system that could be used to power an advanced upper stage rocket engine. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is cooperating with the USAF in that it would host the test facility if the USAF decides to proceed with the technology demonstration. Two DOE locations have been proposed for testing the PBR technology, a new test facility at the Nevada Test Site, or the modification and use of an existing facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The preliminary evaluations performed at the INEL to support the PBR technology testing has been completed. Additional evaluations to scope the required changes or upgrade needed to make the proposed USAF PBR test facility meet the requirements for testing Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear thermal propulsion engines are underway.

  12. Developing Testing Accommodations for English Language Learners: Illustrations as Visual Supports for Item Accessibility (United States)

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo; Wang, Chao; Kachchaf, Rachel; Soltero-Gonzalez, Lucinda; Nguyen-Le, Khanh


    We address valid testing for English language learners (ELLs)--students in the United States who are schooled in English while they are still acquiring English as a second language. Also, we address the need for procedures for systematically developing ELL testing accommodations--changes in tests intended to support ELLs to gain access to the…

  13. Severe symptoms of short tear break-up time dry eye are associated with accommodative microfluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaido M


    Full Text Available Minako Kaido,1,2 Motoko Kawashima,1 Reiko Ishida,1,3 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Wada Eye Clinic, Chiba, 3Ishida Eye Clinic, Shizuoka, Japan Aim: Validating the hypothesis that accommodative microfluctuations (AMFs may be associated with severe symptoms in short tear break-up time (BUT dry eye (DE. Methods: This study included 12 subjects with short BUT DE (age: 49.6±18.3 years. Diagnoses were performed based on the presence of DE symptoms, BUT ≤5 s, Schirmer score >5 mm, and negative keratoconjunctival epithelial damage. Tear evaluation, AMF, and functional visual acuity (VA examinations were conducted before and after DE treatment. The AMF parameters evaluated were: total high-frequency component (HFC, HFC with low accommodation for the task of staring into the distance (HFC1, HFC with high accommodation for deskwork (HFC2. A subjective questionnaire of DE symptoms was also performed. Results: Mean BUT increased from 1.9±2.0 to 6.4±2.5 s after treatment (P<0.05. The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution functional VA significantly improved (from 0.19±0.19 to 0.12±0.17; P<0.05. Mean power spectrum values for total HFC and HFC1 decreased (from 61.3±5.7 to 53.8±6.6 dB and from 62.9±10.5 to 52.4±6.2 dB, respectively; P<0.05, while the mean HFC2 power spectrum values did not differ before and after treatment (P>0.05. Subjective DE symptoms were reduced in nine patients. Conclusion: Along with the improvement of BUT after treatment, DE symptoms diminished and HFC1 and functional VA improved, suggesting that tear film instability is associated with deterioration of functional VA, AMF, and DE symptoms. Keywords: accommodative microfluctuation, ciliary muscle spasm, dry eye, ocular fatigue, tear break-up time, functional visual acuity 

  14. The Use of Computer Technology in Designing Appropriate Test Accommodations for English Language Learners (United States)

    Abedi, Jamal


    Among the several forms of accommodations used in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs), language-based accommodations are the most effective in making assessments linguistically accessible to these students. However, there are significant challenges associated with the implementation of many of these accommodations. This article…

  15. Test-retest reproducibility of accommodative facility measures in primary school children. (United States)

    Adler, Paul; Scally, Andrew J; Barrett, Brendan T


    To determine the test-retest reproducibility of accommodative facility (AF) measures in an unselected sample of UK primary school children. Using ±2.00 DS flippers and a viewing distance of 40 cm, AF was measured in 136 children (range 4-12 years, average 8.1 ± 2.1) by five testers on three occasions (average interval between successive tests: eight days, range 1-21 days). On each occasion, AF was measured monocularly and binocularly, for two minutes. Full datasets were obtained in 111 children (81.6 per cent). Intra-individual variation in AF was large (standard deviation [SD] = 3.8 cycles per minute [cpm]) and there was variation due to the identity of the tester (SD = 1.6 cpm). On average, AF was greater: (i) in monocular compared to binocular testing (by 1.4 cpm, p cpm, p cpm lower than in children ≥ 10 years old, p = 0.009); and (iv) on subsequent testing occasions (for example, visit-2 AF was 2.0 cpm higher than visit-1 AF, p cpm monocularly and ≥ 8 cpm binocularly), but this rose to 83.8 per cent after the third test. Using less stringent pass criteria (≥ 6 cpm monocularly and ≥ 3 cpm binocularly), the equivalent figures were 82.9 and 96.4 per cent, respectively. Reduced AF did not co-exist with abnormal near point of accommodation or reduced visual acuity. The results reveal considerable intra-individual variability in raw AF measures in children. When the results are considered as pass/fail, children who initially exhibit normal AF continued to do so on repeat testing. Conversely, the vast majority of children with initially reduced AF exhibit normal performance on repeat testing. Using established pass/fail criteria, the prevalence of persistently reduced AF in this sample is 3.6 per cent. © 2018 Optometry Australia.

  16. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, M.R.


    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs

  17. How to prepare water accommodated fractions from petroleum hydrocarbons for use in aquatic toxicity testing - the basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blenkinsopp, S.; Boileau, P.; Kyle, D.; Sergy, G.; Fingas, M.


    A method to prepare water accommodated fractions (WAFs) from petroleum products for use in toxicity testing, was introduced. In order to develop a repeatable protocol, a systematic study of a range of experimental variables was conducted. One semi-solid oil and six liquid oils were exposed to artificial seawater. Studies were also performed on three liquid oils exposed to freshwater. Low energy mixing and fluorinated Nalgene carboys was used to produce the WAFs. The mixing time depended on the oil type and loading rate. Individual loading rates were prepared for each concentration, because WAF composition is influenced by loading rate rather than serial dilution. An overview of the basic concepts of WAF preparation was described. A draft protocol for preparing WAFs from liquid and semi-solid oil was also described and results were summarized. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  18. The Effect of a Read Aloud Accommodation on Test Scores of Students with and without a Learning Disability in Reading. (United States)

    Meloy, Linda L.; Deville, Craig; Frisbie, David A.


    A study examined the effect of a read aloud testing accommodation on 260 middle school students with and without learning disabilities in reading. Students with learning disabilities in reading, as well as those without, exhibited statistically significant gains with the read aloud test administration. Interaction effects were not significant.…

  19. Comprehension and Time Expended for a Doctoral Student with a Learning Disability when Reading with and without an Accommodation (United States)

    Tanners, Adam; McDougall, Dennis; Skouge, Jim; Narkon, Drue


    The purpose of this alternating treatment, single-case research study was to compare reading comprehension and time expended reading, of a doctoral student with learning disabilities, under two reading conditions. In condition one, the student used a self-discovered accommodation, that is, listening, on an iPod, to an audiobook version…

  20. The Effect of a Reading Accommodation on Standardized Test Scores of Learning Disabled and Non Learning Disabled Students. (United States)

    Meloy, Linda L.; Deville, Craig; Frisbie, David

    The effect of the Read Aloud accommodation on the performances of learning disabled in reading (LD-R) and non-learning disabled (non LD) middle school students was studied using selected texts from the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) achievement battery. Science, Usage and Expression, Math Problem Solving and Data Interpretation, and Reading…

  1. Culture Change from Tobacco Accommodation to Intolerance: Time to Connect the Dots (United States)

    Livingood, William C., Jr.; Allegrante, John P.; Green, Lawrence W.


    Broad changes in normative health behavior are critical to overcoming many of the contemporary challenges to public health. Reduction in tobacco use during the last third of the 20th century--one of the greatest improvements in public health--illustrates such change. The culture change from accommodation to intolerance of smoking is irrefutable.…

  2. The Effect of Visual-Chunking-Representation Accommodation on Geometry Testing for Students with Math Disabilities (United States)

    Zhang, Dake; Ding, Yi; Stegall, Joanna; Mo, Lei


    Students who struggle with learning mathematics often have difficulties with geometry problem solving, which requires strong visual imagery skills. These difficulties have been correlated with deficiencies in visual working memory. Cognitive psychology has shown that chunking of visual items accommodates students' working memory deficits. This…

  3. Adaptation of a Developmental Test to Accommodate Young Children with Low Vision (United States)

    Ferreira, Viviana; Albuquerque, Cristina P.


    Introduction: This study analyzed the effects of accommodations for children with low vision in the Griffiths Mental Development Scales--Extended Revised (GMDS-ER). Methods: The sample comprised 25 children with low vision and chronological ages between 28 and 76 months. There were two assessment phases: in the first, the Griffiths Scales were…

  4. Applying Game Theory and Time Series in Smith Travel Accommodation Resort (STAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan TRAN


    Full Text Available Although Smith Travel Accommodations Report (STAR benchmarks hotel performance against its competitive aggregate and local markets, hotel managers consider STAR as a reference document rather than a strategy model for hotel competition. Recent research report managers prefer less information to use it as clues for a decision rather than more information not to be able to make a decision. It is imperative for hotel managers to use STAR as a clue for the competition. Limited research has focused on techniques to build a clue for STAR as a practice strategy. The present study has built two matrices by STAR indices. After that, game theory strategies were conducted to forecast the outcomes whenever hotel mangers change price. A sample of hotel guests who stayed in seven top hotel destinations in the U.S. during the ten-year period (2005-2015 was selected in the scenario with two assumptions: (1 there are two players in the U.S. meeting business: Player 1 includes hoteliers in Washington DC, Virginia, and Maryland and player 2 includes hoteliers in Orlando, Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York and (2 customers in a hotel of player 1 prefer staying in the hotel of player 1 rather than staying in the hotel of player 2 and vice versa. Findings indicate that two matrices have provided hoteliers with simple clues of different strategies in each month during the year to maximize their revenue.

  5. Transitioning the GED[R] Mathematics Test to Computer with and without Accommodations: A Pilot Project (United States)

    Patterson, Margaret Becker; Higgins, Jennifer; Bozman, Martha; Katz, Michael


    We conducted a pilot study to see how the GED Mathematics Test could be administered on computer with embedded accessibility tools. We examined test scores and test-taker experience. Nineteen GED test centers across five states and 216 randomly assigned GED Tests candidates participated in the project. GED candidates completed two GED mathematics…

  6. Design report for an annular fuel element for accommodation of a carbide test bundle on the ring position of the KNK II/2 test zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefner, H.E.


    This report describes an annular oxide element with Mark II rods for accommodation of a 19-pin carbide test bundle on position 201 in the test zone of the second core of KNK II as well as its behavior during the period of operation. The ring element comprises within a driver wrapper in three rows of pins 102 fuel pins of 7.6 mm diameter and six structural rods for fixing the spark eroded spacers. The report deals with the ring element with its individual components fuel rod, bundle, wrappers, head and foot and describes methods, criteria and results concerning the design. The carbide test bundle to be accommodated by the annular carrier element will be treated in a separate report. The loadability of the annular element with its components is demonstrated by generally valid standards for strength criteria

  7. Geomorphic Proxies to Test Strain Accommodation in Southwestern Puerto Rico from Digital Elevation Models (United States)

    Barrios Galindez, I. M.; Xue, L.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.


    The Puerto Rico and the Virgin Island microplate is located in at the northeastern corner of the Caribbean plate boundary with North America is placed within an oblique subduction zone in which strain patterns remain unresolved. Seismic hazard is a major concern in the region as seen from the seismic history of the Caribbean-North America plate boundary zone. Most of the tectonic models of the microplate show the accommodation of strain occurring offshore, despite evidence from seismic activity, trench studies, and geodetic studies suggesting the existence of strain accomodation in southwest Puerto Rico. These studies also suggest active faulting specially in the western part of the island, but limited work has been done regarding their mechanism. Therefore, this work aims to define and map these active faults in western Puerto Rico by integrating data from analysis of fluvial terrains, and detailed mapping using digital elevation model (DEM) extracted from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and LIDAR data. The goal is to (1) identify structural features such as surface lineaments and fault scarps for the Cerro Goden fault, South Lajas fault, and other active faults in the western of Puerto Rico, (2) correlate these information with the distribution pattern and values of the geomorphic proxies, including Chi integral (χ), normalized steepness (ksn) and Asymmetric factor (AF). Our preliminary results from geomorphic proxies and Lidar data provide some insight of the displacement and stage of activities of these faults (e.g. Boqueron-Punta Malva Fault and Cerro Goden fault). Also, the anomaly of the geomorphic proxies generally correlate with the locations of the landslides in the southwestern Puerto Rico. The geomorphic model of this work include new information of active faulting fundamental to produce better seismic hazards maps. Additionally, active tectonics studies are vital to issue and adjust construction buildings codes and zonification codes.

  8. Accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns: the effects of shifting the timing of sleep on training effectiveness. (United States)

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Shattuck, Lawrence G


    This study evaluated the effect of accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns by altering the timing of the major sleep period of US Army recruits. The quasi-experimental study compared recruits assigned to one of two training companies: one with a customary sleep regimen (20:30 to 04:30) while the other employed a phase-delayed sleep regimen (23:00 to 07:00), the latter aligning better with biologically driven sleep-wake patterns of adolescents. The study was conducted during Basic Combat Training (BCT) at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. TRAINEES: The study included 392 trainees: 209 received the intervention, while 183 composed the Comparison group. Demographic and psychophysiological measures were collected on all trainees. Weekly assessments of subjective fatigue and mood, periodic physical fitness, marksmanship scores, and attrition rates from BCT were studied. Actigraphy was collected on approximately 24% of trainees. Based on actigraphy, trainees on the phase-delayed sleep schedule obtained 31 m more sleep/night than trainees on the customary sleep schedule. The Intervention group reported less total mood disturbance relative to baseline. Improvements in marksmanship correlated positively with average nightly sleep during the preceding week when basic marksmanship skills were taught. No differences were seen in physical fitness or attrition rates. In contrast to the Intervention group, the Comparison group was 2.3 times more likely to experience occupationally significant fatigue and 5.5 times more likely to report poor sleep quality. Accommodating adolescent sleep patterns significantly improves mental health and performance in the training environment.

  9. Accommodative loss after retinal cryotherapy. (United States)

    Uno, Tsuyoshi; Okuyama, Michiko; Tanabe, Tatsuro; Kawamura, Ryosuke; Ideta, Hidenao


    To investigate the effects of peripheral retinal cryotherapy on accommodative amplitude in patients with retinal lattice degeneration. Prospective, observational case series. We studied 92 eyes in 69 patients (age range, 13 to 79 years) treated with cryotherapy for lattice degeneration between December 2001 and September 2004. Pretreatment and posttreatment accommodative amplitudes were measured. Acute accommodative loss was calculated from the difference between accommodative amplitudes before treatment and one week after treatment. We investigated the time course of accommodative amplitudes, acute accommodative loss in different age groups and in pretreatment accommodative amplitude groups, the influence of cryotherapy numbers on accommodative amplitude, and the influence of cryotherapy sites on accommodative amplitude. No significant difference was noted between pretreatment and posttreatment accommodative amplitudes in the overall subject cohort. Dividing subjects by age revealed significant decreases in accommodative amplitude only among patients in their 10s and 20s at one and three weeks after treatment. Accommodative amplitude was lowest among those in their 10s, followed by that among those in their 20s (P < .01). Accommodative amplitudes recovered to pretreatment level by six weeks. Acute accommodative loss was greatest in those in their 10s compared with other age groups (P < .01). A significant correlation was observed between acute accommodative loss and cryotherapy numbers (P = .03; r = 0.41). The decrease in accommodative amplitude was greatest at one week after treatment and recovered to pretreatment levels after six weeks. Accommodative amplitude showed the greatest decrease after cryotherapy among patients in their 10s and 20s. A decrease in accommodative amplitude was observed with increased numbers of cryotherapy spots administered.

  10. PERMANOVA-S: association test for microbial community composition that accommodates confounders and multiple distances. (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Zheng; Chen, Guanhua; Alekseyenko, Alexander V


    Recent advances in sequencing technology have made it possible to obtain high-throughput data on the composition of microbial communities and to study the effects of dysbiosis on the human host. Analysis of pairwise intersample distances quantifies the association between the microbiome diversity and covariates of interest (e.g. environmental factors, clinical outcomes, treatment groups). In the design of these analyses, multiple choices for distance metrics are available. Most distance-based methods, however, use a single distance and are underpowered if the distance is poorly chosen. In addition, distance-based tests cannot flexibly handle confounding variables, which can result in excessive false-positive findings. We derive presence-weighted UniFrac to complement the existing UniFrac distances for more powerful detection of the variation in species richness. We develop PERMANOVA-S, a new distance-based method that tests the association of microbiome composition with any covariates of interest. PERMANOVA-S improves the commonly-used Permutation Multivariate Analysis of Variance (PERMANOVA) test by allowing flexible confounder adjustments and ensembling multiple distances. We conducted extensive simulation studies to evaluate the performance of different distances under various patterns of association. Our simulation studies demonstrate that the power of the test relies on how well the selected distance captures the nature of the association. The PERMANOVA-S unified test combines multiple distances and achieves good power regardless of the patterns of the underlying association. We demonstrate the usefulness of our approach by reanalyzing several real microbiome datasets. miProfile software is freely available at or Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Remote Testing of Timed Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius


    We present a study and a testing framework on black box remote testing of real-time systems using UPPAAL TIGA. One of the essential challenges of remote testing is the communication latency between the Tester and the System Under Test (IUT) that may lead to interleaving of inputs and outputs. Thi...

  12. Timed Testing under Partial Observability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao


    observability of SUT using a set of predicates over the TGA state space, and specify the test purposes in Computation Tree Logic (CTL) formulas. A recently developed partially observable timed game solver is used to generate winning strategies, which are used as test cases. We propose a conformance testing...

  13. Considerations for test design to accommodate energy-budget models in ecotoxicology: a case study for acetone in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. (United States)

    Barsi, Alpar; Jager, Tjalling; Collinet, Marc; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie


    Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) modeling offers many advantages in the analysis of ecotoxicity test data. Calibration of TKTD models, however, places different demands on test design compared with classical concentration-response approaches. In the present study, useful complementary information is provided regarding test design for TKTD modeling. A case study is presented for the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to the narcotic compound acetone, in which the data on all endpoints were analyzed together using a relatively simple TKTD model called DEBkiss. Furthermore, the influence of the data used for calibration on accuracy and precision of model parameters is discussed. The DEBkiss model described toxic effects on survival, growth, and reproduction over time well, within a single integrated analysis. Regarding the parameter estimates (e.g., no-effect concentration), precision rather than accuracy was affected depending on which data set was used for model calibration. In addition, the present study shows that the intrinsic sensitivity of snails to acetone stays the same across different life stages, including the embryonic stage. In fact, the data on egg development allowed for selection of a unique metabolic mode of action for the toxicant. Practical and theoretical considerations for test design to accommodate TKTD modeling are discussed in the hope that this information will aid other researchers to make the best possible use of their test animals. © 2014 SETAC.

  14. Accommodating Picky Palates (United States)

    Lum, Lydia


    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  15. Use of time history speckle pattern and pulsed photoacoustic techniques to detect the self-accommodating transformation in a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Arevalo, F.M.; Aldama-Reyna, W.; Lara-Rodriguez, A.G.; Garcia-Fernandez, T.; Pulos, G.; Trivi, M.; Villagran-Muniz, M.


    Continuous and pulsed electromagnetic radiation was used to detect the self-accommodation mechanism on a polycrystalline Cu-13.83 wt.%Al-2.34 wt.%Ni shape memory alloy. Rectangular samples of this alloy were mechanically polished to observe the austenite and martensite phases. The samples were cooled in liquid nitrogen prior to the experiments to obtain the martensite phase. Using a dynamic speckle technique with a continuous wave laser we obtained the time history of the speckle pattern image and monitored the surface changes caused by the self-accommodation mechanism during the inverse (martensitic to austenitic) transformation. Using a photoacoustic technique based on a pulsed laser source it was also possible to detect the self-accommodation phenomena in a bulk sample. For comparison purposes, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to detect the critical temperatures of transformation and use these as reference to evaluate the performance of the optical and photoacoustical techniques. In all cases, the same range of temperature was obtained during the inverse transformation. From these results, we conclude that time history speckle pattern (THSP) and pulsed photoacoustic are complementary techniques; they are non-destructive and useful to detect surface and bulk martensitic transformation induced by a temperature change.

  16. Use of time history speckle pattern and pulsed photoacoustic techniques to detect the self-accommodating transformation in a Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Arevalo, F.M., E-mail: [CCADET - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico); Aldama-Reyna, W. [Departamento Academico de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Trujillo (Peru); Lara-Rodriguez, A.G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia-Fernandez, T. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM), Prolongacion San Isidro 151, Col. San Lorenzo Tezonco, Mexico DF, C.P. 09790 (Mexico); Pulos, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (Mexico); Trivi, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Opticas, Universidad de la Plata (Argentina); Villagran-Muniz, M. [CCADET - Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-186, Mexico D.F., C.P. 04510 (Mexico)


    Continuous and pulsed electromagnetic radiation was used to detect the self-accommodation mechanism on a polycrystalline Cu-13.83 wt.%Al-2.34 wt.%Ni shape memory alloy. Rectangular samples of this alloy were mechanically polished to observe the austenite and martensite phases. The samples were cooled in liquid nitrogen prior to the experiments to obtain the martensite phase. Using a dynamic speckle technique with a continuous wave laser we obtained the time history of the speckle pattern image and monitored the surface changes caused by the self-accommodation mechanism during the inverse (martensitic to austenitic) transformation. Using a photoacoustic technique based on a pulsed laser source it was also possible to detect the self-accommodation phenomena in a bulk sample. For comparison purposes, we used differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to detect the critical temperatures of transformation and use these as reference to evaluate the performance of the optical and photoacoustical techniques. In all cases, the same range of temperature was obtained during the inverse transformation. From these results, we conclude that time history speckle pattern (THSP) and pulsed photoacoustic are complementary techniques; they are non-destructive and useful to detect surface and bulk martensitic transformation induced by a temperature change.

  17. [Work accommodation at the time of Return-to-Work for workers on sick leave: a qualitative systematic review with recommendations for Return-to-work Guidance 2017]. (United States)

    Nogawa, Kazuhiro; Kojimahara, Noriko


    We conducted a systematic review to determine whether work accommodation at the time of return-to-work (RTW) following a period of sick leave would improve work-related outcomes. Using a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach, we developed recommendations applicable to the field of occupational health in Japan. We approached our review question for "Evidence-based Return-to-work Guidance in Occupational Health 2017 (RTW 2017)" using a PICO framework (P: workers on sick leave; I: work accommodation; C: usual care; O: improvement of work-related outcomes, such as shortened sick leave period or lower rate of sick leave recurrence). To identify relevant intervention studies about work accommodation at the time of RTW, for example, modified work or partial RTW, we searched Cochrane Library, PubMed, and ICHUSHI Web using keywords/phrases such as workplace accommodation, partial RTW, rehabilitation, and modified work. Although we found no systematic reviews, we did identify 632 randomized controlled trials and cohort studies. Two researchers screened them independently using selection and exclusion criteria defined by the RTW guidance committee in the scope. For intervention studies, we extracted PICO and evaluated risk of bias using RevMan 5.3. For cohort studies, we applied the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for evaluation of risk of bias. We then evaluated the body of evidence based on risk of bias, indirectness, inconsistency, imprecision, and publication bias using GRADEPro GDT. Finally, we adopted Evidence to Decision from GRADE and developed recommendations based on anonymous panels' votes. We identified three relevant studies, which were one randomized controlled trial and two cohort studies, on Partial RTW or modified work for musculoskeletal disorders. Although we could not conduct a meta-analysis, our qualitative systematic review of these studies led us to conclude that partial RTW could shorten the period of sick leave and

  18. Differences in the Stimulus Accommodative Convergence/Accommodation Ratio using Various Techniques and Accommodative Stimuli. (United States)

    Satou, Tsukasa; Ito, Misae; Shinomiya, Yuma; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Hara, Naoto; Niida, Takahiro


    To investigate differences in the stimulus accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratio using various techniques and accommodative stimuli, and to describe a method for determining the stimulus AC/A ratio. A total of 81 subjects with a mean age of 21 years (range, 20-23 years) were enrolled. The relationship between ocular deviation and accommodation was assessed using two methods. Ocular deviation was measured by varying the accommodative requirement using spherical plus/minus lenses to create an accommodative stimulus of 10.00 diopters (D) (in 1.00 D steps). Ocular deviation was assessed using the alternate prism cover test in method 1 at distance (5 m) and near (1/3 m), and the major amblyoscope in method 2. The stimulus AC/A ratios obtained using methods 1 and 2 were calculated and defined as the stimulus AC/A ratios with low and high accommodation, respectively, using the following analysis method. The former was calculated as the difference between the convergence response to an accommodative stimulus of 3 D and 0 D, divided by 3. The latter was calculated as the difference between the convergence response to a maximum (max) accommodative stimulus with distinct vision of the subject and an accommodative stimulus of max minus 3.00 D, divided by 3. The median stimulus AC/A ratio with low accommodation (1.0 Δ/D for method 1 at distance, 2.0 Δ/D for method 1 at near, and 2.7 Δ/D for method 2) differed significantly among the measurement methods (P accommodation (4.0 Δ/D for method 1 at distance, 3.7 Δ/D for method 1 at near, and 4.7 Δ/D for method 2) between method 1 at distance and method 2 were statistically significant (P accommodative stimuli. However, differences caused by measurement technique may be reduced by using a high accommodative stimulus during measurements.

  19. Ecotourism and Ecolodge Accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Bulatović


    Full Text Available In ecotourism, as a specific form of tourism, conscientious individuals and groups participate, who by its influence on nature are trying to reduce effects produced by so called mass tourism. Ecotourism product should be developed on the contemporary tourism trends, with full respect of local specificity which represent commitment in regard to competitive destinations. Existence of receptive factors, such as facilities for accommodation, nutrition, entertainment and recreation, represent one of the basic prerequisites for the development of any ecotourism destination. Ecotourists seek accommodation which is ecologically acceptable, modest but cozy at the same time and provides unique experience in natural surroundings. In accordance with these demands protected areas all around the world offer its visitors high quality Ecolodge facilities, which are fully submerged into nature. During their construction and management strict criteria of protection of the environment are followed with optimal waste and energy management. Montenegro has enviable spacious potential for this kind of accommodation in protected areas, especially in its five national parks, so this form of accommodation has to find its place in the future development of tourism. Designing and construction of ecotourism facilities has to be strategically planned and the fact, that it is not enough just to have attractive location but also specific content it has to offer, has to be respected. Ecolodge facilities should be designed and built in accordance with traditional architecture and surrounding materials, to influence as little as possible on the environment and to use alternative energy sources. In other words, it is necessary to provide sustainability of these facilities.

  20. Time reversal and parity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, K.


    A recent review by Henley discusses the present status of Time Reversal and Parity symmetry violations, and comments on the implications for high energy hadron scattering. This note will briefly summarize the situation with particular attention to the sizes of possible effects, relating them to experimental accuracy available or reasonably possible at the ZGS

  1. Benchmarking flood models from space in near real-time: accommodating SRTM height measurement errors with low resolution flood imagery (United States)

    Schumann, G.; di Baldassarre, G.; Alsdorf, D.; Bates, P. D.


    In February 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) measured the elevation of most of the Earth's surface with spatially continuous sampling and an absolute vertical accuracy greater than 9 m. The vertical error has been shown to change with topographic complexity, being less important over flat terrain. This allows water surface slopes to be measured and associated discharge volumes to be estimated for open channels in large basins, such as the Amazon. Building on these capabilities, this paper demonstrates that near real-time coarse resolution radar imagery of a recent flood event on a 98 km reach of the River Po (Northern Italy) combined with SRTM terrain height data leads to a water slope remarkably similar to that derived by combining the radar image with highly accurate airborne laser altimetry. Moreover, it is shown that this space-borne flood wave approximation compares well to a hydraulic model and thus allows the performance of the latter, calibrated on a previous event, to be assessed when applied to an event of different magnitude in near real-time. These results are not only of great importance to real-time flood management and flood forecasting but also support the upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission that will routinely provide water levels and slopes with higher precision around the globe.

  2. Cooperative Testing of Uncontrollable Timed Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao


    the SUT against the test purpose as long as the SUT reacts to our moves in a cooperative style. We present an operational framework of cooperative winning strategy generation, test case derivation and execution. The test method is proved to be sound and complete. Preliminary experimental results indicate......Abstract. This paper deals with targeted testing of timed systems with uncontrollable behavior. The testing activity is viewed as a game between the tester and the system under test (SUT) towards a given test purpose. The SUT is modeled as Timed Game Automaton and the test purpose is specified...... in Timed CTL formula. We can employ a timed game solver UPPAAL-TIGA to check if the test purpose is ture w.r.t. the model, and if yes, to generate a winning strategy and use it for black-box conformance testing. Specifically, we show that in case the checking yields a negative result, we can still test...

  3. Timed Online Tests: Do Students Perform Better with More Time? (United States)

    Portolese, Laura; Krause, Jackie; Bonner, Julie


    This article focuses on timed tests and specifically on whether increased time enhances test performance. Three courses during the Winter 2015 term (quizzes n = 573) and three courses over the Spring 2015 term (quizzes n = 600) comprised this sample. Students were given the same tests, but the experimental group (Spring 2015) was given 50% more…

  4. Effect of yogic breathing on accommodate braille version of six-letter cancellation test in students with visual impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaram Pradhan


    Full Text Available Context: Attentional processes tend to be less well developed in the visually impaired, who require special training to develop them fully. Yogic breathing which alters the patterns of respiration has been shown to enhance attention skills. Letter cancellation tests are well-established tools to measure attention and attention span. Here, a modified Braille version of the six-letter cancellation test (SLCT was used for students with visual impairment (VI. Aim: This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of Bhramari Pranayama (BhPr and breath awareness (BA on students with VI. Methods: This study was a self-as-control study held on 2 consecutive days, on 19 participants (8 males, 11 females, with a mean age of 15.89 ± 1.59 years, randomized into two groups. On the 1st day, Group 1 performed 10 min breath awareness and Group 2 performed Bhramari; on the 2nd day, practices were reversed. Assessments used a SLCT specially adapted for the visually impaired before and after each session. Results: The Braille letter cancellation test was successfully taken by 19 students. Scores significantly improved after both techniques for each student following practices on both days (P < 0.001. BhPr may have more effect on attention performance than BA as wrong scores significantly increased following BA (P < 0.05, but the increase in the score after Bhramari was not significant. Conclusions: Despite the small sample size improvement in attentional processes by both yoga breathing techniques was robust. Attentional skills were definitely enhanced. Long-term practice should be studied.

  5. Effect of Yogic Breathing on Accommodate Braille Version of Six-letter Cancellation Test in Students with Visual Impairment. (United States)

    Pradhan, Balaram; Mohanty, Soubhagyalaxmi; Hankey, Alex


    Attentional processes tend to be less well developed in the visually impaired, who require special training to develop them fully. Yogic breathing which alters the patterns of respiration has been shown to enhance attention skills. Letter cancellation tests are well-established tools to measure attention and attention span. Here, a modified Braille version of the six-letter cancellation test (SLCT) was used for students with visual impairment (VI). This study aimed to assess the immediate effects of Bhramari Pranayama (BhPr) and breath awareness (BA) on students with VI. This study was a self-as-control study held on 2 consecutive days, on 19 participants (8 males, 11 females), with a mean age of 15.89 ± 1.59 years, randomized into two groups. On the 1 st day, Group 1 performed 10 min breath awareness and Group 2 performed Bhramari ; on the 2 nd day, practices were reversed. Assessments used a SLCT specially adapted for the visually impaired before and after each session. The Braille letter cancellation test was successfully taken by 19 students. Scores significantly improved after both techniques for each student following practices on both days ( P < 0.001). BhPr may have more effect on attention performance than BA as wrong scores significantly increased following BA ( P < 0.05), but the increase in the score after Bhramari was not significant. Despite the small sample size improvement in attentional processes by both yoga breathing techniques was robust. Attentional skills were definitely enhanced. Long-term practice should be studied.

  6. Blower door tests of a group of identical flats in a new student accommodation in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotol, Martin; Rode, Carsten; Vahala, Jan

    is as high as 400%. This result is without consideration of one particular flat which had the extreme result of being 940% as leaky as the unit with the highest air tightness. The reasons for such poor air tightness are lack of the installation gap between the vapour barrier and the inner wall......, and insufficient connections of the vapour barrier to the interior walls as explained in the paper. The large variation in results can be attributed to insufficient consideration of the importance of airtighness during construction of some parts of the building – despite of an intent to make a rather air tight...... air quality (IAQ) as well as performance of some single components. In summer 2012 a blower door test was performed on all 37 living units out of which 33 are identical single room flats and 4 are larger double room flats. The purpose was to evaluate the air tightness of the envelope and to find out...

  7. Can current models of accommodation and vergence predict accommodative behavior in myopic children? (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Irving, Elizabeth L; Bobier, William R


    Investigations into the progression of myopia in children have long considered the role of accommodation as a cause and solution. Myopic children show high levels of accommodative adaptation, coupled with accommodative lag and high response AC/A (accommodative convergence per diopter of accommodation). This pattern differs from that predicted by current models of interaction between accommodation and vergence, where weakened reflex responses and a high AC/A would be associated with a low not high levels of accommodative adaptation. However, studies of young myopes were limited to only part of the accommodative vergence synkinesis and the reciprocal components of vergence adaptation and convergence accommodation were not studied in tandem. Accordingly, we test the hypothesis that the accommodative behavior of myopic children is not predicted by current models and whether that departure is explained by differences in the accommodative plant of the myopic child. Responses to incongruent stimuli (-2D, +2D adds, 10 prism diopter base-out prism) were investigated in 28 myopic and 25 non-myopic children aged 7-15 years. Subjects were divided into phoria groups - exo, ortho and eso based upon their near phoria. The school aged myopes showed high levels of accommodative adaptation but with reduced accommodation and high AC/A. This pattern is not explained by current adult models and could reflect a sluggish gain of the accommodative plant (ciliary muscle and lens), changes in near triad innervation or both. Further, vergence adaptation showed a predictable reciprocal relationship with the high accommodative adaptation, suggesting that departures from adult models were limited to accommodation not vergence behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Testing Real-Time Systems Using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius


    This chapter presents principles and techniques for model-based black-box conformance testing of real-time systems using the Uppaal model-checking tool-suite. The basis for testing is given as a network of concurrent timed automata specified by the test engineer. Relativized input...

  9. Problems and accommodation strategies reported by computer users with rheumatoid arthritis or fibromyalgia. (United States)

    Baker, Nancy A; Rubinstein, Elaine N; Rogers, Joan C


    Little is known about the problems experienced by and the accommodation strategies used by computer users with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or fibromyalgia (FM). This study (1) describes specific problems and accommodation strategies used by people with RA and FM during computer use; and (2) examines if there were significant differences in the problems and accommodation strategies between the different equipment items for each diagnosis. Subjects were recruited from the Arthritis Network Disease Registry. Respondents completed a self-report survey, the Computer Problems Survey. Data were analyzed descriptively (percentages; 95% confidence intervals). Differences in the number of problems and accommodation strategies were calculated using nonparametric tests (Friedman's test and Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test). Eighty-four percent of respondents reported at least one problem with at least one equipment item (RA = 81.5%; FM = 88.9%), with most respondents reporting problems with their chair. Respondents most commonly used timing accommodation strategies to cope with mouse and keyboard problems, personal accommodation strategies to cope with chair problems and environmental accommodation strategies to cope with monitor problems. The number of problems during computer use was substantial in our sample, and our respondents with RA and FM may not implement the most effective strategies to deal with their chair, keyboard, or mouse problems. This study suggests that workers with RA and FM might potentially benefit from education and interventions to assist with the development of accommodation strategies to reduce problems related to computer use.

  10. Caffeine intake is associated with pupil dilation and enhanced accommodation. (United States)

    Abokyi, S; Owusu-Mensah, J; Osei, K A


    PurposeIt is purported that caffeine, an autonomic stimulant, affects visual performance. This study sought to assess whether caffeine intake was associated with changes in pupil size and/or amplitude of accommodation.Patients and methodsA double-masked, crossover study was conducted in 50 healthy subjects of age range 19 to 25 years. Subjects were randomized to treatments such that subjects consumed either 250 mg caffeine drink or vehicle on separate days. Amplitude of accommodation was measured by the push-up technique, and pupil size using a millimeter ruler fixed to a slit lamp biomicroscope in dim illumination (5 lux). Amplitude of accommodation and pupil size were taken at baseline, and at 30, 60 and 90 min time points post treatment. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired t-test were used in analyzing data.ResultsAmplitude of accommodation and pupil size after caffeine intake were significantly greater than vehicle (Pcaffeine beverage was associated with significant increases in amplitude of accommodation and pupil size with time (Pcaffeine. This study suggests caffeine may have some influence on visual functions.

  11. An examination of the impact of care giving styles (accommodation and skilful communication and support) on the one year outcome of adolescent anorexia nervosa: Testing the assumptions of the cognitive interpersonal model in anorexia nervosa. (United States)

    Salerno, Laura; Rhind, Charlotte; Hibbs, Rebecca; Micali, Nadia; Schmidt, Ulrike; Gowers, Simon; Macdonald, Pamela; Goddard, Elizabeth; Todd, Gillian; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Treasure, Janet


    The cognitive interpersonal model predicts that parental caregiving style will impact on the rate of improvement of anorexia nervosa symptoms. The study aims to examine whether the absolute levels and the relative congruence between mothers' and fathers' care giving styles influenced the rate of change of their children's symptoms of anorexia nervosa over 12 months. Triads (n=54) consisting of patients with anorexia nervosa and both of their parents were included in the study. Caregivers completed the Caregiver Skills scale and the Accommodation and Enabling Scale at intake. Patients completed the Short Evaluation of Eating Disorders at intake and at monthly intervals for one year. Polynomial Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used for the analysis. There is a person/dose dependant relationship between accommodation and patients' outcome, i.e. when both mother and father are highly accommodating outcome is poor, if either is highly accommodating outcome is intermediate and if both parents are low on accommodation outcome is good. Outcome is also good if both parents or mother alone have high levels of carer skills and poor if both have low levels of skills. Including only a sub-sample of an adolescent clinical population; not considering time spent care giving, and reporting patient's self-reported outcome data limits the generalisability of the current findings. Accommodating and enabling behaviours by family members can serve to maintain eating disorder behaviours. However, skilful behaviours particularly by mothers, can aid recovery. Clinical interventions to optimise care giving skills and to reduce accommodation by both parents may be an important addition to treatment for anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reasonable Accommodation Information Tracking System (RAITS) is a case management system that allows the National Reasonable Accommodation Coordinator (NRAC) and...

  13. Accommodative Ability in Prepresbyopic Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Etezad Razavi


    Full Text Available Introduction: To compare various accommodative parameters in prepresbyopic diabetic patients with age-matched healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: Study populationconsisted of 32 younger-onset diabetic patients (30-40 years of age and 28 age-matched healthy normal individuals. Using the best correction for distance visual acuity (20.20 by Snellen chart, multiple accommodative ability tests such as near point of accommodation, accommodative amplitude, negative or positive accommodative facility and near point of convergence were measured in both groups. Results: Mean near point of accommodation in diabetic patients was significantly greater than the control group (18.5±4.4 centimeters [cm] versus 9.5±2 centimeters, p= 0.000. Mean accommodative amplitude was (5.93±1.75 Diopter (D and (10.95±2.16 Diopter in diabetics and normal individuals, respectively (p=0.000. Mean accommodation facility was (3.19±3.04 cycle/minute [cyl/min] in patients and 10.01±5.09 cycle/minute in the control group (p= 0.000. Mean positive relative accommodation was (–3.37±1.19 D in diabetic and (-2.11±0.99 D in healthy participants (p=0.000. Mean negative relative accommodation was lower in diabetic patients compared with the control group, however, this difference did not reach statistical significance (2.61±0.65 D versus (2.61±0.60 D, p= 0.23. Mean near point of convergence was (8.23±1.43 cm and (7.13±0.67 cm in normal and diabetic groups, respectively which had insignificant difference (p= 0.45. Conclusion: Majority of accommodative ability functions decreased in prepresbyopic diabetic patients. Early detection and rehabilitation of such patients with corrective near spectacles are strongly recommended.

  14. Non-linearity of the response accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio. (United States)

    Johnston, Miriam S; Firth, Alison Y


    Previous studies have reported variation in stimulus accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio across differing accommodative stimuli. Response AC/A ratio was assessed across 4 accommodative demands to determine if these differences could be due to accommodative inaccuracies to stimuli. Twenty-three student participants aged 18 to 26 years (mean age 20.3 ± 1.7 years) successfully completed all testing conditions. The modified Thorington technique was used at 4 m to measure heterophoria. The Shin Nippon SRW 5000 infrared autorefractor was used to determine accommodative change to -1.50, -3.00, -4.50, and -6.00D lens stimuli. Significant differences were found in response AC/A ratio between different minus lens stimulated accommodative demands (p accommodative stimuli, but tended to increase with accommodative demand. Significant variability in response AC/A ratio was found, both within individuals to different accommodative demands, and between individuals across the data set.

  15. Testing of real-time-software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friesland, G.; Ovenhausen, H.


    The situation in the area of testing real-time-software is unsatisfactory. During the first phase of the project PROMOTE (prozessorientiertes Modul- und Gesamttestsystem) an analysis of the momentary situation took place, results of which are summarized in the following study about some user interviews and an analysis of relevant literature. 22 users (industry, software-houses, hardware-manufacturers, and institutes) have been interviewed. Discussions were held about reliability of real-time software with special interest to error avoidance, testing, and debugging. Main aims of the analysis of the literature were elaboration of standard terms, comparison of existing test methods and -systems, and the definition of boundaries to related areas. During the further steps of this project some means and techniques will be worked out to systematically test real-time software. (orig.) [de


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper describes the process of planning in an oral test situation. Since many researchers have studied the impact of pretask planning in the Second Language Acquisition (SLA) field and some have explored the same subject into the area of oral tests, the present study tries to make a tentative attempt to see what the test takers are actually doing in the planning time while taking an oral test. A questionnaire was designed with the effort to find out whether planning time results in an increased focus on form, particularly at the level of strategic attention to form.The result of the investigation tells us that restricted by the type of situation, test takers can only plan the framework of what they are going to say, which may differ to the results achieved by previous studies.

  17. [Energy and memory efficient calculation of the accommodation demand in the artificial accommodation system]. (United States)

    Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Harms, H; Stiller, P; Guth, H; Stachs, O; Bretthauer, G


    Presbyopia and cataract are gaining more and more importance in the ageing society. Both age-related complaints are accompanied with a loss of the eye's ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore accommodation is the Artificial Accommodation System, an autonomous micro system, which will be implanted into the capsular bag instead of a rigid intraocular lens. The Artificial Accommodation System will, depending on the actual demand for accommodation, autonomously adapt the refractive power of its integrated optical element. One possibility to measure the demand for accommodation non-intrusively is to analyse eye movements. We present an efficient algorithm, based on the CORDIC technique, to calculate the demand for accommodation from magnetic field sensor data. It can be shown that specialised algorithms significantly shorten calculation time without violating precision requirements. Additionally, a communication strategy for the wireless exchange of sensor data between the implants of the left and right eye is introduced. The strategy allows for a one-sided calculation of the demand for accommodation, resulting in an overall reduction of calculation time by 50 %. The presented methods enable autonomous microsystems, such as the Artificial Accommodation System, to save significant amounts of energy, leading to extended autonomous run-times. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Real time simulator for material testing reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Noriyuki; Imaizumi, Tomomi; Izumo, Hironobu; Hori, Naohiko; Suzuki, Masahide [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Ishitsuka, Tatsuo; Tamura, Kazuo [ITOCHU Techno-Solutions Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is now developing a real time simulator for a material testing reactor based on Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The simulator treats reactor core system, primary and secondary cooling system, electricity system and irradiation facility systems. Possible simulations are normal reactor operation, unusual transient operation and accidental operation. The developed simulator also contains tool to revise/add facility in it for the future development. (author)

  19. Real time simulator for material testing reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Noriyuki; Imaizumi, Tomomi; Izumo, Hironobu; Hori, Naohiko; Suzuki, Masahide; Ishitsuka, Tatsuo; Tamura, Kazuo


    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is now developing a real time simulator for a material testing reactor based on Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The simulator treats reactor core system, primary and secondary cooling system, electricity system and irradiation facility systems. Possible simulations are normal reactor operation, unusual transient operation and accidental operation. The developed simulator also contains tool to revise/add facility in it for the future development. (author)

  20. Decreased accommodation during decompensation of distance exotropia. (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M


    Disparity cues can be a major drive to accommodation via the convergence accommodation to convergence (CA/C) linkage, but, on decompensation of exotropia, disparity cues are extinguished by suppression so this drive is lost. This study investigated accommodation and vergence responses to disparity, blur and proximal cues in a group of distance exotropes aged between 4 and 11 years both during decompensation and when exotropic. 19 participants with distance exotropia were tested using a PlusoptiXSO4 photo refractor set in a remote haploscopic device that assessed simultaneous vergence and accommodation to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and proximal cues at four fixation distances between 2 m and 33 cm. Responses on decompensation were compared with those from the same children when their deviation was controlled. Manifest exotropia was more common in the more impoverished cue conditions. When decompensated for near, mean accommodation gain for the all-cue (naturalistic) target was significantly reduced (paccommodation of 2.33 D at 33 cm. The profile of near cues usage changed after decompensation, with blur and proximity driving residual responses, but these remaining cues did not compensate for loss of accommodation caused by the removal of disparity. Accommodation often reduces on decompensation of distance exotropia as the drive from convergence is extinguished, providing a further reason to try to prevent decompensation for near.

  1. Accommodating Different Learning Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis


    Design engineering educations often struggle to accommodate a highly diverse group of students as it combines an equally diverse range of topics in one education. This paper investigates how a specific course, Mathematics and Form, integrates two distinct areas into one course with the aim of fac...... shapes and form, whereas other types of students do not. The results thereby underpin that learning is typically based on individual preferences and that cross-disciplinary educational programmes have to accommodate this....... of facilitating learning across this diverse group of students. The paper is based on a survey with 99 former participants of the course as respondents. The results of the survey imply that certain types of students benefit from the combination of mathematical theory and practical exercises related to basic...

  2. Real-Time Optical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredborg, Marlene; Andersen, Klaus R; Jørgensen, Erik


    Rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing is in highly demand in health-care fields as antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains emerge and spread. Here we describe an optical screening system (oCelloScope), which based on time-lapse imaging of 96 bacteria-antibiotic combinations at a time......, introduces real-time detection of bacterial growth and antimicrobial susceptibility, with imaging material to support the automatically generated graphs. Automated antibiotic susceptibility tests of a monoculture showed statistically significant antibiotic effect within 6 minutes and within 30 minutes...... from multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. The oCelloScope system can be employed for a broad range of applications within bacteriology and may present new vistas as a point-of-care instrument in both clinical and veterinarian settings....

  3. Nonverbal accommodation in health care communication. (United States)

    D'Agostino, Thomas A; Bylund, Carma L


    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within health care interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results indicated that across all NAAS behavior categories, physician-patient interactions were most frequently categorized as joint convergence, followed closely by asymmetrical-patient convergence. Among paraverbal behaviors, talk time, interruption, and pausing were most frequently characterized by joint convergence. Among nonverbal behaviors, eye contact, laughing, and gesturing were most frequently categorized as asymmetrical-physician convergence. Differences were predominantly nonsignificant in terms of accommodation behavior between pre- and post-communication skills training interactions. Only gesturing proved significant, with post-communication skills training interactions more likely to be categorized as joint convergence or asymmetrical-physician convergence. No differences in accommodation were noted between gender-concordant and nonconcordant interactions. The importance of accommodation behavior in health care communication is considered from a patient-centered care perspective.

  4. Nonverbal Accommodation in Healthcare Communication


    D’Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.


    This exploratory study examined patterns of nonverbal accommodation within healthcare interactions and investigated the impact of communication skills training and gender concordance on nonverbal accommodation behavior. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS) was used to code the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within 45 oncology consultations. Cases were then placed in one of seven categories based on patterns of accommodation observed across the interaction. Results...

  5. Accommodating ‘design’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpova, Yulia


    This article investigates the background of Soviet industrial design in Soviet art theory. Instead of considering design's interconnection with technology and science, or with consumption and everyday life, the author traces its conceptualisation as a new artistic phenomenon. Using archival records...... of professional discussions, polemical articles in the art press and design projects, the author looks at how industrial design was incorporated into the Soviet order of things. She concludes that accommodation of the Western model was the way to reform the system of socialism from inside, typical for the Soviet...

  6. [Spasm of accommodation]. (United States)

    Lindberg, Laura


    Spasm of accommodation refers to prolonged contraction of the ciliary muscle, most commonly causing pseudomyopia to varying degrees in both eyes by keeping the lens in a state of short sightedness. It may also be manifested as inability to allow the adaptation spasticity prevailing in the ciliary muscle relax without measurable myopia. As a rule, this is a functional ailment triggered by prolonged near work and stress. The most common symptoms include blurring of distance vision, varying visual acuity as well as pains in the orbital region and the head, progressing into a chronic state. Cycloplegic eye drops are used as the treatment.

  7. Accommodative Amplitude in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaunieks Gatis


    Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.

  8. Time reversal tests in polarized neutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Koichiro; Bowman, J.D.; Crawford, B.


    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In recent years the nuclear weak interaction has been studied in the compound nucleus via parity violation. The observed parity-violating effects are strongly enhanced by nuclear structure. The predictions are that the interaction of polarized neutrons with polarized nuclear targets could be also used to perform sensitive tests of time-reversal-violation because of the nuclear enhancements. The author has designed experiments to search for time-reversal violation in neutron-nucleus interactions. He has also developed techniques to polarize neutrons with laser-polarized 3 He gas targets. Using the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, he has performed two experiments at LANSCE: an absolute neutron beam polarization measurement with an accuracy of 0.2--0.3% and a neutron spin-rotation measurement on a 139 La sample

  9. [Effects of orthokeratology lenses on the magnitude of accommodative lag and accommodativeconvergence/accommodation]. (United States)

    Ren, Qiujin; Yue, Hui; Zhou, Qing


    To evaluate the change in accommodative lag and accommodation convergence/accommodation (AC/A) after patients with myopia wear orthokeratology lenses. 
 A total of 48 myopic subjects (a test group), who wore orthokeratology lenses regularly, and 48 myopic subjects (a control group), who wore spectacles regularly, were enrolled for this study from January 2011 to January 2013 in Optometric Center, the Forth Hospital of Changsha. Accommodative lag was measured by fused cross cylinder method, where the patients should gaze at the front optotypes 40 cm away. Gradient of the AC/A ratio was measured by Von Grafe method to check closer distance heterophoria. Accommodative lag and AC/A ratio were analyzed by statistics.
 After 1-year follow-up, accommodative lag and AC/A rate in patients with low or moderate myopia in the test group was decreased in 1, 3, 6 months or 1 year compared with that in the control group (Paccommodative lag and high AC/A rate in patients with low or moderate myopia. The relationship between accommodation and convergence is improved by orthokeratology lenses. Orthokeratology is an effective way to control myopia.

  10. Retinal image quality during accommodation. (United States)

    López-Gil, Norberto; Martin, Jesson; Liu, Tao; Bradley, Arthur; Díaz-Muñoz, David; Thibos, Larry N


    We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552 nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye's higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced visual function may be a useful

  11. Long residence times - bad tracer tests? (United States)

    Ghergut, Julia; Behrens, Horst; Sauter, Martin


    Tracer tests conducted at geothermal well doublets or triplets in the Upper Rhine Rift Valley [1] all face, with very few exceptions so far, one common issue: lack of conclusive tracer test results, or tracer signals still undetectable for longer than one or two years after tracer injection. While the reasons for this surely differ from site to site (Riehen, Landau, Insheim, Bruchsal, ...), its effects on how the usefulness of tracer tests is perceived by the non-tracer community are pretty much the same. The 'poor-signal' frustration keeps nourishing two major 'alternative' endeavours : (I) design and execute tracer tests in single-well injection-withdrawal (push-pull), 'instead of' inter-well flow-path tracing configurations; (II) use 'novel' tracer substances instead of the 'old' ones which have 'obviously failed'. Frustration experienced with most inter-well tracer tests in the Upper Rhine Rift Valley has also made them be regarded as 'maybe useful for EGS' ('enhanced', or 'engineered' geothermal systems, whose fluid RTD typically include a major share of values below one year), but 'no longer worthwhile a follow-up sampling' in natural, large-scale hydrothermal reservoirs. We illustrate some of these arguments with the ongoing Bruchsal case [2]. The inter-well tracer test conducted at Bruchsal was (and still is!) aimed at assessing inter-well connectivity, fluid residence times, and characterizing the reservoir structure [3]. Fluid samples taken at the geothermal production well after reaching a fluid turnover of about 700,000 m3 showed tracer concentrations in the range of 10-8 Minj per m3, in the liquid phase of each sample (Minj being the total quantity of tracer injected as a short pulse at the geothermal re-injection well). Tracer signals might actually be higher, owing to tracer amounts co-precipitated and/or adsorbed onto the solid phase whose accumulation in the samples was unavoidable (due to pressure relief and degassing during the very sampling

  12. EBooks and Accommodations: Is This the Future of Print Accommodation? (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Terence


    This article explains the three components of eBooks: an eBook file, software to read the eBook, and a hardware device to read it on. The use of eBooks for students with special needs, the advantages of eBooks, built in accommodations, and creating accommodations are discussed. EBook resources are included. (Contains references.) (CR)

  13. Minimizing time for test in integrated circuit


    Andonova, A. S.; Dimitrov, D. G.; Atanasova, N. G.


