WorldWideScience

Sample records for time sharing option

  1. The Effects of Abandonment Options on Investment Timing and Profit Sharing of FDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper incorporates cooperative game theory into a real option method in a foreign direct investment setting and examines the operational decisions of a multinational corporation in a cooperative framework, where the corporation is endowed with an abandonment option and shares its profit with the host country. In particular, we investigate how the abandonment options affect the optimal investment timing and the optimal profit share of a foreign direct investment using a real option game method. We show that the flexibility of the abandonment option induces the corporation to investment earlier, which indicates the negative effects on investment trigger. The result is consistent with intuition since the abandonment option provides insurance and thus reduces the overall risk of the project. We also find that the introduction of the abandonment option reduces the optimal profit share in a cooperative framework and in turn the lower profit share increases the investment trigger, thereby having a positive effect on the investment threshold to hinder the investment. By numerical analysis, we find that the overall effect of the abandonment options is inversely related to the investment trigger. These findings provide quantitative analysis about the decisions regarding cooperation in international investment extraction projects.

  2. Job sharing: a viable option for the clinical nurse specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haibeck, S V; Howard, J L

    1991-01-01

    NUMEROUS WORK TIME options have been developed to attract, retain and meet the various needs of nurses. Job sharing, a work option little known to nurses, can be a successful alternative for balancing professional and personal lifestyle. The business literature supports job sharing and other innovative work options as successful mechanisms in retaining quality employees in their respective professions. After exploring the literature in this area, a proposal for job sharing the oncology clinical nurse specialist (CNS) position was presented to the Personnel Director and Vice President of Nursing at our institution. The proposal addressed the advantages and disadvantages of the concept. These included: (1) scheduling flexibility, (2) reduced absenteeism and turnover, (3) increased productivity, (4) handling fringe benefits, and (5) job satisfaction. The proposal was accepted, and the job sharing position has been successfully implemented for more than 2 years now. This paper describes issues relevant to designing and implementing job sharing in a CNS position.

  3. Option pricing: a flexible tool to disseminate shared savings contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Mark W; Buendia, Anthony M; Lauderdale, Katherine E; Hussey, Peter S

    2013-08-01

    Due to volatility in healthcare costs, shared savings contracts can create systematic financial losses for payers, especially when contracting with smaller providers. To improve the business case for shared savings, we calculated the prices of financial options that payers can "sell" to providers to offset these losses. Using 2009 to 2010 member-level total cost of care data from a large commercial health plan, we calculated option prices by applying a bootstrap simulation procedure. We repeated these simulations for providers of sizes ranging from 500 to 60,000 patients and for shared savings contracts with and without key design features (minimum savings thresholds,bonus caps, cost outlier truncation, and downside risk) and under assumptions of zero, 1%, and 2% real cost reductions due to the shared savings contracts. Assuming no real cost reduction and a 50% shared savings rate, per patient option prices ranged from $225 (3.1% of overall costs) for 500-patient providers to $23 (0.3%) for 60,000-patient providers. Introducing minimum savings thresholds, bonus caps, cost outlier truncation, and downside risk reduced these option prices. Option prices were highly sensitive to the magnitude of real cost reductions. If shared savings contracts cause 2% reductions in total costs, option prices fall to zero for all but the smallest providers. Calculating the prices of financial options that protect payers and providers from downside risk can inject flexibility into shared savings contracts, extend such contracts to smaller providers, and clarify the tradeoffs between different contract designs, potentially speeding the dissemination of shared savings.

  4. A Selected Annotated Bibliography on Work Time Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivantcho, Barbara

    This annotated bibliography is divided into three sections. Section I contains annotations of general publications on work time options. Section II presents resources on flexitime and the compressed work week. In Section III are found resources related to these reduced work time options: permanent part-time employment, job sharing, voluntary…

  5. The People's Time Sharing System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanenbaum, A.S.; Benson, W.H.

    1973-01-01

    A set of programs running under a multiprogramming batch operating system on the CDC 6600 which provide remote users with a time sharing service is described. The basis for the system is the ability of a user program to create job control statements during execution, thereby tricking the operating

  6. Universal algorithm of time sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, I.N.; Fedyun'kin, E.D.

    1979-01-01

    Timesharing system algorithm is proposed for the wide class of one- and multiprocessor computer configurations. Dynamical priority is the piece constant function of the channel characteristic and system time quantum. The interactive job quantum has variable length. Characteristic recurrent formula is received. The concept of the background job is introduced. Background job loads processor if high priority jobs are inactive. Background quality function is given on the base of the statistical data received in the timesharing process. Algorithm includes optimal trashing off procedure for the jobs replacements in the memory. Sharing of the system time in proportion to the external priorities is guaranteed for the all active enough computing channels (back-ground too). The fast answer is guaranteed for the interactive jobs, which use small time and memory. The external priority control is saved for the high level scheduler. The experience of the algorithm realization on the BESM-6 computer in JINR is discussed

  7. 47 CFR 73.1715 - Share time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Share time. 73.1715 Section 73.1715... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1715 Share time. Operation is permitted by two or more... considered part of their licenses. (a) If the licenses of stations authorized to share time do not specify...

  8. 24 CFR 206.107 - Mortgagee election of assignment or shared premium option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 206.123(a)(2)-(5). (v) The mortgage is a first lien of record and title to the property securing the... under any of the circumstances described in § 206.123(a)(2)-(5). (b) No election for shared appreciation. Shared appreciation mortgages shall be insured by the Secretary only under the shared premium option. [54...

  9. Settlement-date Accounting for Equity Share Options - Conceptual Validity and Numerical Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Peder Fredslund

    -date accounting are fully conceptually valid. They represent measurements of one partner group's share of total equity with effect for another group's share of total equity and income: the shareholders' part. Partially, this equity and income sharing model is already the basis for existing accounting standards......This paper demonstrates that settlement-date accounting for equity share options can be seen as an accounting method which implements a shareholder focused residually rewarded partners' equity view. This equity view represents a simple, natural extension of the shareholder proprietary view....... It implicates an equity and income sharing model for accounting which is characterized by specification of both shareholders' and non-shareholders' parts of total equity and income. When using this equity and income sharing model, the remeasurements of equity share option obligations made by settlement...

  10. Modeling of the time sharing for lecturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Shakhova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of modernization of the Russian system of higher education, it is necessary to analyze the working time of the university lecturers, taking into account both basic job functions as the university lecturer, and others.The mathematical problem is presented for the optimal working time planning for the university lecturers. The review of the documents, native and foreign works on the study is made. Simulation conditions, based on analysis of the subject area, are defined. Models of optimal working time sharing of the university lecturers («the second half of the day» are developed and implemented in the system MathCAD. Optimal solutions have been obtained.Three problems have been solved:1 to find the optimal time sharing for «the second half of the day» in a certain position of the university lecturer;2 to find the optimal time sharing for «the second half of the day» for all positions of the university lecturers in view of the established model of the academic load differentiation;3 to find the volume value of the non-standardized part of time work in the department for the academic year, taking into account: the established model of an academic load differentiation, distribution of the Faculty number for the positions and the optimal time sharing «the second half of the day» for the university lecturers of the department.Examples are given of the analysis results. The practical application of the research: the developed models can be used when planning the working time of an individual professor in the preparation of the work plan of the university department for the academic year, as well as to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the administrative decisions in the development of local university regulations.

  11. Assessing Option Grid® practicability and feasibility for facilitating shared decision making: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsulukidze, Maka; Grande, Stuart W; Gionfriddo, Michael R

    2015-07-01

    To assess the feasibility of Option Grids(®)for facilitating shared decision making (SDM) in simulated clinical consultations and explore clinicians' views on their practicability. We used mixed methods approach to analyze clinical consultations using the Observer OPTION instrument and thematic analysis for follow-up interviews with clinicians. Clinicians achieved high scores on information sharing and low scores on preference elicitation and integration. Four themes were identified: (1) Barriers affect practicability of Option Grids(®); (2) Option Grids(®) facilitate the SDM process; (3) Clinicians are aware of the gaps in their practice of SDM; (4) Training and ongoing feedback on the optimal use of Option Grids(®) are necessary. Use of Option Grids(®) by clinicians with background knowledge in SDM did not facilitate optimal levels of competency on the SDM core concepts of preference elicitation and integration. Future research must evaluate the impact of training on the use of Option Grids(®), and explore how best to help clinicians bridge the gap between knowledge and action. Clinicians proficiently imparting information in simulations struggled to elicit and integrate patient preferences - understanding this gap and developing strategies to close it are the next steps for implementing SDM into clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Option Grids: steps toward shared decision-making for neonatal circumcision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Mary; Grande, Stuart W; Donnelly, Kyla; Elwyn, Glyn

    2016-02-01

    To assess the impact, acceptability and feasibility of a short encounter tool designed to enhance the process of shared decision-making and parental engagement. We analyzed video-recordings of clinical encounters, half undertaken before and half after a brief intervention that trained four clinicians how to use Option Grids, using an observer-based measure of shared decision-making. We also analyzed semi-structured interviews conducted with the clinicians four weeks after their exposure to the intervention. Observer OPTION(5) scores were higher at post-intervention, with a mean of 33.9 (SD=23.5) compared to a mean of 16.1 (SD=7.1) for pre-intervention, a significant difference of 17.8 (95% CI: 2.4, 33.2). Prior to using the intervention, clinicians used a consent document to frame circumcision as a default practice. Encounters with the Option Grid conferred agency to both parents and clinicians, and facilitated shared decision-making. Clinician reported recognizing the tool's positive effect on their communication process. Tools such as Option Grids have the potential to make it easier for clinicians to achieve shared decision-making. Encounter tools have the potential to change practice. More research is needed to test their feasibility in routine practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Is it timing or backdating of option grants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, T.

    2010-01-01

    Using a unique dataset from the Netherlands, we investigate three questions of interest. First, we explore the effects of a rule change in September 2002 on option grant dates. Second, we examine the retroactive backdating of option grant dates. Finally, we look at the timing of option grant dates

  14. For the last time: stock options are an expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodie, Zvi; Kaplan, Robert S; Merton, Robert C

    2003-03-01

    Should stock options be recorded as an expense on a company's income statement and balance sheet, or should they remain where they are, relegated to footnotes? The extraordinary boom in share prices during the Internet bubble made critics of option expensing look like spoilsports. But since the crash, the debate has returned with a vengeance. And no wonder: The authors believe the case for expensing options is overwhelming. In this article, Nobel Iaureate Robert Merton, one of the inventors of the Black-Scholes option-pricing model; his coauthor on the classic textbook Finance, Zvi Bodie; and Robert Kaplan, creator of the Balanced Scorecard, examine and dismiss the principal claims put forward by those who continue to oppose options expensing. They demonstrate that stock-option grants do indeed have real cash-flow implications that need to be reported. They show that effective ways certainly exist to quantify those implications. They detail the distortions that relegating stock-option accounting to footnotes creates. And they show why reporting option costs should in no way hamper young companies in their efforts to provide incentives. Options are indeed a powerful incentive, the authors agree, and failing to record a transaction that creates such powerful effects is economically indefensible. Worse, it encourages companies to favor options over alternative incentive systems. It is not the proper role of accounting standards, the authors argue, to distort executive and employee compensation by subsidizing one particular form of compensation and no other. Companies should choose compensation methods according to their economic benefits--not the way they are reported.

  15. Option Pricing with Time-changed Lévy Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingler, Sven; Kim, Young Shin; Rachev, Svetlozar T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we introduce two new six-parameter processes based on time-changing tempered stable distributions and develop an option pricing model based on these processes. This model provides a good fit to observed option prices. To demonstrate the advantages of the new processes, we conduct...

  16. Design principles of a resource sharing real-time-system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliss, B.

    1978-01-01

    Criteria for developing a resource sharing real time system are given. Resource sharing necessitates extra precautions for guaranteeing stable operating conditions. Some relevant measures to insure reliability and maintainability of the system are discussed. (Auth.)

  17. Interactively human: Sharing time, constructing materiality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    Predictive processing models of cognition are promising an elegant way to unite action, perception, and learning. However, in the current formulations, they are species-unspecific and have very little particularly human about them. I propose to examine how, in this framework, humans can be able to massively interact and to build shared worlds that are both material and symbolic.

  18. Mitigating greenhouse: Limited time, limited options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Honnery, Damon

    2008-01-01

    Most human-caused climate change comes from fossil fuel combustion emissions. To avoid the risk of serious climate change, very recent research suggests that emission reductions will need to be both large and rapidly implemented. We argue that technical solutions-improving energy efficiency, use of renewable and nuclear energy, and carbon capture and sequestration-can only be of minor importance, mainly given the limited time available to take effective climate action. Only curbing energy use, perhaps through 'social efficiency' gains, particularly in the high-energy consumption countries, can provide the rapid emissions reductions needed. The social efficiency approach requires a basic rethinking in how we can satisfy our human needs with low environmental impacts. Large cuts in emissions could then occur rapidly, but only if resistance to such changes can be overcome. Particularly in transport, there are also serious potential conflicts between the technical and the social efficiency approaches, requiring a choice to be made

  19. Multivariate Option Pricing with Time Varying Volatility and Correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars Peter

    In recent years multivariate models for asset returns have received much attention, in particular this is the case for models with time varying volatility. In this paper we consider models of this class and examine their potential when it comes to option pricing. Specifically, we derive the risk...... neutral dynamics for a general class of multivariate heteroskedastic models, and we provide a feasible way to price options in this framework. Our framework can be used irrespective of the assumed underlying distribution and dynamics, and it nests several important special cases. We provide an application...... to options on the minimum of two indices. Our results show that not only is correlation important for these options but so is allowing this correlation to be dynamic. Moreover, we show that for the general model exposure to correlation risk carries an important premium, and when this is neglected option...

  20. Library Information System Time-Sharing (LISTS) Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Donald V.

    The Library Information System Time-Sharing (LISTS) experiment was based on three innovations in data processing technology: (1) the advent of computer time-sharing on third-generation machines, (2) the development of general-purpose file-management software and (3) the introduction of large, library-oriented data bases. The main body of the…

  1. Sojourn time asymptotics in processor-sharing queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, S.C.; Núñez Queija, R.; Zwart, B.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past few decades, the Processor-Sharing (PS) discipline has attracted a great deal of attention in the queueing literature. While the PS paradigm emerged in the sixties as an idealization of round-robin scheduling in time-shared computer systems, it has recently captured renewed interest as

  2. Sharing Ideas: Tough Times Encourage Colleges to Collaborate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fain, Paul; Blumenstyk, Goldie; Sander, Libby

    2009-01-01

    Tough times are encouraging colleges to share resources in a variety of areas, including campus security, research, and degree programs. Despite its veneer of cooperation, higher education is a competitive industry, where resource sharing is eyed warily. But the recession is chipping away at that reluctance, and institutions are pursuing…

  3. A Continuous-Time Model for Valuing Foreign Exchange Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Kung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes use of stochastic calculus to develop a continuous-time model for valuing European options on foreign exchange (FX when both domestic and foreign spot rates follow a generalized Wiener process. Using the dollar/euro exchange rate as input for parameter estimation and employing our FX option model as a yardstick, we find that the traditional Garman-Kohlhagen FX option model, which assumes constant spot rates, values incorrectly calls and puts for different values of the ratio of exchange rate to exercise price. Specifically, it undervalues calls when the ratio is between 0.70 and 1.08, and it overvalues calls when the ratio is between 1.18 and 1.30, whereas it overvalues puts when the ratio is between 0.70 and 0.82, and it undervalues puts when the ratio is between 0.86 and 1.30.

  4. Correlated continuous time random walk and option pricing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Longjin; Xiao, Jianbin; Fan, Liangzhong; Ren, Fuyao

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we study a correlated continuous time random walk (CCTRW) with averaged waiting time, whose probability density function (PDF) is proved to follow stretched Gaussian distribution. Then, we apply this process into option pricing problem. Supposing the price of the underlying is driven by this CCTRW, we find this model captures the subdiffusive characteristic of financial markets. By using the mean self-financing hedging strategy, we obtain the closed-form pricing formulas for a European option with and without transaction costs, respectively. At last, comparing the obtained model with the classical Black-Scholes model, we find the price obtained in this paper is higher than that obtained from the Black-Scholes model. A empirical analysis is also introduced to confirm the obtained results can fit the real data well.

  5. Working Time Arrangement Options in The Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucharčíková Alžbeta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the standard model for organizing working-time has been placed under strong pressure and the need to make adjustments to changing circumstances is increasing. The Slovak legal practice has had to react to this situation. An amended Labour Code, which came into force on 1 September 2007, has built up an internal labour market conditions for enforcing working time flexibility. The aim of this report is to present options and possibilities of working time arrangement according to the Slovak Labour Code and to design ways on how they should be included in the decision making process of an enterprise.

  6. The implication of missing the optimal-exercise time of an American option

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, A.; Feng, H.

    2015-01-01

    The optimal-exercise policy of an American option dictates when the option should be exercised. In this paper, we consider the implications of missing the optimal exercise time of an American option. For the put option, this means holding the option until it is deeper in-the-money when the optimal

  7. On a learning curve for shared decision making: Interviews with clinicians using the knee osteoarthritis Option Grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwyn, Glyn; Rasmussen, Julie; Kinsey, Katharine; Firth, Jill; Marrin, Katy; Edwards, Adrian; Wood, Fiona

    2018-02-01

    Tools used in clinical encounters to illustrate to patients the risks and benefits of treatment options have been shown to increase shared decision making. However, we do not have good information about how these tools are viewed by clinicians and how clinicians think patients would react to their use. Our aim was to examine clinicians' views about the possible and actual use of tools designed to support patients and clinicians to collaborate and deliberate about treatment options, namely, Option Grid decision aids. We conducted a thematic analysis of qualitative interviews embedded in the intervention phase of a trial of an Option Grid decision aid for osteoarthritis of the knee. Interviews were conducted with 6 participating clinicians before they used the tool and again after clinicians had used the tool with 6 patients. In the first interview, clinicians voiced concerns that the tool would lead to an increase in encounter duration, patient resistance regarding involvement in decision making, and potential information overload. At the second interview, after minimal training, the clinicians reported that the tool had changed their usual way of communicating, and it was generally acceptable and helpful to integrate it into practice. After experiencing the use of Option Grids, clinicians became more willing to use the tools in their clinical encounters with patients. How best to introduce Option Grids to clinicians and adopt their use into practice will need careful consideration of context, workflow, and clinical pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Time Out with Half-Time: Job Sharing in the Nineties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Linda

    1996-01-01

    Job sharing is a form of employment often overlooked by the average worker. Eight women were interviewed for this qualitative research study on the benefits and drawbacks of job sharing. Rather than simply allowing more time for them to spend with their children or on domestic chores, job sharing provided unanticipated opportunities to enjoy a…

  9. The productivity effects of profit sharing, employee ownership, stock option and team incentive plans: Evidence from korean panel data

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Takao; Lee, Ju Ho; Ryu, Jang-soo

    2010-01-01

    We report the first results for Korean firms on the incidence, diffusion, scope and effects of diverse employee financial participation schemes, such as Profit Sharing Plans (PSPs), Employee Stock Ownership Plans (ESOPs), Stock Option Plans (SOPs) and Team Incentive Plans (TIPs). In do doing, we assemble important new panel data by merging data from a survey of all Korean firms listed on Korean Stock Exchange which enjoys an unusually high response rate of 60 percent with accounting data from...

  10. Time-sharing visual and auditory tracking tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Pamela S.; Vidulich, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment is described which examined the benefits of distributing the input demands of two tracking tasks as a function of task integrality. Visual and auditory compensatory tracking tasks were utilized. Results indicate that presenting the two tracking signals in two input modalities did not improve time-sharing efficiency. This was attributed to the difficulty insensitivity phenomenon.

  11. GRAPHIC, time-sharing magnet design computer programs at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lari, R.J.

    1974-01-01

    This paper describes three magnet design computer programs in use at the Zero Gradient Synchrotron of Argonne National Laboratory. These programs are used in the time sharing mode in conjunction with a Tektronix model 4012 graphic display terminal. The first program in called TRIM, the second MAGNET, and the third GFUN. (U.S.)

  12. Sojourn times in finite-capacity processor-sharing queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, S.C.; Boxma, O.J.; Hegde, N.

    2005-01-01

    Motivated by the need to develop simple parsimonious models for evaluating the performance of wireless data systems, we consider finite-capacity processor-sharing systems. For such systems, we analyze the sojourn time distribution, which presents a useful measure for the transfer delay of documents

  13. Controlling shareholders and market timing in share issuance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urzua Infante, F.; Larrain, B.

    2013-01-01

    We examine market timing in the equity issuance of firms controlled by large shareholders using a hand-collected data set of controlling shareholders' ownership stakes in Chile between 1990 and 2009. When a firm issues shares, the controlling shareholder can either maintain or change his ownership

  14. Option Grids to facilitate shared decision making for patients with Osteoarthritis of the knee: protocol for a single site, efficacy trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrin, Katy; Wood, Fiona; Firth, Jill; Kinsey, Katharine; Edwards, Adrian; Brain, Kate E; Newcombe, Robert G; Nye, Alan; Pickles, Timothy; Hawthorne, Kamila; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-04-07

    Despite policy interest, an ethical imperative, and evidence of the benefits of patient decision support tools, the adoption of shared decision making (SDM) in day-to-day clinical practice remains slow and is inhibited by barriers that include culture and attitudes; resources and time pressures. Patient decision support tools often require high levels of health and computer literacy. Option Grids are one-page evidence-based summaries of the available condition-specific treatment options, listing patients' frequently asked questions. They are designed to be sufficiently brief and accessible enough to support a better dialogue between patients and clinicians during routine consultations. This paper describes a study to assess whether an Option Grid for osteoarthritis of the knee (OA of the knee) facilitates SDM, and explores the use of Option Grids by patients disadvantaged by language or poor health literacy. This will be a stepped wedge exploratory trial involving 72 patients with OA of the knee referred from primary medical care to a specialist musculoskeletal service in Oldham. Six physiotherapists will sequentially join the trial and consult with six patients using usual care procedures. After a period of brief training in using the Option Grid, the same six physiotherapists will consult with six further patients using an Option Grid in the consultation. The primary outcome will be efficacy of the Option Grid in facilitating SDM as measured by observational scores using the OPTION scale. Comparisons will be made between patients who have received the Option Grid and those who received usual care. A Decision Quality Measure (DQM) will assess quality of decision making. The health literacy of patients will be measured using the REALM-R instrument. Consultations will be observed and audio-recorded. Interviews will be conducted with the physiotherapists, patients and any interpreters present to explore their views of using the Option Grid. Option Grids offer a

  15. Part-Time Work and Other Flexible Options. ERIC Digest No. 192.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bettina Lankard

    Options for flexible work schedules such as job sharing, compressed work weeks, reduced hours, work at home, and flextime have provided employees with the means to realize a better balance between work and family and engage simultaneously in more than one endeavor (for example, school and work or two careers). The same options can also lead to…

  16. First Passage Time for Tempered Stable Process and Its Application to Perpetual American Option and Barrier Option Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Shin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we will discuss an approximation of the characteristic function of the first passage time for a Levy process using the martingale approach. The characteristic function of the first passage time of the tempered stable process is provided explicitly or by an indirect numerical method. This will be applied to the perpetual American option pricing and the barrier option pricing. Numerical illustrations are provided for the calibrated parameters using the market call and put prices.

  17. Using Option Grids: steps toward shared decision-making for neonatal circumcision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fay, M.; Grande, S.W.; Donnelly, K.; Elwyn, G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact, acceptability and feasibility of a short encounter tool designed to enhance the process of shared decision-making and parental engagement. METHODS: We analyzed video-recordings of clinical encounters, half undertaken before and half after a brief intervention that

  18. Recovery of time-dependent volatility in option pricing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zui-Cha; Hon, Y. C.; Isakov, V.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we investigate an inverse problem of determining the time-dependent volatility from observed market prices of options with different strikes. Due to the non linearity and sparsity of observations, an analytical solution to the problem is generally not available. Numerical approximation is also difficult to obtain using most of the existing numerical algorithms. Based on our recent theoretical results, we apply the linearisation technique to convert the problem into an inverse source problem from which recovery of the unknown volatility function can be achieved. Two kinds of strategies, namely, the integral equation method and the Landweber iterations, are adopted to obtain the stable numerical solution to the inverse problem. Both theoretical analysis and numerical examples confirm that the proposed approaches are effective. The work described in this paper was partially supported by a grant from the Research Grant Council of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (Project No. CityU 101112) and grants from the NNSF of China (Nos. 11261029, 11461039), and NSF grants DMS 10-08902 and 15-14886 and by Emylou Keith and Betty Dutcher Distinguished Professorship at the Wichita State University (USA).

  19. Recovering a time-homogeneous stock price process from perpetual option prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ekström, Erik; Hobson, David

    2009-01-01

    It is well known how to determine the price of perpetual American options if the underlying stock price is a time-homogeneous diffusion. In the present paper we consider the inverse problem, that is, given prices of perpetual American options for different strikes, we show how to construct a time-homogeneous stock price model which reproduces the given option prices.

  20. How to handle part-time, flex-time, and job-sharing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, L

    2001-01-01

    Offering employment structures other than traditional full-time positions in your practice can help you draw excellent job applicants and also can enable you to increase morale, job satisfaction, and productivity. However, there are many decisions you must make when offering a part-time, flex-time, or job-sharing position. This article explores the pros and cons of offering alternative job structures. It suggests ways to make part-time, flex-time, or job-sharing positions work most effectively, both for the employee and for your practice. In addition, this article suggests which positions are best suited to alternative structures.

  1. Sojourn time tails in processor-sharing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egorova, R.R.

    2009-01-01

    The processor-sharing discipline was originally introduced as a modeling abstraction for the design and performance analysis of the processing unit of a computer system. Under the processor-sharing discipline, all active tasks are assumed to be processed simultaneously, receiving an equal share of

  2. On the Option Effects of Short-Time Work Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Kuno; Thijssen, J.J.J.

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the short term work (STW) regulations that several OECD countries introduced after the 2007 financial crisis. We view these measures as a collection of real options and study the dynamic effect of STW on the endogenous liquidation decision of the firm. While STW delays a firm’s

  3. Absolute symbolic addressing, a structure making time-sharing easier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debraine, P.

    1968-08-01

    Time-sharing of computers asks for a certain number of conditions, particularly, an efficient dynamic loading of programs and data. This paper indicates a paging method making linkages with a minimum of table-looking operations. The principle is to use associative memory registers for calling blocks of physical memory, the block address being given by the concatenation of a file number (located in a base register) and a page number (located in the instruction proper). The position within the block is given by a displacement located in the instruction. A second associated base register contains the local part (page number + displacement) of the base address. This extended base register system allows executing programs in a very large programming complex without loss of time. The addresses are fixed at assembly time and the blocks can be loaded anywhere without modification for execution. The various problems associated with the execution of complex programs are presented in this context and shown to be easily solved by the proposed system, the realization of which would be very easy starting from the computer structures existing now. (author) [fr

  4. Time-changed geometric fractional Brownian motion and option pricing with transaction costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hui; Liang, Jin-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Xiu

    2012-08-01

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete time option pricing by a fractional subdiffusive Black-Scholes model. The price of the underlying stock follows a time-changed geometric fractional Brownian motion. By a mean self-financing delta-hedging argument, the pricing formula for the European call option in discrete time setting is obtained.

  5. A Qualitative Analysis of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring Data Sharing with Care Partners: To Share or Not to Share?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litchman, Michelle L; Allen, Nancy A; Colicchio, Vanessa D; Wawrzynski, Sarah E; Sparling, Kerri M; Hendricks, Krissa L; Berg, Cynthia A

    2018-01-01

    Little research exists regarding how real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) data sharing plays a role in the relationship between patients and their care partners. To (1) identify the benefits and challenges related to RT-CGM data sharing from the patient and care partner perspective and (2) to explore the number and type of individuals who share and follow RT-CGM data. This qualitative content analysis was conducted by examining publicly available blogs focused on RT-CGM and data sharing. A thematic analysis of blogs and associated comments was conducted. A systematic appraisal of personal blogs examined 39 blogs with 206 corresponding comments. The results of the study provided insight about the benefits and challenges related to individuals with diabetes sharing their RT-CGM data with a care partner(s). The analysis resulted in three themes: (1) RT-CGM data sharing enhances feelings of safety, (2) the need to communicate boundaries to avoid judgment, and (3) choice about sharing and following RT-CGM data. RT-CGM data sharing occurred within dyads (n = 46), triads (n = 15), and tetrads (n = 2). Adults and children with type 1 diabetes and their care partners are empowered by the ability to share and follow RT-CGM data. Our findings suggest that RT-CGM data sharing between an individual with diabetes and their care partner can complicate relationships. Healthcare providers need to engage patients and care partners in discussions about best practices related to RT-CGM sharing and following to avoid frustrations within the relationship.

  6. Supporting shared decision making using an Option Grid for osteoarthritis of the knee in an interface musculoskeletal clinic: A stepped wedge trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwyn, Glyn; Pickles, Tim; Edwards, Adrian; Kinsey, Katharine; Brain, Kate; Newcombe, Robert G; Firth, Jill; Marrin, Katy; Nye, Alan; Wood, Fiona

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate whether introducing tools, specifically designed for use in clinical encounters, namely Option Grids, into a clinical practice setting leads to higher levels of shared decision making. A stepped wedge trial design where 6 physiotherapists at an interface clinic in Oldham, UK, were sequentially instructed in how to use an Option Grid for osteoarthritis of the knee. Patients with suspected or confirmed osteoarthritis of the knee were recruited, six per clinician prior to instruction, and six per clinician afterwards. We measured shared decision making, patient knowledge, and readiness to decide. A total of 72 patients were recruited; 36 were allocated to the intervention group. There was an 8.4 point (95% CI 4.4 to 12.2) increase in the Observer OPTION score (range 0-100) in the intervention group. The mean gain in knowledge was 0.9 points (score range 0-5, 95% CI, 0.3 to 1.5). There was no increase in encounter duration. Shared decision making increased when clinicians used the knee osteoarthritis Option Grid. Tools designed to support collaboration and deliberation about treatment options lead to increased levels of shared decision making. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Is it timing of the date, of the news or is it backdating of option grants?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Goot, T.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates three hypotheses simultaneously: 1) the timing of the executive stock option grant dates, 2) the timing of the news around those dates, and 3) whether the option grant dates are backdated retroactively. The data comes from the Amsterdam stock exchange. The empirical results

  8. THE VALUATION OF INITIAL SHARE PRICE USING THE FREE CASH FLOW TO FIRM METHOD AND THE REAL OPTION METHOD IN INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhy Listya Paramitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine fair share value, to analyze the factors that influence undervalue and overvalue, and to determine the best valuation method. This study made valuation using real options method and free cash flow to firm method. The results of partial logistic regression on Free Cash Flow to Firm showed that tenor variable and equity variable had positive and significant effects, while dummy variable had a negative and significant effect. In the real option model, tenor variable and implied volatility variable had positive and significant effects, while sheets of share variable had a negative and significant effect

  9. Feasibility analysis of the development of an oil field: a real options approach in a production sharing agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Nunes Fonseca

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this research is to analyze the feasibility of developing a real oil field in Africa under a production sharing agreement, through the application of the real options theory. Design/methodology/approach – The research was conducted according to the principles of modeling and simulation, based on a structure that consists of three phases, in order to facilitate project feasibility analysis. Findings – Initially, according to the traditional method, we suggest that the decision-maker does not invest in the development of the field. However, by incorporating uncertainty into the decision-making process, other results were obtained. Although reduced, we attested that there is a likelihood of feasibility. Next, by using the binomial model to represent the process of oil barrel price diffusion, the asset value is calculated considering the flexibility of delaying the development of the field. Originality/value – The results show that, if a manager has the right to invest in the future and wait for better oil prices, postponing the development of an oil field adds value to his assets. The proposed method is a contribution that offers subsidies to improve decisionmaking processes to evaluate investments.

  10. The Optimal Timing of Strategic Action – A Real Options Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon G. Sollars

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available he possibility of a first-mover advantage arises in a variety of strategic choices, including product introductions, business start-ups, and mergers and acquisitions. The strategic management literature reflects ambiguity regarding the likelihood that a first mover can or will capture additional value. This paper uses a real options approach to address the optimal timing of strategic moves. Previous studies have modeled real options using either a perpetual or a European financial option. With these models, a strategic choice could only be made either without respect to a time frame (perpetual or at a fixed point in time (European option. Neither case is realistic. Companies typically have strategic options with only a limited time frame due to market factors, but companies may choose to act at any time within that constraint. To reflect this reality, we adapt a method for valuing an American financial option on a dividend paying stock to the real options context. The method presented in this paper proposes a solution for the optimum value for a project that should trigger a strategic choice, and highlights the value lost by not acting optimally. We use simulation results to show that the time frame available to make a strategic choice has an important effect on both the project value for when action should be taken, as well as on the value of waiting to invest at the optimal time. The results presented in this paper help to clarify the ambiguity that is found in the strategic management literature regarding the possibility of obtaining a first-mover advantage. Indeed, a first mover that acts sub-optimally could incur losses or at least not gain any advantage. A first mover that waits to invest at the right time based on the superior information supplied by models based on real options could be better positioned to obtain the benefits that might come from the first move.

  11. IN5 Polarisation Option (IPOP) and HIgh FIeld Magnet Option (HIFIMO) for the IN5 time-of-flight spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollivier, J.; Mutka, H.

    2011-01-01

    The new secondary spectrometer for the cold neutron time-of-flight (ToF) instrument IN5 was built with non-magnetic material, keeping in mind the upgrade option of polarisation analysis (PA) and the possibility of applying high continuous magnetic fields. The refurbished instrument has a high incident flux and elevated count-rate and offers a unique opportunity for applying polarised neutron methods for high resolution inelastic scattering, including single crystal investigations. On IN5 the polarised option would use the PASTIS concept of three sets of compact perpendicular coils (see the PANTHER proposal) allowing XYZPA and a 3 He analyser banana. As for high magnetic fields: a magnet suitable for ToF instruments must place a minimal amount of material in the incoming and outgoing beams and provide a large asymmetric view towards the detectors. An homogeneous field area of about 20 mm diameter over 30 mm height is also required. There is a size constraint set by the 800 mm diameter sample chamber and the optimal angular acceptance towards the detectors is -12 degrees / +135 degrees in the equatorial plane and +/- 22 degrees in the vertical direction

  12. SKED software system. Revision D. Time-shared SUPERSKED. Manual 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snapper, A.G.; Inglis, G.

    1977-01-01

    A modified version of State Notation was developed for both hardware and software design of laboratory procedures involving control sequences that vary as a function of the behavior of the experimental subjects. The SKED program was refined and integrated into the OS/8 and time-share systems developed by DEC to take advantage of the development of mass-storage devices and the sophistication of the operating system. The current system consists of the mass-storage devices and the sophistication of the operating system. The current system consists of a two-pass compiler with an optional third-pass listing, a set of programs for identifying and merging data acquisition files, and a sophisticated system monitor that can be used to start, stop, load, and modify as many as 12 independent process control and data acquisition procedures. CCL was modified to accept standard DEC Execute, Compile, and Load commands with special switch options to control the compiling of procedures designed in state notation. Three different methods are available to acquire data from as many as 12 independent stations. The system includes a parameter file and dialog that permits the user to configure his system. Four different clocks, the UDC controller, EAE units, line-printers and other specialized devices may be included. The available memory may be partitioned between the process control section and the OS/8 background. Finally, the number of digital input and output interface lines may be assigned to 12 stations in a flexible manner, by means of an interactive dialog. The system can be configured on any BK OS/8 machine or in the background. 44 figures, 28 tables.

  13. Remuneração em opções de ações: o SFAS 123 revisado Share option awards: SFAS 123 revised

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Caio Galdi

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes mecanismos de remuneração têm sido desenvolvidos com o intuito de estimular os empregados a agir com foco na maximização do valor da firma. Uma das maneiras utilizadas pelas empresas na busca desse objetivo é a remuneração vinculada à entrega de ações ou opções de ações da empresa para os empregados (chamada genericamente de remuneração baseada em ações em troca de seus serviços. Contudo, a utilização desse instrumento acarreta algumas questões controversas para a Contabilidade. Esse tipo de remuneração deve ser reconhecido como despesa? Opções de compra lançadas pela empresa para a remuneração de seus funcionários representam um passivo ou um item do patrimônio líquido? Por qual valor deve ser mensurado esse tipo de remuneração? E qual o período que deve ser considerado para a contabilização? No intuito de regulamentar o assunto, o FASB emitiu o SFAS 123 revisado. Este trabalho aborda os temas relacionados com a remuneração baseada em ações, concentrando-se na remuneração com opções de ações, e objetiva expor e analisar o arcabouço conceitual do SFAS 123 revisado. Para isso apresenta a evolução histórica da controversa normatização do tema, discorre sobre os principais conceitos emanados do SFAS 123 revisado e aborda a argumentação utilizada pelo FASB para o embasamento teórico da norma.Different kinds of awards have been developed to stimulate employers to focus on the maximization of the fi rm value. To reach this target, entities use share-based payment in exchange for the employee services they receive. However, the utilization of these instruments results in controversial questions for Accounting. Should equity awards be recognized as expenses? Is a share option award (issued to pay for employee services a liability or an equity instrument? What method should be used to measure the value of this instrument? What period of time should be considered to account for this kind

  14. Numerical Methods for Pricing American Options with Time-Fractional PDE Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a Laplace transform method and a finite difference method for solving American option pricing problem when the change of the option price with time is considered as a fractal transmission system. In this scenario, the option price is governed by a time-fractional partial differential equation (PDE with free boundary. The Laplace transform method is applied to the time-fractional PDE. It then leads to a nonlinear equation for the free boundary (i.e., optimal early exercise boundary function in Laplace space. After numerically finding the solution of the nonlinear equation, the Laplace inversion is used to transform the approximate early exercise boundary into the time space. Finally the approximate price of the American option is obtained. A boundary-searching finite difference method is also proposed to solve the free-boundary time-fractional PDEs for pricing the American options. Numerical examples are carried out to compare the Laplace approach with the finite difference method and it is confirmed that the former approach is much faster than the latter one.

