Sample records for time students spend

  1. How College Students Spend Their Time Communicating (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard; Adams, Jim; Baker, Kim; Daufin, E. K.; Ellington, Coke; Fitts, Elizabeth; Himsel, Jonathan; Holladay, Linda; Okeowo, David


    This study sought to assess how college students spend their time communicating and what impact, if any, communications devices may be having on how that time is spent. Undergraduates (N = 696) at four southeastern colleges were surveyed. Results revealed that listening comprises 55.4% of the total average communication day followed by reading…

  2. Time Students Spend Working at Home for School (United States)

    Wagner, Petra; Schober, Barbara; Spiel, Christiane


    The paper presents three studies which deal with the time students spend working at home for school. In addition, the paper focuses on the distribution of time investment over the course of a week and on the relationship between academic achievement and time spent working at home for school. In sum, 824 students with an average age of 15 years…

  3. Investigating how high school deaf students spend their leisure time

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    Allahyar Arabmomeni


    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on deaf students' interests in spending their leisure times. We design a questionnaire and distribute among all deaf students who are enrolled in high schools in two provinces of Iran. The questionnaire consists of three parts, in the first part, we ask female and male deaf students about their interests in various entertainment activities in Likert scale. In terms of gender, we find out that walking inside or outside house is number one favorite exercise for female students while male students mostly prefer to walk on the streets. Although male students prefer to go biking or running activities, female students prefer to go for picnic or similar activities. This could be due to limitations on female for running or biking inside cities. While going to picnic with members of family or friends is the third popular activity for male students, stretching exercises is third most popular activity among female students. Breathing exercise is the fourth most popular activity among both male and female students. The second part of the survey is associated with the barriers for having no exercise among deaf students. According to our survey, while lack of good attention from public and ordinary people on exercising deaf students is believed to be number one barrier among male students, female students blame lack of transportation facilities as the most important barrier. However, both female and male students believe these two items are the most important factors preventing them to exercise. Lack of awareness for exercising deaf students and lack of good recreational facilities are the third most important barriers among male and female students. The last part of the survey attempted to detect important entertainment activities. Watching TV, entertaining with mobile devices, chatting with friends and watching DVD or movies were the most important items influencing deaf students' free times.DOI: 10.5267/j.msl.2012

  4. Time Investment and Time Management: An Analysis of Time Students Spend Working at Home for School (United States)

    Wagner, Petra; Schober, Barbara; Spiel, Christiane


    This paper deals with the time students spend working at home for school. In Study 1, we investigated amount and regulation of time. Study 2 serves to validate the results of Study 1 and, in addition, investigates the duration of the time units students used and their relation to scholastic success. In Study 1, the participants were 332 students…

  5. Ways of spending leisure time by the third year-students of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lublin. (United States)

    Czabak-Garbacz, Róza; Skibniewska, Agnieszka; Mazurkiewicz, Piotr; Gdula, Agnieszka


    The aim of the study was the assessment of leisure time among third-year students from the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Lublin. It analysed quantity of time devoted to school activity and ways of spending free time. The study involved 114 students (82 women and 32 men). The study revealed that women had less free time than men, who, most probably did not attend some lectures. The most popular activities among the questioned students were: sleeping (average 6.8 hours a day), studying (average 3.6 hours a day), listening to the radio (average 2.9 hours a day), talking with friends (average 1.9 hours a day), personal hygiene (average 1.1 hours a day), watching TV (average 1.1 hours a day), housework. Students devoted the least of their free time on active rest, for example walking (women did it more often than men) or practising sport (more popular among men). Cultural life of the students consisted only of meetings with friends and going to the cinema (women did it more often). The least popular way of spending free time was going to the theatre, opera, concerts and exhibitions. Few students spent their time working. Their number increased significantly during holidays. The way of spending free time by third-year students from the Faculty of Pharmacy (both men and women) during the day was similar, differences related only to the amount of time devoted to each activity.

  6. Shadow Education in Malaysia: Identifying the Determinants of Spending and Amount of Time Attending Private Supplementary Tutoring of Upper Secondary School Students


    Chang Da Wan; Benedict Weerasena


    This paper examines the determinants of spending and the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring, or commonly known as private tuition, in Malaysia. Based on 343 self-reported questionnaires with upper secondary students across three states in Malaysia and using multiple regression analysis, we identified ethnicity, father’s level of education and past academic performance as significant determinants of spending and amount of time attending private tuition. However, interestin...

  7. Shadow Education in Malaysia: Identifying the Determinants of Spending and Amount of Time Attending Private Supplementary Tutoring of Upper Secondary School Students

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    Chang Da Wan


    Full Text Available This paper examines the determinants of spending and the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring, or commonly known as private tuition, in Malaysia. Based on 343 self-reported questionnaires with upper secondary students across three states in Malaysia and using multiple regression analysis, we identified ethnicity, father’s level of education and past academic performance as significant determinants of spending and amount of time attending private tuition. However, interestingly, we found that while geographical location and participation in internal tuition in schools were also determinants of spending, these two were not significant in determining the amount of time attending private supplementary tutoring. The identification of determinants of spending and amount of time, and in addition, the differences between these two illustrates the economic and educational dimensions of shadow education. More importantly, the insight also contributes to the formulation of possible interventions that can improve quality and reduce inequality in the mainstream education system.

  8. A Study of the Ways of Spending Leisure Time and Its Related Variables in the Students of Qom University of Medical Sciences in 2015, Iran

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    Parisa Sarraf


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Leisure time is an opportunity allowing a person to fill his/her time with mental or entertaining activity according to his/her interest and incentive, when he/she is relatively free. The current study aimed to assess and prioritize the activities of the students of Qom University of Medical Sciences in their leisure time. Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 405 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A total of 325 students were selected using random stratified sampling method. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire, which its reliability and validity had been confirmed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results: Ninety percent of the students had leisure time during the day, which was more than 1 hour in 78% of them. The most important priorities of the students for spending their leisure time was recreation and having fun in 261 subjects (70.5%, rest in 239 (64.6%, using social networks in 239 (64.6%, reading non-school related materials in 229 (61.9%, reading school related materials in 220 (59.5%, sport in 201 (54.3%, and using game software in 193 (52.2%, among which, reading school related materials was significantly different between males and females (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most of the students of Qom University of Medical Sciences do not make effective use of cell phone, social networks, and computer games. Also, sport and studying activities have not considerable place in their leisure activities, which necessitates providing accurate planning.

  9. Budgeting and spending habits of university students in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the budgeting and spending habits of university students at a South African university. In addition, the study examined if there is a significant gender difference in the budgeting and spending habits of university students. The study adopted a quantitative research approach with a ...

  10. Smart Shopping Carts: How Real-Time Feedback Influences Spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ittersum, van K.; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.


    Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly

  11. Smart shopping carts : How real-time feedback influences spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.

    Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly

  12. Smart shopping carts : How real-time feedback influences spending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ittersum, Koert; Wansink, B.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Sheehan, D.


    Although interest in smart shopping carts is increasing, both retailers and consumer groups have concerns about how real-time spending feedback will influence shopping behavior. Building on budgeting and spending theories, the authors conduct three lab and grocery store experiments that robustly

  13. The Time Parents and Children Spend Together. (United States)

    Ziegler, Mark E.

    Questions about how parents' childrearing time becomes associated with different developmental outcomes and about the relative importance of the quantity and quality of shared parent/child time remain largely unanswered. A study explored such associations in a sample of 48 white middle class third and fourth graders (24 boys and 24 girls) and…

  14. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  15. How Superintendents Spend Their Working Time. (United States)

    Friesen, David; Duignan, Patrick


    Observations of superintendents indicate that, within the plethora of tasks and activities, the hectic variety of demands and contacts of their jobs, the superintendents cope with rather than organize their time schedules. Still, the superintendents seem to attend to the most vital activities. (Author/IRT)

  16. Spending Time and Money within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette


    We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household...

  17. Formy spędzania czasu wolnego studentów wybranych kierunków Uniwersytetu Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy = Forms of spending free time students of selected fields of the University of Bydgoszcz

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    Martyna Łachacz


    still do not understand that regular physical activity helps to reduce the risk of lifestyle diseases, which the majority of the population dies. It is therefore important tests are checking how they spend their free time people of all ages and whether and what forms of recreation take what they approach to physical activity, whether they are aware that their surroundings are organized activities conducive to increasing physical fitness and whether and what differences exist between different social groups. The study was conducted in January 2015 at the University of Bydgoszcz. The study was conducted on students I, II and II, the administration and Tourism and Recreation. The accumulated research material is 102 survey, after 17 on each yearbook and direction. The study involved 74 women and 28 men aged 19 to 25 years. Analyzing the results of the research can conclude that there are small differences in the perception of physical activity student administration and tourism and recreation. Students often choose TiR physical activity. As you can see, students administration have slightly different priorities, or perhaps knowledge of physical recreation is not them so often and effectively passed on to students TiR.   Key words: leisure, physical activity, physical recreation, students.

  18. How do disabled individuals spend their leisure time? (United States)

    Pagán-Rodríguez, Ricardo


    Despite the important role that leisure time plays in individuals' health, wellness and quality of life, the disability studies addressing leisure remain extremely limited. Examine how people with disabilities allocate their time to leisure activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using data at an individual level from the Time Use Survey for Spain in 2002-2003 and the social model of disability as a framework, we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on three aggregate categories (active, passive and social activities) for non-disabled, non-limited disabled and limited disabled individuals. Individuals who are limited in their daily activities are more likely to allocate their time to passive leisure (e.g., reading, television, video, and radio) and less likely to spend their time in social entertainment (e.g., theater, culture, and social events) as compared to non-disabled individuals. In addition, we find significant differences in minutes per day spent on leisure activities by gender, age, marital status and number of children. Accessible facilities and leisure installations as well as actions aimed at combating barriers and discrimination practices are needed to encourage participation in physical activity and social entertainment of people with disabilities. It is necessary to define, adapt and implement specific leisure activities that allow people with disabilities to fully participate in these activities and increase their levels of social integration and life satisfaction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Brief Report: Disposable Income, and Spending on Fast Food, Alcohol, Cigarettes, and Gambling by New Zealand Secondary School Students (United States)

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila


    We describe self-reported sources of income and expenditure, and the association between part-time employment and spending on fast food, alcohol, cigarettes, and gambling for a sample of 3434 New Zealand (NZ) secondary school students (mean age 15.0 years). Disposable income was usually received from parents and guardians, but nearly 40% of…

  20. Transmission of government spending shocks in the Euro area: time variation and driving forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.; Cimadomo, J.; Hauptmeier, S.


    This paper provides new evidence on the effects of government spending shocks and the fiscal transmission mechanism in the euro area for the period 1980-2008. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we investigate changes in the macroeconomic impact of government spending shocks using time-varying

  1. Leisure, Means Of Spending Free Time At Agrotourist Farm

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    Ioan Petroman


    Full Text Available Leisure at agrotourist farm includes all recreational and entertainment activities, offered to its visitors willing of uniqueness and beyond, having as purpose the insurance of a good mood, pleasure and relaxation, along with printing some positive impressions and of a pleasant memory about the visited location. In case of agrotourist farm product, leisure has a very diverse content, depending on the profile of the rural area, of the farm, of the motivation, of the visitation season and of the customer segments. Animation from agrotourist farm should contribute to meeting the requirements of active recreation and meeting physical and mental demands of tourists and generate the necessary frame to pleasantly spend a pleasant and instructive leisure. Leisure services can be organized by the staff from agrotourist farm, by specialized personnel or third parties, in order to meet the functions of relaxation and physical comfort, entertainment and improvingits capabilities, satisfying the needs of consumers of such niche tourism.

  2. How urban African American young adolescents spend their time: time budgets for locations, activities, and companionship. (United States)

    Larson, R W; Richards, M H; Sims, B; Dworkin, J


    The time budgets of a population of youth provide important information about their daily experience and socialization. This study reports data on the time budgets of a sample of 253 urban African American poor to working- and middle-class 5th-8th graders in Chicago. These youth were found to spend less time in school than other postindustrial adolescent populations, but spent no less time doing homework than White suburban U.S. young adolescents. They spent large quantities of time at home and with their families--at rates comparable to rates for young adolescents in a society with collectivist values like India. Unlike with other populations, early adolescence was not associated with major age changes in time allocations. Amount of time in schoolwork did not differ by grade, and amount of time with family did not show the decline with age that has been found for European American suburban adolescents.

  3. Public or private care: where do specialists spend their time? (United States)

    Freed, Gary L; Turbitt, Erin; Allen, Amy


    Objectives The aim of the present study was to provide data to help clarify the public-private division of clinical care provision by doctors in Australia. Methods A secondary analysis was performed of data from the workforce survey administered by the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency. The questionnaire included demographic and employment questions. Analysis included frequency distributions of demographic variables and mean and median calculations of employment data. Data were analysed from those currently employed in eight adult specialities chosen to provide a mix of surgical and medical fields. The specialties were orthopaedic surgery, otolaryngology, ophthalmology, cardiology, neurology, nephrology, gastroenterology and rheumatology. Results For the specialities analysed in the present study, a large majority of the time spent in patient care was provided in the private sector. For the surgical specialties studied, on average less than 30% of clinical time was spent in the public sector. There was considerable variation among specialties in whether a greater proportion of time was spent in out-patient versus in-patient care and how that was divided between the public and private sectors. Conclusions Ensuring Australians have a medical workforce that meets the needs of the population will require assessments of the public and private medical markets, the needs of each market and the adequacy with which current physician clinical time allocation meets those requirements. By appreciating this nuance, Australia can develop policies and strategies for the current and future speciality workforce to meet the nation's needs. What is known about the topic? Australian medical specialists can split their clinical practice time between the public (e.g. public hospitals, public clinics) and private (e.g. private hospitals, private consulting rooms) sectors. For all medical specialists combined, working hours have been reported to be similar in the public and


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BROWN, W.S.


    The paper describes a model that visually portrays radiological survey performance as basic parameters (surveyor efficiency and criteria, duration of pause, and probe speed) are varied; field and laboratory tests provided typical parameter values. The model is used to illustrate how practical constraints on the time allotted to the task can affect radiological inspection performance. Similar analyses are applicable to a variety of other tasks (airport baggage inspection, and certain types of non-destructive testing) with similar characteristics and constraints

  5. Parenting and Time Adolescents Spend in Criminogenic Settings : A Between- and Within-person Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Heleen J.; Dekovic, Maja; Bruinsma, Gerben J. N.

    Although there has been increasing interest in explaining adolescents' crime involvement by the time adolescents spend in criminogenic settings, little is known about its determinants. We examine the extent to which (change in) parenting is related to (change in) time spent in criminogenic settings.

  6. "We want the world and we want it now": Materialism, time perspectives and problem spending tendency of Chinese. (United States)

    Ku, Lisbeth; Wu, Anise M S; Lao, Angie K P; Lam, Kerwin I N


    Chinese consumers' spending has been expanding rapidly in the past decade, and along with it household and credit card debt. The present research collected evidence to triangulate the contention that materialism is positively related with Chinese's problem spending tendency (PST), and that present-time-perspective (PTP) and future-time perspectives (FTP) interact systematically with materialism to affect PST. A survey of the general population in Macao, China (Study 1; N = 239) confirmed that materialism was positively correlated with PST. An interaction between materialism and PTP intensified the relationship, whereas an interaction with FTP weakened the relationship. Another survey with a sample of university students (Study 2; N = 223) again found positive relationships among PST, materialism, and PTP, as measured by temporal discount rate. But further exploration showed that PST was only related with temporal discounting among high materialists, but not among low materialists. Study 3 experimentally examined the causal effects of materialism and FTP on PST. When being primed of an orientation towards materialism (n = 33), the participants' planned consumption doubled that of the control group (n = 31). A FTP prime interacted with materialism prime and put a "damper" on participants' planned spending (n = 29), compared to their counterparts who were not primed of such a time perspective. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  7. How Newspaper Advertising Sales Managers Spend Their Time: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Hudson, Jerry C.; Saathoff, Roger C.

    A pilot study examined how newspaper advertising sales managers in five southwestern states spend their time during a typical work day. Of the 360 questionnaires mailed, 176 responses were received. The largest number of responses (93) came from retail sales managers of newspapers in markets with less than 50,000 population. The questionnaire…

  8. Unveiling the relationship between the transaction timing, spending and dropout behavior of customers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glady, N.; Lemmens, A.; Croux, C.

    The customer lifetime value combines into one construct the transaction timing, spending and dropout processes that characterize the purchase behavior of customers. Recently, the potential relationship between these processes, either at the individual customer level (i.e. intra-customer correlation)

  9. Transmission of government spending shocks in the Euro area: time variation and driving forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirchner, M.; Cimadomo, J.; Hauptmeier, S.

    This paper applies structural vector autoregressions with time-varying parameters in order to investigate changes in the effects of government spending shocks in the euro area, and the driving forces of those changes. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we present evidence that the short-run impact

  10. Disneyland Dads, Disneyland Moms? How Nonresident Parents Spend Time with Absent Children. (United States)

    Stewart, Susan D.


    Examines gender differences in how nonresident parents spend time with their absent children. Results suggest that nonresident mothers and fathers exhibit a similar pattern of participation in activities with their absent children. Most nonresident parents either engage in only leisure activities with their children or have no contact. (Author/MKA)

  11. Spending Time: The Impact of Hours Worked on Work-Family Conflict (United States)

    Adkins, Cheryl L.; Premeaux, Sonya F.


    Scholars have long assumed that as workers spend more time at work fewer hours are available for their non-work lives leading to negative effects in both domains, and most studies examining the impact of work hours on work and life domains have supported this viewpoint. However, the majority of these studies have used one-dimensional measures of…

  12. Pocket Spending Guide


    Poff, Karen


    Provides an example for how to set up a pocket spending guide. By filling out the guide and keeping it with you, you can easily see at any time how much money you have available to spend in each category. A pocket spending guide will help you adjust your spending plan to make your money go where you really want it to go.

  13. Introducing a checking technician allows pharmacists to spend more time on patient-focused activities. (United States)

    Napier, Patti; Norris, Pauline; Braund, Rhiannon


    Internationally there is an increasing focus on the clinical and cognitive services that pharmacists can provide. Lack of time has been identified as a barrier to pharmacists increasing their clinical activities. Within the pharmacy workplace there are many tasks that can only be performed by a pharmacist. The final accuracy check of a dispensed prescription is currently the sole responsibility of pharmacists in New Zealand. This takes up a significant amount of time during a pharmacist's work day. The introduction of a checking technician role has been suggested to allow pharmacists more time to do more patient focused work. To investigate the amount of time pharmacy staff spend on specific activities and to establish whether the introduction of a checking technician into twelve pilot sites increased the amount of time that the pharmacists could spend on patient focused activities. This study utilised a self-reported work sampling technique in twelve pilot sites, selected from both the hospital and community settings. Work sampling using an electronic device was conducted at two time-points (before the implementation of a Pharmacy Accuracy Checking Technician (PACT) role and when the PACT was in place). Data was collected at 10 min intervals for the period of five days, a working week. Tasks were grouped into patient focused, dispensing and personal activities. The introduction of the PACT into the pilot sites saw a mean increase of 19% in pharmacists' patient focused activities and a mean 20% decrease in dispensing activities. The introduction of a checking technician role into New Zealand pharmacies demonstrated the potential to provide pharmacists with more time to spend on patient focused activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. How nursing staff spend their time on activities in a nursing home: an observational study. (United States)

    Munyisia, Esther Naliaka; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David


    This article is a report of a study to examine how nursing staff spend their time on activities in a nursing home. Few studies have investigated how nursing staff spend their time on activities in a nursing home. Such information is important for nurse managers in deciding on staff deployment, and for evaluating the effects of changes in nursing practice. A work sampling study with an observational component was undertaken in 2009 with nursing staff at a nursing home. A total of 430 activities were recorded for Registered Nurses, 331 for Endorsed Enrolled Nurses, 5276 for Personal Carers, and 501 for Recreational Activity Officers. Registered Nurses spent 48·4% of their time on communication and 18·1% on medication management. Endorsed Enrolled Nurses spent 37·7% on communication and 29·0% on documentation tasks. Communication was the most time-consuming activity for Recreational Activity Officers and Personal Carers, except that Personal Carers in a high care house spent more time on direct care duties. Hygiene duties and resident interaction were more frequently multitasked by the nursing staff in high care than in low care house. Nursing staff value their face-to-face interaction for successful care delivery. There is need, however, to investigate the effects of this form of communication on quality of care given to residents. Differences in multi-tasked activities between high care and low care houses should be considered when deploying staff in a nursing home. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Who children spend time with after school: associations with objectively recorded indoor and outdoor physical activity (United States)


    Background Understanding how the determinants of behaviour vary by context may support the design of interventions aiming to increase physical activity. Such factors include independent mobility, time outdoors and the availability of other children. At present little is known about who children spend their time with after school, how this relates to time spent indoors or outdoors and activity in these locations. This study aimed to quantify who children spend their time with when indoors or outdoors and associations with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Methods Participants were 427 children aged 10–11 from Bristol, UK. Physical activity was recorded using an accelerometer (Actigraph GT1M) and matched to Global Positioning System receiver (Garmin Foretrex 201) data to differentiate indoor and outdoor location. Children self-reported who they spent time with after school until bed-time using a diary. Each 10 second epoch was coded as indoors or outdoors and for ‘who with’ (alone, friend, brother/sister, mum/dad, other grown-up) creating 10 possible physical activity contexts. Time spent and MVPA were summarised for each context. Associations between time spent in the different contexts and MVPA were examined using multiple linear regression adjusting for daylight, age, deprivation and standardised body mass index. Results During the after school period, children were most often with their mum/dad or alone, especially when indoors. When outdoors more time was spent with friends (girls: 32.1%; boys: 28.6%) than other people or alone. Regression analyses suggested hours outdoors with friends were positively associated with minutes of MVPA for girls (beta-coefficient [95% CI]: 17.4 [4.47, 30.24]) and boys (17.53 [2.76, 32.31]). Being outdoors with brother/sister was associated with MVPA for girls (21.2 [14.17, 28.25]) but not boys. Weaker associations were observed for time indoors with friends (girls: 4.61 [1.37, 7.85]; boys: (7.42 [2.99, 11

  16. County Spending (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — This dataset includes County spending data for Montgomery County government. It does not include agency spending. Data considered sensitive or confidential and will...

  17. "We want the world and we want it now": Materialism, time perspectives and problem spending tendency of Chinese


    Ku, L.; Wu, Anise M. S.; Lao, Angie K. P.; Lam, Kerwin I. N.


    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Chinese consumers' spending has been expanding rapidly in the past decade, and along with it household and credit card debt. The present research collected evidenced to triangulate the contention that materialism is positively related with Chinese's problem spending tendency (PST), and that present- and future-time perspectives interact systema...

  18. [Comparison of physical activity and favourite ways of spending free time in preschool girls and boys from the Mazowsze region]. (United States)

    Merkiel, Sylwia; Chalcarz, Wojciech; Deptuła, Monika


    The aim of this study was to compare physical activity of preschool girls and boys from the Mazowsze region and their favourite ways of spending free time. The studied population included 131 children aged 3 to 7 years. Parents filled in questionnaires about their children's physical activity and favourite ways of spending free time, as well as about general information on the children and their families. Gender had statistically significant influence on the children's birth weight, attending karate outside the preschool and on riding a bicycle, playing with a ball and playing with a dog as favourite ways of spending free time during sunny weather as well as playing on a computer and playing with dolls as favourite ways of spending free time during rainy weather. Gender had little influence on the studied preschoolers' physical activity. However favourite ways of spending free time turned out to be significantly different according to gender. Physical activity level in both girls and boys was low, similarly to their peers from the previous studies.

  19. Time Use and Educational Attainment: A Study of Undergraduate Students. (United States)

    Etcheverry, Emily J.; And Others


    A Canadian university study of 308 students' time use in academic areas used a model relating variables of social background, social psychological characteristics, time use, and educational attainment. Findings suggested that, taking into account these other variables, the time students spend on academic activities and paid employment has little…

  20. Analyzing the Online Environment: How Are More Effective Teachers Spending Their Time? (United States)

    Barrentine, Scott Davis

    Teaching at an online school is so different from classroom teaching that traditional training includes few of the skills necessary to be a successful online teacher. New teachers to an online environment face a steep learning curve in how they'll use the instructional technology, prioritize their time, and establish relationships with their students. The literature has advice for these teachers about effective online practices, but there has been little research to establish which strategies are most effective in motivating students. This pre-experimental study, conducted at an online 6th-12th grade hybrid school, investigated the practices used more often by the most effective teachers. Teacher effectiveness was measured by the number of assignments their students had not completed on time. Recognizing that the effectiveness of different practices will vary from student to student, the research analysis included two covariates, measured by surveys: the academic identity and motivational resilience of the students, and the students' self-reported preferences for motivational strategies. More effective teachers were found to make videos more frequently, both of the teacher for motivational purposes and recorded by the teacher to help students move through the curriculum. Quick grading turnaround and updating a blog were also more common with all effective teachers. Distinct differences between middle and high school students came out during data analysis, which then became a major point of study: according to the data, more effective middle school teachers emphasized individual contact with students, but the less effective high school teachers spent more time on individualized contact. The surveys used in this study could be modified and implemented at any online school to help teachers discover and then prioritize the most effective strategies for keeping students engaged.

  1. Explaining Student Behavior at Scale : The Influence of Video Complexity on Student Dwelling Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der F.; Ginn, J.H.; Zee, van der T.; Haywood, J.; Aleven, V.; Kay, J.; Roll, I.


    Understanding why and how students interact with educational videos is essential to further improve the quality of MOOCs. In this paper, we look at the complexity of videos to explain two related aspects of student behavior: the dwelling time (how much time students spend watching a video) and the

  2. How Much Time Do Families Spend on the Health Care of Children with Diabetes? (United States)

    Miller, Jane E; Nugent, Colleen N; Russell, Louise B


    Family time caring for children with diabetes is an overlooked component of the overall burden of the condition. We document and analyze risk factors for time family members spend providing health care at home and arranging/coordinating health care for children with diabetes. Data for 755 diabetic children and 16,161 non-diabetic children whose chronic conditions required only prescription (Rx) medication were from the 2009-2010 United States National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN). We used generalized ordered logistic regressions to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of time burden by diabetes, insulin use, and stability of the child's health care needs, controlling for health and socioeconomic status. Nearly one-quarter of diabetic children had family members who spent 11+ h/week providing health care at home, and 8% spent 11+ h/week arranging/coordinating care, compared with 3.3% and 1.9%, respectively, of non-diabetic Rx-only children. Time providing care at home for insulin-using children was concentrated in the higher time categories: AORs for insulin-using diabetic compared to non-diabetic Rx-only children were 4.4 for 1+ h/week compared with less pronounced for non-insulin-using children. AORs for arranging/coordinating care did not vary by time contrast: AOR = 4.2 for insulin-using, 3.0 for non-insulin-using children. Health care providers, school personnel, and policymakers need to work with family members to improve care coordination and identify other ways to reduce family time burdens caring for children with diabetes.

  3. Art Perception in the Museum: How We Spend Time and Space in Art Exhibitions. (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian


    Aesthetics research aiming at understanding art experience is an emerging field; however, most research is conducted in labs without access to real artworks, without the social context of a museum and without the presence of other persons. The present article replicates and complements key findings of art perception in museum contexts. When observing museum visitors ( N  = 225; 126 female, M (age) = 43.3 years) while perceiving a series of six Gerhard Richter paintings of various sizes (0.26-3.20 sq. m) in a temporary art exhibition in January and February 2015 showing 28 paintings in total, we revealed patterns compatible to previous research. The mean time taken in viewing artworks was much longer than was mostly realized in lab contexts, here 32.9 s ( Mdn  = 25.4 s). We were also able to replicate visitors spending more time on viewing artworks when attending in groups of people. Additionally, we uncovered a close positive relationship ( r 2  = .929) between canvas size and viewing distance, ranging on average between 1.49 and 2.12 m ( M  = 1.72 m). We also found that more than half of the visitors returned to paintings, especially those people who had not previously paid too much attention at the initial viewing. After adding the times of returning viewers, each picture was viewed longer than had been estimated in previous research ( M  = 50.5 s, Mdn  = 43.0 s). Results are discussed in the context of current art perception theories, focusing on the need for the ecologically valid testing of artworks in aesthetics research.

  4. Art Perception in the Museum: How We Spend Time and Space in Art Exhibitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Christian Carbon


    Full Text Available Aesthetics research aiming at understanding art experience is an emerging field; however, most research is conducted in labs without access to real artworks, without the social context of a museum and without the presence of other persons. The present article replicates and complements key findings of art perception in museum contexts. When observing museum visitors (N = 225; 126 female, M(age = 43.3 years while perceiving a series of six Gerhard Richter paintings of various sizes (0.26–3.20 sq. m in a temporary art exhibition in January and February 2015 showing 28 paintings in total, we revealed patterns compatible to previous research. The mean time taken in viewing artworks was much longer than was mostly realized in lab contexts, here 32.9 s (Mdn = 25.4 s. We were also able to replicate visitors spending more time on viewing artworks when attending in groups of people. Additionally, we uncovered a close positive relationship (r2 = .929 between canvas size and viewing distance, ranging on average between 1.49 and 2.12 m (M = 1.72 m. We also found that more than half of the visitors returned to paintings, especially those people who had not previously paid too much attention at the initial viewing. After adding the times of returning viewers, each picture was viewed longer than had been estimated in previous research (M = 50.5 s, Mdn = 43.0 s. Results are discussed in the context of current art perception theories, focusing on the need for the ecologically valid testing of artworks in aesthetics research.

  5. Parental Control of the Time Preadolescents Spend on Social Media: Links with Preadolescents' Social Media Appearance Comparisons and Mental Health. (United States)

    Fardouly, Jasmine; Magson, Natasha R; Johnco, Carly J; Oar, Ella L; Rapee, Ronald M


    Time spent on social media and making online comparisons with others may influence users' mental health. This study examined links between parental control over the time their child spends on social media, preadolescents' time spent browsing social media, preadolescents' appearance comparisons on social media, and preadolescents' appearance satisfaction, depressive symptoms, and life satisfaction. Preadolescent social media users (N = 284, 49.1% female; aged 10-12) and one of their parents completed online surveys. Preadolescents, whose parents reported greater control over their child's time on social media, reported better mental health. This relationship was mediated by preadolescents spending less time browsing and making fewer appearance comparisons on social media. Parental control over time spent on social media may be associated with benefits for mental health among preadolescents.

  6. Could Trends in Time Children Spend with Parents Help Explain the Black-White Gap in Human Capital? Evidence from the American Time Use Survey (United States)

    Patterson, Richard W.


    It is widely believed that the time children spend with parents significantly impacts human capital formation. If time varies significantly between black and white children, this may help explain the large racial gap in test scores and wages. In this study, I use data from the American Time Use Survey to examine the patterns in the time black and…

  7. What do students do in their free time and why?


    Anić Petra; Roguljić Domagoj; Švegar Domagoj


    Numerous studies have explored what people do in their free time, but only a few of them have tried to explain why. In Study 1 we therefore aimed to obtain a detailed picture of the ways in which students spend their free time, but also we wanted to investigate their motivation for engaging in a specific activity that they consider to be their favourite. We found that the highest percentage of 585 students, who participated in Study 1, spend most of their free time on social interactions, rea...

  8. Time to Work or Time to Play: The Effect of Student Employment on Homework, Housework, Screen Time, and Sleep


    Sabrina Wulff Pabilonia; Charlene Marie Kalenkoski


    Recent research suggests that working while in high school reduces the amount of time students spend doing homework. However, an additional hour of work leads to a reduction in homework by much less than one hour, suggesting a reduction in other activities. This paper uses data from the 2003-2007 American Time Use Surveys (ATUS) to investigate the effects of market work on the time students spend on homework, sleeping, household work, and screen time. Results show that an increase in paid wor...

  9. "I Wish We Had More Time to Spend Together...": The Distribution and Predictors of Perceived Family Time Pressures among Married Men and Women in the Paid Labor Force (United States)

    Roxburgh, Susan


    In this article, I examine the distribution of time pressure associated with the roles of marital partner and parent using data from a telephone survey. Results of an analysis of open-ended responses indicate that less than a quarter of respondents are satisfied with the time they spend with their children and spouses. Women are more likely to…

  10. Does long time spending on the electronic devices affect the reading abilities? A cross-sectional study among Chinese school-aged children. (United States)

    He, Zhen; Shao, Shanshan; Zhou, Jie; Ke, Juntao; Kong, Rui; Guo, Shengnan; Zhang, Jiajia; Song, Ranran


    Home literacy environment (HLE) is one of most important modifiable risk factors to dyslexia. With the development in technology, we include the electronic devices usage at home, such as computers and televisions, to the definition of HLE and investigate its impact on dyslexia based on the on-going project of Tongji's Reading Environment and Dyslexia Study. The data include 5063 children, primary school students (grade 3-grade 6), from a middle-sized city in China. We apply the principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce the large dimension of variables in HLE, and find the first three components, denoted as PC1, PC2 and PC3, can explain 95.45% of HLE information. PC1 and PC2 demonstrate strong positive association with 'total time spending on electronic devices' and 'literacy-related activity', respectively. PC3 demonstrates strong negative association with 'restrictions on using electronic devices'. From the generalized linear model, we find that PC1 significantly increases the risk of dyslexia (OR = 1.043, 95% CI: 1.018-1.070), while PC2 significantly decreases the risk of dyslexia (OR = 0.839, 95% CI: 0.795-0.886). Therefore, reducing the total time spending on electronic devices and increasing the literacy-related activity would be the potential protective factors for dyslexic children in China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



    Bahyeh Zarei; Mozafar Yektayar


    The objective of this research was doing an examination about the relationship of socio-economic status (SES) with leisure time spending in the girls of Sanandaj city emphasizing sporting activities. The method of research was descriptive-correlated and has been done as field research. The population of the research consisted of all young girls of Sanandaj aged between 15-29 years old which 384 samples were selected by using multi-stage cluster sampling. The tools of research were Godrat Nama...

  12. Webinar Presentation: Environmental Exposures and Health Risks in California Child Care Facilities: First Steps to Improve Environmental Health where Children Spend Time (United States)

    This presentation, Environmental Exposures and Health Risks in California Child Care Facilities: First Steps to Improve Environmental Health where Children Spend Time, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2016 Webinar Series: Exposome.

  13. How registered nurses, licensed practical nurses and resident aides spend time in nursing homes: An observational study. (United States)

    McCloskey, Rose; Donovan, Cindy; Stewart, Connie; Donovan, Alicia


    Calls for improved conditions in nursing homes have pointed to the importance of optimizing the levels and skills of care providers. Understanding the work of care providers will help to determine if staff are being used to their full potential and if opportunities exist for improved efficiencies. To explore the activities of care providers in different nursing homes and to identify if variations exist within and across homes and shifts. A multi-centre cross-sectional observational work flow study was conducted in seven different nursing homes sites in one Canadian province. Data were collected by a research assistant who conducted 368 h of observation. The research assistant collected data by following an identical route in each site and recording observations on staff activities. Findings indicate staff activities vary across roles, sites and shifts. Licensed practical nurses (nursing assistants) have the greatest variation in their role while registered nurses have the least amount of variability. In some sites both registered nurses and licensed practical nurses perform activities that may be safely delegated to others. Care providers spend as much as 53.7% of their time engaged in non-value added activities. There may be opportunities for registered nurses and licensed practical nurses to delegate some of their activities to non-regulated workers. The time care providers spend in non-value activities suggest there may be opportunities to improve efficiencies within the nursing home setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Japanese professional nurses spend unnecessarily long time doing nursing assistants' tasks. (United States)

    Kudo, Yasushi; Yoshimura, Emiko; Shahzad, Machiko Taruzuka; Shibuya, Akitaka; Aizawa, Yoshiharu


    In environments in which professional nurses do simple tasks, e.g., laundry, cleaning, and waste disposal, they cannot concentrate on technical jobs by utilizing their expertise to its fullest benefit. Particularly, in Japan, the nursing shortage is a serious problem. If professional nurses take their time to do any of these simple tasks, the tasks should be preferentially allocated to nursing assistants. Because there has been no descriptive study to investigate the amount of time Japanese professional nurses spent doing such simple tasks during their working time, their actual conditions remain unclear. Professional nurses recorded their total working time and the time they spent doing such simple tasks during the week of the survey period. The time an individual respondent spent doing one or more simple tasks during that week was summed up, as was their working time. Subsequently, the percentage of the summed time he or she spent doing any of those tasks in his or her summed working time was calculated. A total of 1,086 respondents in 19 hospitals that had 87 to 376 beds were analyzed (response rate: 53.3%). The average time (SD) that respondents spent doing those simple tasks and their total working time were 2.24 (3.35) hours and 37.48 (10.88) hours, respectively. The average percentage (SD) of the time they spent doing the simple tasks in their working time was 6.00% (8.39). Hospital administrators must decrease this percentage. Proper working environments in which professional nurses can concentrate more on their technical jobs must be created.

  15. Compared to Canadians, U.S. physicians spend nearly four times as much money interacting with payers. (United States)

    Zimmerman, Christina


    (1) In Canadian office practices, physi­cians spent 2.2 hours per week interacting with payers, nurses spent 2.5 hours, and clerical staff spent 15.9 hours. In U.S. practices, physicians spent 3.4 hours per week interacting with payers, nurses spent 20.6 hours, and clerical staff spent 53.1 hours. (2) Canadian physician practices spent $22,205 per physician per year on interactions with health plans. U.S. physician practices spent $82,975 per physician per year. (3) U.S. physician practices spend $60,770 per physician per year more (approximately four times as much) than their Canadian counterparts.

  16. Time to work or time to play: the effect of student employment on homework, sleep, and screen time


    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Wulff Pabilonia, Sabrina


    We use detailed time-diary information on high school students’ daily activities from the 2003–2008 American Time Use Surveys (ATUS) to investigate the effects of employment on the time a student spends on homework and other major activities. Time-diary data are more detailed and accurate than data derived from responses to “usual activity” survey questions underlying other analyses and capture the immediate effects of working that may well accumulate over time to affect future outcomes. Our ...

  17. How parents can affect excessive spending of time on screen-based activities. (United States)

    Brindova, Daniela; Pavelka, Jan; Ševčikova, Anna; Žežula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova


    The aim of this study is to explore the association between family-related factors and excessive time spent on screen-based activities among school-aged children. A cross-sectional survey using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was performed in 2013, with data collected from Slovak (n = 258) and Czech (n = 406) 11- and 15-year-old children. The effects of age, gender, availability of a TV or computer in the bedroom, parental rules on time spent watching TV or working on a computer, parental rules on the content of TV programmes and computer work and watching TV together with parents on excessive time spent with screen-based activities were explored using logistic regression models. Two-thirds of respondents watch TV or play computer games at least two hours a day. Older children have a 1.80-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (CI: 1.30-2.51) and a 3.91-times higher chance of excessive computer use (CI: 2.82-5.43) in comparison with younger children. More than half of children have a TV (53%) and a computer (73%) available in their bedroom, which increases the chance of excessive TV watching by 1.59 times (CI: 1.17-2.16) and of computer use by 2.25 times (CI: 1.59-3.20). More than half of parents rarely or never apply rules on the length of TV watching (64%) or time spent on computer work (56%), and their children have a 1.76-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (CI: 1.26-2.46) and a 1.50-times greater chance of excessive computer use (CI: 1.07-2.08). A quarter of children reported that they are used to watching TV together with their parents every day, and these have a 1.84-times higher chance of excessive TV watching (1.25-2.70). Reducing time spent watching TV by applying parental rules or a parental role model might help prevent excessive time spent on screen-based activities.

  18. How parents can affect excessive spending of time on screen-based activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brindova, Daniela; Pavelka, Jan; Sevcikova, Anna; Zezula, Ivan; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova


    Background: The aim of this study is to explore the association between family-related factors and excessive time spent on screen-based activities among school-aged children. Methods: A cross-sectional survey using the methodology of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study was performed

  19. Emergency department physicians spend only 25% of their working time on direct patient care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Füchtbauer, Laila Maria; Nørgaard, Birgitte; Mogensen, Christian Backer


    In modern hospital medicine, there is a growing awareness of the need for efficient and secure -patient care. Authorities seek to improve this by adding requirements for documentation, administrative tasks and standardized patient programmes. However, it is rarely investigated how much time...