    The cost for testing integrated circuits represents a growing percentage of the total cost for their production. The former strictly depends on the length of the test session, and its reduction has been the target of many efforts in the past. This paper proposes a new method for reducing the test length by adopting a new architecture and exploiting an evolutionary optimisation algorithm. A prototype of the proposed approach was tested on 1SCAS standard benchmarks and theexperimental results s...

  14. Lead time reduction by optimal test sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumen, R.; Jong, de I.S.M.


    Het testen van machines neemt in het huidige ontwerp en productie fases binnen ASML ongeveer 30-50% van de totale doorlooptijd in. Om deze tijd te verkorten, worden er test strategieën gemaakt. Een van de belangrijke onderdelen van zo een test strategie is de test volgorde, oftewel de volgorde

  15. Evaluation of Accommodation Companies Recreation Activities in İstanbul




    Recreation activities represent quality of company, image and attractiveness for both staying guests and day use guests. At the same time recreation can be important income source for accommodation companies. This study investigate the web page of 82 five star accommodation company in Istanbul from the side of recreation activities. At the end of the study find that most of accommodation company don't have in place recreation activities, recreation tab and representation about activities in t...

  16. Considerations for test design to accommodate energy-budget models in ecotoxicology: a case study for acetone in the pond snail lymnaea stagnalis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barsi, A.; Jager, T.; Collinet, M.; Lagadic, L.; Ducrot, V.


    Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) modeling offers many advantages in the analysis of ecotoxicity test data. Calibration of TKTD models, however, places different demands on test design compared with classical concentration-response approaches. In the present study, useful complementary information

  17. Testing General Relativity with Pulsar Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stairs Ingrid H.


    Full Text Available Pulsars of very different types, including isolated objects and binaries (with short- and long-period orbits, and white-dwarf and neutron-star companions provide the means to test both the predictions of general relativity and the viability of alternate theories of gravity. This article presents an overview of pulsars, then discusses the current status of and future prospects for tests of equivalence-principle violations and strong-field gravitational experiments.

  18. [Monochromatic aberration in accommodation. Dynamic wavefront analysis]. (United States)

    Fritzsch, M; Dawczynski, J; Jurkutat, S; Vollandt, R; Strobel, J


    Monochromatic aberrations may influence the visual acuity of the eye. They are not stable and can be affected by different factors. The subject of the following paper is the dynamic investigation of the changes in wavefront aberration with accommodation. Dynamic measurement of higher and lower order aberrations was performed with a WASCA Wavefront Analyzer (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) and a specially constructed target device for aligning objects in far and near distances on 25 subjects aged from 15 to 27 years old. Wavefront aberrations showed some significant changes in accommodation. In addition to the characteristic sphere reaction accompanying miosis and changes in horizontal prism (Z(1) (1)) in the sense of a convergence movement of the eyeball also occurred. Furthermore defocus rose (Z(2) (0)) and astigmatism (Z(2) (-2)) changed. In higher-order aberrations a decrease in coma-like Zernike polynomials (Z(3) (-1), Z(3) (1)) was found. The most obvious change appeared in spherical aberration (Z(4) (0)) which increased and changed from positive to negative. In addition the secondary astigmatism (Z(4) (-2)) and quadrafoil (Z(4) (4)) rise also increased. The total root mean square (RMS), as well as the higher-order aberrations (RMS-HO) significantly increased in accommodation which is associated with a theoretical reduction of visual acuity. An analysis of the influence of pupil size on aberrations showed significant increases in defocus, spherical aberration, quadrafoil, RMS and RMS HO by increasing pupil diameter. By accommodation-associated miosis, the growing aberrations are partially compensated by focusing on near objects. Temporal analysis of the accommodation process with dynamic wavefront analysis revealed significant delays in pupil response and changing of prism in relation to the sphere reaction. In accommodation to near objects a discrete time ahead of third order aberrations in relation to the sphere response was found. Using dynamic wavefront measurement

  19. Item response times in computerized adaptive testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz F. Hornke


    Full Text Available Tiempos de respuesta al ítem en tests adaptativos informatizados. Los tests adaptativos informatizados (TAI proporcionan puntuaciones y a la vez tiempos de respuesta a los ítems. La investigación sobre el significado adicional que se puede obtener de la información contenida en los tiempos de respuesta es de especial interés. Se dispuso de los datos de 5912 jóvenes en un test adaptativo informatizado. Estudios anteriores indican mayores tiempos de respuesta cuando las respuestas son incorrectas. Este resultado fue replicado en este estudio más amplio. No obstante, los tiempos promedios de respuesta al ítem para las respuestas erróneas y correctas no muestran una interpretación diferencial de la obtenida con los niveles de rasgo, y tampoco correlacionan de manera diferente con unos cuantos tests de capacidad. Se discute si los tiempos de respuesta deben ser interpretados en la misma dimensión que mide el TAI o en otras dimensiones. Desde los primeros años 30 los tiempos de respuesta han sido considerados indicadores de rasgos de personalidad que deben ser diferenciados de los rasgos que miden las puntuaciones del test. Esta idea es discutida y se ofrecen argumentos a favor y en contra. Los acercamientos mas recientes basados en modelos también se muestran. Permanece abierta la pregunta de si se obtiene o no información diagnóstica adicional de un TAI que tenga una toma de datos detallada y programada.

  20. Real-time graphic display system for ROSA-V Large Scale Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masaya; Anoda, Yoshinari; Osaki, Hideki; Kukita, Yutaka; Takigawa, Yoshio.


    A real-time graphic display system was developed for the ROSA-V Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) experiments simulating accident management measures for prevention of severe core damage in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The system works on an IBM workstation (Power Station RS/6000 model 560) and accommodates 512 channels out of about 2500 total measurements in the LSTF. It has three major functions: (a) displaying the coolant inventory distribution in the facility primary and secondary systems; (b) displaying the measured quantities at desired locations in the facility; and (c) displaying the time histories of measured quantities. The coolant inventory distribution is derived from differential pressure measurements along vertical sections and gamma-ray densitometer measurements for horizontal legs. The color display indicates liquid subcooling calculated from pressure and temperature at individual locations. (author)

  1. Accommodation and convergence during sustained computer work. (United States)

    Collier, Juanita D; Rosenfield, Mark


    With computer usage becoming almost universal in contemporary society, the reported prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) is extremely high. However, the precise physiological mechanisms underlying CVS remain unclear. Although abnormal accommodation and vergence responses have been cited as being responsible for the symptoms produced, there is little objective evidence to support this claim. Accordingly, this study measured both of these oculomotor parameters during a sustained period of computer use. Subjects (N = 20) were required to read text aloud from a laptop computer at a viewing distance of 50 cm for a sustained 30-minute period through their habitual refractive correction. At 2-minute intervals, the accommodative response (AR) to the computer screen was measured objectively using a Grand Seiko WAM 5500 optometer (Grand Seiko, Hiroshima, Japan). Additionally, the vergence response was assessed by measuring the associated phoria (AP), i.e., prism to eliminate fixation disparity, using a customized fixation disparity target that appeared on the computer screen. Subjects were asked to rate the degree of difficulty of the reading task on a scale from 1 to 10. Mean accommodation and AP values during the task were 1.07 diopters and 0.74∆ base-in (BI), respectively. The mean discomfort score was 4.9. No significant changes in accommodation or vergence were observed during the course of the 30-minute test period. There was no significant difference in the AR as a function of subjective difficulty. However, the mean AP for the subjects who reported the least and greatest discomfort during the task was 1.55∆ BI and 0, respectively (P = 0.02). CVS, after 30 minutes was worse in subjects exhibiting zero fixation disparity when compared with those subjects having a BI AP but does not appear to be related to differences in accommodation. A slightly reduced vergence response increases subject comfort during the task. Copyright © 2011 American Optometric

  2. Equity Market Timing: Testing Using Brazilian IPOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Rossi Jr


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether the behavior related to the equity market timing affected the recent IPO wave of Brazilian firms and exerted an impact on companies'capital structure. Using data from january 2004 to december 2007 the paper classifies the months in the sample in hot or cold according the number of IPOs that took place in each month. The paper confirms an oportunistic behavior by the firms that issue a higher volume of stocks in periods classified as hot. The paper also shows that the impact of this behavior on companies` capital structure is very limited. Although there is a reduction in companies` leverage right after the IPO, this returns to its previous level only a few quarters after the IPO.

  3. Reduction Methods for Real-time Simulations in Hybrid Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian


    Hybrid testing constitutes a cost-effective experimental full scale testing method. The method was introduced in the 1960's by Japanese researchers, as an alternative to conventional full scale testing and small scale material testing, such as shake table tests. The principle of the method...... is performed on a glass fibre reinforced polymer composite box girder. The test serves as a pilot test for prospective real-time tests on a wind turbine blade. The Taylor basis is implemented in the test, used to perform the numerical simulations. Despite of a number of introduced errors in the real...... is to divide a structure into a physical substructure and a numerical substructure, and couple these in a test. If the test is conducted in real-time it is referred to as real time hybrid testing. The hybrid testing concept has developed significantly since its introduction in the 1960', both with respect...

  4. Time-Optimal Real-Time Test Case Generation using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nielsen, Brian


    Testing is the primary software validation technique used by industry today, but remains ad hoc, error prone, and very expensive. A promising improvement is to automatically generate test cases from formal models of the system under test. We demonstrate how to automatically generate real...... test purposes or generated automatically from various coverage criteria of the model.......-time conformance test cases from timed automata specifications. Specifically we demonstrate how to fficiently generate real-time test cases with optimal execution time i.e test cases that are the fastest possible to execute. Our technique allows time optimal test cases to be generated using manually formulated...

  5. Space Station Freedom - Accommodation for technology R&D (United States)

    Holt, Alan C.


    The paper examines the features of the accommodation equipment designed for the candidate technology payloads of the Space Station, which include magnetic plasma thruster systems and a hypothetical advanced electromagnetic propulsion system utilizing high-temperature superconductivity materials. The review of the accommodation-equipment concepts supports the assumption that some propulsion technologies can be tested on the Space Station while being attached externally to the station's truss structure. For testing technologies with inherent operation or performance hazards, space platforms and smaller free-flyers coordinated with the Space Station can be used. Diagrams illustrating typical accommodation equipment configurations are included.

  6. Accommodating for plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirich, P.H.


    Modification to a nuclear power plant may have different causes: 1) new instructions by the authorities; 2) changes of the marginal conditions on the construction site; 3) progress in the technological development. - Examples from different plants are supposed to demonstrate how such changes influence the planning or the construction and how they are integrated in the process of preparation. A distinction can be made between modifications before the completion of the submission of the order, during the phase of preparatory planning and during the construction phase. Of great importance are especially modifications made after the beginning of the construction works, since, in general, there is little scope for technical modifications and since consequences for the time schedule are to be expected. (orig.) [de

  7. Accommodation training in foreign workers. (United States)

    Takada, Masumi; Miyao, Masaru; Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Takada, Hiroki


    By relaxing the contracted focus-adjustment muscles around the eyeball, known as the ciliary and extraocular muscles, the degree of pseudomyopia can be reduced. This understanding has led to accommodation training in which a visual target is presented in stereoscopic video clips. However, it has been pointed out that motion sickness can be induced by viewing stereoscopic video clips. In Measurement 1 of the present study, we verified whether the new 3D technology reduced the severity of motion sickness in accordance with stabilometry. We then evaluated the short-term effects of accommodation training using new stereoscopic video clips on foreign workers (11 females) suffering from eye fatigue in Measurement 2. The foreign workers were trained for three days. As a result, visual acuity was statistically improved by continuous accommodation training, which will help promote ciliary muscle stretching.

  8. Effect of elimination of nitrogen and/or hypoxia or restricted visual environment on color vision and range of accommodation (United States)

    Wolbarsht, M. L.; White, C. W.; Anderson, W. B., Jr.


    The effects upon range of accommodation and color vision of reduced atmospheric pressure, at partial and complete elimination of nitrogen, of hypoxia, and of exposure for varying periods of time to restricted visual environment, have been studied alone or in various combinations. Measurements were made on the electroretinogram, the electrooculogram, and the diameter of the retinal vessels as an indicator of blood flow to the retina at the time of total elimination of nitrogen. An objective method was used to test range of accommodation. In the color vision test the flicker colors of a Benham's top were matched with a colorimeter.

  9. Tests of time reversal in neutron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.


    Experiments to test time-reversal invariance are discussed. The experiments are based on observables constructed from the momentum and spin vectors of epithermal neutrons and from the spin of an aligned or polarized target. It is shown that the proposed tests are detailed balance tests of time-reversal invariance. The status of the experiments is briefly reviewed. 14 refs., 5 figs

  10. Effect of heterophoria measurement technique on the clinical accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio. (United States)

    Escalante, Jaime Bernal; Rosenfield, Mark


    Measurement of the stimulus accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio is a standard procedure in clinical optometric practice. Typically, heterophoria is assessed at several accommodative stimulus levels, and the gradient of the vergence to accommodation function computed. A number of procedures are available for the subjective measurement of heterophoria, but it is unclear whether the use of different vergence measurement techniques will alter the obtained AC/A value. Accordingly, the current study compared AC/A ratios measured using 3 clinical subjective heterophoria tests, namely the von Graefe (VG), Maddox Rod (MR), and Modified Thorington (MT) procedures. The AC/A ratio was measured in 60 visually normal subjects between 20 and 25 years of age using each of the 3 procedures listed above. The accommodative stimulus was varied by the introduction of +/-1.00 diopter (D) spherical lenses over the distance refractive correction while subjects viewed a target at a viewing distance of 40 cm. To examine the repeatability of each procedure, the AC/A ratio was measured on 2 separate occasions for each measurement technique, with the 2 sessions being separated by at least 24 hours. Mean values of stimulus AC/A ratio measured using the VG, MR, and MT procedures were 3.47, 2.99, and 2.46Delta/D, respectively. These differences were significant (p=0.0001). In addition, the coefficient of repeatability for the 3 techniques was 2.22, 1.99, and 1.20 Delta/D, respectively. Ratios obtained using the Modified Thorington technique with +/-1.00 D lenses showed the best repeatability, whereas the poorest repeatability was found with the von Graefe technique when only +1.00 D lenses were used to vary the accommodative stimulus. Accordingly, we recommend that that Modified Thorington procedure with +/-1.00 D lenses be used to quantify heterophoria during clinical measurement of the stimulus AC/A ratio.

  11. Accommodation | Information | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accommodation. The Academy has made arrangements to accommodate all participants who have requested for it. Details ​of accommodation ​have been sent to ​all registered participants. Volunteers at the airport will assist the participants in reaching their respective places of accommodation. For any queries ...

  12. Accommodating Elementary Students' Learning Styles. (United States)

    Wallace, James


    Examines the perceptual learning style preferences of sixth- and seventh-grade students in the Philippines. Finds that the visual modality was the most preferred and the auditory modality was the least preferred. Offers suggestions for accommodating visual, tactile, and kinesthetic preferences. (RS)

  13. Testing Hardy's nonlocality proof with genuine energy-time entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallone, Giuseppe; Gianani, Ilaria; Inostroza, Enrique B.; Saavedra, Carlos; Lima, Gustavo; Cabello, Adan; Mataloni, Paolo


    We show two experimental realizations of Hardy's ladder test of quantum nonlocality using energy-time correlated photons, following the scheme proposed by Cabello et al.[Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 040401 (2009)]. Unlike previous energy-time Bell experiments, these tests require precisely tailored nonmaximally entangled states. One of them is equivalent to the two-setting and two-outcome Bell test requiring a minimum detection efficiency. The reported experiments are still affected by the locality and detection loopholes, but are free of the post-selection loophole of previous energy-time and time-bin Bell tests.

  14. Guidelines for Providing Accommodations Using CASAS Assessment for Learners with Disabilities (United States)

    CASAS - Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment Systems (NJ1), 2005


    These guidelines address methods for administering Comprehensive Adult Student Assessment System (CASAS) assessments using accommodations for learners with documented disabilities. The suggested accommodations for disability categories include provisions for: (1) Accommodations in test administration procedures; and (2) Use of appropriate CASAS…

  15. Treatment of Partly Accommodative Esotropia With a High Accommodative Convergence-Accommodation Ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib)


    textabstractIn the June 1987 issue of the Archives, the results were published of a study by Kushner et al1 on the treatment of accommodative convergence excess, with bilateral medial rectus recessions or recessions with 14-mm posterior fixation sutures. Posterior fixation surgery was considered an

  16. [Comparison study on subjective and objective measurements of the accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio]. (United States)

    Xu, Jing-jing; Xu, Dan; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Jian; Lü, Fan


    To detect the accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios measured respectively by objective and subjective methods. The differences and its relative factors were explored. Forty young volunteers were measured by eye tracker to get the amount of convergence when fixating at the target at 100 cm, 50 cm, 33 cm and 25 cm and were measured by infrared auto-refractor to get corresponding accommodative responses. AC/A ratio based on these two measurements were compared with the calculated and the gradient AC/A ratio from Von Graefe tests. Mean value of stimulated AC/A ratio measured by eye tracker was higher than the calculated and gradient AC/A ratio by Von Graefe method (P = 0.003, 0.001). There are statistic correlation (r = 0.871, P = 0.000) and difference (P = 0.000) between stimulated AC/A ratio and response AC/A ratios both measured by eye tracker, and the difference trends to be greater with the higher AC/A ratio. The objective AC/A ratio is usually higher than the clinical subjective measurement because of more proximal effect. The response AC/A ratio measured objectively may reveal realistically the mutual effect and relationship between accommodation and convergence and it seems to be more credible to be the monitor parameter on progression of myopia in clinics.

  17. Thermocouple correlation transit time flowmeter tests at WCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassahn, G.D.


    Scoping tests indicate the feasibility for using transit time flowmeters with thermocouple sensors in steam-water steady state flow. Conclusive results were not obtained. More conclusive results are expected from tests to be conducted in the semiscale facility with a redesigned transit time thermocouple sensor

  18. Critical values for unit root tests in seasonal time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); B. Hobijn (Bart)


    textabstractIn this paper, we present tables with critical values for a variety of tests for seasonal and non-seasonal unit roots in seasonal time series. We consider (extensions of) the Hylleberg et al. and Osborn et al. test procedures. These extensions concern time series with increasing seasonal

  19. Online Testing of Real-time Systems Using Uppaal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikucionis, Marius; Nielsen, Brian


    We present T-Uppaal{} -- a new tool for online black-box testing of real-time embedded systems from non-deterministic timed automata specifications. We describe a sound and complete randomized online testing algorithm and how to implement it using symbolic state representation and manipulation te...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7875 - Thrombin time test. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thrombin time test. 864.7875 Section 864.7875 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7875 Thrombin time test. (a...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pourissa


    Full Text Available Biophysical profile (BPP test is the most commonly used antenatal test of fetal well-being. Purpose of this study is determining the influence of acoustic stimulation (AS on BPP testing time. About 55 pregnant women at 35 to 42 weeks who referred to department of Obstetric & Gynecology at university of medical sciences, Tabriz, Iran, were selected randomly. We used abdominal ultrasound guidance to place buzzer like device with power of 110 dB at the skin surface of the maternal abdomen, close to the fetal head. BPP test performed and BPP mean testing time calculated before and after AS. Data compared and analyzed by paired t-test. The results showed that fetal AS reduces the overall mean testing time from 24 minutes to 5 minutes. This clinical application can be helpful in busy clinics when rapid assessment of fetal health is required.

  2. Testing for time-varying loadings in dynamic factor models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jakob Guldbæk

    Abstract: In this paper we develop a test for time-varying factor loadings in factor models. The test is simple to compute and is constructed from estimated factors and residuals using the principal components estimator. The hypothesis is tested by regressing the squared residuals on the squared...... there is evidence of time-varying loadings on the risk factors underlying portfolio returns for around 80% of the portfolios....

  3. Specification and Test of Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Brian

    of the system, and a set of constraint patterns which describes and enforces the timing and synchronization constraints among components. We propose new techniques for automated black box conformance testing of real-time systems against densely timed speci cations. A test generator tool examines a specification......Distributed real-time computer based systems are very complex and intrinsically difficult to specify and implement correctly; in part this is caused by the overwhelming number of possible interactions between system components, but especially by a lack of adequate methods and tools to deal...... of the desired system behavior and generates the necessary test cases. A main problem is to construct a reasonably small test suite that can be executed within allotted resources, while having a high likelihood of detecting unknown errors. Our goal has been to treat the time dimension of this problem thoroughly...

  4. Accommodation Paralysis after Pheniramine Maleate Injection: A Case Report. (United States)

    Bingol Kiziltunc, Pinar; Atilla, Huban; Yalcindag, F Nilufer


    We present a case in which Gilbert syndrome was diagnosed following a neuro-ophthalmic complaint. Adverse effects of drugs as well as various systemic, neurological, and local ocular pathologies can cause accommodative insufficiency and loss of accommodation. A 29-year-old man was admitted to an ophthalmology department with blurred vision and diagnosed as suffering from acute accommodation paralysis. He had a history of being given a pheniramine maleate injection for pruritus 20 days previously. Symptoms began immediately following the injection. After systemic evaluation and laboratory tests, he was diagnosed as having Gilbert syndrome. His complaints and symptoms recovered in approximately a further 10 days. Metabolism of pheniramine maleate can be impaired in Gilbert syndrome and anticholinergic effects can cause accommodation paralysis.

  5. Testing for intracycle determinism in pseudoperiodic time series. (United States)

    Coelho, Mara C S; Mendes, Eduardo M A M; Aguirre, Luis A


    A determinism test is proposed based on the well-known method of the surrogate data. Assuming predictability to be a signature of determinism, the proposed method checks for intracycle (e.g., short-term) determinism in the pseudoperiodic time series for which standard methods of surrogate analysis do not apply. The approach presented is composed of two steps. First, the data are preprocessed to reduce the effects of seasonal and trend components. Second, standard tests of surrogate analysis can then be used. The determinism test is applied to simulated and experimental pseudoperiodic time series and the results show the applicability of the proposed test.

  6. Family accommodation in adult obsessive–compulsive disorder: clinical perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert U


    accommodation; these family members may particularly benefit from family-based cognitive–behavioral interventions. In recent years, targeting family accommodation has been suggested as a fundamental component of treatment programs and several interventions have been tested. Clinicians should be aware that family-based cognitive–behavior therapy incorporating modules to target family accommodation is more effective in reducing OC symptoms. Targeting family accommodation may be as well relevant for patients treated pharmacologically. Keywords: obsessive–compulsive disorder, family accommodation, cognitive–behavior therapy, treatment response

  7. Testing the causality of Hawkes processes with time reversal (United States)

    Cordi, Marcus; Challet, Damien; Muni Toke, Ioane


    We show that univariate and symmetric multivariate Hawkes processes are only weakly causal: the true log-likelihoods of real and reversed event time vectors are almost equal, thus parameter estimation via maximum likelihood only weakly depends on the direction of the arrow of time. In ideal (synthetic) conditions, tests of goodness of parametric fit unambiguously reject backward event times, which implies that inferring kernels from time-symmetric quantities, such as the autocovariance of the event rate, only rarely produce statistically significant fits. Finally, we find that fitting financial data with many-parameter kernels may yield significant fits for both arrows of time for the same event time vector, sometimes favouring the backward time direction. This goes to show that a significant fit of Hawkes processes to real data with flexible kernels does not imply a definite arrow of time unless one tests it.

  8. Medial rectus Faden operations with or without recession for partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio. (United States)

    Akar, Serpil; Gokyigit, Birsen; Sayin, Nihat; Demirok, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk


    To evaluate the results of Faden operations on the medial rectus (MR) muscles with or without recession for the treatment of partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC : A) ratio and to determine whether there was a decrease in the effects of posterior fixation over time. In this retrospective study, 108 of 473 patients who underwent surgery for partially accommodative esotropia with a high AC : A ratio received Faden operations on both MR muscles, and 365 received symmetric MR muscle recessions combined with a Faden operation. For the Faden operation, a satisfactory outcome of 76.9% at 1 month postoperation, decreased to 71.3% by the final follow-up visit (mean 4.8 years). A moderate positive correlation was observed between the increase in the postoperative near deviation and postoperative time. For the Faden operations combined with MR recession, a satisfactory outcome of 78.9% at 1 month post-operation, decreased to 78.4% by the final follow-up visit. A Faden operation of the MR muscles with or without recession is an effective surgical option for treating partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high AC : A ratio. For Faden operations of the MR muscles without recession, the effects of the posterior fixation decline over time.

  9. Massification of Higher Education and Students' Accommodation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Massification of Higher Education and Students' Accommodation: The ... of students' accommodation at the University of Dar es salaam (UDSM) over the past 50 years. ... and the quality of learning, as well as the quality of students' life.

  10. Adaptability : How to accommodate changing user preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remoy, H.T.; van der Voordt, D.J.M.


    Purpose: When current accommodation is unsatisfactorily, office organisations consider relocating to new accommodation that optimally facilitate their main processes, supporting image and financial yield. However, due to high vacancy levels, public opinion and governmental awareness oppose new

  11. Time-frequency Representations Application in Psychological Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIZ Romulus


    Full Text Available A psychological test is a test that is designed to measure one aspect of human behavior. These tests are usually designed to evaluate a person’s ability to complete tasks that were individual's performance on certain tasks that have usually been requested in advance. Usually a test score is used to compare with other results to measure the individual’s performance regarding cognitive ability, aptitude, personality, etc. One such test is the so called “finger tapping” test, designed to measure the integrity of the neuromuscular system and examine motor control. There are several ways to perform such a test. The purpose of this paper isn’t to study the finger tapping test which is well documented in the literature, but to develop if possible a simple way of performing such a test. Using the method presented in the paper a nonstationary signal was obtained and it was analyzed using the Short-time Fourier time frequency representation to obtain the signals frequency and its variation in time. The results presented in the paper show that this method can be used to perform the test and the frequency and spatial amplitude of the obtained tapping signal can be determined easily.

  12. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutstein Robert


    Full Text Available Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm.

  13. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding (United States)

    Rutstein, Robert P


    Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm. PMID:20534925

  14. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A class...

  15. Testing power system controllers by real-time simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venne, Philippe; Guillaud, Xavier; Sirois, Frédéric


    In this paper, we present a number of state-of-the art methods for testing power system controllers based on the use of a real-time power system simulator. After introducing Hypersim, we list and discuss the different means of connection between the controller under tests and the power system...

  16. Tests for nonlinearity in short stationary time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, T.; Sauer, T.; Schiff, S.J.


    To compare direct tests for detecting determinism in chaotic time series, data from Henon, Lorenz, and Mackey--Glass equations were contaminated with various levels of additive colored noise. These data were analyzed with a variety of recently developed tests for determinism, and the results compared

  17. Bootstrap Power of Time Series Goodness of fit tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand


    Full Text Available In this article, we looked at power of various versions of Box and Pierce statistic and Cramer von Mises test. An extensive simulation study has been conducted to compare the power of these tests. Algorithms have been provided for the power calculations and comparison has also been made between the semi parametric bootstrap methods used for time series. Results show that Box-Pierce statistic and its various versions have good power against linear time series models but poor power against non linear models while situation reverses for Cramer von Mises test. Moreover, we found that dynamic bootstrap method is better than xed design bootstrap method.

  18. Experience with RTD response time testing in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, H.M.; Kerlin, T.W.


    The reactor coolant temperatures in pressurized water reactors are measured with platinum resistance temperature detectors (RTDs). The information furnished by these RTDs is used for plant protection as well as control. As a part of the plant protection system, the RTDs must respond to temperature changes in a timely fashion. The RTD response time requirements are different for the various plant types. These requirements are specified in the plant technical specifications in terms of an RTd time constant. The current time constant requirements for nuclear plant RTDs varies from 0.5 seconds to 13.0 seconds depending on the type of the plant. Therefore, different types of RTDs are used in different plants to achieve the required time constants. In addition, in-situ response time tests are periodically performed on protective system RTDs to ensure that the in-service time constants are within acceptable limits as the plant is operating. The periodic testing is important because response time degradation may occur while the RTD ages in the process. Recent response time tests in operating plants revealed unacceptable time constants for several protection system RTDs. As a result, these plants had to be shut down to resolve the problem which in one case was due to improper installation and in another case was because of degradation of a thermal compound used in the thermowell

  19. 21 CFR 864.7750 - Prothrombin time test. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prothrombin time test. 864.7750 Section 864.7750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7750 Prothrombin time...

  20. Occlusal accommodation and mouthguards for prevention of orofacial trauma. (United States)

    Geary, Julian Lindsay; Clifford, Thomas Joseph; Kinirons, Martin James


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of occlusal accommodation on the arch separation in centric and eccentric arch positions and to assess the opposing tooth contacts in professionally made, thermoformed sports mouthguards. Maxillary and mandibular alginate impressions, a wax interocclusal record of centric occlusion together with maxillary/condylar face-bow registrations, were recorded clinically for 10 undergraduate dental students who are sports activist volunteers of the School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen's University Belfast. Two ethylene vinyl acetate thermoformed maxillary mouthguards were made for each player (N = 20) using a standardised procedure. Ten mouthguards served both as the control (i.e. the non-accommodated) group and also the accommodated, occlusally 'imprinted' group. The other 10 mouthguards served as the accommodated, occlusally 'ground' group. Casts were articulated, each non-accommodated and accommodated mouthguard was seated and the extent of the interocclusal opening was recorded in all three arch relationships. The number of mouthguard and mandibular tooth contacts were also recorded in each position. The increased vertical occlusal dimension that was found in the presence of non-accommodated mouthguards equated to the full-sheet thickness of the material that was used to form the mouthguards. Only mouthguards accommodated by grinding retained high levels of occlusal contact in all arch relationships that were tested. Within the limitations of this study, the modification of the occlusal surface made by flat grinding reduced the arch separation in eccentric movements and increased the opposing tooth contacts in custom-made mouthguards. This may contribute to increased comfort, compliance and the protective effect of these appliances thus resulting in a reduction of injuries to the teeth, arches and soft tissues.

  1. Postactivation Potentation Effects From Accommodating Resistance Combined With Heavy Back Squats on Short Sprint Performance. (United States)

    Wyland, Timothy P; Van Dorin, Joshua D; Reyes, G Francis Cisco


    Applying accommodating resistance combined with isoinertial resistance has been demonstrated to be effective in improving neuromuscular attributes important for sport performance. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether short sprints can be acutely enhanced after several sets of back squats with or without accommodating resistance. Twenty recreationally resistance-trained males (age: 23.3 ± 4.4 years; height: 178.9 ± 6.5 cm; weight: 88.3 ± 10.8 kg) performed pre-post testing on 9.1-m sprint time. Three different interventions were implemented in randomized order between pre-post 9.1-m sprints. On 3 separate days, subjects either sat for 5 minutes (CTRL), performed 5 sets of 3 repetitions at 85% of their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) with isoinertial load (STND), or performed 5 sets of 3 repetitions at 85% of their 1RM, with 30% of the total resistance coming from elastic band tension (BAND) between pre-post 9.1-m sprint testing. Posttesting for 9.1-m sprint time occurred immediately after the last set of squats (Post-Immediate) and on every minute for 4 minutes after the last set of squats (Post-1min, Post-2min, Post-3min, and Post-4min). Repeated-measures analysis of variance statistical analyses revealed no significant changes in sprint time across posttesting times during the CTRL and STND condition. During the BAND condition, sprint time significantly decreased from Post-Immediate to Post-4min (p = 0.002). The uniqueness of accommodating resistance could create an optimal postactivation potentiation effect to increase neuromuscular performance. Coaches and athletes can implement heavy accommodating resistance exercises to their warm-up when improving acute sprint time is desired.

  2. Reaction times to weak test lights. [psychophysics biological model (United States)

    Wandell, B. A.; Ahumada, P.; Welsh, D.


    Maloney and Wandell (1984) describe a model of the response of a single visual channel to weak test lights. The initial channel response is a linearly filtered version of the stimulus. The filter output is randomly sampled over time. Each time a sample occurs there is some probability increasing with the magnitude of the sampled response - that a discrete detection event is generated. Maloney and Wandell derive the statistics of the detection events. In this paper a test is conducted of the hypothesis that the reaction time responses to the presence of a weak test light are initiated at the first detection event. This makes it possible to extend the application of the model to lights that are slightly above threshold, but still within the linear operating range of the visual system. A parameter-free prediction of the model proposed by Maloney and Wandell for lights detected by this statistic is tested. The data are in agreement with the prediction.

  3. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man (United States)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.


    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  4. Frequency of convergence and accommodative disorders in a clinical population of Mashhad, Iran. (United States)

    Hoseini-Yazdi, Seyed Hosein; Yekta, AbbasAli; Nouri, Hosein; Heravian, Javad; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi


    To investigate the frequency of convergence and accommodation anomalies in an optometric clinical setting in Mashhad, Iran, and to determine tests with highest accuracy in diagnosing these anomalies. From 261 patients who came to the optometric clinics of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences during a month, 83 of them were included in the study based on the inclusion criteria. Near point of convergence (NPC), near and distance heterophoria, monocular and binocular accommodative facility (MAF and BAF, respectively), lag of accommodation, positive and negative fusional vergences (PFV and NFV, respectively), AC/A ratio, relative accommodation, and amplitude of accommodation (AA) were measured to diagnose the convergence and accommodation anomalies. The results were also compared between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The accuracy of these tests was explored using sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+, LR-). Mean age of the patients was 21.3 ± 3.5 years and 14.5% of them had specific binocular and accommodative symptoms. Convergence and accommodative anomalies were found in 19.3% of the patients; accommodative excess (4.8%) and convergence insufficiency (3.6%) were the most common accommodative and convergence disorders, respectively. Symptomatic patients showed lower values for BAF (p = .003), MAF (p = .001), as well as AA (p = .001) compared with asymptomatic patients. Moreover, BAF (S = 75%, Sp = 62%) and MAF (S = 62%, Sp = 89%) were the most accurate tests for detecting accommodative and convergence disorders in terms of both sensitivity and specificity. Convergence and accommodative anomalies are the most common binocular disorders in optometric patients. Including tests of monocular and binocular accommodative facility in routine eye examinations as accurate tests to diagnose these anomalies requires further investigation.

  5. Variation in aluminium patch test reactivity over time. (United States)

    Siemund, Ingrid; Mowitz, Martin; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus; Hindsén, Monica


    Contact allergy to aluminium has been reported more frequently in recent years. It has been pointed out that positive patch test reactions to aluminium may not be reproducible on retesting. To investigate possible variations in patch test reactivity to aluminium over time. Twenty-one adults, who had previously reacted positively to aluminium, were patch tested with equimolar dilution series in pet. of aluminium chloride hexahydrate and aluminium lactate, four times over a period of 8 months. Thirty-six of 84 (43%) serial dilution tests with aluminium chloride hexahydrate and 49 of 84 (58%) serial dilution tests with aluminium lactate gave negative results. The range of reactivity varied between a negative reaction to aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 10% and/or to aluminium lactate at 12%, and a positive reaction to aluminium chloride hexahydrate at 0.1% and/or to aluminium lactate at 0.12%. The highest individual difference in test reactivity noticed was 320-fold when the two most divergent minimal eliciting concentrations were compared. The patch test reactivity to aluminium varies over time. Aluminium-allergic individuals may have false-negative reactions. Therefore, retesting with aluminium should be considered when there is a strong suspicion of aluminium contact allergy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Suriani Mohd Arif


    Full Text Available The literature on the relationship of social integration and time spent onlineprovides conflicting evidence of the relationship of social integration with timespent online. The study identifies and highlightsthe controversy and attempts toclarify the relationship of social integration withtime spent online bydecomposing the construct social integration into its affective and behavioraldimensions . Thestudy tests antecedents and effects of time spent online in arandom sample of senior level undergraduate students at a public university inMalaysia. The findings indicated that while self-report measures of behavioralsocial integration did not predict time spent online, and, the affective socialintegration had an inverse relationship with time spent online.

  7. Preference as a Function of Active Interresponse Times: A Test of the Active Time Model (United States)

    Misak, Paul; Cleaveland, J. Mark


    In this article, we describe a test of the active time model for concurrent variable interval (VI) choice. The active time model (ATM) suggests that the time since the most recent response is one of the variables controlling choice in concurrent VI VI schedules of reinforcement. In our experiment, pigeons were trained in a multiple concurrent…

  8. CFD Modeling of the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) Self-Pressurization and Spray Bar Mixing Experiments in Normal Gravity: Effect of the Accommodation Coefficient on the Tank Pressure (United States)

    Kartuzova, Olga; Kassemi, Mohammad


    A CFD model for simulating the self-pressurization of a large scale liquid hydrogen storage tank is utilized in this paper to model the MHTB self-pressurization experiment. The kinetics-based Schrage equation is used to account for the evaporative and condensi ng interfacial mass flows in this model. The effect of the accommodation coefficient for calculating the interfacial mass transfer rate on the tank pressure during tank selfpressurization is studied. The values of the accommodation coefficient which were considered in this study vary from 1.0e-3 to 1.0e-1 for the explicit VOF model and from 1.0e-4 to 1.0e-3 for the implicit VOF model. The ullage pressure evolutions are compared against experimental data. A CFD model for controlling pressure in cryogenic storage tanks by spraying cold liquid into the ullage is also presented. The Euler-Lagrange approach is utilized for tracking the spray droplets and for modeling the interaction between the droplets and the continuous phase (ullage). The spray model is coupled with the VOF model by performing particle tracking in the ullage, removing particles from the ullage when they reach the interface, and then adding their contributions to the liquid. Droplet-ullage heat and mass transfer are modeled. The flow, temperature, and interfacial mass flux, as well as droplets trajectories, size distribution and temperatures predicted by the model are presented. The ul lage pressure and vapor temperature evolutions are compared with experimental data obtained from the MHTB spray bar mixing experiment. The effect of the accommodation coefficient for calculating the interfacial and droplet mass transfer rates on the tank pressure during mixing of the vapor using spray is studied. The values used for the accommodation coefficient at the interface vary from 1.0e-5 to 1.0e-2. The droplet accommodation coefficient values vary from 2.0e-6 to 1.0e-4.

  9. Radon Infiltration in Rented Accommodation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn


    in homes was measured and the Buildings were registered for a series of variables describing upgrades, facilities, building components, Construction characteristics and used materials. In addition, the radon level was measured in the basement in 9 of the buildings. The mean year value of the indoor radon......Indoor radon levels were measured in 221 homes located in 53 buildings, including 28 multi-occupant houses and 25 single-family terraced houses. The homes consisted of rented accommodation located in buildings recorded as being constructed before 2010 and after the year 1850. The radon level...... radon levels exceeding 100 Bq/m3 in homes in multi-occupant houses was found to be very low, but the risk was highest on the ground floor in a building constructed with slab on ground....

  10. Time reversal signal processing in acoustic emission testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk; Krofta, Josef; Kober, Jan; Dvořáková, Zuzana; Chlada, Milan; Dos Santos, S.


    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : acoustic emission (AE) * ultrasonic testing (UT) * signal processing * source location * time reversal acoustic s * acoustic emission * signal processing and transfer Subject RIV: BI - Acoustic s

  11. Failure-censored accelerated life test sampling plans for Weibull distribution under expected test time constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, D.S.; Chun, Y.R.; Kim, J.G.


    This paper considers the design of life-test sampling plans based on failure-censored accelerated life tests. The lifetime distribution of products is assumed to be Weibull with a scale parameter that is a log linear function of a (possibly transformed) stress. Two levels of stress higher than the use condition stress, high and low, are used. Sampling plans with equal expected test times at high and low test stresses which satisfy the producer's and consumer's risk requirements and minimize the asymptotic variance of the test statistic used to decide lot acceptability are obtained. The properties of the proposed life-test sampling plans are investigated

  12. X-ray testing for short-time dynamic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurfiss, Malte; Moser, Stefan; Popko, Gregor; Nau, Siegfried


    For nondestructive testing purposes new challenges are short-time dynamic processes. The application of x-ray flash tubes and modern high-speed cameras allows the observation of the opening of air-bags or the energy absorption of compressed tubes as occurring during a vehicle crash. Special algorithms designed for computerized tomography analyses allow the 3D reconstruction at individual time points of the dynamic process. Possibilities and limitations of the actual techniques are discussed.

  13. Real-time flight test data distribution and display (United States)

    Nesel, Michael C.; Hammons, Kevin R.


    Enhancements to the real-time processing and display systems of the NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range are described. Display processing has been moved out of the telemetry and radar acquisition processing systems super-minicomputers into user/client interactive graphic workstations. Real-time data is provided to the workstations by way of Ethernet. Future enhancement plans include use of fiber optic cable to replace the Ethernet.

  14. Time-dependent diffusive acceleration of test particles at shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drury, L.O' C. (Dublin Inst. for Advanced Studies (Ireland))


    The acceleration of test particles at a steady plane non-relativistic shock is considered. Analytic expressions are found for the mean and the variance of the acceleration time distribution in the case where the diffusion coefficient has an arbitrary dependence on position and momentum. These expressions are used as the basis for an approximation scheme which is shown, by comparison with numerical solutions, to give an excellent representation of the time-dependent spectrum. (author).

  15. Time-dependent diffusive acceleration of test particles at shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, L.O'C.


    The acceleration of test particles at a steady plane non-relativistic shock is considered. Analytic expressions are found for the mean and the variance of the acceleration time distribution in the case where the diffusion coefficient has an arbitrary dependence on position and momentum. These expressions are used as the basis for an approximation scheme which is shown, by comparison with numerical solutions, to give an excellent representation of the time-dependent spectrum. (author)

  16. Disability disclosure and workplace accommodations among youth with disabilities. (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Leck, Joanne; Shen, Winny; Stinson, Jennifer


    Many youths with disabilities find it challenging to disclose their medical condition and request workplace accommodations. Our objective was to explore when and how young people with disabilities disclose their condition and request workplace accommodations. We conducted 17 in-depth interviews (11 females, six males) with youth with disabilities aged 15-34 (mean age 26). We analyzed our data using an interpretive, qualitative, and thematic approach. Our results showed the timing of when youth disclosed their disability to their employer depended on disability type and severity, comfort level, type of job, and industry. Youth's strategies and reasons for disclosure included advocating for their needs, being knowledgeable about workplace rights, and accommodation solutions. Facilitators for disclosure included job preparation, self-confidence, and self-advocacy skills, and having an inclusive work environment. Challenges to disability disclosure included the fear of stigma and discrimination, lack of employer's knowledge about disability and accommodations, negative past experiences of disclosing, and not disclosing on your own terms. Our findings highlight that youth encounter several challenges and barriers to disclosing their condition and requesting workplace accommodations. The timing and process for disclosing is complex and further work is needed to help support youth with disclosing their condition. Implications for rehabilitation Clinicians, educators, and employers should emphasize the importance of mentoring and leadership programs to give youth the confidence and self-advocacy skills needed to disclose and ask for accommodations in the workplace. Clinicians should advocate for the inclusion of youth with disabilities in the workforce and educate employers on the importance of doing so. Youth with disabilities need more opportunities for employment training and particularly how to disclose their disability and request workplace accommodations.

  17. Quality assurance test of a real time radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, R.K.; Rama, R.; Sharma, A.; Kannan, R.


    Any radiation generating equipment can be used and marketed in India only after obtaining specific type approval certificate from the Competent Authority i.e. Chairman, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), Mumbai. Recently AERB has enforced a directive that the Industrial X-ray machines should also be permitted to use only after getting NOC or type approval. Type approval is granted based upon the satisfactory QA test report of the radiation generating equipment. X-ray machines with Real Time Radiography (RTR) facility are used in industrial radiography for faster inspection of equipment's and products online. A standard test protocol was developed for QA tests of a real time radiography system. This will be helpful for evaluation of an industrial X-ray machine. Also above procedure can be used to check a RTR system each day or a system-qualification can be done when the image quality diminishes as recommended by American Society of Testing Material (ASTM). Various tests carried out on a constant potential 450 kV, 10 mA industrial X-ray machine having real time radiography facility to monitor the products online, is described in this paper. (author)

  18. 21 CFR 864.7275 - Euglobulin lysis time tests. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Euglobulin lysis time tests. 864.7275 Section 864.7275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7275 Euglobulin lysis...

  19. 21 CFR 864.7925 - Partial thromboplastin time tests. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Partial thromboplastin time tests. 864.7925 Section 864.7925 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7925 Partial...

  20. A valuation-Based Test of Market Timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeter-Kant, J.; Elliott, W.B.; Warr, R.S.


    We implement an earnings-based fundamental valuation model to test the impact of market timing on the firm's method of funding the financing deficit. We argue that our valuation metric provides a superior measure of equity misvaluation because it avoids multiple interpretation problems faced by the

  1. Systematic test on fast time resolution parallel plate avalanche counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yu; Li Guangwu; Gu Xianbao; Chen Yanchao; Zhang Gang; Zhang Wenhui; Yan Guohong


    Systematic test on each detect unit of parallel plate avalanche counter (PPAC) used in the fission multi-parameter measurement was performed with a 241 Am α source to get the time resolution and position resolution. The detectors work at 600 Pa flowing isobutane and with-600 V on cathode. The time resolution was got by TOF method and the position resolution was got by delay line method. The time resolution of detect units is better than 400 ps, and the position resolution is 6 mm. The results show that the demand of measurement is fully covered. (authors)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  3. Ultrasonic testing using time of flight diffraction technique (TOFD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram Shahzad; Ahmad Mirza Safeer Ahmad; Muhammad Asif Khan


    This paper describes the ultrasonic testing using Time Flight Diffraction (TOFD) Technique for welded samples having different types and sizes of defects. TOFD is a computerized ultrasonic system, able to scan, store and evaluate indications in terms of location, through thickness and length in a more easy and convenient. Time of Flight Diffraction Technique (TOFD) is more fast and easy technique for ultrasonic testing as we can examine a weld i a single scan along the length of the weld with two probes known as D-scan. It shows the image of the complete weld with the defect information. The examinations were performed on carbon steel samples used for ultrasonic testing using 70 degree probes. The images for different type of defects were obtained. (author)

  4. Timing of testing and treatment for asymptomatic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kırkızlar, Eser [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Faissol, Daniel M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, Paul M. [Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA (United States); Swann, Julie L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Many papers in the medical literature analyze the cost-effectiveness of screening for diseases by comparing a limited number of a priori testing policies under estimated problem parameters. However, this may be insufficient to determine the best timing of the tests or incorporate changes over time. In this paper, we develop and solve a Markov Decision Process (MDP) model for a simple class of asymptomatic diseases in order to provide the building blocks for analysis of a more general class of diseases. We provide a computationally efficient method for determining a cost-effective dynamic intervention strategy that takes into account (i) the results of the previous test for each individual and (ii) the change in the individual’s behavior based on awareness of the disease. We demonstrate the usefulness of the approach by applying the results to screening decisions for Hepatitis C (HCV) using medical data, and compare our findings to current HCV screening recommendations.

  5. A new non-parametric stationarity test of time series in the time domain

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Lei; Wang, Suojin; Wang, Haiyan


    © 2015 The Royal Statistical Society and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. We propose a new double-order selection test for checking second-order stationarity of a time series. To develop the test, a sequence of systematic samples is defined via Walsh

  6. The Assessment of Accommodation and Convergence System in the Bank Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monireh Mahjoob


    Full Text Available Background: Regarding the high outbreak rate of the eye disorders and problems particularly accommodation disorders and convergence insufficiency in computer users, the study tries to determine the convergence, accommodation system, condition, fusion reserves and vision dimension in bank employees (who work with computers and the control group (who are not computer users and then to compare the mentioned parameters in the two groups. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional and observational study a total of 44 bank employees and 44 people as the control group members were selected randomly. Initially, refractive problems were reformed, and then accommodation, convergence and vision dimension evaluative tests were conducted. The test included measuring the near point of convergence, jump convergence, phoria, accommodation range (one eye, both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation, near fusion versions and TNO.Results: Our results showed that there was a not significant difference among the near point of convergence, jump convergence, near phoria, accommodation range (one eye and both eyes, ease of accommodation (one eye, both eyes, positive and negative related accommodation in bank employees and control group.Conclusion: Regarding the studies, the outbreak rate of accommodation and convergence disorders is higher in bank employees than the control group which would be due to over working with computer within a fixed interval.

  7. Optimization of Allowed Outage Time and Surveillance Test Intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Dheeb, Mujahed; Kang, Sunkoo; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO international nuclear graduate school, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    The primary purpose of surveillance testing is to assure that the components of standby safety systems will be operable when they are needed in an accident. By testing these components, failures can be detected that may have occurred since the last test or the time when the equipment was last known to be operational. The probability a system or system component performs a specified function or mission under given conditions at a prescribed time is called availability (A). Unavailability (U) as a risk measure is just the complementary probability to A(t). The increase of U means the risk is increased as well. D and T have an important impact on components, or systems, unavailability. The extension of D impacts the maintenance duration distributions for at-power operations, making them longer. This, in turn, increases the unavailability due to maintenance in the systems analysis. As for T, overly-frequent surveillances can result in high system unavailability. This is because the system may be taken out of service often due to the surveillance itself and due to the repair of test-caused failures of the component. The test-caused failures include those incurred by wear and tear of the component due to the surveillances. On the other hand, as the surveillance interval increases, the component's unavailability will grow because of increased occurrences of time-dependent random failures. In that situation, the component cannot be relied upon, and accordingly the system unavailability will increase. Thus, there should be an optimal component surveillance interval in terms of the corresponding system availability. This paper aims at finding the optimal T and D which result in minimum unavailability which in turn reduces the risk. Applying the methodology in section 2 to find the values of optimal T and D for two components, i.e., safety injection pump (SIP) and turbine driven aux feedwater pump (TDAFP). Section 4 is addressing interaction between D and T. In general

  8. Optimization of Allowed Outage Time and Surveillance Test Intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Dheeb, Mujahed; Kang, Sunkoo; Kim, Jonghyun


    The primary purpose of surveillance testing is to assure that the components of standby safety systems will be operable when they are needed in an accident. By testing these components, failures can be detected that may have occurred since the last test or the time when the equipment was last known to be operational. The probability a system or system component performs a specified function or mission under given conditions at a prescribed time is called availability (A). Unavailability (U) as a risk measure is just the complementary probability to A(t). The increase of U means the risk is increased as well. D and T have an important impact on components, or systems, unavailability. The extension of D impacts the maintenance duration distributions for at-power operations, making them longer. This, in turn, increases the unavailability due to maintenance in the systems analysis. As for T, overly-frequent surveillances can result in high system unavailability. This is because the system may be taken out of service often due to the surveillance itself and due to the repair of test-caused failures of the component. The test-caused failures include those incurred by wear and tear of the component due to the surveillances. On the other hand, as the surveillance interval increases, the component's unavailability will grow because of increased occurrences of time-dependent random failures. In that situation, the component cannot be relied upon, and accordingly the system unavailability will increase. Thus, there should be an optimal component surveillance interval in terms of the corresponding system availability. This paper aims at finding the optimal T and D which result in minimum unavailability which in turn reduces the risk. Applying the methodology in section 2 to find the values of optimal T and D for two components, i.e., safety injection pump (SIP) and turbine driven aux feedwater pump (TDAFP). Section 4 is addressing interaction between D and T. In general

  9. The AGIS metric and time of test: A replication study


    Counsell, S; Swift, S; Tucker, A


    Visual Field (VF) tests and corresponding data are commonly used in clinical practices to manage glaucoma. The standard metric used to measure glaucoma severity is the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Studies (AGIS) metric. We know that time of day when VF tests are applied can influence a patient’s AGIS metric value; a previous study showed that this was the case for a data set of 160 patients. In this paper, we replicate that study using data from 2468 patients obtained from Moorfields Eye Ho...

  10. Tests of general relativity from timing the double pulsar. (United States)

    Kramer, M; Stairs, I H; Manchester, R N; McLaughlin, M A; Lyne, A G; Ferdman, R D; Burgay, M; Lorimer, D R; Possenti, A; D'Amico, N; Sarkissian, J M; Hobbs, G B; Reynolds, J E; Freire, P C C; Camilo, F


    The double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B is unique in that both neutron stars are detectable as radio pulsars. They are also known to have much higher mean orbital velocities and accelerations than those of other binary pulsars. The system is therefore a good candidate for testing Einstein's theory of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. We report on precision timing observations taken over the 2.5 years since its discovery and present four independent strong-field tests of general relativity. These tests use the theory-independent mass ratio of the two stars. By measuring relativistic corrections to the Keplerian description of the orbital motion, we find that the "post-Keplerian" parameter s agrees with the value predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 0.05%, the most precise test yet obtained. We also show that the transverse velocity of the system's center of mass is extremely small. Combined with the system's location near the Sun, this result suggests that future tests of gravitational theories with the double pulsar will supersede the best current solar system tests. It also implies that the second-born pulsar may not have formed through the core collapse of a helium star, as is usually assumed.

  11. Improved test of time dilation in special relativity. (United States)

    Saathoff, G; Karpuk, S; Eisenbarth, U; Huber, G; Krohn, S; Muñoz Horta, R; Reinhardt, S; Schwalm, D; Wolf, A; Gwinner, G


    An improved test of time dilation in special relativity has been performed using laser spectroscopy on fast ions at the heavy-ion storage-ring TSR in Heidelberg. The Doppler-shifted frequencies of a two-level transition in 7Li+ ions at v=0.064c have been measured in the forward and backward direction to an accuracy of Deltanu/nu=1 x 10(-9) using collinear saturation spectroscopy. The result confirms the relativistic Doppler formula and sets a new limit of 2.2 x 10(-7) for deviations from the time dilation factor gamma(SR)=(1-v2/c2)(-1/2).