  15. Toward shared decision making: using the OPTION scale to analyze resident-patient consultations in family medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellerin, M.A.; Elwyn, G.; Rousseau, M.; Stacey, D.; Robitaille, H.; Legare, F.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Do residents in family medicine practice share decision making with patients during consultations? This study used a validated scale to score family medicine residents' shared decision-making (SDM) skills in primary care consultations and to determine whether residents' demographic

  16. The Time 'Onewayness' Shared by Quantum Mechanics and Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzetta, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The measure of the mutation, or change, any material elementary particle unceasingly undergoes, is defined as that of the displacement of a point moving in a three-dimensional Euclidean space, at the velocity of light, on a trajectory decomposable in a rotation and a translation. The rotation accounts for the spin angular momentum of the particle, the translation for its change of location. Then, an elementary mutation is proportional to an elementary interval of universal time. The connection between space and time is such that the operation of universal time conjugation, that is, the change of sign of t, involves space inversion, so coinciding with the operation currently defined as TCP. It implies that to a given physical process, another equally possible one corresponds in which the sequence of events (that still follow the same time course) is reversed, and actors are the enantiomorphic counterparts (anti-particles instead of particles, and vice versa) of those playing in the first physical process. Since no alternative is left to any elementary particle, that exists in that it undergoes an everlasting mutation, the unidirectionality of time must not be understood as a choice between two alternative directions. Many formalisms of Special Relativity can be derived from the above definition of the mutation of a material elementary particle. Anyhow, some discordances seems to crop out whose discussion is beyond the purpose of the present paper

  17. Reducing the number of options on multiple-choice questions: response time, psychometrics and standard setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneid, Stephen D; Armour, Chris; Park, Yoon Soo; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Bordage, Georges

    2014-10-01

    Despite significant evidence supporting the use of three-option multiple-choice questions (MCQs), these are rarely used in written examinations for health professions students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of reducing four- and five-option MCQs to three-option MCQs on response times, psychometric characteristics, and absolute standard setting judgements in a pharmacology examination administered to health professions students. We administered two versions of a computerised examination containing 98 MCQs to 38 Year 2 medical students and 39 Year 3 pharmacy students. Four- and five-option MCQs were converted into three-option MCQs to create two versions of the examination. Differences in response time, item difficulty and discrimination, and reliability were evaluated. Medical and pharmacy faculty judges provided three-level Angoff (TLA) ratings for all MCQs for both versions of the examination to allow the assessment of differences in cut scores. Students answered three-option MCQs an average of 5 seconds faster than they answered four- and five-option MCQs (36 seconds versus 41 seconds; p = 0.008). There were no significant differences in item difficulty and discrimination, or test reliability. Overall, the cut scores generated for three-option MCQs using the TLA ratings were 8 percentage points higher (p = 0.04). The use of three-option MCQs in a health professions examination resulted in a time saving equivalent to the completion of 16% more MCQs per 1-hour testing period, which may increase content validity and test score reliability, and minimise construct under-representation. The higher cut scores may result in higher failure rates if an absolute standard setting method, such as the TLA method, is used. The results from this study provide a cautious indication to health professions educators that using three-option MCQs does not threaten validity and may strengthen it by allowing additional MCQs to be tested in a fixed amount

  18. Synchronization resources in heterogeneous environments: Time-sharing, real-time and Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.; Vega, J.; Pacios, L.; Sanchez, E.; Portas, A.

    2006-01-01

    The asynchronous event distribution system (AEDS) was built to provide synchronization resources within the TJ-II local area network. It is a software system developed to add 'soft synchronization' capabilities to the TJ-II data acquisition, control and analysis environments. 'Soft synchronization' signifies that AEDS is not a real-time system. In fact, AEDS is based on TCP/IP over ETHERNET networks. However, its response time is adequate for practical purposes when synchronization requirements can support some delay between event dispatch and message reception. Event broadcasters (or synchronization servers in AEDS terminology) are Windows computers. Destination computers (or synchronization clients) were also Windows machines in the first version of AEDS. However, this fact imposed a very important limitation on synchronization capabilities. To overcome this situation, synchronization clients for different environments have been added to AEDS: for time-sharing operating systems (Unix and Linux), real-time operating systems (OS-9 and VxWorks) and Java applications. These environments have different synchronization primitives, requiring different approaches to provide the required uniform functionality. This has been achieved with POSIX thread library synchronization primitives (mutex and condition variables) on Unix/Linux systems, IPC mechanisms for concurrent processes on OS-9 and VxWorks real-time operating systems, and 'synchronized-wait/notify' primitives on Java virtual machines

  19. Synchronization resources in heterogeneous environments: Time-sharing, real-time and Java

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT Edificio 66, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: augusto.pereira@ciemat.es; Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT Edificio 66, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pacios, L. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT Edificio 66, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Sanchez, E. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT Edificio 66, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Portas, A. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, CIEMAT Edificio 66, Avda. Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-15

    The asynchronous event distribution system (AEDS) was built to provide synchronization resources within the TJ-II local area network. It is a software system developed to add 'soft synchronization' capabilities to the TJ-II data acquisition, control and analysis environments. 'Soft synchronization' signifies that AEDS is not a real-time system. In fact, AEDS is based on TCP/IP over ETHERNET networks. However, its response time is adequate for practical purposes when synchronization requirements can support some delay between event dispatch and message reception. Event broadcasters (or synchronization servers in AEDS terminology) are Windows computers. Destination computers (or synchronization clients) were also Windows machines in the first version of AEDS. However, this fact imposed a very important limitation on synchronization capabilities. To overcome this situation, synchronization clients for different environments have been added to AEDS: for time-sharing operating systems (Unix and Linux), real-time operating systems (OS-9 and VxWorks) and Java applications. These environments have different synchronization primitives, requiring different approaches to provide the required uniform functionality. This has been achieved with POSIX thread library synchronization primitives (mutex and condition variables) on Unix/Linux systems, IPC mechanisms for concurrent processes on OS-9 and VxWorks real-time operating systems, and 'synchronized-wait/notify' primitives on Java virtual machines.

  20. Sharing Steps in the Workplace: Changing Privacy Concerns Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nanna Gorm; Shklovski, Irina

    2016-01-01

    study of a Danish workplace participating in a step counting campaign. We find that concerns of employees who choose to participate and those who choose not to differ. Moreover, privacy concerns of participants develop and change over time. Our findings challenge the assumption that consumers...

  1. Optimal Investment Timing and Size of a Logistics Park: A Real Options Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a real options approach to address optimal timing and size of a logistics park investment with logistics demand volatility. Two important problems are examined: when should an investment be introduced, and what size should it be? A real option model is proposed to explicitly incorporate the effect of government subsidies on logistics park investment. Logistic demand that triggers the threshold for investment in a logistics park project is explored analytically. Comparative static analyses of logistics park investment are also carried out. Our analytical results show that (1 investors will select smaller sized logistics parks and prepone the investment if government subsidies are considered; (2 the real option will postpone the optimal investment timing of logistics parks compared with net present value approach; and (3 logistic demands can significantly affect the optimal investment size and timing of logistics park investment.

  2. Time Charters with Purchase Options in Shipping: Valuation and Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; De Giovanni, Domenico

    The paper studies the valuation and optimal management of Time Charters with Purchase Options (T/C-POPs) which is a specific type of asset lease with embedded options that is common in shipping markets. T/C-POPs are economically significant and sometimes account for more than half of the stock...... market value of listed shipping companies. The main source of risk in markets for maritime transportation is the freight rate, and we therefore specify a single-factor continuous time model for the dynamic evolution of freight rates which allows us to price a wide variety of freight rate related...

  3. Time Charters with Purchase Options in Shipping: Valuation and Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte; De Giovanni, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    The article studies the valuation and optimal management of Time Charters with Purchase Options (T/C-POPs), which is a specific type of asset lease with embedded options that is common in shipping markets. T/C-POPs are economically significant and sometimes account for more than half of the stock...... market value of listed shipping companies. The main source of risk in markets for maritime transportation is the freight rate, and we therefore specify a single-factor continuous time model for the dynamic evolution of freight rates that allows us to price a wide variety of freight rate...

  4. Time-Varying Transition Probability Matrix Estimation and Its Application to Brand Share Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Tomoaki; Hino, Hideitsu; Akaho, Shotaro; Murata, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    In a product market or stock market, different products or stocks compete for the same consumers or purchasers. We propose a method to estimate the time-varying transition matrix of the product share using a multivariate time series of the product share. The method is based on the assumption that each of the observed time series of shares is a stationary distribution of the underlying Markov processes characterized by transition probability matrices. We estimate transition probability matrices for every observation under natural assumptions. We demonstrate, on a real-world dataset of the share of automobiles, that the proposed method can find intrinsic transition of shares. The resulting transition matrices reveal interesting phenomena, for example, the change in flows between TOYOTA group and GM group for the fiscal year where TOYOTA group's sales beat GM's sales, which is a reasonable scenario.

  5. Time-Varying Transition Probability Matrix Estimation and Its Application to Brand Share Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Chiba

    Full Text Available In a product market or stock market, different products or stocks compete for the same consumers or purchasers. We propose a method to estimate the time-varying transition matrix of the product share using a multivariate time series of the product share. The method is based on the assumption that each of the observed time series of shares is a stationary distribution of the underlying Markov processes characterized by transition probability matrices. We estimate transition probability matrices for every observation under natural assumptions. We demonstrate, on a real-world dataset of the share of automobiles, that the proposed method can find intrinsic transition of shares. The resulting transition matrices reveal interesting phenomena, for example, the change in flows between TOYOTA group and GM group for the fiscal year where TOYOTA group's sales beat GM's sales, which is a reasonable scenario.

  6. Children's Perspectives on Everyday Experiences of Shared Residence: Time, Emotions and Agency Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Gry Mette D.

    2010-01-01

    Shared residence is often presented as an arrangement that is in the best interests of the child following the divorce of its parents. Based on in-depth interviews with Norwegian children who have experienced shared residence, this article seeks to explore some dilemmas concerning time, agency and the children's emotions. Three characteristics of…

  7. What makes and what does not make a real option? A study of equity shares in international joint ventures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, I.R.P.; Martin, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the boundaries of real options logic, with an application to joint ventures (JVs). We distinguish between forms of uncertainty that are resolved endogenously and those that are resolved exogenously, and theorize that only exogenous uncertainty will have the impact predicted by

  8. Part-time and Job-Share Careers Among Pharmacy Practice Faculty Members

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, Brooke; Vest, Kathleen; Pohl, Shaunte; Mazan, Jennifer; Winkler, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Part-time and job-share policies may allow pharmacy practice faculty members to achieve work/life balance while pursuing their professional goals. Precedent for alternative work schedules within the health professions community can be found throughout the literature; however, little is known about part-time roles in academic pharmacy. The design and implementation of 3 different alternative faculty appointments are described and department chair and faculty perspectives are shared. Teaching, ...

  9. A STUDY OF SOME SOFTWARE PARAMETERS IN TIME-SHARING SYSTEMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review is made of some existing time-sharing computer systems and an exploration of various software characteristics is conducted. This...of the various parameters upon the average response cycle time, the average number in the queue awaiting service , the average length of time a user is

  10. Sojourn time asymptotics in Processor Sharing queues with varying service rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egorova, R.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Zwart, B.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper addresses the sojourn time asymptotics for a GI/GI/⋅ queue operating under the Processor Sharing (PS) discipline with stochastically varying service rate. Our focus is on the logarithmic estimates of the tail of sojourn-time distribution, under the assumption that the job-size

  11. Sojourn time asymptotics in the M/G/1 processor sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Zwart (Bert); O.J. Boxma (Onno)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractWe show for the M/G/1 processor sharing queue that the service time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu$, $nu$ non-integer, iff the sojourn time distribution is regularly varying of index $-nu $. This result is derived from a new expression for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform

  12. Information-sharing tendency on Twitter and time evolution of tweeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, H. W.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, K.; Choi, M. Y.

    2013-03-01

    While topics on Twitter may be categorized according to their predictability and sustainability, some topics have characteristics depending on the time scale. Here we propose a good measure for the transition of sustainability, which we call the information-sharing tendency, and find that the unpredictability on Twitter is provoked by the exposure of Twitter users to external environments, e.g., mass media and other social network services. In addition, it is demonstrated that the numbers of articles and comments on on-line newspapers serve as plausible measures of exposure. From such measures of exposure, the time evolution of tweeting can be described, when the information-sharing tendency is known.

  13. Shared use agreements and leisure time physical activity in North Carolina public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Troy A; Kanters, Michael A; Bocarro, Jason N; Floyd, Myron F; Edwards, Michael B; Suau, Luis J

    2017-02-01

    Although increasing community access to public schools through shared use agreements (SUAs) has been a recommended strategy for promoting physical activity (PA) among national, state and local organizations, empirical evidence examining the efficacy of SUAs is limited. This study examined the degree of usage and production of PA among schools with shared use, and how variation in PA output is related to characteristics of the school, type of activity, facility type, and when activity occurs. Data were collected in 20 schools across North Carolina using System for Observing Play and Recreation in Communities (SOPARC) and Structured Physical Activity Surveys (SPAS) to assess PA in school athletic facilities during out of school time. Findings indicated that although schools had a policy of shared or open use, most facilities were empty during non-school hours. Hierarchal linear regression models also showed that formal programming was positively associated with both use and PA levels. Given the abundance of empty facilities, community groups in need of space to facilitate structured PA programs should pursue avenues of sharing facilities with public schools. Furthermore, to increase the efficacy of shared use, structured physical activity programs may be needed. Future studies are encouraged to further explore the effects of the specific types of shared use programs on PA production as well other aspects of the built environment surrounding schools. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Extending a HSF-enabled open-source real-time operating system with resource sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Behnam, M.; Petters, S.M.; Zijlstra, P.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) provide means for composing complex real-time systems from well-defined, independently analyzed subsystems. To support resource sharing within two-level, fixed priority scheduled HSFs, two synchronization protocols based on the stack resource policy (SRP)

  15. Working Memory Span Development: A Time-Based Resource-Sharing Model Account

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Gavens, Nathalie; Vergauwe, Evie; Gaillard, Vinciane; Camos, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    The time-based resource-sharing model (P. Barrouillet, S. Bernardin, & V. Camos, 2004) assumes that during complex working memory span tasks, attention is frequently and surreptitiously switched from processing to reactivate decaying memory traces before their complete loss. Three experiments involving children from 5 to 14 years of age…

  16. Mean sojourn times for phase-type discriminatory processor sharing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haviv, M.; van der Wal, J.

    2008-01-01

    In a discriminatory processor sharing (DPS) queueing model, each job (or customer) belongs to one out of finitely many classes. The arrival processes are Poisson. Classes differ with respect to arrival rates and service time distributions. Moreover, classes have different priority levels. All jobs

  17. Protocol-transparent resource sharing in hierarchically scheduled real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) provide means for composing complex real-time systems from well-defined, independently analyzed subsystems. To support resource sharing within two-level HSFs, three synchronization protocols based on the stack resource policy (SRP) have recently been

  18. Sharing Time and the Poetic Patterning of Caribbean Independence: The Narrative Architecture of Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Aa, Jef

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the narrative architecture and interactional uptake of a school child's story about independence in Barbados during sharing time. It is found that an institutional focus on standard resources impacts both teachers' and children's sociolinguistic behavior. Ethnopoetic analysis brings out the child's patterned use of narrative…

  19. Shared random access memory resource for multiprocessor real-time systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmler, D.G.; Hardy, W.H. II

    1977-01-01

    A shared random-access memory resource is described which is used within real-time data acquisition and control systems with multiprocessor and multibus organizations. Hardware and software aspects are discussed in a specific example where interconnections are done via a UNIBUS. The general applicability of the approach is also discussed

  20. The interplay of couple's shared time, women's intimacy, and intradyadic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milek, Anne; Butler, Emily A; Bodenmann, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Theoretically, spending time together should be central for couples to build intimacy and should be associated with less relationship stress; however, few empirical studies have examined these links. The present study used 14 days of diary data from 92 women to investigate the interplay between the amount of time they spent with their partner (shared time), intimacy, and daily stress originating inside the relationship (intradyadic stress) on a within- and between-personal level. Multilevel analyses revealed moderation patterns: For example, when women spent more time with their partners than usual on a weekday with low levels of intradyadic stress, they reported higher intimacy. These associations varied substantially between women and were weaker on the weekend or on days with high levels of intradyadic stress. At the between-person level, higher average shared time appeared to buffer the negative association between intradyadic stress and intimacy. Our results suggest that daily fluctuations in intradyadic stress, intimacy, and shared time may have different implications compared with aggregated amounts of those variables. Spending more time together on a weekday with low intimacy might be linked to more intradyadic stress, but aggregated over the long run, spending more time together may provide opportunities for stress resolution and help couples to maintain their intimacy. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The impact of public transportation strikes on use of a bicycle share program in London: interrupted time series design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Cummins, Steven; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the immediate and sustained effects of two London Underground strikes on use of a public bicycle share program. An interrupted time series design was used to examine the impact of two 24 hour strikes on the total number of trips per day and mean trip duration per day on the London public bicycle share program. The strikes occurred on September 6th and October 4th 2010 and limited service on the London Underground. The mean total number of trips per day over the whole study period was 14,699 (SD=5390) while the mean trip duration was 18.5 minutes (SD=3.7). Significant increases in daily trip count were observed following strike 1 (3864: 95% CI 125 to 7604) and strike 2 (11,293: 95% CI 5169 to 17,416). Events that greatly constrain the primary motorised mode of transportation for a population may have unintended short-term effects on travel behaviour. These findings suggest that limiting transportation options may have the potential to increase population levels of physical activity by promoting the use of cycling. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Foodservice yield and fabrication times for beef as influenced by purchasing options and merchandising styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherly, B H; Griffin, D B; Johnson, H K; Walter, J P; De La Zerda, M J; Tipton, N C; Savell, J W

    2001-12-01

    Selected beef subprimals were obtained from fabrication lines of three foodservice purveyors to assist in the development of a software support program for the beef foodservice industry. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in or boneless foodservice ready-to-cook portion-sized cuts and associated components by professional meat cutters. Each subprimal was cut to generate mean foodservice cutting yields and labor requirements, which were calculated from observed weights (kilograms) and processing times (seconds). Once fabrication was completed, data were analyzed to determine means and standard errors of percentage yields and processing times for each subprimal. Subprimals cut to only one end point were evaluated for mean foodservice yields and processing times, but no comparisons were made within subprimal. However, those traditionally cut into various end points were additionally compared by cutting style. Subprimals cut by a single cutting style included rib, roast-ready; ribeye roll, lip-on, bone-in; brisket, deckle-off, boneless; top (inside) round; and bottom sirloin butt, flap, boneless. Subprimals cut into multiple end points or styles included ribeye, lip-on; top sirloin, cap; tenderloin butt, defatted; shortloin, short-cut; strip loin, boneless; top sirloin butt, boneless; and tenderloin, full, side muscle on, defatted. Mean yields of portion cuts, and mean fabrication times required to manufacture these cuts differed (P < 0.05) by cutting specification of the final product. In general, as the target portion size of fabricated steaks decreased, the mean number of steaks derived from any given subprimal cut increased, causing total foodservice yield to decrease and total processing time to increase. Therefore, an inverse relationship tended to exist between processing times and foodservice yields. With a method of accurately evaluating various beef purchase options, such as traditional commodity subprimals, closely trimmed subprimals, and pre-cut portion

  3. Shared control on lunar spacecraft teleoperation rendezvous operations with large time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ya-kun, Zhang; Hai-yang, Li; Rui-xue, Huang; Jiang-hui, Liu

    2017-08-01

    Teleoperation could be used in space on-orbit serving missions, such as object deorbits, spacecraft approaches, and automatic rendezvous and docking back-up systems. Teleoperation rendezvous and docking in lunar orbit may encounter bottlenecks for the inherent time delay in the communication link and the limited measurement accuracy of sensors. Moreover, human intervention is unsuitable in view of the partial communication coverage problem. To solve these problems, a shared control strategy for teleoperation rendezvous and docking is detailed. The control authority in lunar orbital maneuvers that involves two spacecraft as rendezvous and docking in the final phase was discussed in this paper. The predictive display model based on the relative dynamic equations is established to overcome the influence of the large time delay in communication link. We discuss and attempt to prove via consistent, ground-based simulations the relative merits of fully autonomous control mode (i.e., onboard computer-based), fully manual control (i.e., human-driven at the ground station) and shared control mode. The simulation experiments were conducted on the nine-degrees-of-freedom teleoperation rendezvous and docking simulation platform. Simulation results indicated that the shared control methods can overcome the influence of time delay effects. In addition, the docking success probability of shared control method was enhanced compared with automatic and manual modes.

  4. [Part-time medical specialist training; experiences with job-sharing for trainee internists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, K; Nauta, S; Stuyt, P M

    2004-02-14

    Due to various factors such as social changes, an increasing number of couples with two incomes, and a growing proportion of female doctors, there has been a growing demand for part-time work in recent years. This is also true for resident physicians. Objections such as a discontinuity in care and the decline in the quality of education frequently prevent resident physicians from working part-time. Over the past two years, the University Medical Centre Nijmegen, the Netherlands, has experimented with job-sharing on clinical wards for resident physicians in internal medicine. This approach works well in practice, as long as a number of conditions, including the proper transfer of medical information and good communication, are satisfied. Job-sharing is one means of satisfying the growing demand for part-time work among resident physicians and specialists.

  5. Part-time and job-share careers among pharmacy practice faculty members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brooke; Vest, Kathleen; Pohl, Shaunte; Mazan, Jennifer; Winkler, Susan

    2014-04-17

    Part-time and job-share policies may allow pharmacy practice faculty members to achieve work/life balance while pursuing their professional goals. Precedent for alternative work schedules within the health professions community can be found throughout the literature; however, little is known about part-time roles in academic pharmacy. The design and implementation of 3 different alternative faculty appointments are described and department chair and faculty perspectives are shared. Teaching, service, and scholarship responsibilities, as well as outcomes before and after changes in appointment, are described. Advantages and disadvantages, including advice for other colleges of pharmacy, are presented. Alternate appointments may be a key factor in retaining highly qualified faculty members who continue to bring their expertise to teaching, precepting, and scholarship within a college or school of pharmacy.

  6. Psychological reality and the role of the teacher in early-education sharing time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsafi, Abdullah T.

    1994-01-01

    The study of children's language development has been strongly influenced since the 1950s by linguistic research. How well, however, has the education of young children incorporated the concept of psychological reality, which interrelates the child's perceptual and cognitive development with linguistic and non-linguistic events in his/her environment? In reply to this question, the paper concentrates on"sharing time", known also as"show and tell", which has both affective and cognitive value. Although sharing time is a student-centered activity, the teacher plays a pivotal role in establishing its context, structure and norms. Feedback from the teacher and peers promotes language development, and the growth of curiosity and inquisitiveness. The article is derived from experience in teaching kindergarten teachers to conduct sharing time periods in Saudi Arabia. Practical suggestions are made for the implementation of the activity, in the interests of encouraging spontaneous and personalized language rather than focusing on evaluation of students' competence in the formal aspects of language development.

  7. Intelligence and temporal accuracy of behaviour: unique and shared associations with reaction time and motor timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Linus; Ullén, Fredrik; Madison, Guy

    2011-10-01

    Intelligence is associated with accuracy in a wide range of timing tasks. One source of such associations is likely to be individual differences in top-down control, e.g., sustained attention, that influence performance in both temporal tasks and other cognitively controlled behaviours. In addition, we have studied relations between intelligence and a simple rhythmic motor task, isochronous serial interval production (ISIP), and found a substantial component of that relation, which is independent of fluctuations in top-down control. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether such bottom-up mechanisms are involved also in the relation between intelligence and reaction time (RT) tasks. We thus investigated whether common variance between the ISIP and RT tasks underlies their respective associations with intelligence. Two hundred and twelve participants performed a simple RT task, a choice RT task and the ISIP task. Intelligence was assessed with the Raven SPM Plus. The analysed timing variables included mean and variability in the RT tasks and two variance components in the ISIP task. As predicted, RT and ISIP variables were associated with intelligence. The timing variables were positively intercorrelated, and a principal component analysis revealed a substantial first principal component that was strongly related to all timing variables, and positively correlated with intelligence. Furthermore, a commonality analysis demonstrated that the relations between intelligence and the timing variables involved a commonality between the timing variables as well as unique contributions from choice RT and ISIP. We discuss possible implications of these findings and argue that they support our main hypothesis, i.e., that relations between intelligence and RT tasks have a bottom-up component.

  8. Time-resolved echo-shared parallel MRA of the lung: observer preference study of image quality in comparison with non-echo-shared sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.; Puderbach, M.; Zaporozhan, J.; Plathow, C.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Ley, S.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the image quality of time-resolved echo-shared parallel MRA of the lung. The pulmonary vasculature of nine patients (seven females, two males; median age: 44 years) with pulmonary disease was examined using a time-resolved MRA sequence combining echo sharing with parallel imaging (time-resolved echo-shared angiography technique, or TREAT). The sharpness of the vessel borders, conspicuousness of peripheral lung vessels, artifact level, and overall image quality of TREAT was assessed independently by four readers in a side-by-side comparison with non-echo-shared time-resolved parallel MRA data (pMRA) previously acquired in the same patients. Furthermore, the SNR of pulmonary arteries (PA) and veins (PV) achieved with both pulse sequences was compared. The mean voxel size of TREAT MRA was decreased by 24% compared with the non-echo-shared MRA. Regarding the sharpness of the vessel borders, conspicuousness of peripheral lung vessels, and overall image quality the TREAT sequence was rated superior in 75-76% of all cases. If the TREAT images were preferred over the pMRA images, the advantage was rated as major in 61-71% of all cases. The level of artifacts was not increased with the TREAT sequence. The mean interobserver agreement for all categories ranged between fair (artifact level) and good (overall image quality). The maximum SNR of TREAT did not differ from non-echo-shared parallel MRA (PA: TREAT: 273±45; pMRA: 280±71; PV: TREAT: 273±33; pMRA: 258±62). TREAT achieves a higher spatial resolution than non-echo-shared parallel MRA which is also perceived as an improved image quality. (orig.)

  9. Physician as partner or salesman? Shared decision-making in real-time encounters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2009-07-01

    The results of recent research have led to the increased advocacy of shared decision-making regarding medical treatment. Nonetheless, only a limited number of studies have focused on the process of decision-making in real-time encounters. The present paper aims to document and analyze this process. Specifically, we assess whether these decisions are the result of partnership or of persuasive tactics based on power and hierarchical relationships. We will describe and analyze different strategies used by pediatric gastroenterologists in breaking bad news encounters, as well as their consequences. The analysis is based on a multi-method, multi-participant phenomenological study on breaking bad news to adolescents and their families regarding a chronic illness. It included 17 units of analysis (actual encounters and 52 interviews with physicians, parents and adolescents). Data were collected from three hospitals in Northern Israel using observations and audiotapes of diagnosis disclosure encounters and audio-taped interviews with all participants. The analysis identified eight different presentation tactics used in actual encounters during which physicians made various use of language, syntax and different sources of power to persuade patients to agree with their preferred treatment choice. The tactics included various ways of presenting the illness, treatment and side effects; providing examples from other success or failure stories; sharing the decision only concerning technicalities; and using plurals and authority. The findings suggest that shared decision-making may be advocated as a philosophical tenet or a value, but it is not necessarily implemented in actual communication with patients. Rather, treatment decisions tend to be unilaterally made, and a variety of persuasive approaches are used to ensure agreement with the physician's recommendation. The discussion is focused on the complexity of sharing a decision, especially in the initial bad news encounter

  10. Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Hopkins, John

    2012-12-01

    1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects.2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the 'trespass' of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting.3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards 'whiter' light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths.4.Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse

  11. Shared genetic aetiology of puberty timing between sexes and with health-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R; Bulik-Sullivan, Brendan; Hinds, David A; Finucane, Hilary K; Murabito, Joanne M; Tung, Joyce Y; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2015-11-09

    Understanding of the genetic regulation of puberty timing has come largely from studies of rare disorders and population-based studies in women. Here, we report the largest genomic analysis for puberty timing in 55,871 men, based on recalled age at voice breaking. Analysis across all genomic variants reveals strong genetic correlation (0.74, P=2.7 × 10(-70)) between male and female puberty timing. However, some loci show sex-divergent effects, including directionally opposite effects between sexes at the SIM1/MCHR2 locus (Pheterogeneity=1.6 × 10(-12)). We find five novel loci for puberty timing (Ppuberty, LEPR and KAL1. Finally, we identify genetic correlations that indicate shared aetiologies in both sexes between puberty timing and body mass index, fasting insulin levels, lipid levels, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  12. 47 CFR 25.259 - Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time sharing between NOAA meteorological... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.259 Time sharing between NOAA meteorological satellite... Atmospheric Administration (“NOAA”) satellite systems. When calculating the protection areas for a NOAA...

  13. A Comparison of Job Satisfaction and General Well-Being for Job Sharing and Part-Time Female Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Debbie

    1996-01-01

    Explores factors that influence how women cope with multiple roles. Discusses implications of a study that investigated job sharing as a part-time employment alternative for women (n=4 job-sharing nurses and n=4 part-time nurses) wanting a healthier balance between home and work life. (SNR)

  14. Probabilistic Cash Flow-Based Optimal Investment Timing Using Two-Color Rainbow Options Valuation for Economic Sustainability Appraisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggu Kim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research determines the optimal investment timing using real options valuation to support decision-making for economic sustainability assessment. This paper illustrates an option pricing model using the Black-Scholes model applied to a case project to understand the model performance. Applicability of the project to the model requires two Monte Carlo simulations to satisfy a Markov process and a Wiener process. The position of project developers is not only the seller of products, but it is also the buyer of raw materials. Real options valuation can be influenced by the volatility of cash outflow, as well as the volatility of cash inflow. This study suggests two-color rainbow options valuation to overcome this issue, which is demonstrated for a steel plant project. The asymmetric results of the case study show that cash outflow (put option influences the value of the steel plant project more than cash inflow (call option does of which the discussion of the results is referred to a sensitivity analysis. The real options valuation method proposed in this study contributes to the literature on applying the new model, taking into consideration that investors maximize project profitability for economic sustainable development.

  15. Decisions, decisions: analysis of age, cohort, and time of testing on framing of risky decision options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhorn, Christopher B; Fisk, Arthur D; Whittle, Justin D

    2002-01-01

    Decision making in uncertain environments is a daily challenge faced by adults of all ages. Framing decision options as either gains or losses is a common method of altering decision-making behavior. In the experiment reported here, benchmark decision-making data collected in the 1970s by Tversky and Kahneman (1981, 1988) were compared with data collected from current samples of young and older adults to determine whether behavior was consistent across time. Although differences did emerge between the benchmark and the present samples, the effect of framing on decision behavior was relatively stable. The present findings suggest that adults of all ages are susceptible to framing effects. Results also indicated that apparent age differences might be better explained by an analysis of cohort and time-of-testing effects. Actual or potential applications of this research include an understanding of how framing might influence the decision-making behavior of people of all ages in a number of applied contexts, such as product warning interactions and medical decision scenarios.

  16. Internet Data Distribution – extending real-time data sharing throughout the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yoksas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Unidata Program Center (Unidata of the University Corporation of Atmospheric Research (UCAR is involved in three international collaborations whose goals are extension of real-time data delivery-to and sharing-of locally held datasets-by educational institutions throughout the Americas. These efforts are based on the use of Unidata's Internet Data Distribution (IDD system which is built on top of its proven Local Data Manager Version 6 (LDM-6 technology. The Unidata IDD is an event-driven network of cooperating Unidata LDM servers that distributes discipline-neutral data products in near real-time over wide-area networks. The IDD, a collaboration of over 150 mostly North American institutions of higher education, has been the primary source of real-time atmospheric science data for the US university community for over a decade,. In addition to providing a highly reliable mechanism for delivering real-time data, the IDD allows users to easily share locally held datasets.

  17. Analysis on Time Window of Shared Parking in Hospitals Based on Parking Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are essential components of a city; huge traffic demand is generated and attracted, causing contradiction between parking supply and demand. By sharing parking berths, limited space can serve more demand which is beneficial to alleviating parking problems. Aimed at improving the capacity of shared parking, the paper analyzes four parking groups in typical hospitals, which are medical staff, outpatients, emergency patients, and visiting groups. The parking demand of medical staff is rigid. For outpatients and visiting groups, longer walking distance is acceptable and more attention is paid to parking fee. By contrast, emergency patients can accept shorter walking distance and focus more on convenience due to urgency. Under this circumstance, parking behaviors selection models are established by means of Multinomial Logit Model. On this basis, time value is adopted to calculate the tolerance of alterative parking time. Moreover, this paper explores the variation of time window, under different parking impedance. A case study is conducted and suggests that start and end point of a certain time window can be influenced by external factors.

  18. A Comprehensive Optimization Strategy for Real-time Spatial Feature Sharing and Visual Analytics in Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Shao, H.

    2017-12-01

    For geospatial cyberinfrastructure enabled web services, the ability of rapidly transmitting and sharing spatial data over the Internet plays a critical role to meet the demands of real-time change detection, response and decision-making. Especially for the vector datasets which serve as irreplaceable and concrete material in data-driven geospatial applications, their rich geometry and property information facilitates the development of interactive, efficient and intelligent data analysis and visualization applications. However, the big-data issues of vector datasets have hindered their wide adoption in web services. In this research, we propose a comprehensive optimization strategy to enhance the performance of vector data transmitting and processing. This strategy combines: 1) pre- and on-the-fly generalization, which automatically determines proper simplification level through the introduction of appropriate distance tolerance (ADT) to meet various visualization requirements, and at the same time speed up simplification efficiency; 2) a progressive attribute transmission method to reduce data size and therefore the service response time; 3) compressed data transmission and dynamic adoption of a compression method to maximize the service efficiency under different computing and network environments. A cyberinfrastructure web portal was developed for implementing the proposed technologies. After applying our optimization strategies, substantial performance enhancement is achieved. We expect this work to widen the use of web service providing vector data to support real-time spatial feature sharing, visual analytics and decision-making.

  19. Individual Differences and Time-Sharing Ability: A Critical Review and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    the mythical innkeeper for which it is named. The paradigm involves the following steps: I) The user chooses a factor solution of interest as a "target...A) L L(T) L(C) LL L(A) A ACT ) A(C) Individual Differences and Time-Sharing Abilities Page 41 TABLE 21: LATENT ROOT PARALLEL A’ALYSIS -- DIFFERENCE...753 10 C(A) .350 11 L .711 12 L(T) .399 13 L(C) .650 14 LL .740 15 L(A) .521 16 A .504 17 ACT ) .489 18 A(C) .559 19 A(L) .545 7. FIGURE 1. LATENT

  20. A shared memory based interface of MARTe with EPICS for real-time applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sangwon; Neto, André C.; Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil; Park, Kaprai

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We implemented a shared memory based interface of MARTe with EPICS. • We implemented an EPICS module supporting device and driver support. • We implemented an example EPICS IOC and CSS OPI for evaluation. - Abstract: The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) is a multi-platform C++ middleware designed for the implementation of real-time control systems. It currently supports the Linux, Linux + RTAI, VxWorks, Solaris and MS Windows platforms. In the fusion community MARTe is being used at JET, COMPASS, ISTTOK, FTU and RFX in fusion [1]. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), a standard framework for the control systems in KSTAR and ITER, is a set of software tools and applications which provide a software infrastructure for use in building distributed control systems to operate devices. For a MARTe based application to cooperate with an EPICS based application, an interface layer between MARTe and EPICS is required. To solve this issue, a number of interfacing solutions have been proposed and some of them have been implemented. Nevertheless, a new approach is required to mitigate the functional limitations of existing solutions and to improve their performance for real-time applications. This paper describes the design and implementation of a shared memory based interface between MARTe and EPICS

  1. A shared memory based interface of MARTe with EPICS for real-time applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Sangwon, E-mail: yunsw@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), Gwahangno 169-148, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Neto, André C. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Park, Mikyung; Lee, Sangil; Park, Kaprai [National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI), Gwahangno 169-148, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Highlights: • We implemented a shared memory based interface of MARTe with EPICS. • We implemented an EPICS module supporting device and driver support. • We implemented an example EPICS IOC and CSS OPI for evaluation. - Abstract: The Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe) is a multi-platform C++ middleware designed for the implementation of real-time control systems. It currently supports the Linux, Linux + RTAI, VxWorks, Solaris and MS Windows platforms. In the fusion community MARTe is being used at JET, COMPASS, ISTTOK, FTU and RFX in fusion [1]. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), a standard framework for the control systems in KSTAR and ITER, is a set of software tools and applications which provide a software infrastructure for use in building distributed control systems to operate devices. For a MARTe based application to cooperate with an EPICS based application, an interface layer between MARTe and EPICS is required. To solve this issue, a number of interfacing solutions have been proposed and some of them have been implemented. Nevertheless, a new approach is required to mitigate the functional limitations of existing solutions and to improve their performance for real-time applications. This paper describes the design and implementation of a shared memory based interface between MARTe and EPICS.