  20. Can enrichment make Brazilian tapir spend more time on view to the public? (United States)

    Dutra, Luísa Mascarenhas Ladeia; Young, Robert John


    One common visitor complaint in zoos is that the nonhuman animals are not visible. This problem needs to be resolved without compromising the animals' welfare; environmental enrichment could solve the problem. This study investigated whether enrichment would increase public exposure time of lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) in the Belo Horizonte Zoo in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Observations were made before (62 hr) and during (62 hr) the introduction of enrichment using focal animal sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior. The 5 enrichment items were a bamboo fence covered in vines, logs, a sandbox, dry leaves, and bamboo bushes. Before the enrichments were applied, the tapir was not visible to the public for more than 85% of the time. In addition, during the analysis of the enrichment treatment, other variables were considered--such as weekday, time of day, and weather conditions--which could influence the animals' interaction with the enrichments. The enrichments increased and decreased the expression of some behaviors; however, public viewing time of the animals did not increase. Thus, the enrichment applied was not strong enough to overcome the animals' crepuscular behavior.

  1. Medical Spending in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Gørtz, Mette; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene


    is responsible for more than twice as much spending on health as the richest, and this reverse social gradient is even stronger for long-term care and is stronger among men than among women, especially in hospital expenses. Expenditures in the year (over the three years) before death are nearly 12 times...... (respectively nine times) higher than average, but nevertheless are only 11 per cent (respectively a quarter) of lifetime spending. Out-of-pocket expenses on prescription drugs only amount to 3 per cent of total health expenditures and are less concentrated than these....

  2. Socio-Economic Status, Time Spending, and Sleep Duration in Indian Children and Adolescents


    Bapat, Radhika; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul


    In this article physical activity, screen time, and academic work are studied as mediators between socio-economic status and sleep duration among school children in India. Participants were 268 school children aged 10?15 from Pune, India. They were sampled from private schools and impoverished public schools. We found that the highest socio-economic status children reported almost an hour and a half less sleep than their lowest socio-economic status counterparts. The lower socio-economic stat...

  3. Length of time domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) spend smelling urine of gonadectomised and intact conspecifics. (United States)

    Riach, Anna C; Asquith, Rachel; Fallon, Melissa L D


    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) use urine to communicate among themselves, however, it is unknown whether the gonadectomy (neutering or spaying) of a dog affects this communication in anyway. Urine samples from 10 intact and 10 gonadectomised, unfamiliar dogs were presented to 12 tester dogs to sniff under controlled conditions in a pilot study. The amount of time the tester dogs spent sniffing each sample was recorded. Overall, tester dogs were recorded smelling the urine of gonadectomised individuals for a longer time. In addition to the type of urine sample, the result is likely to have been influenced by the sex and status (gonadectomised or intact) of the tester dogs. The observed increase in the length of time spent sniffing urine from gonadectomised individuals could be explained by the tester dogs experiencing more difficulty in gaining information from the urine or facing more confusion while analysing the urine compared to the intact urine they have evolved to smell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. ICT, Digital Rest (or Tiredness? Spending Free Time in Front of a Screen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Ružić-Baf


    Full Text Available The usage of new information and communication technology and systems [1] in the modern society enables easier access to a growing number of services, tools and devices that in the present day are more available to the public than ever before and can be found in every social circle. This article concentrates on the usage of new information and communication technologies and TV among children from seven to ten years of life. The lack of movement and a sedentary lifestyle accompanied by the often usage of devices available to them may lead towards certain disorders among younger children (dyslexia, dysgraphia, dyscalculia, growing number of children with flat feet, especially among children starting the first grade of elementary schools. This article shows a part of research conducted on a representative sample of 1286 subjects in Croatia, Italy and Serbia. In accordance with the needs of this article, the presented results were obtained by analyzing the following variables: time spent in front of the TV and computer daily and during the weekends, ownership of a smartphone, if the rules of the usage of a smartphone are set beforehand by parents/guardians/caretakers, usage of smartphones for accessing on-line video games and if the subjects use smartphones in class without the awareness of teachers and for their personal needs that don’t involve the class program. The article presents the results of the application of the NTC learning program which can help in solving the big issue of the urgent need to change the educational system.

  5. What do students do in their free time and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anić Petra


    Full Text Available Numerous studies have explored what people do in their free time, but only a few of them have tried to explain why. In Study 1 we therefore aimed to obtain a detailed picture of the ways in which students spend their free time, but also we wanted to investigate their motivation for engaging in a specific activity that they consider to be their favourite. We found that the highest percentage of 585 students, who participated in Study 1, spend most of their free time on social interactions, reading and leisure with family. However, although they did not spend much time on physical activities, participants reported them as their favourite ones. An analysis of variance showed no differences in hedonic motives for free time activities, while eudaimonic motives did differ. In Study 2, we investigated intrinsic motivation for physical exercise on a new sample of 202 students, and found that recreational athletes have significantly higher intrinsic motivation compared to physically less active participants.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besa Havziu


    Full Text Available Today, in education prevails the paradigm that is geared towards the complete and varied development of a person. This implies the development of the students ability for self-determination towards various other perspective offered by contemporary social residence. Meanwhile in the time of adolescence, the youth experience serious crises regarding their identity, in which the free time and the activities during the free time can be positively used with a cause to be interrupted unconstructive and chaotic use of the free time by the youth. In this thesis are being analyzed the contents and the ways with what the secondary school students in the Republic of Macedonia fulfill their free time outside the school, specifically there will be an examination about the gender differences i.e. the amount and manner of spending their free time. In the approach to the study of the problem of research, we decided to apply: inductive method, deductive method and the method of comparison. 

  7. Effect of exercise training on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease: the moderating effect of health behavior and disease knowledge. (United States)

    Dulfer, Karolijn; Duppen, Nienke; Blom, Nico A; van Dijk, Arie P J; Helbing, Wim A; Verhulst, Frank C; Utens, Elisabeth M W J


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized exercise program on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with congenital heart disease and to know what the moderating impact of their baseline health behavior and disease knowledge is. Included were 93 patients, aged 10 to 25, with surgical repair for tetralogy of Fallot or with a Fontan circulation for single-ventricle physiology, of 5 participating centers of pediatric cardiology in The Netherlands. They were randomly allocated, stratified for age, gender, and type of congenital heart disease to a 12-week period with either: (1) three times per week standardized exercise training or (2) care as usual (randomization ratio 2:1). At baseline and after 12 weeks, participants completed Web-based questionnaires and were interviewed by phone. Primary analyses tested changes from baseline to follow-up in sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in the exercise group vs. control group. Secondary analyses concerned the moderating influence of baseline health behavior and disease knowledge on changes from baseline to follow-up, and comparison with normative data. At follow-up, the exercise group reported a decrease in passive leisure-time spending (watching television and computer usage) compared with controls. Exercise training had no effect on sports enjoyment and active leisure-time spending. Disease knowledge had a moderating effect on improvement in sports enjoyment, whereas health behavior did not. Compared with normative data, patients obtained similar leisure time scores and lower frequencies as to drinking alcohol and smoking. Exercise training decreased passive, but not active, leisure-time spending. It did not influence sports enjoyment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of exercise training on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease: the moderating effect of health behavior and disease knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, Karolijn; Duppen, Nienke; Blom, Nico A.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Helbing, Wim A.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized exercise program on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with congenital heart disease and to know what the moderating impact of their baseline health behavior and disease knowledge is. Included were 93

  9. Retail Spending Potential (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — This map shows the average household spending potential for retail goods in the United States in 2012. Spending potential data measures household consumer spending...

  10. In search of student time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Sarauw, Laura Louise; Filippakou, Ourania

    education policy debates, together with recent studies that highlight the interplay between different forms of political and institutional engagement with student temporality and students’ understandings of time in their higher education learning trajectories. As Gibbs et al argue (2015) universities......, activity templates, attendance charts, and assessment programmes for effective learning and teaching. The management of student time also becomes a management of student place (telling students not only when to be, but also where to be), of student thinking (fusing epistemology with study progress reforms...... of ‘duration’ to argue that student temporality always takes the form of lived time. Here, time is experiental and existential, and therefore bound by and embedded within individual perceptions and specific learning contexts. From a Bergsonian perspective, students do not apply time as an organising tool...

  11. Does spending time outdoors reduce stress? A review of real-time stress response to outdoor environments (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Sara F. Jacoby; Eugenia C. South


    Everyday environmental conditions impact human health. One mechanism underlying this relationship is the experience of stress. Through systematic review of published literature, we explore how stress has been measured in real-time non-laboratory studies of stress responses to deliberate exposure to outdoor environments. The types of exposures evaluated in this review...

  12. Student progression on time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarauw, Laura Louise

    more quickly and make them more fit for the labour market like the Danish government presumes? Will this be at the expense of leaving students with fragmented knowledge and superficial understandings as suggested by the critics? And what happens to the dropout rates and the ‘Nordic’ ideals of equal...... by flexibility. Before the reform, the system was increasingly required to facilitate transfer of credits and make it easier for students to compose more personalized learning portfolios, which can include courses from different institutions and study programmes. The latter is very much in line with the ideas...

  13. Rethinking the Relation between Government Spending and Economic Growth: A Composition Approach to Fiscal Policy Instruction for Principles Students (United States)

    Goldsmith, Arthur H.


    Standard introductory textbook authors assert that an increase in government spending expands aggregate demand in the short run but also raises the interest rate and, thus, crowds out private investment in the long run. Because the decrease in investment results in a smaller capital stock, potential output or production capacity decreases. The…

  14. Time to Work or Time to Play: The Effect of Student Employment on Homework, Housework, Screen Time, and Sleep. Working Paper 423 (United States)

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Pabilonia, Sabrina Wulff


    Recent research suggests that working while in high school reduces the amount of time students spend doing homework. However, an additional hour of work leads to a reduction in homework by much less than one hour, suggesting a reduction in other activities. This paper uses data from the 2003-2007 American Time Use Surveys (ATUS) to investigate the…

  15. Evaluation of the residual sanitary risk for people spending time on the beaches polluted by the Erika fuel, after the depollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dor, F.; Gourier-Frery, C.; Zmirou, D.; Cicolella, A.; Bonnard, R.; Dujardin, R.


    This study aims to evaluate the short dated and long dated sanitary risks for adults and children who are going to spend time on the beach affected by the Erika fuel, after the depollution. 36 beaches were selected and 7 beaches which were not polluted, were taking as a reference. The methodology, the analysis of the data and the results are described. (A.L.B.)

  16. [Hygiene during leisure time among third year students from the Department of Nursing and Health Sciences]. (United States)

    Czabak-Garbacz, Róza; Skibniewska, Agnieszka; Mazurkiewicz, Piotr; Wisowska, Anna


    The aim of the study was the assessment of hygiene of leisure time among third year students from Faculty of Nursing and Health Science of Lublin Medical Academy. It analysed passive and active ways of spending free time. The study involved 106 students (55 stationary and 51 extramural) and it was conducted by means of questionnaire. The study revealed that students prefer passive types of spending their leisure time. The most popular activity was listening to the radio, to which they devoted average 2.9 hours a day (listening to music mainly). Extramural students listened to the radio shorter than stationary ones (the difference was statistically significant). Students spent also a lot of their time watching television (average 1.5 hours a day), reading books and newspapers (average 1.85 hours a day) and doing housework, which is an active way of rest (average 2.7 hours a day), mainly preparing meals and shopping. Students devoted the least of their free time to sleep during the day in spite of the fact it is an excellent way of rest. The study found also that physical activity was not a favourite type of spending free time. Every third student did not do any sport. Stationary students did sport 4 times longer than extramural (the difference was statistically significant). Only 31% practiced taking a daily walk and only 44% of students made tourist trips. 81.9% of them went away during summer holidays, but only 31% of them during the winter break. Undoubtedly, the way of spending free time by the students under examination was not hygienic as it did not give them a sense of relaxation and rest; also the students themselves were not satisfied with it.

  17. CMS Drug Spending (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CMS has released several information products that provide spending information for prescription drugs in the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The CMS Drug Spending...

  18. What Motivates an Ever Increasing Number of Students to Enroll in Part-Time Taught Postgraduate Awards? (United States)

    Ho, Amaly; Kember, David; Hong, Celina


    There has been a substantial rise in the number of students enrolling in part-time taught postgraduate awards. This study investigates the reasons or motivation for students to spend significant amounts on tutorial fees and find time alongside work, family and social commitments to take a taught postgraduate award. Data were gathered through…

  19. How teachers would spend their time teaching language arts: the mismatch between self-reported and best practices. (United States)

    Cunningham, Anne E; Zibulsky, Jamie; Stanovich, Keith E; Stanovich, Paula J


    As teacher quality becomes a central issue in discussions of children's literacy, both researchers and policy makers alike express increasing concern with how teachers structure and allocate their lesson time for literacy-related activities as well as with what they know about reading development, processes, and pedagogy. The authors examined the beliefs, literacy knowledge, and proposed instructional practices of 121 first-grade teachers. Through teacher self-reports concerning the amount of instructional time they would prefer to devote to a variety of language arts activities, the authors investigated the structure of teachers' implicit beliefs about reading instruction and explored relationships between those beliefs, expertise with general or special education students, years of experience, disciplinary knowledge, and self-reported distribution of an array of instructional practices. They found that teachers' implicit beliefs were not significantly associated with their status as a regular or special education teacher, the number of years they had been teaching, or their disciplinary knowledge. However, it was observed that subgroups of teachers who highly valued particular approaches to reading instruction allocated their time to instructional activities associated with other approaches in vastly different ways. It is notable that the practices of teachers who privileged reading literature over other activities were not in keeping with current research and policy recommendations. Implications and considerations for further research are discussed.

  20. Students Collecting Real time Data (United States)

    Miller, P.


    Students Collecting Real-Time Data The Hawaiian Islands Humpback Whale National Marine Sanctuary has created opportunities for middle and high school students to become Student Researchers and to be involved in real-time marine data collection. It is important that we expose students to different fields of science and encourage them to enter scientific fields of study. The Humpback Whale Sanctuary has an education visitor center in Kihei, Maui. Located right on the beach, the site has become a living classroom facility. There is a traditional Hawaiian fishpond fronting the property. The fishpond wall is being restored, using traditional methods. The site has the incredible opportunity of incorporating Hawaiian cultural practices with scientific studies. The Sanctuary offers opportunities for students to get involved in monitoring and data collection studies. Invasive Seaweed Study: Students are collecting data on invasive seaweed for the University of Hawaii. They pull a large net through the shallow waters. Seaweed is sorted, identified and weighed. The invasive seaweeds are removed. The data is recorded and sent to UH. Remote controlled monitoring boats: The sanctuary has 6 boogie board sized remote controlled boats used to monitor reefs. Boats have a camera with lights on the underside. The boats have water quality monitoring devices and GPS units. The video from the underwater camera is transmitted via a wireless transmission. Students are able to monitor the fish, limu and invertebrate populations on the reef and collect water quality data via television monitors or computers. The boat can also pull a small plankton tow net. Data is being compiled into data bases. Artificial Reef Modules: The Sanctuary has a scientific permit from the state to build and deploy artificial reef modules. High school students are designing and building modules. These are deployed out in the Fishpond fronting the Sanctuary site and students are monitoring them on a weekly basis

  1. Getting down to Dollars and Cents: What Do School Districts Spend to Deliver Student-Centered Learning? (United States)

    Miller, Lawrence J.; Gross, Betheny; Ouijdani, Monica


    In the era of No Child Left Behind and Race to the Top, school districts are under increasing pressure from policymakers to hold all students to high performance standards. In response, a growing number of schools are embracing the principles of student-centered learning (SCL). SCL is a contemporary approach that combines progressive and…

  2. Globalisation and social spending


    De Grauwe, Paul; Polan, Magdalena


    We provide evidence indicating that countries with well-developed social security systems do not necessarily face a trade-off between social spending and competitiveness. On average, countries that spend a lot on social needs score well in the competitiveness league. We investigate the importance of a reverse causality from competitiveness to social spending, and find that this is weak. We also present some possible explanations for our empirical finding. Finally, we interpret our findings in...

  3. Financial and Time Burdens for Medical Students Interviewing for Residency. (United States)

    Callaway, Paul; Melhado, Trisha; Walling, Anne; Groskurth, Jordan


    Interviewing for residency positions is increasingly stressful for students and challenging for programs. Little information is available about the costs and time invested by students in interviewing or about the key factors in decisions to accept interview offers. Our objective was to assess the time and financial costs of residency interviewing for an entire class at a regional campus and explore factors influencing student decisions to accept interviews. We used a 14-item survey administered electronically immediately following National Resident Matching Program results. The response rate was 75% (49 of 65 students). About half interviewed in primary care specialties. Thirty students (63%) applied to 20 or more programs, and 91% were offered multiple interviews out of state. Seventy percent limited interviews by time and cost. Other important factors included personal "fit," program reputation, and the quality of residents. About 50% of the students spent more than 20 days and $1,000-$5,000 interviewing; 29% reported spending over $5,000. Students used multiple funding sources, predominantly loans and savings. Primary care applicants applied to fewer out-of-state programs, reported fewer interview days and lower expenses, but received more financial support from programs. Students invested considerable time and resources in interviewing, and these factors significantly influenced their decisions about accepting interviews. The other major factors in interview decisions concerned personal comfort with the program, especially the residents. The costs and time reported in this study could be greater than other schools due to the regional campus location or lower due to the high proportion of students interviewing in primary care.

  4. Government Spending Cycles: Ideological or Opportunistic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. van Dalen (Hendrik); O.H. Swank (Otto)


    textabstractands. The time series analysis, covering the period 1953–1993, allows for different types of government spending. In general, spending is inspired by ideological and opportunistic motives: all government expenditure categories show an upward drift during election times and the partisan

  5. The time-varying role of the family in student time use and achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie C. Hull


    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, I use a unique dataset linking administrative school data with birth records to quantify the importance of time-varying family factors for child achievement and time use. Specifically, I take a model of academic achievement commonly used in the test score literature, and I augment it to include a family-year effect. Identification comes from the large number of sibling pairs observed in the same year. While prior literature has focused on specific shocks, such as job loss, I capture the full set of innovations that are shared across siblings in a given year. The distributions of fixed effects reveal that annual family innovations, relative to what was expected based on the previous year, are more important than teacher assignment for student achievement and also play a substantial role in the time students spend on homework, free reading, and television. JEL Classification I21, J13, J24

  6. School Library Journal's Spending Survey (United States)

    Farmer, Lesley; Shontz, Marilyn


    This year's "School Library Journal's" spending survey showed that, despite the recession, the vast majority of media centers around the country have retained their credentialed media specialists. For example, almost 85% of elementary schools and more than 95% of middle and high schools have a full-time certified librarian. In addition, salaries…

  7. Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschool-Age Children: How Fathers Spend Time with Their Children in Different Family Structures (United States)

    Halme, Nina; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu


    The purpose of this study was to describe how fathers (n = 263) spent time with their preschool-age children and to compare it in different family structures. Data were gathered by structured questionnaires. The instrument included five categories of variables for the time spent: the quantity of time, physical activities, fathers' attitude towards…

  8. The Activities of Students in Leisure Time in Sisak-Moslavina County (Republic of Croatia) (United States)

    Ðuranovic, Marina; Opic, Siniša


    The aim of this paper is to explore the prevalence of activities in leisure time of the young. A survey was conducted on 1062 students in 8 primary (n = 505; 47,6%) and high schools (n = 557; 52,4%) in Sisak-Moslavina County in the Republic of Croatia. The questionnaire of spending leisure time used was made up of 30 variables on a five-degree…

  9. Why older adults spend time sedentary and break their sedentary behaviour: a mixed methods approach using life-logging equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon L Dontje


    It can be concluded that a mixed methods approach, by combining objective data of an activity monitor with contextual information from time-lapse photos and subjective information from people regarding their own behaviour, is an useful method to provide indepth information about (breaking sedentary behaviour in older adults. The results of this study showed that there is a difference in what older adults believe that are reasons for them to remain sedentary or break their sedentary time and what their actual reasons are. A personal story board based on objective measurements of sedentary behaviour can be a useful method to raise awareness and find individual and tailored ways to reduce sedentary behaviour and to increase the number of breaks in sedentary behaviour without much interference in daily routine.

  10. The Tab: How Connecticut Can Fix Its Dysfunctional Education Spending System to Reward Success, Incentivize Choice and Boost Student Achievement. A ConnCAN/Public Impact Research Report (United States)

    Hassel, Bryan C.; Doyle, Daniela


    Thirty years ago, the Connecticut Supreme Court forced our state to take stock of its system for funding schools. Our poorest towns had thousands of dollars less per child to spend. Today, our poorest districts spend roughly the same as our richest, but Connecticut's poor children still score far below their wealthy peers. Our school finance…

  11. Is spending time in screen-based sedentary behaviors associated with less physical activity: a cross national investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannotti Ronald J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia and the USA, national guidelines exist for limiting children's screen-exposure to two hours per day. This study aims to determine whether exceeding the suggested guidelines for screen-based sedentary behavior is associated with reduced levels of physical activity across different geographical regions. Methods Data material were taken from the 2005/2006 survey of "Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC study; A WHO cross-National Survey". Data were collected through questionnaires from 11-,13- and,15- year olds. The final sample included 200,615 adolescents from 39 different countries in Europe and North America. Gender and country stratified analyses regressed time spent in leisure-time vigorous physical activity (VPA and days of 60 minutes moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA on time spent in screen-based sedentary behaviors. To simplify interpretation, the estimates from each country were pooled using a meta-analytic procedure. Results Exceeding 2 hrs of daily total screen-time was negatively associated with MVPA for both boys and girls, and with VPA for girls. When investigating the different types of screen-based behaviors separately, exceeding 2 hrs daily of TV viewing was associated with less MVPA for both boys and girls and less VPA for girls. Gaming was associated with less MVPA and VPA for boys, and non-gaming computer use was associated with higher levels of VPA for both genders. Stronger negative associations between physical activity and screen-based sedentary behaviors were found in countries where mean levels of physical activity were relatively high. The association between physical activity and sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with national levels of screen-based sedentary behaviors. Conclusions The displacement mechanism does not appear to be universal across countries. On a national level, negative associations between physical activity and screen

  12. European Blackbirds Exposed to Aircraft Noise Advance Their Chorus, Modify Their Song and Spend More Time Singing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sierro


    Full Text Available Noise pollution has a strong impact on wildlife by disrupting vocal communication or inducing physiological stress. Songbirds are particularly reliant on vocal communication as they use song during territorial and sexual interactions. Birds living in noisy environments have been shown to change the acoustic and temporal parameters of their song presumably to maximize signal transmissibility. Also, research shows that birds advance their dawn chorus in urban environments to avoid the noisiest hours, but little is known on the consequences of these changes in the time they spent singing at dawn. Here we present a comprehensive view of the European blackbird singing behavior living next to a large airport in Madrid, using as a control a population living in a similar but silent forest. Blackbird song is composed of two parts: a series of loud low-frequency whistles (motif and a final flourish (twitter. We found that airport blackbirds were more likely to sing songs without the twitter part. Also, when songs included a twitter part, airport blackbirds used a smaller proportion of song for the twitter than control blackbirds. Interestingly, our results show no differences in song frequency between airport and control populations. However airport blackbirds not only sang earlier but also increased the time they spent singing when chorus and aircraft traffic overlapped on time. This effect disappeared as the season progressed and the chorus and the aircraft traffic schedule were separated on time. We propose that the typical urban upshift in frequency might not be useful under the noise conditions and landscape structure found near airports. We suggest that the modifications in singing behavior induced by aircraft noise may be adaptive and that they are specific to airport acoustic habitat. Moreover, we found that adjustment of singing activity in relation to noise is plastic and possibly optimized to cope with aircraft traffic activity. In a


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borce Kostov


    Full Text Available Time load upon students is a central issue in the context of the overall load placed upon students. Most authors dealing with the issue of load upon students mainly approach this issue from the aspect of the time the students need to respond to the requirements posed by the school and otherwise concerning school. Such load is called time load. In our research, we investigated exactly this kind of time load placed upon students in the nine-year primary education in Macedonia. The main goal of our research was getting insight what is the students’ time load like and how big it is.

  14. A time series analysis of macroeconomic determinants of household spending in the era of cross-cultural dynamics: Czech Republic as a case study


    Verter, Nahanga; Osakwe, Christian Nedu


    The paper investigates selected macroeconomic variables where are seemingly influencing household spending in the Republic in the present era of evolving cross-cultural interactions from 1993-2012. Based on the estimated regression model, it plausible to state that net disposable income, cross-cultural dynamics, inflation rate, and saving rate as a proportion of household income impact significantly on household spending. Moreover, the Granger causality analysis provides evidence of feedback ...

  15. Trends and structural shifts in health tourism: evidence from seasonal time-series data on health-related travel spending by Canada during 1970-2010. (United States)

    Loh, Chung-Ping A


    There has been a growing interest in better understanding the trends and determinants of health tourism activities. While much of the expanding literature on health tourism offers theoretical or qualitative discussion, empirical evidences has been lacking. This study employs Canada's outbound health tourism activities as an example to examine the trends in health tourism and its association with changing domestic health care market characteristics. A time-series model that accounts for potential structural changes in the trend is employed to analyze the quarterly health-related travel spending series reported in the Balance of Payments Statistics (BOPS) during 1970-2010 (n = 156). We identified a structural shift point which marks the start of an accelerated growth of health tourism and a flattened seasonality in such activities. We found that the health tourism activities of Canadian consumers increase when the private investment in medical facilities declines or when the private MPI increases during the years following the structural-change. We discussed the possible linkage of the structural shift to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which went into effect in January, 1995. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Student Time Usage during Fall Reading Week (United States)

    Cramer, Ken; Pschibul, Rebecca


    The present study investigated the time usage and levels of perceived stress, academic workload, and recreation time for 177 students at the University of Windsor before, during, and after Fall Reading Week (FRW). Over a three-week span (at various times of the day), students received a message to their smartphone to complete a 20-second survey…

  17. How much time do health services spend on antenatal care? Implications for the introduction of the focused antenatal care model in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpembeni Rose


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care (ANC is a widely used strategy to improve the health of pregnant women and to encourage skilled care during childbirth. In 2002, the Ministry of Health of the United Republic of Tanzania developed a national adaptation plan based on the new model of the World Health Organisation (WHO. In this study we assess the time health workers currently spent on providing ANC services and compare it to the requirements anticipated for the new ANC model in order to identify the implications of Focused ANC on health care providers' workload. Methods Health workers in four dispensaries in Mtwara Urban District, Southern Tanzania, were observed while providing routine ANC. The time used for the overall activity as well as for the different, specific components of 71 ANC service provisions was measured in detail; 28 of these were first visits and 43 revisits. Standard time requirements for the provision of focused ANC were assessed through simulated consultations based on the new guidelines. Results The average time health workers currently spend for providing ANC service to a first visit client was found to be 15 minutes; the provision of ANC according to the focused ANC model was assessed to be 46 minutes. For a revisiting client the difference between current practise and the anticipated standard of the new model was 27 minutes (9 vs. 36 min.. The major discrepancy between the two procedures was related to counselling. On average a first visit client was counselled for 1:30 minutes, while counselling in revisiting clients did hardly take place at all. The simulation of focused ANC revealed that proper counselling would take about 15 minutes per visit. Conclusion While the introduction of focused ANC has the potential to improve the health of pregnant women and to raise the number of births attended by skilled staff in Tanzania, it may need additional investment in human resources. The generally anticipated saving effect of

  18. Time Management Skills of Nursing Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulay Basak


    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this research was to determine time management skills of nursing students. METHOD: Time Management Inventory and the form that has been developed via screening the literatures by researcher were used gather data. The descriptive study was carried out between the 1st May 2007 and 31st May 2007. The research population of this study constituted nursing students in a Nursing School in Turkey. The sample was consisted of 323 students. Statistical analysis was made using Mann-Whithey U test, One-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis variance analysis, Sperman’s correlation analysis. RESULTS: Nursing student’s total time management points were minimum 46 maximum 127 and median is 89.41±12.71. Total time management points were higher at older age group than the other group. There was a significant correlation between total time management points and academic achievement of nursing students. CONCLUSION: Nursing students needs progress about time planing. Students who are older age had better time management skills. As the total time management point increased also academic achievement point increased. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(5.000: 429-434

  19. Structure of Student Time Management Scale (STMS) (United States)

    Balamurugan, M.


    With the aim of constructing a Student Time Management Scale (STMS), the initial version was administered and data were collected from 523 standard eleventh students. (Mean age = 15.64). The data obtained were subjected to Reliability and Factor analysis using PASW Statistical software version 18. From 42 items 14 were dropped, resulting in the…

  20. Leisure Time Boredom: Issues Concerning College Students (United States)

    Hickerson, Benjamin D.; Beggs, Brent A.


    Students who do not have leisure skills, cannot manage leisure time, or are not aware that leisure can be psychologically rewarding are more likely to be bored during leisure. This study examined the impact of boredom on leisure of college students in relation to gender, level of education, and activity choice. Subjects at a Midwestern university…

  1. Understanding Trends in Medicare Spending, 2007-2014. (United States)

    Keohane, Laura M; Gambrel, Robert J; Freed, Salama S; Stevenson, David; Buntin, Melinda B


    To analyze the sources of per-beneficiary Medicare spending growth between 2007 and 2014, including the role of demographic characteristics, attributes of Medicare coverage, and chronic conditions. Individual-level Medicare spending and enrollment data. Using an Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition model, we analyzed whether changes in price-standardized, per-beneficiary Medicare Part A and B spending reflected changes in the composition of the Medicare population or changes in relative spending levels per person. We identified a 5 percent sample of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries age 65 and above from years 2007 to 2014. Mean payment-adjusted Medicare per-beneficiary spending decreased by $180 between the 2007-2010 and 2011-2014 time periods. This decline was almost entirely attributable to lower spending levels for beneficiaries. Notably, declines in marginal spending levels for beneficiaries with chronic conditions were associated with a $175 reduction in per-beneficiary spending. The decline was partially offset by the increasing prevalence of certain chronic diseases. Still, we are unable to attribute a large share of the decline in spending levels to observable beneficiary characteristics or chronic conditions. Declines in spending levels for Medicare beneficiaries with chronic conditions suggest that changing patterns of care use may be moderating spending growth. © Health Research and Educational Trust.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHELBET Angela


    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to analyze how generally the students use time, how rationally they use their free time, what kinds of extracurricular activities they have and how much time they devote to individual study. The study covers the students from the Faculty of Textile and Printing of the Technical University of Moldova. The method of unassisted investigation of a sample of students consisting of 50 people was used to carry out the study. Following data processing, 31 questionnaires have been validated, based on which the results and interpretations have been analyzed and presented. Having analyzed the study results, it is observed that each person spends his/her time depending on his/her: biological rhythm; state of health; personality and skills; the number of tasks/activities he/she must fulfill etc. Since each individual is different as personality, the results on time spent for the same activity is as different in many people. For example, it has been found that in order to fulfill individual tasks a person can spend an average of about 3 hours per day, while the other one, who is at the same faculty of the same group, is spending about an hour and a half. According to the chart, a student, on average, is in class 242 minutes per day, that is 4 hours; to prepare for individual tasks he/she spends about 160 minutes per day, or 2 hours and 40 minutes. According to the data from the study we can establish that a lot of time is spent for housework, physiological needs, sleep and rest. The time used for these activities by participants in the study is about 12 hours of the 24. The other 12 hours include the remaining activities they are carrying out.

  3. Timed Online Tests: Do Students Perform Better with More Time? (United States)

    Portolese, Laura; Krause, Jackie; Bonner, Julie


    This article focuses on timed tests and specifically on whether increased time enhances test performance. Three courses during the Winter 2015 term (quizzes n = 573) and three courses over the Spring 2015 term (quizzes n = 600) comprised this sample. Students were given the same tests, but the experimental group (Spring 2015) was given 50% more…

  4. The Impact of Internet and Television Use on the Reading Habits and Practices of College Students (United States)

    Mokhtari, Kouider; Reichard, Carla A.; Gardner, Anne


    How much time do college students spend reading for recreational and academic purposes? Do Internet and television use displace or interfere with reading time? In this study, we used an innovative time-diary survey method to explore whether the time students spend on the Internet or watching television displaces time that would be spent reading…

  5. Comparison of physical activity, sedentary behavior and physical fitness between fulltime and part-time students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waynne Ferreira de Faria


    Full Text Available DOI:   The aim of this study was to compare physical activity, sedentary behavior and physical fitness between full-time and part-time students. The sample consisted of 72 students (9 to 12 years, 34 of them studying full time. The subjects answered a questionnaire about physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sociodemographic characteristics. Data regarding sexual maturation, body composition and physical fitness were also collected. The results showed that girls studying full time spent less time per day in sedentary behavior compared to part-time girls (p<0.05. Analysis of anthropometric variables showed a significantly lower body fat percentage in boys studying full time. With respect to the physical fitness tests, significant differences were identified in the sit and reach test, horizontal jump, medicine ball throw and agility, with the observation of higher performance in full-time students. Similarly, girls studying full time exhibited significantly higher performance in the horizontal jump and agility tests compared to their peers. It can be concluded that full-time students spend less time in sedentary behavior and exhibit better physical fitness indices in most of the tests used, irrespective of gender.

  6. Students' Pressure, Time Management and Effective Learning (United States)

    Sun, Hechuan; Yang, Xiaolin


    Purpose: This paper aims to survey the status quo of the student pressure and the relationship between their daily time management and their learning outcomes in three different types of higher secondary schools at Shenyang, the capital city of Liaoning Province in mainland China. Design/methodology/approach: An investigation was carried out in 14…

  7. Crux of Time Management for Students

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 1. Crux of Time Management for Students. Felix Bast. General Article Volume ... Keywords. Bibliography; Cornell method; Eisenhower matrix; events; personal productivity; Pomodoro technique; procrastination; scheduling; SQ3R method; tasks.

  8. A Universe of Information, One Citation at a Time: How Students Engage with Scholarly Sources (United States)

    Ludovico, Carrie; Wittig, Carol


    We spend hours teaching students where to go to find resources, but how do students really use those scholarly resources--and other resources--in their papers? Inspired by the Citation Project, University of Richmond liaison librarians examined First-Year Seminar papers to see what types of sources students used in their writing, how they…

  9. Spending Disclosure - Fiscal Year 2012 (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of this Spending Disclosure Fiscal Year 12 dataset is to allow the public to search and view summary information on payments made to recipients (referred...

  10. Medicare Hospital Spending Per Patient - State (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The "Medicare hospital spending per patient (Medicare Spending per Beneficiary)" measure shows whether Medicare spends more, less or about the same per Medicare...

  11. Medicare Hospital Spending Per Patient - Hospital (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The "Medicare hospital spending per patient (Medicare Spending per Beneficiary)" measure shows whether Medicare spends more, less or about the same per Medicare...

  12. Medicare Hospital Spending Per Patient - National (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The "Medicare hospital spending per patient (Medicare Spending per Beneficiary)" measure shows whether Medicare spends more, less or about the same per Medicare...

  13. Income Elasticity of Vaccines Spending versus General Healthcare Spending. (United States)

    Alfonso, Y Natalia; Ding, Guiru; Bishai, David


    Using cross-country data on gross domestic product and national expenditure on vaccines, we estimate and compare the income elasticity of vaccine expenditure and general curative healthcare expenditure. This study provides the first evidence on the national income elasticity of vaccination spending. Both fixed and random effects models are applied to data from 84 countries from 2010 to 2011. The income elasticities for healthcare expenditure and vaccine expenditure are 0.844 and 0.336, respectively. Despite vaccines' high cost-effectiveness, the national propensity to spend income on vaccines as income increases lags behind general health care. The low income elasticity of vaccine spending means that relying on economic growth alone will provide an unacceptably slow trajectory to achieving high vaccine coverage levels. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Medical student attachments in private practice – The experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doctors in full-time governmental practice. However, since 2000, final year students spend one week of ... Background: Medical student attachments with family/general practitioners (GPs) in non-academic .... Giving the patient a free choice to.

  15. Revealed preference for taxation and spending


    McDowell, Moore


    This paper analyses some of the results of a survey of public opinion carried out in Ireland in the early Autumn of 1989. The survey itself was an innovation in the political economy of taxation and public spending in Ireland in that it was the first time a fully articulated exercise was mounted to establish the actual preferences of the population over specified areas of the economics of the public sector.[extract

  16. Spending to save

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders


    the energy distribution companies meet their overall saving obligation, the net savings impact are about a third of the savings reported by the obligated parties. Further it was found that while energy savings in the public and business sector have a high net impact, some subsidies given under the EEO...... perspective. The evaluation has resulted in noticeable adjustments of the design of the Danish EEO, e.g. introduction of a 1 year payback-time limit for projects receiving subsidies, a minimum baseline for insulation products, and specification of documentation requirements....

  17. Worldwide Military Spending, 1990-1995


    Jerald A Schiff; Benedict J. Clements; Sanjeev Gupta


    The decline in military spending that began in the mid-1980s continued through 1995, and this decline was widespread both geographically and by level of development. Cuts in military spending appear to have potentially important implications for nonmilitary spending and fiscal adjustment. In contrast to findings for previous periods, military spending has declined more than proportionately in those countries that have reduced total spending. Countries with Fund programs have reduced military ...

  18. Spending more money, saving more lives? The relationship between avoidable mortality and healthcare spending in 14 countries. (United States)

    Heijink, Richard; Koolman, Xander; Westert, Gert P


    Healthcare expenditures rise as a share of GDP in most countries, raising questions regarding the value of further spending increases. Against this backdrop, we assessed the value of healthcare spending growth in 14 western countries between 1996 and 2006. We estimated macro-level health production functions using avoidable mortality as outcome measure. Avoidable mortality comprises deaths from certain conditions "that should not occur in the presence of timely and effective healthcare". We investigated the relationship between total avoidable mortality and healthcare spending using descriptive analyses and multiple regression models, focussing on within-country variation and growth rates. We aimed to take into account the role of potential confounders and dynamic effects such as time lags. Additionally, we explored a method to estimate macro-level cost-effectiveness. We found an average yearly avoidable mortality decline of 2.6-5.3% across countries. Simultaneously, healthcare spending rose between 1.9 and 5.9% per year. Most countries with above-average spending growth demonstrated above-average reductions in avoidable mortality. The regression models showed a significant association between contemporaneous and lagged healthcare spending and avoidable mortality. The time-trend, representing an exogenous shift of the health production function, reduced the impact of healthcare spending. After controlling for this time-trend and other confounders, i.e. demographic and socioeconomic variables, a statistically significant relationship between healthcare spending and avoidable mortality remained. We tentatively conclude that macro-level healthcare spending increases provided value for money, at least for the disease groups, countries and years included in this study.

  19. Government Spending and Legislative Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egger, Peter; Köthenbürger, Marko

    This paper presents empirical evidence of a positive effect of council size on government spending using a data set of 2,056 municipalities in the German state of Bavaria over a period of 21 years. We apply a regression discontinuity design to avoid an endogeneity bias. In particular, we exploit ...

  20. Government spending and legislative organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egger, Peter; Köthenbürger, Marko


    This paper presents empirical evidence of a positive effect of council size on government spending using a dataset of 2,056 municipalities in the German state of Bavaria over a period of 21 years. We apply a regression discontinuity design to avoid an endogeneity bias. In particular, we exploit d...

  1. Economic Recovery vs. Defense Spending. (United States)

    De Grasse, Robert; Murphy, Paul


    Evaluates President Reagan's proposed military buildup in light of the cuts such expenditures would necessitate in approximately 300 domestic programs. Suggests that the dramatic proposed increase in military spending risks higher inflation and slower economic growth. Concludes with a plea for rethinking of Reagan's dramatic shift in national…

  2. Public hospital spending in England: Evidence from National Health Service administrative records


    Kelly, Elaine; Stoye, George; Vera-Hernández, Marcos


    Health spending per capita in England has more than doubled since 1997, yet relatively little is known about how that spending is distributed across the population. This paper uses administrative National Health Service (NHS) hospital records to examine key features of public hospital spending in England. We describe how costs vary across the lifecycle, and the concentration of spending among people and over time. We find that costs per person start to increase after age 50 and escalate after...