  12. The power of reachability testing for timed automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Bouyer, Patricia; Burgueno, A.


    The computational engine of the verification tool UPPAAL consists of a collection of efficient algorithms for the analysis of reachability properties of systems. Model-checking of properties other than plain reachability ones may currently be carried out in such a tool as follows. Given a propert...... be reached. Finally, the property language characterizing the power of reachability testing is used to provide a definition of characteristic properties with respect to a timed version of the ready simulation preorder, for nodes of tau-free, deterministic timed automata....

  13. Testing the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in the Chinese context. (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Chen, Xing-Jie; Cui, Ji-Fang; Liu, Lu-Lu


    In this study, the authors evaluated the Chinese version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI). The ZTPI was tested among a sample of 303 university students. A subsample of 51 participants was then asked to complete the ZTPI again along with another set of questionnaires. The five-factor model of a 20-item short version of the ZTPI showed good model fit, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. The 20-item Chinese version of the ZTPI also provided good validity, showing correlations with other variables in expected directions. Past-Positive was positively correlated with reappraisal and negatively correlated with suppression emotion regulation strategies, and Present-Hedonistic was positively correlated with reappraisal emotion regulation strategies. These findings indicate that the ZTPI is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring time perspective in the Chinese setting. © 2015 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. A framework for providing telecommuting as a reasonable accommodation: some considerations on a comparative case study. (United States)

    Kaplan, Shelley; Weiss, Sally; Moon, Nathan W; Baker, Paul


    Telecommuting, whether full time, part time, or over short periods when the need arises, can be an important accommodation for employees with disabilities. Indeed, telecommuting may be the only form of accommodation that offers employees whose disabilities fluctuate a means to stay consistently and gainfully employed. This article describes one employer's experience in considering a request for telecommuting as a reasonable accommodation for a particular employee. Drawing on real-life examples, both positive and negative, this article provides a win/win framework for decision-making that can help employers evaluate the use of telecommuting as a possible accommodation and facilitates open and ongoing communication between employer and employee.

  15. Tests and calibration of NIF neutron time of flight detectors. (United States)

    Ali, Z A; Glebov, V Yu; Cruz, M; Duffy, T; Stoeckl, C; Roberts, S; Sangster, T C; Tommasini, R; Throop, A; Moran, M; Dauffy, L; Horsefield, C


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD(*) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 1x10(9) to 2x10(19). The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detector tests and calibration will be presented.

  16. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion (United States)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.


    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  17. 77 FR 38833 - Job Accommodation Network (United States)


    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Job Accommodation Network AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type: New Notice of Availability of Funds and Solicitation for Grant... cooperative agreement to manage and operate its Job Accommodation Network (JAN), a national technical...

  18. A Review of Worksite Lactation Accommodations. (United States)

    Hilliard, Elizabeth Dianne


    The purpose of this review was to examine workplace lactation accommodations, and their association with breastfeeding duration, and identify strategies occupational health professionals can use to promote lactation improvements. This study included literature published from 1985 through 2015 and listed in PubMed and CINAHL. Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), 11 articles were identified for review. Presence of a corporate lactation program, on-site child care, and return to work/telephone lactation consultation were consistently associated with breastfeeding at 6 months. Other breastfeeding accommodations (i.e., lactation spaces, lactation breaks, worksite lactation policies, and supervisor/coworker support) were not consistently associated with breastfeeding duration. Occupational health professionals can play key roles in improving the effectiveness of lactation accommodations. Assuring adequate implementation of accommodations, increasing communication and marketing of accommodations, and promoting supervisor and coworker support are areas that occupational health professionals should explore for improving lactation duration.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Li Sa Liow


    Full Text Available This paper starts by clarifying the role of branding orientation (BO among academic studies. It shortly introduces the development of the BO concepts. The empirical part consists of a search for and analysing of academic articles using a meta-analysis that consider BO in the accommodation industry. According to the results, significant appraisal of the branding building activities among higher star rating and luxury accommodation businesses are taking place due to the increasingly demanding guests. Thus, there is an upward pressure on small and medium accommodation businesses to survive or perform well. This paper recommends that scholars study the owners-managers, employees, and customer perspectives altogether, to better comprehend how large accommodation businesses displaying BO can generate superior performance. For the small and medium accommodation businesses, the emphasis is the owners-managers perceptions since they are the main decision-makers, and due to infancy of the small and medium enterprise (SME branding application.

  20. Disabling accommodation barriers: A study exploring how to better accommodate government employees with anxiety disorders. (United States)

    Mellifont, Damian; Smith-Merry, Jennifer; Scanlan, Justin Newton


    Accommodating mental health in the workplace is challenging. Despite policy efforts to encourage the availability of mental health accommodations in the workplace, employees experiencing mental illness are missing out on accommodations that they need. To inform vocational rehabilitation professionals and managers in the public service of best practice accommodations for government employees with anxiety disorders. Thematic analysis was applied to data collected from the online Accommodating Government Employees with Anxiety Disorders Survey undertaken by 71 Australian public service employees diagnosed with at least one anxiety disorder. Our research results include theme and sub-theme representations of accommodations received, accommodations reported as missing, accommodations that study participants felt they couldn't request, along with rejected accommodations. From the study participants' accounts, three key findings supporting desirable vocational outcomes become apparent. First, that the availability of 'standard' flexible work arrangements, along with personalised accommodations, can assist persons with anxiety disorders (where needed) to reach and retain government positions. Second, the chief barriers reported to making accommodation requests revolve around fears of being stigmatised and penalised. Finally, there is a need for managerial decision-makers to remain open-minded, particularly when assessing requests for accommodations that may break from government norms.

  1. Test of feasibility of a novel high precision test of time reversal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Deepak


    The first results of a feasibility test of a novel high precision test of time reversal invariance are reported. The Time Reversal Invariance test at COSY (TRIC) was planned to measure the time reversal violating observable A y,xz with an accuracy of 10 -6 in proton-deuteron (p-d) scattering. A novel technique for measuring total cross sections is introduced and the achievable precision of this measuring technique is tested. The correlation coefficient A y,y in p-d scattering fakes a time-reversal violating effect. This work reports the feasibility test of the novel method in the measurement of A y,y in p-p scattering. The first step in the experimental design was the development of a hard real-time data acquisition system. To meet stringent latency requirements, the capabilities of Windows XP had to be augmented with a real-time subsystem. The remote control feature of the data acquisition enables users to operate it from any place via an internet connection. The data acquisition proved its reliability in several beam times without any failures. The analysis of the data showed the presence of 1/f noise which substantially limits the quality of our measurements. The origin of 1/f noise was traced and found to be the Barkhausen noise from the ferrite core of the beam current transformer (BCT). A global weighted fitting technique based on a modified Wiener-Khinchin method was developed and used to suppress the influence of 1/f noise, which increased the error bar of the results by a factor 3. This is the only deviation from our expectations. The results are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  2. Test of feasibility of a novel high precision test of time reversal invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Deepak


    The first results of a feasibility test of a novel high precision test of time reversal invariance are reported. The Time Reversal Invariance test at COSY (TRIC) was planned to measure the time reversal violating observable A{sub y,xz} with an accuracy of 10{sup -6} in proton-deuteron (p-d) scattering. A novel technique for measuring total cross sections is introduced and the achievable precision of this measuring technique is tested. The correlation coefficient A{sub y,y} in p-d scattering fakes a time-reversal violating effect. This work reports the feasibility test of the novel method in the measurement of A{sub y,y} in p-p scattering. The first step in the experimental design was the development of a hard real-time data acquisition system. To meet stringent latency requirements, the capabilities of Windows XP had to be augmented with a real-time subsystem. The remote control feature of the data acquisition enables users to operate it from any place via an internet connection. The data acquisition proved its reliability in several beam times without any failures. The analysis of the data showed the presence of 1/f noise which substantially limits the quality of our measurements. The origin of 1/f noise was traced and found to be the Barkhausen noise from the ferrite core of the beam current transformer (BCT). A global weighted fitting technique based on a modified Wiener-Khinchin method was developed and used to suppress the influence of 1/f noise, which increased the error bar of the results by a factor 3. This is the only deviation from our expectations. The results are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  3. Neutral meson tests of time-reversal symmetry invariance


    Bevan, Adrian; Inguglia, Gianluca; Zoccali, Michele


    The laws of quantum physics can be studied under the mathematical operation T that inverts the direction of time. Strong and electromagnetic forces are known to be invariant under temporal inversion, however the weak force is not. The BaBar experiment recently exploited the quantum-correlated production of pairs of B0 mesons to show that T is a broken symmetry. Here we show that it is possible to perform a wide range of tests of quark flavour changing processes under T in order to validate th...

  4. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis


    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  5. Test of time-reversal invariance at COSY (TRIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eversheim, D., E-mail:; Valdau, Yu. [University Bonn, Helmholtz Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Germany); Lorentz, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)


    At the Cooler Synchrotron COSY a novel (P-even, T-odd) null test of time-reversal invariance to an accuracy of 10{sup - 6} is planned as an internal target transmission experiment. The parity conserving time-reversal violating observable is the total cross-section asymmetry A{sub y,xz}. This quantity is measured using a polarized proton beam with an energy of 135 MeV and an internal tensor polarized deuteron target from the PAX atomic beam source. The reaction rate will be measured by means of an integrating beam current transformer. Thus, in this experiment the cooler synchroton ring serves as ideal forward spectrometer, as a detector, and an accelerator.

  6. Effect of Phenylephrine on the Accommodative System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José J. Esteve-Taboada


    Full Text Available Accommodation is controlled by the action of the ciliary muscle and mediated primarily by parasympathetic input through postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. During accommodation the pupil constricts to increase the depth of focus of the eye and improve retinal image quality. Researchers have traditionally faced the challenge of measuring the accommodative properties of the eye through a small pupil and thus have relied on pharmacological agents to dilate the pupil. Achieving pupil dilation (mydriasis without affecting the accommodative ability of the eye (cycloplegia could be useful in many clinical and research contexts. Phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHCl is a sympathomimetic agent that is used clinically to dilate the pupil. Nevertheless, first investigations suggested some loss of functional accommodation in the human eye after PHCl instillation. Subsequent studies, based on different measurement procedures, obtained contradictory conclusions, causing therefore an unexpected controversy that has been spread almost to the present days. This manuscript reviews and summarizes the main research studies that have been performed to analyze the effect of PHCl on the accommodative system and provides clear conclusions that could help clinicians know the real effects of PHCl on the accommodative system of the human eye.

  7. Disentangling Mathematics Target and Access Skills: Implications for Accommodation Assignment Practices (United States)

    Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Jamgochian, Elisa M.; Nelson-Walker, Nancy J.; Geller, Joshua P.


    Appropriate assignment of accommodations is predicated on a clear distinction between target skills and access skills. In this study, we examine the agreement between test developer/researchers' and educators' classification of target and access skills as a possible explanatory mechanism for assigning accommodations. Findings indicate that…

  8. Improving Meaningful Use of Accommodations by Multilingual Learners (United States)

    Shafer Willner, Lynn; Mokhtari, Kouider


    For more than two decades, accommodations have served as the primary strategy for ensuring the valid participation of multilingual learners (MLLs) in high-stakes summative assessments. Using historical analyses of the evolution of testing accommodation guidelines and related instructional practices, the authors explain how the application of…

  9. A Time Domain Waveform for Testing General Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huwyler, Cédric; Jetzer, Philippe; Porter, Edward K


    Gravitational-wave parameter estimation is only as good as the theory the waveform generation models are based upon. It is therefore crucial to test General Relativity (GR) once data becomes available. Many previous works, such as studies connected with the ppE framework by Yunes and Pretorius, rely on the stationary phase approximation (SPA) to model deviations from GR in the frequency domain. As Fast Fourier Transform algorithms have become considerably faster and in order to circumvent possible problems with the SPA, we test GR with corrected time domain waveforms instead of SPA waveforms. Since a considerable amount of work has been done already in the field using SPA waveforms, we establish a connection between leading-order-corrected waveforms in time and frequency domain, concentrating on phase-only corrected terms. In a Markov Chain Monte Carlo study, whose results are preliminary and will only be available later, we will assess the ability of the eLISA detector to measure deviations from GR for signals coming from supermassive black hole inspirals using these corrected waveforms. (paper)

  10. Pulsar timing arrays and gravity tests in the radiative regime (United States)

    Lee, K. J.


    In this paper, we focus on testing gravity theories in the radiative regime using pulsar timing array observations. After reviewing current techniques to measure the dispersion and alternative polarization of gravitational waves, we extend the framework to the most general situations, where the combinations of a massive graviton and alternative polarization modes are considered. The atlas of the Hellings-Downs functions is completed by the new calculations for these dispersive alternative polarization modes. We find that each mode and corresponding graviton mass introduce characteristic features in the Hellings-Downs function. Thus, in principal, we can not only detect each polarization mode, measure the corresponding graviton mass, but also discriminate the different scenarios. In this way, we can test gravity theories in the radiative regime in a generalized fashion, and such method is a direct experiment, where one can address the gauge symmetry of the gravity theories in their linearized limits. Although current pulsar timing still lacks enough stable pulsars and sensitivity for such practices, we expect that future telescopes with larger collecting areas could make such experiments feasible.

  11. A new non-parametric stationarity test of time series in the time domain

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Lei


    © 2015 The Royal Statistical Society and Blackwell Publishing Ltd. We propose a new double-order selection test for checking second-order stationarity of a time series. To develop the test, a sequence of systematic samples is defined via Walsh functions. Then the deviations of the autocovariances based on these systematic samples from the corresponding autocovariances of the whole time series are calculated and the uniform asymptotic joint normality of these deviations over different systematic samples is obtained. With a double-order selection scheme, our test statistic is constructed by combining the deviations at different lags in the systematic samples. The null asymptotic distribution of the statistic proposed is derived and the consistency of the test is shown under fixed and local alternatives. Simulation studies demonstrate well-behaved finite sample properties of the method proposed. Comparisons with some existing tests in terms of power are given both analytically and empirically. In addition, the method proposed is applied to check the stationarity assumption of a chemical process viscosity readings data set.

  12. Variations in accommodation and convergence responses in a minimally controlled photorefractive setting. (United States)

    Horwood, A M; Turner, J E; Houston, S M; Riddell, P M


    A remote haploscopic photorefractor, designed for assessment of accommodation and convergence in infants and clinical groups, was used to determine heterophoria accommodative convergence/accommodation (AC/A) ratios in normal naïve adults. These were compared with conventional clinical measures. Twenty-one naïve subjects were used to compare occluded and unoccluded prism cover test responses with the remote haploscopic photorefractor using a text and picture target. Although luminance was generally low for both targets, binocular vergences were appropriate for target demand in both studies. Binocular accommodation showed greater lag for the highest target accommodative demand and the less demanding target. Occlusion not only reduced vergence response, but also frequently caused a marked reduction in accommodation, especially to the picture target. Normal mean AC/A values were found, but with wide variations between individual subjects. Although mean accommodation, vergence, and AC/A values were comparable with published data, we suggest that in these conditions using naïve subjects, accommodation is frequently inaccurate, especially on occlusion, without concomitant loss of vergence, at least at low light levels. Accommodative convergence may play a less important part in, and other cues contribute more to, the near reflex than has been previously suggested.

  13. Semiautomated analysis of optical coherence tomography crystalline lens images under simulated accommodation. (United States)

    Kim, Eon; Ehrmann, Klaus; Uhlhorn, Stephen; Borja, David; Arrieta-Quintero, Esdras; Parel, Jean-Marie


    Presbyopia is an age related, gradual loss of accommodation, mainly due to changes in the crystalline lens. As part of research efforts to understand and cure this condition, ex vivo, cross-sectional optical coherence tomography images of crystalline lenses were obtained by using the Ex-Vivo Accommodation Simulator (EVAS II) instrument and analyzed to extract their physical and optical properties. Various filters and edge detection methods were applied to isolate the edge contour. An ellipse is fitted to the lens outline to obtain central reference point for transforming the pixel data into the analysis coordinate system. This allows for the fitting of a high order equation to obtain a mathematical description of the edge contour, which obeys constraints of continuity as well as zero to infinite surface slopes from apex to equator. Geometrical parameters of the lens were determined for the lens images captured at different accommodative states. Various curve fitting functions were developed to mathematically describe the anterior and posterior surfaces of the lens. Their differences were evaluated and their suitability for extracting optical performance of the lens was assessed. The robustness of these algorithms was tested by analyzing the same images repeated times.

  14. Residual limb fluid volume change and volume accommodation: Relationships to activity and self-report outcomes in people with trans-tibial amputation. (United States)

    Sanders, Joan E; Youngblood, Robert T; Hafner, Brian J; Ciol, Marcia A; Allyn, Katheryn J; Gardner, David; Cagle, John C; Redd, Christian B; Dietrich, Colin R


    Fluctuations in limb volume degrade prosthesis fit and require users to accommodate changes using management strategies, such as donning and doffing prosthetic socks. To examine how activities and self-report outcomes relate to daily changes in residual limb fluid volume and volume accommodation. Standardized, two-part laboratory protocol with an interim observational period. Participants were classified as "accommodators" or "non-accommodators," based on self-report prosthetic sock use. Participants' residual limb fluid volume change was measured using a custom bioimpedance analyzer and a standardized in-laboratory activity protocol. Self-report health outcomes were assessed with the Socket Comfort Score and Prosthesis Evaluation Questionnaire. Activity was monitored while participants left the laboratory for at least 3 h. They then returned to repeat the bioimpedance test protocol. Twenty-nine people were enrolled. Morning-to-afternoon percent limb fluid volume change per hour was not strongly correlated to percent time weight-bearing or to self-report outcomes. As a group, non-accommodators ( n = 15) spent more time with their prosthesis doffed and reported better outcomes than accommodators. Factors other than time weight-bearing may contribute to morning-to-afternoon limb fluid volume changes and reported satisfaction with the prosthesis among trans-tibial prosthesis users. Temporary doffing may be a more effective and satisfying accommodation method than sock addition. Clinical relevance Practitioners should be mindful that daily limb fluid volume change and prosthesis satisfaction are not dictated exclusively by activity. Temporarily doffing the prosthesis may slow daily limb fluid volume loss and should be investigated as an alternative strategy to sock addition.

  15. An Evaluation of Triggering Timing for the TROI Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ik Kyu; Kim, Jong Hwan; Hong, Seong Wan


    In the postulated reactor severe accident, the molten corium can be poured into the remained reactor coolant of the lower pressure vessel or the reactor cavity. This might severely threaten the containment integrity, and thus, the experimental and analytical efforts have been done to reveal this risk. It is generally received by the steam explosion experts that the in-vessel steam explosion steam explosion would not challenge the integrity of the vessel and the containment. The ex-vessel explosion, however, cannot be excluded from the factor to threaten the integrity of the cavity and more the reactor vessel. The worse thing of ex-vessel situation is that water is subcooled under a relative low pressure. The results of steam explosion experiments indicate that the subcooled water under a low pressure might be a good environment to make a strong steam explosion. Furthermore, the calculation results for evaluating ex-vessel steam explosion work are too scattered each other. Thus, the conversion ratio of ex-vessel explosion is still remained as a resolved issue. SERENA phase 2 project which has been conducted since 1st Oct. 2007 is aimed a resolution of the uncertainties on the void fraction, the solidification, and the melt composition effect by performing a limited number of well-designed tests with advanced instrumentations to clarify the nature of a prototypic material with mild steam explosion characteristics and to provide innovative experimental data for a computer code validation. The steam explosion results such as explosion pressure, conversion ratio, and the debris configuration are strongly affected by the initial conditions. Meanwhile, some events like triggering magnitude might not be important for the steam explosion results. The initial conditions of the steam explosion, called premixture, are determined by three factors: first one is melt and water condition, second one is a mixing process, and the other is the triggering timing. The mixing process is

  16. Accommodative load from handheld game consoles in kindergarten children. (United States)

    Sakata, T; Miyao, M; Ishigaki, H; Shiraiwa, Y; Ishihara, S; Furuta, M; Kondo, T; Toyoshima, H


    We analyzed and compared the visual accommodation of kindergarten children who were gazing fixedly at images from three different sources: Nintendo Game Boy DMG-01(TM) (non-backlit type game console: NBGC), NEC PC EnginePI-TG6(TM) (color backlit-type game console: CBGC) and a cartoon drawing (drawing). Subjects for the experiment were 13 4- to 5-year-old kindergarten children. The contrast ratios were, in the order, 1.1 (NBGC), 3.1 (drawing), and 3.4 (CBGC). These values show that the contrast of the NBGC screen was considerably lower than the others. The mean accommodative power increased when looking at all three types of image: a drawing (1.75±0.52 D; mean±S.D.), CBGC (1.82±0.61 D), and NBGC (2.26±0.50 D). Compared with the other 2 targets, NBGC required stronger accommodation, indicating that the legibility of the NBGC was poor. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for the values of accommodation for each type of target. There were significant differences among the 3 targets (p<0.01). Significant differences were seen between NBGC and drawings (p<0.01) and NBGC and CBGC (p<0.05) using paired Scheffe test, but not between CBGC and drawings. This supports the finding that the legibility of NBGC is low due to dark and low contrast screens with poor resolution.

  17. The influence of interactions between accommodation and convergence on the lag of accommodation. (United States)

    Schor, C


    Several models of myopia predict that growth of axial length is stimulated by blur. Accommodative lag has been suggested as an important source of blur in the development of myopia and this study has modeled how cross-link interactions between accommodation and convergence might interact with uncorrected distance heterophoria and refractive error to influence accommodative lag. Accommodative lag was simulated with two models of interactions between accommodation and convergence (one with and one without adaptable tonic elements). Simulations of both models indicate that both uncorrected hyperopia and esophoria increase the lag of accommodative and uncorrected myopia and exophoria decrease the lag or introduce a lead of accommodation in response to the near (40 cm) stimulus. These effects were increased when gain of either cross-link, accommodative convergence (AC/A) or convergence accommodation (CA/C), was increased within a moderate range of values while the other was fixed at a normal value (clamped condition). These effects were exaggerated when both the AC/A and CA/C ratios were increased (covaried condition) and affects of cross-link gain were negated when an increase of one cross-link (e.g. AC/A) was accompanied by a reduction of the other cross-link (e.g. CA/C) (reciprocal condition). The inclusion of tonic adaptation in the model reduced steady state errors of accommodation for all conditions except when the AC/A ratio was very high (2 MA/D). Combinations of cross-link interactions between accommodation and convergence that resemble either clamped or reciprocal patterns occur naturally in clinical populations. Simulations suggest that these two patterns of abnormal cross-link interactions could affect the progression of myopia differently. Adaptable tonic accommodation and tonic vergence could potentially reduce the progression of myopia by reducing the lag of accommodation.

  18. NASDA technician test real-time radiation monitoring device (United States)


    A technician from the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) tests the real-time radiation monitoring device on SPACEHAB at Kennedy Space Center in preparation for the STS-89 mission, slated to be the first Shuttle launch of 1998. STS-89 will be the eighth of nine scheduled Mir dockings and will include a double module of SPACEHAB, used mainly as a large pressurized cargo container for science, logistical equipment and supplies to be exchanged between the orbiter Endeavour and the Russian Space Station Mir. The nine-day flight of STS-89 also is scheduled to include the transfer of the seventh American to live and work aboard the Russian orbiting outpost. Liftoff of Endeavour and its seven-member crew is targeted for Jan. 15, 1998, at 1:03 a.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  19. Long-term follow-up of acute isolated accommodation insufficiency. (United States)

    Lee, Jung Jin; Baek, Seung-Hee; Kim, Ungsoo Samuel


    To define the long-term results of accommodation insufficiency and to investigate the correlation between accommodation insufficiency and other factors including near point of convergence (NPC), age, and refractive errors. From January 2008 to December 2009, 11 patients with acute near vision disturbance and remote near point of accommodation (NPA) were evaluated. Full ophthalmologic examinations, including best corrected visual acuity, manifest refraction and prism cover tests were performed. Accommodation ability was measured by NPA using the push-up method. We compared accommodation insufficiency and factors including age, refractive errors and NPC. We also investigated the recovery from loss of accommodation in patients. Mean age of patients was 20 years (range, 9 to 34 years). Five of the 11 patients were female. Mean refractive error was -0.6 diopters (range, -3.5 to +0.25 diopters) and 8 of 11 patients (73%) had emmetropia (+0.50 to -0.50 diopters). No abnormalities were found in brain imaging tests. Refractive errors were not correlated with NPA or NPC (rho = 0.148, p = 0.511; rho = 0.319, p = 0.339; respectively). The correlation between age and NPA was not significant (rho = -395, p = 0.069). However, the correlation between age and NPC was negative (rho = -0.508, p = 0.016). Three of 11 patients were lost to follow-up, and 6 of 8 patients had permanent insufficiency of accommodation. Accommodation insufficiency is most common in emmetropia, however, refractive errors and age are not correlated with accommodation insufficiency. Dysfunction of accommodation can be permanent in the isolated accommodation insufficiency.

  20. Exploring the Relationship Between Students with Accommodations and Instructor Self-Efficacy in Complying with Accommodations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Wright


    Full Text Available The willingness and flexibility of university instructors to comply with and provide accommodations for students with disabilities is critical to academic success. The authors examine how communication between students needing accommodations and university instructors impacts instructor self-efficacy, or instructors’ perception that they can meet the accommodation. Specifically, the authors’ explored the relationship between student self-disclosure of a disability and instructor empathy, flexibility, and self-efficacy in meeting student accommodation needs. Results revealed that the more a student self-discloses about a needed accommodation, the more self-efficacy an instructor has in making that accommodation. For the low-disclosure condition, empathy and flexibility were both significant predictors of self-efficacy, whereas, for the high-disclosure condition, only flexibility was a significant predictor of self-efficacy. Finally, instructors’ levels of empathy and flexibility both decreased after reading both the high and low self-disclosure scenarios.

  1. Workplace Accommodation for Persons With IBD: What Is Needed and What Is Accessed. (United States)

    Chhibba, Tarun; Walker, John R; Sexton, Kathryn; Restall, Gayle; Ivekovic, Melony; Shafer, Leigh Ann; Singh, Harminder; Targownik, Laura E; Bernstein, Charles N


    People with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often experience periods of illness that interfere with their ability to work. We aimed to understand the need for workplace accommodation during periods of acute illness among persons IBD. Participants were recruited from the population-based University of Manitoba Research Registry and received a survey including questions assessing experiences with workplace accommodations. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression modelling. A total of 1143 individuals responded to the survey (46% response rate), of whom 881 had experienced IBD symptoms in the workplace and were included in the analysis. The mean age was 48.3 years (standard deviation, 10.9); 61% were female. Mean IBD duration was 20.6 years (standard deviation, 10.5). Most respondents (73%) described IBD symptoms experienced in the workplace as severe to very severe. The most commonly required accommodations were time to go to medical appointments during working hours (81%), easy access to a toilet (71%), and a chance to take a break when not feeling well (54%). Most accommodations were arranged informally or through a supervisor. The accommodations required were very or somewhat easy to arrange about half the time. Being female, having high symptom severity, and high level of current distress were associated with a need for more accommodations, difficulty implementing accommodations, and not asking for needed accommodations. This study provides important information as to the types of accommodations that are necessary, common practices arranging for these, and level of difficulty arranging accommodations. Furthermore, characteristics associated with greater need for accommodation, reluctance to ask for them, and difficulty in arranging them were identified. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Automated reactor protection testing saves time and avoids errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondo, E.


    When the Pressurized Water Reactor units in the French 900MWe series were designed, the instrumentation and control systems were equipped for manual periodic testing. Manual reactor protection system testing has since been successfully replaced by an automatic system, which is also applicable to other instrumentation testing. A study on the complete automation of process instrumentation testing has been carried out. (author)

  3. Test plan for glove box testing with the real-time transuranic dust monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partin, J.K.; Fincke, J.R.


    This test plan describes the objectives, instrumentation, and testing procedures used to prove the feasibility of a real-time transuranic dust monitor (RTDM). The RTDM is under development at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as a Waste Characterization Technology funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Project. The instrument is an in situ monitor that uses optical techniques to establish particle size, particle number density, and mass and species of heavy metal contamination. US Department of Energy orders mandate the assessment of radiological exposure and contamination spread during the remediation of radioactive waste. Of particular concern is heavy metal contamination of dust, both radioactive and nonradioactive. Small particles of metal, particularly the radioactive species, tend to become electrically charged and consequently attach themselves to dust particles. This airborne activated dust is a primary means of contamination transport during remediation activities, and therefore, must be continuously monitored to protect personnel involved in the operations and to control the spread of contamination. If real-time monitoring is not available there is increased likelihood of generating unacceptably high levels of contamination and being forced to shut down costly retrieval operations to decontaminate. A series of experiments are described to determine the optimal experimental design, operational parameters, and levels of detection for the RTDM. Initial screening will be performed using monodisperse particle standards to set parameters and calibrate the instrument. Additional testing will be performed using INEL soil samples spiked with a surrogate, cerium oxide, to prove the design before transporting the apparatus to the Test Reactor Area for testing with plutonium-contaminated dusts

  4. Elementary Science Indoors and Out: Teachers, Time, and Testing (United States)

    Carrier, Sarah J.; Tugurian, Linda P.; Thomson, Margareta M.


    In this article, we present the results from a mixed-methods research study aimed to document indoor and outdoor fifth grade science experiences in one school in the USA in the context of accountability and standardized testing. We used quantitative measures to explore students' science knowledge, environmental attitudes, and outdoor comfort levels, and via qualitative measures, we examined views on science education and environmental issues from multiple sources, including the school's principal, teachers, and students. Students' science knowledge in each of the four objectives specified for grade 5 significantly improved during the school year. Qualitative data collected through interviews and observations found limited impressions of outdoor science. Findings revealed that, despite best intentions and a school culture that supported outdoor learning, it was very difficult in practice for teachers to supplement their classroom science instruction with outdoor activities. They felt constrained by time and heavy content demands and decided that the most efficient way of delivering science instruction was through traditional methods. Researchers discuss potentials and obstacles for the science community to consider in supporting teachers and preparing elementary school teachers to provide students with authentic experiential learning opportunities. We further confront teachers' and students' perceptions that science is always best and most efficiently learned inside the classroom through traditional text-driven instruction.

  5. Test of time-reversal invariance at COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdau, Yury [Helmholtz Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn Univ. (Germany); National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute B.P. Konstantinov, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Eversheim, Dieter [Helmholtz Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn Univ. (Germany); Lorentz, Bernd [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute fuer Kernphysik (Germany)


    The experiment to test the Time Reversal Invariance at Cosy (TRIC) is under the preparation by the PAX collaboration. It is planned to improve present limit on the T-odd P-even interaction by at least one order of magnitude using a unique genuine null observable available in double polarized proton-deuteron scattering. The TRIC experiment is planned as a transmission experiment using a tensor polarized deuterium target placed at the internal target place of the Cooler-Synchrotron COSY-Juelich. Total double polarized cross section will be measured observing a beam current change due to the interaction of a polarized proton beam with an internal tensor polarized deuterium target from the PAX atomic beam source. Hence, in this experiment COSY will be used as an accelerator, detector and ideal zero degree spectrometer. In addition to the high intensity polarized proton beam and high density polarized deuterium target, a new high precision beam current measurement system will be prepared for the TRIC experiment. In this report status of all the activities of PAX collaboration towards realization of the TRIC experiment will be presented.

  6. Implementation and testing of the travel time prediction system (TIPS)




    RAPPORT DE RECHERCHE FINAL The Travel Time Prediction System (TIPS) is a portable automated system for predicting and displaying travel time for motorists in advance of and through freeway construction work zones,on a real-time basis

  7. Testing Cosmetics on Animals: An Idea Who's Time Has Gone


    Lewis, Noah


    Despite tremendous progress in reducing animal testing in the assessment the safety of cosmetic products, it persists and there is no definitive end in sight. The reasons for this are not entirely clear because the major constituents, consumers, animal rights activists, and the corporations engaged in the testing all seem to want it to end. While the government still requires animal testing for drugs and other consumer products, there is no explicit requirement for the animal testing of cosme...

  8. The application of security provisions in accommodation facility – hotel


    Rotbauer, Josef


    This thesis treats of security provisions, which hotels are using to protect health and property of accommodated persons. In the opening part is caught the progress of attendance and capacities of hotels in the Czech republic during a specific time period. The next chapter focuses on possible threats, which are imminent to hotels during the operation. The third part of the thesis solves particular methods of application of security provisions, these are verified in two concrete hotels in the ...

  9. Effect of different reading interfaces and conditions on the accommodation response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Feng Wang


    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the difference of accommodation response under the variety reading conditions including computer screen, mobile phone screen and printed texts. The investigation also included the accommodation response under these conditions with different distances, brightness, dynamic and static testing status. METHODS:Thirty volunteer subjects were included with normal vision function. The reading target on computer screen, mobile screen and paper were used, respectively. Grand Seiko WAM 5500 infrared automatic refractometer was applied to measure accommodation response. The influence of different reading conditions on accommodation was compared using variance analysis with SPSS17.0.RESULTS:Accommodation lag under the computer screen with high brightness was 0.52±0.24D, that under papers was 0.73±0.28D, that under mobile phone was 0.72±0.29D. Accommodation lag under the computer screen with high brightness was less than that under mobile phones and paper, the differences were statistically significant(PCONCLUSION:Accommodation lag under the computer screen with high brightness is relatively smaller than that under mobile phone or paper. There is no significant difference between those under phones and paper. With the brightness of computers in a certain range, there is no effect for accommodation response.

  10. Time and Temperature Test Results for PFP Thermal Stabilization Furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The national standard for plutonium storage acceptability (standard DOE-STD-3013-99, generally known as ''the 3013 standard'') has been revised to clarify the requirement for processes that will produce acceptable storage materials. The 3013 standard (Reference 1) now states that ''Oxides shall be stabilized by heating the material in an oxidizing atmosphere to a Material Temperature of at least 950 C (1742 F) for not less than 2 hours.'' The process currently in use for producing stable oxides for storage at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) heats a furnace atmosphere to 1000 C and holds it there for 2 hours. The temperature of the material being stabilized is not measured directly during this process. The Plutonium Process Support Laboratories (PPSL) were requested to demonstrate that the process currently in use at PFP is an acceptable method of producing stable plutonium dioxide consistently. A spare furnace identical to the production furnaces was set up and tested under varying conditions with non-radioactive surrogate materials. Reference 2 was issued to guide the testing program. The process currently in use at the PFP for stabilizing plutonium-bearing powders was shown to heat all the material in the furnace to at least 950 C for at least 2 hours. The current process will work for (1) relatively pure plutonium dioxide, (2) dioxide powders mixed with up to 20 weight percent magnesium oxide, and (3) dioxide powders with up to 11 weight percent magnesium oxide and 20 weight percent magnesium nitrate hexahydrate. Time and temperature data were also consistent with a successful demonstration for a mixture containing 10 weight percent each of sodium and potassium chloride; however, the molten chloride salts destroyed the thermocouples in the powder and temperature data were unavailable for part of that run. These results assume that the current operating limits of no more than 2500 grams per furnace charge and a powder height of no more than 1.5 inches remain

  11. Design and test for the time module of HXMT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jianfeng; Zhang Zhi; Liu Congzhan


    The time module is a key component of HXMT, which determines whether HXMT can realize its scientific aim, scan imaging and timing analysis, correctly. The design in this paper splits the time information into two parts. The time information above second, which can be synchronized by control system of HXMT, is generated by GPSs second pulse. The time information below second is generated by high precision crystal and revised by GPSs second pulse. In order to solve the problem of how to verify the correctness of the time module, a new method using timing analysis is proposed and implemented in this paper. (authors)

  12. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors. (United States)

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung


    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display.

  13. Modeling the convergence accommodation of stereo vision for binocular endoscopy. (United States)

    Gao, Yuanqian; Li, Jinhua; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Shuxin


    The stereo laparoscope is an important tool for achieving depth perception in robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS). A dynamic convergence accommodation algorithm is proposed to improve the viewing experience and achieve accurate depth perception. Based on the principle of the human vision system, a positional kinematic model of the binocular view system is established. The imaging plane pair is rectified to ensure that the two rectified virtual optical axes intersect at the fixation target to provide immersive depth perception. Stereo disparity was simulated with the roll and pitch movements of the binocular system. The chessboard test and the endoscopic peg transfer task were performed, and the results demonstrated the improved disparity distribution and robustness of the proposed convergence accommodation method with respect to the position of the fixation target. This method offers a new solution for effective depth perception with the stereo laparoscopes used in robot-assisted MIS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Influence of accommodative lag upon the far-gradient measurement of accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio in strabismic patients. (United States)

    Miyata, Manabu; Hasebe, Satoshi; Ohtsuki, Hiroshi


    To determine the influence of the lag of accommodation (LOA) on the accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio measured by the far-gradient method in strabismic patients. The AC/A ratio was measured with a distance target viewed with and without -3.00 diopter (D) addition lenses in 63 patients with different types of strabismus (age range, 7-34 years; range of strabismic angle, -60 to +40 prism diopters; refractive error range, -7.33 to +6.63 D). The LOA for the same lens was measured with an open-view-type autorefractometer. The stimulus AC/A ratio and the AC/A ratio adjusted by the individually measured LOA (adjusted AC/A ratio) were compared. The mean +/- SD of the LOA to the -3.00 D lenses was 1.06 +/- 0.43 D. The mean adjusted AC/A ratio was 41% greater than the stimulus AC/A ratio. The LOA differed widely among patients (0.13 to 2.14 D), and a large LOA tended to appear in myopic or young patients. The AC/A ratio obtained using the conventional far-gradient method is significantly biased by the LOA, and thus does not always represent the actual relationship between accommodation and vergence control systems. Copyright Japanese Ophthalmological Society 2006.

  15. Photorefractive keratectomy in refractive accommodative esotropia. (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Akata, F; Or, M; Hasanreisoğlu, B


    Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) was performed on a 19-year-old man with hyperopic astigmatism and refractive accommodative esotropia. The patient was orthophoric while wearing spectacles, but had an esotropia of 30 prism dioptres at near and distance vision without spectacles. The best corrected visual acuity of the right eye was 20/50 and of the left eye was 20/20. The excessive accommodative convergence of the patient was eliminated by correcting the hyperopic refractive error by performing PRK, and the patient became orthophoric after the treatment.

  16. Mixed Portmanteau Test for Diagnostic Checking of Time Series Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Chand


    Full Text Available Model criticism is an important stage of model building and thus goodness of fit tests provides a set of tools for diagnostic checking of the fitted model. Several tests are suggested in literature for diagnostic checking. These tests use autocorrelation or partial autocorrelation in the residuals to criticize the adequacy of fitted model. The main idea underlying these portmanteau tests is to identify if there is any dependence structure which is yet unexplained by the fitted model. In this paper, we suggest mixed portmanteau tests based on autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions of the residuals. We derived the asymptotic distribution of the mixture test and studied its size and power using Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. A beam test of prototype time projection chamber using micro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We conducted a series of beam tests of prototype TPCs for the international linear collider (ILC) experiment, equipped with an MWPC, a MicroMEGAS, or GEMs as a readout device. The prototype operated successfully in a test beam at KEK under an axial magnetic field of up to 1 T. The analysis of data is now in progress ...

  18. Family accommodation mediates the association between anxiety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The link between child anxiety and maternal anxiety has been well established but the factors underlying this association are not well understood. One potential factor is family accommodation, which describes ways in which parents change their behaviour to help a child avoid or alleviate anxiety. Family ...

  19. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204 Section 100.204 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE... dog. The building has a no pets policy. It is a violation of § 100.204 for the owner or manager of the...

  20. Force and Accommodation in World Politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spangler, Stanley


    ..." and "carrots" to achieve political objectives. Clearly the subject-the use of force and accommodation to achieve political ends-is a topic that has been analyzed over the years by a host of observers, ranging from Niccol Machiavelli to John F. Kennedy...

  1. Travel Time Data Collection Field Tests - Lessons Learned (United States)


    The Los Angeles Spread Spectrum Radio (SSR) Traffic Signal Interconnect Field Operational Test (FOT) investigated the feasibility of using wireless communications as an alternative to traditional hard-wire interconnection, to extend the coverage of c...

  2. Reaction time in Stroop test in Nepalese Medical Students


    Ghimire, Nisha; Paudel, Bishnu Hari; Khadka, Rita; Singh, P. N.


    Background: Stroop test is one of the widely used tests in cognitive psychology. It is used both in healthy population and also in patients to assess the selective attention. The selective attention as assessed by it is also found to be altered in bilinguals. In Nepal, most of the students are bilingual since most of the courses are in English language. Thus, they learn English language along with their native languages. This study is aimed to assess the selective attention in healthy Nepales...

  3. Increased onset of vergence adaptation reduces excessive accommodation during the orthoptic treatment of convergence insufficiency. (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R


    This research tested the hypothesis that the successful treatment of convergence insufficiency (CI) with vision-training (VT) procedures, leads to an increased capacity of vergence adaptation (VAdapt) allowing a more rapid downward adjustment of the convergence accommodation cross-link. Nine subjects with CI were recruited from a clinical population, based upon reduced fusional vergence amplitudes, receded near point of convergence or symptomology. VAdapt and the resulting changes to convergence accommodation (CA) were measured at specific intervals over 15 min (pre-training). Separate clinical measures of the accommodative convergence cross link, horizontal fusion limits and near point of convergence were taken and a symptomology questionnaire completed. Subjects then participated in a VT program composed of 2.5h at home and 1h in-office weekly for 12-14 weeks. Clinical testing was done weekly. VAdapt and CA measures were retaken once clinical measures normalized for 2 weeks (mid-training) and then again when symptoms had cleared (post-training). VAdapt and CA responses as well as the clinical measures were taken on a control group showing normal clinical findings. Six subjects provided complete data sets. CI clinical findings reached normal levels between 4 and 7 weeks of training but symptoms, VAdapt, and CA output remained significantly different from the controls until 12-14 weeks. The hypothesis was retained. The reduced VAdapt and excessive CA found in CI were normalized through orthoptic treatment. This time course was underestimated by clinical findings but matched symptom amelioration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinematic and ground reaction force accommodation during weighted walking. (United States)

    James, C Roger; Atkins, Lee T; Yang, Hyung Suk; Dufek, Janet S; Bates, Barry T


    Weighted walking is a functional activity common in daily life and can influence risks for musculoskeletal loading, injury and falling. Much information exists about weighted walking during military, occupational and recreational tasks, but less is known about strategies used to accommodate to weight carriage typical in daily life. The purposes of the study were to examine the effects of weight carriage on kinematics and peak ground reaction force (GRF) during walking, and explore relationships between these variables. Twenty subjects walked on a treadmill while carrying 0, 44.5 and 89 N weights in front of the body. Peak GRF, sagittal plane joint/segment angular kinematics, stride length and center of mass (COM) vertical displacement were measured. Changes in peak GRF and displacement variables between weight conditions represented accommodation. Effects of weight carriage were tested using analysis of variance. Relationships between peak GRF and kinematic accommodation variables were examined using correlation and regression. Subjects were classified into sub-groups based on peak GRF responses and the correlation analysis was repeated. Weight carriage increased peak GRF by an amount greater than the weight carried, decreased stride length, increased vertical COM displacement, and resulted in a more extended and upright posture, with less hip and trunk displacement during weight acceptance. A GRF increase was associated with decreases in hip extension (|r|=.53, p=.020) and thigh anterior rotation (|r|=.57, p=.009) displacements, and an increase in foot anterior rotation displacement (|r|=.58, p=.008). Sub-group analysis revealed that greater GRF increases were associated with changes at multiple sites, while lesser GRF increases were associated with changes in foot and trunk displacement. Weight carriage affected walking kinematics and revealed different accommodation strategies that could have implications for loading and stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  5. Reduced vergence adaptation is associated with a prolonged output of convergence accommodation in convergence insufficiency. (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R


    Convergence insufficiency (CI) is a developmental visual anomaly defined clinically by a reduced near point of convergence, a reduced capacity to view through base-out prisms (fusional convergence); coupled with asthenopic symptoms typically blur and diplopia. Experimental studies show reduced vergence parameters and tonic adaptation. Based upon current models of accommodation and vergence, we hypothesize that the reduced vergence adaptation in CI leads to excessive amounts of convergence accommodation (CA). Eleven CI participants (mean age=17.4±2.3 years) were recruited with reduced capacity to view through increasing magnitudes of base out (BO) prisms (mean fusional convergence at 40 cm=12±0.9Δ). Testing followed our previous experimental design for (n=11) binocularly normal adults. Binocular fixation of a difference of Gaussian (DoG) target (0.2 cpd) elicited CA responses during vergence adaptation to a 12Δ BO. Vergence and CA responses were obtained at 3 min intervals over a 15 min period and time course were quantified using exponential decay functions. Results were compared to previously published data on eleven binocular normals. Eight participants completed the study. CI's showed significantly reduced magnitude of vergence adaptation (CI: 2.9Δ vs. normals: 6.6Δ; p=0.01) and CA reduction (CI=0.21 D, Normals=0.55 D; p=0.03). However, the decay time constants for adaptation and CA responses were not significantly different. CA changes were not confounded by changes in tonic accommodation (Change in TA=0.01±0.2D; p=0.8). The reduced magnitude of vergence adaptation found in CI patients resulting in higher levels of CA may potentially explain their clinical findings of reduced positive fusional vergence (PFV) and the common symptom of blur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A Psychometric Evaluation of a State Testing Program: Accommodated versus Non-Accommodated Students (United States)

    Roxbury, Tiese L.


    Federal legislation such as "No Child Left Behind" mandated that students with disabilities be included in accountability standards, creating an important responsibility to fairly assess all students, even those with disabilities. Consequently, a sense of urgency was placed on the entire educational system to ensure that these students…

  7. Real-time Testing of Operating Systems on Raspberry Pi


    Murstad, Amund


    A subset of operating systems are called ``real time'' operating systems. While a general operating system like Windows or OSX can make no guarantee when a process gets to run, a real time one has the ability to do so. They are used for systems where the quality of the results from the operating system is not only defined by their correctness, but also by when they arrive. These kinds of systems are called Real-time Systems and can be divided into soft, hard and firm. If a deadline is missed ...

  8. Test Equal Bending by Gravity for Space and Time (United States)

    Sweetser, Douglas


    For the simplest problem of gravity - a static, non-rotating, spherically symmetric source - the solution for spacetime bending around the Sun should be evenly split between time and space. That is true to first order in M/R, and confirmed by experiment. At second order, general relativity predicts different amounts of contribution from time and space without a physical justification. I show an exponential metric is consistent with light bending to first order, measurably different at second order. All terms to all orders show equal contributions from space and time. Beautiful minimalism is Nature's way.

  9. Ghost neutrinos as test fields in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audretsch, J.


    Without restricting to empty space-times, it is shown that ghost neutrinos (their energy-momentum tensor vanishes) can only be found in algebraically special space-times with a neutrino flux vector parallel to one of the principal null vectors of the conformal tensor. The optical properties are studied. There are no ghost neutrinos in the Kerr-Newman and in spherically symmetric space-times. The example of a non-vacuum gravitational pp-wave accompanied by a ghost neutrino pp-wave is discussed. (Auth.)

  10. [Effects of visual optical stimuli for accommodation-convergence system on asthenopia]. (United States)

    Iwasaki, Tsuneto; Tawara, Akihiko; Miyake, Nobuyuki


    We investigated the effect on eyestrain of optical stimuli that we designed for accommodation and convergence systems. Eight female students were given optical stimuli for accommodation and convergence systems for 1.5 min immediately after 20 min of a sustained task on a 3-D display. Before and after the trial, their ocular functions were measured and their symptoms were assessed. The optical stimuli were applied by moving targets of scenery images far and near around the far point position of both eyes on a horizonal place, which induced divergence in the direction of the eye position of rest. In a control group, subjects rested with closed eyes for 1.5 min instead of applying the optical stimuli. There were significant changes in the accommodative contraction time (from far to near) and the accommodative relaxation time (from near to far) and the lag of accommodation at near target, from 1.26 s to 1.62 s and from 1.49 s to 1.63 s and from 0.5 D to 0.65 D, respectively, and in the symptoms in the control group after the duration of closed-eye rest. In the stimulus group, however, the changes of those functions were smaller than in the control group. From these results, we suggest that our designed optical stimuli for accommodation and convergence systems are effective on asthenopia following accommodative dysfunction.

  11. Timing tests: automatic valve closure for tritium leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanel, S.


    How fast can an automotive valve be closed after a tritium leak occurs in a system. Tests described found that a valve can be closed within fifteen seconds of leakage. In one practical example considered, this delay would limit loss of tritium from a plumbing leak in a tritium system to 1 1 / 4 g. The tests were made in a typical LLL air-flush hood in which a tritium handling system had been installed. Incidental observations suggest that further study be made of a possible leak-actuated recovery system for an entire tritium facility

  12. Quantum Dynamics of Test Particle in Curved Space-Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piechocki, W.


    To reveal the nature of space-time singularities of removable type we examine classical and quantum dynamics of a free particle in the Sitter type spacetimes. Consider space-times have different topologies otherwise are isometric. Our systems are integrable and we present analytic solutions of the classical dynamics. We quantize the systems by making use of the group theoretical method: we find an essentially self-adjoint representation of the algebra of observables integrable to the irreducible unitarity representation of the symmetry group of each consider gravitational system. The massless particle dynamics is obtained in the zero-mass limit of the massive case. Global properties of considered gravitational systems are of primary importance for the quantization procedure. Systems of a particle in space-times with removable singularities appear to be quantizable. We give specific proposal for extension of our analysis to space-times with essential type singularities. (author)

  13. Effect of vergence adaptation on convergence-accommodation: model simulations. (United States)

    Sreenivasan, Vidhyapriya; Bobier, William R; Irving, Elizabeth L; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan


    Several theoretical control models depict the adaptation effects observed in the accommodation and vergence mechanisms of the human visual system. Two current quantitative models differ in their approach of defining adaptation and in identifying the effect of controller adaptation on their respective cross-links between the vergence and accommodative systems. Here, we compare the simulation results of these adaptation models with empirical data obtained from emmetropic adults when they performed sustained near task through + 2D lens addition. The results of our experimental study showed an initial increase in exophoria (a divergent open-loop vergence position) and convergence-accommodation (CA) when viewing through +2D lenses. Prolonged fixation through the near addition lenses initiated vergence adaptation, which reduced the lens-induced exophoria and resulted in a concurrent reduction of CA. Both models showed good agreement with empirical measures of vergence adaptation. However, only one model predicted the experimental time course of reduction in CA. The pattern of our empirical results seem to be best described by the adaptation model that indicates the total vergence response to be a sum of two controllers, phasic and tonic, with the output of phasic controller providing input to the cross-link interactions.

  14. Accommodative insufficiency in a student population in Iran. (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Nabovati, Payam; Shahraki, Fatemeh Azad; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Faghihi, Mohammad; Aghamirsalim, Mohamadreza; Doostdar, Asgar; Yekta, Abbasali


    To determine the prevalence of accommodative insufficiency (AI) and its relation with age, gender, and refractive errors in a college-age student population in Iran. The present study was conducted cross-sectionally in 2017. All students had optometric tests including measurement of visual acuity, objective and subjective refraction, as well as binocular vision and accommodative examinations. Amplitude of accommodation was measured with the Donders' push-up method using the Royal Air Force (RAF) rule. Monocular accommodative facility was measured with ±2.00diopter flipper lenses. The accommodative response was tested using dynamic retinoscopy with the monocular estimation method (MEM). The prevalence of AI in the studied population was 4.07% (95% CI: 2.61-5.52). The rate was 6.04% (95% CI: 3.58-8.50) in females and 2.01% (95% CI: 0.53-3.48) in males, and logistic regression showed a significantly higher odds of AI in females (OR=3.14, 95% CI: 1.33-7.45, p-value=0.009). The prevalence of AI was 2.59% (95% CI: 0.55-7.56) in the 18-19-year-old age group and 4.08% (95% CI: 0.09-8.07) in the 24-25-year-old group (p-value=0.848). The prevalence of AI among emmetropic, myopic, and hyperopic individuals was 3.74% (95% CI: 1.88-5.61), 4.44% (95% CI: 2.07-6.81), and 5.26% (95% CI: 4.79-16.32), respectively (p-value=0.869). In the multiple regression model, only gender showed significant relationship with AI (Odds ratio=3.14, 95% CI: 1.33-7.45; p-values=0.009). The prevalence of AI in the present study is lower than the most prevalence rates reported in previous studies. In the present study, gender and AI showed a strong association, such that AI prevalence was significantly higher in females than males. Copyright © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Fire Pumps: Time to Change NFPA 25 Weekly Churn Testing (United States)

    Saidi, John F.; Davis, Richard J.


    APPA, through its Code Advocacy Task Force (CATF), is active with code organizations such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). This article reviews some of the recent work on NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, by the CATF and some members of the NFPA 25 Technical…

  16. Educators Questioning Timing of State Tests Reflecting Standards (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine


    New York is ahead of most states in its work to design detailed curricula and professional development for the common core and to build brand-new tests to reflect them. What's unfolding in the Empire State as a result of that work illustrates the way the common standards can pressure changes in the education landscape, and torque the tensions…

  17. A beam test of prototype time projection chamber using micro ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High Energy Accelerator Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801, Japan. E-mail: Abstract. We conducted a series of beam tests of prototype TPCs for the international linear collider (ILC) experiment, equipped with an MWPC, a MicroMEGAS, or GEMs as a readout device. The prototype ...