  2. Time Shared Optical Network (TSON): a novel metro architecture for flexible multi-granular services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Georgios S; Triay, Joan; Amaya, Norberto; Qin, Yixuan; Cervelló-Pastor, Cristina; Simeonidou, Dimitra

    2011-12-12

    This paper presents the Time Shared Optical Network (TSON) as metro mesh network architecture for guaranteed, statistically-multiplexed services. TSON proposes a flexible and tunable time-wavelength assignment along with one-way tree-based reservation and node architecture. It delivers guaranteed sub-wavelength and multi-granular network services without wavelength conversion, time-slice interchange and optical buffering. Simulation results demonstrate high network utilization, fast service delivery, and low end-to-end delay on a contention-free sub-wavelength optical transport network. In addition, implementation complexity in terms of Layer 2 aggregation, grooming and optical switching has been evaluated. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. Real-time telemedicine using shared three-dimensional workspaces over ATM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, Peter; Forsey, David R.; Hutchison, Susan

    1999-03-01

    During the past five years a high speed ATM network has been developed at UBC that provides a campus testbed, a local testbed to the hospitals, and a National testbed between here and the BADLAB in Ottawa. This testbed has been developed to combine a commercial shared audio/video/whiteboard environment coupled with a shared interactive 3-dimensional solid model. This solid model ranges from a skull reconstructed from a CT scan with muscles and an overlying skin, to a model of the ventricle system of the human brain. Typical interactions among surgeon, radiologist and modeler consist of having image slices of the original scan shared by all and the ability to adjust the surface of the model to conform to each individuals perception of what the final object should look like. The purpose of this interaction can range from forensic reconstruction from partial remains to pre-maxillofacial surgery. A joint project with the forensic unit of the R.C.M.P. in Ottawa using the BADLAB is now in the stages of testing this methodology on a real case beginning with a CT scan of partial remains. A second study underway with the department of Maxiofacial reconstruction at Dalhousie University in Halifax Nova Scotia and concerns a subject who is about to undergo orthognathic surgery, in particular a mandibular advancement. This subject has been MRI scanned, a solid model constructed of the mandible and the virtual surgery constructed on the model. This model and the procedure have been discussed and modified by the modeler and the maxillofacial specialist using these shared workspaces. The procedure will be repeated after the actual surgery to verify the modeled procedure. The advantage of this technique is that none of the specialists need be in the same room, or city. Given the scarcity of time and specialists this methodology shows great promise. In November of this last year a shared live demonstration of this facial modeler was done between Vancouver and Dalhousie University in

  4. Calculation of retention time tolerance windows with absolute confidence from shared liquid chromatographic retention data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Paul G; Abate-Pella, Daniel; Hewitt, Joshua T

    2015-09-18

    Compound identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a tedious process, mainly because authentic standards must be run on a user's system to be able to confidently reject a potential identity from its retention time and mass spectral properties. Instead, it would be preferable to use shared retention time/index data to narrow down the identity, but shared data cannot be used to reject candidates with an absolute level of confidence because the data are strongly affected by differences between HPLC systems and experimental conditions. However, a technique called "retention projection" was recently shown to account for many of the differences. In this manuscript, we discuss an approach to calculate appropriate retention time tolerance windows for projected retention times, potentially making it possible to exclude candidates with an absolute level of confidence, without needing to have authentic standards of each candidate on hand. In a range of multi-segment gradients and flow rates run among seven different labs, the new approach calculated tolerance windows that were significantly more appropriate for each retention projection than global tolerance windows calculated for retention projections or linear retention indices. Though there were still some small differences between the labs that evidently were not taken into account, the calculated tolerance windows only needed to be relaxed by 50% to make them appropriate for all labs. Even then, 42% of the tolerance windows calculated in this study without standards were narrower than those required by WADA for positive identification, where standards must be run contemporaneously. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Characteristics of a direct methanol fuel cell system with the time shared fuel supplying approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Youngseung; Kwon, Jungmin; Kim, Hyun; Cho, Hyejung; Song, Inseob

    2013-01-01

    DMFC (direct methanol fuel cell) systems usually employ two pumps for supplying the methanol solution. The conventional system configuration, however, may bring about free flow from the methanol reservoir and malfunctions in the self-priming of the pumps. When instruments such as check valves and pressure regulators are applied, they result in excessive weight and control system malfunctions. In this paper, a light and robust DMFC system is proposed. By using the time sharing approach to supply fuel with a 3-way valve, free flow does not occur because only one inlet is opened at one time which means that both the circulation flow from gas liquid separator and the fuel flow from the methanol cartridge are not allowed to be opened at same time. As a result, back flow and self-priming problems do not occur. This makes the system stable and robust due to the removal of both the check valves and the fluctuation from unstable back pressure. Stabilized system doesn't need excessive battery buffering and recycling water any more, which are responsible for the heavy system. The proposed system performs the same level of power and efficiency with the conventional system. Adaptability is also carried out in various environmental temperature conditions. - Highlights: ►A light and robust DMFC system is proposed. ► The circulation pump is able to self-prime by itself after long term storage. ► The time sharing approach to supply fuel enables to control the methanol concentration precisely. ► The methanol concentration is controlled without free flow and the back flow from the fuel feeding pump. ► The excessive buffer of the batteries and the recycling water level are reduced

  6. Time-dependent fiber bundles with local load sharing. II. General Weibull fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, S Leigh; Newman, William I

    2009-12-01

    Fiber bundle models (FBMs) are useful tools in understanding failure processes in a variety of material systems. While the fibers and load sharing assumptions are easily described, FBM analysis is typically difficult. Monte Carlo methods are also hampered by the severe computational demands of large bundle sizes, which overwhelm just as behavior relevant to real materials starts to emerge. For large size scales, interest continues in idealized FBMs that assume either equal load sharing (ELS) or local load sharing (LLS) among fibers, rules that reflect features of real load redistribution in elastic lattices. The present work focuses on a one-dimensional bundle of N fibers under LLS where life consumption in a fiber follows a power law in its load, with exponent rho , and integrated over time. This life consumption function is further embodied in a functional form resulting in a Weibull distribution for lifetime under constant fiber stress and with Weibull exponent, beta. Thus the failure rate of a fiber depends on its past load history, except for beta=1 . We develop asymptotic results validated by Monte Carlo simulation using a computational algorithm developed in our previous work [Phys. Rev. E 63, 021507 (2001)] that greatly increases the size, N , of treatable bundles (e.g., 10(6) fibers in 10(3) realizations). In particular, our algorithm is O(N ln N) in contrast with former algorithms which were O(N2) making this investigation possible. Regimes are found for (beta,rho) pairs that yield contrasting behavior for large N. For rho>1 and large N, brittle weakest volume behavior emerges in terms of characteristic elements (groupings of fibers) derived from critical cluster formation, and the lifetime eventually goes to zero as N-->infinity , unlike ELS, which yields a finite limiting mean. For 1/21 but with 0

  7. Efficiency of performing pulmonary procedures in a shared endoscopy unit: procedure time, turnaround time, delays, and procedure waiting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Akash; Lee, Mui Yok; Wang, Chunhong; Hussein, Nurmalah B M; Selvi, Kalai; Tee, Augustine

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of performing pulmonary procedures in the endoscopy unit in a large teaching hospital. A prospective study from May 20 to July 19, 2013, was designed. The main outcome measures were procedure delays and their reasons, duration of procedural steps starting from patient's arrival to endoscopy unit, turnaround time, total case durations, and procedure wait time. A total of 65 procedures were observed. The most common procedure was BAL (61%) followed by TBLB (31%). Overall procedures for 35 (53.8%) of 65 patients were delayed by ≥ 30 minutes, 21/35 (60%) because of "spillover" of the gastrointestinal and surgical cases into the time block of pulmonary procedure. Time elapsed between end of pulmonary procedure and start of the next procedure was ≥ 30 minutes in 8/51 (16%) of cases. In 18/51 (35%) patients there was no next case in the room after completion of the pulmonary procedure. The average idle time of the room after the end of pulmonary procedure and start of next case or end of shift at 5:00 PM if no next case was 58 ± 53 minutes. In 17/51 (33%) patients the room's idle time was >60 minutes. A total of 52.3% of patients had the wait time >2 days and 11% had it ≥ 6 days, reason in 15/21 (71%) being unavailability of the slot. Most pulmonary procedures were delayed due to spillover of the gastrointestinal and surgical cases into the block time allocated to pulmonary procedures. The most common reason for difficulty encountered in scheduling the pulmonary procedure was slot unavailability. This caused increased procedure waiting time. The strategies to reduce procedure delays and turnaround times, along with improved scheduling methods, may have a favorable impact on the volume of procedures performed in the unit thereby optimizing the existing resources.

  8. Real-time sharing of gaze data between multiple eye trackers-evaluation, tools, and advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Marcus; Niehorster, Diederick C; Cornelissen, Tim; Garde, Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Technological advancements in combination with significant reductions in price have made it practically feasible to run experiments with multiple eye trackers. This enables new types of experiments with simultaneous recordings of eye movement data from several participants, which is of interest for researchers in, e.g., social and educational psychology. The Lund University Humanities Laboratory recently acquired 25 remote eye trackers, which are connected over a local wireless network. As a first step toward running experiments with this setup, demanding situations with real time sharing of gaze data were investigated in terms of network performance as well as clock and screen synchronization. Results show that data can be shared with a sufficiently low packet loss (0.1 %) and latency (M = 3 ms, M A D = 2 ms) across 8 eye trackers at a rate of 60 Hz. For a similar performance using 24 computers, the send rate needs to be reduced to 20 Hz. To help researchers conduct similar measurements on their own multi-eye-tracker setup, open source software written in Python and PsychoPy are provided. Part of the software contains a minimal working example to help researchers kick-start experiments with two or more eye trackers.

  9. Load sharing in distributed real-time systems with state-change broadcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kang G.; Chang, Yi-Chieh

    1989-01-01

    A decentralized dynamic load-sharing (LS) method based on state-change broadcasts is proposed for a distributed real-time system. Whenever the state of a node changes from underloaded to fully loaded and vice versa, the node broadcasts this change to a set of nodes, called a buddy set, in the system. The performance of the method is evaluated with both analytic modeling and simulation. It is modeled first by an embedded Markov chain for which numerical solutions are derived. The model solutions are then used to calculate the distribution of queue lengths at the nodes and the probability of meeting task deadlines. The analytical results show that buddy sets of 10 nodes outperform those of less than 10 nodes, and the incremental benefit gained from increasing the buddy set size beyond 15 nodes is insignificant. These and other analytical results are verified by simulation. The proposed LS method is shown to meet task deadlines with a very high probability.

  10. Time-Sharing-Based Synchronization and Performance Evaluation of Color-Independent Visual-MIMO Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Tae-Ho; Kim, Jai-Eun; Kim, Ki-Doo

    2018-05-14

    In the field of communication, synchronization is always an important issue. The communication between a light-emitting diode (LED) array (LEA) and a camera is known as visual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), for which the data transmitter and receiver must be synchronized for seamless communication. In visual-MIMO, LEDs generally have a faster data rate than the camera. Hence, we propose an effective time-sharing-based synchronization technique with its color-independent characteristics providing the key to overcome this synchronization problem in visual-MIMO communication. We also evaluated the performance of our synchronization technique by varying the distance between the LEA and camera. A graphical analysis is also presented to compare the symbol error rate (SER) at different distances.

  11. Quantum secret sharing based on modulated high-dimensional time-bin entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takesue, Hiroki; Inoue, Kyo

    2006-01-01

    We propose a scheme for quantum secret sharing (QSS) that uses a modulated high-dimensional time-bin entanglement. By modulating the relative phase randomly by {0,π}, a sender with the entanglement source can randomly change the sign of the correlation of the measurement outcomes obtained by two distant recipients. The two recipients must cooperate if they are to obtain the sign of the correlation, which is used as a secret key. We show that our scheme is secure against intercept-and-resend (IR) and beam splitting attacks by an outside eavesdropper thanks to the nonorthogonality of high-dimensional time-bin entangled states. We also show that a cheating attempt based on an IR attack by one of the recipients can be detected by changing the dimension of the time-bin entanglement randomly and inserting two 'vacant' slots between the packets. Then, cheating attempts can be detected by monitoring the count rate in the vacant slots. The proposed scheme has better experimental feasibility than previously proposed entanglement-based QSS schemes

  12. Caribbean corals house shared and host-specific microbial symbionts over time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Nathaniel D; Vollmer, Steven V

    2016-08-01

    The rise of coral diseases has triggered a surge of interest in coral microbial communities. But to fully understand how the coral microbiome may cause or respond to disease, we must first understand structure and variation in the healthy coral microbiome. We used 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the microbiomes of 100 healthy coral colonies from six Caribbean coral species (Acropora cervicornis, A. palmata, Diploria labyrinthiformis, Diploria strigosa, Porites astreoides and P. furcata) across four reefs and three time points over 1 year. We found host species to be the strongest driver of coral microbiome structure across site and time. Analysis of the core microbiome revealed remarkable similarity in the bacterial taxa represented across coral hosts and many bacterial phylotypes shared across all corals sampled. Some of these widespread bacterial taxa have been identified in Pacific corals, indicating that a core coral microbiome may extend across oceans. Core bacterial phylotypes that were unique to each coral were taxonomically diverse, suggesting that different coral hosts provide persistent, divergent niches for bacteria. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Expressing Environment Assumptions and Real-time Requirements for a Distributed Embedded System with Shared Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Fernandes, João Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In a distributed embedded system, it is often necessary to share variables among its computing nodes to allow the distribution of control algorithms. It is therefore necessary to include a component in each node that provides the service of variable sharing. For that type of component, this paper...

  14. It's all in the timing: calibrating temporal penalties for biomedical data sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Weiyi; Wan, Zhiyu; Yin, Zhijun; Gaupp, James; Liu, Yongtai; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Kantarcioglu, Murat; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Malin, Bradley A

    2018-01-01

    Biomedical science is driven by datasets that are being accumulated at an unprecedented rate, with ever-growing volume and richness. There are various initiatives to make these datasets more widely available to recipients who sign Data Use Certificate agreements, whereby penalties are levied for violations. A particularly popular penalty is the temporary revocation, often for several months, of the recipient's data usage rights. This policy is based on the assumption that the value of biomedical research data depreciates significantly over time; however, no studies have been performed to substantiate this belief. This study investigates whether this assumption holds true and the data science policy implications. This study tests the hypothesis that the value of data for scientific investigators, in terms of the impact of the publications based on the data, decreases over time. The hypothesis is tested formally through a mixed linear effects model using approximately 1200 publications between 2007 and 2013 that used datasets from the Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes, a data-sharing initiative of the National Institutes of Health. The analysis shows that the impact factors for publications based on Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes datasets depreciate in a statistically significant manner. However, we further discover that the depreciation rate is slow, only ∼10% per year, on average. The enduring value of data for subsequent studies implies that revoking usage for short periods of time may not sufficiently deter those who would violate Data Use Certificate agreements and that alternative penalty mechanisms may need to be invoked. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  15. The impact of "Option B" on HIV transmission from mother to child in Rwanda: An interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abimpaye, Monique; Kirk, Catherine M; Iyer, Hari S; Gupta, Neil; Remera, Eric; Mugwaneza, Placidie; Law, Michael R

    2018-01-01

    Nearly a quarter of a million children have acquired HIV, prompting the implementation of new protocols-Option B and B+-for treating HIV+ pregnant women. While efficacy has been demonstrated in randomized trials, there is limited real-world evidence on the impact of these changes. Using longitudinal, routinely collected data we assessed the impact of the adoption of WHO Option B in Rwanda on mother to infant transmission. We used interrupted time series analysis to evaluate the impact of Option B on mother-to-child HIV transmission in Rwanda. Our primary outcome was the proportion of HIV tests in infants with positive results at six weeks of age. We included data for 20 months before and 22 months after the 2010 policy change. Of the 15,830 HIV tests conducted during our study period, 392 tested positive. We found a significant decrease in both the level (-2.08 positive tests per 100 tests conducted, 95% CI: -2.71 to -1.45, p Option B in Rwanda contributed to an immediate decrease in the rate of HIV transmission from mother to child. This suggests other countries may benefit from adopting these WHO guidelines.

  16. Time to consider sharing data extracted from trials included in systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Wolfenden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the debate regarding shared clinical trial data has shifted from whether such data should be shared to how this is best achieved, the sharing of data collected as part of systematic reviews has received little attention. In this commentary, we discuss the potential benefits of coordinated efforts to share data collected as part of systematic reviews. Main body There are a number of potential benefits of systematic review data sharing. Shared information and data obtained as part of the systematic review process may reduce unnecessary duplication, reduce demand on trialist to service repeated requests from reviewers for data, and improve the quality and efficiency of future reviews. Sharing also facilitates research to improve clinical trial and systematic review methods and supports additional analyses to address secondary research questions. While concerns regarding appropriate use of data, costs, or the academic return for original review authors may impede more open access to information extracted as part of systematic reviews, many of these issues are being addressed, and infrastructure to enable greater access to such information is being developed. Conclusion Embracing systems to enable more open access to systematic review data has considerable potential to maximise the benefits of research investment in undertaking systematic reviews.

  17. Bacterial intelligence: imitation games, time-sharing, and long-range quantum coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sarangam; Pal, Sukla

    2017-09-01

    Bacteria are far more intelligent than we can think of. They adopt different survival strategies to make their life comfortable. Researches on bacterial communication to date suggest that bacteria can communicate with each other using chemical signaling molecules as well as using ion channel mediated electrical signaling. Though in past few decades the scopes of chemical signaling have been investigated extensively, those of electrical signaling have received less attention. In this article, we present a novel perspective on time-sharing behavior, which maintains the biofilm growth under reduced nutrient supply between two distant biofilms through electrical signaling based on the experimental evidence reported by Liu et al., in 2017. In addition, following the recent work by Humphries et al. Cell 168(1):200-209, in 2017, we highlight the consequences of long range electrical signaling within biofilm communities through spatially propagating waves of potassium. Furthermore, we address the possibility of two-way cellular communication between artificial and natural cells through chemical signaling being inspired by recent experimental observation (Lentini et al. 2017) where the efficiency of artificial cells in imitating the natural cells is estimated through cellular Turing test. These three spectacular observations lead us to envisage and devise new classical and quantum views of these complex biochemical networks that have never been realized previously.

  18. Equipment calibration with a microprocessor connected to a time-sharing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, G.; Guglielmi, L.; Jaeger, J.J.; Szafran, S.

    1981-01-01

    In H.E.P., it is common practice to test and calibrate equipment at different stages (design, construction checks, setting up and running periods) with a dedicated mini or micro-computer (such as CERN CAVIAR). An alternative solution has been developed in which such tasks are split between a microprocessor (Motorola 6800), and a host computer; this allows an easy and cheap multiplication of independant testing set-ups. The local processor is limited to CAMAC data acquisition, histogramming and simple processing, but its computing power is enhanced by a connection to a host time-sharing system via a MUMM multiplexor described in a separate paper. It is thus possible to perform sophisticated computations (fits etc...) and to use the host disk space to store calibration results for later use. In spite of the use of assembly language, a software structure has been devised to ease the constitution of an application program. This is achieved by the interplay of three levels of facilities: macro-instructions, library of subroutines, and Patchy controlled pieces of programs. A comprehensive collection of these is kept in the form of PAM files on the host computer. This system has been used to test calorimeter modules for the UA 1 experiment. (orig.)

  19. The American Foreign Exchange Option in Time-Dependent One-Dimensional Diffusion Model for Exchange Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Nasir; Shashiashvili, Malkhaz

    2009-01-01

    The classical Garman-Kohlhagen model for the currency exchange assumes that the domestic and foreign currency risk-free interest rates are constant and the exchange rate follows a log-normal diffusion process.In this paper we consider the general case, when exchange rate evolves according to arbitrary one-dimensional diffusion process with local volatility that is the function of time and the current exchange rate and where the domestic and foreign currency risk-free interest rates may be arbitrary continuous functions of time. First non-trivial problem we encounter in time-dependent case is the continuity in time argument of the value function of the American put option and the regularity properties of the optimal exercise boundary. We establish these properties based on systematic use of the monotonicity in volatility for the value functions of the American as well as European options with convex payoffs together with the Dynamic Programming Principle and we obtain certain type of comparison result for the value functions and corresponding exercise boundaries for the American puts with different strikes, maturities and volatilities.Starting from the latter fact that the optimal exercise boundary curve is left continuous with right-hand limits we give a mathematically rigorous and transparent derivation of the significant early exercise premium representation for the value function of the American foreign exchange put option as the sum of the European put option value function and the early exercise premium.The proof essentially relies on the particular property of the stochastic integral with respect to arbitrary continuous semimartingale over the predictable subsets of its zeros. We derive from the latter the nonlinear integral equation for the optimal exercise boundary which can be studied by numerical methods

  20. Job Sharing: A Part-Time Career for a Fuller Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, Sally A.; Mikitka, Kathleen F.

    1984-01-01

    Describes job sharing as a rewarding alternative for those who wish to combine a career with child rearing, education, avocations, or leisure activities. Advantages and drawbacks for employers and suggestions for prospective job sharers are elaborated. (SK)

  1. A Standard for Sharing and Accessing Time Series Data: The Heliophysics Application Programmers Interface (HAPI) Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandegriff, J. D.; King, T. A.; Weigel, R. S.; Faden, J.; Roberts, D. A.; Harris, B. T.; Lal, N.; Boardsen, S. A.; Candey, R. M.; Lindholm, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present the Heliophysics Application Programmers Interface (HAPI), a new interface specification that both large and small data centers can use to expose time series data holdings in a standard way. HAPI was inspired by the similarity of existing services at many Heliophysics data centers, and these data centers have collaborated to define a single interface that captures best practices and represents what everyone considers the essential, lowest common denominator for basic data access. This low level access can serve as infrastructure to support greatly enhanced interoperability among analysis tools, with the goal being simplified analysis and comparison of data from any instrument, model, mission or data center. The three main services a HAPI server must perform are 1. list a catalog of datasets (one unique ID per dataset), 2. describe the content of one dataset (JSON metadata), and 3. retrieve numerical content for one dataset (stream the actual data). HAPI defines both the format of the query to the server, and the response from the server. The metadata is lightweight, focusing on use rather than discovery, and the data format is a streaming one, with Comma Separated Values (CSV) being required and binary or JSON streaming being optional. The HAPI specification is available at GitHub, where projects are also underway to develop reference implementation servers that data providers can adapt and use at their own sites. Also in the works are data analysis clients in multiple languages (IDL, Python, Matlab, and Java). Institutions which have agreed to adopt HAPI include Goddard (CDAWeb for data and CCMC for models), LASP at the University of Colorado Boulder, the Particles and Plasma Interactions node of the Planetary Data System (PPI/PDS) at UCLA, the Plasma Wave Group at the University of Iowa, the Space Sector at the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Lab (APL), and the tsds.org site maintained at George Mason University. Over the next year, the adoption of a

  2. Optional time-of-use prices for electricity: Analysis of PG&E`s experimental TOU rates. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Train, K.; Mehrez, G.

    1992-07-01

    We examine customers` time-of-use (TOU) demand for electricity and their choice between standard and TOU rate schedules. We specify an econometric model in which the customer`s demand curves determine the customer`s choice of rate schedule. We estimate the model on data from Pacific Gas & Electric Company`s experiment with optional TOU prices in the residential sector. With the model, we compare the TOU consumption and price elasticities of customers who chose TOU rates with those who chose standard rates. We also estimate the impact of the TOU rates on the utility`s revenues and costs. The analysis suggests that the TOU rates offered under PG&E`s experiment decreased PG&E`s profits and hence contributed to higher general rate levels. The model can be used, however, to design optional TOU rates that increase profits and lower general rate levels.

  3. Optional time-of-use prices for electricity: Analysis of PG E's experimental TOU rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Train, K.; Mehrez, G.

    1992-07-01

    We examine customers' time-of-use (TOU) demand for electricity and their choice between standard and TOU rate schedules. We specify an econometric model in which the customer's demand curves determine the customer's choice of rate schedule. We estimate the model on data from Pacific Gas Electric Company's experiment with optional TOU prices in the residential sector. With the model, we compare the TOU consumption and price elasticities of customers who chose TOU rates with those who chose standard rates. We also estimate the impact of the TOU rates on the utility's revenues and costs. The analysis suggests that the TOU rates offered under PG E's experiment decreased PG E's profits and hence contributed to higher general rate levels. The model can be used, however, to design optional TOU rates that increase profits and lower general rate levels.

  4. Expressing Environment Assumptions and Real-time Requirements for a Distributed Embedded System with Shared Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjell, Simon; Fernandes, João Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In a distributed embedded system, it is often necessary to share variables among its computing nodes to allow the distribution of control algorithms. It is therefore necessary to include a component in each node that provides the service of variable sharing. For that type of component, this paper...... for the component. The CPN model can be used to validate the environment assumptions and the requirements. The validation is performed by execution of the model during which traces of events and states are automatically generated and evaluated against the requirements....

  5. Explicit time integration of finite element models on a vectorized, concurrent computer with shared memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertsen, Noreen D.; Belytschko, Ted

    1990-01-01

    The implementation of a nonlinear explicit program on a vectorized, concurrent computer with shared memory is described and studied. The conflict between vectorization and concurrency is described and some guidelines are given for optimal block sizes. Several example problems are summarized to illustrate the types of speed-ups which can be achieved by reprogramming as compared to compiler optimization.

  6. Secure Real-Time Monitoring and Management of Smart Distribution Grid using Shared Cellular Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmy Jessen; Ganem, Hervé; Jorguseski, Ljupco

    2017-01-01

    capabilities. Thanks to the advanced measurement devices, management framework, and secure communication infrastructure developed in the FP7 SUNSEED project, the Distribution System Operator (DSO) now has full observability of the energy flows at the medium/low voltage grid. Furthermore, the prosumers are able......, where the smart grid ICT solutions are provided through shared cellular LTE networks....

  7. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Berg, J.L. van den; Boucherie, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  8. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue and the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not applicable for computational purposes. This paper derives

  9. Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Navajo Code Talker Joe Morris, Sr. shared insights from his time as a secret World War Two messenger with his audience at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Nov. 26, 2002. NASA Dryden is located on Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert.

  10. Insensitive bounds for the moments of the sojourn time distribution in the M/G/1 processor-sharing queue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    This paper studies the M/G/1 processor-sharing (PS) queue, in particular the sojourn time distribution conditioned on the initial job size. Although several expressions for the Laplace-Stieltjes transform (LST) are known, these expressions are not suitable for computational purposes. This paper

  11. Evaluation of a Connectionless NoC for a Real-Time Distributed Shared Memory Many-Core System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, J.H.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Real-time embedded systems like smartphones tend to comprise an ever increasing number of processing cores. For scalability and the need for guaranteed performance, the use of a connection-oriented network-on-chip (NoC) is advocated. Furthermore, a distributed shared memory architecture is preferred

  12. Sharing Keynote Slideshows

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Slideshows have come a long way since overhead projectors were your only option. You can show share your ideas with the world via email, DVD, PDF, YouTube, iPhone, or kiosk. Once your show is polished to perfection, this thorough, accessible guide shows you how to export and deliver it all possible ways-even as a PowerPoint file, QuickTime movie, or web site. As a bonus, you'll find advice on setting up your equipment and delivering an effective presentation.

  13. Data-linked pilot reply time on controller workload and communication in a simulated terminal option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    This report describes an analysis of air traffic control communication and workload in a simulated terminal radar approach : control environment. The objective of this study was to investigate how pilot-to-controller data-link acknowledgment time : m...

  14. The effect of daylight saving time options on electricity consumption of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasu, Servet [Rize University, Rize Vocational School, 53100, Rize (Turkey)

    2010-09-15

    Most of the developed countries in the world use Daylight Saving Time (DST) as an energy conservation method. This study focuses on the effects of DST on electrical lighting in the buildings in Turkey. Turkey might adjust its daylight saving time to decrease energy consumption. For this purpose, five scenarios are considered and compared to status quo. The scenario with a 30-minute forward shift to single DST from April to October, stands out as the best solution to conserve electricity across the entire country. The results of the study show that maximum saving is obtained in this scenario by at least 0.7% on the consumption of lighting electricity. (author)

  15. From climate change uncertainties to strategic options. Objectives, instruments, timing issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, C [French Agency for Environment and Energy Management, Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The question of climate change is characterised by major uncertainties. For some, this means that no action should be undertaken for the time being. For others, forceful action is needed to avoid potentially disastrous consequences: targets and timetables for emission reductions must be agreed. This communication is an attempt to suggest a third alternative, with two main conclusions. The international decision process should focus on instruments and degrees of effort, rather than on `emission trajectories` (the evolution of emission levels over time), rather than on quantitative objectives tied to precise timetables. In this perspective action can start right away. (author)

  16. From climate change uncertainties to strategic options. Objectives, instruments, timing issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, C. [French Agency for Environment and Energy Management, Paris (France)

    1995-12-31

    The question of climate change is characterised by major uncertainties. For some, this means that no action should be undertaken for the time being. For others, forceful action is needed to avoid potentially disastrous consequences: targets and timetables for emission reductions must be agreed. This communication is an attempt to suggest a third alternative, with two main conclusions. The international decision process should focus on instruments and degrees of effort, rather than on `emission trajectories` (the evolution of emission levels over time), rather than on quantitative objectives tied to precise timetables. In this perspective action can start right away. (author)

  17. Economically optimal timing for crop disease control under uncertainty: an options approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndeffo Mbah, M.L.; Forster, G.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Gilligan, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Severe large-scale disease and pest infestations in agricultural regions can cause significant economic damage. Understanding if and when disease control measures should be taken in the presence of risk and uncertainty is a key issue. We develop a framework to examine the economically optimal timing

  18. Design options and sources of bias in time-to-pregnancy studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    on fecundity not only has to obtain information on waiting time, but also information on the importance of evaluation results. The use of contraceptive methods, the understanding of family planning, and behavioral changes driven by past reproductive experience are issues of importance for designing...

  19. Influence of wholesale lamb marketing options and merchandising styles on retail yield and fabrication time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, C L; Martin, A M; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1997-01-01

    Lamb carcasses (n = 94) from five packing plants, selected to vary in weight class and fat thickness, were used to determine retail yield and labor requirements of wholesale lamb fabrication. Carcasses were allotted randomly according to weight class to be fabricated as whole carcasses (n = 20), three-piece boxes (n = 22), or subprimals (n = 52). Processing times (seconds) were recorded and wholesale and retail weights (kilograms) were obtained to calculate retail yield. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in retail cuts or boneless or semi-boneless retail cuts. Retail yield for subprimal lamb legs decreased from 85.3 +/- .6% for bone-in to 68.0 +/- .7% for a completely boneless retail product. Correspondingly, processing times increased from 126.1 +/- 5.4 s to 542.0 +/- 19.2 s for bone-in and boneless legs, respectively. For all subprimals, retail yield percentage tended to decrease and total processing time increase as cuts were fabricated to boneless or semi-boneless end points compared with a bone-in end point. Percentage retail yield did not differ (P > .05) among whole carcass, three-piece box, and subprimal marketing methods. Total processing time was shorter for subprimals (P < .05) than for the other two marketing methods.

  20. Longer operating times of nuclear power plants. Options for compensating public utility advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, Sven; Kondziella, Hendrik; Bruckner, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The current German government of CDU/CSU and FDP intends to prolong the operating time of existing nuclear power plants in Germany. The advantages resulting for public utilities are to be compensated. The authors discuss how compensation may be achieved and outline the available instruments. (orig.)

  1. Retail yield and fabrication times for veal as influenced by purchasing options and merchandising styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, M S; Griffin, D B; Dockerty, T R; Walter, J P; Johnson, H K; Savell, J W

    1998-06-01

    Twenty-nine selected styles of subprimals or sections of veal were obtained from a commercial facility to assist in the development of a support program for retailers. They were fabricated into bone-in or boneless retail cuts and associated components by trained meat cutters. Each style selected (n = 6) was used to generate mean retail yields and labor requirements, which were calculated from wholesale and retail weights and processing times. Means and standard errors for veal ribs consisting of five different styles (n = 30) concluded that style #2, 7-rib 4 (10 cm) x 4 (10 cm), had the lowest percentage of total retail yield (P < .05) owing to the greatest percentage of bone. Furthermore, rib style #2 required the longest total processing time (P < .05). Rib styles #3, 7-rib chop-ready, and #5, 6-rib chop ready, yielded the greatest percentage of total retail yield and also had the shortest total processing time (P < .05). Within veal loins, style #2, 4 (10 cm) x 4 (10 cm) loin kidney fat in, had the greatest percentage fat (P < .05). Loin styles #2 and #3, 4 (10 cm) x 4 (10 cm) loin special trimmed, generated more lean and fat trimmings and bone, resulting in lower percentage of total retail yields than loin style #1, 0 (0 cm) x 1 (2.5 cm) loin special trimmed (P < .05). Results indicated that bone-in subprimals and sections required more processing time if fabricated into a boneless end point. In addition, as the number of different retail cuts increased, processing times also increased.

  2. Determination of the optional time for taking blood samples by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Delian; Yao Junhu; Lu Jinyin; Wu Xiaobin; Liu Jun

    2003-01-01

    Twenty four young hens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Every group was diet free (FAS) or force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or the diet with 20% crude protein in which soybean meal or cotton seed meal was the sole nitrogen source (30 g DM/kg BW). 30 μCi 3 H-Leu/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after force-fed or on fasting. Venous blood samples were taken at 5, 30 min, 4,24,36 and 48h after injection. The excreta during the whole period of 48h after injection was collected. Special radioactivities of nonprotein plasma at every time point and excreta were measured. The optional time of taking blood samples was 20-24 hours after injected 3 H-Leu

  3. Energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on energy options as a means of managing exposure to energy prices. An intuitive approach to energy options is presented, and traditional definitions of call and put options are given. The relationship between options and swaps, option value and option exercises, commodity options, and option pricing are described. An end-user's guide to energy option strategy is outlined, and straight options, collars, participating swaps and collars, bull and bear spreads, and swaption are examined. Panels explaining the defining of basis risk, and discussing option pricing and the Greeks, delta hedging, managing oil options using the Black-Scholes model, caps, floors and collars, and guidelines on hedging versus speculation with options are included in the paper

  4. How the Senate and the President Affect the Timing of Power-sharing Rule Changes in the US House

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela Sin; Arthur Lupia

    2013-01-01

    A new model and related empirical work explain how the Senate and President affect the timing of power-sharing rule changes in the US House. We argue that shifts in the Senate's or President's preferences (e.g., a new majority party in the Senate; a new president) reshape House members' expectations about which legislative outcomes are achievable. Reshaped expectations, in turn, can alter House members' perceptions of the consequences of reallocating power among themselves. We prove that such...

  5. Part-time work and job sharing in health care: is the NHS a family-friendly employer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branine, Mohamed

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the nature and level of flexible employment in the National Health Service (NHS) by investigating the extent to which part-time work and job sharing arrangements are used in the provision and delivery of health care. It attempts to analyse the reasons for an increasing number of part-timers and a very limited number of job sharers in the NHS and to explain the advantages and disadvantages of each pattern of employment. Data collected through the use of questionnaires and interviews from 55 NHS trusts reveal that the use of part-time work is a tradition that seems to fit well with the cost-saving measures imposed on the management of the service but at the same time it has led to increasing employee dissatisfaction, and that job sharing arrangements are suitable for many NHS employees since the majority of them are women with a desire to combine family commitments with career prospects but a very limited number of employees have had the opportunity to job share. Therefore it is concluded that to attract and retain the quality of staff needed to ensure high performance standards in the provision and delivery of health care the NHS should accept the diversity that exists within its workforce and take a more proactive approach to promoting a variety of flexible working practices and family-friendly policies.

  6. Providing Better University Personnel through Job Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Clifford E.; McFarlin, Joy Simon

    1982-01-01

    Universities could benefit by offering more flexible part-time job opportunities such as job-sharing, following an apparent national trend in accommodating social and economic needs. Institutions have many options in scheduling and allocating tasks. Possible benefits include improved employee attitude and productivity. (MSE)

  7. A Karaoke System with Real-Time Media Merging and Sharing Functions for a Cloud-Computing-Integrated Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Her-Tyan Yeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile devices such as personal digital assistants (PDAs, smartphones, and tablets have increased in popularity and are extremely efficient for work-related, social, and entertainment uses. Popular entertainment services have also attracted substantial attention. Thus, relevant industries have exerted considerable efforts in establishing a method by which mobile devices can be used to develop excellent and convenient entertainment services. Because cloud-computing technology is mature and possesses a strong computing processing capacity, integrating this technology into the entertainment service function in mobile devices can reduce the data load on a system and maintain mobile device performances. This study combines cloud computing with a mobile device to design a karaoke system that contains real-time media merging and sharing functions. This system enables users to download music videos (MVs from their mobile device and sing and record their singing by using the device. They can upload the recorded song to the cloud server where it is merged with real-time media. Subsequently, by employing a media streaming technology, users can store their personal MVs in their mobile device or computer and instantaneously share these videos with others on the Internet. Through this process, people can instantly watch shared videos, enjoy the leisure and entertainment effects of mobile devices, and satisfy their desire for singing.