  3. Understanding the size of the government spending multiplier: It's in the sign


    Barnichon, Régis; Matthes, Christian


    Despite intense scrutiny, estimates of the government spending multiplier remain highly uncertain, with values ranging from 0.5 to 2. While an increase in government spending is generally assumed to have the same (mirror-image) effect as a decrease in government spending, we show that relaxing this assumption is important to understand the effects of fiscal policy. Regardless of whether we identify government spending shocks from (i) a narrative approach, or (ii) a timing restr...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Morina


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research on the physical activity of students in the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina” Kosovo. The purpose of this cognitive study was to diagnose certain aspects of the lifestyle of students, with a particular focus on physical activity and, the difference in sex. The practical aim, however, was an indication of such actions, arising from past experience that would aim at improving lifestyle, and could lead to the elimination or prevention of certain causes of not making movement activity by the students in our country. The research was conducted by the use of diagnostic survey in the group of 120 people aged 18-37, among whom there were 56 girls and 64 boys. The research material was collected in 2014. The research that was carried out shows that the level of wealth (not so much of the family, but of the whole country may have an impact on the choice of activities taken by the students. Undoubtedly socio-cultural factors and the tradition of social life, which impose certain ways of spending leisure time (particularly in the case of the students as we can see in the results obtained, where we also found that there is no statistically significant differences between girls and boys. The above observations, taking into account local conditions, should be the starting point for all those who plan introducing changes in physical education systems in my country in the future.

  5. Part-Time Doctoral Student Socialization through Peer Mentorship (United States)

    Bircher, Lisa S.


    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to understand the socialization (Weidman, Twale, & Stein, 2001) experiences of part-time doctoral students as a result of peer mentorship in one college. Part-time doctoral students are identified as students who are maintaining full-time employment or obligations outside of the university. The…

  6. Relationship between government spending and economic growth in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Szarowská


    Full Text Available This article aims to provide direct empirical evidence on business cycle relations between government spending and economic growth in the Czech Republic. Government spending plays an important role in a fiscal policy as a possible automatic stabilizer. We analyzed annual data on government spending in compliance with the COFOG international standard. We use cross-correlation on cyclically filtered adjusted time series over the period 1995–2008. The cyclical properties of GDP and government spending function were, in average, found as weakly correlated. However, we report considerable differences in correlations across the spending functions. The lowest correlation coefficient (0.06 was found for recreation, culture and religion and the highest average was reported for economic affairs (−0.51. As regards to using government spending as the stabilizer, total government spending, general public services, defense, economic affairs and education spending were negative correlated and it confirms countercyclical relation between these spending functions and GDP. It is in line with theory suggestion. On the other hand, the highest spending function (social protection correlated weak positive and it expresses procyclical development.The results of Johansen cointegration test proved the existence of long-run relationship between GDP and total government spending, GDP and public order and safety spending and GDP and economic affairs spending.

  7. Why Older Adults Spend Time Sedentary and Break Their Sedentary Behavior: A Mixed-Methods Approach Using Life-Logging Equipment. (United States)

    Dontje, Manon L; Leask, Calum F; Harvey, Juliet; Skelton, Dawn A; Chastin, Sebastien F M


    Older adults are recommended to reduce their sedentary time to promote healthy ageing. To develop effective interventions identifying when, why, and how older adults are able to change their sitting habits is important. The aim of this mixed-method study was to improve our understanding of reasons for (breaking) sedentary behavior in older adults. Thirty older adults (74.0 [±5.3] years old, 73% women) were asked about their believed reasons for (breaking) sedentary behavior, and about their actual reasons when looking at a personal storyboard with objective records of activPAL monitor data and time-lapse camera pictures showing all their periods of sedentary time in a day. The most often mentioned believed reason for remaining sedentary was television/radio (mentioned by 48.3%), while eating/drinking was most often mentioned as actual reason (96.6%). Only 17.2% believed that food/tea preparation was a reason to break up sitting, while this was an actual reason for 82.8% of the study sample. Results of this study show that there is a discrepancy between believed and actual reasons for (breaking) sedentary behavior. These findings suggest developing interventions utilizing the actual reasons for breaking sedentary behavior to reduce sedentary time in older adults.

  8. Observation of classroom social communication: do children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders spend their time differently than their typically developing peers? (United States)

    Olswang, Lesley B; Svensson, Liselotte; Astley, Susan


    In this research, the authors examined how social communication profiles during classroom activities differed between children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) and typically developing pair-matched peers. Twelve pairs of children were observed in their classrooms 20 min a day for 4 days across 2 weeks. Coders documented classroom social communication by recording performance on handheld computers using the Social Communication Coding System (L. B. Olswang, L. Svensson, T. E. Coggins, J. Beilinson, & A. L. Donaldson, 2006). The Social Communication Coding System consists of 6 behavioral dimensions (prosocial/engaged, passive/disengaged, irrelevant, hostile/coercive, assertive, and adult seeking) that account for all verbal and nonverbal productions during a specified timeframe. The frequency of occurrence and duration of each dimension (as measured by proportion of time and average length of time spent performing each dimension) were recorded. Children with FASD had significantly more occurrences of passive/disengaged and irrelevant behavior, and the proportion and average length of time in these behaviors were larger and longer than those of their peers. Further, children with FASD had significantly more occurrences of prosocial/engaged behavior; however, the proportion and average length of time that they spent being prosocial were smaller and shorter than those of their peers. Implications Results suggest children with mild FASD performed differently than their peers in regard to classroom social communication, which was consistent with parent and teacher behavioral reports.

  9. Clinical Effectiveness and Cost of a Hospital-Based Fall Prevention Intervention: The Importance of Time Nurses Spend on the Front Line of Implementation. (United States)

    Nuckols, Teryl K; Needleman, Jack; Grogan, Tristan R; Liang, Li-Jung; Worobel-Luk, Pamela; Anderson, Laura; Czypinski, Linda; Coles, Courtney; Walsh, Catherine M


    The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and incremental net cost of a fall prevention intervention that involved hourly rounding by RNs at 2 hospitals. Minimizing in-hospital falls is a priority, but little is known about the value of fall prevention interventions. We used an uncontrolled before-after design to evaluate changes in fall rates and time use by RNs. Using decision-analytical models, we estimated incremental net costs per hospital per year. Falls declined at 1 hospital (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.87; P = .016), but not the other (IRR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.59-1.17; P = .28). Cost analyses projected a 67.9% to 72.2% probability of net savings at both hospitals due to unexpected declines in the time that RNs spent in fall-related activities. Incorporating fall prevention into hourly rounds might improve value. Time that RNs invest in implementing quality improvement interventions can equate to sizable opportunity costs or savings.

  10. Recovery of Sleep or Recovery of Self? A Grounded Theory Study of Residents' Decision Making Regarding How to Spend Their Nonclinical Postcall Time. (United States)

    Taylor, Taryn S; Nisker, Jeff; Teunissen, Pim W; Dornan, Tim; Lingard, Lorelei


    As resident work hours policies evolve, residents' off-duty time remains poorly understood. Despite assumptions about how residents should be using their postcall, off-duty time, there is little research on how residents actually use this time and the reasoning underpinning their activities. This study sought to understand residents' nonclinical postcall activities when they leave the hospital, their decision-making processes, and their perspectives on the relationship between these activities and their well-being or recovery. The study took place at a Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited Canadian medical school from 2012 to 2014. The authors recruited a purposive and convenience sample of postgraduate year 1-5 residents from six surgical and nonsurgical specialties at three hospitals affiliated with the medical school. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, semistructured interviews were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed, anonymized, and combined with field notes. The authors analyzed interview transcripts using constant comparative analysis and performed post hoc member checking. Twenty-four residents participated. Residents characterized their predominant approach to postcall decision making as one of making trade-offs between multiple, competing, seemingly incompatible, but equally valuable, activities. Participants exhibited two different trade-off orientations: being oriented toward maintaining a normal life or toward mitigating fatigue. The authors' findings on residents' trade-off orientations suggest a dual recovery model with postcall trade-offs motivated by the recovery of sleep or of self. This model challenges the dominant viewpoint in the current duty hours literature and suggests that the duty hours discussion must be broadened to include other recovery processes.

  11. Future Time Orientation and Student Expectations: An Empirical Investigation (United States)

    Amyx, Douglas; Bristow, Dennis


    Navajo and Anglo college students' time orientation scores from the Future Time Orientation (FTO) Scale (Bristol & Amyx, 1996) were analyzed and compared. Anglo students were found to be significantly more future time oriented in two of the three dimensions: temporal distance and involvement with time. Future time orientation was used to explain…

  12. Medicare hospital spending per patient (Medicare Spending per Beneficiary) – Additional Decimal Places (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The "Medicare hospital spending per patient (Medicare Spending per Beneficiary)" measure shows whether Medicare spends more, less or about the same per Medicare...

  13. Health care spending growth: can we avoid fiscal Armageddon? (United States)

    Chernew, Michael

    Both private and public payers have experienced a persistent rise in health care spending that has exceeded income growth. The issue now transcends the health care system because health care spending growth threatens the fiscal health of the nation. This paper examines the causes and consequences of health care spending growth. It notes that the determinants of spending growth may differ from the determinants of high spending at a point in time. Specifically, the evidence overwhelmingly suggests that the primary driver ofinflation-adjusted, per capita spending growth over the past decades (and thus premium growth) has been the diffusion of new medical technology. The paper argues that while new technology has provided significant clinical benefit, we can no longer afford the persistent gap between health spending and income growth. In simple terms, if the economy is growing 2%, we cannot afford persistent health care spending growth of 4%. Growth in public spending is particularly important. If not abated, high public spending will require either substantially higher taxes or debt, both of which could lead to fiscal Armageddon. Growth in private spending also threatens economic well-being by forcing more resources toward health care and away from other sectors. For example, since the cost of employer-based coverage is always borne by employees (directly or indirectly), salary increases and health care cost increases cannot continue on together. To avoid economic disaster, payers will be forced to have a greater resolve in the future. Specifically, because neither public nor private payers will be able to finance growing health care spending, the coming decade will likely experience significant changes in health care financing. Consumers may be asked to pay more out of pocket when they seek care and both public and private payers will put increasing pressure on payment rates. Furthermore, payment rates to providers are likely to rise more slowly than in the past

  14. Online ATM Helps Youth Smarten Up about Spending (United States)

    Hibbert, Kathy; Coulson, Elizabeth


    While many high school students confess a desire to develop personal money management skills, statistics tracking the average Canadian's personal debt underscore the need to ensure the youth have the tools they need for financial success. What would it take to motivate teens to learn more about how they spend and manage their money? The authors…

  15. Student Part-Time Employment: Characteristics and Consequences (United States)

    Robotham, David


    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to examine the consequences of students engaging in part-time employment during their studies. It reports the results of a survey of part-time employment among university students. The research examined the possible consequences of combining part-time employment with full-time study, with particular reference to…

  16. Inequalities in Parental Spending on Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabino Kornrich


    Full Text Available This article investigates inequality in parental spending on young children over the period from 1972 to 2010. I find increased spending among parents at the top of the income distribution but little change among parents at the bottom of the income distribution. The gap in spending is equally attributable to increased spending on center-based care for preschool-age children and spending on enrichment goods and activities. The article examines potential causes of increased spending, including income, parental education, and wife’s work status, using decomposition analysis. Results indicate that higher incomes are the largest cause of the increased gap in spending but that increases in wife’s earnings, college completion, and wife’s work hours are also important for growth in spending.

  17. Leisure time physical activity and quality of life in medical students: results from a multicentre study. (United States)

    Peleias, Munique; Tempski, Patricia; Paro, Helena Bms; Perotta, Bruno; Mayer, Fernanda B; Enns, Sylvia C; Gannam, Silmar; Pereira, Maria Amelia D; Silveira, Paulo S; Santos, Itamar S; Carvalho, Celso Rf; Martins, Milton A


    We evaluated the association between leisure time physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL) in medical students. Our hypothesis was that there was a positive association between volume of PA and various domains of perception of QoL. Data were evaluated from a random sample of 1350 medical students from 22 Brazilian medical schools. Information from participants included the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire-short form (WHOQOL-BREF), a questionnaire specifically designed to evaluate QoL in medical students (VERAS-Q) and questions for both global QoL self-assessment and leisure time PA. According to the amount of metabolic equivalents (METs) spend during PA, volunteers were divided into four groups, according to the volume of PA: (a) no PA; (b) low PA, ≤540 MET min/week; (c) moderate PA, from 541 to 1260 MET min/week and (d) high PA, > 1261 MET min/week. Forty per cent of the medical students reported no leisure time PA (46.0% of females and 32.3% of males). In contrast, 27.2% were classified in the group of high PA (21.0% of females and 34.2% of males). We found significant associations between moderate and high levels of PA and better QoL for all measurements. For low levels of PA, this association was also significant for most QoL measurements, with the exceptions of WHOQOL physical health (p=0.08) and social relationships (p=0.26) domains. We observed a strong dose-effect relationship between the volume of leisure time PA and QoL in both male and female medical students.

  18. Trade Costs, Conflicts, and Defense Spending


    Seitz, Michael; Tarasov, Alexander; Zakharenko, Roman


    This paper develops a quantitative model of trade, military conflicts, and defense spending. Trade liberalization between two countries reduces probability of an armed conflict between them, causing both to cut defense spending. This in turn causes a domino effect on defense spending by other countries. As a result, both countries and the rest of the world are better off. We estimate the model using data on trade, conflicts, and military spending. We find that, after reduction of costs of tra...

  19. Inking and Thinking: Honors Students and Tattoos (United States)

    Dundes, Lauren; Francis, Antonia


    This study examines whether academically accelerated students in a college Honors program are as likely as other students to acquire a tattoo and to spend the same amount of time contemplating this decision. A convenience sample of 71 honors students and 135 non-honors students completed a survey at a small mid-Atlantic liberal arts college in…

  20. Crux of Time Management for Students

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    For example, weekly and long-term planning, studying, develop- ing a skill, reading ... Smart Work. Generally, students have a preconceived notion that hard work is ..... on English usage, such as Strunk and White Elements of Style,. Chicago ...

  1. [Colombian Health spending 1993-2003: its composition and trends]. (United States)

    Barón-Leguizamón, Gilberto


    Analysing the magnitude, composition, evolution and trends in Colombian national spending on health, forming a proposal and making an important contribution towards knowledge re the reality of social health security. The results obtained respond to an ongoing effort to systematise and standardise the adopted methodology and update calculations and estimates for the eleven-year period during which Law 100/1993 was being reformed. Analysing the above led to identifying changes in the flow of resources and establishing objective comparisons according to current/available international standards. The project began in the Colombian Planning Department (lasting 5 years) and was then passed to the Ministry of Social Protection's Health Reform Support Programme where new institutional scope has been applied during the last four years. Perhaps the work's most important contribution consists of producing annual estimates of total public and private spending on health as a time-series, for a relatively significant period. The results confirm fulfilment of the reform's suppositions in terms of the significant amount of resources channelled to the sector, the important substitution of financing private spending for spending on health insurance, greater dynamism and the importance of public funds in financing total spending and the managing of an important segment of such resources by some of the new agents created by the reform. This contrasts with the little importance paid to spending on promotion and prevention and on public health and basic attention programmes.

  2. Report on Spending Trends Highlights Inequities in Model for Financing Colleges (United States)

    Blumenstyk, Goldie


    An analysis of spending trends that is designed to discourage policy makers' focus on finding new revenue rather than reining in spending suggests that the model for financing colleges has reinforced educational inequities and failed to increase the rate at which students graduate. According to the analysis, "serious fault lines" in the current…

  3. Educational activities of secondary school students in Serbia: A time-diary analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Jelena


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the time allocation of various educational activities within the structure of a typical day of Serbian secondary school students, and whether there were significant differences in this respect depending on their socio-demographic characteristics. The 24-hour time diary method was applied: the subjects described chronologically, at half-hourly intervals, their activities in one weekday an done weekend day. The research was conducted on a sample of 922 secondary school students, Structured by region, age and type of school. The analysis revealed that on weekdays students spent about 5 hours in school. In work activities outside school they spent almost 2 hours, out of which the largest part in learning (81 minutes, and significantly less in housework (23 minutes and economically productive work (7 minutes. From a total of5 hours and22 minutes of free time, only 5 minutes were devoted to organized extracurricular activities. Significant differences were obtained with regard to students’ gender, type of school, and level of parents’ education. When these results are compared with the data from other countries, it is shown that secondary school students in Serbia, compared to the U.S., spend more time in learning, and significantly less in economically productive work and house­work, much like the youth in European countries. A very low proportion of extracurricular activities shows that school learning is almost the only context of developing educational competencies. The implications of these findings are discussed from the perspective of positive youth development. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije: Identifikacija, merenje i razvoj kognitivnih i emocionalnih kompetencija važnih društvu orijentisanom na evropske integracije

  4. Student Understanding of Time Dependence in Quantum Mechanics (United States)

    Emigh, Paul J.; Passante, Gina; Shaffer, Peter S.


    The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing…

  5. Career Expectations and Perceptions of Part-Time MBA Students (United States)

    Fish, Lynn A.; Fish, Lauren A.


    In the U.S., part-time MBA students regard work/life balance as the critical factor that drives career expectations and perceptions. Job aspects and benefits/compensation closely follow in importance, while employee relations are valued less. Within work/life balance, students value job location, travel time, and telecommuting. Promotional…

  6. Adolescent drinking, academic achievement and leisure time use by secondary education students in a rural area of Crete. (United States)

    Koutra, Kleio; Papadovassilaki, Kyriaki; Kalpoutzaki, Pelagia; Kargatzi, Maria; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Koukouli, Sofia


    This study investigated the alcohol consumption of secondary education students and their relationship to school life and leisure time use with peers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in March 2007, and the study population consisted of 14- to 19-year-old students living in an agricultural area of Crete. The final sample consisted of 117 individuals (response rate 90.0%). A short previously validated self-completion questionnaire was used collecting information on: personal and family characteristics; school progress; leisure time activities and relations with other adolescents; and alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption differed significantly between male (75.5%) and female (25.8%) students (P students consuming alcohol was lower compared with those who did not, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.066). Statistical evidence supported the hypothesis that students who consumed alcohol had more absences and this association was stronger for male students. The frequency of alcohol consumption was found to relate to the number of absences for both sexes. Male students who had been suspended from school were more likely to drink alcohol than those who had not been suspended. Statistical evidence also supported the hypotheses that students who spent their free time in cafeterias, bars or billiard halls were more likely to drink alcohol and also consume alcohol at higher frequencies than those that did not spend their free time this way (P = 0.002 and P students, families, schools, communities and the state better understand the real dimensions of the problem. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Income distribution determinants and public spending efficiency


    Afonso, António; Schuknecht, Ludger; Tanzi, Vito


    In this paper we examine the impact of public spending, education, and institutions on income distribution in advanced economies. We also assess the efficiency of public spending in redistributing income by using a DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) nonparametric approach. We find that public policies significantly affect income distribution, notably via social spending, and indirectly via high quality education/human capital and via sound economic institutions. Moreover, for our set of OECD cou...

  8. Parents and Students and Healthy Indoor School Environments (United States)

    School-aged children spend a great deal of time inside school buildings. Parents can play an important role in creating healthy indoor school environments. Parents and students alike can make a powerful case for protecting health in schools.

  9. Saving Money or Spending Tomorrow's Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Chinese are normally believed to be thrifty.However,economic development has had a tremendous impact upon Chinese society,uprooting the long-engraved ideas.With the emergence of the credit cards,spending tomorrow's money becomes a reality.In this way,people are in dilemma:saving money or spending tomorrow's money.Firstly,this paper focuses on the benefits of spending tomorrow's money.Secondly,it shows that spending tomorrow's money is confronted with many challenges.Finally,the paper comes up with some suggestions to solve these problems.

  10. Decreasing Students' Stress through Time Management Training: An Intervention Study (United States)

    Häfner, Alexander; Stock, Armin; Oberst, Verena


    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a time management training program on perceived control of time and perceived stress in the context of higher education. Twenty-three undergraduate students attended a time management training intervention and reported demands, perceived stress and perceived control of time directly before 2 and…

  11. U.S. industry to hold 1994 spending at the 1993 level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.


    A sharp cut in spending on pipelines will hold US petroleum industry budgets at about 1993 levels for domestic projects this year. Excluding pipeline outlays, industry spending for capital and exploration items will advance. Oil and Gas Journal's annual budget survey shows US companies plan to spend $31.3 billion on US projects in 1994, down only 0.7% from 1993. Spending last year was down by the same percentage from 1992's $31.7 billion. Total outlays, excluding pipelines, well be $28.9 billion, up 5.8% from 1993. In 1993 spending excluding pipelines was $27.3 billion, down 1.2% from 1992. Industry's total spending hit a high of $83 billion in 1981. It then fell to the recent low of $25.2 billion in 1987. Adjusted for inflation, spending in 1994 will be the lowest since 1987. A sharp drop in drilling lowered upstream outlays during the past several years. At the same time, spending for upgrades, renovation, environmental compliance, marketing, and transportation bolstered downstream budgets. E and P spending in 1994 will increase 6.2% from the 1993 level, moving up to $14.8 billion. Refining capital spending will inch up 0.9% to $5.4 billion for 1994

  12. Classroom Success Stories: Exposing Students to Time Bonding. (United States)

    Papaleo, Ralph J.


    Recommends using time bonding (finding a role model and researching the process and story behind that individual's accomplishments) as a means to interest students in history. Outlines the instructions covering the objectives of the writing assignments. Students researched a variety of biographies including Jackie Robinson and Lyndon Johnson. (MJP)

  13. Just in Time Teaching: A Strategy to Encourage Students' Engagement (United States)

    López Cupita, Lorena Andrea


    This qualitative research study was carried out with two groups of students at a beginner English level; the students were in the fourth semester of psychology at a Colombian university. The overall aim of this action research study was to analyze learners' perceptions of the strategy "Just in Time Teaching" in a web 2.0. The data were…

  14. Part-Time Faculty and Community College Student Success (United States)

    Rogers, Gregory S.


    With the Completion Agenda taking such political prominence, community colleges are experiencing even more pressure to find ways to promote and improve student success. One way that has been suggested is to limit the reliance on part-time faculty under the premise that the employment status of faculty has a direct influence on student success. The…

  15. Levels of Satisfaction with Leisure Time in Foreign Students (United States)

    Akdeniz, Hakan; Simsek, Sinem Didem; Kavi, Onur; Uzuner, Muhammet Eyup; Sekban, Gulsah


    The aim of this study was to investigate levels of satisfaction with leisure time in foreign students of Kocaeli University. In the collection of the data, the Leisure Satisfaction Scale (LSS) and demographic status questionnaire were used; 257 male and 103 female students participated. In the LSS scores for the separate domains, participants…

  16. Italian refiners' environmental spending to soar in 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Industry estimates are that Italian refiners' capital outlays will total almost 12 trillion lire ($7.2 billion), in 1990 currencies, in the 1990's. Most spending will be earmarked to develop cleaner fuels and plant-specific environmental mitigation measures related to new European Community regulations. Italian refiners generally have lagged some of their counterparts in Europe and North America on environmental spending. That's because they have faced a continuing margin squeeze as a result of product prices remaining under tight government controls. Last year, the government began to implement price deregulation in line with EC directives. At the same time, the government is enforcing stiffer emissions rules to improve air quality in urban areas. The paper describes spending plans; demand for oxygenates; demand for low sulfur fuel oil for power plants; and price regulations

  17. Classroom Management. Make Your Students Teachers, Too. (United States)

    Gomoll, Judith A.


    Describes how to boost elementary students' confidence and nurture responsibility by making students resident experts at review stations. Students rotate from station to station where the experts are learning at their own pace, spending more time on material they do not understand, and receiving personal attention and immediate feedback. (SM)

  18. Inventory information approval system certification and flexible spending account purchases. (United States)

    Shuey, Brandon; Williams, La Vonn A


    There is no question that 2009 was a year of change within the pharmacy industry. Several new requirements were implemented, including the need for an Inventory Information Approval System for accepting flexible spending or health reimbursement account cords. Some pharmacies relied on the 90% exemption rule, which is discussed within this article, or an alternative method to avoid the expense of a point of sale. However, with flexible spending or health reimbursement account card participation expected to reach 85% in 2010, now bay be the time for compounding pharmacists to weigh the pros and cons of Inventory Information Approval System certification.

  19. Trends in Health Care Spending by the Private Sector (United States)


    private - sector spending for health insurance increases each year has raised many questions about the meaning of the trend and its implications for the future. According to the federal government’s national health accounts (NHA), the annual growth rate of private health insurance expenditures tumbled from around 14 percent in 1990 to less than 3 percent in 1994 and 1995. Understanding the factors that contribute to that reduction is of particular concern to policymakers who are seeking ways to slow the growth of Medicare spending. At the same time that fundamental


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lepeš


    Full Text Available Physical activity contributes to physical, mental and social health and improves the quality of life of people of all ages. Physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle are a public health problems in Serbia. The purpose of study was to collect a data from students of Teachers’ Training Faculty on Hungarian (TTFH in Subotica about behaving at their free time, focusing on physical activities and sedentary behavior.The TTFH carried out a survey to assess the leisure time habits of their students in academic year 2013/2014. This study included a total of 116 voluntary undergraduated students (male:23, female:93. The questionnaire included 31 items, distributed in 5 blocks: descriptive data (3 items, healthy habits (5 items, feeding habits (5 items, sedentary behavior (14 items and unhealthy behaviors (4 items. The anthropometric measures body mass and body height were taken using standard procedures and instruments, and accordingly, BMI (height/weight2 values were calculated. Surveyed male students reported greater participation in healthy habits than did female students, and they also spent more time with sedentary behavior, but the difference weren’t significant. Students spent little time on physical activities in their free time and a lot of time with sedentary behaviour. It has to be changed, because by time they will become teachers and if they are bad examples to children we can’t expect from the society to be healthier

  1. Charter School Spending and Saving in California (United States)

    Reed, Sherrie; Rose, Heather


    Examining resource allocation practices, including savings, of charter schools is critical to understanding their financial viability and sustainability. Using 9 years of finance data from California, we find charter schools spend less on instruction and pupil support services than traditional public schools. The lower spending on instruction and…

  2. State Spending on Higher Education Capital Outlays (United States)

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.


    This paper explores the role that state spending on higher education capital outlays plays in state budgets by considering the functional form of the relationship between state spending on higher education capital outlays and four types of state expenditures. Three possible functional forms are tested: a linear model, a quadratic model, and the…

  3. Term-time Employment and Student Attainment in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cath Dennis


    Full Text Available The number of UK full-time university students engaging in term-time employment (TTE is rising. Students engaging in TTE have previously been found to achieve less well academically than those who do not. This study aimed to explore patterns of TTE and academic achievement of undergraduates at a large UK higher education institution. Self-reported TTE hours were matched to attainment data for 1304 undergraduate students in levels 1-4 of study (SQCF levels 7-10. The majority of students in TTE (71%, n=621 reported undertaking TTE to cover essential living expenses. Compared to students not undertaking TTE, attainment was significantly better at low levels of TTE (1-10 hours, and only significantly worse when TTE was >30 hours/week. This pattern was magnified when job type was taken into account – students employed in skilled roles for ≤10 hours/week on average attained grades 7% higher than those not in TTE; students working >10 hours/week in unskilled positions showed a mean 1.6% lower grade. The impact of ‘academic potential’ (measured via incoming UCAS tariff was accounted for in the model. The finding that students engaging in some categories of TTE achieve better academic outcomes than their non-employed peers is worthy of further investigation. This study is unable to provide direct evidence of possible causation, but would tentatively suggest that students may benefit from taking on 10 or fewer hours of TTE per week.

  4. The Effectiveness of Time Management Strategies Instruction on Students' Academic Time Management and Academic Self Efficacy (United States)

    Kader, Fathi Abdul Hamid Abdul; Eissa, Mourad Ali


    This study investigated the effect of using time management strategies instruction on improving first year learning disabled students' academic time management and academic self efficacy. A total of 60 students identified with LD participated. The sample was divided into two groups; experimental (n = 30 boys) and control (n = 30 boys). ANCOVA and…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper describes the process of planning in an oral test situation. Since many researchers have studied the impact of pretask planning in the Second Language Acquisition (SLA) field and some have explored the same subject into the area of oral tests, the present study tries to make a tentative attempt to see what the test takers are actually doing in the planning time while taking an oral test. A questionnaire was designed with the effort to find out whether planning time results in an increased focus on form, particularly at the level of strategic attention to form.The result of the investigation tells us that restricted by the type of situation, test takers can only plan the framework of what they are going to say, which may differ to the results achieved by previous studies.

  6. Evaluation of Medical Faculty Students's Time Management Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Yavas


    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: This study was carried out in order to determine medical faculty students� time management skills. METHOD: This is a cross sectional study and was carried out between 13 -31 May 2010. The universe of the study comprised 513 medical faculty students and data collection was performed by using the Time Management Inventory (TMI from 420 students (%81,9 of the universe. For statistical analyses of data percentage, Kruskal-Wallis, One-way Anova, Mann-Whitney U, Student-t test and Pearson correlation analysis were used. RESULTS: Students� total time management points were minimum 44 and maximum 122. Total points� mean was 79,06±14,07 and also the median was 78 of Time Management Inventory. Total time management points of the fifth class students were higher than the others. There was no correlation between total time management points and ages of the students. Also there is no statistically significant difference between the males and females at the TMI points. CONCLUSION: According to the other studies the medical faculty students� total TMI mean points are low. The reason of this situation may be the pension school that someone else is planning most of students� time and inadequacy of awareness, knowledge and skills about time management. Enhancing awareness with useful knowledge and being full of resource about time management is essential. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 5-10

  7. Cultural activities in primary school students' spare time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikanović Brane


    Full Text Available Culture is a form of creative expression of a human being through which he reshapes the world, acts on it adding it value and creating new, cultural values. A human being is able to create a product of culture only when he is free and able to express himself. A contemporary man can incorporate various cultural activities into his spare time. They are especially important when they concern children and young people: regardless of whether they are used in institutional settings or in spare time. The authors conducted an empirical research of students' assumptions and beliefs concerning cultural activities in their free time. The sample comprised 233 fifth grade students. The findings show that in their spare time fifth graders: engage in various cultural activities; that students who live in urban areas attend more cultural events; that students have the opportunity to engage in extra-curricular activities in the area of culture - join cultural and artistic groups and associations and engage in various creative pursuits at different levels of participation (as consumers, full participants; and that students' attitudes concerning the influence of parents and teachers on the selection of cultural activities to be pursued do not vary greatly by gender, location or school achievement. Cultural activities do play a significant part in the free time of primary school students. This is why it is important that guidance provided in school and in spare time should be brought in greaer harmony.

  8. Working and Providing Care: Increasing Student Engagement for Part-Time Community College Students (United States)

    Leingang, Daniel James


    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship among external time obligations of work and care giving by part-time students, their participation within structured group learning experiences, and student engagement. The Structured Group Learning Experiences (SGLEs) explored within this study include community college programming…

  9. The great recession and health spending among uninsured U.S. immigrants: implications for the Affordable Care Act implementation. (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Chen, Jie


    We study the association between the timing of the Great Recession (GR) and health spending among uninsured adults distinguishing by citizenship/nativity status and time of U.S. residence. Uninsured U.S. citizens and noncitizens from the 2005-2006 and 2008-2009 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The probability of reporting any health spending and the natural logarithm of health spending are our main dependent variables. We compare health spending across population categories before/during the GR. Subsequently, we implement two-part regression analyses of total and specific health-spending measures. We predict average health spending before/during the GR with a smearing estimation. The probability of reporting any spending diminished for recent immigrants compared to citizens during the GR. For those with any spending, recent immigrants reported higher spending during the GR (27 percent). Average reductions in total spending were driven by the decline in the share of the population reporting any spending among citizens and noncitizens. Our study findings suggest that recent immigrants could be forgoing essential care, which later translates into higher spending. It portrays the vulnerability of a population that would remain exposed to income shocks, even after the Affordable Care Act (ACA) implementation. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  10. Student understanding of time dependence in quantum mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Emigh


    Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Upper Division Physics Courses.] The time evolution of quantum states is arguably one of the more difficult ideas in quantum mechanics. In this article, we report on results from an investigation of student understanding of this topic after lecture instruction. We demonstrate specific problems that students have in applying time dependence to quantum systems and in recognizing the key role of the energy eigenbasis in determining the time dependence of wave functions. Through analysis of student responses to a set of four interrelated tasks, we categorize some of the difficulties that underlie common errors. The conceptual and reasoning difficulties that have been identified are illustrated through student responses to four sets of questions administered at different points in a junior-level course on quantum mechanics. Evidence is also given that the problems persist throughout undergraduate instruction and into the graduate level.

  11. National Health Care Spending In 2016: Spending And Enrollment Growth Slow After Initial Coverage Expansions. (United States)

    Hartman, Micah; Martin, Anne B; Espinosa, Nathan; Catlin, Aaron; The National Health Expenditure Accounts Team


    Total nominal US health care spending increased 4.3 percent and reached $3.3 trillion in 2016. Per capita spending on health care increased by $354, reaching $10,348. The share of gross domestic product devoted to health care spending was 17.9 percent in 2016, up from 17.7 percent in 2015. Health spending growth decelerated in 2016 following faster growth in 2014 and 2015 associated with coverage expansions under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and strong retail prescription drug spending growth. In 2016 the slowdown was broadly based, as spending for the largest categories by payer and by service decelerated. Enrollment trends drove the slowdown in Medicaid and private health insurance spending growth in 2016, while slower per enrollee spending growth influenced Medicare spending. Furthermore, spending for retail prescription drugs slowed, partly as a result of lower spending for drugs used to treat hepatitis C, while slower use and intensity of services drove the slowdown in hospital care and physician and clinical services.

  12. Evaluation of the residual sanitary risk for people spending time on the beaches polluted by the Erika fuel, after the depollution; Evaluation du risque sanitaire residuel pour les populations frequentant les plages polluees par le fioul rejete par l'ERIKA, apres depollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dor, F.; Gourier-Frery, C.; Zmirou, D. [Institut de veille sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France); Cicolella, A.; Bonnard, R.; Dujardin, R. [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques, 60 - Verneuil en Halatte (INERIS) (France)


    This study aims to evaluate the short dated and long dated sanitary risks for adults and children who are going to spend time on the beach affected by the Erika fuel, after the depollution. 36 beaches were selected and 7 beaches which were not polluted, were taking as a reference. The methodology, the analysis of the data and the results are described. (A.L.B.)

  13. Geography of conservation spending, biodiversity, and culture. (United States)

    McClanahan, T R; Rankin, P S


    We used linear and multivariate models to examine the associations between geography, biodiversity, per capita economic output, national spending on conservation, governance, and cultural traits in 55 countries. Cultural traits and social metrics of modernization correlated positively with national spending on conservation. The global distribution of this spending culture was poorly aligned with the distribution of biodiversity. Specifically, biodiversity was greater in the tropics where cultures tended to spend relatively less on conservation and tended to have higher collectivism, formalized and hierarchical leadership, and weaker governance. Consequently, nations lacking social traits frequently associated with modernization, environmentalism, and conservation spending have the largest component of Earth's biodiversity. This has significant implications for setting policies and priorities for resource management given that biological diversity is rapidly disappearing and cultural traits change slowly. Therefore, we suggest natural resource management adapt to and use characteristics of existing social organization rather than wait for or promote social values associated with conservation spending. Supporting biocultural traditions, engaging leaders to increase conservation commitments, cross-national efforts that complement attributes of cultures, and avoiding interference with nature may work best to conserve nature in collective and hierarchical societies. Spending in modernized nations may be a symbolic response to a symptom of economic development and environmental degradation, and here conservation actions need to ensure that biodiversity is not being lost. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Optimal Policy under Restricted Government Spending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anders


    Welfare ranking of policy instruments is addressed in a two-sector Ramsey model with monopoly pricing in one sector as the only distortion. When government spending is restricted, i.e. when a government is unable or unwilling to finance the required costs for implementing the optimum policy...... effectiveness canexceed the welfare loss from introducing new distortions. Moreover, it is found that the investment subsidy is gradually phased out of the welfare maximizing policy, which may be a policy combining the two subsidies, when the level of government spending is increased.Keywords: welfare ranking......, indirect and direct policy instruments, restricted government spending JEL: E61, O21, O41...

  15. Gender Gaps in High School Students' Homework Time (United States)

    Gershenson, Seth; Holt, Stephen B.


    Gender differences in human capital investments made outside of the traditional school day suggest that males and females consume, respond to, and form habits relating to education differently. We document robust, statistically significant one-hour weekly gender gaps in secondary students' non-school study time using time diary data from the…

  16. Digging Deep: Exploring College Students' Knowledge of Macroevolutionary Time (United States)

    Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.


    Some ability to comprehend deep time is a prerequisite for understanding macroevolution. This study examines students' knowledge of deep time in the context of seven major historical and evolutionary events (e.g., the age of the Earth, the emergence of life, the appearance of a pre-modern human, "Homo habilis"). The subjects were 126…

  17. Changes in themes over time from medical student journaling. (United States)

    Cayley, William; Schilling, Rae; Suechting, Ralph


    There has been little exploration of journaling in medical student education. To document the themes on which medical students reflect during training. We evaluated journals kept by primary care medical students to identify prominent themes and determine change or constancy in themes over time. We looked at third-year medical students participating in a required primary care clerkship in a university-affiliated, community-based family medicine residency program with a rural catchment area. During 1994-1996 and 2001-2003, students were asked to keep weekly journals reflecting on their thoughts and feelings regarding "topical content, course processes and methods, and personal reflections on becoming a doctor." Faculty evaluated journals to identify change or constancy in themes over time. Prominent themes included gender issues, professional identity emergence, career choice, and rural practice, the experience of learning, the experience of relating to patients, and the nature of medical practice. We found both constancy and change in student journal themes over time. Changes in journal themes appeared to correlate with outside events and educational trends, including increased attention to reflective practice, changing demographics in medicine and the increasing acceptance of female physicians, and personal life events.

  18. Geographic Variation in Medicare Spending Dashboard (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Geographic Variation Dashboards present Medicare fee-for-service per-capita spending at the state and county level in an interactive format. We calculated the...

  19. Infrastructure Quality, Local Government Spending and Corruption


    Ig. Sigit Murwito; Boedi Rheza; Sri Mulyati; Elizabeth Karlinda; Ratnawati Muyanto


    We study on how a larger local government budget on infrastructure does not reflect into good quality of road in forty-one district/city across Indonesia given the fact of low infrastructure quality and low government spending on infrastructure. This study excels its preceded studies done by Tanzi and Davoodi (1997) at country level. The methodology used is a combination of quantitative and qualitative approach since our main research query is to seek facts on why a larger government spending...

  20. The demand for military spending in Egypt


    Abu-Qarn, A. S.; Dunne, J. P.; Abdelfattah, Y.; Zaher, S.


    Egypt plays a pivotal role in the security of the Middle East as the doorway to Europe and its military expenditure reflects its involvement in the machinations of such an unstable region, showing considerable variation over the last forty years. These characteristics make it a particularly interesting case study of the determinants of military spending. This paper specifies and estimates an econometric model of the Egyptian demand for military spending, taking into account important strategi...

  1. Public preferences for government spending in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Sabrina


    Full Text Available Abstract This study considers three questions: 1. What are the Canadian public’s prioritization preferences for new government spending on a range of public health-related goods outside the scope of the country’s national system of health insurance? 2. How homogenous or heterogeneous is the Canadian public in terms of these preferences? 3. What factors are predictive of the Canadian public’s preferences for new government spending? Data were collected in 2008 from a national random sample of Canadian adults through a telephone interview survey (n =1,005. Respondents were asked to rank five spending priorities in terms of their preference for new government spending. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. As a first priority, Canadian adults prefer spending on child care (26.2%, followed by pharmacare (23.1%, dental care (20.8%, home care (17.2%, and vision care (12.7%. Sociodemographic characteristics predict spending preferences, based on the social position and needs of respondents. Policy leaders need to give fair consideration to public preferences in priority setting approaches in order to ensure that public health-related goods are distributed in a manner that best suits population needs.