  18. Comparative study of the accommodative convergence/accommodation after refractive correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Fei Lin


    Full Text Available AIM: To study the ortho-k lens and frame glasses in patients with juvenile myopia the influence of the accommodative convergence/accommodation(AC/A, further clear the effectiveness of controlling the myopia development and security.METHODS: Randomly select 60 patients to our hospital check-up successfully with ortho-k lens of juvenile myopia patients as experimental group, and 60 cases were randomly selected given frame glasses as control group. we observed two groups of patients before and after refractive correction the changes of AC/A and spherical equivalent. Observation time was 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year.RESULTS: The AC/A of experimental group worn glasses before and after 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year were 4.05±2.03, 3.05±1.85, 3.31±1.02, 3.14±1.64 and 3.20±1.55,respectively with statistically significant difference(PP>0.05. Three months after worn glasses there was significant difference(PP>0.05. Wearing glasses after 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, the two groups had significant difference(PP>0.05. Spherical equivalent, observation time was 1 year: experimental group spherical equivalent degrees increased by 0.38±0.35DS, the control group spherical equivalent degrees increased by 0.84±0.56DS, the two groups were statistically significant difference(PCONCLUSION: Both groups could reduce the AC/A value. The experimental group than the control group was better and faster to improve the relationship between the adjustment and collection. The AC/A value was on the high side after myopic degree growth. The ortho-k lens is an effective lens for the moderate myopia.It can more effectively control the growth of juvenile myopia than frame glasses, which is an effective way to control myopia. The mechanism of improving his visual function remains to be further studied.

  19. Magnifications of Single and Dual Element Accommodative Intraocular Lenses: Paraxial Optics Analysis (United States)

    Ale, Jit B; Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur


    Purpose Using an analytical approach of paraxial optics, we evaluated the magnification of a model eye implanted with single-element (1E) and dual-element (2E) translating-optics accommodative intraocular lenses (AIOL) with an objective of understanding key control parameters relevant to their design. Potential clinical implications of the results arising from pseudophakic accommodation were also considered. Methods Lateral and angular magnifications in a pseudophakic model eye were analyzed using the matrix method of paraxial optics. The effects of key control parameters such as direction (forward or backward) and distance (0 to 2 mm) of translation, power combinations of the 2E-AIOL elements (front element power range +20.0 D to +40.0 D), and amplitudes of accommodation (0 to 4 D) were tested. Relative magnification, defined as the ratio of the retinal image size of the accommodated eye to that of unaccommodated phakic (rLM1) or pseudophakic (rLM2) model eyes, was computed to determine how retinal image size changes with pseudophakic accommodation. Results Both lateral and angular magnifications increased with increased power of the front element in 2E-AIOL and amplitude of accommodation. For a 2E-AIOL with front element power of +35 D, rLM1 and rLM2 increased by 17.0% and 16.3%, respectively, per millimetre of forward translation of the element, compared to the magnification at distance focus (unaccommodated). These changes correspond to a change of 9.4% and 6.5% per dioptre of accommodation, respectively. Angular magnification also increased with pseudophakic accommodation. 1E-AIOLs produced consistently less magnification than 2E-AIOLs. Relative retinal image size decreased at a rate of 0.25% with each dioptre of accommodation in the phakic model eye. The position of the image space nodal point shifted away from the retina (towards the cornea) with both phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Conclusion Power of the mobile element, and amount and direction of

  20. Agreement between clinical and laboratory methods assessing tonic and cross-link components of accommodation and vergence. (United States)

    Neveu, Pascaline; Priot, Anne-Emmanuelle; Philippe, Matthieu; Fuchs, Philippe; Roumes, Corinne


    Several tests are available to optometrists for investigating accommodation and vergence. This study sought to investigate the agreement between clinical and laboratory methods and to clarify which components are actually measured when tonic and cross-link of accommodation and vergence are assessed. Tonic vergence, tonic accommodation, accommodative vergence (AC/A) and vergence accommodation (CA/C) were measured using several tests. Clinical tests were compared to the laboratory assessment, the latter being regarded as an absolute reference. The repeatability of each test and the degree of agreement between the tests were quantified using Bland-Altman analysis. The values obtained for each test were found to be stable across repetitions; however, in most cases, significant differences were observed between tests supposed to measure the same oculomotor component. Tonic and cross-link components cannot be easily assessed because proximal and instrumental responses interfere with the assessment. Other components interfere with oculomotor assessment. Specifically, accommodative divergence interferes with tonic vergence estimation and the type of accommodation considered in the AC/A ratio affects its magnitude. Results on clinical tonic accommodation and clinical CA/C show that further investigation is needed to clarify the limitations associated with the use of difference of Gaussian as visual targets to open the accommodative loop. Although different optometric tests of accommodation and vergence rely on the same basic principles, the results of this study indicate that clinical and laboratory methods actually involve distinct components. These differences, which are induced by methodological choices, must be taken into account, when comparing studies or when selecting a test to investigate a particular oculomotor component. © 2015 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2015 Optometry Australia.

  1. Testing for time-based correlates of perceived gender discrimination. (United States)

    Blau, Gary; Tatum, Donna Surges; Ward-Cook, Kory; Dobria, Lidia; McCoy, Keith


    Using a sample of 201 medical technologists (MTs) over a five-year period, this study extends initial findings on perceived gender discrimination (PGD) by Blau and Tatum (2000) by applying organizational justice variables and internal-external locus of control as hypothesized correlates of PGD. Three types of organizational justice were measured: distributive, procedural, and interactional. General relationships found include locus of control being related to PGD such that internals perceived lower PGD. Also, distributive, procedural, and interactional justice were negatively related to PGD. However, increasing the time interval between these correlates weakened their relationships. The relationship of interactional justice to PGD remained the most "resistant" to attenuation over time.

  2. On test and maintenance: Optimization of allowed outage time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavko, B.; Cepin, M.T.


    Probabilistic Safety Assessment is widely becoming standard method for assessing, maintaining, assuring and improving the nuclear power plant safety. To achieve one of its many potential benefits, the optimization of allowed outage time specified in technical specifications is investigated. Proposed is the risk comparison approach for evaluation of allowed outage time. The risk of shutting the plant down due to failure of certain equipment is compared to the risk of continued plant operation with the specified equipment down. The core damage frequency serves as a risk measure. (author)

  3. Allowed outage time for test and maintenance - Optimization of safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.


    The main objective of the project is the development and application of methodologies for improvement and optimization of test and maintenance activities for safety related equipment in NPPs on basis of their enhanced safety. The probabilistic safety assessment serves as a base, which does not mean the replacement of the deterministic analyses but the consideration of probabilistic safety assessment results as complement to deterministic results. 15 refs, 2 figs

  4. Real time risk analysis of kick detection: Testing and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Rakibul; Khan, Faisal; Venkatesan, Ramchandran


    Oil and gas development is moving into harsh and remote locations where the highest level of safety is required. A blowout is one of the most feared accidents in oil and gas developments projects. The main objective of this paper is to test and validate the kick detection of blowout risk assessment model using uniquely developed experimental results. Kick detection is a major part of the blowout risk assessment model. The accuracy and timeliness of kick detection are dependent on the monitoring of multiple downhole parameters such as downhole pressure, fluid density, fluid conductivity and mass flow rate. In the present study these four parameters are considered in different logical combinations to assess the occurrence of kick and associated blowout risk. The assessed results are compared against the experimental observations. It is observed that simultaneous monitoring of mass flow rate combined with any one the three parameters provides most reliable detection of kick and potential blowout likelihood. The current work presents the framework for a dynamic risk assessment and management model. Upon success testing of this approach at the pilot and field levels, this approach could provide a paradigm shift in drilling safety. - Highlights: • A novel dynamic risk model of kick detection and blowout prediction. • Testing and Validation of the risk model. • Application of the dynamic risk model.

  5. Health and genetic ancestry testing: time to bridge the gap. (United States)

    Smart, Andrew; Bolnick, Deborah A; Tutton, Richard


    It is becoming increasingly difficult to keep information about genetic ancestry separate from information about health, and consumers of genetic ancestry tests are becoming more aware of the potential health risks associated with particular ancestral lineages. Because some of the proposed associations have received little attention from oversight agencies and professional genetic associations, scientific developments are currently outpacing governance regimes for consumer genetic testing. We highlight the recent and unremarked upon emergence of biomedical studies linking markers of genetic ancestry to disease risks, and show that this body of scientific research is becoming part of public discourse connecting ancestry and health. For instance, data on genome-wide ancestry informative markers are being used to assess health risks, and we document over 100 biomedical research articles that propose associations between mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome markers of genetic ancestry and a wide variety of disease risks. Taking as an example an association between coronary heart disease and British men belonging to Y chromosome haplogroup I, we show how this science was translated into mainstream and online media, and how it circulates among consumers of genetic tests for ancestry. We find wide variations in how the science is interpreted, which suggests the potential for confusion or misunderstanding. We recommend that stakeholders involved in creating and using estimates of genetic ancestry reconsider their policies for communicating with each other and with the public about the health implications of ancestry information.

  6. Time - Temperature Relationships of Test Head Fired and Backfires (United States)

    Lawrence S. Davis; Robert E. Martin


    Time-temperature relations were measured during the course of a preliminary investigation of the thermal characteristics of forest fires. Observations on 5 head fires and 5 backfires in 8-year-old gallberry-palmetto roughs on the Alapaha Experimental Range near Tifton, Georgia, are the basis for this report.

  7. A Hybrid Joint Moment Ratio Test for Financial Time Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Groenendijk (Patrick); A. Lucas (André); C.G. de Vries (Casper)


    textabstractWe advocate the use of absolute moment ratio statistics in conjunction with standard variance ratio statistics in order to disentangle linear dependence, non-linear dependence, and leptokurtosis in financial time series. Both statistics are computed for multiple return horizons

  8. Test of user- and system programs coded in real time languages - requirements on program language and testing tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertlin, J.; Mackert, M.


    In the present paper the functions are presented, which should be part of a test system for user programs in a higher treat time programming language, taking into account time sequences and competitive processes. As can be shown by the problem of testing, use of higher level real time programming languages renders the task of program development essentially easier, however performance of test procedures without appropriate test systems is very difficult. After the presentation of notions and methods for the testing of programs, general requirements on testing tools are described and the test system functions for a program test, beeing uncritical with respect to time, are placed together. Thereby, for every individual function, the interface between the test system, the program under test, and the residual program-generation system (compiler, binder, operating system, delay-time system, and loader) is given too. For the time-critical test, a series of desirable functions are described, which can be implemented with acceptable expense. (orig.) [de

  9. Evaluation of web sites of accommodation companies


    Çubukcu, Muhammed İhsan


    OBJECTIVE: In a situation in which present economy is called as a digital economy, all organizations have to make up their informatics infrastructures. The societies that can use and share the information by using the technology as it requires will be societies that have the power of competition; and the power of competition will just be measured by the ability of reaching the information. This applicational study includes the analysis of the web pages of the five star accommodation companies...

  10. Time delays across saddles as a test of modified gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magueijo, João; Mozaffari, Ali


    Modified gravity theories can produce strong signals in the vicinity of the saddles of the total gravitational potential. In a sub-class of these models, this translates into diverging time delays for echoes crossing the saddles. Such models arise from the possibility that gravity might be infrared divergent or confined, and if suitably designed they are very difficult to rule out. We show that Lunar Laser Ranging during an eclipse could probe the time-delay effect within metres of the saddle, thereby proving or excluding these models. Very Large Baseline Interferometry, instead, could target delays across the Jupiter–Sun saddle. Such experiments would shed light on the infrared behaviour of gravity and examine the puzzling possibility that there might be well-hidden regions of strong gravity and even singularities inside the solar system. (fast track communication)

  11. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children exhibit an impaired accommodative response. (United States)

    Redondo, Beatriz; Vera, Jesús; Molina, Rubén; García, José Antonio; Ouadi, Miriam; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio; Jiménez, Raimundo


    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common paediatric neurobehavioural disorders causing multiple functional impairments in children. Based on the relationship between the neural system that controls attention and ocular dynamics, the present study compares the magnitude and variability of accommodation between a group of non-medicated ADHD children and an age-matched control group. The magnitude and variability of the accommodative response were objectively measured in 36 children using the WAM-5500 autorefractometer for 90 consecutive seconds at three static viewing distances (500, 40, and 20 cm). Participants were divided into ADHD (n = 18) or control (n = 18) groups based on clinically validated criteria. Children with ADHD exhibited higher lags of accommodation (p = 0.024), increasing at closer viewing distances, in comparison to the control group. Marginal statistical differences were found for the variability of accommodation (p = 0.066), with the ADHD group showing a trend towards higher variability. Our analysis showed that the magnitude and variability of accommodation did not vary over time between groups (p > 0.05). Our data suggest that children with ADHD have a less accurate accommodative response. These results provide a new ocular index that could help to clarify the relationship between accommodative response and attentional deficits, which could have a direct impact on the academic, cognitive, and visual performance of ADHD children.

  12. Testing the accuracy of timing reports in visual timing tasks with a consumer-grade digital camera. (United States)

    Smyth, Rachael E; Oram Cardy, Janis; Purcell, David


    This study tested the accuracy of a visual timing task using a readily available and relatively inexpensive consumer grade digital camera. A visual inspection time task was recorded using short high-speed video clips and the timing as reported by the task's program was compared to the timing as recorded in the video clips. Discrepancies in these two timing reports were investigated further and based on display refresh rate, a decision was made whether the discrepancy was large enough to affect the results as reported by the task. In this particular study, the errors in timing were not large enough to impact the results of the study. The procedure presented in this article offers an alternative method for performing a timing test, which uses readily available hardware and can be used to test the timing in any software program on any operating system and display.

  13. Workplace accommodations for employees with disabilities: A multilevel model of employer decision-making. (United States)

    Telwatte, Apsara; Anglim, Jeromy; Wynton, Sarah K A; Moulding, Richard


    Existing research suggests that the decision to grant or deny workplace accommodations for people with disabilities is influenced by a range of legal and nonlegal factors. However, less is known about how these factors operate at the within-person level. Thus, we proposed and tested a multilevel model of the accommodation decision-making process, which we applied to better understand why people with psychological disabilities often experience greater challenges in obtaining accommodations. A sample of 159 Australian adults, composed mostly of managers and HR professionals, read 12 vignettes involving requests for accommodations from existing employees. The requests differed in whether they were for psychological or physical disabilities. For each vignette, participants rated their empathy with the employee, the legitimacy of the employee's disability, the necessity for productivity, the perceived cost, and the reasonableness, and indicated whether they would grant the accommodation. Multilevel modeling indicated that greater empathy, legitimacy, and necessity, and lower perceived cost predicted perceptions of greater reasonableness and greater granting. Accommodation requests from employees with psychological disabilities were seen as less reasonable and were less likely to be granted; much of this effect seemed to be driven by perceptions that such accommodations were less necessary for productivity. Ratings on accommodations were influenced both by general between-person tendencies and within-person appraisals of particular scenarios. The study points to a need for organizations to more clearly establish guidelines for how decision-makers should fairly evaluate accommodation requests for employees with psychological disabilities and disability more broadly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Change in convergence and accommodation after two weeks of eye exercises in typical young adults. (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Toor, Sonia S; Riddell, Patricia M


    Although eye exercises appear to help heterophoria, convergence insufficiency, and intermittent strabismus, results can be confounded by placebo, practice, and encouragement effects. This study assessed objective changes in vergence and accommodation responses in naive young adults after a 2-week period of eye exercises under controlled conditions to determine the extent to which treatment effects occur over other factors. Asymptomatic young adults were randomly assigned to one of two no-treatment (control) groups or to one of six eye exercise groups: accommodation, vergence, both, convergence in excess of accommodation, accommodation in excess of convergence, and placebo. Subjects were tested and retested under identical conditions, except for the second control group, who were additionally encouraged. Objective accommodation and vergence were assessed to a range of targets moving in depth containing combinations of blur, disparity, and proximity/looming cues. A total of 156 subjects were included. Response gain improved more for less naturalistic targets where more improvement was possible. Convergence exercises improved vergence for near across all targets (P = 0.035). Mean accommodation changed similarly but nonsignificantly. No other treatment group differed significantly from the nonencouraged control group, whereas encouraging effort produced significantly increased vergence (P = 0.004) and accommodation (P = 0.005) gains in the second control group. True treatment effects were small, significantly better only after vergence exercises to a nonaccommodative target, and rarely related to the response they were designed to improve. Exercising accommodation without convergence made no difference to accommodation to cues containing detail. Additional effort improved objective responses the most. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A game-theoretic approach to real-time system testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Li, Shuhao


    This paper presents a game-theoretic approach to the testing of uncontrollable real-time systems. By modelling the systems with Timed I/O Game Automata and specifying the test purposes as Timed CTL formulas, we employ a recently developed timed game solver UPPAAL-TIGA to synthesize winning...... strategies, and then use these strategies to conduct black-box conformance testing of the systems. The testing process is proved to be sound and complete with respect to the given test purposes. Case study and preliminary experimental results indicate that this is a viable approach to uncontrollable timed...... system testing....

  16. Effect of students’ determination of testing time on their test performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.R.; Deng, D.M.; Wesselink, P.R.; Vervoorn, J.M.


    This article investigates whether giving students control over preparing for and the moment of taking a test affects their test results in comparison with when the school is in control of the amount of training followed by a predetermined test moment. The students participated in training for manual

  17. Reliability of the Timed Up and Go test and Ten-Metre Timed Walk Test in Pregnant Women with Pelvic Girdle Pain. (United States)

    Evensen, Natalie M; Kvåle, Alice; Braekken, Ingeborg H


    There is a lack of functional objective tests available to measure functional status in women with pelvic girdle pain (PGP). The purpose of this study was to establish test-retest and intertester reliability of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Ten-metre Timed Walk Test (10mTWT) in pregnant women with PGP. A convenience sample of women was recruited over a 4-month period and tested on two occasions, 1 week apart to determine test-retest reliability. Intertester reliability was established between two assessors at the first testing session. Subjects were instructed to undertake the TUG and 10mTWT at maximum speed. One practise trial and two timed trials for each walking test was undertaken on Day 1 and one practise trial and one timed trial on Day 2. Seventeen women with PGP aged 31.1 years (SD [standard deviation] = 2.3) and 28.7 weeks pregnant (SD = 7.4) completed gait testing. Test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was excellent for the TUG (0.88) and good for the 10mTWT (0.74). Intertester reliability was determined in the first 13 participants with excellent ICC values being found for both walking tests (TUG: 0.95; 10mTWT: 0.94). This study demonstrated that the TUG and 10mTWT undertaken at fast pace are reliable, objective functional tests in pregnant women with PGP. While both tests are suitable for use in the clinical and research settings, we would recommend the TUG given the findings of higher test-retest reliability and as this test requires less space and time to set up and score. Future studies in a larger sample size are warranted to confirm the results of this study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Reliable real-time applications - and how to use tests to model and understand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Krogsgaard

    Test and analysis of real-time applications, where temporal properties are inspected, analyzed, and verified in a model developed from timed traces originating from measured test result on a running application......Test and analysis of real-time applications, where temporal properties are inspected, analyzed, and verified in a model developed from timed traces originating from measured test result on a running application...

  19. Comparison of 2D and 3D Vision Gaze with Simultaneous Measurements of Accommodation and Convergence


    Hori, Hiroki; Shiomi, Tomoki; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Takada, Hiroki; Omori, Masako; Matsuura, Yasuyuki; Ishio, Hiromu; Miyao, Masaru


    Accommodation and convergence were measured simultaneously while subjects viewed 2D and 3D images. The aim was to compare fixation distances between accommodation and convergence in young subjects while they viewed 2D and 3D images. Measurements were made three times, 40 seconds each, using 2D and 3D images. The result suggests that ocular functions during viewing of 3D images are very similar to those during natural viewing. Previously established and widely used theories, such that within a...

  20. Time reversal invariance - a test in free neutron decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lising, Laura Jean [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Time reversal invariance violation plays only a small role in the Standard Model, and the existence of a T-violating effect above the predicted level would be an indication of new physics. A sensitive probe of this symmetry in the weak interaction is the measurement of the T-violating ''D''-correlation in the decay of free neutrons. The triple-correlation Dσn∙pe x pv involves three kinematic variables, the neutron spin, electron momentu, and neutrino (or proton) momentum, and changes sign under time reversal. This experiment detects the decay products of a polarized cold neutron beam with an octagonal array of scintillation and solid-state detectors. Data from first run at NIST's Cold Neutron Research Facility give a D-coefficient of -0.1 ± 1.3(stat.) ± 0.7(syst) x 10-3 This measurement has the greatest bearing on extensions to the Standard model that incorporate leptoquarks, although exotic fermion and lift-right symmetric models also allow a D as large as the present limit.

  1. Partner Accommodation Moderates Treatment Outcomes for Couple Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (United States)

    Fredman, Steffany J.; Pukay-Martin, Nicole D.; Macdonald, Alexandra; Wagner, Anne C.; Vorstenbosch, Valerie; Monson, Candice M.


    Objective Partner accommodation of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (i.e., altering one’s own behaviors to minimize patient distress and/or relationship conflict due to patients’ PTSD symptoms) has been shown to be positively associated with patient and partner psychopathology and negatively associated with patient and partner relationship satisfaction cross-sectionally. However, the prognostic value of partner accommodation in treatment outcomes is unknown. The goals of the present study were to determine if partner accommodation decreases as a function of couple therapy for PTSD and if pretreatment partner accommodation moderates the efficacy of couple therapy for PTSD. Method Thirty-nine patients with PTSD and their intimate partners (n = 39) were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral conjoint therapy (CBCT) for PTSD (Monson & Fredman, 2012) and received CBCT for PTSD immediately or after three months of waiting. Blinded assessors determined clinician-rated PTSD symptoms and patient-rated PTSD and depressive symptoms and relationship satisfaction at baseline, mid-treatment/4 weeks of waiting, and posttreatment/12 weeks of waiting. Results Contrary to expectation, partner accommodation levels did not change over time for either treatment condition. However, baseline partner accommodation significantly moderated treatment outcomes. Higher levels of partner accommodation were associated with greater improvements in PTSD, depressive symptoms, and relationship satisfaction among patients receiving CBCT for PTSD compared with waiting list. At lower levels of partner accommodation, patients in both groups improved or remained at low levels of these outcomes. Conclusions Individuals with PTSD who have more accommodating partners may be particularly well-suited for couple therapy for PTSD. PMID:26501498

  2. Testing Times for the Implementation of Curriculum Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Smeed


    Full Text Available School curriculum change processes have traditionally been managed internally. However, in Queensland, Australia, as a response to the current high-stakes accountability regime, more and more principals are outsourcing this work to external change agents (ECAs. In 2009, one of the authors (a university lecturer and ECA developed a curriculum change model (the Controlled Rapid Approach to Curriculum Change [CRACC], specifically outlining the involvement of an ECA in the initiation phase of a school’s curriculum change process. The purpose of this article is to extend the CRACC model by unpacking the implementation phase, drawing on data from a pilot study of a single school. Interview responses revealed that during the implementation phase, teachers wanted to be kept informed of the wider educational context, use data to constantly track students, relate pedagogical practices to testing practices, share information between departments and professional levels, and own whole school performance. It is suggested that the findings would be transferable to other school settings and internal leadership of curriculum change. The article also strikes a chord of concern: Do the responses from teachers operating under thecurrent accountability regime live their professional lives within this corporate and globalized ideology whether they want to or not?

  3. Intra-examiner repeatability and agreement in accommodative response measurements. (United States)

    Antona, B; Sanchez, I; Barrio, A; Barra, F; Gonzalez, E


    Clinical measurement of the accommodative response (AR) identifies the focusing plane of a subject with respect to the accommodative target. To establish whether a significant change in AR has occurred, it is important to determine the repeatability of this measurement. This study had two aims: First, to determine the intraexaminer repeatability of AR measurements using four clinical methods: Nott retinoscopy, monocular estimate method (MEM) retinoscopy, binocular crossed cylinder test (BCC) and near autorefractometry. Second, to study the level of agreement between AR measurements obtained with the different methods. The AR of the right eye at one accommodative demand of 2.50 D (40 cm) was measured on two separate occasions in 61 visually normal subjects of mean age 19.7 years (range 18-32 years). The intraexaminer repeatability of the tests, and agreement between them, were estimated by the Bland-Altman method. We determined mean differences (MD) and the 95% limits of agreement [coefficient of repeatability (COR) and coefficient of agreement (COA)]. Nott retinoscopy and BCC offered the best repeatability, showing the lowest MD and narrowest 95% interval of agreement (Nott: -0.10 +/- 0.66 D, BCC: -0.05 +/- 0.75 D). The 95% limits of agreement for the four techniques were similar (COA = +/- 0.92 to +/-1.00 D) yet clinically significant, according to the expected values of the AR. The two dynamic retinoscopy techniques (Nott and MEM) had a better agreement (COA = +/-0.64 D) although this COA must be interpreted in the context of the low MEM repeatability (COR = +/-0.98 D). The best method of assessing AR was Nott retinoscopy. The BCC technique was also repeatable, and both are recommended as suitable methods for clinical use. Despite better agreement between MEM and Nott, agreement among the remaining methods was poor such that their interchangeable use in clinical practice is not recommended.

  4. Employment Accommodations for People with Disabilities: Does Gender Really Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen P Hartnett


    Full Text Available AbstractThe Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA requires employersto provide reasonable accommodations for any qualified individual with adisability. By examining the ongoing evaluation data from the Job AccommodationNetwork (JAN, this study seeks to investigate whether or not genderdifferences are present in the reasonable accommodation process. Open andclosed-ended data are collected using a 20-minute structured telephoneinterview of JAN customers (n= 1,247; 44% response rate. The results show veryfew differences between men’s and women’s accommodation request types, whetheror not accommodations were granted, the costs of requested accommodations, andsatisfaction with JAN. A significant difference, however, was found by genderon the effectiveness of the accommodation.  Key Words: Accommodations, Disabilities, Gender, Employment, Social Work Practice

  5. Utility accommodation and conflict tracker (UACT) installation and configuration manual. (United States)


    Project 0-5475 performed a comprehensive analysis of utility conflict data/information flows between utility : accommodation stakeholders in the Texas Department of Transportation project development process, : developed data models to accommodate wo...


    Neumark, David; Bradley, Cathy J.; Henry, Miguel


    Given the short- and long-term disabilities associated with breast cancer and its treatment, the authors investigate the influence of workplace accommodations on the employment and hours worked of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer. Accommodations that allow women to work fewer hours or that ease the burden of work could also generate health benefits by reducing workplace demands and allowing women more time to tend to treatment needs and recovery. In prior research, the authors found modest labor supply impacts on employment for this group of women. Evidence from this study suggests that some accommodations are associated with fewer hours worked, while some are associated with higher employment or hours. In addition, some of the accommodations that may affect hours of work—sometimes positively and sometimes negatively—are associated with positive health benefits. PMID:26778848


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Cristina Martin


    Full Text Available The indicators of demand distribution for various types of accommodation provide information regarding changing tourist preferences for different ways of tourist accommodation. Appreciation of economic efficiency for hotels activity is done through quantitative results obtained in accommodation units. For this purpose it uses, currently, a partial or synthetic indicators system. Taking into account the fact that, in appreciation of hotel business, it must start from the premise that it may not be fully reflected only in terms of economic results, but also through social results, appear obvious the need to maintain costs at a level that satisfies both requirements at the same time. Achieving superior social-financial indicators, remains one of the main goals also in hotel activities, but do not be overlooked the fact that it is necessary that these indicators must be obtained by ensuring a higher level of satisfaction of consumers requirements. Only simultaneous achievement of these two objectives can provide raising efficiency in accommodation sector.

  8. Reminder : Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees

    CERN Multimedia


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel : 72862 / 74474

  9. Reimbursement of education fees / accommodation fees

    CERN Multimedia


    Your attention is drawn to the 20 km distance limit set in Article R A 8.01 of the Staff Regulations, namely, that only accommodation fees of students attending an educational establishment which is more than 20 km from the place of residence and the duty station of the member of the personnel are reimbursed by the Organization, subject to the percentage rate and maximum amounts set out in this article and in Administrative Circular N° 12. Human Resources Division Tel: 72862 / 74474

  10. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations. (United States)


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that provides...

  11. A study of statistical tests for near-real-time materials accountancy using field test data of Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Nishimura, Hideo; Ikawa, Koji; Miura, Nobuyuki; Iwanaga, Masayuki; Kusano, Toshitsugu.


    An Near-Real-Time Materials Accountancy(NRTA) system had been developed as an advanced safeguards measure for PNC Tokai Reprocessing Plant; a minicomputer system for NRTA data processing was designed and constructed. A full scale field test was carried out as a JASPAS(Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards) project with the Agency's participation and the NRTA data processing system was used. Using this field test data, investigation of the detection power of a statistical test under real circumstances was carried out for five statistical tests, i.e., a significance test of MUF, CUMUF test, average loss test, MUF residual test and Page's test on MUF residuals. The result shows that the CUMUF test, average loss test, MUF residual test and the Page's test on MUF residual test are useful to detect a significant loss or diversion. An unmeasured inventory estimation model for the PNC reprocessing plant was developed in this study. Using this model, the field test data from the C-1 to 85 - 2 campaigns were re-analyzed. (author)

  12. Differences of accommodative responses between two eyes under binocular viewing condition mediated by polarizing glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Qing Wang


    Full Text Available AIM:To study the differences of accommodative responses between the two eyes under 3 different polarized viewing conditions. METHODS:Fifteen volunteers with emmetrope were recruited into this study(aged 18~38, 6 males and 9 females. Three different viewing conditions were set up by using polarizing glasses and liquid crystal display:(1right eye could see the visual target on the screen, but left eye cannot see it;(2left eye could see the visual target on the screen, but right eye cannot see it;(3both eyes could see the target. Accommodative responses were measured by infrared auto-refractor when fixating at the target at 5, 2, 1, 0.5 and 0.33m under the above 3 viewing conditions. The differences of accommodative responses under different viewing conditions were compared by using variance analysis of repeated measuring and t test. RESULTS:Significant differences of accommodative responses between the two eyes were found under condition(1and(2at all the fixating distance. The accommodative responses in used eyes which can see the visual target were higher than in non-used eyes which cannot see the visual target(PP>0.05. CONCLUSION:Ciliary muscles in the used eyes were more relatively tonic than non-used eyes under binocular open viewing condition. The imbalance of accommodative responses between two eyes may be one of the risk factors resulting into the occurrence of myopia.

  13. Dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy, a novel technique to assess accommodation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari


    Full Text Available Aim: To describe and compare dynamic distance direct ophthalmoscopy (DDDO with dynamic retinoscopy (DR in assessment of accommodation in children. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study had four components. Component 1: to understand the characteristic digital images of DDDO. Component 2: to compare DDDO with DR for detection of accommodative defects in children (1-16 years. Component 3: to compare DDDO with DR for the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia in children (5-16 years and Component 4: to assess which one of the two techniques was more sensitive to detect onset of cycloplegia after instillation of 1% cyclopentolate eye drops. Results: Component 1: image analysis of DDDO on two subjects (7 years and 35 years demonstrated superior pupillary crescent that progressively disappeared with increasing accommodation. Concurrently an inferior crescent appeared that became bigger in size with increasing accommodation. Component 2: the prevalence of defects in accommodation was 3.3% (33/1000 children. Three had unilateral accommodation failure. Sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 99%, and clinical agreement (kappa 0.97. Component 3: in the detection of completeness of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia (n=30, the sensitivity of DDDO was 94%, specificity 96%, positive predictive value 97%, negative predictive value 93% and kappa 0.9. DR had two false positives. DDDO had one false negative. Component 4: DDDO detected onset of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia 5 min earlier than DR (n=5. Conclusion: DDDO is a novel, simple, clinical and reliable method to assess accommodation in young children. This test can assess the accommodative response of both eyes simultaneously.

  14. Does postprandial itopride intake affect the rate of gastric emptying? A crossover study using the continuous real time 13C breath test (BreathID system). (United States)

    Nonaka, Takashi; Kessoku, Takaomi; Ogawa, Yuji; Yanagisawa, Shogo; Shiba, Tadahiko; Sahaguchi, Takashi; Atsukawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hisao; Sekino, Yusuke; Iida, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Yasunari; Koide, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Tokoro, Chikako; Abe, Yasunobu; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi; Inamori, Masahiko


    The aim of this study was to determine whether oral Itopride hydrochloride (itopride) intake might have any effect on the rate of gastric emptying, using a novel non-invasive technique for measuring the rate of gastric emptying, namely, the continuous real time 13C breath test (BreathID system: Exalenz Bioscience Ltd., Israel). Eight healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. The subjects fasted overnight and were randomly assigned to receive 50mg itopride following a test meal (200 kcal per 200mL, containing 100mg 13C acetate), or the test meal alone. Under both conditions, gastric emptying was monitored for 4 hours after administration of the test meal by the 13C-acetic acid breath test performed continually using the BreathID system. Using Oridion Research Software (beta version), the time required for emptying of 50% of the labeled meal (T 1/2), the analog to the scintigraphy lag time for 10% emptying of the labeled meal (T lag), the gastric emptying coefficient (GEC), and the regression-estimated constants (beta and kappa) were calculated. The parameters measured under the two conditions were compared using the Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. No significant differences in the calculated parameters, namely, the T 1/2, T lag, GEC, beta or kappa, were observed between the two test conditions, namely, administration of a test meal+itopride and administration of the test meal alone. The present study revealed that postprandial itopride intake had no significant influence on the rate of gastric emptying. Recently, several studies have shown that itopride may be effective in the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia. Our results suggest that the efficacy of itopride in patients with functional dyspepsia may be based on its effect of improving functions other than the rate of gastric emptying, such as the activities at neuronal sites, brain-gut correlation, visceral hypersensitivity, gastric accommodation and distension

  15. The Timed 180° Turn Test for Assessing People with Hemiplegia from Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regan L. Robinson


    Full Text Available Background. Turning is ubiquitous in activities of daily living. For people with hemiplegia, persistent impairments in strength, balance, and coordination will affect their ability to turn safely. Consequently, turning retraining should be addressed in rehabilitation programs. To measure turning for these individuals, a reliable clinical tool is required. Objective. To investigate (i the intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability of the timed 180° turn test; (ii the correlation of the timed 180° turn test with other measures of stroke-specific impairments; and (iii the cut-off time that best discriminates individuals with hemiplegia from chronic stroke and healthy older adults. Methods. 33 individuals with hemiplegia due to chronic stroke and 32 healthy elderly individuals participated in this cross-sectional study. The timed 180° turn test was administered along with other measures of stroke-specific impairment. Results. The timed 180° turn test demonstrated excellent intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability in individuals with hemiplegia from chronic stroke. The timed 180° turn test (times significantly correlated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of the Lower Extremities (FMA-LE, affected ankle plantar flexion strength, the 5-Times-Sit-To-Stand test, the Berg Balance Scale (BBS, and the Timed Up and Go (TUG test. Conclusion. The timed 180° turn test is a reliable clinical tool to assess the turning ability of subjects with hemiplegia from chronic stroke.

  16. Memory for emotional events: The role of time of testing and type of test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Goergen Brust


    Full Text Available The impact of emotion on memory performance is widely debated in the scientific literature. In the present paper, the relation between emotion and memory was addressed in three experiments using the Slideshow Procedure. In the first experiment, 128 participants’ memory was tested for one of two versions of the Procedure (arousal or neutral through free recall. In the second experiment, 75 participants were asked to recall the information of the arousal version immediately after or one week after watching it. In the third experiment, 75 participants watched the arousal version and answered either a free recall or a recognition test one week after. The results suggested that memory for arousal events is better when tested immediately after the stimuli using free recall.

  17. Phacoemulsification and implantation of an accommodating IOL after PRK. (United States)

    Aslanides, loannis M; Plainis, Sotiris; Kumar, Vinod; Ginis, Harilaos


    To present a case of phacoemulsification and implantation of an accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) in a patient with cataract formation after previous refractive surgery. A 50-year-old man, who initially had photorefractive keratectomy to correct moderate myopia, developed a cataract in one eye. He subsequently underwent phacoemulsification and implantation of a 1CU accommodating IOL, as he wished to remain spectacle independent. The patient's distance vision was fully restored. However, accommodative function, which was assessed using subjective and novice objective techniques, was only partially restored. Although the accommodating IOL fully restored the patient's distance vision, accommodative function was only partially restored.

  18. An Analysis of Variance Approach for the Estimation of Response Time Distributions in Tests (United States)

    Attali, Yigal


    Generalizability theory and analysis of variance methods are employed, together with the concept of objective time pressure, to estimate response time distributions and the degree of time pressure in timed tests. By estimating response time variance components due to person, item, and their interaction, and fixed effects due to item types and…

  19. Concerning tests of time-reversal invariance via the polarization-analyzing power equality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzett, H.E.


    Previous tests of time-reversal invariance via comparisons of polarizations and analyzing powers in nuclear scattering have been examined. It is found that all of these comparisons fail as adequate tests of time-reversal invariance either because of a lack of experimental precision or the lack of sensitivity to any time-reversal symmetry violation

  20. Normative data for near point of convergence, accommodation, and phoria (United States)

    Abraham, Neethu G.; Srinivasan, Krithica; Thomas, Jyothi


    Background: Measurement of for near point of convergence (NPC), amplitude of accommodation (AA) and phoria are important components of diagnosing nonstrabismic binocular vision anomalies. There is a huge variation in the normative data established for orthoptic parameters because of the variation in measurement technique. There are only limited studies for normative data based on nonclinical population in Indian population. Therefore, we aim estimate the normative values for NPC, AA, and phoria measurement in Indian population using techniques, which has good repeatability and reliability. Materials and Methods: Subjects between the age group 10-35 years participated in this prospective cross-sectional study. A self-administered symptom questionnaire was used to exclude patients with asthenopic symptoms. Clinical techniques which have good repeatability and reliability were used. NPC was measured using pen light red, green glass test. AA was measured using minus lens technique. Horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near was measured using modified Thorington method. Results: One hundred and fifty subjects participated in the study. We found that NPC receded with age, which could because of the increase in horizontal phoria at near with age. The mean normative value for objective NPC, break and recovery of subjective NPC, monocular and binocular AA, horizontal and vertical phoria at distance and near for the three age groups are reported in the study. Conclusion: The data presented in this study can be used as a cut-off by eye care practitioners while diagnosing convergence, accommodation related anomalies in Indian population. PMID:25709268

  1. Ground testing and simulation. II - Aerodynamic testing and simulation: Saving lives, time, and money (United States)

    Dayman, B., Jr.; Fiore, A. W.


    The present work discusses in general terms the various kinds of ground facilities, in particular, wind tunnels, which support aerodynamic testing. Since not all flight parameters can be simulated simultaneously, an important problem consists in matching parameters. It is pointed out that there is a lack of wind tunnels for a complete Reynolds-number simulation. Using a computer to simulate flow fields can result in considerable reduction of wind-tunnel hours required to develop a given flight vehicle.

  2. Reliability of fitness tests using methods and time periods common in sport and occupational management. (United States)

    Burnstein, Bryan D; Steele, Russell J; Shrier, Ian


    Fitness testing is used frequently in many areas of physical activity, but the reliability of these measurements under real-world, practical conditions is unknown. To evaluate the reliability of specific fitness tests using the methods and time periods used in the context of real-world sport and occupational management. Cohort study. Eighteen different Cirque du Soleil shows. Cirque du Soleil physical performers who completed 4 consecutive tests (6-month intervals) and were free of injury or illness at each session (n = 238 of 701 physical performers). Performers completed 6 fitness tests on each assessment date: dynamic balance, Harvard step test, handgrip, vertical jump, pull-ups, and 60-second jump test. We calculated the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement between baseline and each time point and the ICC over all 4 time points combined. Reliability was acceptable (ICC > 0.6) over an 18-month time period for all pairwise comparisons and all time points together for the handgrip, vertical jump, and pull-up assessments. The Harvard step test and 60-second jump test had poor reliability (ICC < 0.6) between baseline and other time points. When we excluded the baseline data and calculated the ICC for 6-month, 12-month, and 18-month time points, both the Harvard step test and 60-second jump test demonstrated acceptable reliability. Dynamic balance was unreliable in all contexts. Limit-of-agreement analysis demonstrated considerable intraindividual variability for some tests and a learning effect by administrators on others. Five of the 6 tests in this battery had acceptable reliability over an 18-month time frame, but the values for certain individuals may vary considerably from time to time for some tests. Specific tests may require a learning period for administrators.

  3. To test, or not to test: time for a MODY calculator? (United States)

    Njølstad, P R; Molven, A


    To test, or not to test, that is often the question in diabetes genetics. This is why the paper of Shields et al in the current issue of Diabetologia is so warmly welcomed. MODY is the most common form of monogenic diabetes. Nevertheless, the optimal way of identifying MODY families still poses a challenge both for researchers and clinicians. Hattersley's group in Exeter, UK, have developed an easy-to-use MODY prediction model that can help to identify cases appropriate for genetic testing. By answering eight simple questions on the internet ( ), the doctor receives a positive predictive value in return: the probability that the patient has MODY. Thus, the classical binary (yes/no) assessment provided by clinical diagnostic criteria has been substituted by a more rational, quantitative estimate. The model appears to discriminate well between MODY and type 1 and type 2 diabetes when diabetes is diagnosed before the age of 35 years. However, the performance of the MODY probability calculator should now be validated in other settings than where it was developed-and, as always, there is room for some improvements and modifications.

  4. Testing for Change in Mean of Independent Multivariate Observations with Time Varying Covariance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Boutahar


    Full Text Available We consider a nonparametric CUSUM test for change in the mean of multivariate time series with time varying covariance. We prove that under the null, the test statistic has a Kolmogorov limiting distribution. The asymptotic consistency of the test against a large class of alternatives which contains abrupt, smooth and continuous changes is established. We also perform a simulation study to analyze the size distortion and the power of the proposed test.

  5. The interactive processes of accommodation and vergence. (United States)

    Semmlow, J L; Bérard, P V; Vercher, J L; Putteman, A; Gauthier, G M


    A near target generates two different, though related stimuli: image disparity and image blur. Fixation of that near target evokes three motor responses: the so-called oculomotor "near triad". It has long been known that both disparity and blur stimuli are each capable of independently generating all three responses, and a recent theory of near triad control (the Dual Interactive Theory) describes how these stimulus components normally work together in the aid of near vision. However, this theory also indicates that when the system becomes unbalanced, as in high AC/A ratios of some accommodative esotropes, the two components will become antagonistic. In this situation, the interaction between the blur and disparity driven components exaggerates the imbalance created in the vergence motor output. Conversely, there is enhanced restoration when the AC/A ratio is effectively reduced surgically.

  6. Accommodating life sciences on the Space Station (United States)

    Arno, Roger D.


    The NASA Ames Research Center Biological Research Project (BRP) is responsible for identifying and accommodating high priority life science activities, utilizing nonhuman specimens, on the Space Station and is charged to bridge the gap between the science community and the Space Station Program. This paper discusses the approaches taken by the BRP in accomodating these research objectives to constraints imposed by the Space Station System, while maintaining a user-friendly environment. Consideration is given to the particular research disciplines which are given priority, the science objectives in each of these disciplines, the functions and activities required by these objectives, the research equipment, and the equipment suits. Life sciences programs planned by the Space Station participating partners (USA, Europe, Japan, and Canada) are compared.

  7. Lactation accommodation in the workplace and duration of exclusive breastfeeding. (United States)

    Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M


    The purpose of this study was to assess current lactation accommodations in a workplace environment and to examine the association between the different dimensions of support and the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. A survey was conducted with employees of a higher-education institution and clients of an obstetric hospital in New Jersey. Factor analysis identified dimensions of workplace support. The dimensions were correlated with the duration of exclusive breastfeeding using Pearson's r correlation analysis. One hundred and thirteen working mothers participated in the study. The mean (SD) number of working hours of the participants was 34.3 (2.8) hours per week. Participants were primarily white (89.4%), older (mean age, 33.8 [6.0] years), highly educated (>82% above college graduate), and married (92%). Participants indicated that in their workplaces, breastfeeding was not common, breast pumps were not available, and on-site day care was not always an option. The analysis identified 4 dimensions of breastfeeding accommodation: break time, workplace environment, technical support, and workplace policy. Technical support (r = 0.71, P = .01) and workplace environment (r = 0.26, P = .01) were significantly associated with the duration of exclusive breastfeeding. Employers can strengthen technical support and workplace environment to encourage breastfeeding continuation in working mothers. New federal laws should consider specific guidelines for minimum requirements for functional lactation support to achieve comprehensive breastfeeding benefits. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  8. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds (United States)

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.


    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity, open up an alternate channel of communication, namely oral discussion. By doing so, teachers grant students access to a simplified linguistic input, a strategy designed to promote student comprehension of the textual contents of children's science books. It was found that nearly half (46%) of the read-aloud time was allotted to discussions with an increased percentage of less sophisticated words and reduced use of more sophisticated vocabulary than found in the books through communicative strategies such as simplified rewording, simplified definition, and simplified questioning. Further, aloud reading of more linguistically complex books required longer periods of discussion and an increased degree of teacher oral input and accommodation. We also found evidence of reversed simplification (i.e. sophistication), leading to student uptake of scientific language. The main significance of this study is that it reveals that teacher talk serves two often competing pedagogical functions (accessible communication of scientific information to students and promotion of student acquisition of the specialized language of science). It also underscores the importance of giving analytical consideration to the simplification-sophistication dimension of science classroom discourse as well as the potential of computer-based analysis of classroom discourse to inform science teaching.

  9. Automated real-time testing (ARTT) for embedded control systems (ECS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, J; Howard, R; Nguyen, H.


    Many of today's automated real-time testing systems for embedded systems were developed using expensive custom hardware and software. In this article they describe how to use commercially available off-the-shelf hardware and software to design and develop an automated real-time test systems for Embedded Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) Based Control Systems. The system development began with the implementation of the VALI/TEST Pro testing methodology as a means for structuring the testing. Using this methodology, they were able to decompose system requirement documents for a Personnel Safety System (PSS) into its high, intermediate and detail level requirements. next, the validation procedures for the PSS system were decomposed into testing units called builds, test runs and test cases. To measure the PSS system's test coverage three levels of system requirements were mapped to their respective unit level of test using a specially constructed validation matrix that was designed to handle over 150 test cases and requirements. All of the above work led to the development of an Automated Real-Time Test System (ARTTS) that is capable of performing complete black box testing in real-time for Embedded PLC Based Control Systems. Also note, that the PSS system under test and mentioned in this paper is located at the Advance Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory Basic Energy Science Facility in Argonne, Illinois

  10. Workplace accommodations for people with mental illness: a scoping review. (United States)

    McDowell, Caitlin; Fossey, Ellie


    Disability discrimination legislation means that employees with a disability or mental illness are legally entitled to reasonable workplace accommodations that enable them to work effectively and safely. This scoping review aims to investigate the types of workplace accommodations provided for people with mental illness, and their costs and benefits. A literature search was conducted using five electronic databases. Peer reviewed research articles published between 1993 and June 2013 were included in this scoping review and their quality was assessed. Opinion papers, reports, and case descriptions were excluded. Nine studies explored workplace accommodations for people with mental illness. The most commonly reported work-related accommodations were flexible scheduling/reduced hours, modified training and supervision, and modified job duties/descriptions. The least common type of accommodation was physical modification to the workplace. For employees with persistent mental illness who were accessing a supported employment agency, the majority of accommodations related to support from the job coach or employment specialist, such as facilitating communication with the employer during hiring or on the job. The quality of the studies varied considerably and the benefits of the accommodations are not yet well documented. There is limited evidence that a larger number of workplace accommodations are associated with longer job tenure. Workplace accommodations appear to be important to support employees with mental illness, but more accessible information about how disability discrimination legislation applies to this population is needed. Future research should address the implementation and effectiveness of mental health-related workplace accommodations.

  11. Identification of the Quality Spot Welding used Non Destructive Test-Ultrasonic Testing: (Effect of Welding Time) (United States)

    Sifa, A.; Endramawan, T.; Badruzzaman


    Resistance Spot Welding (RSW) is frequently used as one way of welding is used in the manufacturing process, especially in the automotive industry [4][5][6][7]. Several parameters influence the process of welding points. To determine the quality of a welding job needs to be tested, either by damaging or testing without damage, in this study conducted experimental testing the quality of welding or identify quality of the nugget by using Non-Destructive Test (NDT) -Ultrasonic Testing (UT), in which the identification of the quality of the welding is done with parameter thickness of worksheet after welding using NDT-UT with use same material worksheet and have more thickness of worksheet, the thickness of the worksheet single plate 1mm, with the capability of propagation Ultrasonic Testing (UT) standard limited> 3 mm [1], welding process parameters such as the time difference between 1-10s and the welding current of 8 KV, visually Heat Affected Zone ( HAZ ) have different results due to the length of time of welding. UT uses a probe that is used with a frequency of 4 MHz, diameter 10 mm, range 100 and the couplant used is oil. Identification techniques using drop 6dB, with sound velocity 2267 m / s of Fe, with the result that the effect of the Welding time affect the size of the HAZ, identification with the lowest time 1s show results capable identified joined through NDT - UT.

  12. The effect of longitudinal chromatic aberration on the lag of accommodation and depth of field. (United States)

    Jaskulski, Mateusz; Marín-Franch, Iván; Bernal-Molina, Paula; López-Gil, Norberto


    Longitudinal chromatic aberration is present in all states of accommodation and may play a role in the accommodation response and the emmetropisation process. We study the change of the depth of field (DOFi) with the state of accommodation, taking into account the longitudinal chromatic aberration. Subjective DOFi was defined as the range of defocus beyond which the blur of the target (one line of optotypes of 0.1 logMAR shown on a black-and-white microdisplay, seen through different colour filters) was perceived as objectionable. The subject's eye was paralysed and different, previously-measured accommodative states (corresponding to the accommodative demands of 0D, 2D and 4D) were simulated with a deformable mirror. Different colour conditions (monochromatic red, green and blue and polychromatic (white) were tested. The DOFi was measured subjectively, using a motorised Badal system. Taking as reference the average accommodative response for the white stimulus, the blue response exhibits on average a lead of 0.45 ± 0.09D, the green a negligible lead of 0.07 ± 0.02D and red a lag of 0.49 ± 0.10D. The monochromatic DOFi, calculated by averaging DOFi over the red, green and blue colour conditions for each accommodative demand was 1.10 ± 0.10D for 0D, 1.20 ± 0.08D for 2D, and 1.26 ± 0.40D for 4D. The polychromatic white DOFi were greater than the average monochromatic DOFi by 19%, 9% and 14% for 0D, 2D, and 4D of accommodative demand, respectively. The longitudinal chromatic aberration causes a dioptric shift of the monochromatic accommodation response. The study did not reveal this shift to depend on the accommodative demand or to have an effect on the DOFi. © 2016 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2016 The College of Optometrists.

  13. Rotating Arc Jet Test Model: Time-Accurate Trajectory Heat Flux Replication in a Ground Test Environment (United States)

    Laub, Bernard; Grinstead, Jay; Dyakonov, Artem; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj


    Though arc jet testing has been the proven method employed for development testing and certification of TPS and TPS instrumentation, the operational aspects of arc jets limit testing to selected, but constant, conditions. Flight, on the other hand, produces timevarying entry conditions in which the heat flux increases, peaks, and recedes as a vehicle descends through an atmosphere. As a result, we are unable to "test as we fly." Attempts to replicate the time-dependent aerothermal environment of atmospheric entry by varying the arc jet facility operating conditions during a test have proven to be difficult, expensive, and only partially successful. A promising alternative is to rotate the test model exposed to a constant-condition arc jet flow to yield a time-varying test condition at a point on a test article (Fig. 1). The model shape and rotation rate can be engineered so that the heat flux at a point on the model replicates the predicted profile for a particular point on a flight vehicle. This simple concept will enable, for example, calibration of the TPS sensors on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) aeroshell for anticipated flight environments.

  14. The Cherenkov correlated timing detector: beam test results from quartz and acrylic bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichimi, H.; Sugaya, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kanda, S.; Olsen, S.; Ueno, K.; Varner, G.; Bergfeld, T.; Bialek, J.; Lorenc, J.; Palmer, M.; Rudnick, G.; Selen, M.; Auran, T.; Boyer, V.; Honscheid, K.; Tamura, N.; Yoshimura, K.; Lu, C.; Marlow, D.; Mindas, C.; Prebys, E.; Asai, M.; Kimura, A.; Hayashi, S.


    Several prototypes of a Cherenkov correlated timing (CCT) detector have been tested at the KEK-PS test beam line. We describe the results for Cherenkov light yields and timing characteristics from quartz and acrylic bar prototypes. A Cherenkov angle resolution is found to be 15 mrad at a propagation distance of 100 cm with a 2 cm thick quartz bar prototype. (orig.)

  15. Real-Time Target Motion Animation for Missile Warning System Testing (United States)


    T. Perkins, R. Sundberg, J. Cordell, Z. Tun , and M. Owen, Real-time Target Motion Animation for Missile Warning System Testing, Proc. SPIE Vol 6208...Z39-18 Real-time target motion animation for missile warning system testing Timothy Perkins*a, Robert Sundberga, John Cordellb, Zaw Tunb, Mark

  16. Automation for Accommodating Fuel-Efficient Descents in Constrained Airspace (United States)

    Coopenbarger, Richard A.