  8. Parent-Child Shared Time From Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. Additionally, secondborns’ social time declined more slowly than firstborns’, and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042

  9. Parent-child shared time from middle childhood to late adolescence: developmental course and adjustment correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C

    2012-11-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. In addition, secondborns' social time declined more slowly than firstborns', and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. Learning from the implementation of residential optional time of use pricing in the United States electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xibao

    Residential time-of-use (TOU) rates have been in practice in the U.S. since the 1970s. However, for institutional, political, and regulatory reasons, only a very small proportion of residential customers are actually on these schedules. In this thesis, I explore why this is the case by empirically investigating two groups of questions: (1) On the "supply" side: Do utilities choose to offer TOU rates in residential sectors on their own initiative if state commissions do not order them to do so? Since utilities have other options, what is the relationship between the TOU rate and other alternatives? To answer these questions, I survey residential tariffs offered by more than 100 major investor-owned utilities, study the impact of various factors on utilities' rate-making behavior, and examine utility revealed preferences among four rate options: seasonal rates, inverted block rates, demand charges, and TOU rates. Estimated results suggest that the scale of residential sectors and the revenue contribution from residential sectors are the only two significant factors that influence utility decisions on offering TOU rates. Technical and economic considerations are not significant statistically. This implies that the little acceptance of TOU rates is partly attributed to utilities' inadequate attention to TOU rate design. (2) On the "demand" side: For utilities offering TOU tariffs, why do only a very small proportion of residential customers choose these tariffs? What factors influence customer choices? Unlike previous studies that used individual-level experimental data, this research employs actual aggregated information from 29 utilities offering optional TOU rates. By incorporating neo-classical demand analysis into an aggregated random coefficient logit model, I investigate the impact of both price and non-price tariff characteristics and non-tariff factors on customer choice behavior. The analysis indicates that customer pure tariff preference (which captures the

  11. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  12. Parent-Child Shared Time from Middle Childhood to Late Adolescence: Developmental Course and Adjustment Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across…

  13. WCET analysis in shared resources real-time systems with TDMA buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rihani, H.; Moy, M.; Maiza, C.; Altmeyer, S.

    2015-01-01

    Predictability is an important aspect in real-time and safety-critical systems, where non-functional properties -- such as the timing behavior -- have high impact on the system correctness. As many safety-critical systems have a growing performance demand, simple, but outdated architectures are not

  14. Semi-Analytical method for the pricing of barrier options in case of time-dependent parameters (with Matlab® codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guardasoni C.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A Semi-Analytical method for pricing of Barrier Options (SABO is presented. The method is based on the foundations of Boundary Integral Methods which is recast here for the application to barrier option pricing in the Black-Scholes model with time-dependent interest rate, volatility and dividend yield. The validity of the numerical method is illustrated by several numerical examples and comparisons.

  15. KETERAMPILAN METAKOGNITIF DAN HASIL BELAJAR KOGNITIF SISWA DENGAN PEMBELAJARAN READING CONCEPT MAP-TIMED PAIR SHARE (REMAP-TMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatia Rosyida

    2016-04-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pembelajaran Reading-Concept Map-Timed Pair Share (Remap-TmPS terhadap keterampilan metakognitif dan hasil belajar kognitif. Jenis penelitian ini adalah eksperimen semu dengan desain penelitian Pretes-Postest Nonequivalent Control Group Design. Sampel penelitian ini adalah kelas X MIA 2 dan X MIA 3 di SMAN 2 Batu. Data keterampilan metakognitif  dan hasil belajar kognitif diperoleh dari tes essay. Data tersebut dianalisis mengunakan uji anacova. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pembelajaran biologi berbasis Remap-TmPS berpengaruh terhadap keterampilan metakognitif dan hasil belajar kognitif siswa.

  16. Conception and production of a time sharing system for a Mitra-15 CII mini-computer dedicated to APL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, Rene

    1977-01-01

    The installation of a time-sharing system on a mini-computer poses several interesting problems. These technical problems are especially interesting when the goal is to equitably divide the physical resources of the machine amongst users of a high level, conservational language like APL. Original solutions were necessary to be able to retain the rapidity and performances of the original hard and software. The system has been implemented in such way that several users may simultaneously access logical resources, such as the library zones their read/write requests are managed by semaphores which may also be directly controlled by the APL programmer. (author) [fr

  17. [Part-time medical specialist training; experiences with job-sharing for trainee internists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, K.; Nauta, S.; Stuyt, P.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Due to various factors such as social changes, an increasing number of couples with two incomes, and a growing proportion of female doctors, there has been a growing demand for part-time work in recent years. This is also true for resident physicians. Objections such as a discontinuity in care and

  18. Joint accurate time and stable frequency distribution infrastructure sharing fiber footprint with research network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtěch, J.; Šlapák, M.; Škoda, P.; Radil, J.; Havliš, O.; Altmann, M.; Münster, P.; Velč, R.; Kundrát, J.; Altmannová, L.; Vohnout, R.; Horváth, T.; Hůla, M.; Smotlacha, V.; Čížek, Martin; Pravdová, Lenka; Řeřucha, Šimon; Hrabina, Jan; Číp, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 027101. ISSN 0091-3286 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36681G Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : accurate time * stable frequency * wavelength division multiplexing * bidirectional reciprocal path * Sagnac effect Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.082, year: 2016

  19. Continuous-Time Portfolio Selection and Option Pricing under Risk-Minimization Criterion in an Incomplete Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfeng Ruan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study option pricing with risk-minimization criterion in an incomplete market where the dynamics of the risky underlying asset are governed by a jump diffusion equation. We obtain the Radon-Nikodym derivative in the minimal martingale measure and a partial integrodifferential equation (PIDE of European call option. In a special case, we get the exact solution for European call option by Fourier transformation methods. Finally, we employ the pricing kernel to calculate the optimal portfolio selection by martingale methods.

  20. Real Time Pricing as a Default or Optional Service for C&ICustomers: A Comparative Analysis of Eight Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen; Goldman, Charles; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Hopper,Nicole; Ting, Michael; Neenan, Bernie

    2005-08-01

    Demand response (DR) has been broadly recognized to be an integral component of well-functioning electricity markets, although currently underdeveloped in most regions. Among the various initiatives undertaken to remedy this deficiency, public utility commissions (PUC) and utilities have considered implementing dynamic pricing tariffs, such as real-time pricing (RTP), and other retail pricing mechanisms that communicate an incentive for electricity consumers to reduce their usage during periods of high generation supply costs or system reliability contingencies. Efforts to introduce DR into retail electricity markets confront a range of basic policy issues. First, a fundamental issue in any market context is how to organize the process for developing and implementing DR mechanisms in a manner that facilitates productive participation by affected stakeholder groups. Second, in regions with retail choice, policymakers and stakeholders face the threshold question of whether it is appropriate for utilities to offer a range of dynamic pricing tariffs and DR programs, or just ''plain vanilla'' default service. Although positions on this issue may be based primarily on principle, two empirical questions may have some bearing--namely, what level of price response can be expected through the competitive retail market, and whether establishing RTP as the default service is likely to result in an appreciable level of DR? Third, if utilities are to have a direct role in developing DR, what types of retail pricing mechanisms are most appropriate and likely to have the desired policy impact (e.g., RTP, other dynamic pricing options, DR programs, or some combination)? Given a decision to develop utility RTP tariffs, three basic implementation issues require attention. First, should it be a default or optional tariff, and for which customer classes? Second, what types of tariff design is most appropriate, given prevailing policy objectives, wholesale market

  1. Recent improvements in the performance of the muiltitasked TORT on time-shared Cray computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmy, Y.Y.

    1996-01-01

    Coarse-grained angular domain decomposition of the mesh sweep algorithm has been implemented in ORNL's three dimensional transport code TORT for Cray's macrotasking environment on platforms running the UNICOS operating system. A performance model constructed earlier is reviewed and its main result, namely the identification of the sources of parallelization overhead, is used to motivate the present work. The sources of overhead treated here are: redundant operations in the angular loop across participating tasks; repetitive task creation; lock utilization to prevent overwriting the flux moment arrays accumulated by the participating tasks. Substantial reduction in the parallelization overhead is demonstrated via sample runs with fixed tunning, i.e. zero CPU hold time. Up to 50% improvement in the wall clock speedup over the previous implementation with autotunning is observed in some test problems

  2. Original research: Giving sexual assault survivors time to decide: an exploration of the use and effects of the nonreport option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Laurie Cook; Busch-Armendariz, Noël Bridget; Vohra, Shetal S; Johnson, Regina Jones; Camp, Victoria

    2014-03-01

    Forensic nurses, sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs), and victim advocates have long recognized the trauma of sexual assault crimes and the significance of survivors' decisions around reporting these crimes to law enforcement agencies. Until recently, survivors who didn't report the crime were not entitled to a free medical forensic examination. In a significant policy shift, the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 provided an additional decision option with regard to the medical examination for survivors of sexual assault. This provision, referred to here as the nonreport option, was established to offer survivors a full range of reporting options and to ensure exemplary health care, with evidence collection as an important secondary goal. This study sought to examine the implementation of the nonreport option in Texas; explore its impact on SANEs, survivors, and the criminal justice system; and identify strengths and challenges of the nonreport process. A mixed-method approach was used that included qualitative interviews with 79 professionals who regularly respond to sexual assault crimes, a Web-based survey questionnaire of such professionals that yielded 131 completed surveys, and a review of existing data. The step-by-step process involved in a nonreport case was described, and findings in three descriptive areas emerged: confidentiality processes, storage and shipment of evidence, and the use of the nonreport option. Beneficial effects of the nonreport option were identified in five areas: the role of SANEs, the impact on survivors, collaborative relationships, collateral crimes, and anonymous reporting strategies. Seven areas of remaining dilemmas were also identified. Findings indicate that the nonreport option has had a considerable positive impact on SANEs, survivors of sexual assault, and the criminal justice system. But challenges remain if this option is to be fully utilized in the future; further research

  3. Does a kidney-sharing alliance have to sacrifice cold ischemic time for better HLA matching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniscu, Gabriel C; Plant, William; Pocock, Phil; Forsythe, John L R

    2002-05-27

    The Scotland-Northern Ireland Kidney Allocation Alliance was created in August 1998. The purpose was to optimize the transplant service through increased regional exchange, higher quality matched kidneys, and better organ distribution. An analysis was performed on prospectively collected data regarding retrieval and transplant activity. The degree of HLA matching, the cold ischemic time (CIT), the balance of exchange, and graft survival were analyzed for a 2-year period after the introduction of the new alliance and compared with the last year before alliance. There was a 17.7% increase in the number of transplants performed. In the 2-year period, 78% of kidneys were exported from the retrieving center compared with 55% in the prealliance year, (Pexchanged within the Alliance (P>0.05, Student's t test). The largest center was a net importer of kidneys, whereas small and medium-sized centers balanced their exchange within the 2-year period. The 1-year transplant survival rate improved from 81.5% in the prealliance year to 88.4% at the end of the second year. The introduction of a regional kidney allocation alliance has improved the degree of HLA matching and increased the exchange of organs, without a significant increase in the CIT and any detrimental effect on graft survival.

  4. Time Sharing Between Robotics and Process Control: Validating a Model of Attention Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Christopher Dow; Gutzwiller, Robert S; Vieane, Alex; Clegg, Benjamin A; Sebok, Angelia; Janes, Jess

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the strategic task overload management (STOM) model that predicts task switching when concurrence is impossible. The STOM model predicts that in overload, tasks will be switched to, to the extent that they are attractive on task attributes of high priority, interest, and salience and low difficulty. But more-difficult tasks are less likely to be switched away from once they are being performed. In Experiment 1, participants performed four tasks of the Multi-Attribute Task Battery and provided task-switching data to inform the role of difficulty and priority. In Experiment 2, participants concurrently performed an environmental control task and a robotic arm simulation. Workload was varied by automation of arm movement and both the phases of environmental control and existence of decision support for fault management. Attention to the two tasks was measured using a head tracker. Experiment 1 revealed the lack of influence of task priority and confirmed the differing roles of task difficulty. In Experiment 2, the percentage attention allocation across the eight conditions was predicted by the STOM model when participants rated the four attributes. Model predictions were compared against empirical data and accounted for over 95% of variance in task allocation. More-difficult tasks were performed longer than easier tasks. Task priority does not influence allocation. The multiattribute decision model provided a good fit to the data. The STOM model is useful for predicting cognitive tunneling given that human-in-the-loop simulation is time-consuming and expensive. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  5. Rehabilitation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  6. Strategic growth options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulatilaka, N.; Perotti, E.C.

    1998-01-01

    We provide a strategic rationale for growth options under uncertainty and imperfect corn-petition. In a market with strategic competition, investment confers a greater capability to take advantage of future growth opportunities. This strategic advantage leads to the capture of a greater share of the

  7. Comment on “Time-changed geometric fractional Brownian motion and option pricing with transaction costs” by Hui Gu et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhidong; Song, Yukun; Zhang, Yunliang

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this comment is to point out the inappropriate assumption of “3αH>1” and two problems in the proof of “Theorem 3.1” in section 3 of the paper “Time-changed geometric fractional Brownian motion and option pricing with transaction costs” by Hui Gu et al. [H. Gu, J.R. Liang, Y. X. Zhang, Time-changed geometric fractional Brownian motion and option pricing with transaction costs, Physica A 391 (2012) 3971-3977]. Then we show the two problems will be solved under our new assumption.

  8. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equipment Options to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Equipment Options on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels

  9. 26 CFR 1.544-4 - Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Options. 1.544-4 Section 1.544-4 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Personal Holding Companies § 1.544-4 Options. The shares of stock which may be acquired by reason of an option shall be considered to be constructively owned by the individual having the option to...

  10. Job Sharing. A New Pattern for Quality of Work and Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Gretl S.

    Job sharing, a new option in permanent part-time employment, is attracting national attention as a viable alternative to more traditional patterns of work. Job sharing is defined as an arrangement whereby two employees hold a position together, whether they are as a team jointly responsible for the whole or separately for each half, dividing time,…

  11. Expensing options solves nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system.

  12. Distinct and shared cognitive functions mediate event- and time-based prospective memory impairment in normal ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonneaud, Julie; Kalpouzos, Grégoria; Bon, Laetitia; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis; Desgranges, Béatrice

    2011-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an action at a specific point in the future. Regarded as multidimensional, PM involves several cognitive functions that are known to be impaired in normal aging. In the present study, we set out to investigate the cognitive correlates of PM impairment in normal aging. Manipulating cognitive load, we assessed event- and time-based PM, as well as several cognitive functions, including executive functions, working memory and retrospective episodic memory, in healthy subjects covering the entire adulthood. We found that normal aging was characterized by PM decline in all conditions and that event-based PM was more sensitive to the effects of aging than time-based PM. Whatever the conditions, PM was linked to inhibition and processing speed. However, while event-based PM was mainly mediated by binding and retrospective memory processes, time-based PM was mainly related to inhibition. The only distinction between high- and low-load PM cognitive correlates lays in an additional, but marginal, correlation between updating and the high-load PM condition. The association of distinct cognitive functions, as well as shared mechanisms with event- and time-based PM confirms that each type of PM relies on a different set of processes. PMID:21678154

  13. Real-time sharing and expression of migraine headache suffering on Twitter: a cross-sectional infodemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Thiago D; DosSantos, Marcos F; Danciu, Theodora; DeBoer, Misty; van Holsbeeck, Hendrik; Lucas, Sarah R; Aiello, Christine; Khatib, Leen; Bender, MaryCatherine A; Zubieta, Jon-Kar; DaSilva, Alexandre F

    2014-04-03

    Although population studies have greatly improved our understanding of migraine, they have relied on retrospective self-reports that are subject to memory error and experimenter-induced bias. Furthermore, these studies also lack specifics from the actual time that attacks were occurring, and how patients express and share their ongoing suffering. As technology and language constantly evolve, so does the way we share our suffering. We sought to evaluate the infodemiology of self-reported migraine headache suffering on Twitter. Trained observers in an academic setting categorized the meaning of every single "migraine" tweet posted during seven consecutive days. The main outcome measures were prevalence, life-style impact, linguistic, and timeline of actual self-reported migraine headache suffering on Twitter. From a total of 21,741 migraine tweets collected, only 64.52% (14,028/21,741 collected tweets) were from users reporting their migraine headache attacks in real-time. The remainder of the posts were commercial, re-tweets, general discussion or third person's migraine, and metaphor. The gender distribution available for the actual migraine posts was 73.47% female (10,306/14,028), 17.40% males (2441/14,028), and 0.01% transgendered (2/14,028). The personal impact of migraine headache was immediate on mood (43.91%, 6159/14,028), productivity at work (3.46%, 486/14,028), social life (3.45%, 484/14,028), and school (2.78%, 390/14,028). The most common migraine descriptor was "Worst" (14.59%, 201/1378) and profanity, the "F-word" (5.3%, 73/1378). The majority of postings occurred in the United States (58.28%, 3413/5856), peaking on weekdays at 10:00h and then gradually again at 22:00h; the weekend had a later morning peak. Twitter proved to be a powerful source of knowledge for migraine research. The data in this study overlap large-scale epidemiological studies, avoiding memory bias and experimenter-induced error. Furthermore, linguistics of ongoing migraine reports

  14. Job sharing as an employment alternative in group medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanek, E P; Vanek, J A

    2001-01-01

    Although physicians discuss quality-of-life and employment issues with their patients, they often fail to consider flexible scheduling and reduced employment options to lessen their own job stress. We examined one of these options by surveying two community-based, private practice groups with a combined 13-year experience with job sharing. We found that a majority of respondents rated job sharing as successful, and most wanted it to continue. Job sharers derived considerable personal benefit from the arrangement and had significantly more positive attitudes toward work than full-time physicians. Job sharing appeared to have little impact on practice parameters. Dependability, flexibility and willingness to cooperate were the most important attributes in choosing a job-sharing partner. Job sharing is an employment alternative worth exploring to retain physicians in medical group practice.

  15. Ditching the Disc: The Effects of Cloud-Based Image Sharing on Department Efficiency and Report Turnaround Times in Mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Matthew B; Young, Elizabeth; Harada, Scott; Winkler, Nicole; Riegert, Joanna; Jones, Tony; Hu, Nan; Stein, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    In screening mammography, accessing prior examination images is crucial for accurate diagnosis and avoiding false-positives. When women visit multiple institutions for their screens, these "outside" examinations must be retrieved for comparison. Traditionally, prior images are obtained by faxing requests to other institutions and waiting for standard mail (film or CD-ROM), which can greatly delay report turnaround times. Recently, advancements in cloud-based image transfer technology have opened up more efficient options for examination transfer between institutions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cloud-based image transfer on mammography department workflow, time required to obtain prior images, and report turnaround times. Sixty screening examinations requiring prior images were placed into two groups (30 each). The control group used the standard institutional protocol for requesting prior images: faxing requests and waiting for mailed examinations. The experimental group used a cloud-based transfer for both requesting and receiving examinations. The mean number of days between examination request and examination receipt was measured for both groups and compared. The mean number of days from examination request to receipt was 6.08 days (SD 3.50) in the control group compared with 3.16 days (SD 3.95) in the experimental group. Using a cloud-based image transfer to obtain prior mammograms resulted in an average reduction of 2.92 days (P = .0361; 95% confidence interval 0.20-5.65) between examination request and receipt. This improvement in system efficiency is relevant for interpreting radiologists working to improve reporting times and for patients anxious to receive their mammography results. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  17. Incentives for Part-Time Faculty to Participate in the Shared Governance Process within the Institution of California Community Colleges (CCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyck, Kristen J.

    2012-01-01

    The involvement of part-time faculty tends to be even lower than the engagement level of full-time faculty who partake in the system of shared governance in the California Community Colleges (CCC). During a time when state funds are diminishing, there is a projection of retirement for many community college leaders (Fulton-Calkins & Milling,…

  18. Job Sharing Through Part Time Contracts. A Consideration in the Context of Declining School Enrolments in Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Krishna

    Two questionnaires were sent to all school boards and a sample of teachers in Ontario to assess how receptive boards and teachers are to job sharing as an alternative work pattern in schools affected by declining enrollment. The report gives the background of the concept of job sharing and an analysis of the benefits, work situations, and problems…

  19. Temporal isolation in an HSF-enabled real-time kernel in the presence of shared resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Parmer, G.; Gleixner, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) have been extensively investigated as a paradigm for facilitating temporal isolation between components that need to be integrated on a single shared processor. To support resource sharing within two-level, fixed priority scheduled HSFs, two synchronization

  20. Tailoring Shared Governance to the Needs and Opportunities of the Times. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.13.13

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, C. Judson

    2013-01-01

    Shared governance between the administration and faculty has been traditional for most public universities, but varies considerably in its nature and effectiveness. In the United States it probably takes its most structured form at the University of California. There are good reasons for having shared governance, and yet it tends to be poorly…

  1. Americal options analyzed differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  2. Power sharing and transitional justice : a clash of paradigms?

    OpenAIRE

    Vandeginste, Stef; Sriram, Chandra Lekha

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Recent peace negotiations practice has given rise to the emergence of two paradigms. In line with normative developments in global human rights protection, internationally brokered peace processes often address the options for accountability for abuses committed in the past and generally cannot include blanket amnesties. At the same time, many agreements end armed conflicts by offering power-sharing incentives for warring parties. In most cases, power-sharing arrangements are likely...

  3. Increasing Power by Sharing Information from Genetic Background and Treatment in Clustering of Gene Expression Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Zaki Alrashid

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clustering of gene expression time series gives insight into which genes may be co-regulated, allowing us to discern the activity of pathways in a given microarray experiment. Of particular interest is how a given group of genes varies with different conditions or genetic background. This paper develops
a new clustering method that allows each cluster to be parameterised according to whether the behaviour of the genes across conditions is correlated or anti-correlated. By specifying correlation between such genes,more information is gain within the cluster about how the genes interrelate. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an irreversible neurodegenerative disorder that kills the motor neurons and results in death within 2 to 3 years from the symptom onset. Speed of progression for different patients are heterogeneous with significant variability. The SOD1G93A transgenic mice from different backgrounds (129Sv and C57 showed consistent phenotypic differences for disease progression. A hierarchy of Gaussian isused processes to model condition-specific and gene-specific temporal co-variances. This study demonstrated about finding some significant gene expression profiles and clusters of associated or co-regulated gene expressions together from four groups of data (SOD1G93A and Ntg from 129Sv and C57 backgrounds. Our study shows the effectiveness of sharing information between replicates and different model conditions when modelling gene expression time series. Further gene enrichment score analysis and ontology pathway analysis of some specified clusters for a particular group may lead toward identifying features underlying the differential speed of disease progression.

  4. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  5. Fluctuations of the experience of togetherness within the team over time: task-cohesion and shared understanding throughout a sporting regular season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbousson, Jérôme; Fortes-Bourbousson, Marina

    2017-06-01

    Based on a diagnosis action research design, the present study assessed the fluctuations of the team experience of togetherness. Reported experiences of 12 basketball team members playing in the under-18 years old national championship were studied during a four-month training and competitive period. Time series analysis (Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average procedures) served to describe temporal properties of the way in which the fluctuations of task-cohesion and shared understanding were step-by-step experienced over time, respectively. Correlations, running-correlations and cross-lagged correlations were used to describe the temporal links that governed the relationships between both phenomena. The results indicated that the task-cohesion dimensions differed mainly for shared understanding dynamics in that their time fluctuations were not embedded in external events, and that the variations in shared understanding tend to precede 'individual attractions to the task' variations with seven team practical sessions. This study argues for further investigation of how 'togetherness' is experienced alternatively as a feeling of cohesion or shared understanding. Practitioner Summary: The present action research study investigated the experience that the team members have to share information during practice, and the subsequent benefices on team cohesion. Results call for specific interventions that make team members accept the fluctuating nature of team phenomena, to help them maintaining their daily efforts.

  6. Complex New Product Development projects - How the Project Manager’s Information Sharing With Core Actors Changes Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde

    2013-01-01

    A heavily burdened project manager must ensure effective information sharing with actors inside and outside the organization because this is a necessary condition for a new product development (NPD) project to achieve its objectives. Knowledge, however, on who actually assists a project manager...... with the information sharing during NPD projects is limited; therefore, this study of longitudinal objective email data (4658 emails) during a NPD project contributes to theory and practice by advancing our understanding of when and how the project manager establishes relationships with different core actors inside...

  7. Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counteract their perception and reaction to tinnitus. Sound masking can cover the sound of tinnitus, while more ... list ATA never sells, shares, or rents personal data Patient Stories There are as many experiences of ...

  8. 47 CFR 25.260 - Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time sharing between DoD meteorological satellite systems and non-voice, non-geostationary satellite systems in the 400.15-401 MHz band. 25.260 Section 25.260 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES...

  9. Domain-general involvement of the posterior frontolateral cortex in time-based resource-sharing in working memory: An fMRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergauwe, E.; Hartstra, E.; Barrouillet, P.; Brass, M.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory is often defined in cognitive psychology as a system devoted to the simultaneous processing and maintenance of information. In line with the time-based resource-sharing model of working memory (TBRS; Barrouillet and Camos, 2015; Barrouillet et al., 2004), there is accumulating

  10. Optional part-time and longer GP training modules in GP practices associated with more trainees becoming GPs - a cohort study in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studerus, Lara; Ahrens, Regina; Häuptle, Christian; Goeldlin, Adrian; Streit, Sven

    2018-01-05

    Switzerland, like many other countries, has a shortage of General Practitioners (GPs). Optional GP training modules in GP practices were offered during the at least 5-year GP training program to increase student and trainee interest in becoming a GP. The training modules had not yet been evaluated. We determined how many Swiss GP trainees became practicing GPs after they completed optional training modules, and if longer modules were associated with higher rates of GP specialization. In this population-based cohort study, we included GP trainees who chose an optional GP training module in GP practice, provided by the Foundation to Promote Training in General Practice (WHM) between 2006 and 2015. GP trainees were invited to complete an online survey to assess the primary outcome (becoming a practicing GP by 2016). Data on non-responders was collected via an internet search. We calculated univariate time-to-event curves to become a practicing GP, stratified by trainee's gender, length, part-time training, and number of years after graduation until training modules were completed. We used a multivariate model to adjust for characteristics of participants, training, and satisfaction with training modules. We assessed primary outcome for 351 (92.1%) of 381 former GP trainees who participated in a WHM program between 2006 and 2015. Of these 218 (57%) were practicing GPs by 2016. When focusing on the trainees who had completed training between 2006 and 2010, the rate of practicing GPs was even 73%. Longer (p = 0.018) and part-time training modules (p = 0.003) were associated with higher rates of being a practicing GP. Most (81%) practicing GPs thought their optional GP training module was (very) important in their choice of specialty. GP trainees who spent more time training in a GP practice, or who trained part-time were more likely to become practicing GPs. Most (80%) rated their training module as (very) important in their choice of career, highlighting that

  11. The quest for the oil and gas infrastructure protection in central Asia : time bombs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs

    2006-03-15

    The growing economies of China and India have increased global anxieties over dwindling fossil fuel resources. Regional countries in central Asia have advocated for more extensive strategic partnerships within the oil and gas industry as insurance against the pressures of more powerful nations. However, non-traditional threats such as terrorism raise serious questions about critical oil and gas infrastructure protection in central Asia. This paper assessed the vulnerability and threats inherent in protecting the critical oil and gas infrastructure of Central Asia, with a specific focus on Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and the region of Xinjiang in China. An-depth analysis of the development strategies, terrorist threats, and water issues confronted by Central Asian powers was conducted to demonstrate their vulnerability. The analysis was then used to consider options available for managing oil and gas infrastructure in the regions. It was observed that different perceptions and technological difficulties have made cooperation on critical oil and gas infrastructure protection less important than national sovereignty and domestic stability. It was concluded that a low-key approach to homeland security and oil and gas infrastructure may be the best strategy for Central Asia and China. 44 refs.

  12. Sharing family and household:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  13. Shared pledge shared vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussaha, Ali; Diatta, Christian Sina

    2005-01-01

    The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is a pledge by African leaders to eradicate poverty and to promote sustainable growth and development. NEPAD is a 'new framework of interaction with the rest of the world, including the industrialised countries and multilateral organizations.' The agenda is based on regional priorities and development plans and its implementation relies on African ownership and management. As a UN system organisation, the IAEA strongly supports the priorities identified in the Millennium Declaration and the New Partnership for Africa's Development. As a technical agency, the IAEA shares its recognized core competencies and technical expertise in support of NEPAD goals. Efforts aim at strengthening institutional capacity building in nuclear sciences and technology and promoting the sustainable application of nuclear techniques for social and economic development. The IAEA has a membership of 34 African countries. The Agency supports them under its technical cooperation programme through provision of expertise, training opportunities and equipment in priority areas identified by the countries themselves. For many African Member States, meeting basic human needs through the implementation of poverty alleviation strategies remains the top priority on the agenda for national development plans and international cooperation programmes. In the context of sustainable development, special attention is being paid to enlarging the contribution of isotopes and nuclear techniques in major areas of economic and social significance and to promoting regional cooperation in nuclear science and technology related fields. As a partner in development, the Agency has promoted and undertaken programmes to support African countries' efforts to address priority development issues particularly in the areas of health care, food and agriculture and water resources development. The IAEA technical cooperation mechanism includes support to the African Regional

  14. View-sharing in keyhole imaging: Partially compressed central k-space acquisition in time-resolved MRA at 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch R., E-mail: Dariusch.Hadizadeh@ukb.uni-bonn.de [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Gieseke, Juergen [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Beck, Gabriele; Geerts, Liesbeth [Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Kukuk, Guido M. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany); Bostroem, Azize [Department of Neurosurgery, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn, Deutschland (Germany); Urbach, Horst; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, 53127 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Introduction: Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (CEMRA) of the intracranial vasculature has proved its clinical value for the evaluation of cerebral vascular disease in cases where both flow hemodynamics and morphology are important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a combination of view-sharing with keyhole imaging to increase spatial and temporal resolution of time-resolved CEMRA at 3.0 T. Methods: Alternating view-sharing was combined with randomly segmented k-space ordering, keyhole imaging, partial Fourier and parallel imaging (4DkvsMRA). 4DkvsMRA was evaluated using varying compression factors (80-100) resulting in spatial resolutions ranging from (1.1 x 1.1 x 1.4) to (0.96 x 0.96 x 0.95) mm{sup 3} and temporal resolutions ranging from 586 ms/dynamic scan - 288 ms/dynamic scan in three protocols in 10 healthy volunteers and seven patients (17 subjects). DSA correlation was available in four patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) and one patient with cerebral teleangiectasia. Results: 4DkvsMRA was successfully performed in all subjects and showed clear depiction of arterial and venous phases with diagnostic image quality. At the maximum view-sharing compression factor (=100), a 'flickering' artefact was observed. Conclusion: View-sharing in keyhole imaging allows for increased spatial and temporal resolution in time-resolved MRA.

  15. View-sharing in keyhole imaging: Partially compressed central k-space acquisition in time-resolved MRA at 3.0 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Gieseke, Juergen; Beck, Gabriele; Geerts, Liesbeth; Kukuk, Guido M.; Bostroem, Azize; Urbach, Horst; Schild, Hans H.; Willinek, Winfried A.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Time-resolved contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography (CEMRA) of the intracranial vasculature has proved its clinical value for the evaluation of cerebral vascular disease in cases where both flow hemodynamics and morphology are important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a combination of view-sharing with keyhole imaging to increase spatial and temporal resolution of time-resolved CEMRA at 3.0 T. Methods: Alternating view-sharing was combined with randomly segmented k-space ordering, keyhole imaging, partial Fourier and parallel imaging (4DkvsMRA). 4DkvsMRA was evaluated using varying compression factors (80-100) resulting in spatial resolutions ranging from (1.1 x 1.1 x 1.4) to (0.96 x 0.96 x 0.95) mm 3 and temporal resolutions ranging from 586 ms/dynamic scan - 288 ms/dynamic scan in three protocols in 10 healthy volunteers and seven patients (17 subjects). DSA correlation was available in four patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (cAVMs) and one patient with cerebral teleangiectasia. Results: 4DkvsMRA was successfully performed in all subjects and showed clear depiction of arterial and venous phases with diagnostic image quality. At the maximum view-sharing compression factor (=100), a 'flickering' artefact was observed. Conclusion: View-sharing in keyhole imaging allows for increased spatial and temporal resolution in time-resolved MRA.

  16. Labia Majora Share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanjing Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Defects involving specialised areas with characteristic anatomical features, such as the nipple, upper eyelid, and lip, benefit greatly from the use of sharing procedures. The vulva, a complex 3-dimensional structure, can also be reconstructed through a sharing procedure drawing upon the contralateral vulva. In this report, we present the interesting case of a patient with chronic, massive, localised lymphedema of her left labia majora that was resected in 2011. Five years later, she presented with squamous cell carcinoma over the left vulva region, which is rarely associated with chronic lymphedema. To the best of our knowledge, our management of the radical vulvectomy defect with a labia majora sharing procedure is novel and has not been previously described. The labia major flap presented in this report is a shared flap; that is, a transposition flap based on the dorsal clitoral artery, which has consistent vascular anatomy, making this flap durable and reliable. This procedure epitomises the principle of replacing like with like, does not interfere with leg movement or patient positioning, has minimal donor site morbidity, and preserves other locoregional flap options for future reconstruction. One limitation is the need for a lax contralateral vulva. This labia majora sharing procedure is a viable option in carefully selected patients.

  17. To share and be shared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2018-01-01

    to another. To a certain degree, they share their everyday lives, things, places, memories, and past/future, but as the ones who move back and forth, they belong a little less in each place. This article is about children who are shared between their parent, households and siblings. They are shared...

  18. Predicting multiprocessing efficiency on the Cray multiprocessors in a (CTSS) time-sharing environment/application to a 3-D magnetohydrodynamics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirin, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    A formula is derived for predicting multiprocessing efficiency on Cray supercomputers equipped with the Cray Time-Sharing System (CTSS). The model is applicable to an intensive time-sharing environment. The actual efficiency estimate depends on three factors: the code size, task length, and job mix. The implementation of multitasking in a three-dimensional plasma magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code, TEMCO, is discussed. TEMCO solves the primitive one-fluid compressible MHD equations and includes resistive and Hall effects in Ohm's law. Virtually all segments of the main time-integration loop are multitasked. The multiprocessing efficiency model is applied to TEMCO. Excellent agreement is obtained between the actual multiprocessing efficiency and the theoretical prediction

  19. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of bank’s interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the company’s detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the company’s detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a “good host” is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the manager’s powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the

  20. Static and time-resolved 10-1000 keV x-ray imaging detector options for NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landen, O.L.; Bell, P.M.; McDonald, J.W.; Park, H.-S.; Weber, F.; Moody, J.D.; Lowry, M.E.; Stewart, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    High energy (>10 keV) x-ray self-emission imaging and radiography will be essential components of many NIF high energy density physics experiments. In preparation for such experiments, we have evaluated the pros and cons of various static [x-ray film, bare charge-coupled device (CCD), and scintillator + CCD] and time-resolved (streaked and gated) 10-1000 keV detectors

  1. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  2. Using Simulated Partial Dynamic Run-Time Reconfiguration to Share Embedded FPGA Compute and Power Resources across a Swarm of Unpiloted Airborne Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kearney David

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We show how the limited electrical power and FPGA compute resources available in a swarm of small UAVs can be shared by moving FPGA tasks from one UAV to another. A software and hardware infrastructure that supports the mobility of embedded FPGA applications on a single FPGA chip and across a group of networked FPGA chips is an integral part of the work described here. It is shown how to allocate a single FPGA's resources at run time and to share a single device through the use of application checkpointing, a memory controller, and an on-chip run-time reconfigurable network. A prototype distributed operating system is described for managing mobile applications across the swarm based on the contents of a fuzzy rule base. It can move applications between UAVs in order to equalize power use or to enable the continuous replenishment of fully fueled planes into the swarm.

  3. Energy exotic options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, V.; Gibner, S.; Pinnamaneni, K.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter with 88 references focuses on the use of exotic options to control exposure to energy prices. Exotic options are defined, and the conversion of a standard option into an exotic option and pricing models are examined. Pricing and hedging exotic options, path-dependent options, multi-commodity options, options on the minimum-or-maximum of two commodities, compound options, digital options, hybrid and complex structures, and natural gas daily options are described. Formulas for option pricing for vanilla, barrier, compound, options on minimum or maximum of two assets, and look back options are given in an appendix

  4. File sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    ‘File sharing’ has become generally accepted on the Internet. Users share files for downloading music, films, games, software etc. In this note, we have a closer look at the definition of file sharing, the legal and policy-based context as well as enforcement issues. The economic and cultural

  5. Shared leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Müller, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, this paper comprehensively will review the conceptual and empirical literature to identify such critical underlying mechanisms which enable shared or collective leadership. Second, this article identifies the antecedents and outcomes of shared leadership...... according to the literature review to develop a re-conceptualised and synthesized framework for managing the organizational issues associated with shared leadership on various organizational levels. The paper rectifies this by identifying the critical factors and mechanisms which enable shared leadership...... and its antecedents and outcomes, and to develop a re-conceptualized and synthesized framework of shared leadership. The paper closes with a brief discussion of avenues for future research and implications for managers....