  2. Health Spending By State 1991-2014: Measuring Per Capita Spending By Payers And Programs. (United States)

    Lassman, David; Sisko, Andrea M; Catlin, Aaron; Barron, Mary Carol; Benson, Joseph; Cuckler, Gigi A; Hartman, Micah; Martin, Anne B; Whittle, Lekha


    As the US health sector evolves and changes, it is informative to estimate and analyze health spending trends at the state level. These estimates, which provide information about consumption of health care by residents of a state, serve as a baseline for state and national-level policy discussions. This study examines per capita health spending by state of residence and per enrollee spending for the three largest payers (Medicare, Medicaid, and private health insurance) through 2014. Moreover, it discusses in detail the impacts of the Affordable Care Act implementation and the most recent economic recession and recovery on health spending at the state level. According to this analysis, these factors affected overall annual growth in state health spending and the payers and programs that paid for that care. They did not, however, substantially change state rankings based on per capita spending levels over the period. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  3. The Reaction of Private Spending and Market Interest Rates to the Changes in Public Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przekota Grzegorz


    Full Text Available Expansionary fiscal policy is mired in controversy. Its proponents suggest that during recession, it stimulates investors’ activity and has a stabilizing effect on economic growth. However, its opponents point to the costs associated with the budget deficit and public debt handling. Increased public spending may result in an increase in the interest rates, which may, in turn, hinder private investment and weaken the multiplier effect of public spending. The following study examines how private spending and market interest rates reacted to changes in public spending in Poland. The study has shown that public spending stimulates private spending, which is consistent with the Keynesian model, but it also leads to an increase in market interest rates, which is consistent with the neoclassical model.

  4. Exploring the Relationship between Students' Understanding of Conventional Time and Deep (Geologic) Time (United States)

    Cheek, Kim A.


    Many geologic processes occur in the context of geologic or deep time. Students of all ages demonstrate difficulty grasping this fundamental concept which impacts their ability to acquire other geoscience concepts. A concept of deep time requires the ability to sequence events on an immense temporal scale (succession) and to judge the durations of geologic processes based on the rates at which they occur. The twin concepts of succession and duration are the same ideas that underlie a concept of conventional time. If deep time is an extension of conventional time and not qualitatively different from it, students should display similar reasoning patterns when dealing with analogous tasks over disparate temporal periods. Thirty-five US students aged 13-24 years participated in individual task-based interviews to ascertain how they thought about succession and duration in conventional and deep time. This is the first attempt to explore this relationship in the same study in over 30 years. Most students successfully completed temporal succession tasks, but there was greater variability in responses on duration tasks. Conventional time concepts appear to impact how students reason about deep time. The application of spatial reasoning to temporal tasks sometimes leads to correct responses but in other instances does not. Implications for future research and teaching strategies are discussed.

  5. Study Strategies for Engineering Students at DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Peter


    The study strategies of first year Master students are investigated at DTU fall 1999 - spring 2002. The results show that the students study less than their teachers expect. And they spend most time on activities not leading to deep understanding and engineering competencies. The students spend...... almost half of their study time on theoretical calculations and only little on authentic problems. They attend many lectures but read very little. This may be a reasonable response to the teaching and examination they encounter; but not with respect to learning. Changing the teaching structure at DTU has...

  6. State Variation in Medical Imaging: Despite Great Variation, the Medicare Spending Decline Continues. (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B; Hughes, Danny R; Duszak, Richard


    The purpose of this study was to assess state-level trends in per beneficiary Medicare spending on medical imaging. Medicare part B 5% research identifiable files from 2004 through 2012 were used to compute national and state-by-state annual average per beneficiary spending on imaging. State-to-state geographic variation and temporal trends were analyzed. National average per beneficiary Medicare part B spending on imaging increased 7.8% annually between 2004 ($350.54) and its peak in 2006 ($405.41) then decreased 4.4% annually between 2006 and 2012 ($298.63). In 2012, annual per beneficiary spending was highest in Florida ($367.25) and New York ($355.67) and lowest in Ohio ($67.08) and Vermont ($72.78). Maximum state-to-state geographic variation increased over time, with the ratio of highest-spending state to lowest-spending state increasing from 4.0 in 2004 to 5.5 in 2012. Spending in nearly all states decreased since peaks in 2005 (six states) or 2006 (43 states). The average annual decrease among states was 5.1% ± 1.8% (range, 1.2-12.2%) The largest decrease was in Ohio. In only two states did per beneficiary spending increase (Maryland, 12.5% average annual increase since 2005; Oregon, 4.8% average annual increase since 2008). Medicare part B average per beneficiary spending on medical imaging declined in nearly every state since 2005 and 2006 peaks, abruptly reversing previously reported trends. Spending continued to increase, however, in Maryland and Oregon. Identification of state-level variation may facilitate future investigation of the potential effect of specific and regional changes in spending on patient access and outcomes.

  7. The Influence of Social Networks on High School Students' Performance (United States)

    Abu-Shanab, Emad; Al-Tarawneh, Heyam


    Social networks are becoming an integral part of people's lives. Students are spending much time on social media and are considered the largest category that uses such application. This study tries to explore the influence of social media use, and especially Facebook, on high school students' performance. The study used the GPA of students in four…

  8. Introducing Undergraduate Students to Real-Time PCR (United States)

    Hancock, Dale; Funnell, Alister; Jack, Briony; Johnston, Jill


    An experiment is conducted, which in four 3 h laboratory sessions, introduces third year undergraduate Biochemistry students to the technique of real-time PCR in a biological context. The model used is a murine erythroleukemia cell line (MEL cells). These continuously cycling, immature red blood cells, arrested at an early stage in erythropoiesis,…

  9. Time Management and Professional Identity of Students of Pedagogical Universities (United States)

    Lebedeva, Ekaterina V.; Shchipanova, Dina Ye.; Konovalova, Maria E.; Kutyin, Anton O.


    Topicality of the problem under research is stipulated by the necessity of personal characteristics consideration in the process of organization of educational and vocational activities of the future teachers in the conditions of educational medium, which sets high requirements to the students' time competence. The aim of the article is to study…

  10. Intervention for Positive Use of Leisure Time among College Students (United States)

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi; Hustad, John; Sims, Damon


    College student excessive alcohol use is a pressing public health concern, and many of the negative events associated with heavy drinking occur during leisure or free time. Positive use of leisure can lead to coping skills, stress reduction, and healthy development. Negative use of leisure, including heavy alcohol use, is associated with physical…

  11. Learning Styles of Medical Students Change in Relation to Time (United States)

    Gurpinar, Erol; Bati, Hilal; Tetik, Cihat


    The aim of the present study was to investigate if any changes exist in the learning styles of medical students over time and in relation to different curriculum models with these learning styles. This prospective cohort study was conducted in three different medical faculties, which implement problem-based learning (PBL), hybrid, and integrated…

  12. Secondary School Students with Disabilities at Break Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Break time fulfills an important role in the social development of students, providing free time for interaction where they are able to practice their abilities of making contact with others. Students with disabilities do not see themselves in the same light because they consider this activity an unstructured one to get on with. Break planning and mediation carried out by other pupils eases relationships between both groups and offers a natural learning environment among students, according to inclusive education principles. This research has been carried out by investigating multiple cases in three special education classrooms which belong to secondary schools, with a total of 19 students with disabilities. Over the course of three months of observation, 3,420 interaction instances were obtained which were linked with the students’ interviews. The results show a lower number of relationships between students belonging to classrooms with no planned breaks in their schedule and those classrooms which did plan their breaks and peer mediation. The practical implications are discussed.

  13. 2014 National Park visitor spending effects: economic contributions to local communities, states, and the nation (United States)

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine; Huber, Christopher; Koontz, Lynne


    The National Park System covers more than 84 million acres and is comprised of more than 401 sites across the Nation. These lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) serve as recreational destinations for visitors from across the Nation and around the world. On vacations or on day trips, NPS visitors spend time and money in the gateway communities surrounding NPS sites. Spending by NPS visitors generates and supports a considerable amount of economic activity within park gateway economies. The NPS has been measuring and reporting visitor spending and economic effects for the past 25 years. The 2012 analysis marked a major revision to the NPS visitor spending effects analyses, with the development of the Visitor Spending Effects model (VSE model) which replaced the previous Money Generation Model (see Cullinane Thomas et al. (2014) for a description of how the VSE model differs from the previous model). This report provides updated VSE estimates associated with 2014 NPS visitation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heri Sudarsono


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results for testing for causal relationship between economic growth and goverment spending for OIC countries covering the time series data 1970~2006. There are usually two propositions regarding the relation between economic growth and government spending: Wagner’s Law states that as GDP grows, the public sector tends to grow; and the Keynesian framework postulates that public expenditure causes GDP to grow. The primary strength and originality of this paper is that we used aggregate data as well as disaggregate data for Granger causality test. By testing for causality between economic growth and government spending, we find that government spending does cause economic growth in Iran, Nigeria and Tunisia, which are compatible with Keynesian’s theory. However, the economic growth does cause the increase in goverment spending in Algeria, Burkina Faso, Benin, Indonesia, Libya Malaysia, Marocco, and Saudi, which are well-suited with Wagner’s law.

  15. High Times: The Effect of Medical Marijuana Laws on Student Time Use


    Chu, Yu-Wei Luke; Gershenson, Seth


    Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have passed medical marijuana laws. Previous research shows that these laws increase marijuana use among adults. In this paper, we estimate the effects of medical marijuana laws (MML) on secondary and post-secondary students' time use using time diaries from the American Time Use Survey. We apply a difference-in-differences research design and estimate flexible fixed effects models that condition on state fixed effects and state-specific time t...

  16. Intervention for Positive Use of Leisure Time Among College Students (United States)

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi; Hustad, John; Sims, Damon


    College student excessive alcohol use is a pressing public health concern, and many of the negative events associated with heavy drinking occur during leisure or free time. Positive use of leisure can lead to coping skills, stress reduction, and healthy development. Negative use of leisure, including heavy alcohol use, is associated with physical inactivity, stress, and short and long-term health concerns. We contend that using the classroom context to help college students understand why it is beneficial to engage in positive leisure pursuits and how that engagement will promote personal growth is of critical importance to healthy development. PMID:24198896

  17. Federal Spending for Means Tested Programs, 2007 to 2027 (United States)


    child tax credits (which are refundable), the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and Supplemental Security Income. The largest non...child tax credits, and SNAP—have been or will be significantly affected by program changes that unfold over time: B Medicaid spending rose by outlays in the Part D program). Increases in the number of beneficiaries account for about one- third of that growth; the introduction of new

  18. Alpine skiing habitual practices as free time entertainment for the students of West University of Timişoara – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Sinitean-Singer


    Full Text Available The students of the West University of Timişoara represent a numerous social category, thus quite significant, continuously in search of new ways to practice sports in their free time. The winter season brings to our attention a number of specific activities, most appealing, amongst which alpine skiing, too. The present paper aims at defining the students’ habits regarding the way they spend their spare time, mainly as practicing alpine skiing. This sports branch enhances its attractiveness by the very special environment it can be practiced – into the mountains, in the open air, which actually raises the students’ interest for this free time activity, mainly during the winter vacation or the vacation between semesters, when the number of students largely exceeds the number of those practicing ski during the week or in weekends. We must take into account the fact that they prefer mountain resorts in Romania, not being picky at all when it comes to meals and accommodation facilities, but very demanding about the quality of the ski slopes and the correspondent facilities. The window of time allocated for skiing activities, an average between 1-3 hours/day, illustrates the students’ interest in spending their spare time in an active way. The relatively high costs of this sports branch, mainly because of the expensive equipments but also because of the high costs of the activity itself- courses, utilities, etc.- haven’t kept the students away; they have been manifesting their availability to invest the necessary amounts of money in order to be able to practice this sport. An excellent promotion factor of the alpine skiing amongst students has been the Timisoara West University by organizing theme camps – like ski teaching, but also a number of activities related to such a camp.

  19. Mobile Technologies in Schools: The Student Voice (United States)

    Hodge, Emma-Leigh; Robertson, Neville; Sargisson, Rebecca J.


    Intermediate and high school students spend a large amount of time using mobile devices (Lauricella, Cingel, Blackwell, Wartella, & Conway, 2014), and such devices are increasingly being integrated into our school system. We conducted a series of student-led focus groups, with this early adolescent cohort, in order to better understand their…

  20. Stress among part-time business students: a study in a Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stress among part-time business students: a study in a Ghanaian univeristy campus. ... students among part-time business students in a Ghanaian university. ... in other areas of life in order to concentrate more on their jobs and schooling.

  1. Timing of Emergency Medicine Student Evaluation Does Not Affect Scoring. (United States)

    Hiller, Katherine M; Waterbrook, Anna; Waters, Kristina


    Evaluation of medical students rotating through the emergency department (ED) is an important formative and summative assessment method. Intuitively, delaying evaluation should affect the reliability of this assessment method, however, the effect of evaluation timing on scoring is unknown. A quality-improvement project evaluating the timing of end-of-shift ED evaluations at the University of Arizona was performed to determine whether delay in evaluation affected the score. End-of-shift ED evaluations completed on behalf of fourth-year medical students from July 2012 to March 2013 were reviewed. Forty-seven students were evaluated 547 times by 46 residents and attendings. Evaluation scores were means of anchored Likert scales (1-5) for the domains of energy/interest, fund of knowledge, judgment/problem-solving ability, clinical skills, personal effectiveness, and systems-based practice. Date of shift, date of evaluation, and score were collected. Linear regression was performed to determine whether timing of the evaluation had an effect on evaluation score. Data were complete for 477 of 547 evaluations (87.2%). Mean evaluation score was 4.1 (range 2.3-5, standard deviation 0.62). Evaluations took a mean of 8.5 days (median 4 days, range 0-59 days, standard deviation 9.77 days) to complete. Delay in evaluation had no significant effect on score (p = 0.983). The evaluation score was not affected by timing of the evaluation. Variance in scores was similar for both immediate and delayed evaluations. Considerable amounts of time and energy are expended tracking down delayed evaluations. This activity does not impact a student's final grade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A study on environment public spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wellington Bueno


    Full Text Available This text deals with the importance of studying environment public spending. Initially, we discuss the concept of environment public spending and how it became a public accounting function. Later, an analysis of several studies on the theme was carried out to promote a discussion on the environment public funds allocated by governments. Next, a discussion on the relevance of the theme and the need for further studies is presented, since investments on environment management still need to be better allocated and duly dimensioned. Currently, transparence in public spending has promoted the realization of more studies, leading to a more careful observation of environmental issues by the society, showing that these issues still need more attention from the goverment.

  3. Spending and cutting are two different worlds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houlberg, Kurt; Olsen, Asmus Leth; Pedersen, Lene Holm


    This article investigates politicians’ preferences for cutting and spending. The research questions are where do politicians prefer to cut, where do they prefer to spend and how is this influenced by political ideology? These questions are investigated in a large-scale survey experiment fielded...... to Danish local councillors, who are randomly assigned to a decision-making situation, where the block grant provided to their municipality is either increased or reduced. The results show that the politicians’ preferences for cutting and spending are asymmetric, in the sense that the policy areas, which...... are assigned the least cuts when the grant is reduced, are rarely the ones which are assigned extra money when the grant is increased. Areas with well-organised interests and a target group which is perceived as deserving are granted more money, whereas policy areas where the target group is perceived as less...

  4. Drivers of Greek and Turkish Defense Spending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waszkiewicz Grzegorz


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the factors responsible for maintaining substantial military expenditures in Greece and Turkey. The presented research encompasses theoretical and empirical aspects. First, defense spending by both countries was analyzed based on statistical data from international sources. Next, the theoretical determinants of budgetary spending are reviewed, which consider political, economic and military factors behind high expenditures on the army in Greece and in Turkey. Finally, Granger causality tests is applied to determine whether a causal relation between variables exists in the case of these two countries.

  5. Does Advertising Spending Improve Sales Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Mattila, Anna S.


    Hotel managers and investors commonly analyze the impact of advertising spending on firm performance. This paper investigates such an impact using a comprehensive framework incorporating the moderating effects of hotel size and star ratings. We estimated sales performance via dynamic, stochastic...... frontier modelling. Using longitudinal data from a sample of Slovenian and Croatian hotels, we demonstrate that advertising spending has a positive impact on hotel sales performance, and that the relationship strengthens for larger hotels and hotels with higher star ratings. Theoretical and managerial...

  6. Projecting long term medical spending growth. (United States)

    Borger, Christine; Rutherford, Thomas F; Won, Gregory Y


    We present a dynamic general equilibrium model of the U.S. economy and the medical sector in which the adoption of new medical treatments is endogenous and the demand for medical services is conditional on the state of technology. We use this model to prepare 75-year medical spending forecasts and a projection of the Medicare actuarial balance, and we compare our results to those obtained from a method that has been used by government actuaries. Our baseline forecast predicts slower health spending growth in the long run and a lower Medicare actuarial deficit relative to the previous projection methodology.

  7. Understanding the recent growth in Medicaid spending, 2000-2003. (United States)

    Holahan, John; Ghosh, Arunabh


    Growth in Medicaid spending averaged 10.2 percent per year between 2000 and 2003, resulting in a one-third increase in program spending. Spending growth was lower from 2002 to 2003 because of slower growth in enrollment and in spending per enrollee, particularly for acute care services, and declines in disproportionate-share hospital (DSH) payments and upper payment limit (UPL) programs. For the entire 2000-2003 period, Medicaid spending increases were largely driven by enrollment growth, much of which was attributable to the economic downturn. Increases in spending per enrollee over the period were faster than inflation but slower than increases in private insurance spending.

  8. Machine-Learning Algorithms to Code Public Health Spending Accounts. (United States)

    Brady, Eoghan S; Leider, Jonathon P; Resnick, Beth A; Alfonso, Y Natalia; Bishai, David

    Government public health expenditure data sets require time- and labor-intensive manipulation to summarize results that public health policy makers can use. Our objective was to compare the performances of machine-learning algorithms with manual classification of public health expenditures to determine if machines could provide a faster, cheaper alternative to manual classification. We used machine-learning algorithms to replicate the process of manually classifying state public health expenditures, using the standardized public health spending categories from the Foundational Public Health Services model and a large data set from the US Census Bureau. We obtained a data set of 1.9 million individual expenditure items from 2000 to 2013. We collapsed these data into 147 280 summary expenditure records, and we followed a standardized method of manually classifying each expenditure record as public health, maybe public health, or not public health. We then trained 9 machine-learning algorithms to replicate the manual process. We calculated recall, precision, and coverage rates to measure the performance of individual and ensembled algorithms. Compared with manual classification, the machine-learning random forests algorithm produced 84% recall and 91% precision. With algorithm ensembling, we achieved our target criterion of 90% recall by using a consensus ensemble of ≥6 algorithms while still retaining 93% coverage, leaving only 7% of the summary expenditure records unclassified. Machine learning can be a time- and cost-saving tool for estimating public health spending in the United States. It can be used with standardized public health spending categories based on the Foundational Public Health Services model to help parse public health expenditure information from other types of health-related spending, provide data that are more comparable across public health organizations, and evaluate the impact of evidence-based public health resource allocation.

  9. Student Understanding of Time in an Introductory Astronomy Laboratory (United States)

    Traxler, A. L.; Batuski, D. J.; Comins, N. F.; Thompson, J. R.


    The astronomy lab at the University of Maine consists of discrete weekly lessons in which students work in small groups. Individual pretests and post-tests accompany each lesson. The lesson studied here covers the topic of time, including sidereal time, Apparent Solar Time, and time zones. The pretest consists of four multiple-choice questions, which are also administered after instruction as a post-test. In the fall 2004 semester, the pretest was rewritten to focus on some major conceptual components of the lab, while the lesson materials were not modified from previous years. Examination of class performance (n = 96) revealed no significant improvements in score from pre- to post-lesson. In the spring 2005 semester, the lesson was altered to incorporate the Starry Night software for simulating the sky instead of the celestial sphere models previously used. The goal of the change was to give students a more interactive environment for completing the laboratory exercise, which was otherwise altered as little as possible. Data from the spring semester show some gains on the pre/post-test questions covering sidereal time and Daylight Savings Time. Results to date have informed planned modifications to the lesson. A. L. T. was supported during this research by the University of Maine through a Provost Fellowship.

  10. Reducing the Deficit: Spending and Revenue Options (United States)


    357 B SPENDING OPTIONS BY BUDGET FUNCION ...... 363 TABLES 1. Baseline Deficit Projections, Fiscal Years control of the Congress. abled beneficiaries and beneficiaries with end-stage renal disease. Nonhealth changes enacted in The total that is

  11. Are University Co-Operative Education Students Safe? Perceptions of Risk to Students on Work Terms (United States)

    Newhook, Rebecca


    As students venture off campus for university-sponsored activities, are they at risk, given that universities are better able to control risk factors on campus than they can for their off-campus activities? Co-operative education is a formalized and longstanding academic program that often sees students spend upwards of a third of their time off…

  12. Negative Impact of Employment on Engineering Student Time Management, Time to Degree, and Retention: Faculty, Administrator, and Staff Perspectives (United States)

    Tyson, Will


    Interviews with faculty, administrators, staff, and students at four engineering programs reveal the role of undergraduate student employment on retention and timely degree completion among engineering students. Dueling narratives reveal how student approaches to earning an engineering degree differ greatly from faculty, administrator, and staff…

  13. Microeconomics. Harnessing naturally occurring data to measure the response of spending to income. (United States)

    Gelman, Michael; Kariv, Shachar; Shapiro, Matthew D; Silverman, Dan; Tadelis, Steven


    This paper presents a new data infrastructure for measuring economic activity. The infrastructure records transactions and account balances, yielding measurements with scope and accuracy that have little precedent in economics. The data are drawn from a diverse population that overrepresents males and younger adults but contains large numbers of underrepresented groups. The data infrastructure permits evaluation of a benchmark theory in economics that predicts that individuals should use a combination of cash management, saving, and borrowing to make the timing of income irrelevant for the timing of spending. As in previous studies and in contrast to the predictions of the theory, there is a response of spending to the arrival of anticipated income. The data also show, however, that this apparent excess sensitivity of spending results largely from the coincident timing of regular income and regular spending. The remaining excess sensitivity is concentrated among individuals with less liquidity. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. The Effects of Part-Time MBA Programs on Students: The Relationships between Students and Their Employers (United States)

    Prince, Melvin; Burns, David J.; Manolis, Chris


    The authors explore how the relationship between part-time master of business administration (MBA) students and their employers changes as students proceed through their MBA program by examining the degree to which students are integrated into their employer organizations. Significant positive relationships observed between students' progress…

  15. 25 CFR 39.215 - Can a school receive funding for any part-time students? (United States)


    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a school receive funding for any part-time students... Can a school receive funding for any part-time students? (a) A school can receive funding for the following part-time students: (1) Kindergarten students enrolled in a 2-hour program; and (2) Grade 7-12...

  16. Health spending by state of residence, 1991-2009. (United States)

    Cuckler, Gigi; Martin, Anne; Whittle, Lekha; Heffler, Stephen; Sisko, Andrea; Lassman, Dave; Benson, Joseph


    Provide a detailed discussion of baseline health spending by state of residence (per capita personal health care spending, per enrollee Medicare spending, and per enrollee Medicaid spending) in 2009, over the last decade (1998-2009), as well as the differential regional and state impacts of the recent recession. State Health Expenditures by State of Residence for 1991-2009, produced by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Office of the Actuary. In 2009, the 10 states where per capita spending was highest ranged from 13 to 36 percent higher than the national average, and the 10 states where per capita spending was lowest ranged from 8 to 26 percent below the national average. States with the highest per capita spending tended to have older populations and the highest per capita incomes; states with the lowest per capita spending tended to have younger populations, lower per capita incomes, and higher rates of uninsured. Over the last decade, the New England and Mideast regions exhibited the highest per capita personal health care spending, while states in the Southwest and Rocky Mountain regions had the lowest per capita spending. Variation in per enrollee Medicaid spending, however, has consistently been greater than that of total per capita personal health care spending or per enrollee Medicare spending from 1998-2009. The Great Lakes, New England, and Far West regions experienced the largest slowdown in per person health spending growth during the recent recession, largely as a result of higher unemployment rates. Public Domain.

  17. Health Spending by State of Residence, 1991–2009 (United States)

    Cuckler, Gigi; Martin, Anne; Whittle, Lekha; Heffler, Stephen; Sisko, Andrea; Lassman, Dave; Benson, Joseph


    Objective Provide a detailed discussion of baseline health spending by state of residence (per capita personal health care spending, per enrollee Medicare spending, and per enrollee Medicaid spending) in 2009, over the last decade (1998–2009), as well as the differential regional and state impacts of the recent recession. Data Source State Health Expenditures by State of Residence for 1991–2009, produced by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Office of the Actuary. Principal Findings In 2009, the 10 states where per capita spending was highest ranged from 13 to 36 percent higher than the national average, and the 10 states where per capita spending was lowest ranged from 8 to 26 percent below the national average. States with the highest per capita spending tended to have older populations and the highest per capita incomes; states with the lowest per capita spending tended to have younger populations, lower per capita incomes, and higher rates of uninsured. Over the last decade, the New England and Mideast regions exhibited the highest per capita personal health care spending, while states in the Southwest and Rocky Mountain regions had the lowest per capita spending. Variation in per enrollee Medicaid spending, however, has consistently been greater than that of total per capita personal health care spending or per enrollee Medicare spending from 1998–2009. The Great Lakes, New England, and Far West regions experienced the largest slowdown in per person health spending growth during the recent recession, largely as a result of higher unemployment rates. PMID:22340779

  18. Tax-and-Spend or Spend-and-Tax? Empirical Evidence from Malaysia


    Tan Juat Hong


    The paper investigates the causal relationships between government spending and revenue for Malaysia. The study uses annual data, a Johansen cointegration test and an error-correction model. A preliminary test shows that government revenue and expenditure are cointegrated. Empirical results support the spend-and-tax hypothesis. Furthermore, they underscore the fact that fiscal policy may not be effective enough to curb the rising budget deficits over the long term and may even reduce private ...

  19. Marketing Career Services to Part-Time Students. (United States)

    Behrens, Troy; Gordon, David E.


    Profiles the differences between commuter students and students at traditional resident schools and the special career-related needs of commuter students that college career centers must address. Topics discussed are the different needs of commuter students, student communication vehicles, and faculty and community communication. (SNR)

  20. Faculty Time Allocation: A Study of Change over Twenty Years. (United States)

    Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.; Dey, Eric L.


    Examined changes in amounts of time faculty spent in teaching, advising, and research activities over the past 20 years. Found institutions are becoming more similar in their patterns of faculty time allocation, particularly regarding time spend on research. However, time spent advising and interacting informally with students appears to be…

  1. Real-time capture of student reasoning while writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott V. Franklin


    Full Text Available We present a new approach to investigating student reasoning while writing: real-time capture of the dynamics of the writing process. Key-capture or video software is used to record the entire writing episode, including all pauses, deletions, insertions, and revisions. A succinct shorthand, “S notation,” is used to highlight significant moments in the episode that may be indicative of shifts in understanding and can be used in followup interviews for triangulation. The methodology allows one to test the widespread belief that writing is a valuable pedagogical technique, which currently has little directly supportive research. To demonstrate the method, we present a case study of a writing episode. The data reveal an evolution of expression and articulation, discontinuous in both time and space. Distinct shifts in the tone and topic that follow long pauses and revisions are not restricted to the most recently written text. Real-time writing analysis, with its study of the temporal breaks and revision locations, can serve as a complementary tool to more traditional research methods (e.g., speak-aloud interviews into student reasoning during the writing process.

  2. Real-time capture of student reasoning while writing (United States)

    Franklin, Scott V.; Hermsen, Lisa M.


    We present a new approach to investigating student reasoning while writing: real-time capture of the dynamics of the writing process. Key-capture or video software is used to record the entire writing episode, including all pauses, deletions, insertions, and revisions. A succinct shorthand, "S notation," is used to highlight significant moments in the episode that may be indicative of shifts in understanding and can be used in followup interviews for triangulation. The methodology allows one to test the widespread belief that writing is a valuable pedagogical technique, which currently has little directly supportive research. To demonstrate the method, we present a case study of a writing episode. The data reveal an evolution of expression and articulation, discontinuous in both time and space. Distinct shifts in the tone and topic that follow long pauses and revisions are not restricted to the most recently written text. Real-time writing analysis, with its study of the temporal breaks and revision locations, can serve as a complementary tool to more traditional research methods (e.g., speak-aloud interviews) into student reasoning during the writing process.

  3. Russia's defense spending and the economic decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Oxenstierna


    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the development of Russian military spending in light of weak and negative growth of the Russian economy and to look at the reasons for the economic decline that has developed after the economic crisis in 2009 and is due to long-term internal structural factors that have existed since the mid-2000s. The confidence crisis resulting from Russia's aggression against Ukraine 2014, Western sanctions and falling oil prices has further aggravated these tendencies and the economy is now contracting. The main conclusions are that the share of the defense budget in GDP has risen substantially, but there is still a trade-off between defense and other public spending in the budget. Political reform would be necessary to implement market institutions and revive the economy.

  4. Business spending markets and buying behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Čedomir


    Full Text Available Most buyers on the business spending markets use one or more of the following buying methods: description, inspection, sampling and negotiating. Products are usually standardized according to their characteristics (size, shape, weight or color. The buyer is able to buy only depending in the description or quantity or other characteristic. In some cases buyer may specify business brand or its equivalent when describing desired product.

  5. The Problem With Estimating Public Health Spending. (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P


    Accurate information on how much the United States spends on public health is critical. These estimates affect planning efforts; reflect the value society places on the public health enterprise; and allows for the demonstration of cost-effectiveness of programs, policies, and services aimed at increasing population health. Yet, at present, there are a limited number of sources of systematic public health finance data. Each of these sources is collected in different ways, for different reasons, and so yields strikingly different results. This article aims to compare and contrast all 4 current national public health finance data sets, including data compiled by Trust for America's Health, the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), the National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO), and the Census, which underlie the oft-cited National Health Expenditure Account estimates of public health activity. In FY2008, ASTHO estimates that state health agencies spent $24 billion ($94 per capita on average, median $79), while the Census estimated all state governmental agencies including state health agencies spent $60 billion on public health ($200 per capita on average, median $166). Census public health data suggest that local governments spent an average of $87 per capita (median $57), whereas NACCHO estimates that reporting LHDs spent $64 per capita on average (median $36) in FY2008. We conclude that these estimates differ because the various organizations collect data using different means, data definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria--most notably around whether to include spending by all agencies versus a state/local health department, and whether behavioral health, disability, and some clinical care spending are included in estimates. Alongside deeper analysis of presently underutilized Census administrative data, we see harmonization efforts and the creation of a standardized expenditure reporting system as a way to

  6. Regional Employment Growth and Defense Spending. (United States)


    important part of regional growth. UI ACCA 9o1n For ’NDis i - Dljt s i-: . TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INTRODUCTION .. .. .. .... ..... .... .... .... ..... .. 7...Mideast and Great Lakes, all show spending to taxation ratios of less than one on a per capita basis, yet the Southwest and Rocky Mountain states have...because businesses look beyond the obvious nominal rate and locate according to effective rates of taxation , ie. actual tax liability. In addition, tax

  7. Using Blogs to Enhance Student Engagement and Learning in the Health Sciences (United States)

    Zinger, Lana; Sinclair, Alicia


    Teaching in a diverse, urban community college, it has become apparent that students spend most of their free (and classroom) time participating in social media. In response, we decided to incorporate social media, blogs specifically, as a way to increase student engagement, retention and achievement. The learning objective was for our students to…

  8. Student Perceptions of Online Learning: An Analysis of Online Course Evaluations (United States)

    Lowenthal, Patrick; Bauer, Christine; Chen, Ken-Zen


    Student evaluations of teaching provide a wealth of information about students' experiences in higher education. Colleges and universities, though, as a whole, need to spend more time mining these evaluations to better understand student perceptions of their college coursework. These evaluations are especially helpful to better understand…

  9. Alternative Models to Deliver Developmental Math: Issues of Use and Student Access (United States)

    Kosiewicz, Holly; Ngo, Federick; Fong, Kristen


    Objective: Changing how community colleges deliver developmental education has become a key policy lever to increase student achievement. Alternative development education models reduce the amount of time a student spends in remediation, provide students with supplemental instruction and support, and contextualize content to align with student…

  10. Cosmic Times: Engaging Students in Astronomy through History and Journalism (United States)

    Lochner, James C.; Mattson, B. J.


    Cosmic Times tells the story of how our understanding of the nature of the universe has changed over the past 100 years. Designed to fulfill the need for quality science literature in the classroom, Cosmic Times takes the form of six posters, each mimicking the front page of a newspaper at a key point in this history, with articles describing the discoveries. These milestones include the confirmation of Einstein's theory of gravity, Hubble's evidence for an expanding universe, the detection of the microwave background, and finally the discovery of dark energy. Telling this story also involves tracing astronomer's efforts to determine the size of the universe, understand the nature of supernovae, and comprehend the expansion of the universe. Through the scope of this history, students experience the process of science and how new technology and data change our ideas. The posters are accompanied by 28 lessons for grades 7-12, designed by scientists and teachers and field-tested by third-party teachers in rural communities. The lessons teach the science concepts behind the discoveries, the process of science, and skills for science literacy. To facilitate these lessons and meet student's individual science literacy needs, the articles are also available in two newsletter versions: one with the same articles as on the posters, the second at a slightly lower reading level. In addition, lessons include cross-curricular activities which explore the times and social circumstances of the discoveries. All these materials, including an on-line Teacher Guide, are available on the Cosmic Times website, In this presentation, we shall describe how Cosmic Times uses journalistic storytelling to create a rich experience based on science literacy to teach fundamental science concepts. We will show how framing the story as historic news articles illustrates the process of science and opens up opportunities for multidisciplinary lessons.

  11. Hong Kong's health spending projections through 2033. (United States)

    Leung, Gabriel M; Tin, Keith Y K; Chan, Wai-Sum


    To derive actuarial projection estimates of Hong Kong's total domestic health expenditure to the year 2033. Disaggregating health expenditure by age, sex, unit cost and utilisation level, we estimated future health spending by projecting utilisation (by public/private, inpatient/outpatient care) to reflect demographic changes and associated increase in demand (from higher expectations and greater intensity of care), and then multiplying such by the projected unit costs (incorporating the impact of key cost drivers such as public expectations, technological changes and potential productivity gains) to obtain total expenditure estimates. The model was most sensitive to the excess health care price inflation rate, i.e. the annual price/cost growth of medical goods and services over and above per capita GDP growth. Population ageing and growth per se, without taking into account related technologic innovation for chronic conditions that particularly afflict older adults, contribute relatively little to overall spending growth. Given the model assumptions, it is possible to limit total health spending to below 10% of GDP by 2033, where the public share would gradually decline from the current 57% to between 46% and 49%. Expenditure control through global budgeting, technology assessment and demand-side constraints should be considered although their effectiveness remains inconclusive.

  12. Future Time Orientation Predicts Academic Engagement among First-Year University Students (United States)

    Horstmanshof, Louise; Zimitat, Craig


    Background: Enhancing student engagement is considered an important strategy for improving retention. Students' Time Perspective is an under-researched factor that may significantly influence student engagement. Aims: This study examines interrelationships between elements of student engagement and relationship with Time Perspective. We propose…

  13. Time and Teaching (United States)

    Zielinski, Theresa Julia; Brooks, David W.; Crippen, Kent J.; March, Joe L.


    Time management is an important issue for teachers and students. This article discusses teachers' use of time from the perspective of curriculum and instruction. Average high school students spend fewer than 5 hours per week in outside-of-class study; average college students spend about 20 hours. Procrastination, often viewed in a negative light by teachers, usually pays off so well for college students that seniors become better at it than freshmen. Three suggestions for designing instruction are: test early and often; do not waste the best students' time in an effort to improve overall performance; and use engaging activities that motivate students to give of their time. The impact of computers on curricula is a double-edged sword. Time must be devoted to teaching the use of applications, but the programs reduce busywork. Will this turn out to be a simple tradeoff, or will the programs make us much more efficient so that less time is required? Will computer programs ultimately lead to an expanded criterion for expertise, thus demanding even more time to become an expert? These issues are described and suggestions for controlling time during instruction are provided.

  14. Paying for Default: Change over Time in the Share of Federal Financial Aid Sent to Institutions with High Student Loan Default Rates (United States)

    Jaquette, Ozan; Hillman, Nicholas W.


    Both federal spending on financial aid and student loan default rates have increased over the past decade. These trends have intensified policymakers' concerns that some postsecondary institutions-- particularly in the for-profit sector--maximize revenue derived from federal financial aid without helping students to graduate or find employment.…

  15. Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Apr 1, 2010 ... Book cover Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism ... Primary Healthcare Spending is an important reference for ... field of health policy and health economics, agencies involved in providing ...

  16. Advertising Spending, Firm Performance, and the Moderating Impact of CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Ahn, Jin Sun


    This article investigates the potential of corporate social responsibility (CSR) to influence the link between advertising spending and firm performance. Drawing upon the literature of CSR, we hypothesize that CSR positively moderates the relationship between advertising spending and firm perform...

  17. Spending on health and HIV/AIDS: domestic health spending and development assistance in 188 countries, 1995-2015. (United States)


    Comparable estimates of health spending are crucial for the assessment of health systems and to optimally deploy health resources. The methods used to track health spending continue to evolve, but little is known about the distribution of spending across diseases. We developed improved estimates of health spending by source, including development assistance for health, and, for the first time, estimated HIV/AIDS spending on prevention and treatment and by source of funding, for 188 countries. We collected published data on domestic health spending, from 1995 to 2015, from a diverse set of international agencies. We tracked development assistance for health from 1990 to 2017. We also extracted 5385 datapoints about HIV/AIDS spending, between 2000 and 2015, from online databases, country reports, and proposals submitted to multilateral organisations. We used spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression to generate complete and comparable estimates for health and HIV/AIDS spending. We report most estimates in 2017 purchasing-power parity-adjusted dollars and adjust all estimates for the effect of inflation. Between 1995 and 2015, global health spending per capita grew at an annualised rate of 3·1% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·1 to 3·2), with growth being largest in upper-middle-income countries (5·4% per capita [UI 5·3-5·5]) and lower-middle-income countries (4·2% per capita [4·2-4·3]). In 2015, $9·7 trillion (9·7 trillion to 9·8 trillion) was spent on health worldwide. High-income countries spent $6·5 trillion (6·4 trillion to 6·5 trillion) or 66·3% (66·0 to 66·5) of the total in 2015, whereas low-income countries spent $70·3 billion (69·3 billion to 71·3 billion) or 0·7% (0·7 to 0·7). Between 1990 and 2017, development assistance for health increased by 394·7% ($29·9 billion), with an estimated $37·4 billion of development assistance being disbursed for health in 2017, of which $9·1 billion (24·2%) targeted HIV/AIDS. Between 2000 and

  18. Corruption and government spending : The role of decentralization


    Korneliussen, Kristine


    This thesis points to a possible weakness of the empirical literature on corruption and government spending. That corruption affects the composition of government spending, and in particular that it affects education and health spending adversely, seems to be empirically well established. However, there exist additional literature closely related to corruption and government spending, treating(i) a relationship between corruption and decentralization, and (ii) a relationship between decentral...

  19. Loyalty for Sale? Military Spending and Coups d'Etat


    Leon, G.


    Coups d'etat continue to be common around the world, often leading to changes in leaders and institutions. We examine the relationship between military spending and coups and find that (i) successful coups increase military spending by more than failed attempts, and (ii) coups are more likely when military spending as a share of GDP is relatively low. Our identification strategy exploits the conditional independence between a coup's outcome and the change in military spending that follows it....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milota KUSTROVÁ


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the amount of military spending in the Slovak Republic. In the first part, the terms of defense expenditure and military spending are defined. The second part focuses on the evolution of military spending in the Slovak Republic so far and the future prospects, as well as on the structure of military spending. The final part covers the amount of defense expenditure in relation to the objectives and tasks of the Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic.

  1. Canadian capital spending to slip 4.7% in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Total capital and exploration spending by the Canadian petroleum industry is estimated at $6.579 billion in 1993, a drop of 4.7% from estimated 1992 outlays. Last year Canadian capital spending of $6.9 billion represented a drop of 8.9% from 1991 outlays, according to an Oil and Gas Journal survey. All survey related spending estimates in this paper are in U.S. dollars. All individual company spending estimates are in Canadian dollars

  2. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara B Aknin

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.