    Continuous descents at low engine power are desired to reduce fuel consumption, emissions and noise during arrival operations. The challenge is to allow airplanes to fly these types of efficient descents without interruption during busy traffic conditions. During busy conditions today, airplanes are commonly forced to fly inefficient, step-down descents as airtraffic controllers work to ensure separation and maximize throughput. NASA in collaboration with government and industry partners is developing new automation to help controllers accommodate continuous descents in the presence of complex traffic and airspace constraints. This automation relies on accurate trajectory predictions to compute strategic maneuver advisories. The talk will describe the concept behind this new automation and provide an overview of the simulations and flight testing used to develop and refine its underlying technology.

  17. The timed "up and go" test : Reliability and validity in persons with unilateral lower limb amputation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoppen, Tanneke; Boonstra, Antje; Groothoff, JW; de Vries, J; Goeken, LNH; Eisma, Willem

    Objective: To determine the interrater and interrater reliability and the validity of the Timed "up and go" test as a measure for physical mobility in elderly patients with an amputation of the lower extremity. Design: To test interrater reliability, the test was performed for two observers at

  18. Comparison of Physical Therapy Anatomy Performance and Anxiety Scores in Timed and Untimed Practical Tests (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah M.; Evans, Cathy; Agur, Anne M.R.


    Students in health care professional programs face many stressful tests that determine successful completion of their program. Test anxiety during these high stakes examinations can affect working memory and lead to poor outcomes. Methods of decreasing test anxiety include lengthening the time available to complete examinations or evaluating…

  19. Irritancy ranking of anionic detergents using one-time occlusive, repeated occlusive and repeated open tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; Bunte, EE; Fidler, [No Value; Wiechers, JW; Coenraads, PJ

    Discrepancies between the one-time patch test and the wash test regarding the ranking of irritancy of detergents have been found in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the concordance of irritancy rank order of 4 anionic detergents tested by 3 different exposure methods,

  20. Disclosure of disease status among employed multiple sclerosis patients: association with negative work events and accommodations. (United States)

    Frndak, Seth E; Kordovski, Victoria M; Cookfair, Diane; Rodgers, Jonathan D; Weinstock-Guttman, Bianca; Benedict, Ralph H B


    Unemployment is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and detrimental to quality of life. Studies suggest disclosure of diagnosis is an adaptive strategy for patients. However, the role of cognitive deficits and psychiatric symptoms in disclosure are not well studied. The goals of this paper were to (a) determine clinical factors most predictive of disclosure, and (b) measure the effects of disclosure on workplace problems and accommodations in employed patients. We studied two overlapping cohorts: a cross-sectional sample (n = 143) to determine outcomes associated with disclosure, and a longitudinal sample (n = 103) compared at four time points over one year on reported problems and accommodations. A case study of six patients, disclosing during monitoring, was also included. Disclosure was associated with greater physical disability but not cognitive impairment. Logistic regression predicting disclosure status retained physical disability, accommodations and years of employment (p work problems and accommodations over time. The case study revealed that reasons for disclosing are multifaceted, including connection to employer, decreased mobility and problems at work. Although cognitive impairment is linked to unemployment, it does not appear to inform disclosure decisions. Early disclosure may help maintain employment if followed by appropriate accommodations. © The Author(s), 2014.

  1. Marketing of Accommodation services : Case-Hotel Azam Cameroon


    Youkam, Germaine


    Cameroon is Africa in miniature with a lot of tourist attractions owing to its geological and cultural diversity. Natural features include beaches, deserts, mountains, rainforests, and savannas. Accommodation services have been a grand phenomenon within the tourism industry in Cameroon. The accommodation sector has developed tremendously within the past decades. The objective of this research work was to find about out the marketing of accommodation services in Cameroon with Hotel Azam as...



    Sjekavica, Tomo; Žitnik, Marjan; Miličević, Mario


    Extreme expansion of digital technologies and social networks in recent years has had a huge impact on the travel market and online tourism. Along with the digitalization of tourism and travel business, every day more and more accommodation bookings take place online. Most popular online travel web sites are commonly charging provision for the accommodation booking and don't allow direct contact with the accommodation owners. Today tourists demand more for their money, so they are more likely...

  3. Location as a determinant of accommodation prices: managerial approach


    Napierała, Tomasz; Leśniewska, Katarzyna


    In the presentation authors discuss the location-based factors’ impact on accommodation prices. The aim of the presentation is to compare the results of qualitative and quantitative research on location-based determinants of accommodation prices in Lodz Metropolitan Area (Poland). The authors employ methodological triangulation (Yeung 2000), both to explore statistical significance of location-based determinants of accommodation prices, and to present managerial opinions about the influence o...

  4. Five different tests of reaction time evaluated in HIV seropositive men. (United States)

    Dunlop, O; Bjørklund, R A; Abdelnoor, M; Myrvang, B


    In an attempt to develop a short neuropsychological test battery five different tests of reaction time were assessed according to their ability to discriminate between HIV seropositive men and healthy controls. In all tests a patient group with clinical symptoms was slower than the control group. In the complex reaction time test, which has a large cognitive aspect, even a clinically "asymptomatic" group was slower than the control group. The movement test, a new test with a large motor component, identified most slow responders, defining approximately half of the patients with clinical symptoms and one third of the "asymptomatic" patients as such. A test battery consisting of three tests is suggested for serial assessment and screening.

  5. Study on scan timing using a test injection method in head CTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekito, Yuichi; Sanada, Hidenori


    In head computed tomographic angiography (CTA), circulation from arterial phase to venous phase is more rapid than that in other regions. Therefore, it is necessary to determine correct scan timing to obtain ideal CTA images. A test injection method makes it possible to set correct scan timing from the time density curve (TDC) for each subject. The method, however, has a weak point that is a time lag in an arrival time at peak point of contrast medium on TDC between the test injection and the primary examination because of the difference in total volume of contrast medium used. The purpose of this study calculated the delay time on the TDC in both scans. We used the test injection method and the bolus tracking method in the primary examination. The average errors in start time (Δt1) and slope change time (Δt2) of the contrast medium on the TDC between test injection and primary examination were 0.15 sec and 3.05 sec, respectively. The results indicated that it was important to grasp the delay time in start time and peak arrival time of the contrast medium between test injection and primary examination to obtain ideal images in head CTA. (author)

  6. Response Time Analysis and Test of Protection System Instrument Channels for APR1400 and OPR1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Jae; Han, Seung; Yun, Jae Hee; Baek, Seung Min; Lee, Sang Jeong


    Safety limits are required to maintain the integrity of physical barriers designed to prevent the uncontrolled release of radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. The safety analysis establishes two critical constraints that include an analytical limit in terms of a measured or calculated variable, and a specific time after the analytical limit is reached to begin protective action. Keeping with the nuclear regulations and industry standards, satisfying these two requirements will ensure that the safety limit will not be exceeded during the design basis event, either an anticipated operational occurrence or a postulated accident. Various studies on the setpoint determination methodology for the safety-related instrumentation have been actively performed to ensure that the requirement of the analytical limit is satisfied. In particular, the protection setpoint methodology for the advanced power reactor 1400 (APP1400) and the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) has been recently developed to cover both the design basis event and the beyond design basis event. The developed setpoint methodology has also been quantitatively validated using specific computer programs and setpoint calculations. However, the safety of nuclear power plants cannot be fully guaranteed by satisfying the requirement of the analytical limit. In spite of the response time verification requirements of nuclear regulations and industry standards, it is hard to find the studies on the systematically integrated methodology regarding the response time evaluation. In cases of APR1400 and OPR1000, the response time analysis for the plant protection system is partially included in the setpoint calculation and the response time test is separately performed via the specific plant procedure. The test technique has a drawback which is the difficulty to demonstrate completeness of timing test. The analysis technique has also a demerit of resulting in extreme times that not actually possible. Thus

  7. Response Time Analysis and Test of Protection System Instrument Channels for APR1400 and OPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Jae; Han, Seung; Yun, Jae Hee; Baek, Seung Min [Department of Instrumentation and Control System Engineering, KEPCO Engineering and Construction, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Jeong [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Safety limits are required to maintain the integrity of physical barriers designed to prevent the uncontrolled release of radioactive materials in nuclear power plants. The safety analysis establishes two critical constraints that include an analytical limit in terms of a measured or calculated variable, and a specific time after the analytical limit is reached to begin protective action. Keeping with the nuclear regulations and industry standards, satisfying these two requirements will ensure that the safety limit will not be exceeded during the design basis event, either an anticipated operational occurrence or a postulated accident. Various studies on the setpoint determination methodology for the safety-related instrumentation have been actively performed to ensure that the requirement of the analytical limit is satisfied. In particular, the protection setpoint methodology for the advanced power reactor 1400 (APP1400) and the optimized power reactor 1000 (OPR1000) has been recently developed to cover both the design basis event and the beyond design basis event. The developed setpoint methodology has also been quantitatively validated using specific computer programs and setpoint calculations. However, the safety of nuclear power plants cannot be fully guaranteed by satisfying the requirement of the analytical limit. In spite of the response time verification requirements of nuclear regulations and industry standards, it is hard to find the studies on the systematically integrated methodology regarding the response time evaluation. In cases of APR1400 and OPR1000, the response time analysis for the plant protection system is partially included in the setpoint calculation and the response time test is separately performed via the specific plant procedure. The test technique has a drawback which is the difficulty to demonstrate completeness of timing test. The analysis technique has also a demerit of resulting in extreme times that not actually possible. Thus

  8. The GEMUF test and issues to the near-real-time-accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, R.


    This paper presents a new sequential test procedure, called GEMUF test, to detect a loss of material in a sequence of accounting periods. The GEMUF test is based on the theoretically best possible, but in practice inapplicable, Neyman-Pearson tests. The idea of the GEMUF test is to estimate the unknown loss pattern by a weighted sum of MUF values. The numerical results are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations for a reference reprocessing facility with a throughput of 1000 t of heavy metal per year. They demonstrate in comparison with other sequential test procedures that this new test gives results for all considered loss patterns that are very close to the best possible results of the Neyman-Pearson tests, i.e. the GEMUF test is 'robust' to various loss patterns. The investigations show also that the GEMUF test is very 'sensitive' by virtue of its short detection time. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Managing Guest as an Asset: a Conceptual Review in the Context of Accommodation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Suhartanto


    Full Text Available This article discusses the concept of a customer as an asset of business in the accommodation industry. The purpose of this article is to examine the value of guests as a firm asset and to propose a model for managing guests as an asset in the context of accommodation services. A guest is considered an asset due to its role in providing revenue to the accommodation firm. Because of this role, the accommodation guest needs to be managed appropriately. This article argues that guest service evaluation (i.e. service quality, perceived value, and guest satisfaction and service loyalty are important factors in the development of guest lifetime value. The proposed model of managing guests as an asset consists of marketing instruments, service evaluation, guest loyalty, and financial outcomes provides a comprehensive guide on how accommodation firms can manage the lifetime value of their guests. Finally, as there are limited studies examining this issue, future research should test the proposed model.

  10. Perception of service quality in agrotourism accommodations: Impact on guest loyalty and re-visit intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chryssoula Chatzigeorgiou


    Full Text Available This study presents the development of a conceptual model that demonstrates the dynamic nature of the relationship between service quality and guest satisfaction in the agrotourism accommodation sector, based on theories derived from social psychology and previous research in the marketing, management, and services literature. The model was tested using sample data from guests of four different agrotourism firms, and was modified because of empirical results. The final model improves understanding of the relationship between service quality and guest satisfaction because these constructs were examined from the process perspective of an agrotourism accommodation experience; it portrays service quality and satisfaction in the context of a complete system.

  11. Performance Measurement and Accommodation: Students with Visual Impairments on Pennsylvania's Alternate Assessment (United States)

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zigmond, Naomi; Zimmerman, George J.


    Introduction: This study investigated the use of accommodations and the performance of students with visual impairments and severe cognitive disabilities on the Pennsylvania Alternate System of Assessment (PASA)yCoan alternate performance-based assessment. Methods: Differences in test scores on the most basic level (level A) of the PASA of 286…

  12. Spinal circuits can accommodate interaction torques during multijoint limb movements. (United States)

    Buhrmann, Thomas; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A


    The dynamic interaction of limb segments during movements that involve multiple joints creates torques in one joint due to motion about another. Evidence shows that such interaction torques are taken into account during the planning or control of movement in humans. Two alternative hypotheses could explain the compensation of these dynamic torques. One involves the use of internal models to centrally compute predicted interaction torques and their explicit compensation through anticipatory adjustment of descending motor commands. The alternative, based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, claims that descending signals can be simple and related to the desired movement kinematics only, while spinal feedback mechanisms are responsible for the appropriate creation and coordination of dynamic muscle forces. Partial supporting evidence exists in each case. However, until now no model has explicitly shown, in the case of the second hypothesis, whether peripheral feedback is really sufficient on its own for coordinating the motion of several joints while at the same time accommodating intersegmental interaction torques. Here we propose a minimal computational model to examine this question. Using a biomechanics simulation of a two-joint arm controlled by spinal neural circuitry, we show for the first time that it is indeed possible for the neuromusculoskeletal system to transform simple descending control signals into muscle activation patterns that accommodate interaction forces depending on their direction and magnitude. This is achieved without the aid of any central predictive signal. Even though the model makes various simplifications and abstractions compared to the complexities involved in the control of human arm movements, the finding lends plausibility to the hypothesis that some multijoint movements can in principle be controlled even in the absence of internal models of intersegmental dynamics or learned compensatory motor signals.

  13. Spinal circuits can accommodate interaction torques during multijoint limb movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBuhrmann


    Full Text Available The dynamic interaction of limb segments during movements that involve multiple joints creates torques in one joint due to motion about another. Evidence shows that such interaction torques are taken into account during the planning or control of movement in humans. Two alternative hypotheses could explain the compensation of these dynamic torques. One involves the use of internal models to centrally compute predicted interaction torques and their explicit compensation through anticipatory adjustment of descending motor commands. The alternative, based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, claims that descending signals can be simple and related to the desired movement kinematics only, while spinal feedback mechanisms are responsible for the appropriate creation and coordination of dynamic muscle forces. Partial supporting evidence exists in each case. However, until now no model has explicitly shown, in the case of the second hypothesis, whether peripheral feedback is really sufficient on its own for coordinating the motion of several joints while at the same time accommodating intersegmental interaction torques. Here we propose a minimal computational model to examine this question. Using a biomechanics simulation of a two-joint arm controlled by spinal neural circuitry, we show for the first time that it is indeed possible for the neuromusculoskeletal system to transform simple descending control signals into muscle activation patterns that accommodate interaction forces depending on their direction and magnitude. This is achieved without the aid of any central predictive signal. Even though the model makes various simplifications and abstractions compared to the complexities involved in the control of human arm movements, the finding lends plausibility to the hypothesis that some multijoint movements can in principle be controlled even in the absence of internal models of intersegmental dynamics or learned compensatory motor signals.

  14. Analysis of All Inclusive System Applied by the Accommodation Businesses in Turkey in the Context of Target Costing


    Durmus Acar; Hasan Senol


    That the accommodation managements could sustain their existences operating in a competition in which the sale price of services they provide is ascertained show parallelism with controls of their costs. In this context, accommodation managements should provide demands and expectations of customers with low cost, short time and high quality targets by realizing at the same time and level. That’s why, they have focused on target cost (TC) method which aims to present on cost level that actuali...

  15. Accuracy of the Timed Up and Go test for predicting sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients. (United States)

    Martinez, Bruno Prata; Gomes, Isabela Barboza; Oliveira, Carolina Santana de; Ramos, Isis Resende; Rocha, Mônica Diniz Marques; Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Camelier, Fernanda Warken Rosa; Camelier, Aquiles Assunção


    The ability of the Timed Up and Go test to predict sarcopenia has not been evaluated previously. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Timed Up and Go test for predicting sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients. This cross-sectional study analyzed 68 elderly patients (≥60 years of age) in a private hospital in the city of Salvador-BA, Brazil, between the 1st and 5th day of hospitalization. The predictive variable was the Timed Up and Go test score, and the outcome of interest was the presence of sarcopenia (reduced muscle mass associated with a reduction in handgrip strength and/or weak physical performance in a 6-m gait-speed test). After the descriptive data analyses, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of a test using the predictive variable to predict the presence of sarcopenia were calculated. In total, 68 elderly individuals, with a mean age 70.4±7.7 years, were evaluated. The subjects had a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 5.35±1.97. Most (64.7%) of the subjects had a clinical admission profile; the main reasons for hospitalization were cardiovascular disorders (22.1%), pneumonia (19.1%) and abdominal disorders (10.2%). The frequency of sarcopenia in the sample was 22.1%, and the mean length of time spent performing the Timed Up and Go test was 10.02±5.38 s. A time longer than or equal to a cutoff of 10.85 s on the Timed Up and Go test predicted sarcopenia with a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 88.7%. The accuracy of this cutoff for the Timed Up and Go test was good (0.80; IC=0.66-0.94; p=0.002). The Timed Up and Go test was shown to be a predictor of sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients.

  16. Aquatic toxicity testing of silver nanoparticles – a matter of timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Engelbrekt, Christian

    , and difficulties in controlling and/or describing the characteristics of the tested NPs. These issues may be related to the widespread approach of using freshly prepared stock solutions for ecotoxicity testing, as the introduction of NPs into aqueous media initiates time-dependent processes that possibly interfere...... of the test. Ultimately, the aim is better control of the AgNPs in the algal test system and improved prerequisites for describing their toxicity to alga. The underlying hypothesis is that a large part in the variability of AgNPs toxicity to algae can be explained by the kinetics of dissolution and speciation...... of Ag ions in the test media. To reduce the amount of time in which changes to NPs may occur during testing, the exposure period was minimized. A recently proposed short-term (2h) algal test was applied, using 14C incorporation during photosynthesis as toxic endpoint [1]. For citrate coated spherical Ag...

  17. Real time test bed development for power system operation, control and cyber security (United States)

    Reddi, Ram Mohan

    The operation and control of the power system in an efficient way is important in order to keep the system secure, reliable and economical. With advancements in smart grid, several new algorithms have been developed for improved operation and control. These algorithms need to be extensively tested and validated in real time before applying to the real electric power grid. This work focuses on the development of a real time test bed for testing and validating power system control algorithms, hardware devices and cyber security vulnerability. The test bed developed utilizes several hardware components including relays, phasor measurement units, phasor data concentrator, programmable logic controllers and several software tools. Current work also integrates historian for power system monitoring and data archiving. Finally, two different power system test cases are simulated to demonstrate the applications of developed test bed. The developed test bed can also be used for power system education.

  18. Vergence driven accommodation with simulated disparity in myopia and emmetropia. (United States)

    Maiello, Guido; Kerber, Kristen L; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A


    The formation of focused and corresponding foveal images requires a close synergy between the accommodation and vergence systems. This linkage is usually decoupled in virtual reality systems and may be dysfunctional in people who are at risk of developing myopia. We study how refractive error affects vergence-accommodation interactions in stereoscopic displays. Vergence and accommodative responses were measured in 21 young healthy adults (n=9 myopes, 22-31 years) while subjects viewed naturalistic stimuli on a 3D display. In Step 1, vergence was driven behind the monitor using a blurred, non-accommodative, uncrossed disparity target. In Step 2, vergence and accommodation were driven back to the monitor plane using naturalistic images that contained structured depth and focus information from size, blur and/or disparity. In Step 1, both refractive groups converged towards the stereoscopic target depth plane, but the vergence-driven accommodative change was smaller in emmetropes than in myopes (F 1,19 =5.13, p=0.036). In Step 2, there was little effect of peripheral depth cues on accommodation or vergence in either refractive group. However, vergence responses were significantly slower (F 1,19 =4.55, p=0.046) and accommodation variability was higher (F 1,19 =12.9, p=0.0019) in myopes. Vergence and accommodation responses are disrupted in virtual reality displays in both refractive groups. Accommodation responses are less stable in myopes, perhaps due to a lower sensitivity to dioptric blur. Such inaccuracies of accommodation may cause long-term blur on the retina, which has been associated with a failure of emmetropization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Vision Therapy on Accommodation in Myopic Chinese Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ming-Leung Ma


    Full Text Available Introduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement to improve accommodative function in myopic children with poor accommodative response. Methods. This was a prospective unmasked pilot study. 14 Chinese myopic children aged 8 to 12 years with at least 1 D of lag of accommodation were enrolled. All subjects received 12 weeks of 60-minute office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT with home reinforcement. Primary outcome measure was the change in monocular lag of accommodation from baseline visit to 12-week visit measured by Shinnipon open-field autorefractor. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility. Results. All participants completed the study. The lag of accommodation at baseline visit was 1.29 ± 0.21 D and it was reduced to 0.84 ± 0.19 D at 12-week visit. This difference (−0.46 ± 0.22 D; 95% confidence interval: −0.33 to −0.58 D is statistically significant (p<0.0001. OBAVT also increased the amplitude and facility by 3.66 ± 3.36 D (p=0.0013; 95% confidence interval: 1.72 to 5.60 D and 10.9 ± 4.8 cpm (p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 13.6 cpm, respectively. Conclusion. Standardized 12 weeks of OBAVT with home reinforcement is able to significantly reduce monocular lag of accommodation and increase monocular accommodative amplitude and facility. A randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of vision therapy on myopia progression is warranted.

  20. Timing system design and tests for the Gravity Probe B relativity mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J; Keiser, G M; Ohshima, Y; Shestople, P; Lockhart, J M


    In this paper, we discuss the timing system design and tests for the NASA/Stanford Gravity Probe B (GP-B) relativity mission. The primary clock of GP-B, called the 16f o clock, was an oven-controlled crystal oscillator that produced a 16.368 MHz master frequency 3 . The 16f o clock and the 10 Hz data strobe, which was divided down from the 16f o clock, provided clock signals to all GP-B components and synchronized the data collection, transmission, and processing. The sampled data of science signals were stamped with the vehicle time, a counter of the 10 Hz data strobe. The time latency between the time of data sampling and the stamped vehicle time was compensated in the ground data processing. Two redundant global positioning system receivers onboard the GP-B satellite supplied an external reference for time transfer between the vehicle time and coordinated universal time (UTC), and the time conversion was established in the ground preprocessing of the telemetry timing data. The space flight operation showed that the error of time conversion between the vehicle time and UTC was less than 2 μs. Considering that the constant timing offsets were compensated in the ground processing of the GP-B science data, the time latency between the effective sampling time of GP-B science signals and the stamped vehicle time was verified to within 1 ms in the ground tests. (paper)

  1. Maternal emotion regulation during child distress, child anxiety accommodation, and links between maternal and child anxiety. (United States)

    Kerns, Caroline E; Pincus, Donna B; McLaughlin, Katie A; Comer, Jonathan S


    Environmental contributions are thought to play a primary role in the familial aggregation of anxiety, but parenting influences remain poorly understood. We examined dynamic relations between maternal anxiety, maternal emotion regulation (ER) during child distress, maternal accommodation of child distress, and child anxiety. Mothers (N=45) of youth ages 3-8 years (M=4.8) participated in an experimental task during which they listened to a standardized audio recording of a child in anxious distress pleading for parental intervention. Measures of maternal and child anxiety, mothers' affective states, mothers' ER strategies during the child distress, and maternal accommodation of child anxiety were collected. Mothers' resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during the recording was also acquired. Higher maternal negative affect and greater maternal ER switching (i.e., using multiple ER strategies in a short time without positive regulatory results) during child distress were associated with child anxiety. Sequential mediation modeling showed that maternal anxiety predicted ineffective maternal ER during child distress exposure, which in turn predicted greater maternal accommodation, which in turn predicted higher child anxiety. Findings support the mediating roles of maternal ER and accommodation in linking maternal and child anxiety, and suggest that ineffective maternal ER and subsequent attempts to accommodate child distress may act as mechanisms underlying the familial aggregation of anxiety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Accommodation and supply—a dual control on stratigraphic sequences (United States)

    Schlager, Wolfgang


    It is widely accepted that both eustatic and tectonically controlled regional changes of sea level have contributed to the record of stratigraphic sequences. I suggest that environmental change be added as a third, autonomous control. Sedimentologic principles clearly indicate that sequences and their systems tracts are controlled by the interplay of two rates —the rate of change in accommodation (space available for sedimentation) and the rate of sediment supply. Sea level has direct control on accommodation, but its influence on sediment supply is remote and easily overshadowed by environmental factors. For instance, the record of the most recent sea-level rise is a transgressive systems tract where supply is low; it is a prograding highstand systems tract in deltas where the supply is high. Examples of sequence boundaries generated by changes in sediment supply include tectonically driven shifts in sediment input into basins, changes in ocean currents, pulsating supply from failure of submarine slopes and drowning of carbonate platforms by environmental stress. Furthermore, the stratigraphic sequences in fluviatile continental basins are physically removed from sea-level induced changes in accommodation and must have formed by changes in the rate and pattern of supply. Subaerial exposure of marine sediments at the sequence boundary is a most important criterion for recognizing sea level cycles as opposed to supply cycles. Other criteria include downstepping of shelf breaks and characteristic patterns in the spacing of time lines within sequences. Some third-order cycles (ca. 0.5-3 Ma duration) meet these criteria, others do not. Cycle-stacking patterns and the shifting facies belts on cratons indicate that many second- and third-order cycles lack pronounced exposure unconformities and represent gradual changes superimposed on more rapid, shorter oscillations. Seismic data yield poor images of these gradational changes because they lack resolution. Seismic

  3. [Magnetic resonance imaging study of effects of accommodation on human lens morphological characters]. (United States)

    Zheng, Sui-lian; Zhang, Ai; Shi, Jian-jing; Zhou, Yun-xin


    To evaluate the effects of accommodation on lens morphological characters. From January 2011 to June 2011, magnetic resonance images of eyes were acquired from 30 subjects aged 20 to 24 years during accommodation and at rest. The optimal images were analyzed by Autocad 2010 to obtain the total lens cross-sectional area (CSA) and CSA of anterior and posterior portions of lens, anterior chamber depth, lens thickness, lens diameter, vitreous chamber depth and axial length during accommodation and at rest. Paired-t test was performed. The anterior curvature radius (mm), posterior curvature radius (mm), CSA of anterior portion (mm(2)), CSA of posterior portion (mm(2)), total lens CSA (mm(2)) was (8.7 ± 0.8), (6.2 ± 0.5), (7.5 ± 2.1), (12.0 ± 2.6), (20 ± 4) during relaxed accommodation; anterior curvature radius (mm), posterior curvature radius (mm), CSA of anterior portion (mm(2)), CSA of posterior portion (mm(2)), total lens CSA (mm(2)) was (7.1 ± 1.3), (5.6 ± 0.5), (14.7 ± 2.9), (12.2 ± 2.1) and (27 ± 4) during accommodation. The total lens CSA (t = -11.556, P 0.05) under a statistically independent accommodative state. There was significant difference in the anterior chamber depth (t = 4.366, P 0.05) and axial length (t = 0.418, P > 0.05) under accommodative states. During accommodation, the anterior chamber depth decreases, lens thickness increases and diameter of lens decreases while anterior portions and total lens CSA increase. There are insignificant changes in posterior portions of lens CSA, vitreous chamber depth and axial length. The accommodative changes in CSA indicate that the anterior portion of lens may be related with the properties of anterior capsule and lens material, the position of zonular attachments and the location of fetal nucleus. Helmholtz theory is supported.

  4. Optimal testing input sets for reduced diagnosis time of nuclear power plant digital electronic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.S.; Seong, P.H.


    This paper describes the optimal testing input sets required for the fault diagnosis of the nuclear power plant digital electronic circuits. With the complicated systems such as very large scale integration (VLSI), nuclear power plant (NPP), and aircraft, testing is the major factor of the maintenance of the system. Particularly, diagnosis time grows quickly with the complexity of the component. In this research, for reduce diagnosis time the authors derived the optimal testing sets that are the minimal testing sets required for detecting the failure and for locating of the failed component. For reduced diagnosis time, the technique presented by Hayes fits best for the approach to testing sets generation among many conventional methods. However, this method has the following disadvantages: (a) it considers only the simple network (b) it concerns only whether the system is in failed state or not and does not provide the way to locate the failed component. Therefore the authors have derived the optimal testing input sets that resolve these problems by Hayes while preserving its advantages. When they applied the optimal testing sets to the automatic fault diagnosis system (AFDS) which incorporates the advanced fault diagnosis method of artificial intelligence technique, they found that the fault diagnosis using the optimal testing sets makes testing the digital electronic circuits much faster than that using exhaustive testing input sets; when they applied them to test the Universal (UV) Card which is a nuclear power plant digital input/output solid state protection system card, they reduced the testing time up to about 100 times

  5. Test Time Reduction for BIST by Parallel Divide-and-Conquer Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Byung Gu; Kim, Dong Wook [Kwangwoon University (Korea)


    BIST(Built-in Self Test) has been considered as the most promising DFT(design-for-test) scheme for the present and future test strategy. The most serious problem in applying BIST(Built-in Self Test) into a large circuit is the excessive increase in test time. This paper is focused on this problem. We proposed a new BIST construction scheme which uses a parallel divide-and-conquer method. The circuit division is performed with respect to some internal nodes called test points. The test points are selected by considering the nodal connectivity of the circuit rather than the testability of each node. The test patterns are generated by only one linear feedback shift register(LFSR) and they are shared by all the divided circuits. Thus, the test for each divided circuit is performed in parallel. Test responses are collected from the test point as well as the primary outputs. Even though the divide-and-conquer scheme is used and test patterns are generated in one LFSR, the proposed scheme does not lose its pseudo-exhaustive property. We proposed a selection procedure to find the test points and it was implemented with C/C{sup ++} language. Several example circuits were applied to this procedure and the results showed that test time was reduced upto 1/2{sup 1}51 but the increase in the hardware overhead or the delay increase was not much high. Because the proposed scheme showed a tendency that the increasing rates in hardware overhead and delay overhead were less than that in test time reduction as the size of circuit increases, it is expected to be used efficiently for large circuits as VLSI and ULSI. (author). 15 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Factors that influence standard automated perimetry test results in glaucoma: test reliability, technician experience, time of day, and season. (United States)

    Junoy Montolio, Francisco G; Wesselink, Christiaan; Gordijn, Marijke; Jansonius, Nomdo M


    To determine the influence of several factors on standard automated perimetry test results in glaucoma. Longitudinal Humphrey field analyzer 30-2 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm data from 160 eyes of 160 glaucoma patients were used. The influence of technician experience, time of day, and season on the mean deviation (MD) was determined by performing linear regression analysis of MD against time on a series of visual fields and subsequently performing a multiple linear regression analysis with the MD residuals as dependent variable and the factors mentioned above as independent variables. Analyses were performed with and without adjustment for the test reliability (fixation losses and false-positive and false-negative answers) and with and without stratification according to disease stage (baseline MD). Mean follow-up was 9.4 years, with on average 10.8 tests per patient. Technician experience, time of day, and season were associated with the MD. Approximately 0.2 dB lower MD values were found for inexperienced technicians (P Technician experience, time of day, season, and the percentage of false-positive answers have a significant influence on the MD of standard automated perimetry.

  7. Accommodating World Englishes in Developing EFL Learners' Oral Communication (United States)

    Mukminatien, Nur


    This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs) and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accommodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner's linguistic needs for…

  8. The Evolution of the Number of Tourists accommodated in Arad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu Rusu


    Full Text Available The paper analyses the evolution of the number of tourists accommodated in Arad between January 2006 and September 2009. For this purpose we have used the statistics data from the official sites. As variables we chose: X – independent variable - Total tourist arrival and accommodated in Arad, Y - dependent variable - Tourists staying in hotels.

  9. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation (United States)

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy


    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  10. New Compact Accommodometer to Measure Accommodation Amplitude as a Biomarker. (United States)

    Ide, Takeshi; Negishi, Kazuno; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Hara, Shuya; Toda, Ikuko; Tsubota, Kazuo


    This study aimed to evaluate a newly designed compact accommodometer (CA) and compare this with a conventional accommodometer for measuring accommodation as a biomarker for aging and lifestyle. This is an observational case series. Accommodative amplitude was measured using 2 different accommodometers in 114 patients. We obtained the data of the near-point accommodation amplitude. Subsequently, we used smoking habit as an example of lifestyle-related factor to evaluate its effect on the accommodative power. The first part of the study included 60 eyes of 60 men and 54 eyes of 54 women, with a mean (SD) age of 43.8 (12.9) years (range, 18-58 years). There was a consistency within each measuring method despite a significant difference between the 2 devices (P the second part of the study, we found a significant correlation between age and accommodative amplitude both in smokers and in nonsmokers. The accommodative amplitude of the smoker group was significantly lower than that of the nonsmoker group (P the conventional accommodometer for measuring accommodative amplitude as an aging biomarker. Lifestyle factors can affect the magnitude of accommodation, which can be measured by this newly developed CA.

  11. Chromatic aberration, accommodation, and color preference in asthenopia. (United States)

    Drew, Stefanie A; Borsting, Eric; Stark, Lawrence R; Chase, Chris


    Asthenopia is a common problem associated with near work and reports suggest that colored lenses or overlays may be applied to reduce symptoms. In this study, we examine the relationship between eyestrain, color preferences, and function of the accommodation and vergence system. Specifically, we examine whether symptomatic observers select colors that reduce accommodative demand based on longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA). Forty-seven undergraduate students participated in this study. Visual discomfort symptoms were assessed using the Conlon survey. A Mark 2 Intuitive Colorimeter was used to obtain optimal colored light preferences. LCA was modeled using the Chromatic Eye and spectral power density data. A comprehensive evaluation of accommodation and vergence was performed following standard procedures. A significant negative correlation (r = -0.51) was found between eyestrain symptoms and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) v' axis of colors preferences. Additionally, a significant negative correlation (r = -0.31) was found between eyestrain symptoms and LCA accommodation. Two thirds of the participants in the high discomfort group chose colors that decreased accommodative demand. Accommodative amplitude and vergence facility also correlated with LCA, accounting for 25% of the variance. The color preferences of individuals are systematically influenced by the functioning of their accommodation and vergence systems with increased symptomatology resulting in color selections that reduce LCA accommodative stimulus demand.

  12. Privately Provided Accommodation Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Mugambwa


    Full Text Available Privately provided accommodation is a growing service in Uganda’s higher education sector due to education liberalization and demand for education. This research took a case study of Nsamizi Training Institute of Social Development (NTISD to determine the relationship between privately provided accommodation service quality and customer satisfaction. Specifically, the objectives of the study were (a to find out the relationship between security and NTISD students’ satisfaction with privately provided accommodation, and (b to find out the hierarchical level of importance of NTISD student satisfaction of the three service quality dimensions (reliability, security, and tangibles with privately provided accommodation. Using quantitative and qualitative modes of data analysis and a sample of 300 students from 20 private hostels, this study established a strong positive significant relationship between security and satisfaction regarding privately provided accommodation. This implies that accommodation service providers should increase the quality of security so as to increase the satisfaction of students regarding privately provided accommodation. The study established the hierarchical order of importance from the most important service quality dimension, respectively, as follows: reliability, security, and tangibles. Therefore, private accommodation service managers should pay extra attention to the dimensions in the same order.

  13. Study on accommodation by autorefraction and dynamic refraction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Srinivasapur Krishnacharya


    Conclusions: The performance of TOPCON AR RM-8000B autorefractor was comparable to dynamic retinoscopy. Presence of many children, and in turn, large number of accommodative response data in 11–13 and 14–15 years group is probably linked to prolonged reading/writing. The accuracy and the agreement of the actual accommodative measurements revealed after cycloplegia.

  14. Equivalent refractive index of the human lens upon accommodative response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.A.; Dubbelman, M.; van der Heijde, R.G.L.; Heethaar, R.M.


    PURPOSE.: To experimentally verify the suggestion of Gullstrand (1909), i.e., that the equivalent refractive index of the human lens increases with accommodation. METHODS.: The left eye of five subjects was focused on different accommodation stimuli, while the right eye was imaged with Scheimpflug

  15. Design and implementation of a software tool intended for simulation and test of real time codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Louarn, C.


    The objective of real time software testing is to show off processing errors and unobserved functional requirements or timing constraints in a code. In the perspective of safety analysis of nuclear equipments of power plants testing should be carried independently from the physical process (which is not generally available), and because casual hardware failures must be considered. We propose here a simulation and test tool, integrally software, with large interactive possibilities for testing assembly code running on microprocessor. The OST (outil d'aide a la simulation et au Test de logiciels temps reel) simulates code execution and hardware or software environment behaviour. Test execution is closely monitored and many useful informations are automatically saved. The present thesis work details, after exposing methods and tools dedicated to real time software, the OST system. We show the internal mechanisms and objects of the system: particularly ''events'' (which describe evolutions of the system under test) and mnemonics (which describe the variables). Then, we detail the interactive means available to the user for constructing the test data and the environment of the tested software. Finally, a prototype implementation is presented along with the results of the tests carried out. This demonstrates the many advantages of the use of an automatic tool over a manual investigation. As a conclusion, further developments, nececessary to complete the final tool are rewieved [fr

  16. Comparison of physical therapy anatomy performance and anxiety scores in timed and untimed practical tests. (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah M; Evans, Cathy; Agur, Anne M R


    Students in health care professional programs face many stressful tests that determine successful completion of their program. Test anxiety during these high stakes examinations can affect working memory and lead to poor outcomes. Methods of decreasing test anxiety include lengthening the time available to complete examinations or evaluating students using untimed examinations. There is currently no consensus in the literature regarding whether untimed examinations provide a benefit to test performance in clinical anatomy. This study aimed to determine the impact of timed versus untimed practical tests on Master of Physical Therapy student anatomy performance and test anxiety. Test anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Differences in performance, anxiety scores, and time taken were compared using paired sample Student's t-tests. Eighty-one of the 84 students completed the study and provided feedback. Students performed significantly higher on the untimed test (P = 0.005), with a significant reduction in test anxiety (P anxiety. If the intended goal of evaluating health care professional students is to determine fundamental competencies, these factors should be considered when designing future curricula. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  17. Access to Workplace Accommodations to Support Breastfeeding after Passage of the Affordable Care Act. (United States)

    Kozhimannil, Katy B; Jou, Judy; Gjerdingen, Dwenda K; McGovern, Patricia M


    This study examines access to workplace accommodations for breastfeeding, as mandated by the Affordable Care Act, and its associations with breastfeeding initiation and duration. We hypothesize that women with access to reasonable break time and private space to express breast milk would be more likely to breastfeed exclusively at 6 months and to continue breastfeeding for a longer duration. Data are from Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18 to 45 who gave birth in 2011 and 2012. The study population included women who were employed full or part time at the time of survey. Using two-way tabulation, logistic regression, and survival analysis, we characterized women with access to breastfeeding accommodations and assessed the associations between these accommodations and breastfeeding outcomes. Only 40% of women had access to both break time and private space. Women with both adequate break time and private space were 2.3 times (95% CI, 1.03-4.95) as likely to be breastfeeding exclusively at 6 months and 1.5 times (95% CI, 1.08-2.06) as likely to continue breastfeeding exclusively with each passing month compared with women without access to these accommodations. Employed women face unique barriers to breastfeeding and have lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and shorter durations, despite compelling evidence of associated health benefits. Expanded access to workplace accommodations for breastfeeding will likely entail collaborative efforts between public health agencies, employers, insurers, and clinicians to ensure effective workplace policies and improved breastfeeding outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Accommodative insufficiency as cause of asthenopia in computer-using students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnun Amalia


    Full Text Available To date the use of computers is widely distributed throughout the world and the associated ocular complaints are found in 75-90% of the population of computer users. Symptoms frequently reported by computer users were eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, diplopia, burning of the eyes, and asthenopia (visual fatigue of the eyes. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the etiology of asthenopia in computer-using students. A questionnaire consisting of 15 items was used to assess symptoms experienced by the computer users. The ophthalmological examination comprised visual acuity, the Hirschberg test, near point accommodation, amplitude accommodation, near point convergence, the cover test, and the alternate cover test. A total of 99 computer science students, of whom 69.7% had asthenopia, participated in the study. The symptoms that were significantly associated with asthenopia were visual fatigue (p=0.031, heaviness in the eye (p=0.002, blurred vision (p=0.001, and headache at the temples or the back of the head (p=0.000. Refractive asthenopia was found in 95.7% of all asthenopia patients with accommodative insufficiency (AI, constituting the most frequent cause at 50.7%. The duration of computer use per day was not significantly associated with the prevalence of asthenopia (p=0.700. There was a high prevalence of asthenopia among computer science students, mostly caused by refractive asthenopia. Accommodation measurements should be performed more routinely and regularly, maybe as screening, especially in computer users

  19. Accommodative insufficiency as cause of asthenopia in computer-using students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnun Amalia


    Full Text Available To date the use of computers is widely distributed throughout the world and the associated ocular complaints are found in 75-90% of the population of computer users. Symptoms frequently reported by computer users were eyestrain, tired eyes, irritation, redness, blurred vision, diplopia, burning of the eyes, and asthenopia (visual fatigue of the eyes. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the etiology of asthenopia in computer-using students. A questionnaire consisting of 15 items was used to assess symptoms experienced by the computer users. The ophthalmological examination comprised visual acuity, the Hirschberg test, near point accommodation, amplitude accommodation, near point convergence, the cover test, and the alternate cover test. A total of 99 computer science students, of whom 69.7% had asthenopia, participated in the study. The symptoms that were significantly associated with asthenopia were visual fatigue (p=0.031, heaviness in the eye (p=0.002, blurred vision (p=0.001, and headache at the temples or the back of the head (p=0.000. Refractive asthenopia was found in 95.7% of all asthenopia patients with accommodative insufficiency (AI, constituting the most frequent cause at 50.7%. The duration of computer use per day was not significantly associated with the prevalence of asthenopia (p=0.700. There was a high prevalence of asthenopia among computer science students, mostly caused by refractive asthenopia. Accommodation measurements should be performed more routinely and regularly, maybe as screening, especially in computer users.

  20. System and Component Software Specification, Run-time Verification and Automatic Test Generation, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The following background technology is described in Part 5: Run-time Verification (RV), White Box Automatic Test Generation (WBATG). Part 5 also describes how WBATG...

  1. Five times sit-to-stand test in subjects with total knee replacement: Reliability and relationship with functional mobility tests. (United States)

    Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Vivo-Fernández, Iván; López-Cañizares, Juan; García-Vidal, José A; Benítez-Martínez, Josep Carles; Del Baño-Aledo, María Elena


    The objective was to determine the inter-observer and test/retest reliability of the "Five-repetition sit-to-stand" (5STS) test in patients with total knee replacement (TKR). To explore correlation between 5STS and two mobility tests. A reliability study was conducted among 24 (mean age 72.13, S.D. 10.67; 50% were women) outpatients with TKR. They were recruited from a traumatology unit of a public hospital via convenience sampling. A physiotherapist and trauma physician assessed each patient at the same time. The same physiotherapist realized a 5STS second measurement 45-60min after the first one. Reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Pearson coefficient was calculated to assess the correlation between 5STS, time up to go test (TUG) and four meters gait speed (4MGS). ICC for inter-observer and test-retest reliability of the 5STS were 0.998 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.995-0.999) and 0.982 (95% CI, 0.959-0.992). Bland-Altman plot inter-observer showed limits between -0.82 and 1.06 with a mean of 0.11 and no heteroscedasticity within the data. Bland-Altman plot for test-retest showed the limits between 1.76 and 4.16, a mean of 1.20 and heteroscedasticity within the data. Pearson correlation coefficient revealed significant correlation between 5STS and TUG (r=0.7, ptest-retest reliability when it is used in people with TKR, and also significant correlation with other functional mobility tests. These findings support the use of 5STS as outcome measure in TKR population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical test responses to different orthoptic exercise regimes in typical young adults. (United States)

    Horwood, Anna; Toor, Sonia


    The relative efficiency of different eye exercise regimes is unclear, and in particular the influences of practice, placebo and the amount of effort required are rarely considered. This study measured conventional clinical measures following different regimes in typical young adults. A total of 156 asymptomatic young adults were directed to carry out eye exercises three times daily for 2 weeks. Exercises were directed at improving blur responses (accommodation), disparity responses (convergence), both in a naturalistic relationship, convergence in excess of accommodation, accommodation in excess of convergence, and a placebo regime. They were compared to two control groups, neither of which were given exercises, but the second of which were asked to make maximum effort during the second testing. Instruction set and participant effort were more effective than many exercises. Convergence exercises independent of accommodation were the most effective treatment, followed by accommodation exercises, and both regimes resulted in changes in both vergence and accommodation test responses. Exercises targeting convergence and accommodation working together were less effective than those where they were separated. Accommodation measures were prone to large instruction/effort effects and monocular accommodation facility was subject to large practice effects. Separating convergence and accommodation exercises seemed more effective than exercising both systems concurrently and suggests that stimulation of accommodation and convergence may act in an additive fashion to aid responses. Instruction/effort effects are large and should be carefully controlled if claims for the efficacy of any exercise regime are to be made. © 2014 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The College of Optometrists.

  3. Using exogenous variables in testing for monotonic trends in hydrologic time series (United States)

    Alley, William M.


    One approach that has been used in performing a nonparametric test for monotonic trend in a hydrologic time series consists of a two-stage analysis. First, a regression equation is estimated for the variable being tested as a function of an exogenous variable. A nonparametric trend test such as the Kendall test is then performed on the residuals from the equation. By analogy to stagewise regression and through Monte Carlo experiments, it is demonstrated that this approach will tend to underestimate the magnitude of the trend and to result in some loss in power as a result of ignoring the interaction between the exogenous variable and time. An alternative approach, referred to as the adjusted variable Kendall test, is demonstrated to generally have increased statistical power and to provide more reliable estimates of the trend slope. In addition, the utility of including an exogenous variable in a trend test is examined under selected conditions.

  4. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships. (United States)

    Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell


    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed.

  5. Receipt and timing of HIV drug resistance testing in six U.S. jurisdictions. (United States)

    Dasgupta, Sharoda; Hall, H Irene; Hernandez, Angela L; Ocfemia, M Cheryl Bañez; Saduvala, Neeraja; Oster, Alexandra M


    The Department of Health and Human Services recommends drug resistance testing at linkage to HIV care. Because receipt and timing of testing are not well characterized, we examined testing patterns among persons with diagnosed HIV who are linked to care. Using surveillance data in six jurisdictions for persons aged ≥13 years with HIV infection diagnosed in 2013, we assessed the proportion receiving testing, and among these, the proportion receiving testing at linkage. Multivariable log-binomial regression modeling estimated associations between selected characteristics and receipt of testing (1) overall, and (2) at linkage among those tested. Of 9,408 persons linked to care, 66% received resistance testing, among whom 68% received testing at linkage. Less testing was observed among male persons who inject drugs (PWID), compared with men who have sex with men (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR]: 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.81-0.97) and persons living in areas with population testing was lower for persons with initial CD4 counts ≥500 cells/mm 3 , compared with those with CD4 counts tested, testing at linkage was lower among male PWID (aPR: 0.85; CI: 0.75-0.95) and, in some jurisdictions, persons with CD4 counts ≥500 cells/mm 3 (aPR range: 0.63-0.73). Two-thirds of persons with diagnosed HIV who were linked to care received resistance testing, and most received testing at linkage as recommended. Improving receipt and timing of testing among male PWID, persons in less populous settings, and in all jurisdictions, regardless of CD4 count, may improve care outcomes.

  6. Justification of response time testing requirements for pressure and differential pressure sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, J.M.; Mayo, C.; Swisher, V.


    This paper reports on response time testing (RTT) requirements that were imposed on pressure, differential pressure sensors as a conservative approach to insure that assumptions in the plant safety analyses were met. The purpose of this project has been to identify the need for response time testing using the bases identified in IEEE Standard 338. A combination of plant data analyses, failure modes, and effects analyses (FMEAs) was performed. Eighteen currently qualified sensor models were utilized. The results of these analyses indicate that there are only two failure modes that affect response time, not sensor output concurrently. For these failure modes, appropriate plant actions and testing techniques were identified. Safety system RTT requirements were established by IEEE Standard 338-1975. Criteria for the Periodic Testing of Class IE Power, Protection Systems, presuming the need existed for this testing. This standard established guidelines for periodic testing to verify that loop response times of installed nuclear safety-related equipment were within the limits presumed by the design basis plant transient, accident analyses. The requirements covered all passive, active components in an instrument loop, including sensors. Individual components could be tested either in groups or separately to determine the overall loop response time

  7. Optimizing the Use of Response Times for Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing (United States)

    Choe, Edison M.; Kern, Justin L.; Chang, Hua-Hua


    Despite common operationalization, measurement efficiency of computerized adaptive testing should not only be assessed in terms of the number of items administered but also the time it takes to complete the test. To this end, a recent study introduced a novel item selection criterion that maximizes Fisher information per unit of expected response…

  8. The Impact of Time-Series Diagnostic Tests on the Writing Ability of Iranian EFL Learners (United States)

    Atashgahi, Bahareh Molazem


    This study aimed to show whether administering a battery of time-series diagnostic tests (screening) has any impact on Iranian EFL learners' writing ability. The study was conducted on the intermediate EFL learners at Islamic Azad University North Tehran branch. The researcher administered a homogenizing test in order to exclude the exceptional…

  9. Do testing effects change over time? Insights from immediate and delayed retrieval speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, G.S.E. van den; Segers, P.C.J.; Takashima, A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.


    Retrieving information from memory improves recall accuracy more than continued studying, but this testing effect often only becomes visible over time. In contrast, the present study documents testing effects on recall speed both immediately after practice and after a delay. A total of 40

  10. Operational Testing and Measurement of the Resolving Time of a Counting Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manent, G.; Scheemaecker, J. de


    An experiment is described which constitutes a very sensitive test of the satisfactory operation of a counting assembly. It makes it possible to measure the resolving time of an assembly to an accuracy of 1 per cent. A certain number of examples are presented which show the sensitivity of the test. (author) [fr

  11. T-UPPAAL: Online Model-based Testing of Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikucionis, Marius; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nielsen, Brian


    The goal of testing is to gain confidence in a physical computer based system by means of executing it. More than one third of typical project resources is spent on testing embedded and real-time systems, but still it remains ad-hoc, based on heuristics, and error-prone. Therefore systematic...

  12. Dose-Time Effect of Crude Oil and Hydro-test Effluent on Freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was undertaken to investigate the dose-time effect of crude oil and hydro-test effluent on freshwater and brackish water habitats. The species used for the acute toxicity were freshwater fish, Tilapia guineenis (fry) and a brackish water shrimp, Palaemonetes africanus. Test results indicated that the brackish water ...

  13. Testing the time-invariance of fundamental constants using microwave spectroscopy on cold diatomic radicals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bethlem, H.L.; Ubachs, W.M.G.


    The recently demonstrated methods to cool and manipulate neutral molecules offer new possibilities for precision tests of fundamental physics theories. We here discuss the possibility of testing the time-invariance of fundamental constants using near degeneracies between rotational levels in the

  14. Evidence that convergence rather than accommodation controls intermittent distance exotropia. (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Riddell, Patricia M


    This study considered whether vergence drives accommodation or accommodation drives vergence during the control of distance exotropia for near fixation. High accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratios are often used to explain this control, but the role of convergence to drive accommodation (the CA/C relationship) is rarely considered. Atypical CA/C characteristics could equally, or better, explain common clinical findings. Nineteen distance exotropes, aged 4-11 years, were compared while controlling their deviation with 27 non-exotropic controls aged 5-9 years. Simultaneous vergence and accommodation responses were measured to a range of targets incorporating different combinations of blur, disparity and looming cues at four fixation distances between 2 m and 33 cm. Stimulus and response AC/A and CA/C ratios were calculated. Accommodation responses for near targets (p = 0.017) and response gains (p = 0.026) were greater in the exotropes than in the controls. Despite higher clinical stimulus AC/A ratios, the distance exotropes showed lower laboratory response AC/A ratios (p = 0.02), but significantly higher CA/C ratios (p = 0.02). All the exotropes, whether the angle changed most with lenses ('controlled by accommodation') or on occlusion ('controlled by fusion'), used binocular disparity not blur as their main cue to target distance. Increased vergence demand to control intermittent distance exotropia for near also drives significantly more accommodation. Minus lens therapy is more likely to act by correcting overaccommodation driven by controlling convergence, rather than by inducing blur-driven vergence. The use of convergence as a major drive to accommodation explains many clinical characteristics of distance exotropia, including apparently high near stimulus AC/A ratios. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  15. [Waiting time for the first colposcopic examination in women with abnormal Papanicolaou test]. (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Isabel do; Rabelo, Irene Machado Moraes Alvarenga; Cardoso, Fabrício Seabra Polidoro; Musse, Ricardo Neif Vieira


    To evaluate the waiting times before obtaining the first colposcopic examination for women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears. Retrospective cohort study conducted on patients who required a colposcopic examination to clarify an abnormal pap test, between 2002 January and 2008 August, in a metropolitan region of Brazil. The waiting times were defined as: Total Waiting Time (interval between the date of the pap test result and the date of the first colposcopic examination); Partial A Waiting Time (interval between the date of the pap test result and the date of referral); Partial B Waiting Time (interval between the date of referral and the date of the first colposcopic examination). Means, medians, relative and absolute frequencies were calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson's chi-square test were used to determine statistical significance. A total of 1,544 women with mean of age of 34 years (SD=12.6 years) were analyzed. Most of them had access to colposcopic examination within 30 days (65.8%) or 60 days (92.8%) from referral. Mean Total Waiting Time, Partial A Waiting Time, and Partial B Waiting Time were 94.5 days (SD=96.8 days), 67.8 days (SD=95.3 days) and 29.2 days (SD=35.1 days), respectively. A large part of the women studied had access to colposcopic examination within 60 days after referral, but Total waiting time was long. Measures to reduce the waiting time for obtaining the first colposcopic examination can help to improve the quality of care in the context of cervical cancer control in the region, and ought to be addressed at the phase between the date of the pap test results and the date of referral to the teaching hospital.