  6. Options theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markland, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature

  7. [Lumbar disc herniation: Natural history, role of physical examination, timing of surgery, treatment options and conflicts of interests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-López, Pedro David; Rodríguez-Salazar, Antonio; Martín-Alonso, Javier; Martín-Velasco, Vicente

    Indication for surgery in lumbar disc herniation (LDH) varies widely depending on the geographical area. A literature review is presented on the natural history, role of physical examination, timing of surgery, evidence-based treatment, and conflicts of interests in LDH. Surgery is shown to provide significant faster relief of pain compared to conservative therapy, although the effect fades after a year. There is no treatment modality better than the rest in terms of pain control and neurological recovery, nor is there a surgical technique clearly superior to simple discectomy. The lack of sound scientific evidence on the surgical indication may contribute to its great geographical variability. Since LDH has a favourable natural history, neuroimaging and surgery should not be considered until after a 6-week period. It is necessary to specify and respect the surgical indications for LDH, avoiding conflicts of interests. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Some new features of Direct Analysis in Real Time mass spectrometry utilizing the desorption at an angle option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernetsova, Elena S; Revelsky, Alexander I; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2011-08-30

    The present study is a first step towards the unexplored capabilities of Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) mass spectrometry (MS) arising from the possibility of the desorption at an angle: scanning analysis of surfaces, including the coupling of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with DART-MS, and a more sensitive analysis due to the preliminary concentration of analytes dissolved in large volumes of liquids on glass surfaces. In order to select the most favorable conditions for DART-MS analysis, proper positioning of samples is important. Therefore, a simple and cheap technique for the visualization of the impact region of the DART gas stream onto a substrate was developed. A filter paper or TLC plate, previously loaded with the analyte, was immersed in a derivatization solution. On this substrate, owing to the impact of the hot DART gas, reaction of the analyte to a colored product occurred. An improved capability of detection of DART-MS for the analysis of liquids was demonstrated by applying large volumes of model solutions of coumaphos into small glass vessels and drying these solutions prior to DART-MS analysis under ambient conditions. This allowed the introduction of, by up to more than two orders of magnitude, increased quantities of analyte compared with the conventional DART-MS analysis of liquids. Through this improved detectability, the capabilities of DART-MS in trace analysis could be strengthened. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The essential nature of sharing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Beth A; Zigmond, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Advances in science are the combined result of the efforts of a great many scientists, and in many cases, their willingness to share the products of their research. These products include data sets, both small and large, and unique research resources not commercially available, such as cell lines and software programs. The sharing of these resources enhances both the scope and the depth of research, while making more efficient use of time and money. However, sharing is not without costs, many of which are borne by the individual who develops the research resource. Sharing, for example, reduces the uniqueness of the resources available to a scientist, potentially influencing the originator's perceived productivity and ultimately his or her competitiveness for jobs, promotions, and grants. Nevertheless, for most researchers-particularly those using public funds-sharing is no longer optional but must be considered an obligation to science, the funding agency, and ultimately society at large. Most funding agencies, journals, and professional societies now require a researcher who has published work involving a unique resource to make that resource available to other investigators. Changes could be implemented to mitigate some of the costs. The creator of the resource could explore the possibility of collaborating with those who request it. In addition, institutions that employ and fund researchers could change their policies and practices to make sharing a more attractive and viable option. For example, when evaluating an individual's productivity, institutions could provide credit for the impact a researcher has had on their field through the provision of their unique resources to other investigators, regardless of whether that impact is reflected in the researcher's list of publications. In addition, increased funding for the development and maintenance of user-friendly public repositories for data and research resources would also help to reduce barriers to sharing

  10. Leveraged exchange-traded funds price dynamics and options valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Leung, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an analysis, under both discrete-time and continuous-time frameworks, on the price dynamics of leveraged exchange-traded funds (LETFs), with emphasis on the roles of leverage ratio, realized volatility, investment horizon, and tracking errors. This study provides new insights on the risks associated with LETFs. It also leads to the discussion of new risk management concepts, such as admissible leverage ratios and admissible risk horizon, as well as the mathematical and empirical analyses of several trading strategies, including static portfolios, pairs trading, and stop-loss strategies involving ETFs and LETFs. The final part of the book addresses the pricing of options written on LETFs. Since different LETFs are designed to track the same reference index, these funds and their associated options share very similar sources of randomness. The authors provide a no-arbitrage pricing approach that consistently value options on LETFs with different leverage ratios with stochastic volatility and ...

  11. Traditional Knowledge in the Time of Neo-Liberalism: Access and Benefit-Sharing Regimes in India and Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Barpujari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In a neoliberal world, traditional knowledge (TK of biodiversity possessed by Indigenous and Local Communities (ILCs in the global South has become a valuable "commodity" or "bio-resource," necessitating the setting up of harmonized ground rules (international and national in the form of an access and benefitsharing regime to facilitate its exchange in the world market. Despite criticisms that a regime with a neo-liberal orientation is antithetical to the normative ethos of ILCs, it could also offer a chance for developing countries and ILCs to generate revenue for socioeconomic development—to which they are gradually becoming open, but only under fair and equitable terms. Based on this context, this article proposes to look into the legal and policy frameworks and institutional regimes governing access and benefit sharing of TK associated with biological resources in two countries of South Asia: India and Bhutan. The article seeks to examine how such regimes are reconciling the imperatives of a neo-liberal economy with providing a just and equitable framework for ILCs and TK holders, which is truly participatory and not top-down.

  12. Perpetual Cancellable American Call Option

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerling, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the valuation of a generalized American-style option known as a Game-style call option in an infinite time horizon setting. The specifications of this contract allow the writer to terminate the call option at any point in time for a fixed penalty amount paid directly to the holder. Valuation of a perpetual Game-style put option was addressed by Kyprianou (2004) in a Black-Scholes setting on a non-dividend paying asset. Here, we undertake a similar analysis for the perpetua...

  13. Nuclear Option in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K. I.

    2002-01-01

    With sixteen(16) operating nuclear units in Korea, the share of nuclear power generation reached 41% of the total electric power generation as of December 2000. A prediction is that it would further increase to 44.5% by year 2015 according to the national long term power development plan. Four units are currently under construction with 6 more units in order. With little domestic energy resource and increasing energy demand to support national economic growth, Korea has chosen nuclear power as one of the major energy sources to ensure stable power supply and to promote energy self-sufficiency. It has been recognized that nuclear power in Korea is not a selective option but rather a necessity. The Korean nuclear power development started with construction of a 600 MWe size reactor that was designed and constructed by foreign vendors. As the national grid capacity became larger, the size of nuclear units increased to 1000 MWe class. In the mean time, the need for nuclear technology self-reliance grew not only in operation and maintenance but also in construction, manufacturing and design. For this, a nuclear technology self-reliance program has been embarked with the support of the Government and utility, and the 1000 MWe class KSNP(Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant) has been developed. The KSNPs are currently being designed, manufactured, constructed and operated by relevant Korean entities themselves. To fit into a larger capacity national grid and also to improve nuclear economic competitiveness, the 1400 MWe class KNGR(Korean Next Generation Reactor) design has been developed uprating the 1000 MWe KSNP design. Its construction project is currently under contract negotiation, and is planned to be finished by 2010. In the mean time, to be ready for future electric power market deregulation, the 600 MWe class small KSNP design is being developed downsizing the KSNP. A modular small size reactor, SMART(System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is also being

  14. 78 FR 17868 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... or loss by either the issuing partnership or the option holder. The final regulations also modify the... determination of the partners' distributive shares of partnership items. The final regulations also contain a...) to read as follows: Sec. 1.704-1 Partner's distributive share. * * * * * (b) * * * (5) * * * Example...

  15. 78 FR 35559 - Noncompensatory Partnership Options; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... or loss by either the issuing partnership or the option holder. The final regulations also modify the... determination of the partners' distributive shares of partnership items. The final regulations also contain a... distributive share. * * * * * (b) * * * (5) * * * Example 32. * * * (v) * * * Under paragraph (b)(4)(x)(c) of...

  16. Prospects of a mathematical theory of human behavior in complex man-machine systems tasks. [time sharing computer analogy of automobile driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, G.; Rouse, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    A hierarchy of human activities is derived by analyzing automobile driving in general terms. A structural description leads to a block diagram and a time-sharing computer analogy. The range of applicability of existing mathematical models is considered with respect to the hierarchy of human activities in actual complex tasks. Other mathematical tools so far not often applied to man machine systems are also discussed. The mathematical descriptions at least briefly considered here include utility, estimation, control, queueing, and fuzzy set theory as well as artificial intelligence techniques. Some thoughts are given as to how these methods might be integrated and how further work might be pursued.

  17. Comparison between three option, four option and five option multiple choice question tests for quality parameters: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegada, Bhavisha; Shukla, Apexa; Khilnani, Ajeetkumar; Charan, Jaykaran; Desai, Chetna

    2016-01-01

    Most of the academic teachers use four or five options per item of multiple choice question (MCQ) test as formative and summative assessment. Optimal number of options in MCQ item is a matter of considerable debate among academic teachers of various educational fields. There is a scarcity of the published literature regarding the optimum number of option in each item of MCQ in the field of medical education. To compare three options, four options, and five options MCQs test for the quality parameters - reliability, validity, item analysis, distracter analysis, and time analysis. Participants were 3 rd semester M.B.B.S. students. Students were divided randomly into three groups. Each group was given one set of MCQ test out of three options, four options, and five option randomly. Following the marking of the multiple choice tests, the participants' option selections were analyzed and comparisons were conducted of the mean marks, mean time, validity, reliability and facility value, discrimination index, point biserial value, distracter analysis of three different option formats. Students score more ( P = 0.000) and took less time ( P = 0.009) for the completion of three options as compared to four options and five options groups. Facility value was more ( P = 0.004) in three options group as compared to four and five options groups. There was no significant difference between three groups for the validity, reliability, and item discrimination. Nonfunctioning distracters were more in the four and five options group as compared to three option group. Assessment based on three option MCQs is can be preferred over four option and five option MCQs.

  18. Policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1990-01-01

    The obstacles to bringing about consumer response to environmental dangers are particularly challenging for global problems like ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. In this situation, there is the danger of what is commonly termed the tragedy of the commons, the ecological destruction that can occur from uncontrolled use of shared resources like the atmosphere. There is probably no country for which reductions in global warming provide an adequate economic incentive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions unilaterally, even though such action could yield substantial global benefits. From any one country's viewpoint, the costs of controlling emissions may exceed the benefits since, without international agreement, reductions achieved by one nation may be offset by another. Therefore, even though the entire world may be better off as a result of efforts to lower emissions, new economic incentives are necessary to lead the market to a socially efficient outcome. This paper describes the range of domestic and international policies that could be adopted to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and also discusses the results of modeling analyses of government actions that could reduce or increase such emissions

  19. Increasing Power by Sharing Information from Genetic Background and Treatment in Clustering of Gene Expression Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Sura Zaki Alrashid; Muhammad Arifur Rahman; Nabeel H Al-Aaraji; Neil D Lawrence; Paul R Heath

    2018-01-01

    Clustering of gene expression time series gives insight into which genes may be co-regulated, allowing us to discern the activity of pathways in a given microarray experiment. Of particular interest is how a given group of genes varies with different conditions or genetic background. This paper develops
a new clustering method that allows each cluster to be parameterised according to whether the behaviour of the genes across conditions is correlated or anti-correlated. By specifying correlati...

  20. Shared decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, William

    2009-01-01

    Shared decision-making has been called the crux of patient-centred care and identified as a key part of change for improved quality and safety in healthcare. However, it rarely happens, is hard to do and is not taught - for many reasons. Talking with patients about options is not embedded in the attitudes or communication skills training of most healthcare professionals. Information tools such as patient decision aids, personal health records and the Internet will help to shift this state, as will policy that drives patient and public involvement in healthcare delivery and training.

  1. Inter-Firm Information Sharing in Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: a call for timely but limited access to customer information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Busing

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP suggest that supply chain management and tight control over scheduling jobs within the supply chain are key tactical planning issues. Modern ERP software packages, in conjunction with the World Wide Web, allow for automated exchange of information within a company and also between two or more companies (i.e., conveyance of customer information to suppliers of parts and components for the purposes of effective planning and control. While ease of information exchange between a customer and supplier is increasingly critical to the success of modern-day planning and control efforts, the issue of information security is also a very real concern. Suppliers can benefit from gaining access to a customer's dispatch list and material requirements plan (MRP in order to determine real-time priority of jobs in queue at various work centers within their own organization. Other customer information, however, should remain secure and unavailable to supplier firms for competitive reasons such as threat of forward integration. This paper presents a previously tested priority-sequencing rule that explicitly considers downstream shop conditions in determining which job to run next The rule proves to perform well on mean flow time and lateness as well as on variability of these measures. The rule is extended here to incorporate the case where a downstream work center is outside official corporate boundaries. With the call for free exchange of information comes the threat of other, perhaps proprietary, information being accessed by vendors or others outside the official corporate boundaries. The paper will propose information that should be freely exchanged between customers and suppliers and information that should remain secure. Finally, practical measures to manage access to web-enabled ERP information will be proposed.

  2. Effectiveness of anonymised information sharing and use in health service, police, and local government partnership for preventing violence related injury: experimental study and time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florence, Curtis; Brennan, Iain; Simon, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of anonymised information sharing to prevent injury related to violence. Design Experimental study and time series analysis of a prototype community partnership between the health service, police, and local government partners designed to prevent violence. Setting Cardiff, Wales, and 14 comparison cities designated “most similar” by the Home Office in England and Wales. Intervention After a 33 month development period, anonymised data relevant to violence prevention (precise violence location, time, days, and weapons) from patients attending emergency departments in Cardiff and reporting injury from violence were shared over 51 months with police and local authority partners and used to target resources for violence prevention. Main outcome measures Health service records of hospital admissions related to violence and police records of woundings and less serious assaults in Cardiff and other cities after adjustment for potential confounders. Results Information sharing and use were associated with a substantial and significant reduction in hospital admissions related to violence. In the intervention city (Cardiff) rates fell from seven to five a month per 100 000 population compared with an increase from five to eight in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.58, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 0.69). Average rate of woundings recorded by the police changed from 54 to 82 a month per 100 000 population in Cardiff compared with an increase from 54 to 114 in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.68, 0.61 to 0.75). There was a significant increase in less serious assaults recorded by the police, from 15 to 20 a month per 100 000 population in Cardiff compared with a decrease from 42 to 33 in comparison cities (adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.38, 1.13 to 1.70). Conclusion An information sharing partnership between health services, police, and local government in Cardiff, Wales, altered policing

  3. New Technologies: Real-time Telepathology Systems-Novel Cost-effective Tools for Real-time Consultation and Data Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Gabriel; Regelman, Dan; Maronpot, Robert; Rosenstock, Moti; Nyska, Abraham

    2017-12-01

    Real-time telepathology for use in investigative and regulated preclinical toxicology studies is now feasible. Newly developed microscope-integrated telepathology systems enable geographically remote stakeholders to view the live histopathology slide as seen by the study pathologist within the microscope. Simultaneous online viewing and dialog between study pathologist and remote colleagues is an efficient and cost-effective means for consultation, pathology working groups, and peer review, facilitating good science and economic benefits by enabling more timely and informed clinical decisions.

  4. 76 FR 76788 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... being out-of-the- money. For example, a market participant might have a long position in a call series....01 per share (or $1.00 per option contract with a 100 share multiplier). Because the temporary procedures allow trading below $0.01 per share (or $1.00 per option contract with a 100 share multiplier...

  5. Passenger Sharing of the High-Speed Railway from Sensitivity Analysis Caused by Price and Run-time Based on the Multi-Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Ning

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Nowadays, governments around the world are active in constructing the high-speed railway. Therefore, it is significant to make research on this increasingly prevalent transport.Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, we simulate the process of the passenger’s travel mode choice by adjusting the ticket fare and the run-time based on the multi-agent system (MAS.Findings: From the research we get the conclusion that increasing the run-time appropriately and reducing the ticket fare in some extent are effective ways to enhance the passenger sharing of the high-speed railway.Originality/value: We hope it can provide policy recommendations for the railway sectors in developing the long-term plan on high-speed railway in the future.

  6. The benefits and challenges of sharing glidein factory operations across nine time zones between OSG and CMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfiligoi, I.; Dost, J. M.; Zvada, M.; Butenas, I.; Holzman, B.; Wuerthwein, F.; Kreuzer, P.; Teige, S. W.; Quick, R.; Hernández, J. M.; Flix, J.

    2012-12-01

    OSG has been operating for a few years at UCSD a glideinWMS factory for several scientific communities, including CMS analysis, HCC and GLOW. This setup worked fine, but it had become a single point of failure. OSG thus recently added another instance at Indiana University, serving the same user communities. Similarly, CMS has been operating a glidein factory dedicated to reprocessing activities at Fermilab, with similar results. Recently, CMS decided to host another glidein factory at CERN, to increase the availability of the system, both for analysis, MC and reprocessing jobs. Given the large overlap between this new factory and the three factories in the US, and given that CMS represents a significant fraction of glideins going through the OSG factories, CMS and OSG formed a common operations team that operates all of the above factories. The reasoning behind this arrangement is that most operational issues stem from Grid-related problems, and are very similar for all the factory instances. Solving a problem in one instance thus very often solves the problem for all of them. This paper presents the operational experience of how we address both the social and technical issues of running multiple instances of a glideinWMS factory with operations staff spanning multiple time zones on two continents.

  7. Global resource sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Frederiksen, Linda; Nance, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Written from a global perspective, this book reviews sharing of library resources on a global scale. With expanded discovery tools and massive digitization projects, the rich and extensive holdings of the world's libraries are more visible now than at any time in the past. Advanced communication and transmission technologies, along with improved international standards, present a means for the sharing of library resources around the globe. Despite these significant improvements, a number of challenges remain. Global Resource Sharing provides librarians and library managers with a comprehensive

  8. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... demonstrated, for example, that the fair market value of the stock at the date of grant was based upon an... price being lower than the fair market value on which the option price was based. (3) Notwithstanding... provide that the option price per share is not less than the fair market value of the share on the date of...

  9. Domain-general involvement of the posterior frontolateral cortex in time-based resource-sharing in working memory: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergauwe, Evie; Hartstra, Egbert; Barrouillet, Pierre; Brass, Marcel

    2015-07-15

    Working memory is often defined in cognitive psychology as a system devoted to the simultaneous processing and maintenance of information. In line with the time-based resource-sharing model of working memory (TBRS; Barrouillet and Camos, 2015; Barrouillet et al., 2004), there is accumulating evidence that, when memory items have to be maintained while performing a concurrent activity, memory performance depends on the cognitive load of this activity, independently of the domain involved. The present study used fMRI to identify regions in the brain that are sensitive to variations in cognitive load in a domain-general way. More precisely, we aimed at identifying brain areas that activate during maintenance of memory items as a direct function of the cognitive load induced by both verbal and spatial concurrent tasks. Results show that the right IFJ and bilateral SPL/IPS are the only areas showing an increased involvement as cognitive load increases and do so in a domain general manner. When correlating the fMRI signal with the approximated cognitive load as defined by the TBRS model, it was shown that the main focus of the cognitive load-related activation is located in the right IFJ. The present findings indicate that the IFJ makes domain-general contributions to time-based resource-sharing in working memory and allowed us to generate the novel hypothesis by which the IFJ might be the neural basis for the process of rapid switching. We argue that the IFJ might be a crucial part of a central attentional bottleneck in the brain because of its inability to upload more than one task rule at once. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Valuing and timing R and D using a real options pricing framework; including an application to the development of Lunar Helium-3 fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation uses the real options framework to study the valuation and optimal investment policies for R and D projects. The models developed integrate and extend the literature by taking into account the unique characteristics of such projects including uncertain investment in R and D, time-to-build, and multiple investment opportunities. The models were developed to examine the optimal R and D investment policy for the Lunar Helium-3 fusion project but have general applicability. Models are development which model R and D investment as an information gathering process where R and D investment remaining changes as investment is expended. The value of the project increased as the variance of required investment increases. An extension of this model combines a stochastic benefit with stochastic investment. Both the value of the R and D project and the region prescribing continued investment increased. The policy implications are significant: When uncertainty of R and D investment is ignored, the value of the project is underestimated and a tendency toward underinvestment in R and D will result; the existence of uncertainty in R and D investment will cause R and D projects to experience larger declines in value before discontinuation of investment. The model combining stochastic investment with the stochastic benefit is applied to the Lunar Helium-3 fusion project. Investment in fusion should continue at the maximum level of $1 billion annually given current levels of costs of alternative fuels and the perceived uncertainty of R and D investment in the project. A model is developed to examine the valuation and optimal split of funding between R and D projects when there are two competing new technologies. Without interaction between research expenditures and benefits across technologies, the optimal investment strategy is to invest in one or the other technology or neither. The multiple technology model is applied to analyze competing R and D projects, namely

  11. Perpetual American options within CTRWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfill financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  12. Perpetual American options within CTRW's

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfil financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  13. Treatment Options for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other places in the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  14. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  15. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, David Andrew [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hill, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gehin, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gougar, Hans David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Strydom, Gerhard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Heidet, F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kinsey, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grandy, Christopher [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Qualls, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, Nicholas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hoffman, E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Croson, D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power’s share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) broader commitment to pursuing an “all of the above” clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate “advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy

  16. Advanced Demonstration and Test Reactor Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petti, David Andrew; Hill, R.; Gehin, J.; Gougar, Hans David; Strydom, Gerhard; Heidet, F.; Kinsey, J.; Grandy, Christopher; Qualls, A.; Brown, Nicholas; Powers, J.; Hoffman, E.; Croson, D.

    2017-01-01

    Global efforts to address climate change will require large-scale decarbonization of energy production in the United States and elsewhere. Nuclear power already provides 20% of electricity production in the United States (U.S.) and is increasing in countries undergoing rapid growth around the world. Because reliable, grid-stabilizing, low emission electricity generation, energy security, and energy resource diversity will be increasingly valued, nuclear power's share of electricity production has a potential to grow. In addition, there are non electricity applications (e.g., process heat, desalination, hydrogen production) that could be better served by advanced nuclear systems. Thus, the timely development, demonstration, and commercialization of advanced nuclear reactors could diversify the nuclear technologies available and offer attractive technology options to expand the impact of nuclear energy for electricity generation and non-electricity missions. The purpose of this planning study is to provide transparent and defensible technology options for a test and/or demonstration reactor(s) to be built to support public policy, innovation and long term commercialization within the context of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) broader commitment to pursuing an 'all of the above' clean energy strategy and associated time lines. This planning study includes identification of the key features and timing needed for advanced test or demonstration reactors to support research, development, and technology demonstration leading to the commercialization of power plants built upon these advanced reactor platforms. This planning study is consistent with the Congressional language contained within the fiscal year 2015 appropriation that directed the DOE to conduct a planning study to evaluate 'advanced reactor technology options, capabilities, and requirements within the context of national needs and public policy to support innovation in nuclear energy'. Advanced reactors are

  17. Sharing knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

  18. Analysis of Options Contract, Option Pricing in Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tamidy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk is an essential component in the production and sale of agricultural products. Due to the nature of agricultural products, the people who act in this area including farmers and businesspersons encounter unpredictable fluctuations of prices. On the other hand, the firms that process agricultural products also face fluctuation of price of agricultural inputs. Given that the Canola is considered as one of the inputs of product processing factories, control of unpredictable fluctuations of the price of this product would increase the possibility of correct decision making for farmers and managers of food processing industries. The best available tool for control and management of the price risk is the use of future markets and options. It is evident that the pricing is the main pillar in every trade. Therefore, offering a fair price for the options will be very important. In fact, options trading in the options market create cost insurance stopped. In this way, which can reduce the risks of deflation created in the future, if the person entitled to the benefits of the price increase occurs in the future. Unlike the futures, market where the seller had to deliver the product on time, in the options market, there is no such compulsion. In addition, this is one of the strengths of this option contract, because if there is not enough product for delivery to the futures market as result of chilling, in due course, the farmers suffer, but in the options market there will be a loss. In this study, the setup options of rape, as a product, as well as inputs has been paid for industry. Materials and Methods: In this section. The selection criteria of the disposal of asset base for valuation of European put options and call option is been introduced. That for obtain this purpose, some characteristics of the goods must considered: 1-Unpredictable fluctuations price of underlying asset 2 -large underlying asset cash market 3- The possibility

  19. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  20. Options with Extreme Strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjiong Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this short paper, we study the asymptotics for the price of call options for very large strikes and put options for very small strikes. The stock price is assumed to follow the Black–Scholes models. We analyze European, Asian, American, Parisian and perpetual options and conclude that the tail asymptotics for these option types fall into four scenarios.

  1. The effects of activity-travel context and individual attitudes on car-sharing decisions under travel time uncertainty : a hybrid choice modeling approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, J.; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2017-01-01

    People's daily decision to use car-sharing rather than other transport modes for conducting a specific activity has been investigated recently in assessing the market potential of car-sharing systems. Most studies have estimated transport mode choice models with an extended choice set using

  2. Job Sharing in the Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Barbara; And Others

    Job sharing is defined as "two people sharing the responsibilities of one full-time position with salary and benefits prorated"; the concept focuses on positions usually offered only as full-time jobs, often in professional and managerial categories. This book is a guide for teachers and administrators on the implementation and use of…

  3. Retrieval characteristics of the Bard Denali and Argon Option inferior vena cava filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Joshua D; Semaan, Dominic; Makary, Mina S; Ryu, John; Khayat, Mamdouh; Pan, Xueliang

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the retrieval characteristics of the Option Elite (Argon Medical, Plano, Tex) and Denali (Bard, Tempe, Ariz) retrievable inferior vena cava filters (IVCFs), two filters that share a similar conical design. A single-center, retrospective study reviewed all Option and Denali IVCF removals during a 36-month period. Attempted retrievals were classified as advanced if the routine "snare and sheath" technique was initially unsuccessful despite multiple attempts or an alternative endovascular maneuver or access site was used. Patient and filter characteristics were documented. In our study, 63 Option and 45 Denali IVCFs were retrieved, with an average dwell time of 128.73 and 99.3 days, respectively. Significantly higher median fluoroscopy times were experienced in retrieving the Option filter compared with the Denali filter (12.18 vs 6.85 minutes; P = .046). Use of adjunctive techniques was also higher in comparing the Option filter with the Denali filter (19.0% vs 8.7%; P = .079). No significant difference was noted between these groups in regard to gender, age, or history of malignant disease. Option IVCF retrieval procedures required significantly longer retrieval fluoroscopy time compared with Denali IVCFs. Although procedure time was not analyzed in this study, as a surrogate, the increased fluoroscopy time may also have an impact on procedural direct costs and throughput. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sharing (and) familiarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Dag; Winther, Ida Wentzel; Davies, Hayley

    but not exclusive to lifestories/biographies, travels, times, spaces and material items, bodies and intimate knowledge of one another, surnames - in the subjective lives of family members? Sociology has traditionally been preoccupied with notions and logics of sharing in homely contexts (e.g. Simmel’s work...

  5. Preoperative evaluation of hepatic arterial and portal venous anatomy using the time resolved echo-shared MR angiographic technique in living liver donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min Woo; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Se Hyung; Park, Eun-Ah; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Jin-Young; Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Young Jun; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether MR angiography utilizing the time resolved echo-shared angiographic technique (TREAT) can provide an effective assessment of the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV) in living donor candidates. MR angiography (MRA)was performed in 27 patients (23 men and 4 women; mean age, 31 years) by using TREAT. Two blinded radiologists evaluated HA anatomy, origin of segment IV feeding artery and PV anatomy in consensus. Qualitative evaluations of MRA images were performed using the following criteria: (a) overall image quality, (b) presence of artifacts, and (c) degree of venous contamination of the arterial phase. Using intraoperative findings as a standard of reference, the accuracy for the HA anatomy, origin of segment IV feeding artery and PV anatomy on TREAT-MRA were 93% (25/27), 85% (23/27), and 96% (26/27), respectively. Overall image qualities were as follows: excellent (n=22, 81%), good (n=4, 15%), and fair (n=1, 4%). Significant artifacts or venous contamination of the arterial phase images was not noted in any patient. TREAT-MRA can provide a complete evaluation of HA and PV anatomy during preoperative evaluation of living liver donors. Furthermore, it provides a more detailed anatomy of the HA without venous contamination. (orig.)

  6. Developing a made-in-Canada climate change option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakeman, B.

    2002-01-01

    A federal paper on Kyoto options served as a basis for this presentation. The author outlines the Alberta perspective on the federal options paper: (1) Alberta is impacted inequitably under all scenarios, (2) incomplete analysis, (3) export of Canadian capital, (4) open-ended liability, and (5) options need to reflect principles developed by Premiers and conveyed to Prime Minister in February. The principles for climate change action are: shared understanding of range of real costs, informed consultation, avoid competitive disadvantage, collaboration at all levels of government, no unreasonable share of the burden, encourage the use of new technology, Canadians need to be part of climate change solution, and focus on energy conservation and efficiency. The Alberta plan of action calls for a longer time frame and consultation with Albertans. With the topic of greenhouse gases (GHG), government leadership is required in the following areas: mandatory GHG reporting program, facilitate and negotiate agreements with key sectors, develop approach to emissions trading, and continue to pursue reductions in government operations. Some of the key initiatives include technology and innovation through the Alberta Energy Research Institute (AERI), build critical mass through partnerships, focus on clean hydrocarbon development and the transition to the hydrogen economy, carbon dioxide capture and storage, aggressive energy conservation, agricultural and forestry sinks, and adaptation. The consultation strategy is described. figs

  7. 76 FR 27110 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    ... significant number of series being out-of-the-money. For example, a market participant might have a long... option contract with a 100 share multiplier). Because the temporary procedures allow trading below $0.01 per share (or $1.00 per option contract with a 100 share multiplier), the procedures are available for...

  8. Retrieval options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  9. Retrieval options study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval;

  10. Instant Social Ride-Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Gidofalvi, Gyözö; Herenyi, Gergely; Bach Pedersen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the use of ride–sharing as a resource-efficient mode of personal transportation. While the perceived benefits of ride–sharing include reduced travel times, transportation costs, congestion, and carbon emissions, its wide–spread adoption is hindered by a number of barriers. These include the scheduling and coordination of routes, safety risks, social discomfort in sharing private spaces, and an imbalance of costs and benefits among parties. To address these barriers, the au...

  11. Shared decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000877.htm Shared decision making To use the sharing features on this page, ... treatment you both support. When to use Shared Decision Making Shared decision making is often used when you ...

  12. Exotic Options: a Chooser Option and its Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial instruments traded in the markets and investors’ situation in such markets are getting more and more complex. This leads to more complex derivative structures used for hedging that are harder to analyze and which risk is harder managed. Because of the complexity of these instruments, the basic characteristics of many exotic options may sometimes be not clearly understood. Most scientific studies have been focused on developing models for pricing various types of exotic options, but it is important to study their unique characteristics and to understand them correctly in order to use them in proper market situations. The paper examines main aspects of options, emphasizing the variety of exotic options and their place in financial markets and risk management process. As the exact valuation of exotic options is quite difficult, the article deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of pricing of chooser options that suggest a broad range of usage and application in different market conditions. The calculations made in the article showed that the price of the chooser is closely correlated with the choice time and low correlated with its strike price. So the first mentioned factor should be taken into consideration when making appropriate hedging and investing decisions.

  13. The Amnesiac Lookback Option: Selectively Monitored Lookback Options and Cryptocurrencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Chun Herbert Chang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a strategy to make the lookback option cheaper and more practical, and suggests the use of its properties to reduce risk exposure in cryptocurrency markets through blockchain enforced smart contracts and correct for informational inefficiencies surrounding prices and volatility. This paper generalizes partial, discretely-monitored lookback options that dilute premiums by selecting a subset of specified periods to determine payoff, which we call amnesiac lookback options. Prior literature on discretely-monitored lookback options considers the number of periods and assumes equidistant lookback periods in pricing partial lookback options. This study by contrast considers random sampling of lookback periods and compares resulting payoff of the call, put and spread options under floating and fixed strikes. Amnesiac lookbacks are priced with Monte Carlo simulations of Gaussian random walks under equidistant and random periods. Results are compared to analytic and binomial pricing models for the same derivatives. Simulations show diminishing marginal increases to the fair price as the number of selected periods is increased. The returns correspond to a Hill curve whose parameters are set by interest rate and volatility. We demonstrate over-pricing under equidistant monitoring assumptions with error increasing as the lookback periods decrease. An example of a direct implication for event trading is when shock is forecasted but its timing uncertain, equidistant sampling produces a lower error on the true maximum than random choice. We conclude that the instrument provides an ideal space for investors to balance their risk, and as a prime candidate to hedge extreme volatility. We discuss the application of the amnesiac lookback option and path-dependent options to cryptocurrencies and blockchain commodities in the context of smart contracts.

  14. Sharing Death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Refslund Christensen, Dorthe

    This paper examines the demarcation of space and time and the materiality of Mindet.dk as a designated place with its own (social) rules; a place for performing grief and segregating it from other aspects of social life. By logging in, the individuals step into the sacred space where they can spe...

  15. Absolute symbolic addressing, a structure making time-sharing easier; Adressage symbolique absolu, structure facilitant le travail en partage de temps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debraine, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, services scientifiques

    1968-08-01

    Time-sharing of computers asks for a certain number of conditions, particularly, an efficient dynamic loading of programs and data. This paper indicates a paging method making linkages with a minimum of table-looking operations. The principle is to use associative memory registers for calling blocks of physical memory, the block address being given by the concatenation of a file number (located in a base register) and a page number (located in the instruction proper). The position within the block is given by a displacement located in the instruction. A second associated base register contains the local part (page number + displacement) of the base address. This extended base register system allows executing programs in a very large programming complex without loss of time. The addresses are fixed at assembly time and the blocks can be loaded anywhere without modification for execution. The various problems associated with the execution of complex programs are presented in this context and shown to be easily solved by the proposed system, the realization of which would be very easy starting from the computer structures existing now. (author) [French] Le partage de temps des ordinateurs demande la realisation d'un certain nombre de conditions, en particulier, un chargement dynamique efficace des programmes et des donnees. Cet article indique une methode de pagination realisant les liaisons avec un minimum de consultations de tables. Le principe consiste a utiliser une memoire associative composee de registres pour appeler les blocs de la memoire physique, l'adresse de bloc etant donnee par concatenation d'un no de fichier (loge dans un registre de base) et d'un no de page (loge dans l'instruction proprement dite). La position a l'interieur du bloc est donnee par un deplacement loge dans l'instruction. Un second registre de base, associe au premier, contient la partie locale (no de page + deplacement) de l'adresse de base. Ce systeme d'extension de registre de base

  16. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  17. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  18. Coupling Flux Towers and Networks with Proximal and Remote Sensing Data: New Tools to Collect and Share Time-Synchronized Hourly Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, George; Avenson, Tom; Burkart, Andreas; Gamon, John; Guan, Kaiyu; Julitta, Tommaso; Pastorello, Gilberto; Sakowska, Karolina

    2017-04-01

    Multiple hundreds of flux towers are presently operational as standalone projects and as parts of larger networks. However, the vast majority of these towers do not allow straight-forward coupling with satellite data, and even fewer have optical sensors for validation of satellite products and upscaling from field to regional levels. In 2016, new tools to collect, process, and share time-synchronized flux data from multiple towers were developed and deployed globally. Originally designed to automate site and data management, these new tools can also be effective in coupling tower data with satellite data due to the following present capabilities: Fully automated FluxSuite system combines hardware, software and web-services, and does not require an expert to run it It can be incorporated into a new flux station or added to a present station, using weatherized remotely-accessible microcomputer, SmartFlux2 It utilizes EddyPro software to calculate fully-processed fluxes and footprints in near-realtime, alongside radiation, optical, weather and soil data All site data are merged into a single quality-controlled file timed using PTP time protocol Data from optical sensors can be integrated into this complete dataset via compatible dataloggers Multiple stations can be linked into time-synchronized network with automated reports and email alerts visible to PIs in real-time Remote sensing researchers without stations can form "virtual networks" of stations by collaborating with tower PIs from different physical networks The present system can then be utilized to couple ground data with satellite data via the following proposed concept: GPS-driven PTP protocol will synchronize instrumentation within the station, different stations with each other, and all of these to satellite data to precisely align optical and flux data in time Footprint size and coordinates computed and stored with flux data will help correctly align footprints and satellite motion to precisely align

  19. 77 FR 65917 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The Options Clearing Corporation; Order Granting Accelerated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... of trading other than the standard 100 shares for particular series or classes of options. Similarly... terms, use, and characteristics as standard equity options (``Standard Options''), which cover 100..., Mini Options are proposed to be listed on SPY (SPDR S&P 500), GLD (SPDR Gold Trust) and AAPL (Apple...

  20. Job Sharing in the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Barney; And Others

    Job sharing is defined as "two people sharing the responsibilities of one full-time position with salary and benefits prorated"; the concept focuses on positions usually offered only as full-time jobs, often in professional and managerial categories. This book presents an overview of current job sharing and permanent part-time employment…

  1. Distributed Energy Implementation Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chandralata N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-13

    This presentation covers the options for implementing distributed energy projects. It distinguishes between options available for distributed energy that is government owned versus privately owned, with a focus on the privately owned options including Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreements (ESPC ESAs). The presentation covers the new ESPC ESA Toolkit and other Federal Energy Management Program resources.

  2. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  3. Designing for Sharing in Local Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmborg, Lone; Light, Ann; Fitzpatrick, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    The Sharing Economy has brought new attention to the everyday practice of sharing. Digital tools are changing both what we can do together across neighbourhoods and how we think about sharing our time, materials and skills. It is possible to design to boost resource management, economic wellbeing...... and social resilience by fostering sharing practices, but do different designs speak to different priorities in design for sharing?...

  4. Active sharing

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  5. Staffing Alternatives: Use of Retired Persons, Flex-Time, Job Sharing and Other Suggestions. Suggested Personnel Policy Guidelines for School Districts. [Revised].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This report addresses three alternatives in employing certified and classified staff in school districts: early retirement, flexible working hours, and (in the most detail) job sharing. It is noted that financial reductions make it difficult for schools to meet both their budgets and rising community/parental expectations, while declining…

  6. 42 CFR 447.51 - Requirements and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements and options. 447.51 Section 447.51 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES..., Premium Or Similar Cost Sharing Charge § 447.51 Requirements and options. (a) The plan must provide that...

  7. Sharing oil revenues. Current status and good practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darmois, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    This document briefly presents a book in which the author analyzes and comments the evolution of the sharing of oil revenues at a time when producing countries can obtain better conditions from oil companies to exploit their resources. The author first describes the operation of the oil exploration-production industry and its three types of oil revenue. He introduces the issue of reserves with its technical, economic and political aspects. He describes the two main modalities of relationship between an oil State and an international company, discusses the organization options for an oil producing country to take the best out of its oil potential, comments the developments of contracting modalities. He proposes recommendations for States about benefits and drawbacks of the various contract options

  8. 48 CFR 17.207 - Exercise of options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercise of options. 17... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SPECIAL CONTRACTING METHODS Options 17.207 Exercise of options. (a) When exercising an option, the contracting officer shall provide written notice to the contractor within the time...

  9. 48 CFR 536.270 - Exercise of options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exercise of options. 536... Construction 536.270 Exercise of options. (a) If exercising an option, notify the contractor, in writing, within the time period specified in the contract. (b) Exercise options only after determining that all...