  3. It's the recipient that counts: spending money on strong social ties leads to greater happiness than spending on weak social ties. (United States)

    Aknin, Lara B; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Norton, Michael I


    Previous research has shown that spending money on others (prosocial spending) increases happiness. But, do the happiness gains depend on who the money is spent on? Sociologists have distinguished between strong ties with close friends and family and weak ties--relationships characterized by less frequent contact, lower emotional intensity, and limited intimacy. We randomly assigned participants to reflect on a time when they spent money on either a strong social tie or a weak social tie. Participants reported higher levels of positive affect after recalling a time they spent on a strong tie versus a weak tie. The level of intimacy in the relationship was more important than the type of relationship; there was no significant difference in positive affect after recalling spending money on a family member instead of a friend. These results add to the growing literature examining the factors that moderate the link between prosocial behaviour and happiness.

  4. Factors Influencing or Discouraging Secondary School Students' FFA Participation (United States)

    Phelps, Kirstin; Henry, Anna L.; Bird, William A.


    Modern adolescents are faced with a variety of choices regarding how to spend their free time. As recruitment and increased student participation continues to be a major priority of the National FFA Organization, it is essential to explore the reasons why students make the choice to become or not to become a member of FFA. This study was a part of…

  5. Creating Masterpieces: How Course Structures and Routines Enable Student Performance (United States)

    Dean, Kathy Lund; Fornaciari, Charles J.


    Over a five-year period, we made a persistent observation: Course structures and routines, such as assignment parameters, student group process rules, and grading schemes were being consistently ignored. As a result, we got distracted by correcting these structural issues and were spending less time on student assignment performance. In this…

  6. Relationships between Perceived Parental Involvement in Homework, Student Homework Behaviors, and Academic Achievement: Differences among Elementary, Junior High, and High School Students (United States)

    Núñez, J. C.; Suárez, N.; Rosário, P.; Vallejo, G.; Valle, A.; Epstein, J. L.


    This study aims to produce a deeper understanding of the relationship between perceived parental homework involvement (i.e., parental homework control and parental homework support), student homework behaviors (i.e., time spend on homework completion, time management, and amount of homework completed), and student academic achievement. Using…

  7. Positional spending and status seeking in rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, P.; Bulte, E.H.; Zhang, X.


    Focusing on a remote area in rural China, we use a panel census of households in 26 villages to show that socially observable spending has risen sharply in recent years. We demonstrate that such spending by households is highly sensitive to social spending by other villagers. This suggests that

  8. Pharmaceutical company spending on research and development and promotion in Canada, 2013-2016: a cohort analysis. (United States)

    Lexchin, Joel


    Competing claims are made about the amount of money that pharmaceutical companies spend on research and development (R&D) versus promotion. This study investigates this question in the Canadian context. Two methods for determining industry-wide figures for spending on promotion were employed. First, total industry spending on detailing and journal advertising for 2013-2016 was abstracted from reports from QuintilesIMS. Second, the mean total promotion spending for the years 2002-2005 was used to estimate total spending for 2013-2016. Total industry spending on R&D came from the Patented Medicine Prices Review Board (PMPRB). R&D to promotion spending using each method of determining the amount spent on promotion was compared for 2013-2016 inclusive. Data on the 50 top promoted drugs, the amounts spent, the companies marketing these products and their overall sales were abstracted from the QuintilesIMS reports. Spending on R&D and promotion as a percent of sales was compared for these companies. Industry wide, the ratio of R&D to promotion spending went from 1.43 to 2.18 when promotion was defined as the amount spent on detailing and journal advertising for the 50 most promoted drugs. Calculating total promotion spending from the mean of the 2002-2005 figures the ratio was 0.88 to 1.32 for the 50 most promoted drugs. For individual companies marketing one or more of the 50 most promoted drugs, mean R&D spending ranged from 3.7% of sales to 4.1% compared to mean promotion spending that went from 1.7 to 1.9%. The ratio of spending on R&D to promotion varied from 2.11 to 2.32. Eight to 10 companies per year spent more on promotion than on R&D. Depending on the method used to determine promotion spending, industry-wide the ratio of R&D spending to promotion ranges from 1.45 to 2.18 (sales representatives and journal advertising only) or from 0.88 to 1.32 (total promotion spending estimated based 2003-2005 data.) For the individual companies promoting one or more of the

  9. Cosmic Times: Engaging Students in Science through History and Journalism (United States)

    Lochner, J. C.; Mattson, B. J.


    Cosmic Times tells the story of how our understanding of the nature of the universe has changed over the past 100 years. Designed to fulfill the need for quality science literature in the classroom, Cosmic Times takes the form of six posters, each mimicking the front page of a newspaper at a key point in this history, with articles describing the discoveries. These milestones include the confirmation of Einstein’s theory of gravity, Hubble’s evidence for an expanding universe, the detection of the microwave background, and finally the discovery of dark energy. Telling this story also involves tracing astronomer’s efforts to determine the size of the universe, understand the nature of supernovae, and comprehend the expansion of the universe. Through the scope of this history, students experience the process of science and how new technology and data change our ideas. The posters are accompanied by 28 lessons, designed for grades 7-12 by scientists and teachers and field-tested by third-party teachers in rural communities. The lessons teach the science concepts behind the discoveries, the process of science, and skills for science literacy. To facilitate these lessons and meet student’s individual science literacy needs, the articles are also available in two newsletter versions: one with the same articles as on the posters, the second at a slightly lower reading level. In addition, lessons include cross-curricular activities which explore the times and social circumstances of the discoveries. In a capstone lesson, students write and design the 2019 edition of Cosmic Times, not only predicting what we will know in the future, but also applying expository writing skills. In addition, an on-line Teacher Guide provides background material for all the articles. All these materials are available on the Cosmic Times website, In this presentation, we shall describe how Cosmic Times uses a journalistic storytelling approach to

  10. A Study On English Reading Habits Of Students Of English Study Program Of Riau University


    Al Nazhari, Hafiz; Delfi, Syofia; ', Syafri K


    The aim of this study is to find out the habits of English reading among the students of English Study Program of Riau University. The method used in this research is quantitative research and the design is survey study. A questionnaire was used as the instrument of this research. The questionnaire involved seven indicators of reading habits: attitudes toward reading, reading frequency, reading materials read, time spend on academic reading, time spend on non-academic reading, motivation in t...

  11. The relationship between the physical activity of students from Lublin’s universities, and video games


    Polski Andrzej; Iwaniak Karol; Sobotka-Polska Karolina; Rogowska Magdalena; Poleszak Ewa


    With the rapid development of computer technology, gaming has become more popular, and young people spend more and more time playing such games. It is thought that this a major factor responsible for the lowered physical activity of today's society. For a better understanding of the issue, we assessed how many students spend their free time playing video games, and how this form of recreation affects their levels of physical activity. The investigation of the relationship between physical act...

  12. The Impact of Training on the Time Required to Implement Technology in the Classroom (United States)

    Stevens, Troy


    Many teachers are using technology to improve student achievement, but only a few are attaining an improvement in student achievement. The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify: (1) how much time teachers spend integrating technology into their classroom, (2) how much time teachers believe is required to maximize the effectiveness of…

  13. Social-Emotional Needs: A School-Based Approach to Preventing Suicide among Students with Gifts and Talents (United States)

    Cross, Tracy L.


    This article provides a succinct primer on some of the basic constructs that adults need to know to help keep students with gifts and talents from completing suicide. It focuses on the school as the primary context to look out for potentially suicidal gifted students. This makes sense, as students spend a considerable amount of time in school,…

  14. What Future for Student Engagement in Neo-Liberal Times? (United States)

    Zepke, Nick


    The paper first examines the context that has given student engagement a very strong profile in higher education. It identifies neo-liberalism as the driving force in the present higher education context and argues that student engagement enjoys an elective affinity with it. While neo-liberalism is dominant, student engagement will be strong. But…

  15. Strategic Class Roster Creation in Elementary Schools: Indicative of Student Reading Growth or a Waste of Time? (United States)

    Henderson, John Michael


    One managerial leadership activity school leaders control and organize, either by overseeing or successfully delegating, is the creation of class rosters. The targeted purpose of this research is to determine whether a measurable value exists in spending the time and efforts to strategically "create" elementary school classes while…

  16. In My Own Time: Tuition Fees, Class Time and Student Effort in Non-Formal (Or Continuing) Education (United States)

    Bolli, Thomas; Johnes, Geraint


    We develop and empirically test a model which examines the impact of changes in class time and tuition fees on student effort in the form of private study. The data come from the European Union's Adult Education Survey, conducted over the period 2005-2008. We find, in line with theoretical predictions, that the time students devote to private…

  17. How do candidates spend their money? Objects of campaign spending and the effectiveness of diversification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudulich, M.L.; Wall, M.


    We present a novel approach to the study of campaign effectiveness using disaggregated spending returns from the 2007 Irish general election. While previous studies have focused on overall levels of expenditure as a predictor of electoral success, we consider the types of activities on which

  18. Using Facebook to Engage Microbiology Students Outside of Class Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaine A. Legaree


    Full Text Available Numerous usage studies show that a high percentage of college age students are subscribers of the social media service Facebook.  Modern teaching methods have a high emphasis on student engagement in the classroom, however, not all students participate equally and therefore it is important to find alternate methods for student engagement.  The popularity of social media services and the wealth of online biology resources therefore seem like an obvious way to additionally engage students, particularly non-traditional students who may be less likely to participate in class discussions.  In order to investigate how to engage students using this tool, I set up a Facebook group for my medical microbiology class over two semesters.  Afterwards I surveyed students on its usefulness.  The feedback was mostly positive, and of the resources shared with students, they were most likely to view online videos.  Students also found it helpful to have an alternate means of interacting with the instructor and their peers.

  19. Effectiveness of Time-Based Attention Schedules on Students in Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey (United States)

    Sazak Pinar, Elif


    This study examines the effectiveness of fixed-time (FT) and variable-time (VT) schedules and attention on the problem behaviors and on-task behaviors of students with and without intellectual disabilities in inclusive classrooms in Turkey. Three second-grade students with intellectual disabilities, three students without intellectual…

  20. Time Perspectives and Boredom Coping Strategies of Undergraduate Students from Turkey (United States)

    Eren, Altay; Coskun, Hamit


    Using person-centered and variable-centered analyses, this study examined the relationships between undergraduate students' time perspectives and boredom coping strategies. A total of 719 undergraduate students voluntarily participated in the study. Results of the study showed that undergraduate students' time perspectives can be reliably defined…

  1. A Comparative Study of Personal Time Perspective Differences between Korean and American College Students (United States)

    Kim, Oi-Sook; Geistfeld, Loren V.


    This article compares the personal time perspectives of Korean and American college students. The results indicate American students have a personal time perspective that is different from their Korean counterparts. Implications for working with Koreans and Americans as foreign students are considered. (Contains 5 tables.)

  2. Choice of Study Resources in General Chemistry by Students Who Have Little Time to Study (United States)

    Bunce, Diane M.; Komperda, Regis; Dillner, Debra K.; Lin, Shirley; Schroeder, Maria J.; Hartman, JudithAnn R.


    Students with an insufficient amount of time to study are becoming more prevalent in the general college population as many who enroll in college have competing responsibilities (full-time jobs, childcare, etc.). Such students are likely to choose study resources that they consider to be both effective and efficient. Students at the U.S. Naval…

  3. Variation In Health Outcomes: The Role Of Spending On Social Services, Public Health, And Health Care, 2000-09. (United States)

    Bradley, Elizabeth H; Canavan, Maureen; Rogan, Erika; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Ndumele, Chima; Taylor, Lauren; Curry, Leslie A


    Although spending rates on health care and social services vary substantially across the states, little is known about the possible association between variation in state-level health outcomes and the allocation of state spending between health care and social services. To estimate that association, we used state-level repeated measures multivariable modeling for the period 2000-09, with region and time fixed effects adjusted for total spending and state demographic and economic characteristics and with one- and two-year lags. We found that states with a higher ratio of social to health spending (calculated as the sum of social service spending and public health spending divided by the sum of Medicare spending and Medicaid spending) had significantly better subsequent health outcomes for the following seven measures: adult obesity; asthma; mentally unhealthy days; days with activity limitations; and mortality rates for lung cancer, acute myocardial infarction, and type 2 diabetes. Our study suggests that broadening the debate beyond what should be spent on health care to include what should be invested in health-not only in health care but also in social services and public health-is warranted. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Paid part-time employment and academic performance of undergraduate nursing students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rochford, Ceire


    Nursing students are increasingly undertaking paid term-time employment to finance their living expenses and studies. However the type and duration of this part-time work is unknown; furthermore there is a limited evidence on the extent to which this part-time employment is impacting on academic performance and the student\\'s experience of higher education. To address this shortfall this study undertook a cross-sectional survey of undergraduate nursing students to explore the incidence of student involvement in term-time employment and to develop an understanding of the relationship of employment on student\\'s academic and clinical achievement, and on their experience of higher education. The results found that the vast majority of the sample were working in part-time employment during term-time. The average number of hours worked per week was sixteen. The number of hours worked per week was found to be a predictor of course performance, the student\\'s experience of college and grades achieved. Students who worked greater hours reported negative outcomes in each of these three domains. The findings also support the contention that it is not working per se that has a detrimental effect on student outcomes but the numbers of hours\\' students are actually working while attending college. Therefore policy makers, educationalists and health service providers need to be aware of the burden that nursing students may have to contend with in combining work with their academic studies.

  5. Gender Differences in Students' Mathematics Game Playing (United States)

    Lowrie, Tom; Jorgensen, Robyn


    The investigation monitored the digital game-playing behaviours of 428 primary-aged students (aged 10-12 years). Chi-square analysis revealed that boys tend to spend more time playing digital games than girls while boys and girls play quite different game genres. Subsequent analysis revealed statistically significant gender differences in terms of…

  6. Reductions in global biodiversity loss predicted from conservation spending (United States)

    Waldron, Anthony; Miller, Daniel C.; Redding, Dave; Mooers, Arne; Kuhn, Tyler S.; Nibbelink, Nate; Roberts, J. Timmons; Tobias, Joseph A.; Gittleman, John L.


    Halting global biodiversity loss is central to the Convention on Biological Diversity and United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, but success to date has been very limited. A critical determinant of success in achieving these goals is the financing that is committed to maintaining biodiversity; however, financing decisions are hindered by considerable uncertainty over the likely impact of any conservation investment. For greater effectiveness, we need an evidence-based model that shows how conservation spending quantitatively reduces the rate of biodiversity loss. Here we demonstrate such a model, and empirically quantify how conservation investment between 1996 and 2008 reduced biodiversity loss in 109 countries (signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity and Sustainable Development Goals), by a median average of 29% per country. We also show that biodiversity changes in signatory countries can be predicted with high accuracy, using a dual model that balances the effects of conservation investment against those of economic, agricultural and population growth (human development pressures). Decision-makers can use this model to forecast the improvement that any proposed biodiversity budget would achieve under various scenarios of human development pressure, and then compare these forecasts to any chosen policy target. We find that the impact of spending decreases as human development pressures grow, which implies that funding may need to increase over time. The model offers a flexible tool for balancing the Sustainable Development Goals of human development and maintaining biodiversity, by predicting the dynamic changes in conservation finance that will be needed as human development proceeds.

  7. Reductions in global biodiversity loss predicted from conservation spending. (United States)

    Waldron, Anthony; Miller, Daniel C; Redding, Dave; Mooers, Arne; Kuhn, Tyler S; Nibbelink, Nate; Roberts, J Timmons; Tobias, Joseph A; Gittleman, John L


    Halting global biodiversity loss is central to the Convention on Biological Diversity and United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, but success to date has been very limited. A critical determinant of success in achieving these goals is the financing that is committed to maintaining biodiversity; however, financing decisions are hindered by considerable uncertainty over the likely impact of any conservation investment. For greater effectiveness, we need an evidence-based model that shows how conservation spending quantitatively reduces the rate of biodiversity loss. Here we demonstrate such a model, and empirically quantify how conservation investment reduced biodiversity loss in 109 countries (signatories to the Convention on Biological Diversity and Sustainable Development Goals), by a median average of 29% per country between 1996 and 2008. We also show that biodiversity changes in signatory countries can be predicted with high accuracy, using a dual model that balances the effects of conservation investment against those of economic, agricultural and population growth (human development pressures). Decision-makers can use this model to forecast the improvement that any proposed biodiversity budget would achieve under various scenarios of human development pressure, and then compare these forecasts to any chosen policy target. We find that the impact of spending decreases as human development pressures grow, which implies that funding may need to increase over time. The model offers a flexible tool for balancing the Sustainable Development Goals of human development and maintaining biodiversity, by predicting the dynamic changes in conservation finance that will be needed as human development proceeds.

  8. Program spending to increase adherence: South African cervical cancer screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert


    Full Text Available Adherence is crucial for public health program effectiveness, though the benefits of increasing adherence must ultimately be weighed against the associated costs. We sought to determine the relationship between investment in community health worker (CHW home visits and increased attendance at cervical cancer screening appointments in Cape Town, South Africa.We conducted an observational study of 5,258 CHW home visits made in 2003-4 as part of a community-based screening program. We estimated the functional relationship between spending on these visits and increased appointment attendance (adherence. Increased adherence was noted after each subsequent CHW visit. The costs of making the CHW visits was based on resource use including both personnel time and vehicle-related expenses valued in 2004 Rand. The CHW program cost R194,018, with 1,576 additional appointments attended. Adherence increased from 74% to 90%; 55% to 87%; 48% to 77%; and 56% to 80% for 6-, 12-, 24-, and 36-month appointments. Average per-woman costs increased by R14-R47. The majority of this increase occurred with the first 2 CHW visits (90%, 83%, 74%, and 77%; additional cost: R12-R26.We found that study data can be used for program planning, identifying spending levels that achieve adherence targets given budgetary constraints. The results, derived from a single disease program, are retrospective, and should be prospectively replicated.

  9. Health needs, budget cuts & military spending. (United States)


    A healthy, well-fed, educated populace is synonymous with a prospering economy. Yet, when planning their budgets, governments tend to emphasize infrastructural/industrial projects and defence rather than investing in health, education and other social programmes to eliminate the widespread poverty and high mortality of its population, which would assure a more promising future in the long-term. As citizens, nurses are responsible for initiating and supporting action to meet the health and social needs of the public. And in keeping with ICN's 1989 resolution on nuclear war, INR presents some facts on social and defence spending to show how health needs are often being deprived by emphasis on others sectors, particularly defence. The aim is "to encourage nurses to critically appraise expenditure on health and welfare at a national and global level in relation to that spent on conventional and nuclear arms and to assist nurses to develop strategies of action to contribute to international peace."

  10. GPS: Shaping Student Success One Conversation at a Time (United States)

    Star, Mikhael; Collette, Lanita


    Increasing instructor-student interactions and improving support personnel interventions with students positively affects their academic performance, retention, and graduation rates. This article discusses the Grade Performance Status (GPS) which is Northern Arizona University's new online, academic early alert tool for increasing instructor…

  11. Junk-Time Junkies: An Emerging Addiction among Students. (United States)

    Soper, W. Barlow; Miller, Mark J.


    Discusses video games as an emerging addiction among students. Describes the appeal of the games, their impact on students, and measures passed in some cities to curb adolescent involvement. Counselors must be prepared to anticipate and ameliorate potentially negative side effects. (JAC)

  12. Analysis of Daily Life Time in Women's Junior College Students


    樫村, 修生


    The purpose of this investigation was understand the correlationship between the energy expenditure of living activity and body structure or physical fitness in the students of a women's junior college. The resulut were as follows; It was shown that the physical activites in the daily life was necessary for prevention of obesity in the students.

  13. Once upon a time patients taught students interprofessional cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mulle Signe; Rasmussen, Annemette Vibeke

    Introduction: We want to present our experiences and qualitative evaluation on facilitating IPE through a narrative patient engagement approach. The IPE program is implemented in a student driven health clinic at the Metropolitan University College in Copenhagen. We wish to present our theoretical...... perspectives behind the narrative patient engagement approach, and the results of a qualitative evaluation of the students learning process. Background: Students from four different Bachelor Degree programs volunteer in an IPE program in a student driven health clinic. Through the last four years we have...... developed, tested and implemented a patient engagement narrative approach in one of the classes in the program, and the results are very good. Problem: How can you use narrative patient engagement in IPE? A case study from a student driven health clinic at the Metropolitan University College in Copenhagen...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Sriyana


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an alternative dynamic model of government spending in Indonesia. The model is based on short term disequilibrium assumption, in which multi period of shocks variables may play an important role. This research applies a loss function approach and uses optimum shock variables as the determinant for government spending during 1970-2010. The result shows that real GDP, population, and multi period shock of government spending are statistically significant. It provides evidence of the impact of multi period shocks to the realization of government spending. It implies that government faces a serious disequilibrium in determining their spending both in short and long terms.Keywords: Fiscal, government spending, deficit budget, shockJEL classification numbers: H53, H62, C22

  15. Nongovernment Philanthropic Spending on Public Health in the United States. (United States)

    Shaw-Taylor, Yoku


    The objective of this study was to estimate the dollar amount of nongovernment philanthropic spending on public health activities in the United States. Health expenditure data were derived from the US National Health Expenditures Accounts and the US Census Bureau. Results reveal that spending on public health is not disaggregated from health spending in general. The level of philanthropic spending is estimated as, on average, 7% of overall health spending, or about $150 billion annually according to National Health Expenditures Accounts data tables. When a point estimate of charity care provided by hospitals and office-based physicians is added, the value of nongovernment philanthropic expenditures reaches approximately $203 billion, or about 10% of all health spending annually.

  16. Two-year impact of the alternative quality contract on pediatric health care quality and spending. (United States)

    Chien, Alyna T; Song, Zirui; Chernew, Michael E; Landon, Bruce E; McNeil, Barbara J; Safran, Dana G; Schuster, Mark A


    To examine the 2-year effect of Blue Cross Blue Shield of Massachusetts' global budget arrangement, the Alternative Quality Contract (AQC), on pediatric quality and spending for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) and non-CSHCN. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we compared quality and spending trends for 126,975 unique 0- to 21-year-olds receiving care from AQC groups with 415,331 propensity-matched patients receiving care from non-AQC groups; 23% of enrollees were CSHCN. We compared quality and spending pre (2006-2008) and post (2009-2010) AQC implementation, adjusting analyses for age, gender, health risk score, and secular trends. Pediatric outcome measures included 4 preventive and 2 acute care measures tied to pay-for-performance (P4P), 3 asthma and 2 attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder quality measures not tied to P4P, and average total annual medical spending. During the first 2 years of the AQC, pediatric care quality tied to P4P increased by +1.8% for CSHCN (P < .001) and +1.2% for non-CSHCN (P < .001) for AQC versus non-AQC groups; quality measures not tied to P4P showed no significant changes. Average total annual medical spending was ~5 times greater for CSHCN than non-CSHCN; there was no significant impact of the AQC on spending trends for children. During the first 2 years of the contract, the AQC had a small but significant positive effect on pediatric preventive care quality tied to P4P; this effect was greater for CSHCN than non-CSHCN. However, it did not significantly influence (positively or negatively) CSHCN measures not tied to P4P or affect per capita spending for either group.

  17. The Effects of Homework Activities and Teaching Strategies for New Mathematics Topics on Achievement of Adolescent Students in Japan: Results from the TIMSS 1999 Assessment (United States)

    House, J. Daniel


    The importance of homework activities for student achievement has been extensively discussed. Research has indicated that, in general, students who spend more time on homework tend to show higher levels of academic achievement. For instance, results from the Third International Mathematics Study (TIMSS) indicated that adolescent students in Japan…

  18. Can corruption favour growth via the composition of government spending?


    Sugata Ghosh; Andros Gregoriou


    In an endogenous growth model with two public goods, we analytically derive the optimal composition of government spending in the presence of corruption. Although corruption results in a loss of productivity per se, an increase in corruption in the category of public spending that is harmed relatively more by corruption could have a favourable effect on growth, as it would encourage a benevolent government to divert spending towards the public good that is more productive, net of corruption.

  19. Book discussion course: timely topics for medical students. (United States)

    Timm, Donna F; Woodson, Deidra; Jones, Dee


    Several library faculty members at the Louisiana State University Health Shreveport Health Sciences Library offered a book discussion course as an elective for first-year medical students. This article provides details on how the librarians developed, taught, and evaluated this elective. The librarians took a team-teaching approach, required the students to read two books, and outlined the criteria for participation. At the end of the course, the students completed an evaluation, commenting on positive and negative aspects of the course. The elective proved to be successful, and the librarians look forward to offering the course again in the spring of 2014.

  20. Examining the Influence of Campus Climate on Students' Time to Degree: A Multilevel Discrete-Time Survival Analysis (United States)

    Zhou, Ji; Castellanos, Michelle


    Utilizing longitudinal data of 3477 students from 28 institutions, we examine the effects of structural diversity and quality of interracial relation on students' persistence towards graduation within six years. We utilize multilevel discrete-time survival analysis to account for the longitudinal persistence patterns as well as the nested…

  1. Nature Journaling: Enhancing Students' Connections to the Environment through Writing (United States)

    Cormell, Janita; Ivey, Toni


    Today's youth are increasingly spending more time indoors and less time outside. As a result, many children have a "nature deficit" (Louv 2005) and little awareness of their role in nature. In this article, the first author describes how she shared her passion for nature with her sixth-grade students through nature journaling and how her…

  2. A Socratic Method for Surveying Students' Readiness to Study Evolution (United States)

    Stansfield, William D.


    Before beginning a series of presentations on evolution, it would be prudent to survey the general level of students' understanding of prerequisite basic concepts of reproduction, heredity, ontology, and phenotypic diversity so that teachers can avoid devoting time to well-known subjects of general knowledge and can spend more time on subjects…

  3. Strategies for Success in Education: Time Management Is More Important for Part-Time than Full-Time Community College Students (United States)

    MacCann, Carolyn; Fogarty, Gerard J.; Roberts, Richard D.


    This paper examines relationships between the Big Five personality factors, time management, and grade-point-average in 556 community colleges students. A path model controlling for vocabulary, gender, and demographic covariates demonstrated that time management mediates the relationship between conscientiousness and students' academic achievement…

  4. Retail prescription drug spending in the National Health Accounts. (United States)

    Smith, Cynthia


    Recent rapid spending growth for retail drugs has largely arisen from increased use of new drugs, rather than from increasing prices of existing drugs. A sizable shift in the payment from consumers to third parties has also contributed to faster growth. Strategies such as negotiating for rebates and using tiered copayments have sought to slow spending growth but simultaneously have complicated the estimation of spending in the National Health Accounts (NHA). NHA estimates show that retail pharmaceuticals' share of health spending is not much different than it was in 1960, although its share of gross domestic product (GDP) has tripled.

  5. Explaining the Substantial Inter-Domain and Over-Time Correlations in Student Achievement: The Importance of Stable Student Attributes (United States)

    Marks, Gary N.


    Multi-domain and longitudinal studies of student achievement routinely find moderate to strong correlations across achievement domains and even stronger within-domain correlations over time. The purpose of this study is to examine the sources of these patterns analysing student achievement in 5 domains across Years 3, 5 and 7. The analysis is of…

  6. Multitasking, but for What Benefit? The Dilemma Facing Nigerian University Students Regarding Part-Time Working (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Evans, Carl; Obalola, Musa Adebayo


    Students working part-time while studying for a full-time university degree are commonplace in many Western countries. This paper, however, examines the historically uncommon part-time working activities and career aspirations among Nigerian university students. In particular, how working is perceived to contribute to developing employability…

  7. Can Student Teachers Acquire Core Skills for Teaching from Part-Time Employment? (United States)

    Wylie, Ken; Cummins, Brian


    Part-time employment among university students has become commonplace internationally. Research has largely focused on the impact of part-time employment on academic performance. This research takes an original approach in that it poses the question whether students can acquire core skills relevant to teaching from their part-time employment. The…

  8. High School Students' Time Management Skills in Relation to Research Anxiety (United States)

    Akcoltekin, Alpturk


    This study aimed to determine the opinions of high school students relating to time management and present a correlation of their time management skills with demographic variables, as well as examining the relation between their level of research anxiety and time management skills. The study group composed 270 12th-grade students (127 males and…

  9. Spending Reviews – a Tool to Support the Effcient Management of Public Funds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Postuła


    Full Text Available Purpose: Respective European Union member states’ interest in using spending reviews varies as there are no international mandatory regulations. The EU legislation contains general indications as to maintaining a rational fscal policy, from the provisions of the TFUE, expanded in the Pact for Stability and Growth, and elaborated in 2011. Methodology: Adopting an interpretative research approach, this article elaborates a multiple explanatory case study design to discover how existing theories about public spending reviews are conceptualized by practitioners in their natural contexts. Findings: The deteriorated state of many countries’ public fnances, as a result of the global fnancial crisis, has increased the interest in advanced innovative consolidation and fscal stabilization methods. Spending reviews are among the most developed and advanced methods. Such reviews were conducted both by countries that had applied this instrument before (Netherlands, Denmark, Finland, United Kingdom, Australia, and by those that introduced them for the frst time (Ireland, Canada, France. However, reviews are applied in countries characterized by signifcant economic advancement and mature public management systems. Originality: This article analyses and draws conclusions from several selected countries’ experience to date in using spending reviews. The budget functions are compared using information from the implementation of the spending reviews. This article contributes to flling two main gaps identifed in the literature review.

  10. Beliefs of Families, Students, and Teachers regarding Homework for Elementary-Aged Children (United States)

    Wright, Kim McGee


    According to Simplico (2005), critics who were led by parents have argued, "Children are spending too much time doing homework, which has no impact on their learning" (p. 138). This research study is significant for students, parents, teachers, educators, and administrators who wish to compare beliefs of families, students, and teachers regarding…

  11. Promoting Student Engagement. Volume 2: Activities, Exercises and Demonstrations for Psychology Courses (United States)

    Miller, Richard L., Ed.; Balcetis, Emily, Ed.; Burns, Susan R., Ed.; Daniel, David B., Ed.; Saville, Bryan K., Ed.; Woody, William Douglas, Ed.


    The purpose of the book is to provide teachers of psychology access to teaching techniques that epitomize "happy tact and ingenuity." The principle influence that teachers have on student behavior occurs in the classroom since, as noted by Erickson and Strommer, (1991), today's students spend relatively little time studying outside of class. When…

  12. Fear of the Unknown: A Pre-Departure Qualitative Study of Turkish International Students (United States)

    Brown, Lorraine; Aktas, Gurhan


    This paper presents findings from 11 in-depth interviews with Turkish undergraduate students, who were, by the time of data collection, about to spend a semester at a European university under the Erasmus exchange scheme. The students all agreed to be interviewed about their feelings about studying in a foreign culture, and were found to be…

  13. Shopping for Jobs: Mall Internship Program Opens Doors for HVAC Students. (United States)

    Nolot, Terry


    Ivy Tech State College uses River Falls, a shopping mall, as an enormous heating, ventilation, and air conditioning laboratory. Students spend Saturdays working with full-time technicians getting invaluable training and experience. Students see the program as a professional opportunity and a direct route to jobs. (JOW)

  14. The Effects of Browse Time on the Internet on Students' Essay Scores (United States)

    Doan, Kim; Bloomfield, Aaron


    This study examined how 30 minutes of search time on the Web affected students' essay scores in response to a writing prompt. Expository essays were obtained from 49 fourth- and fifth-grade students enrolled in an elementary school in Virginia, in the United States. Students were placed by random assignment into three groups with the same writing…

  15. Effectiveness of Just in Time Teaching on Student Achievement in an Introductory Thermodynamics Course (United States)

    Liberatore, Matthew W.; Morrish, Rachel M.; Vestal, Charles R.


    The utility of Just-In-Time-Teaching (JITT) is compared across course topics and groups of students not receiving JITT exercises in class. JITT feedback incorporated various active learning exercises based on students' performance on online homework problems from Sapling Learning. With over 200 students in two sections participating in the…

  16. "The Balancing Act"--Irish Part-Time Undergraduate Students in Higher Education (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Fleming, Bairbre


    While the numbers of part-time students has increased in higher education in Ireland, little is known about these students or about how they balance their study and other commitments. Drawing on a larger study on Irish students' experiences in higher education, this article attempts to address this gap in research and reports on Irish part-time…

  17. Teaching High School Students to Manage Time: The Development of an Intervention (United States)

    Burrus, Jeremy; Jackson, Teresa; Holtzman, Steven; Roberts, Richard D.


    This article reports the results of a quasi-experimental study conducted to examine the efficacy of a new time management intervention designed for high school students. Participants were 149 students from a highly selective private high school in the northeastern United States who were in the ninth grade. Half of the students participated in a…

  18. Predicting the Risk of Attrition for Undergraduate Students with Time Based Modelling (United States)

    Chai, Kevin E. K.; Gibson, David


    Improving student retention is an important and challenging problem for universities. This paper reports on the development of a student attrition model for predicting which first year students are most at-risk of leaving at various points in time during their first semester of study. The objective of developing such a model is to assist…

  19. Student Understanding of Time in Special Relativity: Simultaneity and Reference Frames. (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis


    Reports on an investigation of students' understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. Discusses a series of research tasks to illustrate how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. Indicates that after standard instruction, students have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and the…

  20. Students' Geocognition of Deep Time, Conceptualized in an Informal Educational Setting (United States)

    Clary, Renee M.; Brzusek, Robert F.; Wandersee, James H.


    Students in a Landscape Architecture Design 1 course (N = 25) at a research university in the southern US developed design solutions implementing geologic time for an informal education site. Those students who employed abstract metaphors for their designs (n = 8) were more successful than students who proceeded with a linear design construct.…

  1. An Examination of Program Selection Criteria for Part-Time MBA Students (United States)

    Colburn, Michael; Fox, Daniel E.; Westerfelt, Debra Kay


    Prospective graduate students select a graduate program as a result of a multifaceted decision-making process. This study examines the selection criteria that part-time MBA students used in selecting a program at a private university. Further, it analyzes the methods by which the students first learned of the MBA program. The authors posed the…

  2. The Effects of Reinforcing Intermediate Elementary Students to Constructively Use Free Time for Vocational Exploration (United States)

    Hosie, Thomas W.


    This study investigated the effectiveness of operant conditioning procedures in stimulating intermediate elementary students to constructively utilize free time for pursuing occupational information. (RC)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina ŞOŞEA


    Full Text Available For most of the time, tourism has been the privilege of rich people however, during the last century; it became a mass phenomenon, as its genetic (economic, social and demographic factors have changed considerably. Unlike the developed countries which account for the main international tourist flows, Romania is a state with a much lower number of potential tourists as a result of the lower income of the population, but which witness a revival of the tourist phenomenon at the beginning of the 21st century. Based on statistical data, the present paper focuses on the factors that influence the choice of holiday destinations for the Europeans and for Romanians as well, some aspects regarding vacation spending, types of destinations that Romanians choose and their expenses for holiday trips.

  4. Stability of rifampin in SyrSpend SF. (United States)

    Sorenson, Bridget; Whaley, Paul


    Rifampin is a bactericidal antibiotic drug of the rifamycin group. It is a semisynthetic drug produced from the bacterium Streptomyces mediterranei. Rifampin is commonly manufactured in capsule, tablet, and syrup dosage solutions containing alcohol or sorbitol. The objective of this study was to determine the stability of rifampin in SyrSpend SF. The studied samples were compounded into 25-mg/mL suspensions and stored in low-actinic bottles at room temperature and refrigerated conditions. Samples were assayed at each time point out to 60 days by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. The method was validated for its specificity through forced-degradation studies. The sample remained within 90% to 110% of the initial concentration throughout the course of the study. Based on data collected, the beyond-use date of the preparation is at least 60 days when refrigerated or stored at room temperature and protected from light.

  5. The time to degree or dropout amongst full-time master's students at University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Zewotir


    Full Text Available Universities around the world are grappling with strategies to increase throughput and minimise dropout rates of postgraduate students. This study focuses on students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and we attempt to estimate the time that it takes for these students to successfully complete or drop out from a master's programme. We used survival analysis to identify the factors which affect this. The results of this analysis showed that having some form of financial aid and/or being a student in the Faculties of Humanities or Management, all significantly shortened the length of time that it took to eventually drop out from a master's programme. For students who successfully completed a master's degree, having some form of financial aid, being of international origin and/or being registered in the Faculties of Health, Humanities, Law or Management, all helped to significantly shorten the length of time it took to successfully complete a master's programme. Students in the Faculty of Medicine, however, took longer to successfully complete their studies. Black Africans took less time to complete their master's degrees when compared with otherwise identical students from the other race groups.

  6. Defense Spending, Growth And Inequality, 1970-2008: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan TAŞ


    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between defense expentures, income inequality and growth in Turkey for the period of 1970-2008. In the study, the problem of lack of time series data has been overcome by using manufacturing pay inequality index constructed by Theil T Statistic. Although there are numerous studies that examine the different aspects of military spending in Turkey, there are few studies that analyse the impact of military spending on income distribution in Turkey. Considering this lack in the literature, the study, utilizing basic cointegration and VAR model, aims to contribute to the literaure

  7. Instituting a Surgical Skills Competition Increases Technical Performance of Surgical Clerkship Students Over Time. (United States)

    Leraas, Harold J; Cox, Morgan L; Bendersky, Victoria A; Sprinkle, Shanna S; Gilmore, Brian F; Gunasingha, Rathnayaka M; Tracy, Elisabeth T; Sudan, Ranjan


    Surgical skills training varies greatly between institutions and is often left to students to approach independently. Although many studies have examined single interventions of skills training, no data currently exists about the implementation of surgical skills assessment as a component of the medical student surgical curriculum. We created a technical skills competition and evaluated its effect on student surgical skill development. Second-year medical students enrolled in the surgery clerkship voluntarily participated in a surgical skills competition consisting of knot tying, laparoscopic peg transfer, and laparoscopic pattern cut. Winning students were awarded dinner with the chair of surgery and a resident of their choice. Individual event times and combined times were recorded and compared for students who completed without disqualification. Disqualification included compromising cutting pattern, dropping a peg out of the field of vision, and incorrect knot tying technique. Timed performance was compared for 2 subsequent academic years using Mann-Whitney U test. Overall, 175 students competed and 71 students met qualification criteria. When compared by academic year, 2015 to 2016 students (n = 34) performed better than 2014 to 2015 students (n = 37) in pattern cut (133s vs 167s, p = 0.040), peg transfer (66s vs 101s, p skills competition improves student technical performance. Further research is needed regarding long-term benefits of surgical competitions for medical students. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Impact of Community for Part-Time Doctoral Students: How Relationships in the Academic Department Affect Student Persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zahl


    Full Text Available This study examines the ways that part-time Ph.D. students develop community within the academic department and how a sense of community is related to persistence. This study included 12 participants (ten students and two program chairs in two academic departments at one urban research institution. This qualitative study followed a descriptive case study design and provided three levels of data: the institution is the bounded system; the academic departments are the cases; and the participants are embedded cases. Positive relationships with peers and faculty served as a source of encouragement and supported persistence, particularly during challenging semesters and later phases of the doctoral program. However, it was often difficult for the participants to develop and/or maintain relationships, due to limited proximity, limited access to faculty, and changing cohorts. Participants did not consider full-time doctoral students to be part of their community, due to perceived differences between part-time and full-time students. The participants also perceived that faculty catered to full-time students and preferred to conduct research with them rather than part-time students.

  9. Decreasing Transition Times in Elementary School Classrooms: Using Computer-Assisted Instruction to Automate Intervention Components (United States)

    Hine, Jeffrey F.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Foster, Tori E.


    Research suggests that students spend a substantial amount of time transitioning between classroom activities, which may reduce time spent academically engaged. This study used an ABAB design to evaluate the effects of a computer-assisted intervention that automated intervention components previously shown to decrease transition times. We examined…

  10. Child poverty: what can social spending explain in Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diris, R.; Vandenbroucke, F.; Verbist, G.


    This study assesses the role of social spending in relation to child poverty in European welfare states. Using macro-level panel data from EU SILC 2005-2012, we analyze the effect of the size of social spending and the effect of how those benefits are targeted. We separately estimate the effect of

  11. Primary Healthcare Spending : Striving for Equity under Fiscal ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Primary Healthcare Spending : Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism. Couverture du livre Primary Healthcare Spending: Striving for Equity under Fiscal Federalism. Auteur(s) : Okore Apia Okorafor. Maison(s) d'édition : UCT Press, CRDI. 1 avril 2010. ISBN : 9781919895215. 200 pages. e-ISBN : 9781552504895.