  16. Response Time Test for The Application of the Data Communication Network to Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.C.; Lee, J.Y.; Park, H.Y.; Seong, S.H.; Chung, H.Y.


    This paper discusses the response time test for the application of the Data Communication Network (DCN) to Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Conventional Instrumentation and Control (I and C) Systems using the analog technology in NPP have raised many problems regarding the lack of spare parts, maintenance burden, inaccuracy, etc.. In order to solve the problems, the Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) I and C system has adopted the digital technology and new design features of using the data communication networks. It is essential to prove the response time requirements that arise from the introduction of digital I and C technology and data communication networks to nuclear power plant design. For the response time test, a high reliable data communication network structure has been developed to meet the requirements of redundancy, diversity, and segmentation. This paper presents the results of network load analysis and response time test for the KNGR DCN prototype. The test has been focused on the response time from the field components to the gateway because the response times from the gateway to the specific systems are similar to those of the existing design. It is verified that the response time requirements are met through the prototype test for KNGR I and C systems. (authors)

  17. Accommodation and age-dependent eye model based on in vivo measurements. (United States)

    Zapata-Díaz, Juan F; Radhakrishnan, Hema; Charman, W Neil; López-Gil, Norberto


    To develop a flexible model of the average eye that incorporates changes with age and accommodation in all optical parameters, including entrance pupil diameter, under photopic, natural, environmental conditions. We collated retrospective in vivo measurements of all optical parameters, including entrance pupil diameter. Ray-tracing was used to calculate the wavefront aberrations of the eye model as a function of age, stimulus vergence and pupil diameter. These aberrations were used to calculate objective refraction using paraxial curvature matching. This was also done for several stimulus positions to calculate the accommodation response/stimulus curve. The model predicts a hyperopic change in distance refraction as the eye ages (+0.22D every 10 years) between 20 and 65 years. The slope of the accommodation response/stimulus curve was 0.72 for a 25 years-old subject, with little change between 20 and 45 years. A trend to a more negative value of primary spherical aberration as the eye accommodates is predicted for all ages (20-50 years). When accommodation is relaxed, a slight increase in primary spherical aberration (0.008μm every 10 years) between 20 and 65 years is predicted, for an age-dependent entrance pupil diameter ranging between 3.58mm (20 years) and 3.05mm (65 years). Results match reasonably well with studies performed in real eyes, except that spherical aberration is systematically slightly negative as compared with the practical data. The proposed eye model is able to predict changes in objective refraction and accommodation response. It has the potential to be a useful design and testing tool for devices (e.g. intraocular lenses or contact lenses) designed to correct the eye's optical errors. Copyright © 2018 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Transit timing observations from Kepler. VI. Potentially interesting candidate systems from fourier-based statistical tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffen, J.H.; Ford, E.B.; Rowe, J.F.


    We analyze the deviations of transit times from a linear ephemeris for the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) through quarter six of science data. We conduct two statistical tests for all KOIs and a related statistical test for all pairs of KOIs in multi-transiting systems. These tests identify...... several systems which show potentially interesting transit timing variations (TTVs). Strong TTV systems have been valuable for the confirmation of planets and their mass measurements. Many of the systems identified in this study should prove fruitful for detailed TTV studies....


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Ford, Eric B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Borucki, William J.; Bryson, Steve; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Koch, David G.; Sanderfer, Dwight T.; Seader, Shawn; Twicken, Joseph D.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; Holman, Matthew J.; Welsh, William F.; Batalha, Natalie M.; Ciardi, David R.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Prša, Andrej


    We analyze the deviations of transit times from a linear ephemeris for the Kepler Objects of Interest (KOI) through quarter six of science data. We conduct two statistical tests for all KOIs and a related statistical test for all pairs of KOIs in multi-transiting systems. These tests identify several systems which show potentially interesting transit timing variations (TTVs). Strong TTV systems have been valuable for the confirmation of planets and their mass measurements. Many of the systems identified in this study should prove fruitful for detailed TTV studies.

  20. A closure test for time-specific capture-recapture data (United States)

    Stanley, T.R.; Burnham, K.P.


    The assumption of demographic closure in the analysis of capture-recapture data under closed-population models is of fundamental importance. Yet, little progress has been made in the development of omnibus tests of the closure assumption. We present a closure test for time-specific data that, in principle, tests the null hypothesis of closed-population model M(t) against the open-population Jolly-Seber model as a specific alternative. This test is chi-square, and can be decomposed into informative components that can be interpreted to determine the nature of closure violations. The test is most sensitive to permanent emigration and least sensitive to temporary emigration, and is of intermediate sensitivity to permanent or temporary immigration. This test is a versatile tool for testing the assumption of demographic closure in the analysis of capture-recapture data.

  1. Development and psychometric properties of the client's assessment of treatment scale for supported accommodation (CAT-SA). (United States)

    Sandhu, Sima; Killaspy, Helen; Krotofil, Joanna; McPherson, Peter; Harrison, Isobel; Dowling, Sarah; Arbuthnott, Maurice; Curtis, Sarah; King, Michael; Leavey, Gerard; Shepherd, Geoff; Priebe, Stefan


    Patient-Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) are important for evaluating mental health services. Yet, no specific PROM exists for the large and diverse mental health supported accommodation sector. We aimed to produce and validate a PROM specifically for supported accommodation services, by adapting the Client's Assessment of Treatment Scale (CAT) and assessing its psychometric properties in a large sample. Focus groups with service users in the three main types of mental health supported accommodation services in the United Kingdom (residential care, supported housing and floating outreach) were conducted to adapt the contents of the original CAT items and assess the acceptability of the modified scale (CAT-SA). The CAT-SA was then administered in a survey to service users across England. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. Convergent validity was tested through correlations with subjective quality of life and satisfaction with accommodation, as measured by the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA). All seven original items of the CAT were regarded as relevant to appraisals of mental health supported accommodation services, with only slight modifications to the wording required. In the survey, data were obtained from 618 clients. The internal consistency of the CAT-SA items was 0.89. Mean CAT-SA scores were correlated with the specific accommodation item on the MANSA (r s  = 0.37, p ˂ .001). The content of the CAT-SA has relevance to service users living in mental health supported accommodation. The findings from our large survey show that the CAT-SA is acceptable across different types of supported accommodation and suggest good psychometric properties. The CAT-SA appears a valid and easy to use PROM for service users in mental health supported accommodation services.

  2. A review of non-strabismic accommodative and vergence anomalies in school-age children. Part 2: Accommodative anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel O. Wajuihian


    Full Text Available Comfortable reading and the performance of related near point activities involve efficient accommodative and vergence systems. However, accommodative and convergence anomalies are associated with various symptoms of asthenopia that impair efficient near point tasks. In Part 1 of this two-part article, studies on vergence anomalies were reviewed. In the current paper (Part 2, anomalies of accommodation are reviewed. The aims of the latter paper were to derive the prevalence and distribution estimates of anomalies of accommodation in school-age children and address variations in the study methods and findings. Despite variations in the study methods and findings, anomalies of accommodation are prevalent among school-age populations. Variations and limitations of previous studies are discussed and recommendations for improving future studies are suggested.

  3. New significance test methods for Fourier analysis of geophysical time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zhang


    Full Text Available When one applies the discrete Fourier transform to analyze finite-length time series, discontinuities at the data boundaries will distort its Fourier power spectrum. In this paper, based on a rigid statistics framework, we present a new significance test method which can extract the intrinsic feature of a geophysical time series very well. We show the difference in significance level compared with traditional Fourier tests by analyzing the Arctic Oscillation (AO and the Nino3.4 time series. In the AO, we find significant peaks at about 2.8, 4.3, and 5.7 yr periods and in Nino3.4 at about 12 yr period in tests against red noise. These peaks are not significant in traditional tests.

  4. Changes in Central Walker Lane Strain Accommodation near Bridgeport, California; as told by the Stanislaus Group (United States)

    Carlson, C. W.; Pluhar, C. J.; Glen, J. M.; Farner, M. J.


    Accommodating ~20-25% of the dextral-motion between the Pacific and North American plates the Walker Lane is represented as an elongate, NW oriented, region of active tectonics positioned between the northwesterly-translating Sierra Nevada microplate and the east-west extension of the Basin and Range. This region of transtension is being variably accommodated on regional-scale systems of predominantly strike-slip faulting. At the western edge of the central Walker Lane (ca. 38°-39°N latitude) is a region of crustal-scale blocks bounded by wedge-shaped depositional-basins and normal-fault systems, here defined as the west-central Walker Lane (WCWL). Devoid of obvious strike-slip faulting, the presence of tectonic-block vertical-axis rotations in the WCWL represents unrecognized components of dextral-shearing and/or changes of strain-accommodation over time. We use paleomagnetic reference directions for Eureka Valley Tuff (EVT) members of the late Miocene Stanislaus Group as spatial and temporal markers for documentation of tectonic-block vertical-axis rotations near Bridgeport, CA. Study-site rotations revealed discrete rotational domains of mean vertical-axis rotation ranging from ~10°-30° with heterogeneous regional distribution. Additionally, the highest measured magnitudes of vertical-axis rotation (~50°-60° CW) define a 'Region of High Strain' that includes the wedge-shaped Bridgeport Valley (Basin). This study revealed previously-unrecognized tectonic rotation of reference direction sites from prior studies for two (By-Day and Upper) of the three members of the EVT, resulting in under-estimates of regional strain accommodation by these studies. Mean remanent directions and virtual geomagnetic poles utilized in our study yielded a recalculated reference direction for the By-Day member of: Dec.=353.2°; Inc.= 43.7°; α95=10.1, in agreement with new measurements in the stable Sierra Nevada. This recalculated direction confirmed the presence of previously

  5. Real-Time Extended Interface Automata for Software Testing Cases Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunkun Yang


    Full Text Available Testing and verification of the interface between software components are particularly important due to the large number of complex interactions, which requires the traditional modeling languages to overcome the existing shortcomings in the aspects of temporal information description and software testing input controlling. This paper presents the real-time extended interface automata (RTEIA which adds clearer and more detailed temporal information description by the application of time words. We also establish the input interface automaton for every input in order to solve the problems of input controlling and interface covering nimbly when applied in the software testing field. Detailed definitions of the RTEIA and the testing cases generation algorithm are provided in this paper. The feasibility and efficiency of this method have been verified in the testing of one real aircraft braking system.

  6. Real-time and accelerated outdoor endurance testing of solar cells (United States)

    Forestieri, A. F.; Anagnostou, E.


    Real-time and accelerated outdoor endurance testing was performed on a variety of samples of interest to the National Photovoltaic Conversion Program. The real-time tests were performed at seven different sites and the accelerated tests were performed at one of those sites in the southwestern United States. The purpose of the tests were to help evaluate the lifetime of photovoltaic systems. Three types of samples were tested; transmission samples of possible cover materials, sub-modules constructed using these materials attached to solar cells, and solar cell modules produced by the manufacturers for the ERDA program. Results indicate that suitable cover materials are glass, FEP-A and PFA. Dirt accumulation and cleanability are important factors in the selection of solar cell module covers and encapsulants.

  7. Real-Time Extended Interface Automata for Software Testing Cases Generation (United States)

    Yang, Shunkun; Xu, Jiaqi; Man, Tianlong; Liu, Bin


    Testing and verification of the interface between software components are particularly important due to the large number of complex interactions, which requires the traditional modeling languages to overcome the existing shortcomings in the aspects of temporal information description and software testing input controlling. This paper presents the real-time extended interface automata (RTEIA) which adds clearer and more detailed temporal information description by the application of time words. We also establish the input interface automaton for every input in order to solve the problems of input controlling and interface covering nimbly when applied in the software testing field. Detailed definitions of the RTEIA and the testing cases generation algorithm are provided in this paper. The feasibility and efficiency of this method have been verified in the testing of one real aircraft braking system. PMID:24892080

  8. Trends in Pap Testing Over Time for Women With and Without Chronic Disability. (United States)

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Kurtz, Stephen G; Rao, Sowmya R


    Data from 20 years ago--shortly after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act--showed that women with significant mobility disability had 40% lower Pap test rates than other women. To examine whether disability disparities in Pap test rates have diminished over time, this study analyzed National Health Interview Survey responses from selected years between 1998 and 2010 from women aged 21-65 years without histories of cervical cancer or hysterectomy. Seven chronic disability types were identified using self-reported functional impairments or participation limitations. Self-reported Pap testing within the previous 3 years was studied. Bivariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables were conducted in 2014. Rates of all chronic disability types increased over time. Pap test rates remained relatively constant over time for all women, holding around 84%-87%. Bivariable analyses found statistically significantly lower rates of Pap testing for women with disability compared with nondisabled women. Multivariable analyses failed to find consistent evidence of lower Pap test rates among women across disability types compared with nondisabled women. In 2010, the AOR for reporting Pap testing for women noting the most severe movement difficulty compared with nondisabled women was 0.35 (95% CI=0.15, 0.79). However, the AOR for this disability type varied over time. Little has changed over time in Pap test rates for all women. Women with certain disabilities continue to experience disparities compared with nondisabled women in receipt of this important screening test. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Performing T-tests to Compare Autocorrelated Time Series Data Collected from Direct-Reading Instruments. (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, Patrick; Cavanaugh, Joseph E


    Industrial hygienists now commonly use direct-reading instruments to evaluate hazards in the workplace. The stored values over time from these instruments constitute a time series of measurements that are often autocorrelated. Given the need to statistically compare two occupational scenarios using values from a direct-reading instrument, a t-test must consider measurement autocorrelation or the resulting test will have a largely inflated type-1 error probability (false rejection of the null hypothesis). A method is described for both the one-sample and two-sample cases which properly adjusts for autocorrelation. This method involves the computation of an "equivalent sample size" that effectively decreases the actual sample size when determining the standard error of the mean for the time series. An example is provided for the one-sample case, and an example is given where a two-sample t-test is conducted for two autocorrelated time series comprised of lognormally distributed measurements.

  10. Towards improved behavioural testing in aquatic toxicology: Acclimation and observation times are important factors when designing behavioural tests with fish. (United States)

    Melvin, Steven D; Petit, Marie A; Duvignacq, Marion C; Sumpter, John P


    The quality and reproducibility of science has recently come under scrutiny, with criticisms spanning disciplines. In aquatic toxicology, behavioural tests are currently an area of controversy since inconsistent findings have been highlighted and attributed to poor quality science. The problem likely relates to limitations to our understanding of basic behavioural patterns, which can influence our ability to design statistically robust experiments yielding ecologically relevant data. The present study takes a first step towards understanding baseline behaviours in fish, including how basic choices in experimental design might influence behavioural outcomes and interpretations in aquatic toxicology. Specifically, we explored how fish acclimate to behavioural arenas and how different lengths of observation time impact estimates of basic swimming parameters (i.e., average, maximum and angular velocity). We performed a semi-quantitative literature review to place our findings in the context of the published literature describing behavioural tests with fish. Our results demonstrate that fish fundamentally change their swimming behaviour over time, and that acclimation and observational timeframes may therefore have implications for influencing both the ecological relevance and statistical robustness of behavioural toxicity tests. Our review identified 165 studies describing behavioural responses in fish exposed to various stressors, and revealed that the majority of publications documenting fish behavioural responses report extremely brief acclimation times and observational durations, which helps explain inconsistencies identified across studies. We recommend that researchers applying behavioural tests with fish, and other species, apply a similar framework to better understand baseline behaviours and the implications of design choices for influencing study outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A permutation-based multiple testing method for time-course microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Stephen L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Time-course microarray experiments are widely used to study the temporal profiles of gene expression. Storey et al. (2005 developed a method for analyzing time-course microarray studies that can be applied to discovering genes whose expression trajectories change over time within a single biological group, or those that follow different time trajectories among multiple groups. They estimated the expression trajectories of each gene using natural cubic splines under the null (no time-course and alternative (time-course hypotheses, and used a goodness of fit test statistic to quantify the discrepancy. The null distribution of the statistic was approximated through a bootstrap method. Gene expression levels in microarray data are often complicatedly correlated. An accurate type I error control adjusting for multiple testing requires the joint null distribution of test statistics for a large number of genes. For this purpose, permutation methods have been widely used because of computational ease and their intuitive interpretation. Results In this paper, we propose a permutation-based multiple testing procedure based on the test statistic used by Storey et al. (2005. We also propose an efficient computation algorithm. Extensive simulations are conducted to investigate the performance of the permutation-based multiple testing procedure. The application of the proposed method is illustrated using the Caenorhabditis elegans dauer developmental data. Conclusion Our method is computationally efficient and applicable for identifying genes whose expression levels are time-dependent in a single biological group and for identifying the genes for which the time-profile depends on the group in a multi-group setting.

  12. ISC origin times for announced and presumed underground nuclear explosions at several test sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodean, H.C.


    Announced data for US and French underground nuclear explosions indicate that nearly all detonations have occurred within one or two tenths of a second after the minute. This report contains ISC origin-time data for announced explosions at two US test sites and one French test site, and includes similar data for presumed underground nuclear explosions at five Soviet sites. Origin-time distributions for these sites are analyzed for those events that appeared to be detonated very close to the minute. Particular attention is given to the origin times for the principal US and Soviet test sites in Nevada and Eastern Kazakhstan. The mean origin times for events at the several test sites range from 0.4 s to 2.8 s before the minute, with the earlier mean times associated with the Soviet sites and the later times with the US and French sites. These times indicate lower seismic velocities beneath the US and French sites, and higher velocities beneath the sites in the USSR 9 figures, 8 tables

  13. Accuracy of the Timed Up and Go test for predicting sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Prata Martinez


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The ability of the Timed Up and Go test to predict sarcopenia has not been evaluated previously. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Timed Up and Go test for predicting sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed 68 elderly patients (≥60 years of age in a private hospital in the city of Salvador-BA, Brazil, between the 1st and 5th day of hospitalization. The predictive variable was the Timed Up and Go test score, and the outcome of interest was the presence of sarcopenia (reduced muscle mass associated with a reduction in handgrip strength and/or weak physical performance in a 6-m gait-speed test. After the descriptive data analyses, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of a test using the predictive variable to predict the presence of sarcopenia were calculated. RESULTS: In total, 68 elderly individuals, with a mean age 70.4±7.7 years, were evaluated. The subjects had a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 5.35±1.97. Most (64.7% of the subjects had a clinical admission profile; the main reasons for hospitalization were cardiovascular disorders (22.1%, pneumonia (19.1% and abdominal disorders (10.2%. The frequency of sarcopenia in the sample was 22.1%, and the mean length of time spent performing the Timed Up and Go test was 10.02±5.38 s. A time longer than or equal to a cutoff of 10.85 s on the Timed Up and Go test predicted sarcopenia with a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 88.7%. The accuracy of this cutoff for the Timed Up and Go test was good (0.80; IC=0.66-0.94; p=0.002. CONCLUSION: The Timed Up and Go test was shown to be a predictor of sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients.

  14. Increasing survival time decreases the cost-effectiveness of using "test & treat'' to eliminate HIV epidemics. (United States)

    Wagner, Bradley G; Coburn, Brian J; Blower, Sally


    Treating HIV-infected individuals reduces their viral load, consequently increasing their survival time and decreasing their infectivity. It has been proposed that universal testing and treatment (i.e., universal "test & treat'') could lead to HIV elimination and would be extremely cost-effective. It is now being debated whether to use a universal "test & treat'' approach in the "real-world'' as a prevention strategy to control HIV epidemics. However current modeling predictions of the impact, and cost-effectiveness, of universal `"est & treat'' strategies are based on an unrealistically short survival time for treated individuals. Here we use mathematical modeling and a longer, more realistic, survival time. We model the potential impact of a universal "test & treat'' strategy in South Africa. Our results show that increasing the length of the survival time on treatment, although beneficial to individuals, reduces the probability of eliminating HIV and decreases the cost-effectiveness of using universal "test & treat'' strategies. Therefore our results show that individual-level benefits and public health benefits will conflict when using "test &treat'' strategies to reduce HIV transmission.

  15. The Effects of Repeated Testing, Simulated Malingering, and Traumatic Brain Injury on Visual Choice Reaction Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Woods


    Full Text Available Choice reaction time (CRT, the time required to discriminate and respond appropriately to different stimuli, is a basic measure of attention and processing speed. Here, we describe the reliability and clinical sensitivity of a new CRT test that presents lateralized visual stimuli and adaptively adjusts stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs using a staircase procedure. Experiment 1 investigated the test-retest reliability in three test sessions at weekly intervals. Performance in the first test session was accurately predicted from age and computer-use regression functions obtained in a previously studied normative cohort. Central processing time (CentPT, the difference between the CRTs and simple reaction time latencies measured in a separate experiment, accounted for 55% of CRT latency and more than 50% of CRT latency variance. Performance improved significantly across the three test sessions. High intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were seen for CRTs (0.90, CentPTs (0.87, and an omnibus performance measure (0.81 that combined CRT and minimal SOA (mSOA z-scores. Experiment 2 investigated performance in the same participants when instructed to feign symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI: 87% produced abnormal omnibus z-scores. Simulated malingerers showed greater elevations in simple than choice reaction times, and hence reduced CentPTs. Latency-consistency z-scores, based on the difference between the CRTs obtained and those predicted from CentPT latencies, discriminated malingering participants from controls with high sensitivity and specificity. Experiment 3 investigated CRT test performance in military veterans who had suffered combat-related TBI and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and revealed small but significant deficits in performance. The results indicate that the new CRT test shows high test-retest reliability, can assist in detecting participants performing with suboptimal effort, and is sensitive to the effects of

  16. Time-varying Entry Heating Profile Replication with a Rotating Arc Jet Test Article (United States)

    Grinstead, Jay Henderson; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Noyes, Eric A.; Mach, Jeffrey J.; Empey, Daniel M.; White, Todd R.


    A new approach for arc jet testing of thermal protection materials at conditions approximating the time-varying conditions of atmospheric entry was developed and demonstrated. The approach relies upon the spatial variation of heat flux and pressure over a cylindrical test model. By slowly rotating a cylindrical arc jet test model during exposure to an arc jet stream, each point on the test model will experience constantly changing applied heat flux. The predicted temporal profile of heat flux at a point on a vehicle can be replicated by rotating the cylinder at a prescribed speed and direction. An electromechanical test model mechanism was designed, built, and operated during an arc jet test to demonstrate the technique.

  17. Performance testing of real-time AI systems using the activation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, L.; Duckworth, J.; Laznovsky, A.; Green, P.


    This paper describes methods for automated performance testing of real-time artificial intelligence systems using the Activation Framework software development tool. The Activation Framework is suitable for applications such as the diagnosis of power system failures, which require the interpretation of large volumes of data in real-time. The Activation Framework consists of tools for compiling groups of Expert Systems rules into executable code modules, for automatically generating code modules from high level system configuration descriptions, and for automatically generating command files for program compilation and linking. It includes an operating system environment which provides the code which is common from one real-time AI applications to the next. It also includes mechanisms, described here, for automatic performance testing. The principal emphasis of this paper is on a rule based language which is used to capture performance specifications. This specification is compiled into code modules which are used to automatically test the system. This testing can validate that the system meets performance requirements during development and after maintenance. A large number of tests can be randomly generated and executed and the correctness of the outputs automatically validated. The paper also describes graph directed testing methods to minimize the number of test runs required

  18. Influence of the centrifuge time of primary plasma tubes on routine coagulation testing. (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Manzato, Franco; Guidi, Gian Cesare


    Preparation of blood specimens is a major bottleneck in the laboratory throughput. Reliable strategies for reducing the time required for specimen processing without affecting quality should be acknowledged, especially for laboratories performing stat analyses. The present investigation was planned to establish a minimal suitable centrifuge time for primary samples collected for routine coagulation testing. Five sequential primary vacuum tubes containing 0.109 mol/l buffered trisodium citrate were collected from 10 volunteers and were immediately centrifuged on a conventional centrifuge at 1500 x g, at room temperature for 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 min, respectively. Hematological and routine coagulation testing, including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen, were performed. The centrifugation time was inversely associated with residual blood cell elements in plasma, especially platelets. Statistically significant variations from the reference 15-min centrifuge specimens were observed for fibrinogen in samples centrifuged for 5 min at most and for the activated partial thromboplastin time in samples centrifuged for 2 min at most. Meaningful biases related to the desirable bias were observed for fibrinogen in samples centrifuged for 2 min at most, and for the activated partial thromboplastin time in samples centrifuged for 1 min at most. According to our experimental conditions, a 5-10 min centrifuge time at 1500 x g may be suitable for primary tubes collected for routine coagulation testing.

  19. Development of real-time on-line vibration testing system for seismic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, T.; Nakagawa, M.; Kametani, M.


    An on-line vibration testing method is being developed for seismic experiments. This method combines computer simulation and an actuator for vibration testing of structures. A real-time, on-line testing system was developed to improve the method. In the system, the timing of the vibration testing and the computer simulation are the same. This allows time-dependent reaction forces, such as damping force, to be immediately considered in the computer simulation. The real-time system has many requirements, such as complicated matrix calculations within a small time step, and communication with outer devices like sensors and actuators through A/D and D/A converters. These functions arc accomplished by using a newly-developed, real-time controller that employs a parallel processing technique. A small structural model is used to demonstrate the system. The reliability and applicability of the system for seismic experiments can be demonstrated by comparing the results of the system and a shaking table, which are in almost agreement. (author)

  20. SLR-induced changes on storm flooding in coastal areas: the role of accommodation space (United States)

    Jiménez, Jose A.; Dockx, Stijn; Monbaliu, Jaak


    infrastructures conditions and limits the availability of accommodation space and, thus, controls the magnitude of the coastal response and final configuration under SLR. This final configuration will determine potential changes in water level and overtopping regimes under the SLR scenario. Thus, potential SLR effects on storm-inundation will range between no changes for a "complete-equilibrium" response to worst case scenario which corresponds to a non-response (static) situation. The method has been tested in a low-lying coast in Catalonia (Spain, NW Mediterranean) where accommodation space varies along the coastline for different SLR scenarios. Obtained results show that, in spite of any variation in storminess, storm-induced flood risk significantly increase in time due to CC. Moreover, the observed variations in accommodation space along the coast significantly affect the observed increase in flood extension and, in consequence, it becomes one an essential aspect to be controlled for efficient management of future inundation risks.

  1. On the Reduced Testing of a Primitive Element in ${\\\\mathbb Z}_n^\\\\times$


    Suzuki, Hideo; スズキ, ヒデオ; Hideo, Suzuki


    The primitive roots in ${\\mathbb Z}_n^\\times$ are defined and exist iff $n = 2, 4, p^{\\alpha}, 2p^{\\alpha}$. Knuth gave the definition of the primitive roots in ${\\mathbb Z}_{p^\\alpha}^\\times$, and showed the necessary and sufficient condition for testing a primitive root in ${\\mathbb Z}_{p^\\alpha}^\\times$. In this paper we define the primitive elements in ${\\mathbb Z}_n^\\times$, which is a generalization of primitive roots, as elements that take the maximum multiplicative order.And we give t...

  2. Testing the effect of time pressure on asymmetric dominance and compromise decoys in choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Pettibone


    Full Text Available Dynamic, connectionist models of decision making, such as decision field theory (Roe, Busemeyer, and Townsend, 2001, propose that the effect of context on choice arises from a series of pairwise comparisons between attributes of alternatives across time. As such, they predict that limiting the amount of time to make a decision should decrease rather than increase the size of contextual effects. This prediction was tested across four levels of time pressure on both the asymmetric dominance (Huber, Payne, and Puto, 1982 and compromise (Simonson, 1989 decoy effects in choice. Overall, results supported this prediction, with both types of decoy effects found to be larger as time pressure decreased.

  3. Controlling silver nanoparticle exposure in algal toxicity testing - A matter of timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sara Nørgaard; Baun, Anders


    ) in a standard algal growth inhibition test (ISO 8692:2004) for 48 h and a short-term (2 h) 14C-assimilation test. For AgNO3, similar responses were obtained in the two tests, whereas freshly prepared suspensions of citrate stabilized AgNPs were less toxic in the 2-h tests compared to the 48-h tests. The 2-h...... test was found applicable for dissolved silver, but yielded non-monotonous concentration–response relationships and poor reproducibility for freshly prepared AgNP suspensions. However, when aging AgNPs in algal medium 24 h prior to testing, clear concentration–response patterns emerged...... and reproducibility increased. Prolonged aging to 48 h increased toxicity in the 2-h tests whereas aging beyond 48 h reduced toxicity. Our results demonstrate that the outcome of algal toxicity testing of AgNPs is highly influenced not only by the test duration, but also by the time passed from the moment Ag...

  4. Accommodation, accommodative convergence, and response AC/A ratios before and at the onset of myopia in children. (United States)

    Gwiazda, Jane; Thorn, Frank; Held, Richard


    The purpose of this study was to investigate accommodation, accommodative convergence, and AC/A ratios before and at the onset of myopia in children. Refractive error, accommodation, and phorias were measured annually over a period of 3 years in 80 6- to 18-year-old children (mean age at first visit = 11.1 years), including 26 who acquired myopia of at least -0.50 D and 54 who remained emmetropic (-0.25 to + 0.75 D). Refraction was measured by noncycloplegic distance retinoscopy. Concomitant measures of accommodation and phorias were taken for letter targets at 4.0 m and 0.33 m using the Canon R-1 open field-of-view autorefractor with an attached motorized Risley prism and Maddox rod. The accommodation and phoria measurements were used to calculate response AC/A ratios. Compared with children who remained emmetropic, those who became myopic had elevated response AC/A ratios at 1 and 2 years before the onset of myopia, in addition to at onset and 1 year later (t's = -2.97 to -4.04, p accommodation. Accommodative convergence was significantly greater in myopes only at onset. These findings suggest that the abnormal oculomotor factors found before the onset of myopia may contribute to myopigenesis by producing hyperopic retinal defocus when a child is engaged in near-viewing tasks.

  5. The application of digital computers to near-real-time processing of flutter test data (United States)

    Hurley, S. R.


    Procedures used in monitoring, analyzing, and displaying flight and ground flutter test data are presented. These procedures include three digital computer programs developed to process structural response data in near real time. Qualitative and quantitative modal stability data are derived from time history response data resulting from rapid sinusoidal frequency sweep forcing functions, tuned-mode quick stops, and pilot induced control pulses. The techniques have been applied to both fixed and rotary wing aircraft, during flight, whirl tower rotor systems tests, and wind tunnel flutter model tests. An hydraulically driven oscillatory aerodynamic vane excitation system utilized during the flight flutter test programs accomplished during Lockheed L-1011 and S-3A development is described.

  6. Effects of particle size and heating time on thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test of soybean powder. (United States)

    Lee, Youn-Ju; Yoon, Won-Byong


    Effects of particle size and heating time during TBA test on the thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) of soybean (Glycine Max) powder were studied. Effects of processing variables involved in the pulverization of soybean, such as the temperature of soybean powder, the oxygen level in the vessel, and the pulverisation time, were investigated. The temperature of the soybean powder and the oxygen level had no significant influence on the TBARS (pTBA test significantly affected the TBARS. Change of TBARS during heating was well described by the fractional conversion first order kinetics model. A diffusion model was introduced to quantify the effect of particle size on TBARS. The major finding of this study was that the TBA test to estimate the level of the lipid oxidation directly from powders should consider the heating time and the mean particle sizes of the sample. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a Real-time PCR test for porcine group A rotavirus diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C.M. Marconi


    Full Text Available Group A Rotavirus (RVA is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in humans and several animal species. A SYBR-Green Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR was developed to diagnose RVA from porcine fecal samples, targeting amplification of a 137-bp fragment of nonstructural protein 5 (NSP5 gene using mRNA of bovine NADH-desidrogenase-5 as exogenous internal control. Sixty-five samples were tested (25 tested positive for conventional PCR and genetic sequencing. The overall agreement (kappa was 0.843, indicating 'very good' concordance between tests, presenting 100% of relative sensitivity (25+ Real Time PCR/25+ Conventional PCR and 87.5% of relative sensitivity (35- Real Time PCR/40- Conventional PCR. The results also demonstrated high intra- and inter-assay reproducibility (coefficient of variation ≤1.42%; thus, this method proved to be a fast and sensitive approach for the diagnosis of RVA in pigs.

  8. Time Trials Versus Time-to-Exhaustion Tests: Effects on Critical Power, W', and Oxygen-Uptake Kinetics. (United States)

    Karsten, Bettina; Baker, Jonathan; Naclerio, Fernando; Klose, Andreas; Bianco, Antonino; Nimmerichter, Alfred


    To investigate single-day time-to-exhaustion (TTE) and time-trial (TT) -based laboratory tests values of critical power (CP), W prime (W'), and respective oxygen-uptake-kinetic responses. Twelve cyclists performed a maximal ramp test followed by 3 TTE and 3 TT efforts interspersed by 60 min recovery between efforts. Oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 ) was measured during all trials. The mean response time was calculated as a description of the overall [Formula: see text]-kinetic response from the onset to 2 min of exercise. TTE-determined CP was 279 ± 52 W, and TT-determined CP was 276 ± 50 W (P = .237). Values of W' were 14.3 ± 3.4 kJ (TTE W') and 16.5 ± 4.2 kJ (TT W') (P = .028). While a high level of agreement (-12 to 17 W) and a low prediction error of 2.7% were established for CP, for W' limits of agreements were markedly lower (-8 to 3.7 kJ), with a prediction error of 18.8%. The mean standard error for TTE CP values was significantly higher than that for TT CP values (2.4% ± 1.9% vs 1.2% ± 0.7% W). The standard errors for TTE W' and TT W' were 11.2% ± 8.1% and 5.6% ± 3.6%, respectively. The [Formula: see text] response was significantly faster during TT (~22 s) than TTE (~28 s). The TT protocol with a 60-min recovery period offers a valid, time-saving, and less error-filled alternative to conventional and more recent testing methods. Results, however, cannot be transferred to W'.

  9. Y2K issues for real time computer systems for fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, P.


    Presentation shows the classification of real time systems related to operation, control and monitoring of the fast breeder test reactor. Software life cycle includes software requirement specification, software design description, coding, commissioning, operation and management. A software scheme in supervisory computer of fast breeder test rector is described with the twenty years of experience in design, development, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of computer based supervision control system for nuclear installation with a particular emphasis on solving the Y2K problem


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Novash


    Full Text Available The methods of modelling of power system modes and of testing of relay protection devices with the aid the simulation complexes in real time and with the help of computer software systems that enables the simulation of virtual time scale are considered. Information input protection signals in the simulation of the virtual model time are being obtained in the computational experiment, whereas the tests of protective devices are carried out with the help of hardware and software test systems with the use of estimated input signals. Study of power system stability when modes of generating and consuming electrical equipment and conditions of devices of relay protection are being changed requires testing with the use of digital simulators in a mode of a closed loop. Herewith feedbacks between a model of the power system operating in a real time and external devices or their models must be determined (modelled. Modelling in real time and the analysis of international experience in the use of digital simulation power systems for real-time simulation (RTDS simulator have been fulfilled. Examples are given of the use of RTDS systems by foreign energy companies to test relay protection systems and control, to test the equipment and devices of automatic control, analysis of cyber security and evaluation of the operation of energy systems under different scenarios of occurrence of emergency situations. Some quantitative data on the distribution of RTDS in different countries and Russia are presented. It is noted that the leading energy universities of Russia use the real-time simulation not only to solve scientific and technical problems, but also to conduct training and laboratory classes on modelling of electric networks and anti-emergency automatic equipment with the students. In order to check serviceability of devices of relay protection without taking into account the reaction of the power system tests can be performed in an open loop mode with the

  11. Standard Test Method for Gel Time of Carbon Fiber-Epoxy Prepreg

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the determination of gel time of carbon fiber-epoxy tape and sheet. The test method is suitable for the measurement of gel time of resin systems having either high or low viscosity. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are for reference only. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  12. Test beam & time resolution analysis for UFSD and CVD diamond detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Scali, Stefano


    The ever-increasing luminosity in particle physics, aimed at seeking new phenomena, has led to the need for radiation-hard detectors with a remarkable time resolution. To reach the goal several tests and data analysis has been performed but further development is still required. During my internship I have participated to the test of new sensors. After an introduction to the theoretical framework this report describes the data taking procedure using SPS beam at the H8 site in Prevessin. The second part describes the data analysis and extrapolation of the time resolution for many boards.

  13. Accommodating Oversize and Overweight Loads : Instructor and Student Guide (United States)


    This instructor and student guide is designed to guide the instructor in conveying information at the district level concerning Research Project 0-6404 Accommodating Oversize and Overweight Loads. The specific information focuses on the Bryan D...

  14. Occlusal accommodation and mouthguards for prevention of orofacial trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Geary, Julian Lindsay


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of occlusal accommodation on the arch separation in centric and eccentric arch positions and to assess the opposing tooth contacts in professionally made, thermoformed sports mouthguards.

  15. Amplitude of Accommodation and its Relation to Refractive Errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lekha


    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the relationship between amplitude of accommodation and refractive errors in the peri-presbyopic age group. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixteen right eyes of 316 consecutive patients in the age group 35-50 years who attended our outpatient clinic were studied. Emmetropes, hypermetropes and myopes with best-corrected visual acuity of 6/6 J1 in both eyes were included. The amplitude of accommodation (AA was calculated by measuring the near point of accommodation (NPA. In patients with more than ± 2 diopter sphere correction for distance, the NPA was also measured using appropriate soft contact lenses. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in AA between myopes and hypermetropes ( P P P P P P >0.5. Conclusion: Our study showed higher amplitude of accommodation among myopes between 35 and 44 years compared to emmetropes and hypermetropes

  16. The influence of time on lead toxicity and bioaccumulation determined by the OECD earthworm toxicity test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, N.A.Nicola A.; Hodson, M.E.Mark E.; Black, S.Stuart


    Timing of lead addition and worms to soil affects the response of the worms to soil affects the response of the worms to lead. - Internationally agreed standard protocols for assessing chemical toxicity of contaminants in soil to worms assume that the test soil does not need to equilibrate with the chemical to be tested prior to the addition of the test organisms and that the chemical will exert any toxic effect upon the test organism within 28 days. Three experiments were carried out to investigate these assumptions. The first experiment was a standard toxicity test where lead nitrate was added to a soil in solution to give a range of concentrations. The mortality of the worms and the concentration of lead in the survivors were determined. The LC 50 s for 14 and 28 days were 5311 and 5395 μg Pb g -1 soil respectively. The second experiment was a timed lead accumulation study with worms cultivated in soil containing either 3000 or 5000 μg Pb g -1 soil . The concentration of lead in the worms was determined at various sampling times. Uptake at both concentrations was linear with time. Worms in the 5000 μg g -1 soil accumulated lead at a faster rate (3.16 μg Pb g -1 tissue day -1 ) than those in the 3000 μg g -1 soil (2.21 μg Pb g -1 tissue day -1 ). The third experiment was a timed experiment with worms cultivated in soil containing 7000 μg Pb g -1 soil . Soil and lead nitrate solution were mixed and stored at 20 deg. C. Worms were added at various times over a 35-day period. The time to death increased from 23 h, when worms were added directly after the lead was added to the soil, to 67 h when worms were added after the soil had equilibrated with the lead for 35 days. In artificially Pb-amended soils the worms accumulate Pb over the duration of their exposure to the Pb. Thus time limited toxicity tests may be terminated before worm body load has reached a toxic level. This could result in under-estimates of the toxicity of Pb to worms. As the equilibration

  17. A general statistical test for correlations in a finite-length time series. (United States)

    Hanson, Jeffery A; Yang, Haw


    The statistical properties of the autocorrelation function from a time series composed of independently and identically distributed stochastic variables has been studied. Analytical expressions for the autocorrelation function's variance have been derived. It has been found that two common ways of calculating the autocorrelation, moving-average and Fourier transform, exhibit different uncertainty characteristics. For periodic time series, the Fourier transform method is preferred because it gives smaller uncertainties that are uniform through all time lags. Based on these analytical results, a statistically robust method has been proposed to test the existence of correlations in a time series. The statistical test is verified by computer simulations and an application to single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is discussed.

  18. Real-Time PCR in Clinical Microbiology: Applications for Routine Laboratory Testing (United States)

    Espy, M. J.; Uhl, J. R.; Sloan, L. M.; Buckwalter, S. P.; Jones, M. F.; Vetter, E. A.; Yao, J. D. C.; Wengenack, N. L.; Rosenblatt, J. E.; Cockerill, F. R.; Smith, T. F.


    Real-time PCR has revolutionized the way clinical microbiology laboratories diagnose many human microbial infections. This testing method combines PCR chemistry with fluorescent probe detection of amplified product in the same reaction vessel. In general, both PCR and amplified product detection are completed in an hour or less, which is considerably faster than conventional PCR detection methods. Real-time PCR assays provide sensitivity and specificity equivalent to that of conventional PCR combined with Southern blot analysis, and since amplification and detection steps are performed in the same closed vessel, the risk of releasing amplified nucleic acids into the environment is negligible. The combination of excellent sensitivity and specificity, low contamination risk, and speed has made real-time PCR technology an appealing alternative to culture- or immunoassay-based testing methods for diagnosing many infectious diseases. This review focuses on the application of real-time PCR in the clinical microbiology laboratory. PMID:16418529

  19. Minimal hepatic encephalopathy characterized by parallel use of the continuous reaction time and portosystemic encephalopathy tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, M M; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O B; Vilstrup, H


    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is a frequent complication to liver cirrhosis that causes poor quality of life, a great burden to caregivers, and can be treated. For diagnosis and grading the international guidelines recommend the use of psychometric tests of different modalities (computer...... based vs. paper and pencil). To compare results of the Continuous Reaction time (CRT) and the Portosystemic Encephalopathy (PSE) tests in a large unselected cohort of cirrhosis patients without clinically detectable brain impairment and to clinically characterize the patients according to their test...

  20. Configuration management issues and objectives for a real-time research flight test support facility (United States)

    Yergensen, Stephen; Rhea, Donald C.


    Presented are some of the critical issues and objectives pertaining to configuration management for the NASA Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of Ames Research Center. The primary mission of the WATR is to provide a capability for the conduct of aeronautical research flight test through real-time processing and display, tracking, and communications systems. In providing this capability, the WATR must maintain and enforce a configuration management plan which is independent of, but complimentary to, various research flight test project configuration management systems. A primary WATR objective is the continued development of generic research flight test project support capability, wherein the reliability of WATR support provided to all project users is a constant priority. Therefore, the processing of configuration change requests for specific research flight test project requirements must be evaluated within a perspective that maintains this primary objective.

  1. ICT Adoption and Development: Issues in Rural Accommodation


    Reino, Sofia; Frew, Andrew J; Albacete-Saez, Carlos


    Purpose – The work described in this paper is of direct relevance to those with an interest in the phenomena surrounding ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) adoption by the rural accommodation sector. The paper provides the results from a preliminary study, which examined differences in the level of inter-firm technology adoption between rural and urban accommodation establishments within a major tourism destination, Scotland. Design/methodology/approach – A survey was conducted,...

  2. The laboratory information float, time-based competition, and point-of-care testing. (United States)

    Friedman, B A


    A new term, the laboratory information float, should be substituted for turnaround-time when evaluating the performance of the clinical laboratory because it includes the time necessary to make test results both available (ready to use) and accessible (easy to use) to clinicians ordering tests. The laboratory information float can be greatly reduced simply by telescoping the analytic phase of laboratory testing into the preanalytic phase. Significant costs are incurred by such a change, some of which can be reduced by developing a mobile clinical laboratory (sometimes referred to as a "lab-on-a-slab" or "rolling thunder") to transport the analytic devices directly to patient care units. The mobile clinical laboratory should be equipped with an integrated personal computer that can communicate continuously with the host laboratory information system and achieve some semblance of continuous flow processing despite test performance in point-of-care venues. Equipping clinicians with palmtop computers will allow the mobile clinician to access test results and order tests on the run. Such devices can be easily configured to operate in a passive mode, accessing relevant information automatically instead of forcing clinicians to query the laboratory information system periodically for the test results necessary to render care to their patients. The laboratory information float of the year 2,000 will surely be measured in minutes through the judicious deployment of relevant technology such as mobile clinical laboratories and palmtop computers.

  3. Real time data acquisition system for the High Current Test Facility proton accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langlais, C.E.; Erickson, P.D.; Caissie, L.P.


    A real time data acquisition system was developed to monitor and control the High Current Test Facility Proton Accelerator. It is a PDP-8/E computer system with virtual memory capability that is fully interrupt driven and operates under a real-time, multi-tasking executive. The application package includes mode selection to automatically modify programs and optimize operation under varying conditions. (U.S.)

  4. Integrating software testing and run-time checking in an assertion verification framework


    Mera, E.; López García, Pedro; Hermenegildo, Manuel V.


    We have designed and implemented a framework that unifies unit testing and run-time verification (as well as static verification and static debugging). A key contribution of our approach is that a unified assertion language is used for all of these tasks. We first propose methods for compiling runtime checks for (parts of) assertions which cannot be verified at compile-time via program transformation. This transformation allows checking preconditions and postconditions, including conditional...

  5. X-ray testing for short-time dynamic applications; Roentgenuntersuchungen fuer kurzzeitdynamische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurfiss, Malte; Moser, Stefan; Popko, Gregor; Nau, Siegfried [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik, Efringen-Kirchen (Germany). Ernst-Mach-Inst. (EMI)


    For nondestructive testing purposes new challenges are short-time dynamic processes. The application of x-ray flash tubes and modern high-speed cameras allows the observation of the opening of air-bags or the energy absorption of compressed tubes as occurring during a vehicle crash. Special algorithms designed for computerized tomography analyses allow the 3D reconstruction at individual time points of the dynamic process. Possibilities and limitations of the actual techniques are discussed.

  6. Western aeronautical test range real-time graphics software package MAGIC (United States)

    Malone, Jacqueline C.; Moore, Archie L.


    The master graphics interactive console (MAGIC) software package used on the Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) of the NASA Ames Research Center is described. MAGIC is a resident real-time research tool available to flight researchers-scientists in the NASA mission control centers of the WATR at the Dryden Flight Research Facility at Edwards, California. The hardware configuration and capabilities of the real-time software package are also discussed.

  7. Testing the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanghellini, Juergen; Kitzler, Markus; Brabec, Thomas; Scrinzi, Armin


    We test the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree-Fock method as a new approach towards the numerical calculation of dynamical processes in multi-electron systems using the harmonic quantum dot and one-dimensional helium in strong laser pulses as models. We find rapid convergence for quantities such as ground-state population, correlation coefficient and single ionization towards the exact results. The method converges, where the time-dependent Hartree-Fock method fails qualitatively

  8. Time-Varying Dynamic Properties of Offshore Wind Turbines Evaluated by Modal Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Mads; Andersen, J. K. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo


    resonance of the wind turbine structure. In this paper, free vibration tests and a numerical Winkler type approach are used to evaluate the dynamic properties of a total of 30 offshore wind turbines located in the North Sea. Analyses indicate time-varying eigenfrequencies and damping ratios of the lowest...... structural eigenmode. Isolating the oscillation oil damper performance, moveable seabed conditions may lead to the observed time dependency....

  9. Accommodating Thickness in Origami-Based Deployable Arrays (United States)

    Zirbel, Shannon A.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.; Lang, Robert J.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Trease, Brian P.


    The purpose of this work is to create deployment systems with a large ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter. Deployment from a compact form to a final flat state can be achieved through origami-inspired folding of panels. There are many models capable of this motion when folded in a material with negligible thickness; however, when the application requires the folding of thick, rigid panels, attention must be paid to the effect of material thickness not only on the final folded state, but also during the folding motion (i.e., the panels must not be required to flex to attain the final folded form). The objective is to develop new methods for deployment from a compact folded form to a large circular array (or other final form). This paper describes a mathematical model for modifying the pattern to accommodate material thickness in the context of the design, modeling, and testing of a deployable system inspired by an origami six-sided flasher model. The model is demonstrated in hardware as a 1/20th scale prototype of a deployable solar array for space applications. The resulting prototype has a ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter of 9.2 (or 1.25 m deployed outer diameter to 0.136 m stowed outer diameter).

  10. Corneal changes with accommodation using dual Scheimpflug photography. (United States)

    Sisó-Fuertes, Irene; Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; Montés-Micó, Robert


    To assess whether corneal parameters and aberrations are affected by accommodation. Optics Department, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Prospective cross-sectional study. The Galilei G4 dual Scheimpflug device was used to obtain data on the anterior and posterior axial curvatures, total corneal power (TCP), and corneal pachymetry from 3 corneal zones (central: 0.0 up to 4.0 mm; paracentral or mid: 4.0 up to 7.0 mm; peripheral: 7.0 up to 10.0 mm) in young emmetropic eyes in the unaccommodated and 4 accommodated states (from -1.0 to -4.0 diopters [D] in 1.0 D steps). The 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order aberrations as well as the root mean square (RMS) were also determined for the entire cornea at the same accommodative demands. The study evaluated 7 subjects (12 eyes). No significant changes in any measured parameter were found during accommodation for any corneal zone (P > .05). Statistically significant differences were found in the various corneal zones when it was assumed they were constant with accommodation (P the high standard deviation values. Different parameters in various zones of the cornea as well as corneal aberrations were stable during accommodation. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Convergence and Accommodation Development Is Preprogrammed in Premature Infants. (United States)

    Horwood, Anna M; Toor, Sonia S; Riddell, Patricia M


    This study investigated whether vergence and accommodation development in preterm infants is preprogrammed or is driven by experience. Thirty-two healthy infants, born at mean 34 weeks gestation (range, 31.2-36 weeks), were compared with 45 healthy full-term infants (mean 40.0 weeks) over a 6-month period, starting at 4 to 6 weeks postnatally. Simultaneous accommodation and convergence to a detailed target were measured using a Plusoptix PowerRefII infrared photorefractor as a target moved between 0.33 and 2 m. Stimulus/response gains and responses at 0.33 and 2 m were compared by both corrected (gestational) age and chronological (postnatal) age. When compared by their corrected age, preterm and full-term infants showed few significant differences in vergence and accommodation responses after 6 to 7 weeks of age. However, when compared by chronological age, preterm infants' responses were more variable, with significantly reduced vergence gains, reduced vergence response at 0.33 m, reduced accommodation gain, and increased accommodation at 2 m compared to full-term infants between 8 and 13 weeks after birth. When matched by corrected age, vergence and accommodation in preterm infants show few differences from full-term infants' responses. Maturation appears preprogrammed and is not advanced by visual experience. Longer periods of immature visual responses might leave preterm infants more at risk of development of oculomotor deficits such as strabismus.

  12. Hyperelastic modelling of the crystalline lens: Accommodation and presbyopia (United States)

    Lanchares, Elena; Navarro, Rafael; Calvo, Begoña


    Purpose The modification of the mechanical properties of the human crystalline lens with age can be a major cause of presbyopia. Since these properties cannot be measured in vivo, numerical simulation can be used to estimate them. We propose an inverse method to determine age-dependent change in the material properties of the tissues composing the human crystalline lens. Methods A finite element model of a 30-year-old lens in the accommodated state was developed. The force necessary to achieve full accommodation in a 30-year-old lens of known external geometry was computed using this model. Two additional numerical models of the lens corresponding to the ages of 40 and 50 years were then built. Assuming that the accommodative force applied to the lens remains constant with age, the material properties of nucleus and cortex were estimated by inverse analysis. Results The zonular force necessary to reshape the model of a 30-year-old lens from the accommodated to the unaccommodated geometry was 0.078 newton (N). Both nucleus and cortex became stiffer with age. The stiffness of the nucleus increased with age at a higher rate than the cortex. Conclusions In agreement with the classical theory of Helmholtz, on which we based our model, our results indicate that a major cause of presbyopia is that both nucleus and cortex become stiffer with age; therefore, a constant value of the zonular forces with aging does not achieve full accommodation, that is, the accommodation capability decreases.

  13. Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Arthritis (United States)

    ... scheduling and flexible use of leave time Allow work from home during extremely hot or cold weather Maintain the ventilation system Redirect air conditioning and heating vents Provide an office with separate temperature control Situations and Solutions: A machine operator ...