  10. Job sharing at the managerial level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acorn, S; Williams, J; Dempster, L; Provost, S; McEwan, C

    1997-05-01

    Job sharing restructures a full-time position-two individuals share the responsibilities and the benefits of the position. If nurses are committed to making it work, this arrangement can succeed at the managerial level.

  11. Dopamine Modulates Option Generation for Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Yuen-Siang; Manohar, Sanjay; Plant, Olivia; Kienast, Annika; Le Heron, Campbell; Muhammed, Kinan; Hu, Michele; Husain, Masud

    2018-05-21

    Animals make innumerable decisions every day, each of which involves evaluating potential options for action. But how are options generated? Although much is now known about decision making when a fixed set of potential options is provided, surprisingly little progress has been made on self-generated options. Some researchers have proposed that such abilities might be modulated by dopamine. Here, we used a new measure of option generation that is quantitative, objective, and culture fair to investigate how humans generate different behavioral options. Participants were asked to draw as many different paths (options) as they could between two points within a fixed time. Healthy individuals (n = 96) exhibited a trade-off between uniqueness (how individually different their options were) and fluency (number of options), generating either many similar or few unique options. To assess influence of dopamine, we first examined patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 35) ON and OFF their dopaminergic medication and compared them to elderly healthy controls (n = 34). Then we conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the D2 agonist cabergoline in healthy older people (n = 29). Across both studies, dopamine increased fluency but diminished overall uniqueness of options generated, due to the effect of fluency trading off with uniqueness. Crucially, however, when this trade-off was corrected for, dopamine was found to increase uniqueness for any given fluency. Three carefully designed control studies showed that performance on our option-generation task was not related to executing movements, planning actions, or selecting between generated options. These findings show that dopamine plays an important role in modulating option generation. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Access over ownership – a typology of shared space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkø, Rikke; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Meel, Juriaan van

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore shared use of space and facilities as a concept, and present and illustrate the use of a typology to help classify and describe the different options for sharing space and facilities within buildings for optimised use of a building portfolio. Design/methodolog......Purpose – This paper aims to explore shared use of space and facilities as a concept, and present and illustrate the use of a typology to help classify and describe the different options for sharing space and facilities within buildings for optimised use of a building portfolio. Design...

  13. The Gel Generator option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a national policy for guaranteeing an ample supply of 99m Tc to nuclear medicine, involves issues which go beyond the means by which radioactivation is achieved. Indeed, in such an exercise the pragmatic dictates of business and the sensitivities of politics must also be taken into account. Furthermore where a preference towards the nuclear reactor or the potential of cyclotrons is being questioned, the debate is incomplete if the only options that are considered are the fission-based 99 Mo generator versus the direct cyclotron production of 99m Tc. There is a third option (also neutron γ-based), an alternative to the fission 99 Mo generator, which ought not be overlooked. The application of low specific activity (n,γ) 99 Mo to a new type of generator, the Gel Generator, has been the focus of much research, particularly in Australia and more recently in China. After the initial concept had been established in the laboratory, the Australian researchers then undertook a comprehensive program of tests on the Gel Generator to assess its potential, either in the clinical laboratory or the centralised radiopharmacy, for supplying 99m Tc suitable for nuclear medicine. The outcome of this program was a clear indication that the Gel Generator innovation had the capability to provide both technical and economic advantages to the nuclear medicine industry. These advantages are described. Since that time the Gel Generator has been selected for routine use in China where it now satisfies more than 30% of the 99m Tc demand. (author)

  14. Share Contract Choices and Economic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salazar Espinoza, César Antonio

    2015-01-01

    framework, we estimate a dose-response function to study the formation of contracts and identify the marginal effects of changes in crew profit shares on fishing returns in Chilean artisanal fisheries. The results support share contract choices based on bargaining power, monitoring costs, technology, state...... of fishing resources, and outside options. We find significant effects of increasing crew profit shares on vessel owner returns in the interval (0.25, 0.65). The results vary across fisheries, however. While the effects are not significant in the fish group, they are larger and robust for molluscs...

  15. Shared Contract-Obedient Endpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Lozes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing verification techniques for message-passing programs suppose either that channel endpoints are used in a linear fashion, where at most one thread may send or receive from an endpoint at any given time, or that endpoints may be used arbitrarily by any number of threads. The former approach usually forbids the sharing of channels while the latter limits what is provable about programs. In this paper we propose a midpoint between these techniques by extending a proof system based on separation logic to allow sharing of endpoints. We identify two independent mechanisms for supporting sharing: an extension of fractional shares to endpoints, and a new technique based on what we call reflexive ownership transfer. We demonstrate on a number of examples that a linear treatment of sharing is possible.

  16. Stochastic Skew in Currency Options

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Carr; Liuren Wu

    2004-01-01

    We document the behavior of over-the-counter currency option prices across moneyness, maturity, and calendar time on two of the most actively traded currency pairs over the past eight years. We find that the risk-neutral distribution of currency returns is relatively symmetric on average. However, on any given date, the conditional currency return distribution can show strong asymmetry. This asymmetry varies greatly over time and often switch directions. We design and estimate a class of mode...

  17. Getting real with real options

    OpenAIRE

    M. R Grasselli

    2006-01-01

    We apply a utility-based method to obtain the value of a finite-time investment opportunity when the underlying real asset is not perfectly correlated to a traded financial asset. Using a discrete-time algorithm to calculate the indifference price for this type of real option, we present numerical examples for the corresponding investment thresholds, in particular highlighting their dependence with respect to correlation and risk aversion.

  18. Job Sharing--A New Way to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmsted, Barney

    1977-01-01

    Describes the concept of job sharing, discusses the advantages and disadvantages to employees and employers, examines how widespread the practice is, and suggests ways that interested employers can implement this option. (SH)

  19. Beginning SharePoint 2010 Administration Windows SharePoint Foundation 2010 and Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Husman, Göran

    2010-01-01

    Complete coverage on the latest advances in SharePoint 2010 administration. SharePoint 2010 comprises an abundance of new features, and this book shows you how to take advantage of all SharePoint 2010's many improvements. Written by a four-time SharePoint MVP, Beginning SharePoint 2010 Administration begins with a comparison of SharePoint 2010 compared to the previous version and then examines the differences between WSS 4.0 and MSS 2010. Packed with step-by-step instructions, tips and tricks, and real-world examples, this book dives into the basics of how to install, manage, and administrate

  20. The origins of options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Richerson, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one's current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options.

  1. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  2. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  3. New options for purchasing electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This guide is intended for small to medium commercial customers in Alberta and explains new options for purchasing electricity. Small to medium customers include corner stores, community centres, schools, small office buildings, and light industrial businesses. In the 1990s, private power producers in Alberta built 3,000 megawatts of new generation, adding 30 per cent more supply to the power grid in the province. Prices in the deregulated electricity market have fluctuated with natural gas prices, changing weather and changing power demands. The competitive electricity market was opened on January 1, 2001 in Alberta, offering consumers purchasing choices such as green power, multi-year contracts, or electricity rates under the Regulated Rate Option (RRO). The RRO was a transition mechanism that will end by December 31, 2003 at which time, small to medium commercial customers will have the option to shop around for competitive electricity contracts that provide a fixed price of power over time, or they can opt to stay with their current supplier and receive a regulated flow-through of market prices. Under the flow-through option, risk of future deferral charges is reduced, but electricity prices will probably change between billing periods. 1 fig

  4. Option Panels in Pure-Jump Settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Fusari, Nicola; Todorov, Viktor

    We develop parametric inference procedures for large panels of noisy option data in the setting where the underlying process is of pure-jump type, i.e., evolve only through a sequence of jumps. The panel consists of options written on the underlying asset with a (different) set of strikes...... specification for the risk-neutral asset return dynamics, the option prices are nonlinear functions of a time-invariant parameter vector and a time-varying latent state vector (or factors). Furthermore, no-arbitrage restrictions impose a direct link between some of the quantities that may be identified from...... the return and option data. These include the so-called jump activity index as well as the time-varying jump intensity. We propose penalized least squares estimation in which we minimize L_2 distance between observed and model-implied options and further penalize for the deviation of model-implied quantities...

  5. Story time turbocharger? Child engagement during shared reading and cerebellar activation and connectivity in preschool-age children listening to stories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Hutton

    Full Text Available Expanding behavioral and neurobiological evidence affirms benefits of shared (especially parent-child reading on cognitive development during early childhood. However, the majority of this evidence involves factors under caregiver control, the influence of those intrinsic to the child, such as interest or engagement in reading, largely indirect or unclear. The cerebellum is increasingly recognized as playing a "smoothing" role in higher-level cognitive processing and learning, via feedback loops with language, limbic and association cortices. We utilized functional MRI to explore the relationship between child engagement during a mother-child reading observation and neural activation and connectivity during a story listening task, in a sample of 4-year old girls. Children exhibiting greater interest and engagement in the narrative showed increased activation in right-sided cerebellar association areas during the task, and greater functional connectivity between this activation cluster and language and executive function areas. Our findings suggest a potential cerebellar "boost" mechanism responsive to child engagement level that may contribute to emergent literacy development during early childhood, and synergy between caregiver and child factors during story sharing.

  6. An Evaluation of optional timing/synchronization features to support selection of an optimum design for the DCS digital communication network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, D. B.; Cain, J. B., III; Williard, M. W.

    1978-01-01

    The task was to evaluate the ability of a set of timing/synchronization subsystem features to provide a set of desirable characteristics for the evolving Defense Communications System digital communications network. The set of features related to the approaches by which timing/synchronization information could be disseminated throughout the network and the manner in which this information could be utilized to provide a synchronized network. These features, which could be utilized in a large number of different combinations, included mutual control, directed control, double ended reference links, independence of clock error measurement and correction, phase reference combining, and self organizing.

  7. One-way shared memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Standard multicore processors use the shared main memory via the on-chip caches for communication between cores. However, this form of communication has two limitations: (1) it is hardly time-predictable and therefore not a good solution for real-time systems and (2) this single shared memory...... is a bottleneck in the system. This paper presents a communication architecture for time-predictable multicore systems where core-local memories are distributed on the chip. A network-on-chip constantly copies data from a sender core-local memory to a receiver core-local memory. As this copying is performed...... in one direction we call this architecture a one-way shared memory. With the use of time-division multiplexing for the memory accesses and the network-on-chip routers we achieve a time-predictable solution where the communication latency and bandwidth can be bounded. An example architecture for a 3...

  8. 2005 resource options report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.

    2005-01-01

    This resource options report (ROR) fulfils regulatory requirements in British Columbia's two-year resource planning process. It identifies a wide range of resources and technologies that could be used to meet BC Hydro's future electricity demand. As such, it facilitates a transparent public review of resource options which include both supply-side and demand-side options. The resource options that will be used in the 2005 integrated electricity plan (IEP) were characterized. This ROR also documents where there is a general agreement or disagreement on the resource type characterization, based on the First Nations and Stakeholder engagement. BC Hydro used current information to provide realistic ranges on volume and cost to characterize environmental and social attributes. The BC Hydro system was modelled to assess the benefit and cost of various resource options. The information resulting from this ROR and IEP will help in making decisions on how to structure competitive acquisition calls and to determine the level of transmission services needed to advance certain BC Hydro projects. The IEP forecasts the nature and quantity of domestic resources required over the next 20 years. A strategic direction on how those needs will be met has been created to guide the management of BC Hydro's energy resources. Supply-side options include near-commercial technologies such as energy storage, ocean waves, tidal, fuel cells and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Supply-side options also include natural gas, coal, biomass, geothermal, wind, and hydro. 120 refs., 39 tabs., 21 figs., 6 appendices

  9. Qualitative Data Sharing Practices in Social Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Social scientists have been sharing data for a long time. Sharing qualitative data, however, has not become a common practice, despite the context of e-Research, information growth, and funding agencies' mandates on research data archiving and sharing. Since most systematic and comprehensive studies are based on quantitative data practices, little…

  10. 78 FR 19562 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... the Exchange. Mini Options overlie 10 equity or ETF shares, rather than the standard 100 shares.\\3\\ Mini Options are currently approved on the following five (5) underlying securities: SPDR S&P 500 ETF (``SPY''), Apple Inc. (``AAPL''), SPDR Gold Trust (``GLD''), Google Inc. (``GOOG''), and Amazon.com , Inc...

  11. Decomposing executive stock option exercises: relative information and incentives to manage earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, D.; Hodgson, A.; van Praag, B.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the information content of stock option exercises versus regular insider share trades by corporate executives. We argue that the asymmetric payoff structure of options makes managerial wealth - compared to holdings of shares - relatively more sensitive to stock price changes and

  12. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  13. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  14. Optional carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderson, T.; Scott, S.; Griffiths, J. [Jacobs Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    In the case of IGCC power plants, carbon capture can be carried out before combustion. The carbon monoxide in the syngas is catalytically shifted to carbon dioxide and then captured in a standard gas absorption system. However, the insertion of a shift converter into an existing IGCC plant with no shift would mean a near total rebuild of the gasification waste heat recovery, gas treatment system and HRSG, with only the gasifier and gas turbine retaining most of their original features. To reduce the extent, cost and time taken for the revamping, the original plant could incorporate the shift, and the plant would then be operated without capture to advantage, and converted to capture mode of operation when commercially appropriate. This paper examines this concept of placing a shift converter into an IGCC plant before capture is required, and operating the same plant first without and then later with CO{sub 2} capture in a European context. The advantages and disadvantages of this 'capture ready' option are discussed. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. R and D Requirements, RF Gun Mode Studies, FEL-2 Steady-State Studies, Preliminary FEL-1 Time-Dependent Studies, and Preliminary Layout Option Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    This report constitutes the third deliverable of LBNLs contracted role in the FERMI (at) Elettra Technical Optimization study. It describes proposed RandD activities for the baseline design of the Technical Optimization Study, initial studies of the RF gun mode-coupling and potential effects on beam dynamics, steady-state studies of FEL-2 performance to 10 nm, preliminary studies of time-dependent FEL-1 performance using electron bunch distribution from the start-to-end studies, and a preliminary investigation of a configuration with FEL sinclined at a small angle from the line of the linac

  16. Thermometers: Understand the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the options Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...

  17. Options for human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauser, M.; Williams, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses options for dealing with human intrusion in terms of performance requirements and repository siting and design requirements. Options are presented, along with the advantages and disadvantages of certain approaches. At the conclusion, a conceptual approach is offered emphasizing both the minimization of subjective judgements concerning future human activity, and specification of repository requirements to minimize the likelihood of human intrusion and any resulting, harmful effects should intrusion occur

  18. Shared genetic origins of allergy and autoimmune diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waage, J. E.; Kreiner-Møller, E.; Standl, M.

    2015-01-01

    Parallel increases in allergy and autoimmune disease prevalence in recent time suggest shared, but yet unknown, etiologies. Here, we investigated shared genetic loci and molecular pathways to identify possible shared disease mechanisms between allergy and autoimmune diseases.......Parallel increases in allergy and autoimmune disease prevalence in recent time suggest shared, but yet unknown, etiologies. Here, we investigated shared genetic loci and molecular pathways to identify possible shared disease mechanisms between allergy and autoimmune diseases....

  19. 20 CFR 655.1114 - Element IV-What are the timely and significant steps an H-1C employer must take to recruit and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that constitute a “significant” factor in inducing employment and retention of U.S. nurses. (iii) Work schedule options. The facility provides nurses with non-mandatory work schedule options for part-time work, job-sharing, compressed work week or non-rotating shifts (provided, however, that H-1C nurses are...

  20. Nevada Transportation Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-01-01

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  1. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  2. Dual career and job sharing - two careers or half a career?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronner, Renée; Stünitz, Holger

    2017-04-01

    One option for a dual career that is often considered is job sharing. After 20 years of job sharing during the most competitive years of our careers we would like to share a few thoughts on some of the problems we came across. The typical job sharing situation is one of a young couple about to found a family. However, this need not be the case, many alternative models are thinkable, few are actually liveable. The list of problems we came across includes: 1 - The hiring age for professors keeps dropping. This adds extra stress to the competitive post doc time 2 - Postdoc positions are not designed for dual career. ... and much less for job sharing. 3 - The higher the academic position the less likely it is offered for job sharing. - because it is claimed that leadership and responsibility cannot be shared. - because two half positions do indeed cost more than one whole (what hiring institutions fail to see is that they get two instead of one fully qualified scientists in return) - because they are difficult to plan: what happens if one partner leaves the department? 4 - Age difference of dual career partners Partners of different age have different qualifications and experiences. Usually the career of the more advanced partners is promoted more, the career of the second partner falls behind.

  3. Los espacios compartidos ("Shared Space"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Porto Schettino

    2008-07-01

    The "Shared Space" concept was formally defined when the European Project with this title took place, as part of the Interreg IIIB, North Sea Program. "Shared Space" initiated at 2004 and it's time as a project partly financed by the European Union finish at 2008, after having promoted seven "pilot projects" at Germany, Belgium, Denmark, Holland and England. Nevertheless, Shared Space, it's just a new name for a technique with decades of history, developed fundamentally in Holland and which implemented new criteria for traffic regulation and public space design, were based on all traffic signs elimination and on the spatial integration of all different street users. To analyze Shared Space's projects construction and operation experience, and evaluate their possible application in some Spanish city centres is this paper main objective.

  4. Shared decision-making: is it time to obtain informed consent before radiologic examinations utilizing ionizing radiation? Legal and ethical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Leonard

    2014-03-01

    Concerns about the possibility of developing cancer due to diagnostic imaging examinations utilizing ionizing radiation exposure are increasing. Research studies of survivors of atomic bomb explosions, nuclear reactor accidents, and other unanticipated exposures to similar radiation have led to varying conclusions regarding the stochastic effects of radiation exposure. That high doses of ionizing radiation cause cancer in humans is generally accepted, but the question of whether diagnostic levels of radiation cause cancer continues to be hotly debated. It cannot be denied that overexposure to ionizing radiation beyond a certain threshold, which has not been exactly determined, does generate cancer. This causes a dilemma: what should patients be informed about the possibility that a CT or similar examination might cause cancer later in life? At present, there is no consensus in the radiology community as to whether informed consent must be obtained from a patient before the patient undergoes a CT or similar examination. The author analyzes whether there is a legal duty mandating radiologists to obtain such informed consent but also, irrespective of the law, whether there an ethical duty that compels radiologists to inform patients of potential adverse effects of ionizing radiation. Over the past decade, there has been a noticeable shift from a benevolent, paternalistic approach to medical care to an autonomy-based, shared-decision-making approach, whereby patient and physician work as partners in determining what is medically best for the patient. Radiologists should discuss the benefits and hazards of imaging with their patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. State cost sharing of training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, J.M.; Flater, D.A.; Hughes, D.R. Sr.; Lubenau, J.O.; Merges, P.J.; Mobley, M.H.; Raglin, K.A.

    1989-08-01

    In March 1988, The Office of Governmental and Public Affairs (GPA) completed a report (NUREG-1311) entitled, ''Funding the NRC Training Program for States.'' This report responded to a Commission's request for study of NRC's long-standing practice of paying the travel and per diem of state personnel who attend NRC sponsored training. In May 1988, the Chairman endorsed the report in most respects but asked for further study of a cost sharing of travel and per diem costs. As a result, the Director of GPA's State, Local and Indian Tribe Programs (SLITP) established a Task Force comprised of representatives from the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, Inc., the Agreement States and the NRC to look at ways that the states can share the costs of NRC training, particularly travel and per diem. At the request of the Director, GPA, the Task Force also looked at related cost and quantity issues associated with the NRC training program for state personnel. This report includes a discussion of NRC and state perspectives on the issue of sharing travel and per diem costs, a discussion of options, and recommendations for likely cost savings and quality of training improvement. 1 ref., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Treatment Options for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... come back) after it has been treated. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special light. Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options ... age and general health of the patient. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic Syndromes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special light. Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options ... age and general health of the patient. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  11. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Vulvar Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  14. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  16. Treatment Options for Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. Treatment Options for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  18. Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... the brain where it was first found. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  19. On Converting Secret Sharing Scheme to Visual Secret Sharing Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Daoshun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional Secret Sharing (SS schemes reconstruct secret exactly the same as the original one but involve complex computation. Visual Secret Sharing (VSS schemes decode the secret without computation, but each share is m times as big as the original and the quality of the reconstructed secret image is reduced. Probabilistic visual secret sharing (Prob.VSS schemes for a binary image use only one subpixel to share the secret image; however the probability of white pixels in a white area is higher than that in a black area in the reconstructed secret image. SS schemes, VSS schemes, and Prob. VSS schemes have various construction methods and advantages. This paper first presents an approach to convert (transform a -SS scheme to a -VSS scheme for greyscale images. The generation of the shadow images (shares is based on Boolean XOR operation. The secret image can be reconstructed directly by performing Boolean OR operation, as in most conventional VSS schemes. Its pixel expansion is significantly smaller than that of VSS schemes. The quality of the reconstructed images, measured by average contrast, is the same as VSS schemes. Then a novel matrix-concatenation approach is used to extend the greyscale -SS scheme to a more general case of greyscale -VSS scheme.

  20. Rethinking the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin; Leixnering, Stephan; Meyer, Renate

    2017-01-01

    Our paper focuses on a non-standard sharing example that harbors the potential to disrupt received wisdom on the sharing economy. While originally entering the field to analyze, broadly from a governance perspective, how the 2015 refugee crisis was handled in Vienna, Austria, we found that the no...... of sharing: economic and moral. Our paper contributes to this Special Issue of the Academy of Management Discoveries by highlighting and explaining the two-fold economic and moral nature of sharing and the organization of sharing between movement and platform....... sharing of resources (i.e., the economic dimension): the sharing of a distinct concern (i.e., the moral dimension of sharing). Our discovery exemplifies such a moral dimension that is rather different from the status quo materialistic treatments focusing on economic transactions and property rights...

  1. Job Sharing in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Wilma; Kline, Susan

    1979-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of job sharing for all school personnel, saying that education is particularly adaptable to this new form of employment. Current job sharing programs in Massachusetts, California, and New Jersey schools are briefly discussed. (SJL)

  2. Production sharing agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This paper, which was presented at the Production Sharing Agreement seminar, discusses economic rent, negotiations, trends in fiscal system development, and concessionary systems. Production sharing contracts, risk service contracts, joint ventures and the global market are examined. (UK)

  3. Effective follow-up consultations: the importance of patient-centered communication and shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Paul L P; Stiggelbout, Anne M

    2013-12-01

    Paediatricians spend a considerable proportion of their time performing follow-up visits for children with chronic conditions, but they rarely receive specific training on how best to perform such consultations. The traditional method of running a follow-up consultation is based on the doctor's agenda, and is problem-oriented. Patients and parents, however, prefer a patient-centered, and solution-focused approach. Although many physicians now recognize the importance of addressing the patient's perspective in a follow-up consultation, a number of barriers hamper its implementation in practice, including time constraints, lack of appropriate training, and a strong tradition of the biomedical, doctor-centered approach. Addressing the patient's perspective successfully can be achieved through shared decision making, clinicians and patients making decisions together based on the best clinical evidence. Research shows that shared decision making not only increases patient, parent, and physician satisfaction with the consultation, but also may improve health outcomes. Shared decision making involves building a physician-patient-parent partnership, agreeing on the problem at hand, laying out the available options with their benefits and risks, eliciting the patient's views and preferences on these options, and agreeing on a course of action. Shared decision making requires specific communication skills, which can be learned, and should be mastered through deliberate practice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Declining average daily census. Part 1: Implications and options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, T P

    1985-12-01

    A national trend toward declining average daily (inpatient) census (ADC) started in late 1982 even before the Medicare prospective payment system began. The decrease in total days will continue despite an increasing number of aged persons in the U.S. population. This decline could have been predicted from trends during 1978 to 1983, such as increasing available beds but decreasing occupancy, 100 percent increases in hospital expenses, and declining lengths of stay. Assuming that health care costs will remain as a relatively fixed part of the gross national product and no major medical advances will occur in the next five years, certain implications and options exist for facilities experiencing a declining ADC. This article discusses several considerations: Attempts to improve market share; Reduction of full-time equivalent employees; Impact of greater acuity of illness among remaining inpatients; Implications of increasing the number of physicians on medical staffs; Option of a closed medical staff by clinical specialty; Unbundling with not-for-profit and profit-making corporations; Review of mergers, consolidations, and multihospital systems to decide when this option is most appropriate; Sale of a not-for-profit hospital to an investor-owned chain, with implications facing Catholic hospitals choosing this option; Impact and difficulty of developing meaningful alternative health care systems with the hospital's medical staff; Special problems of teaching hospitals; The social issue of the hospital shifting from the community's health center to a cost center; Increased turnover of hospital CEOs; With these in mind, institutions can then focus on solutions that can sometimes be used in tandem to resolve this problem's impact. The second part of this article will discuss some of them.

  5. Knowledge Sharing and R&D Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abhirup

    We consider an R&D race between two symmetric firms. The game consists of two stages. In the first stage, firms non-cooperatively decide upon their levels of investment in R&D which, in turn, determine the Poisson probabilities of their subsequent sucesses. In the second stage, they engage in a Nash bargaining game to share their knowledge. We show that the firms over-invest and earn lower profits if knowledge sharing is possible compared to the situation where it is not. Hence, before the first stage, if the firms are given the option of precommitting to no knowledge sharing, they will do so and be better off. The society, of course, would be better off with full knowledge sharing.

  6. Job Sharing in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jeanne

    1982-01-01

    Job sharing is an employment alternative in which two qualified individuals manage the responsibilities of a single position. Discusses the barriers to and the potential, advantages, disadvantages, pitfalls, and challenges of job sharing. Focuses on job sharing in the geography profession. (Author/JN)

  7. The Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer accommodation networks in general, and Airbnb in specific, are frequently referred to as part of the sharing economy. This chapter provides an overview of key characteristics of the sharing economy, discusses how these characteristics relate to peer-to-peer accommodation, and positions peer-to-peer accommodation networks within the sharing economy.

  8. Satisfaction and 'comparison sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2009-01-01

    the probability of satisfaction. Results show that comparison sharing impacts satisfaction for women, and that those women who share more equally than their peers are more likely to be satisfied, whereas comparison sharing has no influence on satisfaction for men. Also, parents are less likely to be satisfied...

  9. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... § 416.2035 Optional supplementation: Additional State options. (a) Residency requirement. A State or...

  10. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  11. Tank Space Options Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  12. Alternative energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    It is accepted that coal will continue to play the major role in the supply of energy to the country for the remainder of the century. In this paper, however, emphasis has been directed to those options which could supplement coal in an economic and technically sound manner. The general conclusion is that certain forms of solar energy hold the most promise and it is in this direction that research, development and implementation programmes should be directed. Tidal energy, fusion energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy and fuel cells are also discussed as alternative energy options

  13. Thermal test options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods

  14. Lighting Options for Homes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  15. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Based on the request of Pawnee Nation’s Energy Task Force the research team, consisting Tribal personnel and Summit Blue Consulting, focused on a review of renewable energy resource development potential, funding sources and utility organizational along with energy savings options. Elements of the energy demand forecasting and characterization and demand side options review remained in the scope of work, but were only addressed at a high level. Description of Activities Performed Renewable Energy Resource Development Potential The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Energy Efficiency Options While this was not a major focus of the project, the research team highlighted common strategies for reducing energy use in buildings. The team also discussed the benefits of adopting a building energy code and

  16. Borrowing brainpower - sharing insecurities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte; Meier, Ninna; Ingerslev, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Academic writing is a vital, yet complex skill that must be developed within a doctoral training process. In addition, becoming an academic researcher is a journey of changing sense of self and identity. Through analysis of a group session, we show how the feedback of peers addresses questions...... of structure and writing style along with wider issues of researcher identity. Thus, peer learning is demonstrated as a process of simultaneously building a text and an identity as scholarly researcher. The paper advocates ‘borrowing brainpower’ from peers in order to write better texts and, at the same time......, ‘share insecurities’ during the development of the researcher identity. Based on a distributed notion of peer learning and identity, we point to the need for further research into the everyday activities of doctoral writing groups in order to understand the dynamic relationship between production of text...

  17. A Shared Scratchpad Memory with Synchronization Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik Enggaard; Maroun, Emad Jacob; Kristensen, Andreas Toftegaard

    2017-01-01

    Multicore processors usually communicate via shared memory, which is backed up by a shared level 2 cache and a cache coherence protocol. However, this solution is not a good fit for real-time systems, where we need to provide tight guarantees on execution and memory access times. In this paper, we...... propose a shared scratchpad memory as a time-predictable communication and synchronization structure, instead of the level 2 cache. The shared on-chip memory is accessed via a time division multiplexing arbiter, isolating the execution time of load and store instructions between processing cores....... Furthermore, the arbiter supports an extended time slot where an atomic load and store instruction can be executed to implement synchronization primitives. In the evaluation we show that a shared scratchpad memory is an efficient communication structure for a small number of processors; in our setup, 9 cores...

  18. Hazardous landfill management, control options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, M.H.; Lederman, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    The land disposal of hazardous wastes has been a common practice over the last half century. The industrial and environmental communities, as well as the public, have an immediate challenge to control the contaminants that may be released from waste land disposal facilities. At the same time, land disposal continues to be, in many cases, the only available disposal technique that can be utilized in the next five years. Thus, it is extremely important that environmentally sound landfill management and control techniques be utilized, both for inactive and active sites. There are a number of key steps in developing a sound management and control plan. These include problem definition, personnel safety, characterization, evaluation of control options, cost-effectiveness analysis and development of an integrated control plan. A number of control options, including diversion, regrading, sealing, and leachate treatment are available and more cost effective in most cases than waste removal. These and other options, as well as the methodology to develop an integrated control plan, are discussed, together with examples. (Auth.)

  19. Incentive effects of performance-vested stock options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The vesting of traditional stock options (TSOs) only depends on the passage of time and managerial compensation might merely reflect price increases in a rising market. As a reform on traditional stock option plans, performance targets have been introduced as a condition for option vesting. The use

  20. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  1. New Options, Old Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, John

    1996-01-01

    Will greater school choice result in more responsive, higher quality schools and happier parents? Or will proliferating options further sort students and families by race, social class, and special interest? Increasingly, education is viewed as a private good. If parents become autonomous, self-interested consumers, erosion of common purposes and…

  2. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula.

  3. Option Pricing and Momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    If managers are reluctant to fully adjust dividends to changes in earnings, stock returns and changes in the dividend yield will tend to be negatively correlated. When this is the case, stock returns will exhibit positive autocorrelation, or mo- mentum. This paper studies the pricing of options in

  4. Idaho's Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  5. Dynamic quantum secret sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Heng-Yue; Wen, Qiao-Yan; Gao, Fei; Qin, Su-Juan; Guo, Fen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter we consider quantum secret sharing (QSS) between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications. -- Highlights: ► We consider quantum secret sharing between a sender and a dynamic agent group, called dynamic quantum secret sharing (DQSS). ► In the DQSS, the change of the agent group is allowable during the procedure of sharing classical and quantum information. ► Two DQSS schemes are proposed based on a special kind of entangled state, starlike cluster states. ► Without redistributing all the shares, the changed agent group can reconstruct the sender's secret by their cooperation. ► Compared with the previous quantum secret sharing scheme, our schemes are more flexible and suitable for practical applications.

  6. Managing hydroclimatological risk to water supply with option contracts and reservoir index insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Casey; Carriquiry, Miguel

    2007-11-01

    This paper explores the performance of a system of economic instruments designed to facilitate the reduction of hydroclimatologic variability-induced impacts on stakeholders of shared water supply. The system is composed of bulk water option contracts between urban water suppliers and agricultural users and insurance indexed on reservoir inflows. The insurance is designed to cover the financial needs of the water supplier in situations where the option is likely to be exercised. Insurance provides the irregularly needed funds for exercising the water options. The combined option contract - reservoir index insurance system creates risk sharing between sectors that is currently lacking in many shared water situations. Contracts are designed for a shared agriculture - urban water system in Metro Manila, Philippines, using optimization and Monte Carlo analysis. Observed reservoir inflows are used to simulate contract performance. Results indicate the option - insurance design effectively smooths water supply costs of hydrologic variability for both agriculture and urban water.

  7. Are part-time workers less productive and underpaid?

    OpenAIRE

    Garnero, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    About one in five workers across OECD countries is employed part-time, and the share has been steadily increasing since the beginning of the economic and financial crisis in 2007. Part-time options play an important economic role by providing more flexible working arrangements for both workers and firms. Part-time employment has also contributed substantially to increasing the employment rate, especially among women. However, part-time work comes at a cost of lower wages for workers, mainly b...

  8. The logic of job-sharing in the provision and delivery of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branine, M

    1998-01-01

    By definition the practice of job-sharing starts from the premiss that there is a full-time job to be shared by those who want to balance their work with other commitments. In a public sector institution, such as the National Health Service (NHS), where most employees are female, it seems logical to believe that a job-sharing policy would be able to promote equal opportunities, to increase employee job satisfaction and to reduce labour costs. Hence, this paper attempts to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having a job-sharing policy, and to analyse the reasons for the limited number of job-sharers in the NHS despite the apparent benefits of job-sharing to both the employees and the employer. This study was carried out in 15 NHS Trusts in northern England and Scotland, by the use of questionnaires and interviews, and found that most NHS managers did not see the practice of job-sharing as a major cost-saving opportunity or as a working pattern that would enhance employee satisfaction and commitment. They saw job-sharing as just a routine equal opportunities request which did not deserve such managerial attention or long-term strategic thinking. It is argued in this paper that job-sharing is a potentially useful option against a background of demographic and other social and economic changes which require the development and use of long-term strategic policies. Therefore, it is concluded that, in the NHS, there is a need for a more active and creative approach to job-sharing, rather than the reactive and passive approach that has dominated the practice so far.

  9. The logic of job-sharing in the provision and delivery of health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branine, M

    1998-01-01

    By definition the practice of job-sharing starts from the premiss that there is a full-time job to be shared by those who want to balance their work with other commitments. In a public sector institution, such as the National Health Service (NHS), where most employees are female, it seems logical to believe that a job-sharing policy would be able to promote equal opportunities, to increase employee job satisfaction and to reduce labour costs. Hence, this paper attempts to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of having a job-sharing policy, and to analyse the reasons for the limited number of job-sharers in the NHS despite the apparent benefits of job-sharing to both the employees and the employer. This study was carried out in 15 NHS Trusts in northern England and Scotland, by the use of questionnaires and interviews, and found that most NHS managers did not see the practice of job-sharing as a major cost-saving opportunity or as a working pattern that would enhance employee satisfaction and commitment. They saw job-sharing as just a routine equal opportunities request which did not deserve such managerial attention or long-term strategic thinking. It is argued in this paper that job-sharing is a potentially useful option against a background of demographic and other social and economic changes which require the development and use of long-term strategic policies. Therefore it is concluded that, in the NHS, there is a need for a more active and creative approach to job-sharing rather than the reactive and passive approach that has dominated the practice so far.

  10. Job sharing. Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K; Forbes, R

    1989-01-01

    This article is the first of a three part series discussing the impact of nurses job sharing at University Hospital, London, Ontario. This first article explores the advantages and disadvantages of job sharing for staff nurses and their supervising nurse manager, as discussed in the literature. The results of a survey conducted on a unit with a large number of job sharing positions, concur with literature findings. The second article will present the evaluation of a pilot project in which two nurses job share a first line managerial position in the Operating Room. The third article will relate the effects of job sharing on women's perceived general well being. Job sharing in all areas, is regarded as a positive experience by both nurse and administrators.

  11. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  12. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co...

  13. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  14. Probabilistic Infinite Secret Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Csirmaz, László

    2013-01-01

    The study of probabilistic secret sharing schemes using arbitrary probability spaces and possibly infinite number of participants lets us investigate abstract properties of such schemes. It highlights important properties, explains why certain definitions work better than others, connects this topic to other branches of mathematics, and might yield new design paradigms. A probabilistic secret sharing scheme is a joint probability distribution of the shares and the secret together with a colle...

  15. BBSRC Data Sharing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Collis; David McAllister; Michael Ball

    2011-01-01

    BBSRC recognizes the importance of contributing to the growing international efforts in data sharing. BBSRC is committed to getting the best value for the funds we invest and believes that making research data more readily available will reinforce open scientific inquiry and stimulate new investigations and analyses. BBSRC supports the view that data sharing should be led by the scientific community and driven by scientific need. It should also be cost effective and the data shared should be ...

  16. Factors Impacting Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulzmann, David; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    The purpose of this paper is to examine various factors affecting knowledge sharing at the R&D center of a Western MNE in China. The paper employs qualitative methodology and is based on the action research and case study research techniques. The findings of the paper advance our understanding...... about factors that affect knowledge sharing. The main emphasis is given to the discussion on how to improve knowledge sharing in global R&D organizations....

  17. Regulating the sharing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Kristofer; Sorensen, Inge

    2016-01-01

    In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian) and economic (allocative, profit-seeking) aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions). This definition of the sharing economy distinguishe...

  18. Phenomenology of experiential sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    León, Felipe; Zahavi, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended to be overl......The chapter explores the topic of experiential sharing by drawing on the early contributions of the phenomenologists Alfred Schutz and Gerda Walther. It is argued that both Schutz and Walther support, from complementary perspectives, an approach to experiential sharing that has tended...

  19. A Data Sharing Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Crosas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the early days of modern science through this century of Big Data, data sharing has enabled some of the greatest advances in science. In the digital age, technology can facilitate more effective and efficient data sharing and preservation practices, and provide incentives for making data easily accessible among researchers. At the Institute for Quantitative Social Science at Harvard University, we have developed an open-source software to share, cite, preserve, discover and analyze data, named the Dataverse Network. We share here the project’s motivation, its growth and successes, and likely evolution.