  12. Consumer Spending and Customer Satisfaction: Untying the Knot


    Sephton, Peter


    The recession of 2007–2009 has led to renewed interest in forecasting discretionary consumer spending and whether marketing variables contain predictive content. Using the ACSI customer satisfaction index and both linear and nonlinear methods, this note suggests the index fails to enhance our understanding of the temporal evolution of discretionary spending.

  13. Social Spending and Aggregate Welfare in Developing and Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel

    Notwithstanding the unprecedented attention devoted to reducing poverty and fostering human development via scaling up social sector spending, there is surprisingly little rigorous empirical work on the question of whether social spending is effective in achieving these goals. This paper examines...

  14. The Multi-Billion Dollar Drug-Sensitive Spending Opportunity. (United States)

    Easter, Jon C; Thorpe, Kenneth


    Chronic diseases increase utilization and avoidable drug-sensitive spending, but little is done to optimize medication use and drive value. Value-based approaches to health care financing should shift focus to drug-sensitive spending to balance patient access and quality improvement with cost containment. ©2018 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  15. Student IEP Participation and Academic Achievement across Time (United States)

    Barnard-Brak, Lucy; Lechtenberger, DeAnn


    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act mandates that students with disabilities be provided the necessary special education and related services that will allow them the benefit of a free and appropriate public education. Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) are the product of a team planning process that facilitates the coordination…

  16. Student Engagement in Neo-Liberal Times: What Is Missing? (United States)

    Zepke, Nick


    Quality teaching is increasingly prioritized in higher education. One reason is that government funding requires students to succeed in their studies and be ready for employment. In response, educators throughout the Western world have generated large quantities of evidence-based, practical, often uncritical research about what works to improve…

  17. Time Spent, Workload, and Student and Faculty Perceptions in a Blended Learning Environment (United States)

    Schumacher, Christie; Arif, Sally


    Objective. To evaluate student perception and time spent on asynchronous online lectures in a blended learning environment (BLE) and to assess faculty workload and perception. Methods. Students (n=427) time spent viewing online lectures was measured in three courses. Students and faculty members completed a survey to assess perceptions of a BLE. Faculty members recorded time spent creating BLEs. Results. Total time spent in the BLE was less than the allocated time for two of the three courses by 3-15%. Students preferred online lectures for their flexibility, students’ ability to apply information learned, and congruence with their learning styles. Faculty members reported the BLE facilitated higher levels of learning during class sessions but noted an increase in workload. Conclusion. A BLE increased faculty workload but was well received by students. Time spent viewing online lectures was less than what was allocated in two of the three courses. PMID:27667839

  18. Developing students' time management skills in clinical settings: practical considerations for busy nursing staff. (United States)

    Cleary, Michelle; Horsfall, Jan


    In clinical settings, nursing staff often find themselves responsible for students who have varying time management skills. Nurses need to respond sensitively and appropriately, and to teach nursing students how to prioritize and better allocate time. This is important not only for developing students' clinical skills but also for shaping their perceptions about the quality of the placement and their willingness to consider it as a potential work specialty. In this column, some simple, practical strategies that nurses can use to assist students with improving their time management skills are identified. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Tax Expert Offers Ideas for Monitoring Big Spending on College Sports (United States)

    Sander, Libby


    The federal government could take a cue from its regulation of charitable organizations in monitoring the freewheeling fiscal habits of big-time college athletics, a leading tax lawyer says. The author reports on the ideas offered by John D. Colombo, a professor at the University of Illinois College of Law, for monitoring big spending on college…

  20. Leisure Times Status Amongst Students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences –Yazd, Iran


    Mohammad Hassan Lotfi; Amir Houssain Aminian; Aghdasea Ghomizadea


    A large number of the selected students are admitting for the Iranian University to acquire scientific and insight subjects annually. In this way, exposing to different cultural manners, new conditions of educational and dormitory residence place can affect psycho-social aspects of students where a not good planning for fulfilling times of leisure can produce psycho-social problems. This analytic cross sectional study was planned to evaluate the status of lesiure time amongst students of Shah...

  1. Assessment of Burnout Levels among Working Undergraduate Nursing Students in Turkey: Being a Full Time Employee and Student

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Tugutlu


    Full Text Available Background: Burnout originates in social work environment which causes numerous health problems in people.Objective: The purpose of this research was to determine the burnout levels of working undergraduate students who actually work as health care staff at hospitals and attending full time education in School of Health in North West region of Turkey.Results: More than half of the students (56.6 % were satisfied by working and studying at the same time. Majority of the students (84.8 % reported that they like their profession. We found that, years in profession and income levels did not affect emotional exhaustion (p>0.05, whilst having negative feelings about professionincreased emotional exhaustion among working students (p<0.01.Conclusion: Being a student and working at the same time as health care staff is a cause of burnout among students. Adding assertiveness, positive thinking, development of self-control to nursing curricula may help overwhelmed and burnout students to get along with problems they face.

  2. Improving Elementary School Students' Understanding of Historical Time: Effects of Teaching with "Timewise" (United States)

    de Groot-Reuvekamp, Marjan; Ros, Anje; van Boxtel, Carla


    The teaching of historical time is an important aspect in elementary school curricula. This study focuses on the effects of a curriculum intervention with "Timewise," a teaching approach developed to improve students' understanding of historical time using timelines as a basis with which students can develop their understanding of…

  3. Realizing the Latent Potential in the Part-Time Student Workforce (United States)

    Evans, Carl; Richardson, Mark


    The purpose of this article is to challenge employers to make the best use of the latent potential of their part-time student workforce and to retain this talent postgraduation. The authors report research which shows that increasing numbers of university students are working part-time alongside their degree studies, while at the same time…

  4. The Motivations and Outcomes of Studying for Part-Time Mature Students in Higher Education (United States)

    Swain, Jon; Hammond, Cathie


    This paper examines the motivations and outcomes for mature students who study part-time in higher education (HE) in the UK. Although many students in HE are mature part-time learners, they have not been the specific focus of much research or policy interest. In-depth narrative interviews were carried out with 18 graduates who had studied…

  5. The Invisible Student: Benefits and Challenges of Part-Time Doctoral Studies (United States)

    Bates, Peter; Goff, Lori


    This autoethnographic study explores the experiences of two part-time doctoral students as we document our journey of balancing our multiple competing roles. As we reflected and consulted the literature, we began to identify many benefits and challenges that part-time candidature brings to students, universities and employers. Through our…

  6. Leadership Behaviour of College Students in Relation to Their Leisure Time Activities in College Life (United States)

    Sethi, Priyanka


    The study investigated the Leadership behaviour of college students in relation to their Leisure time activities in college life. In this study, the researcher wants to see the contribution of leisure time activities in developing the qualities of leadership of college students. The main objective of the study was to find out the relationship…

  7. "Take Back Your Time": Facilitating a Student Led Teach-In (United States)

    Heyne, Linda A.


    "Take Back Your Time" (TBYT) is a movement founded by John De Graaf (2003) that exposes the issues of time poverty and overwork in the United States and Canada. This article features the process whereby undergraduate students study De Graaf's TBYT handbook, discuss its concepts, and organize a student-led TBYT "teach-in" for…

  8. The Relationship between Attitude toward Physical Education and Leisure-Time Exercise in High School Students. (United States)

    Chung, Min-hau; Phillips, D. Allen


    Investigated the relationship between U.S. and Taiwanese high school students' attitudes toward physical education and leisure time exercise, noting the influence of nationality and gender. Student surveys indicated significant relationships between attitudes toward physical education and leisure time exercise, regardless of nationality or gender.…

  9. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students (United States)

    Cyril, A. Vences


    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  10. In real time: exploring nursing students' learning during an international experience. (United States)

    Afriyie Asenso, Barbara; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Astle, Barbara


    Abstract Nursing education has increasingly turned to international learning experiences to educate students who are globally minded and aware of social injustices in local and global communities. To date, research with international learning experiences has focused on the benefits for the students participating, after they have completed the international experience. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how nursing students learn during the international experience. The sample consisted of eight nursing students who enrolled in an international learning experience, and data were collected in "real time" in Zambia. The students were observed during learning activities and were interviewed three times. Three major themes emerged from the thematic analysis: expectations shaped students' learning, engagement facilitated learning, and critical reflection enhanced learning. Implications are discussed, related to disrupting media representations of Africa that shape students' expectations, and educational strategies for transformative learning and global citizenship.

  11. Natural resources: A curse on education spending?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockx, Lara; Francken, Nathalie


    In line with the rising interest in harnessing natural resource revenues for economic and human development through productive government investments, this paper aims to address an important blind spot in our understanding of the “resource curse” by contributing innovative insights on how natural resource wealth impacts government priorities and expenditure practices. Using a large panel dataset of 140 countries covering the period from 1995 to 2009, we find an adverse effect of resource dependence on public education expenditures relative to GDP that is robust to controlling for a range of additional covariates. Furthermore, our findings indicate that this resource curse effect on the government prioritization of education mainly stems from point-source natural resources. These results are of particular importance for the sustainable management of natural resource wealth in developing countries, as they could achieve especially high returns by investing resource revenues in public goods such as education. While this paper underlines the importance of institutions and government accountability, our findings also raise questions on the role of the private sector as a partner in development, as the extractives industry could consider increasing funding for education through Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives. - Highlights: •We use a panel dataset of 140 countries covering the period from 1995 to 2009. •We find an inverse relationship between resource dependence and education spending. •The effect of resource dependence is robust to controlling for several covariates. •Indirect effects through a decline in accountability and the service industry. •This curse mainly stems from point-source resource dependence.

  12. Effects of Full-Time and Part-Time High-Ability Programs on Developments in Students' Achievement Emotions (United States)

    Hornstra, Lisette; van der Veen, Ineke; Peetsma, Thea


    This study focused on effects of high-ability programs on students' achievement emotions, i.e. emotions that students experience that are associated with achievement activities. Participants were students in grade 4-6 of primary education: 218 students attended full-time high-ability programs, 245 attended part-time high-ability programs (i.e.…

  13. Spending more money, saving more lives? The relationship between avoidable mortality and healthcare spending in 14 countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, R.; Koolman, X.; Westert, G.P.


    Healthcare expenditures rise as a share of GDP in most countries, raising questions regarding the value of further spending increases. Against this backdrop, we assessed the value of healthcare spending growth in 14 western countries between 1996 and 2006. We estimated macro-level health production

  14. Reaction time in Stroop test in Nepalese Medical Students


    Ghimire, Nisha; Paudel, Bishnu Hari; Khadka, Rita; Singh, P. N.


    Background: Stroop test is one of the widely used tests in cognitive psychology. It is used both in healthy population and also in patients to assess the selective attention. The selective attention as assessed by it is also found to be altered in bilinguals. In Nepal, most of the students are bilingual since most of the courses are in English language. Thus, they learn English language along with their native languages. This study is aimed to assess the selective attention in healthy Nepales...

  15. Assessing Time Management Skills as an Important Aspect of Student Learning: The Construction and Evaluation of a Time Management Scale with Spanish High School Students (United States)

    Garcia-Ros, Rafael; Perez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Hinojosa, Eugenia


    The main purpose of this study is to analyse the factorial structure, psychometric properties and predictive capacity for academic achievement of a scale designed to evaluate the time management skills of Spanish high school students. An adaptation of the Time Management Questionnaire was presented to two samples of 350 Spanish high school…

  16. Middle school students' understanding of time: Implications for the National Science Education Standards (United States)

    Reinemann, Deborah Jean


    Measures of time are essential to human life, especially in the Western world. Human understanding of time develops from the preschool stages of using "before" and "after" to an adult understanding and appreciation of time. Previous researchers (for example, Piaget, Friedman) have investigated and described stages of time development. Time, as it was investigated here, can be classified as conventional, logical or experiential. Conventional time is the ordered representation of time; the days of the week, the months of the year, or clock time: seconds and hours. Logical time is the deduction of duration based on regular events; for example, calculating the passage of time based on two separate events. Experiential time involves the duration of events and estimating intervals. With the recent production of the National Science Education Standards (NSES), many schools are aligning their science curriculum with the NSES. Time appears both implicitly and explicitly in the NSES. Do Middle School students possess the understanding of time necessary to meet the recommendations of the NSES? An interview protocol of four sessions was developed to investigate middle school students understanding of time. The four sessions included: building and testing water clocks; an interview about water clocks and time intervals; a laserdisc presentation about relative time spans; and a mind mapping session. Students were also given the GALT test of Logical Thinking. The subjects of the study were interviewed; eleven eighth grade students and thirteen sixth grade students. The data was transcribed and coded, and a rubric was developed to evaluate students based on their responses to the four sessions. The Time Analysis Rubric is a grid of the types of time: conventional, logical and experiential time versus the degree of understanding of time. Student results were assigned to levels of understanding based on the Time Analysis Rubric. There was a relationship (although not significant

  17. Exploring the Value of MBA Degrees: Students' Experiences in Full-Time, Part-Time, and Executive MBA Programs (United States)

    Bruce, Grady D.


    Critics of the overall value of the MBA have not systematically considered the attitudes of MBA students about the value of their degree. The author used data from a large sample of graduates (N = 16,268) to do so, and to explore predictors of overall degree value. The author developed separate regression models for full-time, part-time, and…

  18. Creating an In-School Pastoral System for Student Teachers in School-Based Initial Teacher Education (United States)

    Philpott, Carey


    Recent developments in initial teacher education (ITE) have produced a number of school-centred models. These mean that student teachers may now spend more of their time in schools than has historically been the case. In some of these models, student teachers are more clearly part of the school as an institution than might be the case in more…

  19. Is spending money on others good for your heart? (United States)

    Whillans, Ashley V; Dunn, Elizabeth W; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dickerson, Sally S; Madden, Kenneth M


    Does spending money on others (prosocial spending) improve the cardiovascular health of community-dwelling older adults diagnosed with high blood pressure? In Study 1, 186 older adults diagnosed with high blood pressure participating in the Midlife in the U.S. Study (MIDUS) were examined. In Study 2, 73 older adults diagnosed with high blood pressure were assigned to spend money on others or to spend money on themselves. In Study 1, the more money people spent on others, the lower their blood pressure was 2 years later. In Study 2, participants who were assigned to spend money on others for 3 consecutive weeks subsequently exhibited lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared to participants assigned to spend money on themselves. The magnitude of these effects was comparable to the effects of interventions such as antihypertensive medication or exercise. Together, these findings suggest that spending money on others shapes cardiovascular health, thereby providing a pathway by which prosocial behavior improves physical health among at-risk older adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Native American Students' Understanding of Geologic Time Scale: 4th-8th Grade Ojibwe Students' Understanding of Earth's Geologic History (United States)

    Nam, Younkyeong; Karahan, Engin; Roehrig, Gillian


    Geologic time scale is a very important concept for understanding long-term earth system events such as climate change. This study examines forty-three 4th-8th grade Native American--particularly Ojibwe tribe--students' understanding of relative ordering and absolute time of Earth's significant geological and biological events. This study also…

  1. Speeding up development activities in student projects with time boxing and scrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis; Eriksen, Kaare; Tollestrup, Christian


    This research project investigates how procedures from agile software development can be of benefit to development activities in projects of design engineering students. The agile methods Scrum and Time boxing are evaluated through a student workshop focusing on near-future concepts for design...... competitions. Scrum meetings within the student design teams are conducted and video documented each hour throughout the workshop activities as a structured process evaluation tool. Based on a subsequent student survey it is argued that scrum and time boxing are strengthening the focus, communication...

  2. Introducing sit-stand desks increases classroom standing time among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Jerome


    Full Text Available Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5–18years and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited 304 healthy undergraduate university students enrolled in one of two small (25 seats classrooms at a large Midwestern university during the fall of 2016. Average minutes of standing/hour/student, average percent class time spent standing, and the number of sit-stand transitions/student/hour were directly observed with video camera surveillance. Participants stood significantly more (p<0.001 when provided access to sit-stand desks (7.2min/h/student; 9.3% of class time spent standing compared to when they had access to seated desks (0.7min/h/student; 1.6% of class time spent standing but no differences were observed for the number of sit-stand transitions (p=0.47. Students reported high favorability for the sit-stand desks and improvements in several student engagement and affective outcomes while using the sit-stand desks. These findings support introducing sit-stand desks in university classrooms as an approach to reduce sedentary behaviors of university students. Keywords: Sedentary, University students, Sit-stand desk

  3. Social protection spending and inequalities in depressive symptoms across Europe. (United States)

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L; Mitchell, Richard J; Shortt, Niamh K; Pearce, Jamie R


    Common mental disorders are an increasing global public health concern. The least advantaged in society experience a greater burden of mental illness, but inequalities in mental health vary by social, political, and economic contexts. This study investigates whether spending on different types of social protection alters the extent of social inequality in depressive symptoms. Data were obtained from the 2006 and 2012 cross-sectional waves of the European Social Survey, which included 48,397 individuals from 18 European countries. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D 8). Statistical interactions between country-level social protection spending and individuals' education level, employment and family status were explored using multilevel regression models. Higher spending on active labour market programmes was related to narrower inequality in depressive symptoms by education level. Compared to men with high education, the marginal effect of having low education was 1.67 (95 % CI, 1.46-1.87) among men in countries with lower spending and 0.85 (95 % CI, 0.66-1.03) in higher spending countries. Single parents exhibited fewer depressive symptoms, as spending on family policies increased. Little evidence was found for an overall association between spending on unemployment benefits and employment-related inequalities in depressive symptoms, but in 2012, unemployment spending appeared beneficial to mental health among the unemployed. Greater investment in social protection may act to reduce inequalities in depressive symptoms. Reductions in spending levels or increased conditionality may adversely affect the mental health of disadvantaged social groups.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Bateman


    Full Text Available Franklin Roosevelt publicly stated his devotion to the American South and pledged to help reform the region’s laggard economy. However, Southern states received significantly fewer federal expenditures per capita, both during the New Deal of the 1930s and the military emergency of the 1940s. This article investigates economic, political, and strategic reasons for this result. Additionally, we apply a public goods perspective to New Deal and World War II spending and propose that lower levels of per capita spending in the South do not necessarily translate into a smaller impact of that spending.

  5. Having the Time of Their Life: College Student Stress, Dating and Satisfaction with Life. (United States)

    Coccia, Catherine; Darling, Carol A


    A cross-sectional design based on the family ecosystem framework was used to examine how students' time spent engaging in social interactions and personal behaviours was related to dating, stress and satisfaction with life. The data were extracted from the Parental Indulgence of Emerging Adults study and consisted of 534 students at a southeastern university. The findings indicated that the amount of time involved in non-verbal social interactions, such as texting and social networking, along with solitary activities, such as watching TV and studying, was negatively related to students' life satisfaction. In comparison, being in a relationship and talking to people on the phone were positively related to students' life satisfaction. These results have implications for family and health professionals along with university wellness centres that facilitate student health by incorporating preventative measures to help students deal with their stress. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Time Perspective, Life Satisfaction and Social Comparison Orientation in University Students




    The aim of this study was to examine the predictive power of time perspective for the life satisfaction and social comparison in university students. The participants (n= 441; 321 female and 120 male) are undergraduate students at a state university. The data of the study were collected through the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, The Satisfaction with Life Scale and IOWA-Netherlands Social Comparison Orientation Measure. In order to determine the prediction power of the time ...

  7. Association between quality domains and health care spending across physician networks (United States)

    Rahman, Farah; Guan, Jun; Glazier, Richard H.; Brown, Adalsteinn; Bierman, Arlene S.; Croxford, Ruth; Stukel, Therese A.


    One of the more fundamental health policy questions is the relationship between health care quality and spending. A better understanding of these relationships is needed to inform health systems interventions aimed at increasing quality and efficiency of care. We measured 65 validated quality indicators (QI) across Ontario physician networks. QIs were aggregated into domains representing six dimensions of care: screening and prevention, evidence-based medications, hospital-community transitions (7-day post-discharge visit with a primary care physician; 30-day post-discharge visit with a primary care physician and specialist), potentially avoidable hospitalizations and emergency department (ED) visits, potentially avoidable readmissions and unplanned returns to the ED, and poor cancer end of life care. Each domain rate was computed as a weighted average of QI rates, weighting by network population at risk. We also measured overall and sector-specific per capita healthcare network spending. We evaluated the associations between domain rates, and between domain rates and spending using weighted correlations, weighting by network population at risk, using an ecological design. All indicators were measured using Ontario health administrative databases. Large variations were seen in timely hospital-community transitions and potentially avoidable hospitalizations. Networks with timely hospital-community transitions had lower rates of avoidable admissions and readmissions (r = -0.89, -0.58, respectively). Higher physician spending, especially outpatient primary care spending, was associated with lower rates of avoidable hospitalizations (r = -0.83) and higher rates of timely hospital-community transitions (r = 0.81) and moderately associated with lower readmission rates (r = -0.46). Investment in effective primary care services may help reduce burden on the acute care sector and associated expenditures. PMID:29614131

  8. Screen Time, How Much Is Too Much? The Social and Emotional Costs of Technology on the Adolescent Brain (United States)

    DeWeese, Katherine Lynn


    Screen time no longer means just the amount of time one spends in front of the television. Now it is an aggregate amount of time spent on smartphones, computers as well as multitasking with different devices. How much are the glowing rectangles taking away from adolescent social and emotional health? How is it changing how students learn and how…

  9. Why are they late? Timing abilities and executive control among students with learning disabilities. (United States)

    Grinblat, Nufar; Rosenblum, Sara


    While a deficient ability to perform daily tasks on time has been reported among students with learning disabilities (LD), the underlying mechanism behind their 'being late' is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the organization in time, time estimation abilities, actual performance time pertaining to specific daily activities, as well as the executive functions of students with LD in comparison to those of controls, and to assess the relationships between these domains among each group. The participants were 27 students with LD, aged 20-30, and 32 gender and age-matched controls who completed the Time Organization and Participation Scale (TOPS) and the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult version (BRIEF-A). In addition, their ability to estimate the time needed to complete the task of preparing a cup of coffee as well as their actual performance time were evaluated. The results indicated that in comparison to controls, students with LD showed significantly inferior organization in time (TOPS) and executive function abilities (BRIEF-A). Furthermore, their time estimation abilities were significantly inferior and they required significantly more time to prepare a cup of coffee. Regression analysis identified the variables that predicted organization in time and task performance time among each group. The significance of the results for both theoretical and clinical implications are discussed. What this paper adds? This study examines the underlying mechanism of the phenomena of being late among students with LD. Following a recent call for using ecologically valid assessments, the functional daily ability of students with LD to prepare a cup of coffee and to organize time were investigated. Furthermore, their time estimation and executive control abilities were examined as a possible underlying mechanism for their lateness. Although previous studies have indicated executive control deficits among students with LD, to our knowledge, this

  10. Dental hygiene students' part-time jobs in dental practices in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Poorterman, J H G; Dikkes, B T; Brand, H S


    Many students have paid employment while studying. In the Netherlands, the Individual Health Care Professions Act (IHCP Act) allows dental hygiene students to work under certain conditions in a dental practice. The aim of the study was to determine how many dental hygiene students have part-time job employment in dental practice and which professional tasks they carry out. We also asked the dental hygiene students their opinion of the IHCP Act. All the enrolled dental hygiene students (n = 341) at a School of Health in the Netherlands received a questionnaire by email. The response was 52% (176 students). Of the responding students, 75% had paid employment in addition to their study. A proportion of the students (35%) worked in a dental practice. The median number of hours worked per week was eight. Study year, age and prior education were positively related to working part-time in dental practice. Activities frequently performed were giving oral hygiene instruction, fluoride applications, scaling and root planning, providing chair side assistance and giving local anaesthesia. Although the self-reported knowledge about the IHCP Act was high, almost half of the students expressed the need for more detailed legal information. Many dental hygiene students work in a dental practice, taking over a number of tasks usually performed by the dentist. More information in the dental hygiene curriculum about the requirements of the IHCP Act seems desirable.

  11. The economic impact of NASA R and D spending (United States)

    Evans, M. K.


    The economic impact of R and D spending, particularly NASA R and D spending, on the U. S. economy was evaluated. The crux of the methodology and hence the results revolve around the fact that it was necessary to consider both the demand effects of increased spending and the supply effects of a higher rate of technological growth and a larger total productive capacity. The demand effects are primarily short-run in nature, while the supply effects do not begin to have a significant effect on aggregate economic activity until the fifth year after increased expenditures have taken place. The short-term economic impact of alternative levels of NASA expenditures for 1975 was first examined. The long-term economic impact of increased levels of NASA R and D spending over a sustained period was then evaluated.

  12. Hedging Medical Spending Growth: An Adaptive Expectations Approach. (United States)

    Lieberthal, Robert D


    Long-term health insurance provides consumers with protection against persistent, negative health shocks. While the stochastic rise in medical spending growth may make some health risks harder to insure, financial assets could act as a hedge for medical spending growth risk. The purpose of this research was to determine whether such hedges exist. The results of this study were two-fold. First, the asset classes with the strongest statistical evidence as hedges were bonds, not stocks. Second, any strategy to hedge medical spending growth involved shorting assets i.e. betting against the bond or stock market. Health insurers writing long-term contracts should combine the use of hedges in the bond market with of portfolio diversification, and may benefit from health policies to moderate the uncertainty of medical spending growth.

  13. The quality of governance and education spending in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of governance and education spending in Africa. ... and democracy, on the public budget allocation to education by using data for a panel of 28 African countries over the period 1995–2004. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. R&D figures 'distorted' by defence spending

    CERN Multimedia

    Coghlan, A


    A report published by the House of Lords Select Committee on Science and Technology, claims that government figures for R&D spending are misleading. They apparently include military projects that are more concerned with product development than original research.

  15. Future and potential spending on health 2015-40

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Joseph L.; Campbell, Madeline; Chapin, Abigail; Eldrenkamp, Erika; Fan, Victoria Y.; Haakenstad, Annie; Kates, Jennifer; Li, Zhiyin; Matyasz, Taylor; Micah, Angela; Reynolds, Alex; Sadat, Nafis; Schneider, Matthew T.; Sorensen, Reed; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Ahmad Kiadaliri, Aliasghar; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Alam, Khurshid; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, A.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Awasthi, Ashish; Barac, Aleksandra; Berheto, Tezera Moshago; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Beyene, Tariku Jibat; Birungi, Charles; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie; Breitborde, Nicholas J.K.; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Castro, Ruben Estanislao; Catalá-López, Ferran; Dalal, Koustuv; Dandona, Lalit; Dharmaratne, Rakhi Dandona Samath D.; Dubey, Manisha; Faro, Andé; Feigl, Andrea B.; Fischer, Florian; Anderson Fitchett, Joseph R.; Foigt, Nataliya; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Gupta, Rahul; Hamidi, Samer; Harb, Hilda L.; Hay, Simon I.; Hendrie, Delia; Horino, Masako; Jürisson, Mikk; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; John, Denny; Jonas, Jost B.; Karimi, Seyed M.; Khang, Young Ho; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kim, Yun Jin; Kinge, Jonas M.; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Kumar, G.A.; Leung, Ricky; Magdy Abd El Razek, Hassan; Magdy Abd El Razek, Mohammed; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Meretoja, Atte; Miller, Ted R.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Mohammed, Shafiu; Molla, Gedefaw; Nangia, Vinay; Olgiati, Stefano; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Patel, Tejas; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Pereira, David M.; Perelman, Julian; Polinder, Suzanne; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ram, Usha; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Roba, Hirbo Shore; Savic, Miloje; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Ao, Te Braden J.; Tesema, Azeb Gebresilassie; Thomson, Alan J.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Topor-Madry, Roman; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Vargas, Veronica; Vasankari, Tommi; Violante, Francesco S.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Xu, Gelin; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Sayed Zaki, El Maysaa; Murray, Christopher J.L.


    Background: The amount of resources, particularly prepaid resources, available for health can affect access to health care and health outcomes. Although health spending tends to increase with economic development, tremendous variation exists among health financing systems. Estimates of future

  16. One sector models, indeterminacy, and productive public spending

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodyan, Sergey

    -, č. 293 (2006), s. 1-24 ISSN 1211-3298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : indeterminacy * absolute instability * productive public spending Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  17. Trends in Health Care Spending by the Private Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


    A recent dramatic slowdown in the rate at which private-sector spending for health insurance increases each year has raised many questions about the meaning of the trend and its implications for the future...

  18. The quality of governance and education spending in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    public budget allocation to education by using data for a panel of ... social sector spending categories, education accounts for the highest share of GDP. (5.3%), which ..... that politically stable countries will devote more resources to education.

  19. Allocating Spending Between Advertising and Information Technology in Electronic Retailing


    Yong Tan; Vijay S. Mookerjee


    This study examines coordination issues that occur in allocating spending between advertising and information technology (IT) in electronic retailing. Electronic retailers run the risk of overspending on advertising to attract customers but underspending on IT, thus resulting in inadequate processing capacity at the firm's website. In this paper, we present a centralized, joint marketing-IT model to optimally allocate spending between advertising and IT, and we discuss an uncoordinated case w...

  20. Industry Evidence on the Effects of Government Spending


    Christopher J. Nekarda; Valerie A. Ramey


    This paper investigates industry-level effects of government purchases in order to shed light on the transmission mechanism for government spending on the aggregate economy. We begin by highlighting the different theoretical predictions concerning the effects of government spending on industry labor market equilibrium. We then create a panel data set that matches output and labor variables to shifts in industry-specific government demand. The empirical results indicate that increases in gover...

  1. The Effects of Survey Timing on Student Evaluation of Teaching Measures Obtained Using Online Surveys (United States)

    Estelami, Hooman


    Teaching evaluations are an important measurement tool used by business schools in gauging the level of student satisfaction with the educational services delivered by faculty. The growing use of online teaching evaluations has enabled educational administrators to expand the time period during which student evaluation of teaching (SET) surveys…

  2. Improving Student Learning of Calculus Topics via Modified Just-in-Time Teaching Methods (United States)

    Natarajan, Rekha; Bennett, Andrew


    Although the use of traditional just-in-time teaching techniques has long been viewed positively by students and instructors in undergraduate calculus courses, past studies in this area have not addressed gains in student achievement with respect to specific calculus topics. This paper investigates the latter by administering modified just-in-time…

  3. Time on Text and Science Achievement for High School Biology Students (United States)

    Wyss, Vanessa L.; Dolenc, Nathan; Kong, Xiaoqing; Tai, Robert H.


    The conflict between the amount of material to be addressed in high school science classes, the need to prepare students for standardized tests, and the amount of time available forces science educators to make difficult pedagogical decisions on a daily basis. Hands-on and inquiry-based learning offer students more authentic learning experiences…

  4. The Effect of the Time Management Art on Academic Achievement among High School Students in Jordan (United States)

    Al-Zoubi, Maysoon


    This study aimed at recognizing the effect of the Time Management Art on academic achievement among high school students in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The researcher employed the descriptive-analytic research to achieve the purpose of the study where he chose a sample of (2000) high school female and male students as respondents to the…

  5. Incremental Impact of Time on Students' Use of E-Learning via Facebook (United States)

    Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Salarzadeh Janatabadi, Hashem


    The majority of studies utilised the cross-sectional method to measure students' intention to learn and investigate their corresponding learning behaviours. Only a few studies have measured the process of change in students' learning behaviour in the context of time. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effects of using a Facebook…

  6. Possible Link between Medical Students' Motivation for Academic Work and Time Engaged in Physical Exercise (United States)

    Aung, Myo Nyein; Somboonwong, Juraiporn; Jaroonvanichkul, Vorapol; Wannakrairot, Pongsak


    Physical exercise results in an active well-being. It is likely that students' engagement in physical exercise keeps them motivated to perform academic endeavors. This study aimed to assess the relation of time engaged in physical exercise with medical students' motivation for academic work. Prospectively, 296 second-year medical students…

  7. Attitudes of medical students towards taking part-time jobs: a study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitudes of medical students towards taking part-time jobs: a study amongst first year clinical students of the College of Medicine, University of Ibadan. ... All participants were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on bio-data, ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Real Time with the Librarian: Using Web Conferencing Software to Connect to Distance Students (United States)

    Riedel, Tom; Betty, Paul


    A pilot program to provide real-time library webcasts to Regis University distance students using Adobe Connect software was initiated in fall of 2011. Previously, most interaction between librarians and online students had been accomplished by asynchronous discussion threads in the Learning Management System. Library webcasts were offered in…

  9. Effects of Business School Student's Study Time on the Learning Process (United States)

    Tetteh, Godson Ayertei


    Purpose: This paper aims to clarify the relationship between the student's study time and the learning process in the higher education system by adapting the total quality management (TQM) principles-process approach. Contrary to Deming's (1982) constancy of purpose to improve the learning process, some students in higher education postpone their…

  10. Time utilization rate (TUR) of NTI-PGDE Students in self-study: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to find out the rate of time utilization in self-study among the Post-Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) students of the National Teachers' Institute. A sample of forty (40) students drawn from a population of sixty (60) by simple random sampling technique was used for the study.

  11. Are Geography Students Good "Environmental Citizens?" A Comparison between Year of Study and over Time (United States)

    Robinson, Zoe P.


    Are geography students good "environmental citizens?" Has this improved over time with increasing emphasis on sustainability within higher education? This paper compares environmental attitudes and behaviours of geography students at different stages of their degree and over a seven-year period. The findings show that although geography…

  12. Effects of a consumer driven health plan on pharmaceutical spending and utilization. (United States)

    Parente, Stephen T; Feldman, Roger; Chen, Song


    To compare pharmaceutical spending and utilization in a consumer driven health plan (CDHP) with a three-tier pharmacy benefit design, and to examine whether the CDHP creates incentives to reduce pharmaceutical spending and utilization for chronically ill patients, generic or brand name drugs, and mail-order drugs. Retrospective insurance claims analysis from a large employer that introduced a CDHP in 2001 in addition to a point of service (POS) plan and a preferred provider organization (PPO), both of which used a three-tier pharmacy benefit. Difference-in-differences regression models were estimated for drug spending and utilization. Control variables included the employee's income, age, and gender, number of covered lives per contract, election of flexible spending account, health status, concurrent health shock, cohort, and time trend. Results. CDHP pharmaceutical expenditures were lower than those in the POS cohort in 1 year without differences in the use of brand name drugs. We find limited evidence of less drug consumption by CDHP enrollees with chronic illnesses, and some evidence of less generic drug use and more mail-order drug use among CDHP members. The CDHP is cost-neutral or cost-saving to both the employer and the employee compared with three-tier benefits with no differences in brand name drug use. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. Comparison of historical medical spending patterns among the BRICS and G7. (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo Michael


    The past few decades have been marked by a bold increase in national health spending across the globe. Rather successful health reforms in leading emerging markets such as BRICS reveal a reshaping of their medical care-related expenditures. There is a scarcity of evidence explaining differences in long-term medical spending patterns between top ranked G7 traditional welfare economies and the BRICS nations. A retrospective observational study was conducted on a longitudinal WHO Global Health Expenditure data-set based on the National Health Accounts (NHA) system. Data were presented in a simple descriptive manner, pointing out health expenditure dynamics and differences between the two country groups (BRICS and G7) and individual nations in a 1995-2013 time horizon. Average total per capita health spending still remains substantially higher among G7 (4747 Purchase Power Parity (PPP) $PPP in 2013) compared to the BRICS (1004 $PPP in 2013) nations. The percentage point share of G7 in global health expenditure (million current PPP international $US) has been falling constantly since 1995 (from 65% in 1995 to 53.2% in 2013), while in BRICS nations it grew (from 10.7% in 1995 to 20.2% in 2013). Chinese national level medical spending exceeded significantly that of all G7 members except the US in terms of current $PPP in 2013. Within a limited time horizon of only 19 years it appears that the share of global medical spending by the leading emerging markets has been growing steadily. Simultaneously, the world's richest countries' global share has been falling constantly, although it continues to dominate the landscape. If the contemporary global economic mainstream continues, the BRICS per capita will most likely reach or exceed the OECD average in future decades. Rising out-of-pocket expenses threatening affordability of medical care to poor citizens among the BRICS nations and a too low percentage of GDP in India remain the most notable setbacks of these developments.

  14. Improving Students' Understanding of Waves by Plotting a Displacement-Time Graph in Class (United States)

    Wei, Yajun


    The topic of waves is one that many high school physics students find difficult to understand. This is especially true when using some A-level textbooks1,2used in the U.K., where the concept of waves is introduced prior to the concept of simple harmonic oscillations. One of the challenges my students encounter is understanding the difference between displacement-time graphs and displacement-position graphs. Many students wonder why these two graphs have the same sinusoidal shape. Having the students use multimedia simulations allows them to see, in a hands-on fashion, the relationship between the two graphs.

  15. Emotional intelligence increases over time: A longitudinal study of Australian pre-registration nursing students. (United States)

    Foster, Kim; Fethney, Judith; McKenzie, Heather; Fisher, Murray; Harkness, Emily; Kozlowski, Desirée


    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been associated with positive outcomes for nursing students. Higher EI is associated with personal wellbeing and stress management, higher academic performance, stronger nursing leadership and practice performance, and greater patient safety. While there is an increasing body of evidence on nursing students' EI, there is minimal evidence on EI over time during pre-registration programs. To measure EI in pre-registration nursing students from program commencement to conclusion to ascertain EI over time and examine the relationship between EI and academic performance. Longitudinal repeated measures study between March 2010-February 2013 at a metropolitan university in Australia. 111 nursing students (74.8% female) contributed data on at least two occasions. Participants were enrolled in a pre-registration Master of Nursing degree. Half the cohort (55.0%) comprised Graduate Entry students who completed the course in two years full time. The other 45% were enrolled in an undergraduate degree in arts, science or health science, combined with the same pre-registration Master of Nursing Degree. These students completed their Combined Degree program in four years full time. Participants had a mean age of 24.7years (SD=7.36). EI was measured for commencing students (T1) using the Assessing Emotions Scale (AES), then a further three times: end of first year (T2; 9 months follow up); beginning of second year (12 months follow up; T3) and end of the program (T4; 24/36 months follow up). Students' EI was found to increase across the program; one subscale of EI (managing others' emotions) was related to higher academic performance; and there was a significant increase in the Utilising Emotions subscale scores over time. Pre-registration nurse education contributes to strengthening students' EI over time. Specific EI education scaffolded throughout programs is recommended in pre-registration curricula. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The economic downturn and its lingering effects reduced medicare spending growth by $4 billion in 2009-12. (United States)

    Dranove, David; Garthwaite, Craig; Ody, Christopher


    Previous work has found a strong connection between the most recent economic recession and reductions in private health spending. However, the effect of economic downturns on Medicare spending is less clear. In contrast to studies involving earlier time periods, our study found that when the macroeconomy slowed during the Great Recession of 2007-09, so did Medicare spending growth. A small (14 percent) but significant share of the decline in Medicare spending growth from 2009 to 2012 relative to growth from 2004 to 2009 can be attributed to lingering effects of the recession. Absent the economic downturn, Medicare spending would have been $4 billion higher in 2009-12. A major reason for the relatively small impact of the macroeconomy is the relative lack of labor-force participation among people ages sixty-five and older. We estimate that if they had been working at the same rate as the nonelderly before the recession, the effect of the downturn on Medicare spending growth would have been twice as large. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Mental health and substance use disorder spending in the Department of Veterans Affairs, fiscal years 2000-2007. (United States)

    Wagner, Todd H; Sinnott, Patricia; Siroka, Andrew M


    This study analyzed spending for treatment of mental health and substance use disorders in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in fiscal years (FYs) 2000 through 2007. VA spending as reported in the VA Decision Support System was linked to patient utilization data as reported in the Patient Treatment Files, the National Patient Care Database, and the VA Fee Basis files. All care and costs from FY 2000 to FY 2007 were analyzed. Over the study period the number of veterans treated at the VA increased from 3.7 million to over 5.1 million (an average increase of 4.9% per year), and costs increased .7% per person per year. For mental health and substance use disorder treatment, the volume of inpatient care decreased markedly, residential care increased, and spending decreased on average 2% per year (from $668 in FY 2000 to $578 per person in FY 2007). FY 2007 saw large increases in mental health spending, bucking the trend from FY 2000 through FY 2006. VA's continued emphasis on outpatient and residential care was evident through 2007. This trend in spending might be unimpressive if VA were enrolling healthier Veterans, but the opposite seems to be true: over this time period the prevalence of most chronic conditions, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, increased. VA spending on mental health care grew rapidly in 2007, and given current military activities, this trend is likely to increase.