  14. A novel approach to sports concussion assessment: Computerized multilimb reaction times and balance control testing. (United States)

    Vartiainen, Matti V; Holm, Anu; Lukander, Jani; Lukander, Kristian; Koskinen, Sanna; Bornstein, Robert; Hokkanen, Laura


    Mild traumatic brain injuries (MTBI) or concussions often result in problems with attention, executive functions, and motor control. For better identification of these diverse problems, novel approaches integrating tests of cognitive and motor functioning are needed. The aim was to characterize minor changes in motor and cognitive performance after sports-related concussions with a novel test battery, including balance tests and a computerized multilimb reaction time test. The cognitive demands of the battery gradually increase from a simple stimulus response to a complex task requiring executive attention. A total of 113 male ice hockey players (mean age = 24.6 years, SD = 5.7) were assessed before a season. During the season, nine concussed players were retested within 36 hours, four to six days after the concussion, and after the season. A control group of seven nonconcussed players from the same pool of players with comparable demographics were retested after the season. Performance was measured using a balance test and the Motor Cognitive Test battery (MotCoTe) with multilimb responses in simple reaction, choice reaction, inhibition, and conflict resolution conditions. The performance of the concussed group declined at the postconcussion assessment compared to both the baseline measurement and the nonconcussed controls. Significant changes were observed in the concussed group for the multilimb choice reaction and inhibition tests. Tapping and balance showed a similar trend, but no statistically significant difference in performance. In sports-related concussions, complex motor tests can be valuable additions in assessing the outcome and recovery. In the current study, using subtasks with varying cognitive demands, it was shown that while simple motor performance was largely unaffected, the more complex tasks induced impaired reaction times for the concussed subjects. The increased reaction times may reflect the disruption of complex and integrative cognitive

  15. Comparative study on novel test systems to determine disintegration time of orodispersible films. (United States)

    Preis, Maren; Gronkowsky, Dorothee; Grytzan, Dominik; Breitkreutz, Jörg


    Orodispersible films (ODFs) are a promising innovative dosage form enabling drug administration without the need for water and minimizing danger of aspiration due to their fast disintegration in small amounts of liquid. This study focuses on the development of a disintegration test system for ODFs. Two systems were developed and investigated: one provides an electronic end-point, and the other shows a transferable setup of the existing disintegration tester for orodispersible tablets. Different ODF preparations were investigated to determine the suitability of the disintegration test systems. The use of different test media and the impact of different storage conditions of ODFs on their disintegration time were additionally investigated. The experiments showed acceptable reproducibility (low deviations within sample replicates due to a clear determination of the measurement end-point). High temperatures and high humidity affected some of the investigated ODFs, resulting in higher disintegration time or even no disintegration within the tested time period. The methods provided clear end-point detection and were applicable for different types of ODFs. By the modification of a conventional test system to enable application for films, a standard method could be presented to ensure uniformity in current quality control settings. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  16. Test of the FLRW Metric and Curvature with Strong Lens Time Delays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Kai [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Li, Zhengxiang; Wang, Guo-Jian [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Fan, Xi-Long, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hubei University of Education, Wuhan 430205 (China)


    We present a new model-independent strategy for testing the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric and constraining cosmic curvature, based on future time-delay measurements of strongly lensed quasar-elliptical galaxy systems from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and supernova observations from the Dark Energy Survey. The test only relies on geometric optics. It is independent of the energy contents of the universe and the validity of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. The study comprises two levels: testing the FLRW metric through the distance sum rule (DSR) and determining/constraining cosmic curvature. We propose an effective and efficient (redshift) evolution model for performing the former test, which allows us to concretely specify the violation criterion for the FLRW DSR. If the FLRW metric is consistent with the observations, then on the second level the cosmic curvature parameter will be constrained to ∼0.057 or ∼0.041 (1 σ ), depending on the availability of high-redshift supernovae, which is much more stringent than current model-independent techniques. We also show that the bias in the time-delay method might be well controlled, leading to robust results. The proposed method is a new independent tool for both testing the fundamental assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy in cosmology and for determining cosmic curvature. It is complementary to cosmic microwave background plus baryon acoustic oscillation analyses, which normally assume a cosmological model with dark energy domination in the late-time universe.

  17. Test of the FLRW Metric and Curvature with Strong Lens Time Delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Kai; Li, Zhengxiang; Wang, Guo-Jian; Fan, Xi-Long


    We present a new model-independent strategy for testing the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric and constraining cosmic curvature, based on future time-delay measurements of strongly lensed quasar-elliptical galaxy systems from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and supernova observations from the Dark Energy Survey. The test only relies on geometric optics. It is independent of the energy contents of the universe and the validity of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. The study comprises two levels: testing the FLRW metric through the distance sum rule (DSR) and determining/constraining cosmic curvature. We propose an effective and efficient (redshift) evolution model for performing the former test, which allows us to concretely specify the violation criterion for the FLRW DSR. If the FLRW metric is consistent with the observations, then on the second level the cosmic curvature parameter will be constrained to ∼0.057 or ∼0.041 (1 σ ), depending on the availability of high-redshift supernovae, which is much more stringent than current model-independent techniques. We also show that the bias in the time-delay method might be well controlled, leading to robust results. The proposed method is a new independent tool for both testing the fundamental assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy in cosmology and for determining cosmic curvature. It is complementary to cosmic microwave background plus baryon acoustic oscillation analyses, which normally assume a cosmological model with dark energy domination in the late-time universe.

  18. Life time test of a partial model of HTGR helium-helium heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Masaki; Hattori, Hiroshi; Ohtomo, Akira; Teramae, Tetsuo; Hamanaka, Junichi; Itoh, Mitsuyoshi; Urabe, Shigemi


    Authors had proposed a design guide for the HTGR components and applied it to the design and construction of the 1.5 Mwt helium heat exchanger test loop for the nuclear steel making under the financial support of the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry. In order to assure that the design method covers all the conceivable failure mode and has enough safety margin, a series of life time tests of partial model may be needed. For this project, three types of model tests were performed. A life time test of a partial model of the center manifold pipe and eight heat exchanger tubes were described in this report. A damage criterion with a set of material constants and a simplified method for stress-strain analysis for stub tube under three dimensional load were newly developed and used to predict the lives of each tube. The predicted lives were compared with the experimental lives and good agreement was found between the two. The life time test model was evaluated according to the proposed design guide and it was found that the guide has a safety factor of approximately 200 in life for this particular model. (author)

  19. 29 CFR 1605.2 - Reasonable accommodation without undue hardship as required by section 701(j) of title VII of the... (United States)


    ... intended to be all-inclusive. There are often other alternatives which would reasonably accommodate an... arrival and departure times; floating or optional holidays; flexible work breaks; use of lunch time in...

  20. Correlative study between myopia and ocular relative accommodation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-Ya Lin


    Full Text Available AIM: To research the characteristics of positive relative accommodation(PRA, negative relative accommodation(NRAand PRA/NRA ratio in myopes. To analyze the relationship among PRA, NRA, PRA/NRA ratio, spherical equivalent degree, years and habbits of wearing glasses, myopia development, and pupil diameter.METHODS: Aretrospective study of ninety eyes in the 180th Hospital of Quanzhou from August 2014 to December 2014. PRA, NRA and PRA/NRA ratio were compared among low, moderate, high myopes and emmetropes. The correlation were analyzed among PRA, NRA, PRA/NRA ratio, spherical equivalent degree, years and habbits of wearing glasses, myopia development and pupil diameter. PRA, NRA, PRA/NRA ratio, years and habbits of wearing glasses and pupil diameter were compared between progress group and non-progress group.RESULTS:(1Without statistical differences in age, sex and intraocular pressure, PRA and PRA/NRA ratio of myopes were lower than emmetropes, while NRA was higher.(2Without statistical differences in age, sex and intraocular pressure, PRA, PRA/NRA ratio and NRA had no statistical differences while years and habbits of wearing glasses had statistical differences among low, moderate, high myopes.(3With longer years of wearing glasses, PRA, PRA/NRA ratio were larger and NRA, pupils were smaller.(4Without statistical differences in age, diopter and intraocular pressure, one group which were not easy to deepen degree had more often-wear-glasses myopia patiens and longer years of wearing glasses, the other group which were easy to deepen degree had more seldom-wear-glasses myopia patiens and shorter years of wearing glasses.CONCLUSION: PRA and PRA/NRA ratio of myopes were lower than emmetropes, while NRA was higher. No correlated relation was detected among PRA, NRA, PRA/NRA ratio, spherical equivalent degree and myopia development. It suggests the onset and progress of myopia are related to many factors. Wearing-glass timely and accurately can

  1. eTEST: Developing a Smart Home HIV Testing Kit that Enables Active, Real-Time Follow-Up and Referral After Testing. (United States)

    Wray, Tyler; Chan, Philip A; Simpanen, Erik; Operario, Don


    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group at highest risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States, but many do not test as frequently as recommended. Home-based self-testing (HBST) for HIV holds promise for promoting regular testing among these individuals, but currently available HBSTs have limited follow-up options, providing only a 1-800 number that participants can call. Failure to actively conduct follow-up counseling and referrals after HBST use could result in delays in seeking confirmatory testing and care among users receiving reactive (preliminary positive) test results. HBST also fails to connect users who test negative with other prevention services that can reduce their future risk for HIV. The aim of our study was to use qualitative research methods with high-risk MSM to inform development of a "smart" HBST kit. The kit utilizes existing Internet-of-Things (IoT) technologies to monitor HBST use in real-time and enable delivery of timely, active follow-up counseling and referrals over the phone. In phase 1, individual interviews (n=10) explored how participants might use HBST and their views and preferences for conducting counseling and referral after HBST. Based on these perspectives, we developed a smartphone app (iOS, Android) that uses data from light sensors on Bluetooth low energy (BLE) beacons to monitor when HBST kits are opened, facilitating timely follow-up phone contact with users. In phase 2, a usability study conducted among high-risk MSM (n=10) examined the acceptability and feasibility of this system and provided user perspectives after using the system along with HBST. Phase 1 themes suggested that MSM preferred HBST, that most thought active follow-up after HBST would be valuable, and that doing so over the phone within 24 h after testing was preferable. Phase 2 results showed that the eTEST system successfully detected HBST use in nearly all cases. Participant perspectives also suggested that the

  2. Time Limits in Testing: An Analysis of Eye Movements and Visual Attention in Spatial Problem Solving (United States)

    Roach, Victoria A.; Fraser, Graham M.; Kryklywy, James H.; Mitchell, Derek G. V.; Wilson, Timothy D.


    Individuals with an aptitude for interpreting spatial information (high mental rotation ability: HMRA) typically master anatomy with more ease, and more quickly, than those with low mental rotation ability (LMRA). This article explores how visual attention differs with time limits on spatial reasoning tests. Participants were assorted to two…

  3. Prenatal Group B Streptococcus Test Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Wei


    Conclusion: It is necessary to perform a GBS test 4 weeks after an initial negative GBS culture at 35–37 weeks of gestation. RT-PCR provides a simple and rapid alternative method for detecting rectovaginal GBS colonization at the time of labor.

  4. Electromagnet Response Time Tests on Primary CRDM of a Prototype Gen-IV SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Han; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi


    This paper identifies the electromagnetic response characteristics of the electromagnet of a primary control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) used for the reactor scram function. The test measures the electromagnet response time required to release an armature from a stator controlled by a loss of an electromagnetic force on an armature after shorting a power supply to an electromagnet coil. These tests are carried out while changing the electromagnet core material, an assist spring, and an armature holding current. The main factors influencing the test parameters on the response are found to be the armature holding current for holding the armature loads, and the material type of the electromagnet cores. The minimum response time is 0.13 seconds in the case of using SS410 material as an armature, while the S10C material as an armature has a response time of 0.21 seconds. Electromagnet response time characteristics from the test results will be evaluated by comparing the precise moving data of an electromagnet armature through the use of a high-speed camera and a potentiometer in the future

  5. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864.7140 Section 864.7140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864...

  6. Future time perspective, regulatory focus, and selection, optimization, and compensation: Testing a longitudinal model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltes, B.B.; Wynne, K.; Sirabian, M.; Krenn, D.; Lange, A.H. de


    This study examines the behavioral processes through which future time perspective (FTP) and regulatory focus may influence coping behaviors in older workers. A three-wave longitudinal study was conducted to test a novel model, positing that FTP affects regulatory focus, which then influences the

  7. Continuous performance test assessed with time-domain functional near infrared spectroscopy (United States)

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Caffini, Matteo; Butti, Michele; Baselli, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Anna M.; Bardoni, Alessandra; Cerutti, Sergio; Cubeddu, Rinaldo


    A time-domain fNIRS multichannel system was used in a sustained attention protocol (continuous performance test) to study activation of the prefrontal cortex. Preliminary results on volounteers show significant activation (decrease in deoxy-hemoglobin and increase in oxy-hemoglobin) in both left and right prefrontal cortex.

  8. Reliability and sensitivity to change of the timed standing balance test in children with down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vencita Priyanka Aranha


    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the reliability and sensitivity to change of the timed standing balance test in children with Down syndrome (DS. Methods: It was a nonblinded, comparison study with a convenience sample of subjects consisting of children with DS (n = 9 aged 8–17 years. The main outcome measure was standing balance which was assessed using timed standing balance test, the time required to maintain in four conditions, eyes open static, eyes closed static, eyes open dynamic, and eyes closed dynamic. Results: Relative reliability was excellent for all four conditions with an Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC ranging from 0.91 to 0.93. The variation between repeated measurements for each condition was minimal with standard error of measurement (SEM of 0.21–0.59 s, suggestive of excellent absolute reliability. The sensitivity to change as measured by smallest real change (SRC was 1.27 s for eyes open static, 1.63 s for eyes closed static, 0.58 s for eyes open dynamic, and 0.61 s for eyes closed static. Conclusions: Timed standing balance test is an easy to administer test and sensitive to change with strong absolute and relative reliabilities, an important first step in establishing its utility as a clinical balance measure in children with DS.

  9. Combining Blink, Pupil, and Response Time Measures in a Concealed Knowledge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis eSeymour


    Full Text Available The response time (RT based Concealed Knowledge Test (CKT has been shown to accurately detect participants’ knowledge of mock-crime related information. Tests based on ocular measures such as pupil size and blink rate have sometimes resulted in poor classification, or lacked detailed classification analyses. The present study examines the fitness of multiple pupil and blink related responses in the CKT paradigm. To maximize classification efficiency, participants’ concealed knowledge was assessed using both individual test measures and combinations of test measures. Results show that individual pupil-size, pupil-slope, and pre-response blink-rate measures produce efficient classifications. Combining pupil and blink measures yielded more accuracy classifications than individual ocular measures. Although RT-based tests proved efficient, combining RT with ocular measures had little incremental benefit. It is argued that covertly assessing ocular measures during RT-based tests may guard against effective countermeasure use in applied settings. A compound classification procedure was used to categorize individual participants and yielded high hit rates and low false-alarm rates without the need for adjustments between test paradigms or subject populations. We conclude that with appropriate test paradigms and classification analyses, ocular measures may prove as effective as other indices, though additional research is needed.

  10. Workplace Accommodations for Pregnant Employees: Associations With Women's Access to Health Insurance Coverage After Childbirth. (United States)

    Jou, Judy; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Blewett, Lynn A; McGovern, Patricia M; Abraham, Jean M


    This study evaluates the associations between workplace accommodations for pregnancy, including paid and unpaid maternity leave, and changes in women's health insurance coverage postpartum. Secondary analysis using Listening to Mothers III, a national survey of women ages 18 to 45 years who gave birth in U.S. hospitals during 2011 to 2012 (N = 700). Compared with women without access to paid maternity leave, women with access to paid leave were 0.4 times as likely to lose private health insurance coverage, 0.3 times as likely to lose public health coverage, and 0.3 times as likely to become uninsured after giving birth. Workplace accommodations for pregnant employees are associated with health insurance coverage via work continuity postpartum. Expanding protections for employees during pregnancy and after childbirth may help reduce employee turnover, loss of health insurance coverage, and discontinuity of care.

  11. The window of opportunity: decision theory and the timing of prognostic tests for newborn infants. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dominic


    In many forms of severe acute brain injury there is an early phase when prognosis is uncertain, followed later by physiological recovery and the possibility of more certain predictions of future impairment. There may be a window of opportunity for withdrawal of life support early, but if decisions are delayed there is the risk that the patient will survive with severe impairment. In this paper I focus on the example of neonatal encephalopathy and the question of the timing of prognostic tests and decisions to continue or to withdraw life-sustaining treatment. Should testing be performed early or later; and how should parents decide what to do given the conflicting values at stake? I apply decision theory to the problem, using sensitivity analysis to assess how different features of the tests or different values would affect a decision to perform early or late prognostic testing. I draw some general conclusions from this model for decisions about the timing of testing in neonatal encephalopathy. Finally I consider possible solutions to the problem posed by the window of opportunity. Decision theory highlights the costs of uncertainty. This may prompt further research into improving prognostic tests. But it may also prompt us to reconsider our current attitudes towards the palliative care of newborn infants predicted to be severely impaired.

  12. Field testing of near-real-time materials accountancy at the PNC-Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, N.; Masui, J.; Komatsu, H.; Todokoro, A.; Iwanaga, M.; Kusano, T.; Komori, Y.; Lovett, J.


    In 1985 a decision was taken to conduct a joint PNC-IAEA field test under the JASPAS support programme during the 85-2 campaign. The purpose of the field test, as with the earlier internal field test work performed by PNC, was to demonstrate the practicality of near-real-time accountancy using the ten day detection time model and to collect meaningful real data (as contrasted with model data) to evaluate the potential effectiveness of near-real-time accountancy in IAEA safeguards. This report summarizes, discusses and evaluates the data collected, not only during the 85-2 joint field test, but also during all previous campaigns. Chapter 2 gives a description of near-real-time accountancy as it has developed at PNC-Tokai, although the reader is referred to (3) for a more complete description. Chapter 3 reviews the procedures followed in the collection of the data, in particular during the 85-2 campaign joint field test. Chapter 4 presents the ''raw'' data collected. Chapter 5 then presents what is here termed an ''Engineering Evaluation'' of the data. The discussion in Chapter 5 is directed at a technical understanding of the data and at the resolution of a few identified problems which otherwise limit the usefulness of the data, not at a mathematical evaluation of possible diversion detection. The discussion accordingly is largely qualitative and subjective. Chapter 5 also presents a brief analysis of the data in terms of the ''running book inventory'' concept which some have suggested would be simpler and at least adequately effective. Chapter 6 discusses a number of important questions regarding work load, effect of unmeasured inventory fluctuation, data requirement, verification and authentication, and effectiveness of NRTA. Finally, Chapter 7 summarizes the conclusions which can be drawn from the field test work

  13. Effects of Accommodation, Vergence and Pupil Diameter on Size Estimation When Viewing Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charman, W


    ... subtense but lying at different distances, allied to errors in accommodation. Thus an error in accommodation, caused perhaps by the tendency of the accommodation system to revert to its somewhat myopic tonic or resting state (Toates, 1972...

  14. Time and travel costs incurred by women attending antenatal tests: A costing study. (United States)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Daley, Rebecca; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Chitty, Lyn S; Morris, Stephen


    to estimate the costs to women, their friends and family for different antenatal tests in the Down's syndrome (DS) screening pathway. questionnaire-based costing study. eight maternity clinics across the UK. pregnant women (n=574) attending an appointment for DS screening, NIPT or invasive testing between December 2013 and September 2014. using data collected from the questionnaires we calculated the total costs to women by multiplying the time spent at the hospital and travelling to and from it by the opportunity costs of the women and accompanying person and adding travel and childcare costs. Assumptions about the value of opportunity costs were tested in one-way sensitivity analyses. The main outcome measure was the mean cost to the women and friends/family for each test (DS screening, NIPT, and invasive testing). mean costs to women and their family/friend were £33.96 per visit, of which £22.47 were time costs, £9.15 were travel costs and £2.34 were childcare costs. Costs were lowest for NIPT (£22), £32 for DS screening (£44 if combined with NIPT), and highest for invasive testing (£60). Sensitivity analysis revealed that variations around the value of leisure time opportunity costs had the largest influence on the results. there are considerable costs to women, their friends and family when attending different tests in the DS screening pathway. when assessing the cost-effectiveness of changes to this pathway, costs to women should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Theoretical determination of transit time locus curves for ultrasonic pulse echo testing - ALOK. Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohs, B.


    The ALOK-technique allows the simultaneous detection of flaws and their evaluation with respect to type, location and dimension by interpretation of the transit time behaviour during scanning of the reflector. The accuracy of information obtained by means of this technique can be further improved both during interference elimination and reconstruction owing to the ability of exact calculation of possible transit time locus curves of given reflectors. The mathematical solution of transit time locus curve calculations refers here to pulse echo testing in consideration of the refraction of sound on the forward wedge/test object - interface. The method of solving the problem is equivalent to the Fermat's principle in optics. (orig.) [de

  16. Test of high time resolution MRPC with different readout modes for the BESIII upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, S. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Sun, Y.J., E-mail: [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Li, C., E-mail: [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Heng, Y.K.; Qian, S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Chen, H.F.; Chen, T.X. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Dai, H.L. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Fan, H.H.; Liu, S.B. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Liu, S.D.; Jiang, X.S. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences(IHEP), Beijing 100049 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China); Shao, M.; Tang, Z.B.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, Z.G. [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China(USTC), Hefei 230026 (China); State Key Laboratory of Particle Detection and Electronics(USTC-IHEP) (China)


    In order to further enhance the particle identification capability of the Beijing Spectrometer (BESIII), it is proposed to upgrade the current end-cap time-of-flight (eTOF) detector with multi-gap resistive plate chamber (MRPC). The prototypes, together with the front end electronics (FEE) and time digitizer (TDIG) module have been tested at the E3 line of Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII) to study the difference between the single and double-end readout MRPC designs. The time resolutions (sigma) of the single-end readout MRPC are 47/53 ps obtained by 600 MeV/c proton/pion beam, while that of the double-end readout MRPC is 40 ps (proton beam). The efficiencies of three MRPC modules tested by both proton and pion beam are better than 98%. For the double-end readout MRPC, no incident position dependence is observed.

  17. Performance and life time test on a 5 kW SOFC system for distributed cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrera, Rosa; De Biase, Sabrina; Ginocchio, Stefano [Edison S.p.A, Via Giorgio La Pira, 2, 10028 Trofarello (Italy); Bedogni, Stefano; Montelatici, Lorenzo [Edison S.p.A, Foro Bonaparte 31, 20121 Milano (Italy)


    Edison R and D Centre is committed to test a wide range of commercial and prototypal fuel cell systems. The activities aim to evaluate the available state of the art of these technologies and their maturity for the relevant market. The laboratory is equipped with ad hoc test benches designed to study single cells, stacks and systems. The characterization of commercial and new generation PEMFC, also for high temperatures (160 C), together with the analysis of the behaviour of SOFC represent the core activities of the laboratory. On January 2007 a new 5 kW SOFC system supplied by Acumentrics was installed. The claimed electrical power output is 5 kW and thermal power is 3 kW. The aim of the test is the achievement of technical and economical assessment for future applications of small SOFC plants for distributed cogeneration. Performance and life time test of the system are shown. (author)

  18. On the late-time behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The authors investigated the late-time (asymptotic) behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves (BTCs) with rate-limited mass transfer (e.g., in dual or multi-porosity systems) and found that the late-time concentration, c, is given by the simple expression: c = t{sub ad} (c{sub 0}g {minus} m{sub 0}{partial_derivative}g/{partial_derivative}t), for t >> t{sub ad} and t{sub a} >> t{sub ad} where t{sub ad} is the advection time, c{sub 0} is the initial concentration in the medium, m{sub 0} is the 0th moment of the injection pulse; and t{sub a} is the mean residence time in the immobile domain (i.e., the characteristic mass transfer time). The function g is proportional to the residence time distribution in the immobile domain, the authors tabulate g for many geometries, including several distributed (multirate) models of mass transfer. Using this expression they examine the behavior of late-time concentration for a number of mass transfer models. One key results is that if rate-limited mass transfer causes the BTC to behave as a power-law at late-time (i.e., c {approximately} t{sup {minus}k}), then the underlying density function of rate coefficients must also be a power-law with the form a{sup k{minus}}, as a {r_arrow}0. This is true for both density functions of first-order and diffusion rate coefficients. BTCs with k < 3 persisting to the end of the experiment indicate a mean residence time longer than the experiment and possibly infinite, and also suggest an effective rate coefficient that is either undefined or changes as a function of observation time. They apply their analysis to breakthrough curves from Single-Well Injection-Withdrawal tests at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, New Mexico.

  19. Potential use of metabolic breath tests to assess liver disease and prognosis: has the time arrived for routine use in the clinic? (United States)

    Stravitz, R Todd; Ilan, Yaron


    The progression of liver disease may be unique among organ system diseases in that progressive fibrosis compromises not only the sufficiency of hepatocyte mass but also impairs blood flow to the liver, resulting in porto-systemic shunting. Although liver biopsy as an assessment of fibrosis has become the key biomarker of and target for new therapies, it is invasive and subject to sampling error, and cannot quantify metabolic function or porto-systemic shunting. Measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient accommodates some of the deficiencies of biopsy but requires expertise not widely available and misses minor changes in hepatocellular mass and thereby information about metabolic function. Thus, an unmet need in clinical hepatology remains unfulfilled: a noninvasive biomarker which quantitates both the hepatocellular insufficiency and porto-systemic shunting inherent in progressive hepatic fibrosis. Ideally, such a biomarker should correlate with clinical endpoints including liver-related survival and cirrhotic complications, be performed at the point-of-care, and be affordable and easy to use. This review, an expert opinion, summarizes background and recent data suggesting that metabolic breath tests may now meet these requirements and have a valid place in clinical hepatology to supplant the time-honoured assessment of hepatic fibrosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl F. Pohlmann; Jianting Zhu; Jenny B. Chapman; Charles E. Russell; Rosemary W. H. Carroll; David S. Shafer


    Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada, has been proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy as a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. In this study, we investigate the potential for groundwater advective pathways from underground nuclear testing areas on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) to the YM area by estimating the timeframe for advective travel and its uncertainty resulting from porosity value uncertainty for hydrogeologic units (HGUs) in the region. We perform sensitivity analysis to determine the most influential HGUs on advective radionuclide travel times from the NTS to the YM area. Groundwater pathways and advective travel times are obtained using the particle tracking package MODPATH and flow results from the Death Valley Regional Flow System (DVRFS) model by the U.S. Geological Survey. Values and uncertainties of HGU porosities are quantified through evaluation of existing site porosity data and expert professional judgment and are incorporated through Monte Carlo simulations to estimate mean travel times and uncertainties. We base our simulations on two steady state flow scenarios for the purpose of long term prediction and monitoring. The first represents pre-pumping conditions prior to groundwater development in the area in 1912 (the initial stress period of the DVRFS model). The second simulates 1998 pumping (assuming steady state conditions resulting from pumping in the last stress period of the DVRFS model). Considering underground tests in a clustered region around Pahute Mesa on the NTS as initial particle positions, we track these particles forward using MODPATH to identify hydraulically downgradient groundwater discharge zones and to determine which flowpaths will intercept the YM area. Out of the 71 tests in the saturated zone, flowpaths of 23 intercept the YM area under the pre-pumping scenario. For the 1998 pumping scenario, flowpaths from 55 of the 71 tests intercept the YM area. The results illustrate that mean

  1. Avoidance test with Enchytraeus albidus (Enchytraeidae): Effects of different exposure time and soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, Monica J.B.; Novais, Sara; Roembke, Joerg; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.


    Enchytraeids are ecologically relevant soil species and are commonly used in standardized toxicity tests. Their rapid reaction to a chemical exposure can be used as a toxicological measurement endpoint that assesses the avoidance behavior. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the effects of soil properties on the avoidance behavior of Enchytraeus albidus and to optimize the duration of avoidance test. The avoidance tests included (1) exposures in OECD artificial soil with standard or modified properties (pH, clay or peat content), and (2) exposures to copper chloride, cadmium chloride, and to the organic pesticides dimethoate and phenmedipham for different time periods. Results showed that alteration of OECD soil constituents significantly affected the avoidance behavior of enchytraeids, and that the 48-h exposure was the optimal duration of the test. Consideration of soil properties is important for selecting appropriate experimental design and interpreting the results of the enchytraeid avoidance test. - Optimal duration of the avoidance tests with potworm Enchytraeus albidus is 48 h; soil properties can affect performance of the test species

  2. Time dependent unavailability analysis of nuclear safety systems considering periodically tested components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes, Alexandre Gromann de Araujo


    It is of utmost importance to have a computer code in order to analyze how different parameters (like test duration time) affect the unavailability of safety systems of nuclear. In this context, a study was performed in order to evaluate the model employed by the FRANTIC computer code, which performs detailed calculations on the contribution to the system unavailability originated by hardware failures, component tests and repairs, aiming at considering the influence of different test schemes on the system unavailability. It was shown, by means of the results attained that the numerical model used by the FRANTIC code and the analytical model proposed by APOSTOLAKIS and CHU (4) give unavailability values much similar when the component tests are supposed to be perfect. When a test is supposed to be imperfect (that is, when it may induce a test is supposed to be imperfect (that is, when it may induce a failure on the component being tested), the analytical model presents more conservative results. (author)

  3. Rapid testing and identification of actuator using dSPACE real-time emulator (United States)

    Xie, Daocheng; Wang, Zhongwei; Zeng, Qinghua


    To solve the problem of model identification of actuator in control system design of aerocraft, testing system based on dSPACE emulator is established, sending testing signal and receiving feedback voltage are realized using dSPACE interactive cards, communication between signal generating equipment and feedback voltage acquisition equipment is synchronized. This paper introduces the hardware architecture and key technologies of the simulation system. Constructing, downloading and calculating of the testing model is finished using dSPACE emulator, D/A transfer of testing signal is realized using DS2103 card, DS2002 card transfer the feedback voltage to digital value. Filtering module is added to the signal acquisition, for reduction of noise interference in the A/D channel. Precision of time and voltage is improved by setting acquisition period 1ms. The data gathered is recorded and displayed with Controldesk tools. The response of four actuators under different frequency are tested, frequency-domain analysis is done using least square method, the model of actuator is identified, simulation data fits well with real response of the actuator. The testing system created with dSPACE emulator satisfies the rapid testing and identification of actuator.

  4. Accommodative intraocular lens versus standard monofocal intraocular lens implantation in cataract surgery. (United States)

    Ong, Hon Shing; Evans, Jennifer R; Allan, Bruce D S


    ), conducted in Germany, Italy and the UK. The age range of participants was 21 to 87 years. All studies included people who had bilateral cataracts with no pre-existing ocular pathologies. We judged all studies to be at high risk of performance bias. We graded two studies with high risk of detection bias and one study with high risk of selection bias.Participants who received the accommodative IOLs achieved better distance-corrected near visual acuity (DCNVA) at six months (mean difference (MD) -3.10 Jaeger units; 95% confidence intervals (CI) -3.36 to -2.83, 2 studies, 106 people, 136 eyes, moderate quality evidence). Better DCNVA was seen in the accommodative lens group at 12 to 18 months in the three trials that reported this time point but considerable heterogeneity of effect was seen, ranging from 1.3 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.68; 20 people, 40 eyes) to 6 (95% CI 4.15 to 7.85; 51 people, 51 eyes) Jaeger units and 0.12 (95% CI 0.05 to 0.19; 40 people, binocular) logMAR improvement (low quality evidence). The relative effect of the lenses on corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA) was less certain. At six months there was a standardised mean difference of -0.04 standard deviations (95% CI -0.37 to 0.30, 2 studies, 106 people, 136 eyes, low quality evidence). At long-term follow-up there was heterogeneity of effect with 18-month data in two studies showing that CDVA was better in the monofocal group (MD 0.12 logMAR; 95% CI 0.07 to 0.16, 2 studies, 70 people,100 eyes) and one study which reported data at 12 months finding similar CDVA in the two groups (-0.02 logMAR units, 95% CI -0.06 to 0.02, 51 people) (low quality evidence).The relative effect of the lenses on reading speed and spectacle independence was uncertain, The average reading speed was 11.6 words per minute more in the accommodative lens group but the 95% confidence intervals ranged from 12.2 words less to 35.4 words more (1 study, 40 people, low quality evidence). People with accommodative lenses were more likely to be

  5. The role of interactions between accommodation and vergence in human visual development (United States)

    Teel, Danielle F. W.

    Even in early infancy accommodation and vergence interact through neural coupling such that accommodation drives vergence (AC/A ratio) and vergence drives accommodation (CA/C ratio), to assist coordination and development of clear and single binocular vision. Infants have narrow inter-pupillary distances (IPD) requiring less vergence in angular units (degrees or prism diopters), and are typically hyperopic, requiring larger accommodative responses (diopters) than adults. The relative demands also change with emmetropization (decreasing hyperopia) and head growth (increasing IPD) over time. Therefore, adult-like couplings may not be optimal during development and the couplings may play a role in abnormality such as esotropia. A range of cues can drive accommodation and vergence. In addition to blur and disparity, proximity in the form of looming, size and perceived distance has been shown to influence the interactions between accommodation and vergence in adults. The role of this cue in measures of coupling is also poorly understood and may impact key clinical AC/A estimates in young children. Utilizing principles of eccentric photorefraction and Purkinje image eye tracking, this research examines the AC/A and CA/C ratios in infants, preschoolers and adults as a function of age, refractive error and interpupillary distance, plus the role proximity, specifically looming and size cues, plays in estimating the AC/A ratio in three year olds and adults. The AC/A (PD/D) was significantly higher in adults than three-year-olds or infants but similar across age groups in MA/D units. The CA/C was higher in infants than adults or three-year-olds (D/MA and D/PD). Although, not fully reciprocally related, a significant negative relationship was found between the response AC/A and CA/C. Similarly, higher AC/As (PD/D) and lower CA/Cs (D/PD) were associated with larger IPDs and less hyperopia. Although, not statistically significant the absence of proximity resulted in a trend

  6. Real-Time Hardware-in-the-Loop Laboratory Testing for Multisensor Sense and Avoid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarmine Fasano


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a hardware-in-the-loop facility aimed at real-time testing of architectures and algorithms of multisensor sense and avoid systems. It was developed within a research project aimed at flight demonstration of autonomous non-cooperative collision avoidance for Unmanned Aircraft Systems. In this framework, an optionally piloted Very Light Aircraft was used as experimental platform. The flight system is based on multiple-sensor data integration and it includes a Ka-band radar, four electro-optical sensors, and two dedicated processing units. The laboratory test system was developed with the primary aim of prototype validation before multi-sensor tracking and collision avoidance flight tests. System concept, hardware/software components, and operating modes are described in the paper. The facility has been built with a modular approach including both flight hardware and simulated systems and can work on the basis of experimentally tested or synthetically generated scenarios. Indeed, hybrid operating modes are also foreseen which enable performance assessment also in the case of alternative sensing architectures and flight scenarios that are hardly reproducible during flight tests. Real-time multisensor tracking results based on flight data are reported, which demonstrate reliability of the laboratory simulation while also showing the effectiveness of radar/electro-optical fusion in a non-cooperative collision avoidance architecture.

  7. Depth Discrimination of Constant Angular Size Stimuli in Action Space: Role of Accommodation and Convergence Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeldjallil eNaceri


    Full Text Available In our daily life experience, the angular size of an object correlates with its distance from the observer, provided that the physical size of the object remains constant. In this work, we investigated depth perception in action space (i.e., beyond the arm reach, while keeping the angular size of the target object constant. This was achieved by increasing the physical size of the target object as its distance to the observer increased. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a similar protocol has been tested in action space, for distances to the observer ranging from 1.4 to 2.4m. We replicated the task in virtual and real environments and we found that the performance was significantly different between the two environments. In the real environment, all participants perceived the depth of the target object precisely. Whereas, in virtual reality the responses were significantly less precise, although, still above chance level in 16 of the 20 observers. The difference in the discriminability of the stimuli was likely due to different contributions of the convergence and the accommodation cues in the two environments. The values of Weber fractions estimated in our study were compared to those reported in previous studies in peripersonal and action space.

  8. A point-of-care chemistry test for reduction of turnaround and clinical decision time. (United States)

    Lee, Eui Jung; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Kim, Seong Chun; Cho, Jin Seong; Lee, Seung Chul; Park, Ju Ok; Cha, Won Chul


    Our study compared clinical decision time between patients managed with a point-of-care chemistry test (POCT) and patients managed with the traditional central laboratory test (CLT). This was a randomized controlled multicenter trial in the emergency departments (EDs) of 5 academic teaching hospitals. We randomly assigned patients to POCT or CLT stratified by the Emergency Severity Index. A POCT chemistry analyzer (Piccolo; Abaxis, Inc, Union City, Calif), which is able to test liver panel, renal panel, pancreas enzymes, lipid panel, electrolytes, and blood gases, was set up in each ED. Primary and secondary end point was turnaround time and door-to-clinical-decision time. The total 2323 patients were randomly assigned to the POCT group (n = 1167) or to the CLT group (n = 1156). All of the basic characteristics were similar in the 2 groups. The turnaround time (median, interquartile range [IQR]) of the POCT group was shorter than that of the CLT group (14, 12-19 versus 55, 45-69 minutes; P CLT group (46, 33-61 versus 86, 68-107 minutes; P CLT group (P CLT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A systematic review of workplace disclosure and accommodation requests among youth and young adults with disabilities. (United States)

    Lindsay, Sally; Cagliostro, Elaine; Carafa, Gabriella


    The objective of this systematic review is to critically appraise the literature on disability disclosure and workplace accommodations for youth and young adults with disabilities. Systematic searches of nine international databases identified 27 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. These studies were analyzed with respect to the characteristics of the participants, methodology, results of the studies and the quality of the evidence. Among the 27 studies, 18,419 participants (aged 14-33, mean 23.9 years) were represented across seven countries. Barriers to disability disclosure and requests for workplace accommodations were found at the individual (i.e., disability type, severity, poor self-concept, and advocacy skills), employment (i.e., type of industry, and working conditions, lack of supports), and societal levels (i.e., stigma/discrimination). Facilitators of disability disclosure included individual factors (i.e., knowledge of supports and workplace rights, self-advocacy skills), employment (i.e., training/supports, effective communication with employers, realizing the benefits of accommodations), and societal factors (i.e., positive attitudes toward people with disabilities). There was little consensus on the processes and timing of how disability should be discussed in the workplace among youth with disabilities. Our findings highlight the complexities of disability disclosure for youth with disabilities. More studies are needed to explore issues of workplace disclosure and accommodations for young people to improve disclosure strategies and the process of providing appropriate accommodations. Implications for Rehabilitation Clinicians, educators, and parents should support youth to become self-aware and build self-advocacy skills so they can make an informed decision about how and when to disclose their condition to employers. Clinicians, educators, and employers should help youth with disabilities to understand the benefits of disclosing their

  10. Peripheral Defocus of the Monkey Crystalline Lens With Accommodation in a Lens Stretcher (United States)

    Maceo Heilman, Bianca; Manns, Fabrice; Ruggeri, Marco; Ho, Arthur; Gonzalez, Alex; Rowaan, Cor; Bernal, Andres; Arrieta, Esdras; Parel, Jean-Marie


    Purpose To characterize the peripheral defocus of the monkey crystalline lens and its changes with accommodation. Methods Experiments were performed on 15 lenses from 11 cynomolgus monkey eyes (age: 3.8–12.4 years, postmortem time: 33.5 ± 15.3 hours). The tissue was mounted in a motorized lens stretcher to allow for measurements of the lens in the accommodated (unstretched) and unaccommodated (stretched) states. A custom-built combined laser ray tracing and optical coherence tomography system was used to measure the paraxial on-axis and off-axis lens power for delivery angles ranging from −20° to +20° (in air). For each delivery angle, peripheral defocus was quantified as the difference between paraxial off-axis and on-axis power. The peripheral defocus of the lens was compared in the unstretched and stretched states. Results On average, the paraxial on-axis lens power was 52.0 ± 3.4 D in the unstretched state and 32.5 ± 5.1 D in the stretched state. In both states, the lens power increased with increasing delivery angle. From 0° to +20°, the relative peripheral lens power increased by 10.7 ± 1.4 D in the unstretched state and 7.5 ± 1.6 D in the stretched state. The change in field curvature with accommodation was statistically significant (P lens has greater curvature or relative peripheral power. Conclusions The cynomolgus monkey lens has significant accommodation-dependent curvature of field, which suggests that the lens asserts a significant contribution to the peripheral optical performance of the eye that also varies with the state of accommodation.

  11. Model-based framework for multi-axial real-time hybrid simulation testing (United States)

    Fermandois, Gaston A.; Spencer, Billie F.


    Real-time hybrid simulation is an efficient and cost-effective dynamic testing technique for performance evaluation of structural systems subjected to earthquake loading with rate-dependent behavior. A loading assembly with multiple actuators is required to impose realistic boundary conditions on physical specimens. However, such a testing system is expected to exhibit significant dynamic coupling of the actuators and suffer from time lags that are associated with the dynamics of the servo-hydraulic system, as well as control-structure interaction (CSI). One approach to reducing experimental errors considers a multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) controller design, yielding accurate reference tracking and noise rejection. In this paper, a framework for multi-axial real-time hybrid simulation (maRTHS) testing is presented. The methodology employs a real-time feedback-feedforward controller for multiple actuators commanded in Cartesian coordinates. Kinematic transformations between actuator space and Cartesian space are derived for all six-degrees-offreedom of the moving platform. Then, a frequency domain identification technique is used to develop an accurate MIMO transfer function of the system. Further, a Cartesian-domain model-based feedforward-feedback controller is implemented for time lag compensation and to increase the robustness of the reference tracking for given model uncertainty. The framework is implemented using the 1/5th-scale Load and Boundary Condition Box (LBCB) located at the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology, a single-story frame subjected to earthquake loading is tested. One of the columns in the frame is represented physically in the laboratory as a cantilevered steel column. For realtime execution, the numerical substructure, kinematic transformations, and controllers are implemented on a digital signal processor. Results show excellent performance of the maRTHS framework when six

  12. Development of a Real-time PCR test for porcine group A rotavirus diagnosis


    Marconi, Elizabeth C.M.; Bernardes, Nara T.C.G.; Beserra, Laila A.R.; Silva, Fernanda D.F.; Gregori, Fabio


    Group A Rotavirus (RVA) is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in humans and several animal species. A SYBR-Green Real-Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to diagnose RVA from porcine fecal samples, targeting amplification of a 137-bp fragment of nonstructural protein 5 (NSP5) gene using mRNA of bovine NADH-desidrogenase-5 as exogenous internal control. Sixty-five samples were tested (25 tested positive for conventional PCR and genetic sequencing). The overall agreement (...

  13. Trapezius muscle activity increases during near work activity regardless of accommodation/vergence demand level. (United States)

    Richter, H O; Zetterberg, C; Forsman, M


    To investigate if trapezius muscle activity increases over time during visually demanding near work. The vision task consisted of sustained focusing on a contrast-varying black and white Gabor grating. Sixty-six participants with a median age of 38 (range 19-47) fixated the grating from a distance of 65 cm (1.5 D) during four counterbalanced 7-min periods: binocularly through -3.5 D lenses, and monocularly through -3.5 D, 0 D and +3.5 D. Accommodation, heart rate variability and trapezius muscle activity were recorded in parallel. General estimating equation analyses showed that trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time in all four lens conditions. A concurrent effect of accommodation response on trapezius muscle activity was observed with the minus lenses irrespective of whether incongruence between accommodation and convergence was present or not. Trapezius muscle activity increased significantly over time during the near work task. The increase in muscle activity over time may be caused by an increased need of mental effort and visual attention to maintain performance during the visual tasks to counteract mental fatigue.

  14. Improving the AGR fuel testing power density profile versus irradiation-time in the advanced test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Gray S.; Lillo, Misti A.; Maki, John T.; Petti, David A.


    The Very High Temperature gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR), which is currently being developed, achieves simplification of safety through reliance on ceramic-coated fuel particles. Each TRISO-coated fuel particle has its own containment which serves as the principal barrier against radionuclide release under normal operating and accident conditions. These fuel particles, in the form of graphite fuel compacts, are currently undergoing a series of irradiation tests in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support the Advanced Gas-Cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel qualification program. A representive coated fuel particle with an 235 U enrichment of 19.8 wt% was used in this analysis. The fuel burnup analysis tool used to perform the neutronics study reported herein, couples the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP, with the radioactive decay and burnup code ORIGEN2. The fuel burnup methodology known as Monte-Carlo with ORIGEN2 (MCWO) was used to evaluate the AGR experiment assembly and demonstrate compliance with ATR safety requirements. For the AGR graphite fuel compacts, the MCWO-calculated fission power density (FPD) due to neutron fission in 235 U is an important design parameter. One of the more important AGR fuel testing requirements is to maintain the peak fuel compact temperature close to 1250degC throughout the proposed irradiation campaign of 550 effective full power days (EFPDs). Based on the MCWO-calculated FPD, a fixed gas gap size was designed to allow regulation of the fuel compact temperatures throughout the entire fuel irradiation campaign by filling the gap with a mixture of helium and neon gases. The chosen fixed gas gap can only regulate the peak fuel compact temperature in the desired range during the irradiation test if the ratio of the peak power density to the time-dependent low power density (P/T) at 550 EFPDs is less than 2.5. However, given the near constant neutron flux within the ATR driver core and the depletion of 235 U

  15. The physical capabilities underlying timed "Up and Go" test are time-dependent in community-dwelling older women. (United States)

    Coelho-Junior, Hélio José; Rodrigues, Bruno; Gonçalves, Ivan de Oliveira; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Marzetti, Emanuele


    Timed 'Up and Go' (TUG) has been widely used in research and clinical practice to evaluate physical function and mobility in older adults. However, the physical capabilities underlying TUG performance are not well elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating a selection of physical capacities underlying TUG performance in community-dwelling older women. Four hundred and sixty-eight apparently healthy older women independent to perform the activities of daily living (mean age: 65.8 ± 6.0 years) were recruited from two specialized healthcare centers for older adults to participate in the study. Volunteers had their medical books reviewed and underwent evaluations of anthropometric data as well as physical and functional capacities. Pearson's correlation results indicate that TUG performance was significantly associated with upper (i.e., handgrip strength) and lower (i.e., sit-to-stand) limb muscle strength, balance (i.e., one-leg stand), lower limb muscle power (i.e., countermovement jump), aerobic capacity (i.e., 6-minute walk test), and mobility (i.e., usual and maximal walking speeds). When the analyses were performed based on TUG quartiles, a larger number of physical capabilities were associated with TUG >75% in comparison with TUG <25%. Multiple linear regression results indicate that the variability in TUG (~20%) was explained by lower limb muscle strength (13%) and power (1%), balance (4%), mobility (2%), and aerobic capacity (<1%), even after adjusted by age and age plus body mass index (BMI). However, when TUG results were added as quartiles, a decrease in the impact of physical capacities on TUG performance was determined. As a whole, our findings indicate that the contribution of physical capabilities to TUG performance is altered according to the time taken to perform the test, so that older women in the lower quartiles - indicating a higher performance - have an important contribution of lower limb muscle strength, while

  16. A test on analytic continuation of thermal imaginary-time data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnier, Y.; Laine, M.; Mether, L.


    Some time ago, Cuniberti et al. have proposed a novel method for analytically continuing thermal imaginary-time correlators to real time, which requires no model input and should be applicable with finite-precision data as well. Given that these assertions go against common wisdom, we report on a naive test of the method with an idealized example. We do encounter two problems, which we spell out in detail; this implies that systematic errors are difficult to quantify. On a more positive note, the method is simple to implement and allows for an empirical recipe by which a reasonable qualitative estimate for some transport coefficient may be obtained, if statistical errors of an ultraviolet-subtracted imaginary-time measurement can be reduced to roughly below the per mille level. (orig.)

  17. Pn seismic wave travel time at the Semipalatinsk Test Site - Borovoe seismic station trace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, V.A.; Kaazik, P.B.; Ovchinnikov, V.M.


    This paper preparation involved 160 explosions at the Degelen Site conducted in 1961-1989 and 89 explosions at the Balapan Site conducted in 1968-1989. Pn wave travel time was tied to the sea level in accordance with velocity characteristics of the explosion hypocenter medium; and to average epicentral distance for every site basing on their local travel time curves of Pn wave relative to Borovoe station. Maximum amplitude of mean-year travel times variations is 0.3-0.5 s as at the Nevada Test Site - Borovoe trace and Mirniy (Antarctica). However, the linear trend in contrast to previous traces has negative sign (0.08 s for Degelen and 0.1 s for Balapan). Thus, Pn wave velocity increases with calendar time. (author)

  18. Numerical study of effects of accommodation coefficients on slip phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Jae; Kwon, Oh Joon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    An unstructured mesh Navier-Stokes solver employing a Maxwell slip boundary condition was developed. The present flow solver was applied to the simulation of flows around an axisymmetric hollow cylinder in a Mach 10.4 free stream, known as Calspan-UB Research Center (CUBRC) Run 14 case, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump on the cylinder surface were investigated. The effect of tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients used in the Maxwell condition was also investigated by adjusting their values. The results show that the reverse flow region is developed on the body surface due to the interaction between the shock and the boundary layer. Also, the shock impingement makes pressure high. The flow properties on the surface agree well with the experimental data, and the velocity slip and the temperature jump vary consistently with the local Knudsen number change. The accommodation coefficients affect the slip phenomena and the size of the flow region. The slip phenomena become larger when both tangential momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients are decreased. However, the range of the reverse flow region decreases when the momentum accommodation coefficient is decreased. The characteristics of the momentum and thermal accommodation coefficients also are overlapped when they are altered together.

  19. Work accommodations and natural supports for maintaining employment. (United States)

    Corbière, Marc; Villotti, Patrizia; Lecomte, Tania; Bond, Gary R; Lesage, Alain; Goldner, Elliot M


    Job tenure for people with severe mental disorders, even for those enrolled in supported employment programs, is typically brief. Few studies to date have investigated the relationship between accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace, and job tenure for this population. The main objectives of this study were to develop and to validate a new measure to describe work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace and to determine which of them are significantly related to job tenure for participants enrolled in supported employment services. In total, 124 people with a severe mental disorder enrolled in supported employment programs and who obtained only one competitive employment at the 9-month follow-up answered the Work Accommodation and Natural Support Scale (WANSS). They also provided information regarding their disclosure (or non-) of mental disorders in the workplace and the length of their job tenure. Confirmatory factor analysis conducted on the WANSS showed 40 items distributed on 6 dimensions (e.g., Schedule flexibility). Correlation results showed that disclosure was significantly related to the number of work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace. Survival analyses indicated that one WANSS dimension was more salient in predicting job tenure: Supervisor and coworker supports. The WANSS is a valid and useful tool to assess work accommodations and natural supports available in the workplace that employment specialists could use in their practice.

  20. A survey of anthropometry and physical accommodation in ergonomics curricula. (United States)

    Garneau, Christopher J; Parkinson, Matthew B


    The size and shape of users are an important consideration for many products and environments. Designers and engineers in many disciplines must often accommodate these attributes to meet objectives such as fit and safety. When practitioners have academic training in addressing these issues, it is typically through courses in Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E). This paper investigates education related to physical accommodation and offers suggestions for improvement. A survey was conducted wherein 21 instructors at 18 universities in the United States provided syllabi for 29 courses, which were analysed to determine topics related to anthropometry and resources used for the courses. The results show that within the U.S., anthropometry is covered in the majority of courses discussing physical ergonomics, but important related concepts were often omitted (e.g., digital human modelling, multivariate accommodation and variability across global populations). Curricula could be improved by incorporating more accurate anthropometry, multivariate problems and interactive online tools. This paper describes a study investigating collegiate ergonomics courses within the U.S. in the area of physical accommodation. Course schedules and texts were studied for their treatment of several topics related to accommodating the spatial requirements (anthropometry) of users. Recommendations are made for improving course curricula.

  1. Towards Reconfigurable, Separable and Hard Real-Time Hybrid Simulation and Test Systems (United States)

    Quartier, F.; Delatte, B.; Joubert, M.


    Formation flight needs several new technologies, new disciplines, new approaches and above all, more concurrent engineering by more players. One of the problems to be addressed are more complex simulation and test systems that are easy to re-configure to include parts of the target hardware and that can provide sufficient power to handle simulation cores that are requiring one to two orders of magnitude more processing power than the current technology provides. Critical technologies that are already addressed by CNES and Spacebel are study model reuse and simulator reconfigurability (Basiles), model portability (SMP2) and the federation of several simulators using HLA. Two more critical issues are addressed in ongoing R&D work by CNES and Spacebel and are covered by this paper and concern the time engineering and management. The first issue concerns separability (characterisation, identification and handling of separable subsystems) and the consequences on practical systems. Experiments on the Pleiades operational simulator have shown that adding precise simulation of instruments such as Doris and the Star Tracker can be added without significantly impacting overall performance. Improved time analysis leads to better system understanding and testability. The second issue concerns architectures for distributed hybrid simulators systems that provide hard real-time capabilities and can react with a relative time precision and jitter that is in the 10 to 50 µsecond range using mainstream PC's and mainstream Operating Systems. This opens a way to make smaller economic hardware test systems that can be reconfigured to make large hardware test systems without restarting development. Although such systems were considered next to impossible till now, distributed hard real-time systems are getting in reach when modern but mainstream electronics are used and when processor cores can be isolated and reserved for real-time cores. This requires a complete rethinking of the

  2. Complexity testing techniques for time series data: A comprehensive literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ling; Lv, Huiling; Yang, Fengmei; Yu, Lean


    Highlights: • A literature review of complexity testing techniques for time series data is provided. • Complexity measurements can generally fall into fractality, methods derived from nonlinear dynamics and entropy. • Different types investigate time series data from different perspectives. • Measures, applications and future studies for each type are presented. - Abstract: Complexity may be one of the most important measurements for analysing time series data; it covers or is at least closely related to different data characteristics within nonlinear system theory. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review examining the complexity testing techniques for time series data. According to different features, the complexity measurements for time series data can be divided into three primary groups, i.e., fractality (mono- or multi-fractality) for self-similarity (or system memorability or long-term persistence), methods derived from nonlinear dynamics (via attractor invariants or diagram descriptions) for attractor properties in phase-space, and entropy (structural or dynamical entropy) for the disorder state of a nonlinear system. These estimations analyse time series dynamics from different perspectives but are closely related to or even dependent on each other at the same time. In particular, a weaker self-similarity, a more complex structure of attractor, and a higher-level disorder state of a system consistently indicate that the observed time series data are at a higher level of complexity. Accordingly, this paper presents a historical tour of the important measures and works for each group, as well as ground-breaking and recent applications and future research directions.