  20. Share your sweets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrnit, Jill; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik; Makransky, Guido

    2015-01-01

    study to examine the sharing behavior of groups of captive chimpanzees and bonobos when introducing the same type of food (branches) manipulated to be of two different degrees of desirability (with or without syrup). Results showed that, the large majority of food transfers in both species came about...... as sharing in which group members were allowed to co-feed or remove food from the stock of the food possessor, and the introduction of high-value food resulted in more sharing, not less. Food sharing behavior differed between species in that chimpanzees displayed significantly more begging behavior than...

  1. Protection of Cultural Heritage in Urban Areas during Peace and Conflict Times from Threats to Risk Preparedness as a Shared Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimino, C.

    2013-07-01

    In times of economic hardship, the support given by specialized civil society organisations to public institutions in the protection of cultural heritage has often proved very useful, and there is evidence that their contribution is essential in times of conflicts and natural disasters, if well-designed plans and measures are organized efficiently, thoroughly tested and properly implemented. The 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict (HC), its two Protocols and other international juridical instruments address these situations since decades, however, they remained widely not-applied in absence of proper regulatory instruments. In 2004, the Second Protocol of the Hague Convention (1999HP) entered into force and the Committee of the State Parties was formed. It became clear that a new trend started when, in 2009, draft Guidelines for the implementation of the 1999HP were issued. Meanwhile, WATCH, in partnership with the Council of the United Municipalitities of Jbail (Lebanon) and the Head of the Municipality of Mtskheta (Georgia) prepared a project proposal aimed to set a precedent in the governance of urban sites that are registered in the World Heritage List which are at risk of armed conflict. The project War Free World Heritage Listed Cities http://www.warfreeheritage.net/ was co-financed in 2010 with a grant within the framework of the EC CIUDAD programme and it is currently at an advanced level of implementation. This presentation will focus on achievements and contingencies faced during implementation as well as lessons learned that could be surely useful for pers pective applicants.

  2. It Takes Two: NASA and NOAA's Shared Path of Hurricane Science Flights with the Global Hawk. Time for the Research To Operations (R2O) Transition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emory, A. E.; Wick, G. A.; Dunion, J. P.; McLinden, M.; Schreier, M. M.; Black, P.; Hood, R. E.; Sippel, J.; Tallapragada, V.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of Harvey, Irma, and Maria during the 2017 Atlantic hurricane season re-emphasized the critical need for accurate operational forecasts. The combined NASA East Pacific Origins and Characteristics of Hurricanes (EPOCH) and NOAA UAS field campaign during August 2017 was the fourth campaign in a series of dual agency partnerships between NASA and NOAA to improve forecasting accuracy in tropical cyclogenesis and rapid intensification. A brief history of Global Hawk (GH) hurricane field campaigns, including GRIP (2010), HS3 (2012-2014), NOAA-SHOUT (2015-2016) and EPOCH (2017), will show the incremental steps taken over the last eight years to bring the GH from a research platform to a candidate for operational hurricane reconnaissance. GH dropsondes were assimilated into the ECMWF and HWRF forecast models during the 2015-2016 NOAA SHOUT campaigns. EPOCH marked the first time that GH dropsondes were assimilated in real-time into NOAA's GFS forecast model. Early results show that assimilating dropsonde data significantly increases skill in predicting intensity change, which is game changing since the National Hurricane Center intensity error trend has remained virtually unchanged, particularly at 24 hours, over the last 25 years. The results from the past few years suggest that a paradigm shift of sampling the environment with a high-altitude, long-duration UAS like the GH that is capable of deploying up to 90 dropsondes ahead of and over the top of a developing or strengthening tropical cyclone could produce the best return on hurricane forecast predictions in subsequent years. Recommendations for the future, including lessons learned and the potential for R2O transition will be discussed.

  3. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  4. Management options of varicoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Treatment options for varicoceles includes open varicocelectomy performed at various anatomical levels. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy has been established to be a safe and effective treatment for varicoceles. Robotic surgery has been introduced recently as an alternative surgical option for varicocelectomy. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has gained increasing popularity among experts in male reproductive medicine as the treatment of choice for varicocele because of its superior surgical outcomes. There is a growing volume of literature in the recent years on minimal invasive varicocele treatment with percutaneous retrograde and anterograde venous embolization/sclerotherapy. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and limitations associated with each treatment modality for varicoceles. Employment of these advanced techniques of varicocelectomy can provide a safe and effective approach aiming to eliminate varicocele, preserve testicular function and, in a substantial number of men, increase semen quality and the likelihood of pregnancy.

  5. Energy options?; Energie opties?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sark, W. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    March 2006 the so-called Options Document was published by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). The document is an overview of technical options to reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases up to 2020. Next to a brief summary of the document a few reactions and comments on the contents of the document are given. [Dutch] Maart 2006 publiceerde het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP) het zogenaamde Optiedocument energie en emissies 2010-2020. Daarin wordt een overzicht gegeven van de technische mogelijkheden voor vermindering van het energieverbruik en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen tot 2020. Naast een korte samenvatting van het document worden enkele reacties gegeven op de inhoud.

  6. Evaluating technology service options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, D F

    1997-05-01

    Four service and support options are available to healthcare organizations for maintaining their growth arsenals of medical and information technology. These options include maintaining and servicing all equipment using a facility-based biomedical engineering and MIS service department; using a combination of facility-based service and subcontracted service; expanding facility-based biomedical and MIS service departments to provide service to other healthcare organizations to achieve economies of scale; and outsourcing all maintenance, repair, and technical support services. Independent service companies and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are offering healthcare organizations a wider array of service and support capabilities than ever before. However, some health systems have successfully developed their own independent service organizations to take care of their own--and other healthcare organizations'--service and support needs.

  7. Optioner eller betingede aktier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Thorsell, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Incitamentsaflønning – og herunder især aktieaflønning – fortsætter med at tiltrække sig stor opmærksomhed fra en lang række sider. Et spørgsmål, der ofte diskuteres, er selskabernes anvendelse af aktieaflønning, dvs. aflønning med optioner, betingede aktier o. lign. Diskussionerne har blandt andet...

  8. Shungnak Energy Configuration Options.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Power systems in rural Alaska villages face a unique combination of challenges that can increase the cost of energy and lowers energy supply reliability. In the case of the remote village of Shungnak, diesel and heating fuel is either shipped in by barge or flown in by aircraft. This report presents a technical analysis of several energy infrastructure upgrade and modification options to reduce the amount of fuel consumed by the community of Shungnak. Reducing fuel usage saves money and makes the village more resilient to disruptions in fuel supply. The analysis considers demand side options, such as energy efficiency, alongside the installation of wind and solar power generation options. Some novel approaches are also considered including battery energy storage and the use of electrical home heating stoves powered by renewable generation that would otherwise be spilled and wasted. This report concludes with specific recommendations for Shungnak based on economic factors, and fuel price sensitivity. General conclusions are also included to support future work analyzing similar energy challenges in remote arctic regions.

  9. The safeguards options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  10. The safeguards options study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R.; Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J.; Filby, E.

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq's obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state

  11. Millennials and the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranzini, Giulia; Newlands, Gemma; Anselmi, Guido

    Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy......Report from the EU H2020 Research Project Ps2Share: Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy...

  12. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  13. Options Counseling for the Pregnant Adolescent Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Laurie L

    2017-09-01

    Each year, more than 500 000 girls and young women younger than 20 years become pregnant. It is important for pediatricians to have the ability and the resources in their offices to make a timely pregnancy diagnosis in their adolescent patients and provide them with nonjudgmental pregnancy options counseling. Counseling includes an unbiased discussion of the adolescent's legal options to either continue or terminate her pregnancy, supporting the adolescent in the decision-making process, and referring the adolescent to appropriate resources and services. Pediatricians who choose not to provide such discussions should promptly refer pregnant adolescent patients to a health care professional who will offer developmentally appropriate pregnancy options counseling. This approach to pregnancy options counseling has not changed since the original 1989 American Academy of Pediatrics statement on this issue. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Options theory and strategic investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, D.; Goobie, G.; MacMillan, L.

    1992-01-01

    The possible use of options pricing theory for evaluating long-term capital investments is discussed. Using the Black and Scholes option pricing model, five variables were evaluated for a hypothetical oil sands project. These variables are: stock price as determined by the earning power of the company; exercise price which equals the investment cost of the project; price standard deviation which is assumed to be 50%; the length of time for which the company will maintain its option to invest in the project, and finally the risk free rate which is approximately equal to the yield in long term government securities. A sensitivity analysis on these variables can provide management with information on how best to influence the option value. A more in-depth analysis could provide valuable information about strategic choice for large projects. 5 refs., 3 figs

  15. Mobile energy sharing futures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worgan, Paul; Knibbe, Jarrod; Plasencia, Diego Martinez

    2016-01-01

    We foresee a future where energy in our mobile devices can be shared and redistributed to suit our current task needs. Many of us are beginning to carry multiple mobile devices and we seek to re-evaluate the traditional view of a mobile device as only accepting energy. In our vision, we can...... sharing futures....

  16. 5G Spectrum Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Nekovee, Maziar; Rudd, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the current status of 5G industry standards, spectrum allocation and use cases, followed by initial investigations of new opportunities for spectrum sharing in 5G using cognitive radio techniques, considering both licensed and unlicensed scenarios. A particular attention is given to sharing millimeter-wave frequencies, which are of prominent importance for 5G.

  17. NCSU Reactor Sharing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Program at North Carolina State University provides the PULSTAR Research Reactor and associated facilities to eligible institutions with support, in part, from the Department of Energy Reactor Sharing Program. Participation in the NCSU Reactor Sharing Program continues to increase steadily with visitors ranging from advance high school physics and chemistry students to Ph.D. level research from neighboring universities

  18. 'An Arena for Sharing'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Ledderer, Loni; Hansen, Helle Ploug

    2015-01-01

    relatives). In-depth interviews were conducted in the participants' homes 1 month after the rehabilitation course. Data were analyzed by a constant comparative method. Results: Residential rehabilitation course was identified to serve as an "arena for sharing," underpinned by 3 dimensions of sharing...

  19. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask participants to

  20. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  1. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  2. Sharing Rare Attitudes Attracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Hans

    2018-04-01

    People like others who share their attitudes. Online dating platforms as well as other social media platforms regularly rely on the social bonding power of their users' shared attitudes. However, little is known about moderating variables. In the present work, I argue that sharing rare compared with sharing common attitudes should evoke stronger interpersonal attraction among people. In five studies, I tested this prediction for the case of shared interests from different domains. I found converging evidence that people's rare compared with their common interests are especially potent to elicit interpersonal attraction. I discuss the current framework's theoretical implications for impression formation and impression management as well as its practical implications for improving online dating services.

  3. Treatment Options for Actinic Keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends mostly on ... helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  7. The Cross-Cultural Knowledge Sharing Challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, John Stouby

    2013-01-01

    Cross-cultural offshoring in software development challenges effective knowledge sharing. While research has suggested temporarily co-locating participants to address this challenge, few studies are available on what knowledge sharing practices emerge over time when co-locating cross-cultural sof...

  8. Job Sharing: Is It for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Linda

    1994-01-01

    A teacher of deaf children describes her experience with job sharing at both the intermediate grade and preschool levels. The important role played by the full-time teacher's aide in providing continuity as well as the importance of communication are emphasized. Guidelines and answers to common questions regarding job sharing are offered. (DB)

  9. Job Sharing for the 80's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notowitz, Carol

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of job-sharing as an alternative to part-time employment in libraries and describes a job-sharing experiment at the Parson Branch of the Public Library of Columbus and Franklin County. Six references are included. (CHC)

  10. Job Sharing: Is It in Your Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Thyra K.

    This paper reports the results of a survey of 1,277 libraries in Illinois which investigated the status of job sharing in armed forces, college and university, community college, government, law, medical, public, religious, and special libraries and library systems. Job sharing is described as the division of one full-time job between two or more…

  11. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley J Hockings

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events. Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies.

  12. The information content of options

    OpenAIRE

    Navon, Yonatan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to examine the information content of stock options in financial markets. A key question in financial economics is how information diffuses across markets and how quickly it is reflected in security prices. This thesis aims at exploring this question by investigating the informational role that options play in financial markets. This is achieved by exploring the joint cross section of option and bond prices, the informational role of options in seasoned equity ...

  13. To share or not to share? Expected pros and cons of data sharing in radiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Alì, Marco; Hunink, Myriam G; Houssami, Nehmat; Sconfienza, Luca M; Di Leo, Giovanni

    2018-06-01

    The aims of this paper are to illustrate the trend towards data sharing, i.e. the regulated availability of the original patient-level data obtained during a study, and to discuss the expected advantages (pros) and disadvantages (cons) of data sharing in radiological research. Expected pros include the potential for verification of original results with alternative or supplementary analyses (including estimation of reproducibility), advancement of knowledge by providing new results by testing new hypotheses (not explored by the original authors) on pre-existing databases, larger scale analyses based on individual-patient data, enhanced multidisciplinary cooperation, reduced publication of false studies, improved clinical practice, and reduced cost and time for clinical research. Expected cons are outlined as the risk that the original authors could not exploit the entire potential of the data they obtained, possible failures in patients' privacy protection, technical barriers such as the lack of standard formats, and possible data misinterpretation. Finally, open issues regarding data ownership, the role of individual patients, advocacy groups and funding institutions in decision making about sharing of data and images are discussed. • Regulated availability of patient-level data of published clinical studies (data-sharing) is expected. • Expected benefits include verification/advancement of knowledge, reduced cost/time of research, clinical improvement. • Potential drawbacks include faults in patients' identity protection and data misinterpretation.

  14. Sharing the dance -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Jing; Ravn, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    In his recent works on daily face-to-face encounters, Zahavi claims that the phenomenon of sharing involves reciprocity. Following Zahavi’s line of thought, we wonder what exactly reciprocity amounts to and how the shared experience emerges from the dynamic process of interaction. By turning...... to the highly specialized field of elite sports dance, we aim at exploring the way in which reciprocity unfolds in intensive deliberate practices of movement. In our analysis, we specifically argue that the ongoing dynamics of two separate flows of movement constitute a shared experience of dancing together...

  15. Report endorses data sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential benefits of sharing data so outweigh its costs that investigators should be required to include plans for sharing data as part of their grant proposals, according to recommendations issued recently by the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) of the National Research Council (NRC).In their report Sharing Research Data, CNSTAT also recommended that “Journals should give more emphasis to reports of secondary analyses and to replications,” provided that the original collections of data receive full credit. In addition, “Journal editors should require authors to provide access to data during the peer review process.”

  16. Unification & sharing in timed automata verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Behrmann, Gerd; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2003-01-01

    We present the design of the model-checking engine and internal data structures for the next generation of UPPAAL. The design is based on a pipeline architecture where each stage represents one independent operation in the verification algorithms. The architecture is based on essentially one shar...

  17. Balancing of solar heating options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, W.B.; van Koppen, C.W.J.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In the field of energy conservation many options are presently competing. This study aims at providing more rational criteria for selection between these options.The options considered are; insulation of the walls, regeneration of the heat in the waste air, double glazing, attached sunspace at the

  18. Stock option repricing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, M.; Sautner, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between option repricing, firm performance and corporate governance in Europe. Our sample consists of 77 European firms that repriced their stock option between 1987 and 2003. We document that option repricing is mainly a phenomenon for young and fast growing firms

  19. Contemplating future energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooley, D.

    2005-01-01

    All political parties in the UK accept that we should move away from our reliance on fossil fuels towards a much greater use of alternative energy technologies. Nuclear power is one of these but finds minimal support in the political spectrum. The article reviews the European Commission's Advisory Group on Energy submission to the EC's report entitled 'Key Tasks for European Energy R and D'. The 'strength and weaknesses' of the various 'alternative energy' systems (including nuclear power) are summarised and then the key R and D tasks which, if they are carried out successfully, should make the eight selected technologies significantly more attractive. However, the message here is clear enough: there are no easy options, only a range of very imperfect possibilities, despite what enthusiastic proponents of each may say. Nuclear fission is certainly one of the most attractive options available, but the industry needs to continue to strive to eliminate the possibility of significant off-site releases, whether caused by plant failure or by human error or intention, and to prove beyond reasonable doubt the safety of high-level radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  20. Achalasia: Treatment Options Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijntje A Hoogerwerf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of all current forms of treatment of achalasia is to enable the patient to eat without disabling symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, coughing or choking. Historically, this has been accomplished by mechanical disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter fibres, either by means of pneumatic dilation (PD or by open surgical myotomy. The addition of laparoscopic myotomy and botulinum toxin (BTX injection to the therapeutic armamentarium has triggered a recent series of reviews to determine the optimal therapeutic approach. Both PD and BTX have excellent short term (less than three months efficacy in the majority of patients. New data have been published that suggest that PD and BTX (with repeat injections can potentially obtain long term efficacy. PD is still considered the first-line treatment by most physicians; its main disadvantage is risk of perforation. BTX injection is evolving as an excellent, safe option for patients who are considered high risk for more invasive procedures. Laparoscopic myotomy with combined antireflux surgery is an increasingly attractive option in younger patients with achalasia, but long term follow-up studies are required to establish its efficacy and the potential for reflux-related sequelae.

  1. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  2. 78 FR 25505 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; C2 Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ...''), Apple, Inc. (``AAPL''), SPDR Gold Trust (``GLD''), Google Inc. (``GOOG'') and Amazon.com Inc. (``AMZN... equity and exchange-traded fund (``ETF'') option contracts have a unit of trading of 100 shares... standard equity and ETF options, including exercise style. Accordingly, the mini-option filing contained a...

  3. Disposal options for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the radionuclide composition and the relative toxicity of radioactive wastes, a range of different options are available for their disposal. Practically all disposal options rely on confinement of radioactive materials and isolation from the biosphere. Dilution and dispersion into the environment are only used for slightly contaminated gaseous and liquid effluents produced during the routine operation of nuclear facilities, such as power plants. For the bulk of solid radioactive waste, whatever the contamination level and decay of radiotoxicity with time are, isolation from the biosphere is the objective of waste disposal policies. The paper describes disposal approaches and the various techniques used in this respect, such as shallow land burial with minimum engineered barriers, engineered facilities built at/near the surface, rock cavities at great depth and finally deep geologic repositories for long-lived waste. The concept of disposing long-lived waste into seabed sediment layers is also discussed, as well as more remote possibilities, such as disposal in outer space or transmutation. For each of these disposal methods, the measures to be adopted at institutional level to reinforce technical isolation concepts are described. To the extent possible, some comments are made with regard to the applicability of such disposal methods to other hazardous wastes. (au)

  4. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organizational settings, the paper explores how knowledge exchange can be conceptualized as going on in four...... distinct situations of exchange denominated organizational exchange yielding extrinsic rewards, organizational exchange yielding intrinsic rewards, financial exchange, and social exchange. The paper argues that each situation of exchange has distinct assumptions about individual behaviour...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  5. A Sharing Proposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Describes how the University of Vermont and St. Michael's College in Burlington, Vermont cooperated to share a single card access system. Discusses the planning, financial, and marketplace advantages of the cooperation. (EV)

  6. Valuing put options on single stock futures: Does the put-call parity relationship hold in the South African derivatives market?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Biebuyck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to determine whether mispricing of options on single stock futures is present in the South African derivatives market. The valuation of options on single stock futures is considered through the put-call parity relationship. The theoretical fair values obtained, are compared to the actual market values over a period of three years, that is, from 2009 to 2011. Only put options are considered in this research.The results show that arbitrage put option opportunities do present themselves for the chosen shares. The actual put options were found to be underpriced in 5 out of 6 (83% of the cases considered over the evaluation periods chosen. The mispricing was significant for both the BHP Billiton options with 100% and in the case of Sasol options (66% of the time. Whether profitable arbitrage opportunities is possible, will depend on the magnitude of the mispricing and the transaction fees payable. Further, more extensive research may help identify tendencies which may be of use for the formulation of arbitrage strategies

  7. Combining sync&share functionality with filesystem-like access

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    In our presentation we will analyse approaches to combine the sync & share functionality with file system-like access to data. While relatively small data volumes (GBs) can be distributed by sync&share application across user devices such as PCs, laptops and mobiles, interacting with really large data volumes (TBs, PBs) may require additional remote data access mechanism such as filesystem-like interface. We will discuss several ways for offering filesystem-like access in addition to sync & share functionality. Todays sync & share solutions may employ various data organisation in the back-end including local and distributed file systems and object stores. Therefore various approaches to providing the client with filesystem-like access are necessary in these systems. We will present possible options to integrate the filesystem-like access with sync&share functionality in the popular sync&share system. We will also show a NDS2 project solution where data backups and archives are kept sec...

  8. Bank Share Prices and Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Daugaard; Tom Valentine

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers the influence of economic conditions and financial markets on Australian bank share prices and profitability. It uses time series analysis to obtain an indication of the effectiveness of banks in managing their exposure to interest rates and exchange rates. The results give rise to some comments on the extent to which banks actively manage their exposure to financial and economic variables. The discussion of risk management activities necessarily raises the question of ho...

  9. Acceptance and Use of Eight Arsenic-Safe Drinking Water Options in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, Jennifer; Hossain, Mohammad Mojahidul; Johnston, Richard B.; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of drinking water is a serious public health threat. In Bangladesh, eight major safe water options provide an alternative to contaminated shallow tubewells: piped water supply, deep tubewells, pond sand filters, community arsenic-removal, household arsenic removal, dug wells, well-sharing, and rainwater harvesting. However, it is uncertain how well these options are accepted and used by the at-risk population. Based on the RANAS model (risk, attitudes, norms, ability, and self-regulation) this study aimed to identify the acceptance and use of available safe water options. Cross-sectional face-to-face interviews were used to survey 1,268 households in Bangladesh in November 2009 (n = 872), and December 2010 (n = 396). The questionnaire assessed water consumption, acceptance factors from the RANAS model, and socioeconomic factors. Although all respondents had access to at least one arsenic-safe drinking water option, only 62.1% of participants were currently using these alternatives. The most regularly used options were household arsenic removal filters (92.9%) and piped water supply (85.6%). However, the former result may be positively biased due to high refusal rates of household filter owners. The least used option was household rainwater harvesting (36.6%). Those who reported not using an arsenic-safe source differed in terms of numerous acceptance factors from those who reported using arsenic-safe sources: non-users were characterized by greater vulnerability; showed less preference for the taste and temperature of alternative sources; found collecting safe water quite time-consuming; had lower levels of social norms, self-efficacy, and coping planning; and demonstrated lower levels of commitment to collecting safe water. Acceptance was particularly high for piped water supplies and deep tubewells, whereas dug wells and well-sharing were the least accepted sources. Intervention strategies were derived from the results in order to

  10. Pricing Shared Appreciation Mortgages

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Yina

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops a model for the valuation of shared appreciation mortgage (SAM) and examines the effect of reduction in interest rate on the mortgage duration and share of property appreciation lender charges. The recent rise in SAM availability, as a result of some secondary market financial support and prerequisite standardization, motivates a more careful consideration of the underlying SAM value. The primary difference between the SAM model and the model for general traditional mor...

  11. Sharing resources@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The library is launching a 'sharing resources@CERN' campaign, aiming to increase the library's utility by including the thousands of books bought by individual groups at CERN. This will improve sharing of information among CERN staff and users. Photo 01: L. to r. Eduardo Aldaz, from the PS division, Corrado Pettenati, Head Librarian, and Isabel Bejar, from the ST division, read their divisional copies of the same book.

  12. SharePoint governance

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mudassar

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi IKT590 2013 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad SharePoint is a web-based business collaboration platform from Microsoft which is very robust and dynamic in nature. The platform has been in the market for more than a decade and has been adapted by large number of organisations in the world. The platform has become larger in scale, richer in features and is improving consistently with every new version. However, SharePoint ...

  13. Information partnerships--shared data, shared scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsynski, B R; McFarlan, F W

    1990-01-01

    How can one company gain access to another's resources or customers without merging ownership, management, or plotting a takeover? The answer is found in new information partnerships, enabling diverse companies to develop strategic coalitions through the sharing of data. The key to cooperation is a quantum improvement in the hardware and software supporting relational databases: new computer speeds, cheaper mass-storage devices, the proliferation of fiber-optic networks, and networking architectures. Information partnerships mean that companies can distribute the technological and financial exposure that comes with huge investments. For the customer's part, partnerships inevitably lead to greater simplification on the desktop and more common standards around which vendors have to compete. The most common types of partnership are: joint marketing partnerships, such as American Airline's award of frequent flyer miles to customers who use Citibank's credit card; intraindustry partnerships, such as the insurance value-added network service (which links insurance and casualty companies to independent agents); customer-supplier partnerships, such as Baxter Healthcare's electronic channel to hospitals for medical and other equipment; and IT vendor-driven partnerships, exemplified by ESAB (a European welding supplies and equipment company), whose expansion strategy was premised on a technology platform offered by an IT vendor. Partnerships that succeed have shared vision at the top, reciprocal skills in information technology, concrete plans for an early success, persistence in the development of usable information for all partners, coordination on business policy, and a new and imaginative business architecture.

  14. Regulating the sharing economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristofer Erickson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this introductory essay, we explore definitions of the ‘sharing economy’, a concept indicating both social (relational, communitarian and economic (allocative, profit-seeking aspects which appear to be in tension. We suggest combining the social and economic logics of the sharing economy to focus on the central features of network enabled, aggregated membership in a pool of offers and demands (for goods, services, creative expressions. This definition of the sharing economy distinguishes it from other related peer-to-peer and collaborative forms of production. Understanding the social and economic motivations for and implications of participating in the sharing economy is important to its regulation. Each of the papers in this special issue contributes to knowledge by linking the social and economic aspects of sharing economy practices to regulatory norms and mechanisms. We conclude this essay by suggesting future research to further clarify and render intelligible the sharing economy, not as a contradiction in terms but as an empirically observable realm of socio-economic activity.

  15. Continuous national gross domestic product (GDP) time series for 195 countries: past observations (1850-2005) harmonized with future projections according to the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (2006-2100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Tobias

    2018-04-01

    Gross domestic product (GDP) represents a widely used metric to compare economic development across time and space. GDP estimates have been routinely assembled only since the beginning of the second half of the 20th century, making comparisons with prior periods cumbersome or even impossible. In recent years various efforts have been put forward to re-estimate national GDP for specific years in the past centuries and even millennia, providing new insights into past economic development on a snapshot basis. In order to make this wealth of data utilizable across research disciplines, we here present a first continuous and consistent data set of GDP time series for 195 countries from 1850 to 2009, based mainly on data from the Maddison Project and other population and GDP sources. The GDP data are consistent with Penn World Tables v8.1 and future GDP projections from the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs), and are freely available at http://doi.org/10.5880/pik.2018.010 (Geiger and Frieler, 2018). To ease usability, we additionally provide GDP per capita data and further supplementary and data description files in the online archive. We utilize various methods to handle missing data and discuss the advantages and limitations of our methodology. Despite known shortcomings this data set provides valuable input, e.g., for climate impact research, in order to consistently analyze economic impacts from pre-industrial times to the future.

  16. Optional Defaultable Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Abdelghani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with defaultable markets, one of the main research areas of mathematical finance. It proposes a new approach to the theory of such markets using techniques from the calculus of optional stochastic processes on unusual probability spaces, which was not presented before. The paper is a foundation paper and contains a number of fundamental results on modeling of defaultable markets, pricing and hedging of defaultable claims and results on the probability of default under such conditions. Moreover, several important examples are presented: a new pricing formula for a defaultable bond and a new pricing formula for credit default swap. Furthermore, some results on the absence of arbitrage for markets on unusual probability spaces and markets with default are also provided.

  17. Automotive turbogenerator design options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C. [ITC, San Diego, CA (United States); McDonald, C. [McDonald Thermal Engineering, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    For the small turbogenerator to find reception in the hybrid electric automotive market its major features must be dominated by the following considerations, low cost, high performance, low emissions, compact size and high reliability. Not meeting the first two criteria has been the nemesis of earlier attempts to introduce the small gas turbine for automotive service. With emphasis on the design for low cost and high performance, this paper presents several turbogenerator design flowpath configuration options for the major engine components. The projected evolution from today`s state-of-the-art all metallic engines, to advanced technology ceramic units for service in the early decade of the 21st century, is the major topic of this paper. (author)

  18. Fusion as an energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, D.

    1976-01-01

    The environmental issues, alternative fusion fuels, the economic potential, and the time scale of fusion power are assessed. It is common for the advocate of a long-term energy source to claim his source (fission, fusion, solar, etc.) as the ultimate solution to man's energy needs. The author does not believe that such a stance will lead to a rational energy policy. Dr. Steiner encourages a long-term energy policy that has as its goal the development of fission breeders, fusion, and solar energy--not be totally reliant on a single source. He does advocate vigorous funding for fusion, not because it is a guarantee for ''clean, limitless, and cheap power,'' but because it may provide an important energy option for the next century

  19. Designing Pareto-superior demand-response rate options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, I.; Woo, C.K.

    2006-01-01

    We explore three voluntary service options-real-time pricing, time-of-use pricing, and curtailable/interruptible service-that a local distribution company might offer its customers in order to encourage them to alter their electricity usage in response to changes in the electricity-spot-market price. These options are simple and practical, and make minimal information demands. We show that each of the options is Pareto-superior ex ante, in that it benefits both the participants and the company offering it, while not affecting the non-participants. The options are shown to be Pareto-superior ex post as well, except under certain exceptional circumstances. (author)

  20. Transportation Options | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation Options Transportation Options Transportation to, from, and within a research campus from business travel often enlarge the footprint more than expected. To understand options for climate

  1. Regional differences in recipient waitlist time and pre- and post-transplant mortality after the 2006 United Network for Organ Sharing policy changes in the donor heart allocation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, P Christian; Kitada, Shuichi; Clerkin, Kevin; Jin, Zhezhen; Mancini, Donna M

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the impact of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) policy changes for regional differences in waitlist time and mortality before and after heart transplantation. The 2006 UNOS thoracic organ allocation policy change was implemented to allow for greater regional sharing of organs for heart transplantation. We analyzed 36,789 patients who were listed for heart transplantation from January 1999 through April 2012. These patients were separated into 2 eras centered on the July 12, 2006 UNOS policy change. Pre- and post-transplantation characteristics were compared by UNOS regions. Waitlist mortality decreased nationally (up to 180 days: 13.3% vs. 7.9% after the UNOS policy change, p < 0.001) and within each region. Similarly, 2-year post-transplant mortality decreased nationally (2-year mortality: 17.3% vs. 14.6%; p < 0.001) as well as regionally. Waitlist time for UNOS status 1A and 1B candidates increased nationally 17.8 days on average (p < 0.001) with variability between the regions. The greatest increases were in Region 9 (59.2-day increase, p < 0.001) and Region 4 (41.2-day increase, p < 0.001). Although the use of mechanical circulatory support increased nearly 2.3-fold nationally in Era 2, significant differences were present on a regional basis. In Regions 6, 7, and 10, nearly 40% of those transplanted required left ventricular assist device bridging, whereas only 19.6%, 22.3%, and 15.5% required a left ventricular assist device in regions 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The 2006 UNOS policy change has resulted in significant regional heterogeneity with respect to waitlist time and reliance on mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation, although overall both waitlist mortality and post-transplant survival are improved. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Right Tools for the Job--Technology Options for Adult Online Learning and Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regional Educational Laboratory, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Many options exist for using technology as a tool for adult learning, and each day, it becomes easier to share information online than it ever has been. Online learning technology has grown from one-sided communications to numerous options for audience engagement and interactivity. This guide introduces a variety of tools, online platforms, and…

  3. 26 CFR 1.6039-1 - Returns required in connection with certain options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) and includes, but is not limited to, the corporation issuing the stock, a related corporation of the... with certain options. (a) Requirement of return with respect to incentive stock options under section 6039(a)(1). (1) Every corporation which in any calendar year transfers to any person a share of stock...

  4. 75 FR 6753 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated, International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... ETFS Silver and ETF Gold Trusts. Shares of the ETFS Silver and ETFS Gold Trusts must continue to be... Approval of a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Listing and Trading Options on the ETFS Gold Trust and the... the ETFS Gold Trust and the ETFS Silver Trust (collectively ``ETFS Options''). Specifically, NYSE Amex...

  5. 78 FR 19552 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... that deliver 10 physical shares on SPDR S&P 500 (``SPY''), Apple, Inc. (``AAPL''), SPDR Gold Trust... CBOE Rule 5.5.22. Standard equity and exchange-traded fund (``ETF'') option contracts have a unit of... contract characteristics as standard equity and ETF options, including exercise style. Accordingly, the...

  6. 75 FR 6773 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated, International...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... standards applicable to the underlying ETFS Silver and ETF Gold Trusts. Shares of the ETFS Silver and ETFS... Approval of a Proposed Rule Change Relating to Listing and Trading Options on the ETFS Gold Trust and the... Gold Trust and the ETFS Silver Trust (collectively ``ETFS Options''). Specifically, NYSE Amex LLC...

  7. Online Options for Math-Advanced Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessling, Suki

    2012-01-01

    Once upon a time, a student well advanced past grade level in math would have had few choices. Advanced students would invariably outpace the skills of their elementary teachers, and due to age wouldn't have options such as going to the middle school or community college for classes. Soon thereafter, students would enter middle school only to find…

  8. Alternative entrepreneurial options: a policy mitigation strategy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focused on alternative entrepreneurial options as a mitigation strategy against climate change among part-time farmers in Abia state Nigeria. Some farmers abandoned farming in the face of reoccurring adverse weather conditions to other livelihood sustaining activities. The objectives were to examine the ...

  9. Collaborate, compete and share

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Emanuele; Castellano, Claudio; Marsili, Matteo; Pietronero, Luciano

    2009-02-01

    We introduce and study a model of an interacting population of agents who collaborate in groups which compete for limited resources. Groups are formed by random matching agents and their worth is determined by the sum of the efforts deployed by agents in group formation. Agents, on their side, have to share their effort between contributing to their group’s chances to outcompete other groups and resource sharing among partners, when the group is successful. A simple implementation of this strategic interaction gives rise to static and evolutionary properties with a very rich phenomenology. A robust emerging feature is the separation of the population between agents who invest mainly in the success of their group and agents who concentrate in getting the largest share of their group’s profits.

  10. Urban sharing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjalland, Emmy Laura Perez

    of the structures of the networked urban mobilities and holds the potentials to change the future mobilities. References Bauman, Zygmunt. 2000. Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity. Beck, Ulrich. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity (Published in Association with Theory, Culture & Society). London: SAGE......In urban areas sharing cultures, services and economies are rising. People share, rent and recycle their homes, cars, bikes, rides, tools, cloths, working space, knowhow and so on. The sharing culture can be understood as mobilities (Kesselring and Vogl 2013) of goods, values and ideas reshaping...... problems and side effects from concentration of consumption and contamination; and due to the shift from ownership to access it change our basic social cultural norms (Sayer 2005; Sayer 2011) about the ‘good’ life and social status (Freudendal-Pedersen 2007), commons and individuality, responsibility...

  11. Centrifugal compressor design options for small turbochargers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C. [ITC, San Diego (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Evolutionary development of the small turbocharger centrifugal compressor over the past four decades has resulted in a finely honed turbomachinery component satisfying both thermodynamic and economic constraints. At this penultimate stage of development an appraisal was considered timely of the remaining design options that exist to enhance the performance characteristics and cost reduction features. This paper presents the results of an analytical study of various small centrifugal compressor design options, assessed in merit of both aerodynamic and manufacturing cost attributes, together with recommendations for future research avenues. (author)

  12. Employer Supported Child Care: An Idea Whose Time Has Come. A Conference on Child Care as an Employee Benefit (Costs and Benefits, Successful Programs, Company Options, Current Issues). Conference Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiman, Peter, Ed.; Sud, Gian, Ed.

    Many aspects of employer-sponsored child care programs--including key issues, costs and benefits, programmatic options, and implementation strategies--are discussed in these conference proceedings. Public policy issues, legal aspects of child care as an employee benefit, tax incentives for corporate child care, and funding sources for child care…

  13. Trends in the use of flow-through shares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jennings, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    Flow-through shares financing is considered the most cost effective equity-based financing option for non-tax-paying exploration companies, a form of financing that has helped a very large number of resource-based companies start, stay alive and grow in a very competitive financial marketplace. This paper provides a brief historical review of the flow-though shares concept, outlines developments in recent legislation, changes in the Income Tax Act, and trends in financial structures, and reviews flow-through shares from a tax perspective of the investor and the issuer

  14. Can job sharing work for nurse managers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubourg, Laurence; Ahmling, Janette A; Bujas, Lenka

    2006-02-01

    Addressing employer reluctance to employ nurse managers in a job-sharing capacity, the aim of this paper is to explore job sharing among nurse managers. The literature highlighted potential fragmentation of leadership, breakdown of communication and higher costs as issues, with the retention of experienced highly motivated managers identified as an advantage. A staff survey explored whether the job-sharing arrangement trialled in a day surgery setting by two nurse managers was successful compared with similar roles held by full-time managers. This paper suggests that nurse managers can successfully job share. Overall, this paper recommends that employers consider a job-sharing arrangement when they wish to retain experienced nurse managers, and highlights aspects that can enhance a successful outcome.

  15. Option-implied term structures

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The illiquidity of long-maturity options has made it difficult to study the term structures of option spanning portfolios. This paper proposes a new estimation and inference framework for these option-implied term structures that addresses long-maturity illiquidity. By building a sieve estimator around the risk-neutral valuation equation, the framework theoretically justifies (fat-tailed) extrapolations beyond truncated strikes and between observed maturities while remaining nonparametric. Ne...

  16. Portfolio insurance using traded options

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Santos, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Literature concerning the institutional use of options indicates that the main purpose of option trading is to provide investors with the opportunity to create return distributions previously unavailable, considering that options provide the means to manipulate portfolio returns. In such a context, this study intends to analyse the returns of insured portfolios generated by hedging strategies on underlying stock portfolios. Because dynamic hedging is too expensive, we have hedged the stock po...