  18. Determinants of Part-Time Adult Student Participation in Education. (United States)

    Hawk, Thomas R.

    A study was conducted to identify the factors that influence adults to continue their education by taking formal course work on a part-time basis. Using May 1981 Current Population Survey data gathered by the Bureau of the Census, the study assessed the importance of price, socioeconomic characteristics, family income, and unemployment rates in…

  19. Impact of learning adaptability and time management disposition on study engagement among Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. (United States)

    Liu, Jing-Ying; Liu, Yan-Hui; Yang, Ji-Peng


    The aim of this study was to explore the relationships among study engagement, learning adaptability, and time management disposition in a sample of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students. A convenient sample of 467 baccalaureate nursing students was surveyed in two universities in Tianjin, China. Students completed a questionnaire that included their demographic information, Chinese Utrecht Work Engagement Scale-Student Questionnaire, Learning Adaptability Scale, and Adolescence Time Management Disposition Scale. One-way analysis of variance tests were used to assess the relationship between certain characteristics of baccalaureate nursing students. Pearson correlation was performed to test the correlation among study engagement, learning adaptability, and time management disposition. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of time management disposition. The results revealed that study engagement (F = 7.20, P < .01) and learning adaptability (F = 4.41, P < .01) differed across grade groups. Learning adaptability (r = 0.382, P < .01) and time management disposition (r = 0.741, P < .01) were positively related with study engagement. Time management disposition had a partially mediating effect on the relationship between study engagement and learning adaptability. The findings implicate that educators should not only promote interventions to increase engagement of baccalaureate nursing students but also focus on development, investment in adaptability, and time management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dental students' part-time jobs in dental practices in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Poorterman, J H G; Dikkes, B T; Brand, H S


    In the Netherlands, the Individual Health Care Professions Act (IHCP Act) allows dental students, amongst other non-qualified individuals, to work under certain conditions in a dental practice. The aim of the study was to determine how many dental students have part-time employment in dental practice and which professional tasks they carry out. We also asked the dental students their opinion about the IHCP Act. All the enrolled dental students at the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA) in the Netherlands received a questionnaire by e-mail. Within 1 month, two reminders were sent. The response was 44% (427 students). Of the responding students, 71% had paid employment in addition to their study. Twenty-five per cent of all students worked in a dental practice, usually 8 h a week. Study year and age were positively related to working part-time in dental practice. Activities frequently performed were providing chair side assistance, giving oral hygiene instruction, fluoride applications, scaling and root planning. The self-reported knowledge about the IHCP Act was positively related to study year and working in a dental practice. Hardly any information about the requirements of the IHCP Act with regard to delegation of tasks was provided by the employer. Many Dutch dental students work in a dental practice, taking over a variety of tasks. Although the self-reported knowledge about the IHCP Act was relatively high, many dental students expressed the need for more detailed information about the legal aspects of their tasks.

  1. Real-time simulation: first-hand experience of the challenges of community nursing for students. (United States)

    Reynolds, Stephanie; Cooper-Stanton, Garry; Potter, Andrew


    The Community Challenge is a simulated community event for pre-registration nursing students across all four fields. Through the provision of real-time simulation, the Community Challenge has combined a deeper learning for both nursing students and the drama students who were involved in making the scenarios real and interactive. The event was run over 5 days, with positive evaluations from students and staff. Furthermore, Community Challenge has been found to be successful in expanding opportunities for students that align with national drivers, curriculum planning and interprofessional learning. The event has allowed students to engage in learning with other fields, enhancing their own practice. The Community Challenge has been found to enhance the link between theory and practice within primary care, promoting the relevance and importance of community care within nursing.

  2. "When" Students Miss School: The Role of Timing of Absenteeism on Students' Test Performance (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A.; Kirksey, J. Jacob


    Policy and practice have charged forward with emphasizing the necessity to reduce school absenteeism in the fall (i.e., Attendance Awareness Month). However, no empirical basis served to bolster these efforts. This study examined whether fall versus spring absenteeism was linked to spring state exam scores for a sample of elementary students over…

  3. Suicidal ideation and time perspective in high school students. (United States)

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baiocco, Roberto; D'Alessio, Maria; Gurrieri, Grazia


    Many studies have enlightened the relevance of deepening our knowledge of suicidal ideation among adolescents. However, research has given insufficient attention to the impact of time perspective on suicidal ideation: the present study confirms this relationship in a large sample of adolescents. A survey was conducted on a sample of 3700 Italian adolescents. We obtained data using a structured questionnaire addressing suicidal ideation, mental health status, self-esteem, individual and family characteristics, and time perspective (ZTPI) in three temporal frames: the past, present and future, and the attitude related to each one of them. Data were analyzed using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Overall, 9.2% of the sample reported severe suicidal ideation during the past two weeks; 7.6% reported moderate suicidal ideation. Female adolescents were more likely to report severe suicidal ideation when compared to males (chi((2))(2)=13.38, P=.001). There were no differences regarding age (chi((1))(2)=2.81, P=.245) and SES (chi((2))(2)=8.67, P=.08). The first discriminant function was mostly explained by psychopathological symptoms (General Global Index), self-esteem and two dimensions of the ZTPI (Negative Past and Fatalistic Present). Differences in time perspective dimensions between moderate and severe ideators suggest that these groups should be considered and analyzed as two discrete groups in further research.

  4. Travel Abroad: A Study of the Perceived Influence of High School Students' Experiences of Short-Term Travel or Study Abroad Prior to College (United States)

    Angwenyi, David Matara


    Students who participate in a short-term travel experience program of 4 weeks or less develop a sense of global citizenship. High school students who spend time traveling abroad might seek to address global issues, not only from a local perspective, but also from a global perspective. The Troika Study guided this study. Using qualitative…

  5. A Quantitative Causal-Comparative Nonexperimental Research Study of English Language Learner and Non-English Language Learner Students' Oral Reading Fluency Growth (United States)

    O'Loughlin, Tricia Ann


    Beginning learners of English progress through the same stages to acquire language. However, the length of time each student spends at a particular stage may vary greatly. Under the current educational policies, ELL students are expected to participate in the general education curriculum while developing their proficiency in the English language.…

  6. The Part-Time Student's Experience 1996-2007: An Issue of Identity and Marginalisation? (United States)

    Williams, James; Kane, David


    Part-time study is one of the foci of the widening participation agenda in the UK. The experiences of part-time students, however, have received remarkably little attention from scholars, especially in a comparative context. This paper explores existing historical data going back over a decade to identify the main themes of part-time experience at…

  7. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets☆ (United States)

    Payne, Collin R.; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R.; Kelly, Michael P.


    Objectives We assessed the efficacy of an easy-to-implement shopper marketing nutrition intervention in a pilot and two additional studies to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability or increasing shopper budgets. Methods We created grocery cart placards that detailed the number of produce items purchased (i.e., descriptive norm) at particular stores (i.e., provincial norm). The effect of these placards on produce spending was assessed across 971,706 individual person grocery store transactions aggregated by day. The pilot study designated a baseline period (in both control and intervention store) followed by installation of grocery cart placards (in the intervention store) for two weeks. The pilot study was conducted in Texas in 2012. In two additional stores, we designated baseline periods followed by 28 days of the same grocery cart placard intervention as in the pilot. Additional interventions were conducted in New Mexico in 2013. Results The pilot study resulted in a significant difference between average produce spending per day per person across treatment periods (i.e., intervention versus same time period in control) (16%) and the difference between average produce spending per day per person across stores in the control periods (4%); Furthermore, the same intervention in two additional stores resulted in significant produce spending increases of 12.4% and 7.5% per day per person respectively. In all stores, total spending did not change. Conclusions Descriptive and provincial social norm messages (i.e., on grocery cart placards) may be an overlooked tool to increase produce demand without decreasing store profitability and increasing shopper budgets. PMID:26844084

  8. Relationship Between Problematic Internet Use and Time Management Among Nursing Students. (United States)

    Öksüz, Emine; Guvenc, Gulten; Mumcu, Şule


    The Internet is an essential part of everyday life, particularly for the younger generation. The aims of this study were to evaluate nursing students' problematic Internet use and time management skills and to assess relationship between Internet use and time management. This descriptive study was conducted with 311 nursing students in Ankara, Turkey, from February to April 2016. The data were collected using the Problematic Internet Use Scale and Time Management Inventory. The Problematic Internet Use Scale and Time Management Inventory median scores were 59.58 ± 20.69 and 89.18 ± 11.28, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between both nursing students' Problematic Internet Use Scale and Time Management Inventory median scores and some variables (school grade, the time spent on the Internet). Fourth-year students were more prone to excessive use of the Internet and the resulting negative consequences than students from other year levels (P Internet use and time management (P Internet use of participants was not problematic and their time management skills were on a moderate level.

  9. Changes in health care spending and quality for Medicare beneficiaries associated with a commercial ACO contract. (United States)

    McWilliams, J Michael; Landon, Bruce E; Chernew, Michael E


    relative to an expected quarterly mean of $2895. Savings in year 1 were not significant (differential change, -$34; 95% CI, -$83 to $16; P = .18). Year 2 savings derived largely from lower spending on outpatient care (differential change, -$73; 95% CI, -$97 to -$50; P < .001), particularly for beneficiaries with 5 or more conditions, and included significant differential changes in spending on procedures, imaging, and tests. Annual rates of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol testing differentially improved for beneficiaries with diabetes in the intervention group by 3.1 percentage points (95% CI, 1.4-4.8 percentage points; P < .001) and for those with cardiovascular disease by 2.5 percentage points (95% CI, 1.1-4.0 percentage points; P < .001), but performance on other quality measures did not differentially change. The AQC was associated with lower spending for Medicare beneficiaries but not with consistently improved quality. Savings among Medicare beneficiaries and previously demonstrated savings among BCBS enrollees varied similarly across settings, services, and time, suggesting that organizational responses were associated with broad changes in patient care.

  10. Effect of chronotype and student learning time on mathematical ability based on self-regulated learning (United States)

    Ratnaningsih, N.; El Akbar, R. R.; Hidayat, E.


    One of ways to improve students' learning ability is conduct a research, with purpose to obtain a method to improve students' ability. Research often carried out on the modification of teaching methods, uses of teaching media, motivation, interests and talents of students. Research related to the internal condition of students becomes very interesting to studied, including research on circadian rhythms. Every person in circadian rhythms has its own Chronotype, which divided into two types namely early type and night late type. Chronotype affects the comfort in activity, for example a person with Chronotype category of early type tends to be more comfort in daytime activities. The purpose of this study is to examine the conditions of students, related Chronotype suitable or appropriate for student learning time. This suitability then studied in relation to the ability of learning mathematics with self- regulated learning approach. This study consists of three stages; (i) student Chronotype measurement, (ii) data retrieval, and (iii) analysis of research results. The results show the relationship between the students' learning ability in mathematics to learning time corresponding to Chronotype.

  11. Introducing sit-stand desks increases classroom standing time among university students. (United States)

    Jerome, Matthew; Janz, Kathleen F; Baquero, Barbara; Carr, Lucas J


    Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5-18 years) and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited 304 healthy undergraduate university students enrolled in one of two small (25 seats) classrooms at a large Midwestern university during the fall of 2016. Average minutes of standing/hour/student, average percent class time spent standing, and the number of sit-stand transitions/student/hour were directly observed with video camera surveillance. Participants stood significantly more (p classrooms as an approach to reduce sedentary behaviors of university students.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Time management is an important skill that every student in higher education institutions should acquire since it is one of the key factors in assuring excellent achievement in academic. Students with poor time-management skills are far more likely to be tressed and, as a result, have a negative impact on the quality of life. Thus, this paper discusses this issue based on a study among students of Electrical, Electronic & System Engineering at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia according to year of study and then establishes the relationship with the student's academic performance. Data were collected using a set of questionnaire carried out on 272 undergraduate students from year one to year four for 2015/2016 session. These data were then analysed using ANOVA statistical inference and Pearson correlations. Results revealed that time management skills of the respondents were at moderate level and established a negative correlation with year of study. This study also found significant findings where time management skills have a positive but weak correlation with student’s academic performance. These findings suggest the need for additional research to further refine the justifications of these measures. The university is also anticipated to provide a good platform for students to develop their time management skills at the early stage of their admission to university.

  13. Assessment of physical education time and after-school outdoor time in elementary and middle school students in south Mexico City: the dilemma between physical fitness and the adverse health effects of outdoor pollutant exposure. (United States)

    Villarreal-Calderón, Anna; Acuña, Hilda; Villarreal-Calderón, Jessica; Garduño, Mónica; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos F; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo


    Strategies to promote lifelong physical activity among children are needed to stem the adverse health consequences of inactivity. However, the health effects in growing children of long-term exposure to a polluted atmosphere are of deep concern. The atmosphere of south Mexico City (SMC) is characterized by a complex mixture of air pollutants, including ozone, particulate matter, and aldehydes. Radiological evidence suggests that small-airway disease could be present in clinically healthy, tobacco unexposed SMC children. The aim of this study was to assess, by means of a self-reported questionnaire, the physical education class times, daily outdoor after-school exposure time, and tobacco exposure in students attending public elementary and middle schools in SMC. Additionally, the time each student spent viewing television was assessed, and the authors measured each student's weight and height to determine body mass index (BMI, weight in kg divided by height in m2). The survey included 1,159 students in grades 7-9. The authors identified 2 critical periods of outdoor exposure in SMC children that coincided with significant concentrations of both ozone and particulate matter with diameters less than 10 micrometers (PM10): during school time after 11:00 A.M. and in the after-school outdoor activity period, usually extending from 1:00 P.M. to 6:00 P.M. Thirty-two percent of elementary and 61% of middle school students have physical education classes after 11:00 A.M. Students in SMC spend an average of 19.6 hr/wk outdoors in the after-school period, during which time they are engaged in light to moderate physical activities. Half of the students are exposed to tobacco smoke at home, and 7% of middle school students smoke. On the basis of BMI, 60% of students were classified as undernourished, overweight, or obese. No correlations were found between BMI and time spent viewing TV, time outdoors (on weekdays and weekends), or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke

  14. Money Buys Happiness When Spending Fits Our Personality. (United States)

    Matz, Sandra C; Gladstone, Joe J; Stillwell, David


    In contrast to decades of research reporting surprisingly weak relationships between consumption and happiness, recent findings suggest that money can indeed increase happiness if it is spent the "right way" (e.g., on experiences or on other people). Drawing on the concept of psychological fit, we extend this research by arguing that individual differences play a central role in determining the "right" type of spending to increase well-being. In a field study using more than 76,000 bank-transaction records, we found that individuals spend more on products that match their personality, and that people whose purchases better match their personality report higher levels of life satisfaction. This effect of psychological fit on happiness was stronger than the effect of individuals' total income or the effect of their total spending. A follow-up study showed a causal effect: Personality-matched spending increased positive affect. In summary, when spending matches the buyer's personality, it appears that money can indeed buy happiness. © The Author(s) 2016.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur OZSOY


    Full Text Available In this study, the rate of Defense Spendings in the GDP, and the growth rate of GDP, and the portion of current accounts in GDP and Annual Inflation Rate are examined with getting the annual data between the 1980-2006 years, and using VAR model for Egypt, Israel, Jordan, and Turkey. In course of this examination, the results of Granger Casuality and Impulse-Response Functions and Variance Decomposition were used. The focus point of our study is for the reason of defense spendings are effective on macroeconomic variables that while Egypt and Israel has uni-directional Granger causality from the defense spendings to inflation, for other countries there couldn`t be found any Granger causality. On the other hand when we look at the impulse response functions, in case of a shock of defense spending as a percentage of GNP, while the rate of Israel`s inflation and Current account as a percentage of GNP are affected by the pozitive direction , Turkey`s growth rate is affected negatively. For Egypt and Jordan, the significiant effects on defense spendings according to macroeconomic variables couldn`t be found any significiant effects.

  16. Nursing students' time management, reducing stress and gaining satisfaction: a grounded theory study. (United States)

    Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Rafii, Forough


    In the course of their studies, nursing students must learn many skills and acquire the knowledge required for their future profession. This study investigates how Iranian nursing students manage their time according to the circumstances and obstacles of their academic field. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Twenty-one nursing students were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the method suggested by Corbin and Strauss. One of the three processes that the nursing students used was "unidirectional time management." This pattern consists of accepting the nursing field, overcoming uncertainty, assessing conditions, feeling stress, and trying to reduce stress and create satisfaction. It was found that students allotted most of their time to academic tasks in an attempt to overcome their stress. The findings of this study indicate the need for these students to have time for the extra-curricular activities and responsibilities that are appropriate to their age. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  17. Time as a Measure: Elementary Students Positioning the Hands of an Analog Clock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell Earnest


    Full Text Available Elementary students have difficulty with the topic of time. The present study investigated students’ actions to position hour and minute hands on an analog clock to indicate particular times of the day. Using one-on-one interviews with students in Grades 2 and 4 (n = 48, we analyzed whether students were more accurate for one hand indicator (hour or minute versus the other as well as their solution approaches as they positioned each hand. We first present a quantitative analysis of student performance to document whether hour and minute hands posed differential challenges for students as they positioned hands to indicate particular times. Results indicate the hour hand is significantly more challenging to position accurately than the minute hand. Students’ solutions reflected varied approaches, including consideration of the quantitative hour-minute multiplicative relationship, attention to part-whole relations, and matching numbers from the provided time to numerals on the clock. We discuss implications for theory and instruction, including the relationship of time to length measure learning trajectories and the current treatment of time in K-12 mathematics standards for the United States.

  18. Time Prospects and Migratory Attitudes of Magadan Students at Different Stages of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Снежана Анатольевна Кузнецова


    Full Text Available The relevance of the study is due to the insufficient knowledge of the influence of conditions the migration-mobile region on the formation of time perspectives for young people. The purpose was to study the correlation of time perspectives and migration attitudes of Magadan students at different stages of education. Methods: a questionnaire for studying the time perspectives of ZPTI F. Zimbardo in the adaptation of A. Syrtsova and the “Scale of Migratory Personality Attitudes”, based on the author’s concept of migration attitudes. Conclusions: the study showed that as learning in the university decreases the role of assessing the past in the territorial self-determination of Magadan students and the role of satisfaction/dissatisfaction with the present increases. The younger students, satisfied with the past, are more committed to the place of residence, and the students of the senior courses are satisfied with the present. The dual role of meaningful people in forming the time perspectives of the undergraduates is revealed: expectations from relatives and support for the student’s migratory attitudes open up a future time perspectives for him, and vice versa, the absence of such leads to frustration, a sense of hopelessness described in the terminology of ZPTI as a “fatalistic present”. The lack of a link between their own migration attitudes and the time perspectives of the future means that some of the purposeful students connect their perspectives with the actual place of residence, some with a possible move.

  19. The Quality of Experience of Students with and without Special Educational Needs in Everyday Life and When Relating to Peers (United States)

    Zurbriggen, Carmen L. A.; Venetz, Martin; Hinni, Chantal


    The aim of this paper is to investigate the quality of experience of students with and without SEN in everyday life in general and when relating to peers in particular: (1) How do they experience everyday school life vs. leisure time? (2) How much time per week do they spend with peers outside school? and (3) How do they experience those peer…

  20. The Impact of Public Spending on Regional Economic Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Antonio Mendoza Tolosa


    Full Text Available The impact that public spending and investment have upon economic growth in the departments of Colombia is examined using the results of national accounts for the years 2000-2011. Figures for departmental production by activity, along with change over the period and information for the gross public capital are brought together to create a statistical model to assess effects. A data panel model is chosen to relate the existing differences between departments and compare the impact of spending and investment between departments using the available information. Results indicate that public spending and investment play an important role in departmental economic dynamic and that its effect is greater in larger and wealthier departments.

  1. Part-Time Work and Physical Activity in American High School Students. (United States)

    Van Domelen, Dane R


    To compare physical activity (PA) in American high school students who work part-time with those who do not work. Data were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2006 (n = 791). Work status was self-reported and PA was measured using accelerometers. In males, adjusted for age, race, and poverty-income ratio, workers averaged greater counts per minute, less sedentary time, and greater moderate-to-vigorous PA compared with nonworkers. In females, workers and nonworkers had similar counts per minute, whereas nonworkers had somewhat greater moderate-to-vigorous PA. There was a work-by-school status interaction on sedentary time (P = 0.021), whereby work was associated with less sedentary time among students not on break from school. In American high school students, work is associated with greater PA in males and a different composition of PA in females.

  2. Changes in the Social Responsibility Attitudes of Engineering Students Over Time. (United States)

    Bielefeldt, Angela R; Canney, Nathan E


    This research explored how engineering student views of their responsibility toward helping individuals and society through their profession, so-called social responsibility, change over time. A survey instrument was administered to students initially primarily in their first year, senior year, or graduate studies majoring in mechanical, civil, or environmental engineering at five institutions in September 2012, April 2013, and March 2014. The majority of the students (57 %) did not change significantly in their social responsibility attitudes, but 23 % decreased and 20 % increased. The students who increased, decreased, or remained the same in their social responsibility attitudes over time did not differ significantly in terms of gender, academic rank, or major. Some differences were found between institutions. Students who decreased in social responsibility initially possessed more positive social responsibility attitudes, were less likely to indicate that college courses impacted their views of social responsibility, and were more likely to have decreased in the frequency that they participated in volunteer activities, compared to students who did not change or increased their social responsibility. Although the large percentage of engineering students who decreased their social responsibility during college was disappointing, it is encouraging that courses and participation in volunteer activities may combat this trend.

  3. Teacher Time Spent on Student Health Issues and School Nurse Presence (United States)

    Hill, Nina Jean; Hollis, Marianne


    Elementary school teacher time spent on student health issues and the relationship to school nurse services was the focus of this 2-year study. A cross-sectional design was used to survey traditional and exceptional (special needs) classroom teachers about the time they spent on health issues and their perception of school nurse presence. The…

  4. The school-based mentoring experiences of part- time PGCE students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    enrolled in a part-time Post Graduate Certificate in Education (PGCE) programme at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. The ... knowledge, skills, values, attitudes and competences to engage in the activities of classroom practice. The prevalence of ...... make me a real teacher': learning experiences of part time PGCE students ...

  5. A Pilot Study Examining the Effects of Time Constraints on Student Performance in Accounting Classes (United States)

    Morris, David E., Sr.; Scott, John


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects, if any, of time constraints on the success of accounting students completing exams. This study examined how time allowed to take exams affected the grades on examinations in three different accounting classes. Two were sophomore classes and one was a senior accounting class. This limited pilot…

  6. What Makes Elementary School Students Read in Their Leisure Time? Development of a Comprehensive Questionnaire (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth M.; Birnbaum, Lisa; Kröner, Stephan


    Why should children read in their leisure time? Reading may contribute to the acquisition of reading literacy and may foster integral human development. However, there has been a scarcity of research on determinants of leisure time reading among elementary school students, especially regarding environmental aspects. In this article, the authors…

  7. Relations between Self Regulation, Future Time Perspective and the Delay of Gratification in University Students (United States)

    Avci, Suleyman


    The present study was conducted on 508 (331 female, 144 male) first grade university students in order to investigate the relations between self regulation, the future time perspectives, and the delay of gratification in the academic field. A future time perspective scale, an academic delay of gratification scale and a motivational strategies for…

  8. The Relationships among Imagination, Future Imagination Tendency, and Future Time Perspective of Junior High School Students (United States)

    Tsai, Min-Ying


    The main purpose of the study were to investigate the relationships among imagination, future imagination tendency, and future time perspective of junior high school students, then to explore the future time perspective which is predicted by background variables, imaginative qualities, and future imagination tendency. The subjects were 331 from…

  9. Social network site use among Dutch students: Effects of time and platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Utz, S.; Comunello, F.


    This chapter compares the SNS use of Dutch students across time and platforms. Between 2009 (n = 194) and 2010 (n = 212), many users migrated from Hyves, the hitherto largest Dutch SNS, to Facebook. Comparisons between the two years showed that SNS use remained relatively stable over time; only

  10. The Association between Elementary School Start Time and Students' Academic Achievement in Wayzata Public Schools (United States)

    Dupuis, Danielle N.


    The Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI) conducted two analyses with the purpose of examining the association between elementary school start time and students' academic achievement in mathematics and reading in Wayzata Public Schools. The first analysis examined the association between elementary school start time and…

  11. Using cover, copy, and compare spelling with and without timing for elementary students with behavior disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danette Darrow


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cover, copy, and compare (CCC procedures on spelling performance with two students. The participants were two elementary students enrolled in a self-contained behavior intervention classroom. A multiple baseline design across participants was employed to evaluate the effects of CCC on time to completion and words spelled correctly. Improvements in all measures were found when CCC was in effect. The participants enjoyed the procedures and each improved their spelling over baseline performance. The applicability of CCC across academic contexts and for students with behavior disorders was discussed.

  12. Fostering students' experimentation skills - developmental time and offspring rates of flour beetles


    Asshoff, R.; Roth, Olivia


    Tribolium castanaeum is a widespread insect in temperate regions. Because of its short generation time and easy handling, it serves as a model organism for various scientific questions. However, T. castanaeum, or its larger-sized relative Tenebrio molitor, can also he used at a school or college level to foster students' experimentation skills. We present a set of inquiry tasks that build stepwise on one another, using T. castanaeum or T. molitor as the model. The students will learn not only...

  13. Why Hong Kong students favour more face-to-face classroom time in blended learning


    Henri,James; Lee,Sandra


    A three year study in student characteristics, needs and learning styles guided instructors at the University of Hong Kong Faculty of Education to improve teaching and learning in a core module: Information Literacy. A mixed-method approach analyzed data collected from undergraduate, in-service teachers in a BEd program, and helped instructors in the program to gain insight into the Hong Kong teacher working, post-service towards a BEd in Library and Information Science. Part-time students in...

  14. Public Health's Falling Share of US Health Spending. (United States)

    Himmelstein, David U; Woolhandler, Steffie


    We examined trends in US public health expenditures by analyzing historical and projected National Health Expenditure Accounts data. Per-capita public health spending (inflation-adjusted) rose from $39 in 1960 to $281 in 2008, and has fallen by 9.3% since then. Public health's share of total health expenditures rose from 1.36% in 1960 to 3.18% in 2002, then fell to 2.65% in 2014; it is projected to fall to 2.40% in 2023. Public health spending has declined, potentially undermining prevention and weakening responses to health inequalities and new health threats.

  15. Senate panel boosts DOE spending, save Yucca account

    CERN Multimedia

    Behrens, L


    The Senate Appropriations Committee last week approved an energy and water spending bill with $21 billion for the Energy Department, $426 million more than the Bush administration requested, and $1.1 billion more than the agency received in the financial year 2000. The bill would provide increases above the Bush request and current spending across-the-board in DOE's renewable energy, nuclear energy, science, weapons complex cleanup, defense and nonproliferation programs. The only major program that would be funded below the president's request is nuclear waste disposal (1 page).

  16. Design of governmental policies for oil production rates and oil income spending. A long-term perspective. [Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxnes, E


    In 1980, oil production in Norway amounted to 1 million barrels per day. Taxes and royalties to the government from this production provides 9 per cent of the GNP. With current estimates of recoverable reserves, the 1980 production rate would last for 100 years. Decisions about oil production rates and oil income spending have tremendous impact on society. Attemps to design an appropriate oil policy are complicated by uncertainty about total reserves, future oil prices and complex economic responses to production and income. This report provides and integrating framework to aid government officials in their evaluation of policy options. A system dynamics model of the Norwegian national economy is developed for the analysis. The model determines endogenously the spending of oil income, GNP, consumption and investments, imports and exports, unemployment and labor migration from exporting industries to service industries; all variables result from exogenous decisions about oil production. Though the model is based on behavioral theory of economic decision making at the microeconomic level, it reproduces well major behavior modes of macroeconomic indicators from the 1970s. The most attractive oil policy has been found to be a dynamic and firm ceiling on spending. Dynamic means that growth in spending should be limited, spending should not increase unless the economy is appropriately buffered against oil price drops by foreign savings and spending should never exceed a maximum ceiling set to ensure a desirabel distribution of benefits and problems over time. Firm means that the ceiling cannot be changed by Parliament within an election period. If a firm ceiling on spending is politically infeasible, oil production should be kept lower than otherwise.

  17. The effects of mental health parity on spending and utilization for bipolar, major depression, and adjustment disorders. (United States)

    Busch, Alisa B; Yoon, Frank; Barry, Colleen L; Azzone, Vanessa; Normand, Sharon-Lise T; Goldman, Howard H; Huskamp, Haiden A


    The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act requires insurance parity for mental health/substance use disorder and general medical services. Previous research found that parity did not increase mental health/substance use disorder spending and lowered out-of-pocket spending. Whether parity's effects differ by diagnosis is unknown. The authors examined this question in the context of parity implementation in the Federal Employees Health Benefits (FEHB) Program. The authors compared mental health/substance use disorder treatment use and spending before and after parity (2000 and 2002, respectively) for two groups: FEHB enrollees diagnosed in 1999 with bipolar disorder, major depression, or adjustment disorder (N=19,094) and privately insured enrollees unaffected by the policy in a comparison national sample (N=10,521). Separate models were fitted for each diagnostic group. A difference-in-difference design was used to control for secular time trends and to better reflect the specific impact of parity on spending and utilization. Total spending was unchanged among enrollees with bipolar disorder and major depression but decreased for those with adjustment disorder (-$62, 99.2% CI=-$133, -$11). Out-of-pocket spending decreased for all three groups (bipolar disorder: -$148, 99.2% CI=-$217, -$85; major depression: -$100, 99.2% CI=-$123, -$77; adjustment disorder: -$68, 99.2% CI=-$84, -$54). Total annual utilization (e.g., medication management visits, psychotropic prescriptions, and mental health/substance use disorder hospitalization bed days) remained unchanged across all diagnoses. Annual psychotherapy visits decreased significantly only for individuals with adjustment disorders (-12%, 99.2% CI=-19%, -4%). Parity implemented under managed care improved financial protection and differentially affected spending and psychotherapy utilization across groups. There was some evidence that resources were preferentially preserved for diagnoses that are typically more

  18. Past Negative Time Perspective as a Predictor of Grade Point Average in Occupational Therapy Doctoral Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pat J. Precin


    Full Text Available Time perspective is a fundamental dimension in psychological time, dividing human experiences into past, present, and future. Time perspective influences individuals’ functioning in all occupations, including education. Previous research has examined the relationship between time perspective and academic outcomes, but the same research has not been done, to date, with occupational therapy doctoral students. This quantitative, cross-sectional study investigated the relationship between time perspective and academic success in occupational therapy doctoral students across the United States. Data from the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI and grade point averages (GPAs were collected from 50 participants via Past Negative time perspective statistically predicted GPA in the negative direction (p = .001 for students in pre-professional OTD programs, but did not predict GPA for post-professional students. Age, gender, and learning environment did not significantly influence the prediction of GPA in either group. The method and results of this study demonstrate that the ZTPI, an instrument used in the field of psychology, may have value in the profession of occupational therapy and occupational therapy doctoral programs.

  19. Digital Game-Based Textbook vs. Traditional Print-Based Textbook: The Effect of Textbook Format on College Students' Engagement with Textbook Content outside of the Classroom (United States)

    Thomas, Antonio Lamar


    The relatively little amount of time that some college students spend reading their textbooks outside of the classroom presents a significant threat to their academic success. Using Prenksy's (2001) digital game-based learning (DGBL) principles and Astin's student involvement theory as frameworks, the purpose of this true experiment was to…

  20. Investigating Daily Mobile Device Use Among University Students in Indonesia (United States)

    Pratama, Ahmad R.


    This study investigates daily mobile device use among Indonesian university students by using survey data collected in the first quarter of 2016. The data show that 55.49% of the students spend more than five hours a day on their mobile devices. OLS regression analysis shows that female students, owners of the most expensive smartphone or tablet, and those who access social media apps and play mobile games frequently are more likely to spend more time on their mobile devices each day. Contrary to that, those who consider themselves as laggards are less likely to do so. The findings in this study help better understand how university students in Indonesia use their mobile device and lay a foundation as part of a larger research agenda about the relationship between mobile technology and education in Indonesia.

  1. Redesigning Schools to Reach Every Student with Excellent Teachers: Financial Planning for Time-Technology Swap--Rotation Model (United States)

    Public Impact, 2012


    This brief shows how teachers in a Time-Technology swap school model may earn more, sustainably. In this model, schools use age-appropriate portions of digital learning (as little as about an hour daily per student) to free the time of excellent teachers to teach more students and potentially to collaborate with peers. By teaching more students,…

  2. Employability and Students' Part-Time Work in the UK: Does Self-Efficacy and Career Aspiration Matter? (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Evans, Carl; Richardson, Mark; Ridolfo, Mark


    Amid a growing focus on graduate employability, this study examines the relationship between students' part-time work, career aspirations and self-efficacy, in a survey of 357 UK students from two post-92 universities. The results suggest a positive and significant relationship between part-time work and career aspiration. Students who work…

  3. Chinese Undergraduate Students' Work Values: The Role of Parental Work Experience and Part-Time Work Quality (United States)

    Cheung, Francis Yue-lok; Tang, Catherine So-kum


    In this study, the authors investigated the association of perceived parental job insecurity and students' part-time work quality on work values among 341 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. Correlation and regression results showed that work values were strongly related to students' part-time work satisfaction and work quality. In…

  4. Relationship between time management skills and anxiety and academic motivation of nursing students in Tehran. (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Arezoo Mohamadkhani; Naderi, Manijeh; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri; Ahmadi, Farzane; Hosseini, Meimanat


    Time management skills are essential for nursing students' success, and development of clinical competence. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between time management skills and anxiety and academic motivation of nursing students in Tehran medical sciences universities in 2015. This cross-sectional study was carried out on 441 nursing students in three medical universities in Tehran. Random stratified sampling was done to select the samples. Data were collected using demographic Questionnaire, Time Management Questionnaire (TMQ), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Academic Motivation Scale (AMS), which was completed t by self-report. Data were analyzed using SPSS 18 software with descriptive and analytical statistics such as ANOVA, independent t-test, Regression and Pearson Correlation Coefficient. Most participants had a moderate level of time Management skills (49%), State Anxiety (58%), Trait Anxiety (60%) and Academic Motivation (58%). The results also showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the students' TMQ scores and the state anxiety (r= -0.282, ptime management skills in order to enhance academic motivation and reduce anxiety rates among nursing students.

  5. Fiscal Policy Puzzles and Intratemporal Substitution among Private Consumption, Government Spending and Leisure.


    Masataka Eguchi; Yuhki Hosoya


    This paper investigates how does the response of private consumption to government spending be changed by intratemporal substitution among private consumption, government spending and leisure. We show that the response of private consumption to government spending can be positive even if private consumption and government spending are not complements and private consumption and leisure are not substitutes. In this case, substitution between leisure and government spending plays important role...

  6. Middle Schoolers and Magazines: What Teachers Can Learn from Students' Leisure Reading Habits (United States)

    Gabriel, Rachael; Allington, Richard; Billen, Monica


    Teachers, parents, and librarians are constantly looking for methods and materials that engage students as readers and motivate them to increase the time they spend reading. In this article we describe findings from a study of middle schoolers' magazine reading habits that gave us a close look at the power of magazines as supplemental supports for…

  7. When Socratic Dialogue Is Flagging: Questions and Strategies for Engaging Students (United States)

    Gose, Michael


    The author studied the pedagogy of Socrates looking for teaching techniques that help maintain students' interest in an ongoing discussion. Socrates' use of such strategies as asking probing questions, expanding the discussion into its relationship to other ideas, assuming the role of the devil's advocate, and spending time on group maintenance…

  8. A Study on the Rationale of Social Media Use by the Students of King Khalid University (United States)

    Ahmed, Sayed Salahuddin; Hassan, Abdulkhaleq Q. A.


    Is not it deplorable that in a country that tops in the entire world in using several social media sites does not utilize the same media in acquiring knowledge and skills? In Saudi Arabia, undergraduate students spend a significant amount of time on social media every day, but they are reluctant (or not motivated enough) to use the same media for…

  9. A Survey of Career Guidance Needs of Industrial Design Students in Taiwanese Universities (United States)

    Yang, Ming-Ying; You, Manlai


    School pupils in Taiwan spend most of their time in studying and having examinations, and consequently many of them decide what major to study in universities rather hastily. Industrial design (ID) programs in universities nowadays recruit students from general and vocational senior high schools through a variety of channels. As a consequence, ID…

  10. Are Sojourners Natural Comparativists? Critical Perspectives on the Learning Experiences of International Students (United States)

    Schweisfurth, Michele


    Students who spend a period of time studying outside of their own national systems have a number of advantages in terms of developing a comparative perspective on education. The experience of living and studying abroad provides them with the opportunity to act as participant observers of at least two different systems, and the natural…

  11. Supporting Student Mental Health: The Role of the School Nurse in Coordinated School Mental Health Care (United States)

    Bohnenkamp, Jill H.; Stephan, Sharon H.; Bobo, Nichole


    School nurses play a critical role in the provision of mental health services in the school environment and are valuable members of the coordinated student mental health team. They possess expertise to navigate in today's complicated educational and health care systems, and it is estimated that school nurses spend 33% of their time addressing…

  12. Addressing Students' Difficulties with Faraday's Law: A Guided Problem Solving Approach (United States)

    Zuza, Kristina; Almudí, José-Manuel; Leniz, Ane; Guisasola, Jenaro


    In traditional teaching, the fundamental concepts of electromagnetic induction are usually quickly analyzed, spending most of the time solving problems in a more or less rote manner. However, physics education research has shown that the fundamental concepts of the electromagnetic induction theory are barely understood by students. This article…

  13. A Necessary Addiction: Student Conceptualizations of Technology and Its Impact on Teaching and Learning (United States)

    Bauer, Laurie B.


    The near constant use of technology today has led to widespread changes in the way literacy is imagined, used, and theorized. Since college students spend a significant amount of time using and being involved with various acts of technology, there is no doubt that their literate lives are changing and adapting as well. Although most college-aged…

  14. Cyber Bullying Victimization of Elementary School Students and Their Reflections on the Victimization (United States)

    Sezer, Merve; Sahin, Ismail; Akturk, Ahmet Oguz


    With the use of developing technology, mostly in communication and entertainment, students spend considerable time on the Internet. In addition to the advantages provided by the Internet, social isolation brings problems such as addiction. This is one of the problems of the virtual violence. Cyber bullying is the common name of the intensities…

  15. Inequalities in Parental Spending on Young Children: 1980-2010 (United States)

    Kornrich, Sabino


    Using 1972-2000 data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey (CES), a nationally representative survey of spending conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, this paper investigates changes in the income-based gap in monetary investments in children under the age of six, when most children typically have entered school in the United States. The…

  16. Judging Money: When Courts Decide How to Spend Taxpayer Dollars (United States)

    Dunn, Josh; Derthick, Martha


    Since the 1970s, proponents of greater spending in disadvantaged school districts have pursued their goal through litigation in state courts. They have brought suits in 45 of the 50 states. These suits began with claims of equity, which sought to redistribute revenues from rich to poor districts. Disappointed with the results, within a decade the…

  17. Spending Behavior of the Teaching Personnel in an Asian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niño Philip L. Perculeza


    Full Text Available Money, through the years, has been a commodity for everyone. As it is termed in international trade parlance, it is considered to be “sine qua non” or without which, nothing could be done. This study aimed to determine the current status of the spending practices of the teaching personnel in Lyceum of the Philippines University – Batangas; specifically, their profile, spending behavior and their encountered problems related to the forgoing matter. This study is descriptive in nature. It was participated by 161 teaching personnel of LPU-Batangas computed and selected through the G* power series with an effective size of 40 percent and power size of 95 percent. It made use of an adopted and modified questionnaire as its primary data gathering instrument which has three parts. The needed data were encoded, tallied and interpreted using different statistical tools such as frequency distribution, ranking, weighted mean and F-Test; and were further analyzed and interpreted through PASW version 19 using 0.05 alpha levels. From the results, it was concluded that the respondents had an often type of spending on the Basic Necessity. Moreover, overspending is the problem that was most encountered by the respondents. Various recommendations were posted by the researchers including a proposed plan of action that could help improve the spending behavior of the faculty members of LPU Batangas.