  3. Time and frequency domain analyses of the Hualien Large-Scale Seismic Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabanda, John; Kwon, Oh-Sung; Kwon, Gunup


    Highlights: • Time- and frequency-domain analysis methods are verified against each other. • The two analysis methods are validated against Hualien LSST. • The nonlinear time domain (NLTD) analysis resulted in more realistic response. • The frequency domain (FD) analysis shows amplification at resonant frequencies. • The NLTD analysis requires significant modeling and computing time. - Abstract: In the nuclear industry, the equivalent-linear frequency domain analysis method has been the de facto standard procedure primarily due to the method's computational efficiency. This study explores the feasibility of applying the nonlinear time domain analysis method for the soil–structure-interaction analysis of nuclear power facilities. As a first step, the equivalency of the time and frequency domain analysis methods is verified through a site response analysis of one-dimensional soil, a dynamic impedance analysis of soil–foundation system, and a seismic response analysis of the entire soil–structure system. For the verifications, an idealized elastic soil–structure system is used to minimize variables in the comparison of the two methods. Then, the verified analysis methods are used to develop time and frequency domain models of Hualien Large-Scale Seismic Test. The predicted structural responses are compared against field measurements. The models are also analyzed with an amplified ground motion to evaluate discrepancies of the time and frequency domain analysis methods when the soil–structure system behaves beyond the elastic range. The analysis results show that the equivalent-linear frequency domain analysis method amplifies certain frequency bands and tends to result in higher structural acceleration than the nonlinear time domain analysis method. A comparison with field measurements shows that the nonlinear time domain analysis method better captures the frequency distribution of recorded structural responses than the frequency domain

  4. Selection of the all-time best World XI Test cricket team using the TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Chakraborty


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS as a multi-criteria decision making tool to form the all-time best World XI Test cricket team while taking into consideration over 2600 cricketers participated in Test matches for more than 100 years of cricket history. From the voluminous database containing the performance of numerous Test cricketers, separate lists are first prepared for different positions in the batting and bowling orders consisting of manageable numbers of candidate alternatives while imposing some constraints with respect to the minimum number of innings played (for batsmen, minimum number of tests played (for wicketkeepers and bowlers, and minimum numbers of runs scored and wickets taken (for all-rounders. The TOPSIS method is later adopted to rank those shortlisted cricketers and identify the best performers for inclusion in the proposed World XI Test team. The best World Test cricket team is thus formed as Alastair Cook (ENG (c, Sunil Gavaskar (IND, Rahul Dravid (IND (vc, Sachin Tendulkar (IND, Shivnarine Chanderpaul (WI, Jacques Kallis (SA, Adam Gilchrist (AUS (wk, Glenn McGrath (AUS, Courtney Walsh (WI, Muttiah Muralitharan (SL and Shane Warne (AUS.

  5. Accelerated Bearing Life-time Test Rig Development for Low Speed Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Klausen


    Full Text Available Condition monitoring plays an important role in rotating machinery to ensure reliability of the equipment, and to detect fault conditions at an early stage. Although health monitoring methodologies have been thoroughly developed for rotating machinery, low-speed conditions often pose a challenge due to the low signal-to-noise ratio. To this aim, sophisticated algorithms that reduce noise and highlight the bearing faults are necessary to accurately diagnose machines undergoing this condition. In the development phase, sensor data from a healthy and damaged bearing rotating at low-speed is required to verify the performance of such algorithms. A test rig for performing accelerated life-time testing of small rolling element bearings is designed to collect necessary sensor data. Heavy loads at high-speed conditions are applied to the test bearing to wear it out fast. Sensor data is collected in intervals during the test to capture the degeneration features. The main objective of this paper is to provide a detailed overview for the development and analysis of this test rig. A case study with experimental vibration data is also presented to illustrate the efficacy of the developed test rig.

  6. Motivational changes in response to blocked goals and foreshortened time: testing alternatives to socioemotional selectivity theory. (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Carstensen, Laura L


    Socioemotional selectivity theory contends that when people perceive time as limited, they prioritize emotionally meaningful goals. Although empirical support for the theory has been found in several studies, 2 alternative explanations for the pattern of findings remain: (a) emotional goals are pursued by default because nonemotional goals are blocked, and (b) emotional goals are pursued in search of emotional support rather than emotional meaning. This study tested these alternatives by examining social goals in response to blocked goals and foreshortened time. Findings reveal distinct motivational patterns, as reflected in social preferences and self-reported social goals, in response to the 2 types of constraints.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study on the Effects of RATO Timing on the Scale Model Acoustic Test (United States)

    Nielsen, Tanner; Williams, B.; West, Jeff


    The Scale Model Acoustic Test (SMAT) is a 5% scale test of the Space Launch System (SLS), which is currently being designed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The purpose of this test is to characterize and understand a variety of acoustic phenomena that occur during the early portions of lift off, one being the overpressure environment that develops shortly after booster ignition. The SLS lift off configuration consists of four RS-25 liquid thrusters on the core stage, with two solid boosters connected to each side. Past experience with scale model testing at MSFC (in ER42), has shown that there is a delay in the ignition of the Rocket Assisted Take Off (RATO) motor, which is used as the 5% scale analog of the solid boosters, after the signal to ignite is given. This delay can range from 0 to 16.5ms. While this small of a delay maybe insignificant in the case of the full scale SLS, it can significantly alter the data obtained during the SMAT due to the much smaller geometry. The speed of sound of the air and combustion gas constituents is not scaled, and therefore the SMAT pressure waves propagate at approximately the same speed as occurs during full scale. However, the SMAT geometry is much smaller allowing the pressure waves to move down the exhaust duct, through the trench, and impact the vehicle model much faster than occurs at full scale. To better understand the effect of the RATO timing simultaneity on the SMAT IOP test data, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using the Loci/CHEM CFD software program. Five different timing offsets, based on RATO ignition delay statistics, were simulated. A variety of results and comparisons will be given, assessing the overall effect of RATO timing simultaneity on the SMAT overpressure environment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hichem Souissi


    Full Text Available In boys, muscle power and strength fluctuate with time-of-day with morning nadirs and afternoon maximum values. However, the exact underlying mechanisms of this daily variation are not studied yet. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the time-of-day effects on electromyographic (EMG parameters changes during a Wingate test in boys. Twenty-two boys performed a 30-s Wingate test (measurement of muscle power and fatigue at 07:00 and 17:00-h on separate days. Surface EMG activity was recorded in the Vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and vastus medialis muscles throughout the test and analyzed over a 5-s span. The root-mean-square (RMS and mean-power-frequency (MPF were calculated. Neuromuscular efficiency (NME was estimated from the ratio of power to RMS. Muscle power (8.22 ± 0.92 vs. 8.75 ± 0.99 W·kg-1 for peak power and 6.96 ± 0. 72 vs. 7.31 ± 0.77 W·kg-1 for mean power, p < 0.001 and fatigue (30.27 ± 7.98 vs. 34.5 ± 10. 15 %, p < 0.05 during the Wingate test increased significantly from morning to evening. Likewise, MPF (102.14 ± 18.15 vs. 92.38 ± 12.39 Hz during the first 5-s, p < 0.001 and NME (4.78 ± 1.7 vs. 3.88 ± 0.79 W·mV-1 during the first 5-s, p < 0.001 were higher in the evening than the morning; but no significant time-of-day effect was noticed for RMS. Taken together, these results suggest that peripheral mechanisms are more likely the cause of the child's diurnal variations of muscle power and fatigue during the Wingate test

  9. The Role of Sex, Gender, Health Factors, and Job Context in Workplace Accommodation Use Among Men and Women with Arthritis. (United States)

    Gignac, Monique A M; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Smith, Peter M; Kristman, Vicki; Beaton, Dorcas E; Mustard, Cameron A


    With the aging of populations in many countries, workers are expected to remain employed longer but may struggle with the onset of common, chronic conditions like arthritis. To date, few studies have examined workplace policies and practices that could help accommodate individuals with arthritis, and fewer still have used a sex and gender-based approach to explore similarities and differences between women and men. This study compared the health and work contexts of workers aged ≥50 years to better understand similarities and differences between women and men in accommodation availability, need, use, and unmet needs. A cross-sectional survey of men and women with osteoarthritis (OA), inflammatory arthritis (IA), or both OA and IA was administered online or by telephone and assessed demographics (e.g. age, education), health (e.g. pain, fatigue, workplace activity limitations), work context factors (e.g. job sector, full/part-time work, job control), and workplace accommodations (e.g. health benefits, flexible hours, special equipment/adaptations, modified duties). Sex and gender-based analyses examined similarities and differences between men and women and included descriptive statistics, multivariable multinomial analyses, and nested regression analyses. There was a 58.9% response rate and final sample of 463 participants (women, n = 266; men, n = 197; OA = 59.0%; IA/both IA and OA = 23.7%; unsure = 17.3%). Women and men were significantly different in a number of health (e.g. fatigue, health variability, workplace activity limitations) and work context factors (e.g. job sector, part-time work, job stress). However, in other respects, they were similar (e.g. pain, job involving physical demands, size of organization, shift work, union membership, job control). There were no differences between men and women in the availability or use of workplace accommodations. However, women reported significantly more accommodation needs and had greater unmet needs

  10. Effect of Half Time Cooling on Thermoregulatory Responses and Soccer-Specific Performance Tests


    Yang Zhang; Svetlana Nepocatych; Charlie P. Katica; Annie B. Collins,; Catalina Casaru,; Gytis Balilionis; Jesper Sjökvist; Phillip A. Bishop


    This study examined two active coolings (forearm and hand cooling, and neck cooling) during a simulated half-time recovery on thermoregulatory responses and subsequent soccer-specific exercise performance. Following a 45-min treadmill run in the heat, participants (N=7) undertook 15-min recovery with either passive cooling, forearm and hand cooling, or neck cooling in a simulated cooled locker room environment. After the recovery, participants performed a 6×15-m sprint test and Yo-Yo Intermit...

  11. Development and tests of MCP based timing and multiplicity detector for MIPs (United States)

    Feofilov, G.; Kondratev, V.; Stolyarov, O.; Tulina, T.; Valiev, F.; Vinogradov, L.


    We present summary of technological developments and tests of the MCP based large area detector aimed at precise timing and charged particles multiplicity measurements. Results obtained in course of these developments of isochronous (simultaneity) precise signal readout, passive summation of 1 ns signals, fast (1 GHz) front-end electronics, miniature vacuum systems, etc. could be potentially interesting for a number of future applications in different fields.

  12. Testing and Validation of Timing Properties for High Speed Digital Cameras - A Best Practices Guide (United States)


    range, and frame rate get all the press when it comes to high-speed video viewed in Range Control; however, most optical data is practically...introduction of hydraulic and electrically-driven mount servo systems  The replacement of fixed optics sites with remotely-controlled mobile systems  (e.g., VendorX Timing Tests with staggered 10-μs pulse sequence). (5) Select Press to Locate Board ID. The Define Board ID file should

  13. It's about time? Testing the Dawson ceramic seriation using luminescence dating, Southern Nasca Region, Peru


    Vaughn, KJ; Eerkens, JW; Lipo, C; Sakai, S; Schreiber, K


    Copyright © 2014 by the Society for American Archaeology. The Dawson seriation of Nasca ceramics has long been assumed to be an accurate marker of temporal changes in the pre-hispanic south coast of Peru. We test this assumption by directly dating a sample of sherds using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL). Our results suggest that while some phases of the seriation are valid chronological markers, others appear to be the result of factors other than time. We discuss the implications of ...

  14. Tests and Calibration of the NIF Neutron Time of Flight Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Z.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Cruz, M.; Duffy, T.; Stoeckl, C.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T.C.; Tommasini, R.; Throop, A; Moran, M.; Dauffy, L.; Horsefield, C.


    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) Neutron Time of Flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD (D = deuterium, T = tritium, H = hydrogen) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 10 9 to 2 x 10 19 . The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 m and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detectors tests and calibration will be presented

  15. A low-cost test-bed for real-time landmark tracking (United States)

    Csaszar, Ambrus; Hanan, Jay C.; Moreels, Pierre; Assad, Christopher


    A low-cost vehicle test-bed system was developed to iteratively test, refine and demonstrate navigation algorithms before attempting to transfer the algorithms to more advanced rover prototypes. The platform used here was a modified radio controlled (RC) car. A microcontroller board and onboard laptop computer allow for either autonomous or remote operation via a computer workstation. The sensors onboard the vehicle represent the types currently used on NASA-JPL rover prototypes. For dead-reckoning navigation, optical wheel encoders, a single axis gyroscope, and 2-axis accelerometer were used. An ultrasound ranger is available to calculate distance as a substitute for the stereo vision systems presently used on rovers. The prototype also carries a small laptop computer with a USB camera and wireless transmitter to send real time video to an off-board computer. A real-time user interface was implemented that combines an automatic image feature selector, tracking parameter controls, streaming video viewer, and user generated or autonomous driving commands. Using the test-bed, real-time landmark tracking was demonstrated by autonomously driving the vehicle through the JPL Mars yard. The algorithms tracked rocks as waypoints. This generated coordinates calculating relative motion and visually servoing to science targets. A limitation for the current system is serial computing-each additional landmark is tracked in order-but since each landmark is tracked independently, if transferred to appropriate parallel hardware, adding targets would not significantly diminish system speed.

  16. Field test of near real time materials accountancy at the Tokai reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, N.; Masui, J.; Komatsu, H.; Todokoro, A.; Iwanaga, M.; Komori, Y.; Kusano, T.


    A study on near real time materials accountancy (NRTA) in Japan has been in progress since 1978. Subsequent to the establishment of the ten-day detection time model based on weekly in-process inventory measurement, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) initiated data acquisition in 1980 to study the practicality and effectiveness of NRTA. By the end of 1985 the PNC had accumulated about 80 material balance data. During the latter half of 1985 data acquisition was performed in the IAEA-PNC joint field test under the Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards. The field test involved the participation of IAEA staff members to collect data. Weekly material balance data acquisition required about 41 man-hours per week over the manpower required for usual process control and materials accountancy. Weekly in-process inventory measurement caused a peak load increase of 10-15%. Field test data suggested that NRTA is effective against abrupt diversion. However, at the same time, the data suggested the existence of flow measurement biases which will possibly affect the effectiveness of NRTA against protracted diversion. Therefore, investigation of measurement biases will be an important future activity for helping to improve the effectiveness of NRTA. (author)

  17. Transfusion Refusal and the Shifting Limits of Multicultural Accommodation. (United States)

    DeMichelis, Carey


    The refusal of blood products by Jehovah's Witness patients has provoked court proceedings, social science research, and contemporary fiction, all of which emphasize a seemingly intractable conflict between religious and secular ways of being. This article takes a different approach, focusing instead on the space that Witness patients have carved out for their accommodation in a major pediatric research hospital. Using discourse analysis and interview data, I map the way moralizing discourses surrounding Witness families have shifted over the past 70 years alongside advancements in bloodless medicine. I argue that Witnesses have helped to enable their present accommodation and recognition by marshaling particular forms of economic, human, and social capital, and consider whether their success might be attainable by other treatment-resisting patient groups. Thus, this article explores the shifting limits of multicultural accommodation and the conditions that make understanding, collaboration, and compromise possible.

  18. Disabilities in the workplace: recruitment, accommodation, and retention. (United States)

    Davis, Linda


    Who has never had a need for accommodation to perform a job because of age-related changes, gender issues related to family care, religious practices, health status, or disability? Who has never had the benefit of universal accommodations designed to provide access for individuals with disabilities, such as using the handicap button to open a door when one's arms are loaded? All of society has had the benefit of inclusion of individuals with disabilities within the work force. Occupational health nurses are essential to accommodating new employees with disabilities, assisting ill or injured employees in returning to work, and changing attitudes toward disabled workers. Additionally, nurses have the skills and knowledge for leading and managing newly emerging disease management programs for workers with disabilities caused by chronic illness.

  19. Spasm of accommodation associated with closed head trauma. (United States)

    Chan, R V Paul; Trobe, Jonathan D


    Spasm of accommodation, creating pseudomyopia, is generally associated with miosis and excess convergence as part of spasm of the near reflex. It may also exist as an isolated entity, usually attributed to psychogenic causes. We present six cases of accommodative spasm associated with closed head injury. All patients were male, ranging in age between 16 and 37 years. The degree of pseudomyopia, defined as the difference between manifest and cycloplegic refraction, was 1.5 to 2 diopters. A 3-year trial of pharmacologically induced cycloplegia in one patient did not lead to reversal of the spasm when the cycloplegia was stopped. All patients required the manifest refraction to see clearly at distance. The pseudomyopia endured for at least 7 years following head trauma. This phenomenon may represent traumatic activation or disinhibition of putative brain stem accommodation centers in young individuals.

  20. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates (United States)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis


    Spacelab Life Sciences-3 (SLS-3) was scheduled to be the first United States man-tended microgravity flight containing Rhesus monkeys. The goal of this flight as in the five untended Russian COSMOS Bion flights and an earlier American Biosatellite flight, was to understand the biomedical and biological effects of a microgravity environment using the non-human primate as human surrogate. The SLS-3/Rhesus Project and COSMOS Primate-BIOS flights all utilized the rhesus monkey, Macaca mulatta. The ultimate objective of all flights with an animal surrogate has been to evaluate and understand biological mechanisms at both the system and cellular level, thus enabling rational effective countermeasures for future long duration human activity under microgravity conditions and enabling technical application to correction of common human physiological problems within earth's gravity, e.g., muscle strength and reloading, osteoporosis, immune deficiency diseases. Hardware developed for the SLS-3/Rhesus Project was the result of a joint effort with the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and the United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) extending over the last decade. The flight hardware design and development required implementation of sufficient automation to insure flight crew and animal bio-isolation and maintenance with minimal impact to crew activities. A variety of hardware of varying functional capabilities was developed to support the scientific objectives of the original 22 combined French and American experiments, along with 5 Russian co-investigations, including musculoskeletal, metabolic, and behavioral studies. Unique elements of the Rhesus Research Facility (RRF) included separation of waste for daily delivery of urine and fecal samples for metabolic studies and a psychomotor test system for behavioral studies along with monitored food measurement. As in untended flights, telemetry measurements would allow monitoring of

  1. The Impact of Time-Series Diagnostic Tests on the Writing Ability of Iranian EFL learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Molazem Atashgahi


    Full Text Available This study aimed to show whether administering a battery of time-series diagnostic tests (screening has any impact on Iranian EFL learners’ writing ability. The study was conducted on the intermediate EFL learners at Islamic Azad University North Tehran branch.  The researcher administered a homogenizing test in order to exclude the exceptional scores, among all the testers, only those whose scores were nearly within one standard deviation above or below the mean were selected as the participants of this study. After the assignment of the participants to the control and experimental groups- 30 students in each group- they were asked to write five-paragraph-essays on two topics. Such a pretest was given to both groups to test their initial writing ability. Once scoring of the students’ writings (five- paragraph essay was finished the two means of the groups were calculated and compared with each other through the t-test analysis. The result demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference between those two groups regarding the variable under investigation. Four sets of diagnostic tests were given to the experimental group every two weeks and after each test both the result of the exam and suitable feedback regarding students’ errors were given to them by the teacher, while the Current-Traditional Rhetoric method was administered in the control group. In the posttest which was run after giving the treatment and placebo to experimental group and control group respectively, students took another writing test with the same characteristics in administration, topics and scoring as the one in pretest. Thereafter, the significance of the difference between the obtained means of experimental and control groups in the posttest was determined through the t-test.  The result of the t-test analysis indicated a significant difference between the two groups which consequently rejected the null hypothesis of the study. Therefore, any

  2. Computer-animated model of accommodation and presbyopia. (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel B


    To understand, demonstrate, and further research the mechanisms of accommodation and presbyopia. Private practice, Little Silver, New Jersey, USA. Experimental study. The CAMA 2.0 computer-animated model of accommodation and presbyopia was produced in collaboration with an experienced medical animator using Autodesk Maya animation software and Adobe After Effects. The computer-animated model demonstrates the configuration and synchronous movements of all accommodative elements. A new classification of the zonular apparatus based on structure and function is proposed. There are 3 divisions of zonular fibers; that is, anterior, crossing, and posterior. The crossing zonular fibers form a scaffolding to support the lens; the anterior and posterior zonular fibers work reciprocally to achieve focused vision. The model demonstrates the important support function of Weiger ligament. Dynamic movement of the ora serrata demonstrates that the forces of ciliary muscle contraction store energy for disaccommodation in the elastic choroid. The flow of aqueous and vitreous provides strong evidence for our understanding of the hydrodynamic interactions during the accommodative cycle. The interaction may result from the elastic stretch in the choroid transmitted to the vitreous rather than from vitreous pressue. The model supports the concept that presbyopia results from loss of elasticity and increasing ocular rigidity in both the lenticular and extralenticular structures. The computer-animated model demonstrates the structures of accommodation moving in synchrony and might enhance understanding of the mechanisms of accommodation and presbyopia. Dr. Goldberg is a consultant to Acevision, Inc., and Bausch & Lomb. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Beam test results of a 16 ps timing system based on ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartiglia, N., E-mail: [INFN, Torino (Italy); Staiano, A.; Sola, V. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Arcidiacono, R. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Università del Piemonte Orientale (Italy); Cirio, R.; Cenna, F.; Ferrero, M.; Monaco, V.; Mulargia, R.; Obertino, M.; Ravera, F.; Sacchi, R. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bellora, A.; Durando, S. [Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Mandurrino, M. [Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Minafra, N. [University of Kansas, KS (United States); Fadeyev, V.; Freeman, P.; Galloway, Z.; Gkougkousis, E. [SCIPP, University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others


    In this paper we report on the timing resolution obtained in a beam test with pions of 180 GeV/c momentum at CERN for the first production of 45 µm thick Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD). UFSD are based on the Low-Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) design, employing n-on-p silicon sensors with internal charge multiplication due to the presence of a thin, low-resistivity diffusion layer below the junction. The UFSD used in this test had a pad area of 1.7 mm{sup 2}. The gain was measured to vary between 5 and 70 depending on the sensor bias voltage. The experimental setup included three UFSD and a fast trigger consisting of a quartz bar readout by a SiPM. The timing resolution was determined by doing Gaussian fits to the time-of-flight of the particles between one or more UFSD and the trigger counter. For a single UFSD the resolution was measured to be 34 ps for a bias voltage of 200 V, and 27 ps for a bias voltage of 230 V. For the combination of 3 UFSD the timing resolution was 20 ps for a bias voltage of 200 V, and 16 ps for a bias voltage of 230 V.

  4. Interface Testing for RTOS System Tasks based on the Run-Time Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Ahyoung; Choi, Byoungju


    Safety critical embedded system requires high dependability of not only hardware but also software. It is intricate to modify embedded software once embedded. Therefore, it is necessary to have rigorous regulations to assure the quality of safety critical embedded software. IEEE V and V (Verification and Validation) process is recommended for software dependability, but a more quantitative evaluation method like software testing is necessary. In case of safety critical embedded software, it is essential to have a test that reflects unique features of the target hardware and its operating system. The safety grade PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) is a safety critical embedded system where hardware and software are tightly coupled. The PLC has HdS (Hardware dependent Software) and it is tightly coupled with RTOS (Real Time Operating System). Especially, system tasks that are tightly coupled with target hardware and RTOS kernel have large influence on the dependability of the entire PLC. Therefore, interface testing for system tasks that reflects the features of target hardware and RTOS kernel becomes the core of the PLC integration test. Here, we define interfaces as overlapped parts between two different layers on the system architecture. In this paper, we identify interfaces for system tasks and apply the identified interfaces to the safety grade PLC. Finally, we show the test results through the empirical study

  5. Interface Testing for RTOS System Tasks based on the Run-Time Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ahyoung; Choi, Byoungju [Ewha University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Safety critical embedded system requires high dependability of not only hardware but also software. It is intricate to modify embedded software once embedded. Therefore, it is necessary to have rigorous regulations to assure the quality of safety critical embedded software. IEEE V and V (Verification and Validation) process is recommended for software dependability, but a more quantitative evaluation method like software testing is necessary. In case of safety critical embedded software, it is essential to have a test that reflects unique features of the target hardware and its operating system. The safety grade PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) is a safety critical embedded system where hardware and software are tightly coupled. The PLC has HdS (Hardware dependent Software) and it is tightly coupled with RTOS (Real Time Operating System). Especially, system tasks that are tightly coupled with target hardware and RTOS kernel have large influence on the dependability of the entire PLC. Therefore, interface testing for system tasks that reflects the features of target hardware and RTOS kernel becomes the core of the PLC integration test. Here, we define interfaces as overlapped parts between two different layers on the system architecture. In this paper, we identify interfaces for system tasks and apply the identified interfaces to the safety grade PLC. Finally, we show the test results through the empirical study.

  6. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe


    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  7. Persistent accommodative spasm nine years after head trauma. (United States)

    Bohlmann, B J; France, T D


    Spasm of the near reflex is most often seen on a functional basis in young adults with underlying emotional problems. In particular, when convergence spasm is associated with miosis on attempted lateral gaze, a functional basis for the disorder should be suspected. Patients who experience spasm of the near reflex following trauma commonly follow a benign course with spontaneous resolution of their ocular complaints within 1-2 years. Accommodative spasm, manifested by pseudomyopia, or spasm of convergence, alone, or in combination with miosis, may be found as isolated signs of spasm of the near reflex. We report a patient who continues to demonstrate accommodative spasm 9 years after a motor vehicle accident.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Cieślik


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study about impact of accommodation services’ quality, particularly quality of work and qualifications of staff, on the guests’ opinion, and thus promoting the accommodation facilities, and making a choice of a hotel in the Upper Silesia. The study involved 200 people, taking into account their gender, age, place of residence, education and occupational status. The research tool was a survey questionnaire. The results indicate close correlation between the quality of staff services (individual approach, aesthetics, discretion, understanding and the customer is satisfaction. Particular attention was paid to the quality of service by the guests with high professional status, and higher education.

  9. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Vortex Models using Wake Encounter Flight Test Data (United States)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; VanValkenburg, Randal L.; Bowles, Roland L.; Limon Duparcmeur, Fanny M.; Gloudesman, Thijs; van Lochem, Sander; Ras, Eelco


    This paper describes a methodology for the integration and evaluation of fast-time wake models with flight data. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted detailed flight tests in 1995 and 1997 under the Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Program to characterize wake vortex decay and wake encounter dynamics. In this study, data collected during Flight 705 were used to evaluate NASA's fast-time wake transport and decay models. Deterministic and Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to define wake hazard bounds behind the wake generator. The methodology described in this paper can be used for further validation of fast-time wake models using en-route flight data, and for determining wake turbulence constraints in the design of air traffic management concepts.

  10. Timing performance of plastic scintillators of various sizes in a beam test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Li; Jiang Linli; Chinese Acacdemy of Sciences, Beijing; Heng Yuekun; Wu Chong; Zhao Xiaojian; Sun Zhijia; Wu Jinjie; Wang Yifang; Zhao Yuda; Nanjing Univ., Nanjing; Wang Fengmei


    The time-of-flight detector of the Beijing Spectrometer III(BES III) is built with long and narrow plastic scintillator bars, with each being 2.3 m long and 6 cm wide. The time resolution of prototypes wrapped with aluminum film has been studied for various thickness of the scintillator using a test beam at the Institute of High Energy Physics in Beijing, China. In this paper, the position-dependent time resolution of the scintillator with a thickness of 4 cm, 5 cm and 6 cm is presented and compared with a Monte Carlo simulation, the results show that the bar with a thickness of 5 cm has the best performance. (authors)

  11. Motion perception and driving: predicting performance through testing and shortening braking reaction times through training. (United States)

    Wilkins, Luke; Gray, Rob; Gaska, James; Winterbottom, Marc


    A driving simulator was used to examine the relationship between motion perception and driving performance. Although motion perception test scores have been shown to be related to driving safety, it is not clear which combination of tests are the best predictors and whether motion perception training can improve driving performance. In experiment 1, 60 younger drivers (22.4 ± 2.5 years) completed three motion perception tests (2-dimensional [2D] motion-defined letter [MDL] identification, 3D motion in depth sensitivity [MID], and dynamic visual acuity [DVA]) followed by two driving tests (emergency braking [EB] and hazard perception [HP]). In experiment 2, 20 drivers (21.6 ± 2.1 years) completed 6 weeks of motion perception training (using the MDL, MID, and DVA tests), while 20 control drivers (22.0 ± 2.7 years) completed an online driving safety course. The EB performance was measured before and after training. In experiment 1, MDL (r = 0.34) and MID (r = 0.46) significantly correlated with EB score. The change in DVA score as a function of target speed (i.e., "velocity susceptibility") was correlated most strongly with HP score (r = -0.61). In experiment 2, the motion perception training group had a significant decrease in brake reaction time on the EB test from pre- to posttreatment, while there was no significant change for the control group: t(38) = 2.24, P = 0.03. Tests of 3D motion perception are the best predictor of EB, while DVA velocity susceptibility is the best predictor of hazard perception. Motion perception training appears to result in faster braking responses.

  12. Concept, Implementation and Testing of PRESTo: Real-time experimentation in Southern Italy and worldwide applications (United States)

    Zollo, Aldo; Emolo, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Picozzi, Matteo; Elia, Luca; Martino, Claudio; Colombelli, Simona; Brondi, Piero; Caruso, Alessandro


    The past two decades have witnessed a huge progress in the development, implementation and testing of Earthquakes Early Warning Systems (EEWS) worldwide, as the result of a joint effort of the seismological and earthquake engineering communities to set up robust and efficient methodologies for the real-time seismic risk mitigation. This work presents an overview of the worldwide applications of the system PRESTo (PRobabilistic and Evolutionary early warning SysTem), which is the highly configurable and easily portable platform for Earthquake Early Warning developed by the RISSCLab group of the University of Naples Federico II. In particular, we first present the results of the real-time experimentation of PRESTo in Suthern Italy on the data streams of the Irpinia Seismic Network (ISNet), in Southern Italy. ISNet is a dense high-dynamic range, earthquake observing system, which operates in true real-time mode, thanks to a mixed data transmission system based on proprietary digital terrestrial links, standard ADSL and UMTS technologies. Using the seedlink protocol data are transferred to the network center unit, running the software platform PRESTo which is devoted to process the real-time data streaming, estimate source parameters and issue the alert. The software platform PRESTo uses a P-wave, network-based approach which has evolved and improved during the time since its first release. In its original version consisted in a series of modules, aimed at the event detection/picking, probabilistic real-time earthquake location and magnitude estimation, prediction of peak ground motion at distant sites through ground motion prediction equations for the area. In the recent years, PRESTo has been also implemented at the accelerometric and broad-band seismic networks in South Korea, Romania, North-East Italy, and Turkey and off-line tested in Iberian Peninsula, Israel, and Japan. Moreover, the feasibility of a PRESTo-based, EEWS at national scale in Italy, has been tested

  13. Earthquake and failure forecasting in real-time: A Forecasting Model Testing Centre (United States)

    Filgueira, Rosa; Atkinson, Malcolm; Bell, Andrew; Main, Ian; Boon, Steven; Meredith, Philip


    Across Europe there are a large number of rock deformation laboratories, each of which runs many experiments. Similarly there are a large number of theoretical rock physicists who develop constitutive and computational models both for rock deformation and changes in geophysical properties. Here we consider how to open up opportunities for sharing experimental data in a way that is integrated with multiple hypothesis testing. We present a prototype for a new forecasting model testing centre based on e-infrastructures for capturing and sharing data and models to accelerate the Rock Physicist (RP) research. This proposal is triggered by our work on data assimilation in the NERC EFFORT (Earthquake and Failure Forecasting in Real Time) project, using data provided by the NERC CREEP 2 experimental project as a test case. EFFORT is a multi-disciplinary collaboration between Geoscientists, Rock Physicists and Computer Scientist. Brittle failure of the crust is likely to play a key role in controlling the timing of a range of geophysical hazards, such as volcanic eruptions, yet the predictability of brittle failure is unknown. Our aim is to provide a facility for developing and testing models to forecast brittle failure in experimental and natural data. Model testing is performed in real-time, verifiably prospective mode, in order to avoid selection biases that are possible in retrospective analyses. The project will ultimately quantify the predictability of brittle failure, and how this predictability scales from simple, controlled laboratory conditions to the complex, uncontrolled real world. Experimental data are collected from controlled laboratory experiments which includes data from the UCL Laboratory and from Creep2 project which will undertake experiments in a deep-sea laboratory. We illustrate the properties of the prototype testing centre by streaming and analysing realistically noisy synthetic data, as an aid to generating and improving testing methodologies in

  14. Five-Kilometers Time Trial: Preliminary Validation of a Short Test for Cycling Performance Evaluation. (United States)

    Dantas, Jose Luiz; Pereira, Gleber; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo


    The five-kilometer time trial (TT5km) has been used to assess aerobic endurance performance without further investigation of its validity. This study aimed to perform a preliminary validation of the TT5km to rank well-trained cyclists based on aerobic endurance fitness and assess changes of the aerobic endurance performance. After the incremental test, 20 cyclists (age = 31.3 ± 7.9 years; body mass index = 22.7 ± 1.5 kg/m(2); maximal aerobic power = 360.5 ± 49.5 W) performed the TT5km twice, collecting performance (time to complete, absolute and relative power output, average speed) and physiological responses (heart rate and electromyography activity). The validation criteria were pacing strategy, absolute and relative reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Sensitivity index was obtained from the ratio between the smallest worthwhile change and typical error. The TT5km showed high absolute (coefficient of variation 0.95) reliability of performance variables, whereas it presented low reliability of physiological responses. The TT5km performance variables were highly correlated with the aerobic endurance indices obtained from incremental test (r > 0.70). These variables showed adequate sensitivity index (> 1). TT5km is a valid test to rank the aerobic endurance fitness of well-trained cyclists and to differentiate changes on aerobic endurance performance. Coaches can detect performance changes through either absolute (± 17.7 W) or relative power output (± 0.3, the time to complete the test (± 13.4 s) and the average speed (± 1.0 km.h(-1)). Furthermore, TT5km performance can also be used to rank the athletes according to their aerobic endurance fitness.

  15. Authentication and Access: Accommodating Public Users in an Academic World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Weber


    Full Text Available In the fall of 2004, the Academic Computing Center, a division of the Information Technology Services Department (ITS at Minnesota State University, Mankato took over responsibility for the computers in the public areas of Memorial Library. For the first time, affiliated Memorial Library users were required to authenticate using a campus username and password, a change that effectively eliminated computer access for anyone not part of the university community. This posed a dilemma for the librarians. Because of its Federal Depository status, the library had a responsibility to provide general access to both print and online government publications for the general public. Furthermore, the library had a long tradition of providing guest access to most library resources, and there was reluctance to abandon the practice. Therefore the librarians worked with ITS to retain a small group of six computers that did not require authentication and were clearly marked for community use, along with several standup, open-access computers on each floor used primarily for searching the library catalog. The additional need to provide computer access to high school students visiting the library for research and instruction led to more discussions with ITS and resulted in a means of generating temporary usernames and passwords through a Web form. These user accommodations were implemented in the library without creating a written policy governing the use of open-access computers.

  16. Directing students to profound open-book test preparation : The relationship between deep learning and open-book test time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J.B.; Hofman, W.H.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.


    Background: Considering the growing amount of medical knowledge and the focus of medical education on acquiring competences, using open-book tests seems inevitable. A possible disadvantage of these tests is that students underestimate test preparation. Aims: We examined whether students who used a

  17. Real time testing of intelligent relays for synchronous distributed generation islanding detection (United States)

    Zhuang, Davy

    As electric power systems continue to grow to meet ever-increasing energy demand, their security, reliability, and sustainability requirements also become more stringent. The deployment of distributed energy resources (DER), including generation and storage, in conventional passive distribution feeders, gives rise to integration problems involving protection and unintentional islanding. Distributed generators need to be islanded for safety reasons when disconnected or isolated from the main feeder as distributed generator islanding may create hazards to utility and third-party personnel, and possibly damage the distribution system infrastructure, including the distributed generators. This thesis compares several key performance indicators of a newly developed intelligent islanding detection relay, against islanding detection devices currently used by the industry. The intelligent relay employs multivariable analysis and data mining methods to arrive at decision trees that contain both the protection handles and the settings. A test methodology is developed to assess the performance of these intelligent relays on a real time simulation environment using a generic model based on a real-life distribution feeder. The methodology demonstrates the applicability and potential advantages of the intelligent relay, by running a large number of tests, reflecting a multitude of system operating conditions. The testing indicates that the intelligent relay often outperforms frequency, voltage and rate of change of frequency relays currently used for islanding detection, while respecting the islanding detection time constraints imposed by standing distributed generator interconnection guidelines.

  18. Five years of testing using the simi-automated ultrasonic time of flight diffraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, S.A.


    This paper provides a brief description of the Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) test system and also describes a couple of case histories where the system has been successfully applied. The T.O.F.D. system has been contrasted with the conventional manual ultrasonic technique. Whilst the T.O.F.D. system has proven potential, and is without doubt a valuable tool that will continue to gain market share in the inspection industry, conventional manual ultrasonics still has its part to play and will survive for some time to come. One of the outstanding issues facing the T.O.F.D. systems is the question of acceptance testing which is still the predominant convention specified in most standards. Training for a T.O.F.D. system technician is particularly important and the author suggests there are more traps for the unwary than with the conventional manual ultrasonic systems. The overall judgement of the T.O.F.D. system is that it is a most welcome and powerful tool in the hands of the right operator and will do much to boost the prominence of Non-Destructive Testing

  19. A flexible and coherent test/estimation procedure based on restricted mean survival times for censored time-to-event data in randomized clinical trials. (United States)

    Horiguchi, Miki; Cronin, Angel M; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Uno, Hajime


    In randomized clinical trials where time-to-event is the primary outcome, almost routinely, the logrank test is prespecified as the primary test and the hazard ratio is used to quantify treatment effect. If the ratio of 2 hazard functions is not constant, the logrank test is not optimal and the interpretation of hazard ratio is not obvious. When such a nonproportional hazards case is expected at the design stage, the conventional practice is to prespecify another member of weighted logrank tests, eg, Peto-Prentice-Wilcoxon test. Alternatively, one may specify a robust test as the primary test, which can capture various patterns of difference between 2 event time distributions. However, most of those tests do not have companion procedures to quantify the treatment difference, and investigators have fallen back on reporting treatment effect estimates not associated with the primary test. Such incoherence in the "test/estimation" procedure may potentially mislead clinicians/patients who have to balance risk-benefit for treatment decision. To address this, we propose a flexible and coherent test/estimation procedure based on restricted mean survival time, where the truncation time τ is selected data dependently. The proposed procedure is composed of a prespecified test and an estimation of corresponding robust and interpretable quantitative treatment effect. The utility of the new procedure is demonstrated by numerical studies based on 2 randomized cancer clinical trials; the test is dramatically more powerful than the logrank, Wilcoxon tests, and the restricted mean survival time-based test with a fixed τ, for the patterns of difference seen in these cancer clinical trials. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. A new reference tip-timing test bench and simulator for blade synchronous and asynchronous vibrations (United States)

    Hajnayeb, Ali; Nikpour, Masood; Moradi, Shapour; Rossi, Gianluca


    The blade tip-timing (BTT) measurement technique is at present the most promising technique for monitoring the blades of axial turbines and aircraft engines in operating conditions. It is generally used as an alternative to strain gauges in turbine testing. By conducting a comparison with the standard methods such as those based on strain gauges, one determines that the technique is not intrusive and does not require a complicated installation process. Despite its superiority to other methods, the experimental performance analysis of a new BTT method needs a test stand that includes a reference measurement system (e.g. strain gauges equipped with telemetry or other complex optical measurement systems, like rotating laser Doppler vibrometers). In this article, a new reliable, low-cost BTT test setup is proposed for simulating and analyzing blade vibrations based on kinematic inversion. In the proposed test bench, instead of the blades vibrating, it is the BTT sensor that vibrates. The vibration of the sensor is generated by a shaker and can therefore be easily controlled in terms of frequency, amplitude and waveform shape. The amplitude of vibration excitation is measured by a simple accelerometer. After introducing the components of the simulator, the proposed test bench is used in practice to simulate both synchronous and asynchronous vibration scenarios. Then two BTT methods are used to evaluate the quality of the acquired data. The results demonstrate that the proposed setup is able to generate simulated pulse sequences which are almost the same as those generated by the conventional BTT systems installed around a bladed disk. Moreover, the test setup enables its users to evaluate BTT methods by using a limited number of sensors. This significantly reduces the total costs of the experiments.

  1. Virtual reality myringotomy simulation with real-time deformation: development and validity testing. (United States)

    Ho, Andrew K; Alsaffar, Hussain; Doyle, Philip C; Ladak, Hanif M; Agrawal, Sumit K


    Surgical simulation is becoming an increasingly common training tool in residency programs. The first objective was to implement real-time soft-tissue deformation and cutting into a virtual reality myringotomy simulator. The second objective was to test the various implemented incision algorithms to determine which most accurately represents the tympanic membrane during myringotomy. Descriptive and face-validity testing. A deformable tympanic membrane was developed, and three soft-tissue cutting algorithms were successfully implemented into the virtual reality myringotomy simulator. The algorithms included element removal, direction prediction, and Delaunay cutting. The simulator was stable and capable of running in real time on inexpensive hardware. A face-validity study was then carried out using a validated questionnaire given to eight otolaryngologists and four senior otolaryngology residents. Each participant was given an adaptation period on the simulator, was blinded to the algorithm being used, and was presented the three algorithms in a randomized order. A virtual reality myringotomy simulator with real-time soft-tissue deformation and cutting was successfully developed. The simulator was stable, ran in real time on inexpensive hardware, and incorporated haptic feedback and stereoscopic vision. The Delaunay cutting algorithm was found to be the most realistic algorithm representing the incision during myringotomy (P virtual reality myringotomy simulator is being developed and now integrates a real-time deformable tympanic membrane that appears to have face validity. Further development and validation studies are necessary before the simulator can be studied with respect to training efficacy and clinical impact. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Quantifying Arabia-Eurasia convergence accommodated in the Greater Caucasus by paleomagnetic reconstruction (United States)

    van der Boon, A.; van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Rezaeian, M.; Gürer, D.; Honarmand, M.; Pastor-Galán, D.; Krijgsman, W.; Langereis, C. G.


    Since the late Eocene, convergence and subsequent collision between Arabia and Eurasia was accommodated both in the overriding Eurasian plate forming the Greater Caucasus orogen and the Iranian plateau, and by subduction and accretion of the Neotethys and Arabian margin forming the East Anatolian plateau and the Zagros. To quantify how much Arabia-Eurasia convergence was accommodated in the Greater Caucasus region, we here provide new paleomagnetic results from 97 volcanic sites (∼500 samples) in the Talysh Mountains of NW Iran, that show ∼15° net clockwise rotation relative to Eurasia since the Eocene. We apply a first-order kinematic restoration of the northward convex orocline that formed to the south of the Greater Caucasus, integrating our new data with previously published constraints on rotations of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus. This suggests that north of the Talysh ∼120 km of convergence must have been accommodated. North of the Eastern Pontides and Lesser Caucasus this is significantly more: 200-280 km. Our reconstruction independently confirms previous Caucasus convergence estimates. Moreover, we show for the first time a sharp contrast of convergence between the Lesser Caucasus and the Talysh. This implies that the ancient Paleozoic-Mesozoic transform plate boundary, preserved between the Iranian and East-Anatolian plateaus, was likely reactivated as a right-lateral transform fault since late Eocene time.

  3. Dimensionality reduction for the quantitative evaluation of a smartphone-based Timed Up and Go test. (United States)

    Palmerini, Luca; Mellone, Sabato; Rocchi, Laura; Chiari, Lorenzo


    The Timed Up and Go is a clinical test to assess mobility in the elderly and in Parkinson's disease. Lately instrumented versions of the test are being considered, where inertial sensors assess motion. To improve the pervasiveness, ease of use, and cost, we consider a smartphone's accelerometer as the measurement system. Several parameters (usually highly correlated) can be computed from the signals recorded during the test. To avoid redundancy and obtain the features that are most sensitive to the locomotor performance, a dimensionality reduction was performed through principal component analysis (PCA). Forty-nine healthy subjects of different ages were tested. PCA was performed to extract new features (principal components) which are not redundant combinations of the original parameters and account for most of the data variability. They can be useful for exploratory analysis and outlier detection. Then, a reduced set of the original parameters was selected through correlation analysis with the principal components. This set could be recommended for studies based on healthy adults. The proposed procedure could be used as a first-level feature selection in classification studies (i.e. healthy-Parkinson's disease, fallers-non fallers) and could allow, in the future, a complete system for movement analysis to be incorporated in a smartphone.

  4. Phasor Measurement Unit and Phasor Data Concentrator test with Real Time Digital Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diakos, Konstantinos; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde


    that is able to derive and communicate synchrophasor measurements of different parts of the power network and the development of tests, according to IEEE standards, that evaluate the performance of PMUs and PDCs. The tests are created by using a Real Time Digital Simulation (RTDS) system. The results obtained......The main focus of the electrical engineers nowadays, is to develop a smart grid that is able to monitor, evaluate and control the power system operation. The integration of Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED s) to the power network, is a strong indication of the inclination to lead the power...... network to a more reliable, secure and economic operation. The implementation of these devices though, demands the warranty of a secure operation and high-accuracy performance. This paper describes the procedure of establishing a PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit)–PDC (Phasor Data Concentrator) platform...

  5. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 230 Helicobacter pylori strains: importance of medium, inoculum, and incubation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartzen, S H; Andersen, L P; Bremmelgaard, A


    No standardized method of susceptibility testing for Helicobacter pylori is currently available, so before a large agar dilution study comprising 230 H. pylori strains belonging to more than 80 genetically different groups was initiated, we performed a relatively small preliminary study....../spot) as the inoculum and 72 h as the incubation time. A modest inoculum effect was noted for amoxicillin and metronidazole. By the methodology derived from our preliminary study, the susceptibilities of 230 H. pylori strains to six antibiotics were subsequently determined. The results were generally in accord...... with those of others, and apart from metronidazole, the MIC of which for approximately 25% of the strains tested was >8 microg/ml, resistance was low in Denmark. The situation might, however, quickly change when and if the number of indications for antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections increase...

  6. The Use of Conditional Probability Integral Transformation Method for Testing Accelerated Failure Time Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Ahmed Abdel-Ghaly


    Full Text Available This paper suggests the use of the conditional probability integral transformation (CPIT method as a goodness of fit (GOF technique in the field of accelerated life testing (ALT, specifically for validating the underlying distributional assumption in accelerated failure time (AFT model. The method is based on transforming the data into independent and identically distributed (i.i.d Uniform (0, 1 random variables and then applying the modified Watson statistic to test the uniformity of the transformed random variables. This technique is used to validate each of the exponential, Weibull and lognormal distributions' assumptions in AFT model under constant stress and complete sampling. The performance of the CPIT method is investigated via a simulation study. It is concluded that this method performs well in case of exponential and lognormal distributions. Finally, a real life example is provided to illustrate the application of the proposed procedure.

  7. Using response-time constraints in item selection to control for differential speededness in computerized adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Scrams, David J.; Schnipke, Deborah L.


    This paper proposes an item selection algorithm that can be used to neutralize the effect of time limits in computer adaptive testing. The method is based on a statistical model for the response-time distributions of the test takers on the items in the pool that is updated each time a new item has

  8. Effects of Math Anxiety and Perfectionism on Timed versus Untimed Math Testing in Mathematically Gifted Sixth Graders (United States)

    Tsui, Joanne M.; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.


    This study was designed to examine the effects of math anxiety and perfectionism on math performance, under timed testing conditions, among mathematically gifted sixth graders. We found that participants had worse math performance during timed versus untimed testing, but this difference was statistically significant only when the timed condition…

  9. The determinants of transitions into sheltered accommodation in later life in England and Wales (United States)

    Vlachantoni, Athina; Maslovskaya, Olga; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane


    Background Population ageing is a global challenge and understanding the dynamics of living arrangements in later life and their implications for the design of appropriate housing and long-term care is a critical policy issue. Existing research has focused on the study of transitions into residential care in the UK. This paper investigates transitions into sheltered accommodation among older people in England and Wales between 1993 and 2008. Methods The study uses longitudinal data constructed from pooled observations across waves 2–18 of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) data, focusing on individuals aged 65 and over who lived in private housing at baseline and who were observed for two consecutive time points. A discrete-time logistic regression model was used to examine the association of transitioning into sheltered accommodation with a range of demographic, health and socioeconomic predictors. Results Demographic (age, region), socioeconomic factors (housing tenure, having a washing machine) and contact with health professionals (number of visits to the general practitioner, start in use of health visitor) were significant determinants of an older person's move into sheltered accommodation. Conclusions Transitions into sheltered accommodation are associated with a range of demographic and socioeconomic characteristics as well as service use but not with health. Such results indicate that this type of housing option may be accessible by individuals with relatively good health, but may be limited to those who are referred by gatekeepers. Policymakers could consider making such housing option available to everyone, as well as providing incentives for building lifecourse-sensitive housing in the future. PMID:26896519

  10. Effects of combined therapy in 80 cases of accommodative esotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Liu


    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate a comprehensive treatment for accommodative esotropia.METHODS: Eighty patients with accommodative esotropia were analyzed. All cases wore corrective glasses 7d after mydriasis by 10g/L atropine. The pupils were all comprehensively trained. If the position of the esotropic eyes could not be corrected by spectacles and both eyes had similar visual acuity in one year, surgical intervention was taken to correct the position. Refraction, visual acuity, visual function and strabismus degree change before and after treatment were evaluated.RESULTS: One year after wearing glasses, 50 cases had corrected eye position through correction and 30 cases were partially accommodative esotropia. Ten cases of esotropia degree >+15△ which could not be complete corrected by cure correction got surgical intervention. Seven cases of them got normal eye positions and 3 cases were over corrected 10△-20△. After comprehensive treatment of 3 years, the cure rate of amblyopia was 88.7%.CONCLUSION: The treatment for accommodative esotropia is a comprehensive course. It is necessary to pay attention to eye position correction, but also for the treatment of amblyopia, while paying attention to establish binocular vision.

  11. Health Care Provider Accommodations for Patients with Communication Disorders (United States)

    Burns, Michael I.; Baylor, Carolyn; Dudgeon, Brian J.; Starks, Helene; Yorkston, Kathryn


    Health care providers can experience increased diffculty communicating with adult patients during medical interactions when the patients have communication disorders. Meeting the communication needs of these patients can also create unique challenges for providers. The authors explore Communication Accommodation Theory (H. Giles, 1979) as a guide…

  12. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8. (United States)

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…

  13. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaines, S.O.; Henderson, M.C.; Kim, M.; Gilstrap, S.; Yi, J.; Rusbult, C.E.; Hardin, D.P.; Gaertner, L.A.


    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect,

  14. Cooperating or competing in three languages : Cultural accommodation or alienation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gargalianou, Vasiliki; Urbig, Diemo; Van Witteloostuijn, Arjen


    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of using foreign languages on cooperative behavior in a prisoner's dilemma setting. The cultural accommodation hypothesis suggests that people are less cooperative in English, associated with the Anglophone cultural cluster, than in French,

  15. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies. (United States)


    ... ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Accommodation of Utilities § 645.211 State transportation... effects of any loss of productive agricultural land or any impairment of the productivity of any agricultural land that would result from the disapproval. The environmental and economic effects on productive...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Accommodation Infrastructure and Tourism Flows on Feleacu Hill (Cluj County. Feleacu Hill experienced tourism development between 2001 and 2015. The INS data indicates that the number of accommodation units increased from one (2001 to four (2015 and there are a few more which are not registered in the INS database. The accommodation capacity increases, as many guesthouses are expanding their premises to receive more tourists and new accommodation units emerge, such as Hotel Premier in Vâlcele (Feleacu commune. Tourism flows also registered a highly positive trend. The number of arrivals increased from 95 tourists in 2002 to 7791 tourists in 2015. However, there was a downturn between 2009 and 2012, due to the economic crisis and the opening of the Turda – Gilău motorway (A3, which redirected transit routes outside the region and led to the closure of Paradis Hotel in 2012. Since 2012, the number of arrivals and overnight stays increased steadily due to the development of new forms of tourism – rural tourism, agrotourism, extreme tourism and complex tourism, materialized in growing numbers of tourists at the two guesthouses in Ciurila commune (“La Mesteceni” and “Domeniul Regilor”. Tourism brings obvious benefits to the rural communities on Feleacu Hill, even if the average duration of stay is still low.

  17. Accommodating Students' Sensory Learning Modalities in Online Formats (United States)

    Allison, Barbara N.; Rehm, Marsha L.


    Online classes have become a popular and viable method of educating students in both K-12 settings and higher education, including in family and consumer sciences (FCS) programs. Online learning dramatically affects the way students learn. This article addresses how online learning can accommodate the sensory learning modalities (sight, hearing,…

  18. 7 CFR 1744.30 - Automatic lien accommodations. (United States)


    ... Government mortgage to secure the private lender notes including, but not limited to, those of the private... affiliated companies with the proceeds of private lender notes qualifying for an automatic lien accommodation... forth in this section. (b) Private lender responsibility. The private lender is responsible for ensuring...

  19. a comparative study of the gradient accommodative convergence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    power by the eye in order to maintain a clear images as objects ... to work harmoniously for clear single binocular vision to be ... a balance between accommodation and convergence ... activity of life of the child especially with respect to school ...

  20. Teaching Disability Employment Discrimination Law: Accommodating Physical and Mental Disabilities (United States)

    Kulow, Marianne DelPo


    Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…