  18. Elderly Bias, New Social Risks, and Social Spending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepe, Markus; Vanhuysse, Pieter


    of the large-scale arrival of such risks 'on the ground' does play a key role. Countries that entered the postindustrial society comparatively late record lower NSRS values, as they spend less on programs such as education and family allowances. Institutional differences as captured by welfare regime type...

  19. Communicating Spending Cuts: Lessons for Australian University Leaders (United States)

    Sharrock, Geoff


    In 2011 and 2012, two Australian university vice chancellors flagged spending cuts at their institutions to overcome financial problems. In both cases, union and staff opposition led to public protests, intense media scrutiny, delays and retreats. This article compares the two cases to see what lessons may be drawn for university leaders faced…

  20. An Empirical Approach to Determining Advertising Spending Level. (United States)

    Sunoo, D. H.; Lin, Lynn Y. S.

    To assess the relationship between advertising and consumer promotion and to determine the optimal short-term advertising spending level for a product, a research project was undertaken by a major food manufacturer. One thousand homes subscribing to a dual-system cable television service received either no advertising exposure to the product or…

  1. [Central purchasing bodies and spending review in health sector]. (United States)

    Spampinato, Luigi


    The aim of this paper is to analyze the new model of centralization of purchases in Italy after the approval of the 2016 Stability Law, with particular reference to the health sector. In fact, the spending review process in Italy in the health sector has had a strong evolution with the 2016 Stability Law, which has introduced the obligation for the institutions of the National Health Service to obtain supplies, exclusively, from aggregators subjects, for certain product categories of the health sector. The legislature, over the years, was mainly characterized by measures to reduce the spending limits for purchases of goods and services or by resetting the fees, including the provision of an obligation for the renegotiation of health goods and services contracts, in order to ensure the effective implementation of the expenditure rationalization by aggregation of goods and services. From 2016, the legislature has provided an innovative model of centralization of purchases based on a new network governance model on several levels, national and regional, which should ensure an efficiency of procurement processes. The proper functioning of the governance model adopted can be an important driver of economic policy in order to understand that it is important not only to spend less, but to spend better. This can be realized in the public administration with a strong innovation process in this administration and also with a strong investment in skills, in order to ensure the same service quality throughout the national territory to the health sector.

  2. Review of "Spend Smart: Fix Our Broken School Funding System" (United States)

    Baker, Bruce


    ConnCAN's Spend Smart: "Fix Our Broken School Funding System" was released concurrently with a bill introduced in the Connecticut legislature, based on the principles outlined in the report. However, the report is of negligible value to the policy debate over Connecticut school finance because it provides little or no support for any of…

  3. Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health spending, illicit financial flows and tax incentives in Malawi. B O'Hare, M Curtis. Abstract. This analysis examines the gaps in health care financing in Malawi and how foregone taxes could fill these gaps. It begins with an assessment of the disease burden and government health expenditure. Then it analyses the tax ...

  4. Florida's Opinion on K-12 Public Education Spending (United States)

    Forster, Greg


    This scientifically representative poll of 1,200 Floridians finds that public opinion about K-12 public education spending is seriously misinformed. Floridians think public schools need more money, but the main reason is that they are badly mistaken about how much money the public schools actually get. Key findings of the study include: (1) Half…

  5. Effect of an environmental science curriculum on students' leisure time activities (United States)

    Blum, Abraham

    Cooley and Reed's active interest measurement approach was combined with Guttman's Facet Design to construct a systematic instrument for the assessment of the impact of an environmental science course on students' behavior outside school. A quasimatched design of teacher allocation to the experimental and control groups according to their preferred teaching style was used. A kind of dummy control curriculum was devised to enable valid comparative evaluation of a new course which differs from the traditional one in both content and goal. This made it possible to control most of the differing factors inherent in the old and new curriculum. The research instrument was given to 1000 students who were taught by 28 teachers. Students who learned according to the experimental curriculum increased their leisure time activities related to the environmental science curriculum significantly. There were no significant differences between boys and girls and between students with different achievement levels.

  6. Slesers says spend, spend, spend

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    5. augustil kinnitas Läti Esimene Partei/Läti Tee parlamendivalimiste valimisplatvormi, mille peamine mõte seisneb selles, et raha tuleb teenida, mitte säästa. Zatlersi Reformierakond on samuti oma valimisplatvormi kinnitanud

  7. Examination about the effects of future career choice on time perspective in Japanese high school students. (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Manabu


    This study investigated types of career choice in high school students and examined the effects of career paths on time perspective development. The participants were 4,756 third grade students from nine public high schools in Tokyo. The high school questionnaire survey was conducted throughout autumn of 2008, 2009, and 2010. One year later, 962 graduates participated in the follow-up questionnaire survey by post. Distinguishing gender difference among career paths was found. Girls tend to choose significantly shorter learning careers (p time perspective than other groups (p time perspective between "school to school transition" and "school to work transition". It is suggested that the "school to work transition" tends to be more critical for adolescents and has negative effects on time perspective. These results suggest that the goal content in careers may promote or inhibit the formation of time perspectives during the graduation transition.

  8. Vliv masmédií na volný čas u studentů středních škol


    VÍTKOVÁ, Petra


    ABSTRACT Mass Media and Their Impact on Leisure Time Activities of Secondary School Students Key words:media, television, internet, leisure time, teen-agers, value orientation, leisure time, non-profit organization This bachelor?s thesis deals with determination of basic terms related to mass media and their impact on leisure time spending of students at South-Bohemian secondary schools. This work is divided into theoretical and practical parts. In the theoretical part, basic terms are explai...

  9. The association between time perspective and alcohol consumption in university students: cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Beenstock, Jane; Adams, Jean; White, Martin


    Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Levels of alcohol consumption among students and young people are particularly high. Time perspective describes the varying value individuals place on outcomes in the present and future. In general, it has been found that individuals prefer to receive a gain today rather than in the future. There is evidence that time perspective is associated with addictive health behaviours, including alcoholism and cigarette smoking, but less evidence of its association with non-addictive, but hazardous, levels of alcohol consumption. The objective was to determine if there is an association between time perspective and hazardous alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey using a self-completion questionnaire was administered to willing undergraduate students attending a convenience sample of lectures in two university faculties. Hazardous alcohol consumption was defined as a score of ≥8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and time perspective was measured using the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS). Participants were 322 undergraduate university students in two faculties at a university in Northern England, UK. Hazardous alcohol consumption was reported by 264 (82%) respondents. After controlling for potential confounding by socio-demographic variables, greater consideration of future consequences was associated with lower odds of reporting hazardous drinking [odds ratio = 0.28; 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.54]. Interventions aimed at increasing future orientated time perspective may be effective in decreasing hazardous alcohol consumption in students.

  10. Consumption of food away from home in Bangladesh: Do rich households spend more? (United States)

    Mottaleb, Khondoker A; Rahut, Dil Bahadur; Mishra, Ashok K


    While consumption of food away from home (FAFH) is an established phenomenon among households in the developed countries, FAFH is a growing phenomenon in many middle-income and rapidly growing developing countries. Although, studies are available on the factors affecting consumption of FAFH in developed countries, there is a paucity of such studies in developing countries. This study examines households' choice of and expenditures on FAFH. We used information from Bangladeshi households and applied a double-hurdle regression model estimation procedure. Findings show that, in general, rich households are spending proportionately less on FAFH and, over time, the trend is continuing. Although households with female members who work in the non-farm sector are more likely to consume FAFH, educated household heads and spouses, and particularly urban households are less likely to consume and spend on FAFH. As the problem of food adulteration by dishonest sellers is rampant in Bangladesh, perhaps it discourages rich, urban and households headed by educated heads and spouses to consume and spend more on FAFH. Based on the findings, some points of interventions are also prescribed in this study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Michigan's fee-for-value physician incentive program reduces spending and improves quality in primary care. (United States)

    Lemak, Christy Harris; Nahra, Tammie A; Cohen, Genna R; Erb, Natalie D; Paustian, Michael L; Share, David; Hirth, Richard A


    As policy makers and others seek to reduce health care cost growth while improving health care quality, one approach gaining momentum is fee-for-value reimbursement. This payment strategy maintains the traditional fee-for-service arrangement but includes quality and spending incentives. We examined Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan's Physician Group Incentive Program, which uses a fee-for-value approach focused on primary care physicians. We analyzed the program's impact on quality and spending from 2008 to 2011 for over three million beneficiaries in over 11,000 physician practices. Participation in the incentive program was associated with approximately 1.1 percent lower total spending for adults (5.1 percent lower for children) and the same or improved performance on eleven of fourteen quality measures over time. Our findings contribute to the growing body of evidence about the potential effectiveness of models that align payment with cost and quality performance, and they demonstrate that it is possible to transform reimbursement within a fee-for-service framework to encourage and incentivize physicians to provide high-quality care, while also reducing costs. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  12. Predicting Factors of Perceived Organizational Support by Full-Time and Part-Time Community College Faculty as Relates to Student Retention Rates (United States)

    Nichols, Sarah K.


    Student retention is socially, politically, and financially important to educational institutions. This quantitative study explored the gap in research regarding the relationship between employment of part-time in lieu of full-time faculty and student retention. The campus climate exchange model (CCEM), served as the conceptual framework in this…

  13. Just-in-Time Teaching Techniques through Web Technologies for Vocational Students' Reading and Writing Abilities (United States)

    Chantoem, Rewadee; Rattanavich, Saowalak


    This research compares the English language achievements of vocational students, their reading and writing abilities, and their attitudes towards learning English taught with just-in-time teaching techniques through web technologies and conventional methods. The experimental and control groups were formed, a randomized true control group…

  14. Role of Text and Student Characteristics in Real-Time Reading Processes across the Primary Grades (United States)

    de Leeuw, Linda; Segers, Eliane; Verhoeven, Ludo


    Although much is known about beginning readers using behavioural measures, real-time processes are still less clear. The present study examined eye movements (skipping rate, gaze, look back and second-pass duration) as a function of text-related (difficulty and word class) and student-related characteristics (word decoding, reading comprehension,…

  15. The Impact of Part-Time Staff on Art & Design Students' Ratings of Their Programmes (United States)

    Yorke, Mantz


    Art & Design receives ratings on a number of scales of the UK's National Student Survey (NSS) that are less strong than those for some other subject areas. Art & Design, along with performing arts, is characterised by a relatively high level of part-time (PT) staffing. PT staffing data are set against NSS ratings for post-92 universities…

  16. Non-Adherence to Study Time Management Strategies among NOUN Students and Implications for Academic Stress (United States)

    Okopi, Fidel O.


    The study was designed to investigate the NOUN students' non-adherence to their time management strategies (TMS) during the course of their studies. The researcher also wanted to find out whether their gender, age, marital and employment statuses have influence on their adherence/non-adherence to the plan or not. The researcher also examined the…

  17. Identification of critical time-consuming student support activities in e-learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, Fred; Kester, Liesbeth; Sloep, Peter; Van Rosmalen, Peter; Pannekeet, Kees; Koper, Rob


    Please cite the original publication: De Vries, F., Kester, L., Sloep, P., Van Rosmalen, P., Pannekeet, K., & Koper, R. (2005). Identification of critical time-consuming student support activities in e-learning. Research in Learning Technology (ALT-J), 13(3), 219-229.

  18. Focusing on Student Learning to Guide the Use of Staff Time (United States)

    Bates, Imelda; Baume, David; Assinder, Susan


    The paper develops and illustrates a model for designing courses. The model gives explicit attention to educational considerations, principally to the importance of active, goal-directed student learning. It also explores economic considerations, principally how to make the best possible use of the time of the teacher in planning and running the…

  19. Enhancing Student Motivation: A Longitudinal Intervention Study Based on Future Time Perspective Theory (United States)

    Schuitema, Jaap; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke


    The authors investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspective (FTP) theory, has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (T. T. D. Peetsma & I. Van der Veen, 2008, 2009). The authors extend the…

  20. How Students Learn from Multiple Contexts and Definitions: Proper Time as a Coordination Class (United States)

    Levrini, Olivia; diSessa, Andrea A.


    This article provides an empirical analysis of a single classroom episode in which students reveal difficulties with the concept of proper time in special relativity but slowly make progress in improving their understanding. The theoretical framework used is "coordination class theory," which is an evolving model of concepts and conceptual change.…

  1. A View from the Inside: Collaborating with Students to Flip the Classroom in Real Time (United States)

    Zavattaro, Staci M.; Kus, Kristina; Lademann, Jason; Peeple-Briggs, Elizabeth


    This article details decisions made to flip a small, public administration graduate-level course in real time. Interweaving student feedback with instructor notes and reflections gives a unique, personal look into a scenario-based course that changed weekly. We detail this dynamism, highlighting successes and failures in flipping the classroom.…

  2. Creating Deep Time Diaries: An English/Earth Science Unit for Middle School Students (United States)

    Jordan, Vicky; Barnes, Mark


    Students love a good story. That is why incorporating literary fiction that parallels teaching goals and standards can be effective. In the interdisciplinary, thematic six-week unit described in this article, the authors use the fictional book "The Deep Time Diaries," by Gary Raham, to explore topics in paleontology, Earth science, and creative…

  3. Foreign language classroom anxiety : A study of Chinese university students of Japanese and English over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Yinxing


    This PhD project mainly aimed at exploring the relationship between foreign language (FL) anxiety and FL proficiency development, the sources of FL anxiety, and the stability of FL anxiety over time and across target languages. To this end, 146 L1 Chinese university students, who had been learning

  4. Evolution and patterns of global health financing 1995-2014: development assistance for health, and government, prepaid private, and out-of-pocket health spending in 184 countries. (United States)


    An adequate amount of prepaid resources for health is important to ensure access to health services and for the pursuit of universal health coverage. Previous studies on global health financing have described the relationship between economic development and health financing. In this study, we further explore global health financing trends and examine how the sources of funds used, types of services purchased, and development assistance for health disbursed change with economic development. We also identify countries that deviate from the trends. We estimated national health spending by type of care and by source, including development assistance for health, based on a diverse set of data including programme reports, budget data, national estimates, and 964 National Health Accounts. These data represent health spending for 184 countries from 1995 through 2014. We converted these data into a common inflation-adjusted and purchasing power-adjusted currency, and used non-linear regression methods to model the relationship between health financing, time, and economic development. Between 1995 and 2014, economic development was positively associated with total health spending and a shift away from a reliance on development assistance and out-of-pocket (OOP) towards government spending. The largest absolute increase in spending was in high-income countries, which increased to purchasing power-adjusted $5221 per capita based on an annual growth rate of 3·0%. The largest health spending growth rates were in upper-middle-income (5·9) and lower-middle-income groups (5·0), which both increased spending at more than 5% per year, and spent $914 and $267 per capita in 2014, respectively. Spending in low-income countries grew nearly as fast, at 4·6%, and health spending increased from $51 to $120 per capita. In 2014, 59·2% of all health spending was financed by the government, although in low-income and lower-middle-income countries, 29·1% and 58·0% of spending was OOP


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Bansal


    Full Text Available Why the need to change ? Substantial increase in the content of subject : The content of the subject has grown by at least 30 % from the time when I was an undergraduate student and we used to read the 7th edition of Preventive and Social Medicine by Park. At that time this book had only 686 pages (size of pages was at least 30 % less than now had only 16 chapters .The 21st edition of the same book has 868 pages and 23 chapters. This goes on to show that the content of subject has increased substantially. 12 weeks of clinical posting added : Medical Council of India has added 12 weeks of clinical posting to the teaching of Community Medicine similar to the postings in major clinical subjects, where in the students are available to us in small groups for approximately 3 hours everyday. In spite of the increase in subject content and the opportunity for small group teaching during postings, I personally feel that we have not been able to inspire students to learn Community Medicine with enthusiasm. Why the subject has not become much popular among under graduate students? Before going into the further details let us look at the following observations made by the WHO -SEARO expert group on “Improving the teaching of Public Health at undergraduate level in medical schools – suggested guidelines.” – Today most of the teaching in public health is carried out using didactic lectures within the ivory tower of an institution with limited exposure to the community .Public health education has to be an active process ,student centered , inquiry driven , evidence based and problem solving as well addressing the needs of the community .The role of the teacher should be to facilitate the student to acquire the competencies through field based experiential learning of public health competencies involving dedicated time for practice , receiving feedback and reflecting on its application in their future role as primary care doctors1.

  6. Impact of Changes in Playing Time on Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Pain in String Music Students. (United States)

    Robitaille, Judith; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick; Guay, Manon


    During their training, musicians must develop good work habits that they will carry on throughout their professional career in order to avoid potential chronic health problems, such as musculoskeletal pain. The effect of sudden changes in instrument playing-time on the development of playing-related musculoskeletal pain (PRMP) has not been thoroughly investigated in music students playing bowed string instruments (BSI), even though they are regularly exposed to such changes to perfect their playing skills. To explore the association between sudden changes in instrument playing-time and changes in PRMP in BSI players. A prospective cohort study was completed with BSI students attending a summer music camp offering high-level training. Participants completed a self-administered 23-item questionnaire designed for the study upon arrival at camp (T1) and then 7 days later (T2). Ninety-three BSI students (16±4 yrs old) completed the questionnaires, for a 23% response rate. Their playing-time increased by 23±14 hrs between T1 and T2. Complaints in pain frequency (e.g., from never to most of the time) and intensity (19±24 mm on VAS) significantly increased between T1 and T2 and were correlated with an increase in playing-time. A sudden increase in playing-time, such as that experienced by elite BSI students attending an intensive music camp, was related to an increase in PRMP. However, in this study, changes in pain characteristics were only partly explained by the change in playing-time.

  7. Education technology with continuous real time monitoring of the current functional and emotional students' states (United States)

    Alyushin, M. V.; Kolobashkina, L. V.


    The education technology with continuous monitoring of the current functional and emotional students' states is suggested. The application of this technology allows one to increase the effectiveness of practice through informed planning of the training load. For monitoring the current functional and emotional students' states non-contact remote technologies of person bioparameters registration are encouraged to use. These technologies are based on recording and processing in real time the main person bioparameters in a purely passive mode. Experimental testing of this technology has confirmed its effectiveness.

  8. Problem based learning: the effect of real time data on the website to student independence (United States)

    Setyowidodo, I.; Pramesti, Y. S.; Handayani, A. D.


    Learning science developed as an integrative science rather than disciplinary education, the reality of the nation character development has not been able to form a more creative and independent Indonesian man. Problem Based Learning based on real time data in the website is a learning method focuses on developing high-level thinking skills in problem-oriented situations by integrating technology in learning. The essence of this study is the presentation of authentic problems in the real time data situation in the website. The purpose of this research is to develop student independence through Problem Based Learning based on real time data in website. The type of this research is development research with implementation using purposive sampling technique. Based on the study there is an increase in student self-reliance, where the students in very high category is 47% and in the high category is 53%. This learning method can be said to be effective in improving students learning independence in problem-oriented situations.

  9. "It's Almost a Mindset that Teachers Need to Change": First-Year Students' Need to Be Inducted into Time Management (United States)

    van der Meer, Jacques; Jansen, Ellen; Torenbeek, Marjolein


    This article discusses the findings related to a number of research projects investigating students' expectations and experiences of the first year in higher education. In particular, findings with regard to first-year students' expectations and challenges with issues of time management are reported. It was found that many students were realistic…

  10. Connections between Future Time Perspectives and Self-Regulated Learning for Mid-Year Engineering Students: A Multiple Case Study (United States)

    Chasmar, Justine


    This dissertation presents multiple studies with the purpose of understanding the connections between undergraduate engineering students' motivations, specifically students' Future Time Perspectives (FTPs) and Self-Regulated Learning (SRL). FTP refers to the views students hold about the future and how their perceptions of current tasks are…

  11. Relations between Age, Autism Severity, Behavioral Treatment and the Amount of Time in Regular Education Classrooms among Students with Autism (United States)

    Talib, Tasneem L.


    Under federal law, students with disabilities have the right to be educated in classrooms with students without disabilities. For students with autism, social, communication, and behavioral deficits make inclusion difficult. The severity of deficits change over time, and therefore, so too do the effects of these deficits upon inclusion. Although…

  12. The Effects of Doing Part-Time Jobs on College Student Academic Performance and Social Life in a Chinese Society (United States)

    Wang, Hongyu; Kong, Miosi; Shan, Wenjing; Vong, Sou Kuan


    Student employment has been treated as a homogeneous category in studying the effects of doing part-time jobs on student academic performance or social life. In the present study, using data collected from a well-known public university in Macau, we treat student employment as a heterogeneous experience and compare the relative importance of…

  13. Why Hong Kong students favour more face-to-face classroom time in blended learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Henri

    Full Text Available A three year study in student characteristics, needs and learning styles guided instructors at the University of Hong Kong Faculty of Education to improve teaching and learning in a core module: Information Literacy. A mixed-method approach analyzed data collected from undergraduate, in-service teachers in a BEd program, and helped instructors in the program to gain insight into the Hong Kong teacher working, post-service towards a BEd in Library and Information Science. Part-time students indicated a preference for a combination of online and face-to-face teaching, with more face-to-face class time in that mix. These findings would also be informative for other part-time programs using blended teaching and learning models.

  14. Pipeline, utilities to spend $127 million on scada systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Spending for new or upgraded supervisory control and data acquisition (scada) systems and for additional remote-terminal units (RTUs) by North American pipelines and utilities will exceed $165 million through February 1996. New and updated scada systems will total 122 at a cost of more than $127 million; 143 RTU add-on projects will cost more than $38 million. Pipelines and combined utilities/pipelines will spend $89.5 million for 58 scada-system projects and $30.2 million for RTU add-on projects. Scada systems are computerized hardware and software systems that perform monitoring and control functions. In gas utilities, these systems perform functions normally associated with gas transmission and distribution as well as production-plant process control. In gas and oil pipelines, the systems perform these functions as well as such specialized functions as batch tracking, leak detection, and gas load flow

  15. Health care spending accounts: a flexible solution for Canadian employers. (United States)

    Smithies, R; Steeves, L


    Flexible benefits plans have grown more slowly in Canada than in the United States, largely because of certain legal and regulatory considerations. Health care spending accounts (HCSAs) provide a cost-effective way for Canadian employers to address the health care benefit needs of a diverse workforce. A flexible health care spending account is a versatile and cost-effective instrument that can be used by Canadian employers that wish to provide a full range of health care benefits to employees. The health care alternatives available through an HCSA can provide employees with an opportunity to customize and optimize their benefits program. Regulatory requirements that an HCSA must meet in order to qualify for available tax advantages are discussed, as are the range of health care services that may be covered.

  16. Expectations of Parents of First-Year Students regarding Collegiate Teaching and Caring at a Public University (United States)

    Spearman, Christina J.


    Parental involvement in higher education has greatly increased, specifically in the last 30 years. Some parents are hyper-involved in their children's lives, and educational leaders often spend almost as much time working with parents as they do students. The body of literature on parental involvement in higher education is limited. Therefore, the…

  17. Leisure-Time Physical Activity: Experiences of College Students With Disabilities. (United States)

    Devine, Mary Ann


    College years are an experimental phase in young adulthood and can lay the foundation for lifelong behaviors. One type of behavior developed during these years is the use of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). LTPA experiences of typical college students have been examined, but there is a lack of studies examining the experiences of students with disabilities. The purpose of this inquiry is to understand the experiences of college students with disabilities and their LTPA, with focus on factors that facilitate or create barriers to engagement. Grounded theory was used to understand LTPA with undergraduates with mobility or visual impairments. Results indicated a theme of culture of physical activity and disability as they received a message that engagement in LTPA was "unnecessary" or "heroic," which altered their LTPA experiences. Barriers to LTPA can be understood through a social relational lens to recognize the multidimensionality of barriers and facilitators to LTPA.

  18. Ethnic Differences of University Students with Respect to the Activity in Student Societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Serajzadeh


    Full Text Available Student societies and associations are developed in universities in order to provide a healthy and reasonable means for students to spend their leisure time and to develop their social skills. Meanwhile, it seems that the level of membership and participation of different groups of students in these societies and associations is not the same. Some evidences imply that students of special ethnicities participate in these societies more than others and these societies function as a place for regeneration of ethnic and regional relations among the students. This is the main question of the paper: is the level of participation in these societies varying among the students of different ethnicities? This question examined by a secondary analysis of the data of two surveys conducted among a sample of students of state non-medical universities all-over the country. The findings were analyzed on the basis of the historical and cultural characteristics of ethnic relations in Iran.

  19. Market-based Lobbying: Evidence from Advertising Spending in Italy


    Stefano DellaVigna; Ruben Durante; Brian Knight; Eliana La Ferrara


    An extensive literature has studied lobbying by special interest groups. We analyze a novel lobbying channel: lobbying businessmen-politicians through business proxies. When a politician controls a business, firms attempting to curry favors shift their spending towards the politician's business. The politician benefits from increased revenues, and the firms hope for favorable regulation in return. We investigate this channel in Italy where government members, including the prime minister, are...

  20. An Explanation of Nakamoto's Analysis of Double-spend Attacks


    Ozisik, A. Pinar; Levine, Brian Neil


    The fundamental attack against blockchain systems is the double-spend attack. In this tutorial, we provide a very detailed explanation of just one section of Satoshi Nakamoto's original paper where the attack's probability of success is stated. We show the derivation of the mathematics relied upon by Nakamoto to create a model of the attack. We also validate the model with a Monte Carlo simulation, and we determine which model component is not perfect.

  1. Growth Convergence and Spending Efficiency among Filipino Households


    Erniel B. Barrios


    A growth model is used in the context of Sala-i-Martin’s definition of conditional convergence to assess the household income dynamics in segmented groups at the provincial level in the Philippines. There is a direct relationship between spending efficiency and income growth convergence across income groups. The lower income convergence rate among low income households can be attributed to their relatively less efficient access to the factors of production. The study provides tools in identif...

  2. Cities through the Prism of People’s Spending Behavior (United States)

    Hawelka, Bartosz; Murillo Arias, Juan; Ratti, Carlo


    Scientific studies of society increasingly rely on digital traces produced by various aspects of human activity. In this paper, we exploit a relatively unexplored source of data–anonymized records of bank card transactions collected in Spain by a big European bank, and propose a new classification scheme of cities based on the economic behavior of their residents. First, we study how individual spending behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively affected by various factors such as customer’s age, gender, and size of his/her home city. We show that, similar to other socioeconomic urban quantities, individual spending activity exhibits a statistically significant superlinear scaling with city size. With respect to the general trends, we quantify the distinctive signature of each city in terms of residents’ spending behavior, independently from the effects of scale and demographic heterogeneity. Based on the comparison of city signatures, we build a novel classification of cities across Spain in three categories. That classification exhibits a substantial stability over different city definitions and connects with a meaningful socioeconomic interpretation. Furthermore, it corresponds with the ability of cities to attract foreign visitors, which is a particularly remarkable finding given that the classification was based exclusively on the behavioral patterns of city residents. This highlights the far-reaching applicability of the presented classification approach and its ability to discover patterns that go beyond the quantities directly involved in it. PMID:26849218

  3. Cities through the Prism of People's Spending Behavior. (United States)

    Sobolevsky, Stanislav; Sitko, Izabela; Tachet des Combes, Remi; Hawelka, Bartosz; Murillo Arias, Juan; Ratti, Carlo


    Scientific studies of society increasingly rely on digital traces produced by various aspects of human activity. In this paper, we exploit a relatively unexplored source of data-anonymized records of bank card transactions collected in Spain by a big European bank, and propose a new classification scheme of cities based on the economic behavior of their residents. First, we study how individual spending behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively affected by various factors such as customer's age, gender, and size of his/her home city. We show that, similar to other socioeconomic urban quantities, individual spending activity exhibits a statistically significant superlinear scaling with city size. With respect to the general trends, we quantify the distinctive signature of each city in terms of residents' spending behavior, independently from the effects of scale and demographic heterogeneity. Based on the comparison of city signatures, we build a novel classification of cities across Spain in three categories. That classification exhibits a substantial stability over different city definitions and connects with a meaningful socioeconomic interpretation. Furthermore, it corresponds with the ability of cities to attract foreign visitors, which is a particularly remarkable finding given that the classification was based exclusively on the behavioral patterns of city residents. This highlights the far-reaching applicability of the presented classification approach and its ability to discover patterns that go beyond the quantities directly involved in it.

  4. Cities through the Prism of People's Spending Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Sobolevsky

    Full Text Available Scientific studies of society increasingly rely on digital traces produced by various aspects of human activity. In this paper, we exploit a relatively unexplored source of data-anonymized records of bank card transactions collected in Spain by a big European bank, and propose a new classification scheme of cities based on the economic behavior of their residents. First, we study how individual spending behavior is qualitatively and quantitatively affected by various factors such as customer's age, gender, and size of his/her home city. We show that, similar to other socioeconomic urban quantities, individual spending activity exhibits a statistically significant superlinear scaling with city size. With respect to the general trends, we quantify the distinctive signature of each city in terms of residents' spending behavior, independently from the effects of scale and demographic heterogeneity. Based on the comparison of city signatures, we build a novel classification of cities across Spain in three categories. That classification exhibits a substantial stability over different city definitions and connects with a meaningful socioeconomic interpretation. Furthermore, it corresponds with the ability of cities to attract foreign visitors, which is a particularly remarkable finding given that the classification was based exclusively on the behavioral patterns of city residents. This highlights the far-reaching applicability of the presented classification approach and its ability to discover patterns that go beyond the quantities directly involved in it.

  5. Academic delay of gratification, self-efficacy, and time management among academically unprepared college students. (United States)

    Bembenutty, Héfer


    This study examined the associations between academic delay of gratification, self-efficacy beliefs, and time management among academically unprepared college students participating in a summer-immersion program. This study also examined whether the relation of self-efficacy with time management is mediated by academic delay of gratification. Analysis indicated that self-efficacy was directly associated with time management, as delay of gratification served to mediate this effect partially. Self-efficacy emerged as the strongest positive predictor of academic achievement.

  6. Cyber Bullying Victimization of Elementary School Students and their Reflections on the Victimization


    Merve Sezer; Ismail Sahin; Ahmet Oguz Akturk


    With the use of developing technology, mostly in communication and entertainment, students spend considerable time on the Internet. In addition to the advantages provided by the Internet, social isolation brings problems such as addiction. This is one of the problems of the virtual violence. Cyber bullying is the common name of the intensities which students are exposed on the Internet. The purpose of this study designed as a qualitative research is to find out the cyber bullying varieties an...

  7. The impact of tuition fees amount on mental health over time in British students. (United States)

    Richardson, T; Elliott, P; Roberts, R


    Previous studies have shown a relationship between debt and mental health problems in students. This study aimed to examine the effect of differences in tuition fees amount on changes in mental health over time. A prospective cohort study followed 390 first-year British students who differed on their tuition fees level at 4 time points across their first 2 years at university. Participants completed measures of global mental health, depression, anxiety, stress, alcohol-related problems at up to four time points in their first two years at university. Mixed-factorial ANOVAs were used to assess the impact of tuition fees amount on changes in scores over time. There was no difference based on fees at Time 1 for anxiety, stress, depression and global mental health. At Time 2, those charged £0-2.9k or £3-4k improved while those charged £8-9k stayed the same. However, this trend reversed by Times 3 and 4. Undergraduates mental health is partially affected by the level of tuition fees; however, the recent increase in tuition fees does not appear to have had a lasting impact at present. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  8. Start Later, Sleep Later: School Start Times and Adolescent Sleep in Homeschool vs. Public/Private School Students (United States)

    Meltzer, Lisa J.; Shaheed, Keisha; Ambler, Devon


    Homeschool students provide a naturalistic comparison group for later/flexible school start times. This study compared sleep patterns and sleep hygiene for homeschool students and public/private school students (grades 6-12). Public/private school students (n=245) and homeschool students (n=162) completed a survey about sleep patterns and sleep hygiene. Significant school group differences were found for weekday bedtime, wake time, and total sleep time, with homeschool students waking later and obtaining more sleep. Homeschool students had later school start times, waking at the same time that public/private school students were starting school. Public/private school students had poorer sleep hygiene practices, reporting more homework and use of technology in the hour before bed. Regardless of school type, technology in the bedroom was associated with shorter sleep duration. Later school start times may be a potential countermeasure for insufficient sleep in adolescents. Future studies should further examine the relationship between school start times and daytime outcomes, including academic performance, mood, and health. PMID:25315902

  9. Assessing student clinical learning experiences. (United States)

    Nehyba, Katrine; Miller, Susan; Connaughton, Joanne; Singer, Barbara


    This article describes the use of an activity worksheet and questionnaire to investigate the learning experience of students on clinical placement. The worksheet measures the amount of time students spend in different learning activities, and the questionnaire explores student satisfaction and preferred learning activities. An activity worksheet and questionnaire … investigate[d] the learning experiences of students on clinical placement METHODS: The activity worksheet and questionnaire were used in a cohort pilot study of physiotherapy students on clinical placement. The activity worksheet provides details of the amount of time students engage in a range of clinical and non-clinical tasks while on placement, such as time spent treating patients, working individually, working with their peers and engaging in reflective practice. In combination with the questionnaire results, it allows clinicians to gain an understanding of the clinical learning environment experienced by their students. The data collected using these tools provide a description of the students' activities while undertaking the clinical placement. This information may guide the refinement of the clinical experience, and offers an opportunity to individualise learning activities to match students' needs and preferences. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  10. The Relationship Between Federal Government Revenue and Spending: Empirical Evidence from Asean-5 Countries


    Karim, Zulkefly Abdul; Asri, Norain Mod; Abdullah, Azrina Al-Hadi; Antoni, Antoni; Mohd.Yusoff, Zetty Zahureen


    The main objectives of this paper is to examine the long run relationship between total expenditure, revenue (tax and nontax) and economic growth in ASEAN-5 countries namely by Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and Philippines. According to the prior studies, there are several hypotheses to explain the relationship between revenue and spend-ing such as (1) spend-revenue hypotheses, (2) revenue-spend hypotheses and (3)bi-directional causality hypotheses. To test the validity of these hy...

  11. Interdependence between US and European Military Spending: A Panel Cointegration Analysis (1988-2013)


    Caruso, Raul; Di Domizio, Marco


    The aim of this paper is to study the interdependence of military spending between US and a panel of European countries in the period 1988-2013. The empirical estimation is based on a: (i) a unit root tests and a cointegration analysis; (ii) FMOLS and DOLS estimations. General results highlight that military spending of European countries is: (1) positively associated with US military spending and (2) negatively associated with average military spending of other European countries.

  12. The Relationship Between Federal Government Revenue and Spending: Empirical Evidence From Asean-5 Countries


    Mohd.Yusoff, Zetty Zahureen; Antoni, Antoni; Abdullah, Azrina Al-Hadi; Asri, Norain Mod; Karim, Zulkefly Abdul


    The main objectives of this paper is to examine the long run relationship between total expenditure, revenue (tax and nontax) and economic growth in ASEAN-5 countries namely by Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and Philippines. According to the prior studies, there are several hypotheses to explain the relationship between revenue and spend-ing such as (1) spend-revenue hypotheses, (2) revenue-spend hypotheses and (3)bi-directional causality hypotheses. To test the validity of these hy...

  13. Kinesthetic Astronomy: Significant Upgrades to the Sky Time Lesson that Support Student Learning (United States)

    Morrow, C. A.; Zawaski, M.


    This paper will report on a significant upgrade to the first in a series of innovative, experiential lessons we call Kinesthetic Astronomy. The Sky Time lesson reconnects students with the astronomical meaning of the day, year, and seasons. Like all Kinesthetic Astronomy lessons, it teaches basic astronomical concepts through choreographed bodily movements and positions that provide educational sensory experiences. They are intended for sixth graders up through adult learners in both formal and informal educational settings. They emphasize astronomical concepts and phenomenon that people can readily encounter in their "everyday" lives such as time, seasons, and sky motions of the Sun, Moon, stars, and planets. Kinesthetic Astronomy lesson plans are fully aligned with national science education standards, both in content and instructional practice. Our lessons offer a complete learning cycle with written assessment opportunities now embedded throughout the lesson. We have substantially strengthened the written assessment options for the Sky Time lesson to help students translate their kinesthetic and visual learning into the verbal-linguistic and mathematical-logical realms of expression. Field testing with non-science undergraduates, middle school science teachers and students, Junior Girl Scouts, museum education staff, and outdoor educators has been providing evidence that Kinesthetic Astronomy techniques allow learners to achieve a good grasp of concepts that are much more difficult to learn in more conventional ways such as via textbooks or even computer animation. Field testing of the Sky Time lesson has also led us to significant changes from the previous version to support student learning. We will report on the nature of these changes.

  14. Possibilities of organized leisure time for student of high school in microregion Bystřicko


    BERAN, Karel


    The thesis deals with leisure activities of high school students in the micro region Bystřicko. Bachelor thesis suggests the possibility of using organized leisure time in the micro region Bystřicko. Interested relations leisure organizations and their clients. Emphasis was placed on information flows between subject and object. The theoretical part presents Mikroregion Bystřicko selected leisure organizations and institutions working in this micro-region and concepts that are related to the ...

  15. Spanish version of the Time Management Behavior Questionnaire for university students. (United States)

    García-Ros, Rafael; Pérez-González, Francisco


    The main objective of the study is to analyze the psychometric properties and predictive capacity on academic performance in university contexts of a Spanish adaptation of the Time Management Behavior Questionnaire. The scale was applied to 462 students newly admitted at the Universitat de València in the 2006-2007 school year. The analyses performed made it possible to reproduce the factorial structure of the original version of the questionnaire with slight modifications in the ascription of various items. The underlying factorial structure includes four interrelated dimensions (Establishing objectives and priorities, Time management tools, Perception of time control and Preference for disorganization), which present satisfactory levels of reliability and an adequate convergent validity with the Time management subscale of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. The scores on the dimensions of time management show significant levels of association with academic performance in the first year of university studies, especially highlighting the predictive capacity of the subscale dealing with the Establishment of objectives and priorities. These results show the reliability and validity of this adaptation of the scale for evaluating how the students manage their academic time, and predicting their performance in the year they initiate the degree program, thus aiding in the development of intervention proposals directed towards improving these skills.

  16. Different Times?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van den Broek; W.P. Knulst; K. Breedveld


    Original title: Naar andere tijden? The report Different times? Time use and time structuring in the Netherlands, 1975-1995 (Naar andere tijden? Tijdsbesteding en tijdsordening in Nederland, 1975-1995) paints a picture of the way in which the Dutch spend the 168 hours that are available each

  17. Examination of the Relation between Academic Procrastination and Time Management Skills of Undergraduate Students in Terms of Some Variables (United States)

    Ocak, Gürbüz; Boyraz, Serkan


    Academic procrastination is seen to be quite common among undergraduates and time management is thought to be one of the possible reasons of it. Two surveys, academic procrastination and time management, were given to 332 undergraduate students in this correlational research. Students' academic procrastination is explained through frequencies and…

  18. Examining the Potential Impact of Full Tuition Fees on Mature Part-Time Students in English Higher Education (United States)

    Shaw, Angela


    This paper examines current part-time mature learners' views on the potential impact upon future students as full fees are introduced from 2012. It investigates the problems which part-time mature learners may face with the advent of student loans and subsequent debt, given that they are usually combining complex lives with their studies, with…

  19. Analysis of the behavior of students in the global network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buha Vesna V.


    Full Text Available The subject of this research is to analyze the way in which students use content on the Internet. The emphasis is on the educational and informational needs of students in the selected statistical sample. Internet sites are structured according to the preferences of students. In this sense, have been explicitly included in the analysis of educational content, information, and entertainment. After a field study on a sample of 238 students conducted a quantitative analysis and qualitative assessment derived. Data were processed in SPSS software. The results showed how students estimate the total amount of time you spend on the Internet. Conclusions also apply to the assessment of the same time, as a possible limiting factors in terms of contacts, which have to do with real social environment. Data evaluation is based on the need to analyze the habits and behavior of students on the Internet as well as their organization of time in relation to the Work-life balance.

  20. The pattern of time management in college students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in the year 2006


    Ali Ravari; Fatemeh Alhani; Monireh Anoosheh; Tayebeh Mirzaie-Khalilabadi


    Background: One potential coping strategy frequently offered by university counseling services is time management for studying. Besides stress relief, time management skills will positively influence key outcomes such as academic performance, problem-solving ability, and health. Thus, it is necessary to investigate how college students manage their timing for studying. The aim of the present study was to assess the pattern of college students' time management in Kerman University of Medical S...