  17. Real options methodology in public-private partnership projects valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakić Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PPP offers numerous benefits to both public and private partners in delivery of infrastructure projects. However this partnership also involves great risks which have to be adequately managed and mitigated. Private partners are especially sensitive to revenue risk, since they are mostly interested in the financial viability of the project. Thus they often expect public partners to provide some kind of risk-sharing mechanism in the form of Minimum Revenue Guarantees or abandonment options. The objective of this paper is to investigate whether the real option of abandoning the project increases its value. Therefore the binominal option pricing model and risk-neutral probability approach have been implemented to price the European and American abandonment options for the Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT toll road investment. The obtained results suggest that the project value with the American abandonment option is greater than with the European abandonment option, hence implying that American options offer greater flexibility and are more valuable for private partners. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179066 and III 42006

  18. Valuating Privacy with Option Pricing Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, Stefan; Böhme, Rainer

    One of the key challenges in the information society is responsible handling of personal data. An often-cited reason why people fail to make rational decisions regarding their own informational privacy is the high uncertainty about future consequences of information disclosures today. This chapter builds an analogy to financial options and draws on principles of option pricing to account for this uncertainty in the valuation of privacy. For this purpose, the development of a data subject's personal attributes over time and the development of the attribute distribution in the population are modeled as two stochastic processes, which fit into the Binomial Option Pricing Model (BOPM). Possible applications of such valuation methods to guide decision support in future privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs) are sketched.

  19. Repowering options for steam power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, H.; Gopalarathinam, R.

    1992-01-01

    Repowering an existing steam power plant with a gas turbine offers an attractive alternative to a new plant or life extension, especially for unit sizes smaller than 300 MWe. Gas turbine repowering improves thermal efficiency and substantially increases the plant output. Based on recent repowering studies and projects, this paper examines gas turbine repowering options for 100 MWe, 200 MWe and 300 MWe units originally designed for coal firing and currently firing either coal or natural gas. Also discussed is the option for a phased future conversion of the repowered unit to fire coal-derived gas, should there be a fluctuation in the price or availability of natural gas. A modular coal gasification plant designed to shorten the conversion time is presented. Repowering options, performance, costs, and availability impacts are discussed for selected cases

  20. Optimal scheduling in call centers with a callback option

    OpenAIRE

    Legros , Benjamin; Jouini , Oualid; Koole , Ger

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We consider a call center model with a callback option, which allows to transform an inbound call into an outbound one. A delayed call, with a long anticipated waiting time, receives the option to be called back. We assume a probabilistic customer reaction to the callback offer (option). The objective of the system manager is to characterize the optimal call scheduling that minimizes the expected waiting and abandonment costs. For the single-server case, we prove that ...

  1. Pricing the option adjust spread of Brazilian Eurobonds

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Franklin de O.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents results of a pricing system to compute the option adjusted spread ("DAS") of Eurobonds issued by Brazilian firms. The system computes the "DAS" over US treasury rates taktng imo account the embedded options present on these bonds. These options can be calls ("callable bond"), puts ("putable bond") or combinations ("callable and putable bond"). The pricing model takes into account the evolution of the term structure along time, is compatible with the observab...

  2. Time outs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000756.htm Time outs To use the sharing features on this ... children, 2 to 12 years old. Why Does Time out Work? When you put children in time ...

  3. Synroc processing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, R.B.; Hoenig, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Synroc is a titanate-based ceramic material currently being developed for immobilizing high-level nuclear reactor wastes in solid form. Synroc D is a unique variation of Synroc. It can contain the high-level defense wastes, particularly those in storage at the Savannah River Plant. In this report, we review the early development of the initial Synroc process, discuss modification and other options that simplify it overall, and recommend the future direction of research and development in the processing area. A reference Synroc process is described briefly and contrasted with the Savannah River Laboratory glass-based reference case. Preliminary engineering layouts show Synroc to be a more complex processing operation and, thus, more expensive than the glass-based process. However, we believe that simplifications, which will significantly reduce the cost difference, are possible. Further research and development will continue in the areas of slurry processing, fluidized bed calcination, and mineralization. This last will use sintering, hot uniaxial pressing, or hot isostatic pressing

  4. Nuclear technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Different strategies and motivations in different countries have led to diverse options. In Europe the SNETP (Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform) has the objective of developing R&D supporting GEN-II (present) and GEN-III nuclear systems under development; allowing sustainability and minimisation of waste burden, promoting advanced Gen-IV Fast Reactors; and accounting for a Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative. A remarkable initiative in the USA has been the promotion of small modular reactors (SMRs) – at less than 300 MWe in capacity, much smaller than typical reactors – which can be an ideal choice for (remote) areas which cannot support a larger reactor. Compact scalable design offers a host of potential safety, construction and economic benefits. More “upbeat” strategies are expected in other areas of the world where significant increase in nuclear energy demand is predicted in the next decades. If this growth materialises, future fuel cycles characteristics, feasibility and acceptability will be crucial. This paper will discuss different scenarios for future fuel cycles, resources optimisation and/or waste minimization, the range from full fast reactor deployment to phase-out, management of spent nuclear fuel and the significant potential benefits of advanced cycles. The next 45 years will be dominated by deployment of standard large or medium size plants operating for 60 years. Available resources do allow it. However, fuel cycle will be a growing and most challenging issue and early assessments will be needed for public acceptance and policy decisions.

  5. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated.

  6. From shared data to sharing workflow: Merging PACS and teleradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, Menashe; Aradi, Yinon; Shreiber, Reuven

    2010-01-01

    Due to a host of technological, interface, operational and workflow limitations, teleradiology and PACS/RIS were historically developed as separate systems serving different purposes. PACS/RIS handled local radiology storage and workflow management while teleradiology addressed remote access to images. Today advanced PACS/RIS support complete site radiology workflow for attending physicians, whether on-site or remote. In parallel, teleradiology has emerged into a service of providing remote, off-hours, coverage for emergency radiology and to a lesser extent subspecialty reading to subscribing sites and radiology groups. When attending radiologists use teleradiology for remote access to a site, they may share all relevant patient data and participate in the site's workflow like their on-site peers. The operation gets cumbersome and time consuming when these radiologists serve multi-sites, each requiring a different remote access, or when the sites do not employ the same PACS/RIS/Reporting Systems and do not share the same ownership. The least efficient operation is of teleradiology companies engaged in reading for multiple facilities. As these services typically employ non-local radiologists, they are allowed to share some of the available patient data necessary to provide an emergency report but, by enlarge, they do not share the workflow of the sites they serve. Radiology stakeholders usually prefer to have their own radiologists perform all radiology tasks including interpretation of off-hour examinations. It is possible with current technology to create a system that combines the benefits of local radiology services to multiple sites with the advantages offered by adding subspecialty and off-hours emergency services through teleradiology. Such a system increases efficiency for the radiology groups by enabling all users, regardless of location, to work 'local' and fully participate in the workflow of every site. We refer to such a system as SuperPACS.

  7. Option price and market instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  8. [Shared medical decision making in gynaecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    This, P; Panel, P

    2010-02-01

    When two options or more can be chosen in medical care, the final decision implies two steps: facts analysis, and patient evaluation of preferences. Shared Medical Decision-Making is a rational conceptual frame that can be used in such cases. In this paper, we describe the concept, its practical modalities, and the questions raised by its use. In gynaecology, many medical situations involve "sensitive preferences choice": for example, contraceptive choice, menorrhagia treatment, and approach of menopause. Some tools from the "Shared Medical Decision Making" concept are useful to structure medical consultations, to convey information, and to reveal patients preferences. Decision aid are used in clinical research settings, but some of them may also be easily used in usual practice, and help physicians to improve both quality and traceability of the decisional process. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ...

  10. Probabilistic methods in exotic option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderluh, J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis presents three ways of calculating the Parisian option price as an illustration of probabilistic methods in exotic option pricing. Moreover options on commidities are considered and double-sided barrier options in a compound Poisson framework.

  11. 26 CFR 1.424-1 - Definitions and special rules applicable to statutory options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... causes the fair market value of Z common stock to decrease to $200 per share. On the same day, Z grants... to divorce (described in section 1041(a)). The special tax treatment of § 1.421-2(a) with respect to... transfer of a statutory option incident to divorce. (2) A share of stock acquired by an individual pursuant...

  12. 77 FR 35095 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... being out-of-the-money. For example, a market participant might have a long position in a call series... multiplier). Because the temporary procedures allow trading below $0.01 per share (or $1.00 per option contract with a 100 share multiplier), the procedures are available for all classes, including those...

  13. 78 FR 77532 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... conditions which may result in a significant number of series being out-of-the-money. For example, a market... multiplier). Because the temporary procedures allow trading below $0.01 per share (or $1.00 per option contract with a 100 share multiplier), the procedures are available for all classes, including those...

  14. 78 FR 39424 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... significant number of series being out-of-the-money. For example, a market participant might have a long... increment as low as $0.01 per share (or $1.00 per option contract with a 100 share multiplier). Because the... multiplier), the procedures are available for all classes, including those classes participating in the Penny...

  15. 75 FR 31828 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ... of series being out-of-the-money. For example, a market participant might have a long position in a... increment as low as $0.01 per share (or $1.00 per option contract with a 100 share multiplier). Because the... multiplier), the procedures are available for all classes, including those classes participating in the Penny...

  16. 78 FR 40539 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... significant number of series being out-of-the-money. For example, a market participant might have a long... increment as low as $0.01 per share (or $1.00 per option contract with a 100 share multiplier). Because the... multiplier), the procedures are available for all classes, including those classes participating in the Penny...

  17. 78 FR 17741 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... overlie 10 equity or ETF shares, rather than the standard 100 shares.\\4\\ Mini Options are currently approved on the following five (5) underlying securities: SPDR S&P 500 ETF (``SPY''), Apple Inc. (``AAPL''), SPDR Gold Trust (``GLD''), Google Inc. (``GOOG''), and Amazon.com , Inc. (``AMZN''). Of the five...

  18. Information Sharing and Knowledge Sharing as Communicative Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Reijo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This paper elaborates the picture of information sharing and knowledge sharing as forms of communicative activity. Method: A conceptual analysis was made to find out how researchers have approached information sharing and knowledge sharing from the perspectives of transmission and ritual. The findings are based on the analysis of one…

  19. Shared Care in Diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Keld

    2006-01-01

    The Danish National Board of Health has recently released a report that is intended to mark the start of a new project to establish it support for shared care in diabetes. In this paper I raise a number of concerns where lack of attention towards participation from prospective users constitute...

  20. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamari, Juho; Sjöklint, Mimmi; Ukkonen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Information and communications technologies (ICTs) have enabled the rise of so-called “Collaborative Consumption” (CC): the peer-to-peer-based activity of obtaining, giving, or sharing the access to goods and services, coordinated through community-based online services. CC has been expected to a...

  1. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...

  2. EU ETS Allocation. Evaluation of present system and options beyond 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijm, J.P.M. (ed.) [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Berk, M.M.; Den Elzen, M.G.J.; Van den Wijngaart, R.A. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2007-03-15

    This study assesses various options for EU (European Union) burden sharing and EU ETS (Emissions Trading System) allocation beyond 2012, based on a sample of policy evaluation criteria and a review of the literature on (1) international and EU burden sharing of future GHG mitigation commitments, and (2) allocation of GHG emission allowances among countries, sectors and emitting installations. It shows that these options score differently with regard to a variety of individual evaluation criteria (such as environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, social equity or political acceptability), while the overall performance of these options depends on both the selection, interpretation, weighing and adding of these criteria.

  3. Renewable energy burden sharing. REBUS. Manual for the REBUS model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voogt, M.H.

    2001-03-01

    The REBUS model quantifies the effects of implementing renewable electricity targets, and the impact of introducing burden sharing systems within the EU, such as a Tradable Green Certificate (TGC) system. Results are obtained for a range of so-called burden sharing options that reflect differences in economic, social and geographical possibilities to increase the share of renewables in individual geographical regions. The REBUS model furthermore analyses the impact of other supporting mechanisms for renewable electricity on the effects of a burden sharing mechanism. With this, the REBUS model is a framework that can be used for quantifying the most equitable distribution of costs (burden sharing) and compare consequences of different equity criteria. Therewith it aims to support key policy makers, industrial stakeholders and consumers in making decisions on the possibilities to achieve their joint RES-E targets

  4. Towards a Process Algebra for Shared Processors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchholtz, Mikael; Andersen, Jacob; Løvengreen, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    We present initial work on a timed process algebra that models sharing of processor resources allowing preemption at arbitrary points in time. This enables us to model both the functional and the timely behaviour of concurrent processes executed on a single processor. We give a refinement relation...

  5. Impact of Nuclear Energy Futures on Advanced Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brent W. Dixon; Steven J. Piet

    2004-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act requires the Secretary of Energy to inform Congress before 2010 on the need for a second geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel. By that time, the spent fuel discharged from current commercial reactors will exceed the statutory limit of the first repository (63,000 MTiHM commercial, 7,000 MT non-commercial). There are several approaches to eliminate the need for another repository in this century. This paper presents a high-level analysis of these spent fuel management options in the context of a full range of possible nuclear energy futures. The analysis indicates the best option to implement varies depending on the nuclear energy future selected. The first step in understanding the need for different spent fuel management approaches is to understand the size of potential spent fuel inventories. A full range of potential futures for domestic commercial nuclear energy is considered. These energy futures are as follows: 1. Existing License Completion - Based on existing spent fuel inventories plus extrapolation of future plant-by-plant discharges until the end of each operating license, including known license extensions. 2. Extended License Completion - Based on existing spent fuel inventories plus a plant-by-plant extrapolation of future discharges assuming on all operating plants having one 20-year extension. 3. Continuing Level Energy Generation - Based on extension of the current ∼100 GWe installed commercial base and average spent fuel discharge of 2100 MT/yr through the year 2100. 4. Continuing Market Share Generation - Based on a 1.8% compounded growth of the electricity market through the year 2100, matched by growing nuclear capacity and associated spent fuel discharge. 5. Growing Market Share Generation - Extension of current nuclear capacity and associated spent fuel discharge through 2100 with 3.2% growth representing 1.5% market growth (all energy, not just electricity) and 1.7% share growth. Share growth results in

  6. Sustainability of UK shale gas in comparison with other electricity options: Current situation and future scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jasmin; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-04-01

    Many countries are considering exploitation of shale gas but its overall sustainability is currently unclear. Previous studies focused mainly on environmental aspects of shale gas, largely in the US, with scant information on socio-economic aspects. To address this knowledge gap, this paper integrates for the first time environmental, economic and social aspects of shale gas to evaluate its overall sustainability. The focus is on the UK which is on the cusp of developing a shale gas industry. Shale gas is compared to other electricity options for the current situation and future scenarios up to the year 2030 to investigate whether it can contribute towards a more sustainable electricity mix in the UK. The results obtained through multi-criteria decision analysis suggest that, when equal importance is assumed for each of the three sustainability aspects shale gas ranks seventh out of nine electricity options, with wind and solar PV being the best and coal the worst options. However, it outranks biomass and hydropower. Changing the importance of the sustainability aspects widely, the ranking of shale gas ranges between fourth and eighth. For shale gas to become the most sustainable option of those assessed, large improvements would be needed, including a 329-fold reduction in environmental impacts and 16 times higher employment, along with simultaneous large changes (up to 10,000 times) in the importance assigned to each criterion. Similar changes would be needed if it were to be comparable to conventional or liquefied natural gas, biomass, nuclear or hydropower. The results also suggest that a future electricity mix (2030) would be more sustainable with a lower rather than a higher share of shale gas. These results serve to inform UK policy makers, industry and non-governmental organisations. They will also be of interest to other countries considering exploitation of shale gas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Shared governance. From vision to reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrope, R A; Vaughn, L; Bott, M; Taunton, R L

    1995-12-01

    Quality patient care is best provided by competent clinical staff members who are committed to their work, organizational values, and goals, and who maintain employment over time. Shared governance has provided the framework for clinical nurses to become more committed to their practice through decision making and to assume accountability for the outcomes of their decisions. At a tertiary teaching facility, shared governance resulted in increased job satisfaction, commitment, and retention among staff nurses. The authors describe the journey from creation of the shared governance vision to reality, and the impact of the changes.

  8. Describing functional requirements for knowledge sharing communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Sandra; Caldwell, Barrett

    2002-01-01

    Human collaboration in distributed knowledge sharing groups depends on the functionality of information and communication technologies (ICT) to support performance. Since many of these dynamic environments are constrained by time limits, knowledge must be shared efficiently by adapting the level of information detail to the specific situation. This paper focuses on the process of knowledge and context sharing with and without mediation by ICT, as well as issues to be resolved when determining appropriate ICT channels. Both technology-rich and non-technology examples are discussed.

  9. Slowing global warming biotically - Options for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Each of the five biotic approaches introduced in Chapter 2 is applicable to some extent in the US. Taking US land-use characteristics into account, a menu of policy options tailored to US carbon storage opportunities is presented. Several of the options are capable of significantly reducing net US carbon emissions; several offer corollary benefits in areas other than global warming mitigation. The time frame and costs of the different options vary widely, although in most cases some level of implementation appears economically justified even without considering global warming. The approach, projected costs, and advantages of seven different policy options are profiled

  10. Propulsive options for a manned Mars transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.D.; Blersch, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this investigation, five potential manned Mars transportation systems are compared. These options include: (1) a single vehicle, chemically propelled (CHEM) option, (2) a single vehicle, nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) option, (3) a single vehicle solar electric propulsion (SEP) option, (4) a single vehicle hybrid nuclear electric propulsion (NEP)/CHEM option, and (5) a dual vehicle option (NEP cargo spacecraft and CHEM manned vehicle). In addition to utilizing the initial vehicle weight in low-earth orbit as a measure of mission feasibility, this study addresses the major technological barriers each propulsive scenario must surpass. It is shown that instead of a single clearly superior propulsion system, each means of propulsion may be favored depending upon the specified program policy and the extent of the desired manned flight time. Furthermore, the effect which aerobraking and multiple transfer cycles have upon mission feasibility is considered. 18 refs

  11. Aluminum industry options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    In 1990, Canada's producers of aluminum (third largest in the world) emitted 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to 6.4 tonnes of greenhouse gas intensity per tonne of aluminum. In 2000, the projection is that on a business-as-usual (BAU) basis Canadian producers now producing 60 per cent more aluminum than in 1990, will emit 10.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to a GHG intensity of 4.2 tonnes per tonne of aluminum. This improvement is due to production being based largely on hydro-electricity, and partly because in general, Canadian plants are modern, with technology that is relatively GHG-friendly. The Aluminum Association of Canada estimates that based on anticipated production, and under a BAU scenario, GHG emissions from aluminum production will rise by 18 per cent by 2010 and by 30 per cent by 2020. GHG emissions could be reduced below the BAU forecast first, by new control and monitoring systems at some operations at a cost of $4.5 to 7.5 million per smelter. These systems could reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 0.8 million tonnes per year. A second alternative would require installation of breaker feeders which would further reduce perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions by 0.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Cost of the breakers feeders would be in the order of $200 million per smelter. The third option calls for the the shutting down of some of the smelters with older technology by 2015. In this scenario GHG emissions would be reduced by 2010 by 0.8 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent. However, the cost in this case would be about $1.36 billion. The industry would support measures that would encourage the first two sets of actions, which would produce GHG emissions from aluminum production in Canada of about 10.2 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent, or about two per cent above 1990 levels with double the aluminum production of 1990. Credit for

  12. Shared virtual environments for telerehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, George V; Burdea, Grigore; Boian, Rares

    2002-01-01

    Current VR telerehabilitation systems use offline remote monitoring from the clinic and patient-therapist videoconferencing. Such "store and forward" and video-based systems cannot implement medical services involving patient therapist direct interaction. Real-time telerehabilitation applications (including remote therapy) can be developed using a shared Virtual Environment (VE) architecture. We developed a two-user shared VE for hand telerehabilitation. Each site has a telerehabilitation workstation with a videocamera and a Rutgers Master II (RMII) force feedback glove. Each user can control a virtual hand and interact hapticly with virtual objects. Simulated physical interactions between therapist and patient are implemented using hand force feedback. The therapist's graphic interface contains several virtual panels, which allow control over the rehabilitation process. These controls start a videoconferencing session, collect patient data, or apply therapy. Several experimental telerehabilitation scenarios were successfully tested on a LAN. A Web-based approach to "real-time" patient telemonitoring--the monitoring portal for hand telerehabilitation--was also developed. The therapist interface is implemented as a Java3D applet that monitors patient hand movement. The monitoring portal gives real-time performance on off-the-shelf desktop workstations.

  13. 42 CFR 456.506 - Waiver options for Medicaid agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waiver options for Medicaid agency. 456.506 Section 456.506 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... options for Medicaid agency. (a) The agency may apply for a waiver at any time it has the procedures...

  14. Cloud Computing: A Free Technology Option to Promote Collaborative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Del

    2010-01-01

    In a time of budget cuts and limited funding, purchasing and installing the latest software on classroom computers can be prohibitive for schools. Many educators are unaware that a variety of free software options exist, and some of them do not actually require installing software on the user's computer. One such option is cloud computing. This…

  15. On the Pricing of Options in Incomplete Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenberg, B.; Werker, B.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we reconsider the pricing of options in incomplete continuous time markets.We first discuss option pricing with idiosyncratic stochastic volatility.This leads, of course, to an averaged Black-Scholes price formula.Our proof of this result uses a new formalization of idiosyncraticy

  16. An approximate moving boundary method for American option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chockalingam, A.; Muthuraman, K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to solve the free-boundary problem that arises in the pricing of classical American options. Such free-boundary problems arise when one attempts to solve optimal-stopping problems set in continuous time. American option pricing is one of the most popular optimal-stopping problems

  17. Radioactive waste management turning options into solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neubauer, J.

    2000-10-01

    Most of the statements from representatives of different countries and institutions focused on the status of high level radioactive waste management, including spent fuel repositories. Speakers dealing with such topics were representatives from countries applying nuclear power for electricity production. They all reported about there national programs on technical and safety aspects of radioactive waste management. The panel discussion extended to questions on political sensitivities and public acceptance; in this respect, interesting developments are taking place in Finland and Sweden. It is expected that Finland will operate a final repository for spent fuel in 10 - 15 years from now, followed close by Sweden. Other countries, however, face decisions by policy makers and elected officials to postpone dealing with waste disposal concerns. In this connection there is relevant experience in our country, too - even in the absence of spent fuel or other high level waste to be dealt with. During personal discussions with representatives of other countries not using nuclear power it was confirmed that there are similar or shared experiences. Development of publicly -accepted solutions to radioactive waste management remains an important issue. Independent of the amount or the activity of radioactive waste, the public at large remains skeptical despite the agreement among experts that disposal can be safe, technically feasible and environmentally sound. In countries not using nuclear power there are only small quantities of low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Therefore, international co-operation among such countries should be an option. There was common understanding by representatives from Norway, Italy and Austria that international co-operation should be developed for treatment and disposal of such waste. For the moment however it has to be accepted that, for political reasons, it is not possible. Forced to deal with the lack of near-term solutions, the

  18. Sharing data increases citations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drachen, Thea Marie; Ellegaard, Ole; Larsen, Asger Væring

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents some indications to the existence of a citation advantage related to sharing data using astrophysics as a case. Through bibliometric analyses we find a citation advantage for astrophysical papers in core journals. The advantage arises as indexed papers are associated with data...... by bibliographical links, and consists of papers receiving on average significantly more citations per paper per year, than do papers not associated with links to data.......This paper presents some indications to the existence of a citation advantage related to sharing data using astrophysics as a case. Through bibliometric analyses we find a citation advantage for astrophysical papers in core journals. The advantage arises as indexed papers are associated with data...

  19. Does Knowledge Sharing Pay?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahnke, Volker; Pedersen, Torben; Venzin, Markus

    are developed using a simultaneous equation model applied to a unique dataset encompassing a German MNC, HeidelbergCement. Enablers and impediments of knowledge outflows are assessed in order to explain why subsidiaries share their knowledge with other MNC units. Implications are examined by studying the link......This empirical paper explores knowledge outflow from MNC subsidiaries and its impact on the MNC performance. We develop and test hypotheses derived from literature on MNC knowledge flows integrated with the perspective of knowledge-creating, self-interested MNC subsidiaries. The hypotheses...... between knowledge outflows and subsidiary performance. Our findings suggest that knowledge outflows increase a subsidiary's performance only up to a certain point and that too much knowledge sharing may be detrimental to the contributing subsidiary's performance....

  20. CALCULATING THE EFFECT OF EMPLOYEE STOCK OPTIONS ON DILUTED EPS

    OpenAIRE

    van Zyl, Warrick Boyd

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on how to calculate diluted earnings per share (DEPS) when a firm has outstanding employee stock options (ESOs). Three possible methods are described and compared. The first is the current International Accounting Standard 33 – Earnings Per Share (IAS 33) approach which is based on the intrinsic value of the ESOs. The second method, advocated by Core et al. (2002), is very similar to that of IAS 33 but instead of the intrinsic value uses the fair value of the outstanding...

  1. Globalization and Risk Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Jaume Ventura; Fernando A. Broner

    2006-01-01

    We study the effects of globalization on risk sharing and welfare. Like the previous literature, we assume that governments cannot commit to enforce the repayment of debts owed by their citizens. Unlike the previous literature, we assume that governments cannot discriminate between domestic and foreign creditors when enforcing debt payments. This creates novel interactions between domestic and international trade in assets. (i) Increases in domestic trade raise the benefits of enforcement and...

  2. Decreasing Serial Cost Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker [Econometrica 60 (1992) 1009] and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos [Journal of Economic Theory 79 (1998) 245] have attracted attention due to their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization...... of the increasing serial rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker [Journal of Economic Theory 64 (1994) 178]. This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule...

  3. Decreasing serial cost sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    The increasing serial cost sharing rule of Moulin and Shenker (Econometrica 60:1009-1037, 1992) and the decreasing serial rule of de Frutos (J Econ Theory 79:245-275, 1998) are known by their intuitive appeal and striking incentive properties. An axiomatic characterization of the increasing serial...... rule was provided by Moulin and Shenker (J Econ Theory 64:178-201, 1994). This paper gives an axiomatic characterization of the decreasing serial rule....

  4. Rethinking Data Sharing and Human Participant Protection in Social Science Research: Applications from the Qualitative Realm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessi Kirilova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While data sharing is becoming increasingly common in quantitative social inquiry, qualitative data are rarely shared. One factor inhibiting data sharing is a concern about human participant protections and privacy. Protecting the confidentiality and safety of research participants is a concern for both quantitative and qualitative researchers, but it raises specific concerns within the epistemic context of qualitative research. Thus, the applicability of emerging protection models from the quantitative realm must be carefully evaluated for application to the qualitative realm. At the same time, qualitative scholars already employ a variety of strategies for human-participant protection implicitly or informally during the research process. In this practice paper, we assess available strategies for protecting human participants and how they can be deployed. We describe a spectrum of possible data management options, such as de-identification and applying access controls, including some already employed by the Qualitative Data Repository (QDR in tandem with its pilot depositors. Throughout the discussion, we consider the tension between modifying data or restricting access to them, and retaining their analytic value. We argue that developing explicit guidelines for sharing qualitative data generated through interaction with humans will allow scholars to address privacy concerns and increase the secondary use of their data.

  5. Towards A Shared Mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen; Orth Gaarn-Larsen, Carsten

    A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome of the univer......A mission shared by stakeholders, management and employees is a prerequisite for an engaging dialog about the many and substantial changes and challenges currently facing universities. Too often this essen-tial dialog reveals mistrust and misunderstandings about the role and outcome...... on a shared mission aiming at value creation (in the broadest interpretation). One important aspect of choosing value as the cornerstone of the mission of universities is to stress that the outcome is measured by external stakeholders and by their standards. Most of the paper is devoted to discussing value...... it possible to lead through processes that engage and excite while creating transparency and accountability. The paper will be illustrated with examples from Denmark and the Helios initiative taken by the Danish Academy of Technical Sciences (ATV) under the headline “The value creating university – courage...

  6. Bonobos share with strangers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhi Tan

    Full Text Available Humans are thought to possess a unique proclivity to share with others--including strangers. This puzzling phenomenon has led many to suggest that sharing with strangers originates from human-unique language, social norms, warfare and/or cooperative breeding. However, bonobos, our closest living relative, are highly tolerant and, in the wild, are capable of having affiliative interactions with strangers. In four experiments, we therefore examined whether bonobos will voluntarily donate food to strangers. We show that bonobos will forego their own food for the benefit of interacting with a stranger. Their prosociality is in part driven by unselfish motivation, because bonobos will even help strangers acquire out-of-reach food when no desirable social interaction is possible. However, this prosociality has its limitations because bonobos will not donate food in their possession when a social interaction is not possible. These results indicate that other-regarding preferences toward strangers are not uniquely human. Moreover, language, social norms, warfare and cooperative breeding are unnecessary for the evolution of xenophilic sharing. Instead, we propose that prosociality toward strangers initially evolves due to selection for social tolerance, allowing the expansion of individual social networks. Human social norms and language may subsequently extend this ape-like social preference to the most costly contexts.

  7. Sharing resources@CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The library is launching a 'sharing resources@CERN' campaign, aiming to increase the library's utility by including the thousands of books bought by individual groups at CERN. This will improve sharing of information among CERN staff and users. Until now many people were unaware that copies of the same book (or standard, or journal) are often held not only by the library but by different divisions. (Here Eduardo Aldaz, from the PS division, and Isabel Bejar, from the ST division, read their divisional copies of the same book.) The idea behind the library's new sharing resources@CERN' initiative is not at all to collect the books in individual collections at the CERN library, but simply to register them in the Library database. Those not belonging to the library will in principle be unavailable for loan, but should be able to be consulted by anybody at CERN who is interested. "When you need a book urgently and it is not available in the library,' said PS Division engineer Eduardo Aldaz Carroll, it is a sham...

  8. Shared care and boundaries:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winthereik, Brit Ross

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science and techno......Purpose – The paper seeks to examine how an online maternity record involving pregnant women worked as a means to create shared maternity care. Design/methodology/approach – Ethnographic techniques have been used. The paper adopts a theoretical/methodological framework based on science...... and technology studies. Findings – The paper shows how a version of “the responsible patient” emerges from the project which is different from the version envisioned by the project organisation. The emerging one is concerned with the boundary between primary and secondary sector care, and not with the boundary......, IT designers and project managers should attend to the specific ways in which boundaries are inevitably enacted and to the ways in which care is already shared. This will provide them with opportunities to use the potentials of new identities and concerns that emerge from changing the organisation...

  9. Emerging Options and Opportunities in Civilian Aeronautics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the major problems/issues with civilian aeronautics going forward, the contextual ongoing technology revolutions, the several emerging civilian aeronautical "Big Ideas" and associated enabling technological approaches. The ongoing IT Revolution is increasingly providing, as 5 senses virtual presence/reality becomes available, along with Nano/Molecular Manufacturing, virtual alternatives to Physical transportation for both people and goods. Paper examines the potential options available to aeronautics to maintain and perhaps grow "market share" in the context of this evolving competition. Many of these concepts are not new, but the emerging technology landscape is enhancing their viability and marketability. The concepts vary from the "interesting" to the truly revolutionary and all require considerable research. Paper considers the speed range from personal/general aviation to supersonic transports and technologies from energetics to fabrication.

  10. Applying real options analysis to assess cleaner energy development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ching-Tsung; Lo, Shang-Lien; Lin, Tyrone T.

    2011-01-01

    The energy industry, accounts for the largest portion of CO 2 emissions, is facing the issue of compliance with the national clean energy policy. The methodology for evaluating the energy mix policy is crucial because of the characteristics of lead time embedded with the power generation facilities investment and the uncertainty of future electricity demand. In this paper, a modified binomial model based on sequential compound options, which may account for the lead time and uncertainty as a whole is established, and a numerical example on evaluating the optional strategies and the strategic value of the cleaner energy policy is also presented. It is found that the optimal decision at some nodes in the binomial tree is path dependent, which is different from the standard sequential compound option model with lead time or time lag concept. The proposed modified binomial sequential compound real options model can be generalized and extensively applied to solve the general decision problems that deal with the long lead time of many government policies as well as capital intensive investments. - Highlights: → Introducing a flexible strategic management approach for government policy making. → Developing a modified binomial real options model based on sequential compound options. → Proposing an innovative model for managing the long term policy with lead time. → Applying to evaluate the options of various scenarios of cleaner energy strategies.

  11. The Distributional Impact of Social Security Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A; Reznik, Gayle L; Tamborini, Christopher R; Iams, Howard M

    2017-01-01

    Using microsimulation, we estimate the effects of three policy proposals that would alter Social Security's eligibility rules or benefit structure to reflect changes in women's labor force activity, marital patterns, and differential mortality among the aged. First, we estimate a set of options related to the duration of marriage required to receive divorced spouse and survivor benefits. Second, we estimate the effects of an earnings sharing proposal with survivor benefits, in which benefits are based entirely on earned benefits with spouses sharing their earnings during years of marriage. Third, we estimate the effects of adjusting benefits to reflect the increasing differential life expectancy by lifetime earnings. The results advance our understanding of the distributional effects of these alternative policy options on projected benefits and retirement income, including poverty and supplemental poverty status, of divorced and widowed women aged 60 or older in 2030.

  12. Stock Options Economic Determinants of Brazilian Listed Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Gezer Silva de Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available It aim to identify the economic determinants that influence the use of stock options plans in Brazilian public companies listed on the Brazilian Securities, Commodities, and Futures Exchange (BM&FBovespa. Theoretically, the study relies on agency theory and corporate governance and executive compensation body of knowledge. Four research hypotheses were drawn concerning financial performance and corporate value; indebtedness; ownership concentration; and size. The sample was comprised of 100 companies with greater liquidity shares and volume for six years (from 2010 to2015.Data were examined from the logistic regression panel. The results lead to the rejection of the first and the fourth hypo the sesindicating, in the case of H1, that the higher financial performance the lower is probability of use stock options and, in the case of H4, that the higher size is related the lower is probability of use of stock options in their incentive plans for executives. The third hypothesis (H3 was not rejected, indicating that the ownership concentration relates negatively with the use of stock options. Regarding the second hypothesis (H2, the results did not present statistical significance indicating the absence of a relationship between indebtedness and the use of stock options. As a summary of the results it was found that the use of stock options tend to be used by lower companies, with lower ownership concentration and lower financial performance.

  13. A Comparison of Retrievability: Celect versus Option Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Robert K; Desai, Kush; Karp, Jennifer; Gupta, Ramona; Evans, Alan Emerson; Rajeswaran, Shankar; Salem, Riad; Lewandowski, Robert J

    2015-06-01

    To compare the retrievability of 2 potentially retrievable inferior vena cava filter devices. A retrospective, institutional review board-approved study of Celect (Cook, Inc, Bloomington, Indiana) and Option (Rex Medical, Conshohocken, Pennsylvania) filters was conducted over a 33-month period at a single institution. Fluoroscopy time, significant filter tilt, use of adjunctive retrieval technique, and strut perforation in the inferior vena cava were recorded on retrieval. Fisher exact test and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test were used for comparison. There were 99 Celect and 86 Option filters deployed. After an average of 2.09 months (range, 0.3-7.6 mo) and 1.94 months (range, 0.47-9.13 mo), respectively, 59% (n = 58) of patients with Celect filters and 74.7% (n = 65) of patients with Option filters presented for filter retrieval. Retrieval failure rates were 3.4% for Celect filters versus 7.7% for Option filters (P = .45). Median fluoroscopy retrieval times were 4.25 minutes for Celect filters versus 6 minutes for Option filters (P = .006). Adjunctive retrieval techniques were used in 5.4% of Celect filter retrievals versus 18.3% of Option filter retrievals (P = .045). The incidence of significant tilting was 8.9% for Celect filters versus 16.7% for Option filters (P = .27). The incidence of strut perforation was 43% for Celect filters versus 0% for Option filters (P Option filters were not significantly different. However, retrieval of the Option filter required a significantly increased amount of fluoroscopy time compared with the Celect filter, and there was a significantly greater usage of adjunctive retrieval techniques for the Option filter. The Celect filter had a significantly higher rate of strut perforation. Copyright © 2015 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mouse-tracking evidence for parallel anticipatory option evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranford, Edward A; Moss, Jarrod

    2017-12-23

    In fast-paced, dynamic tasks, the ability to anticipate the future outcome of a sequence of events is crucial to quickly selecting an appropriate course of action among multiple alternative options. There are two classes of theories that describe how anticipation occurs. Serial theories assume options are generated and evaluated one at a time, in order of quality, whereas parallel theories assume simultaneous generation and evaluation. The present research examined the option evaluation process during a task designed to be analogous to prior anticipation tasks, but within the domain of narrative text comprehension. Prior research has relied on indirect, off-line measurement of the option evaluation process during anticipation tasks. Because the movement of the hand can provide a window into underlying cognitive processes, online metrics such as continuous mouse tracking provide more fine-grained measurements of cognitive processing as it occurs in real time. In this study, participants listened to three-sentence stories and predicted the protagonists' final action by moving a mouse toward one of three possible options. Each story was presented with either one (control condition) or two (distractor condition) plausible ending options. Results seem most consistent with a parallel option evaluation process because initial mouse trajectories deviated further from the best option in the distractor condition compared to the control condition. It is difficult to completely rule out all possible serial processing accounts, although the results do place constraints on the time frame in which a serial processing explanation must operate.

  15. Cost-effective and low-technology options for simulation and training in neonatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Christie J; Glass, Kristen M

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to explore low-cost options for simulation and training in neonatology. Numerous cost-effective options exist for simulation and training in neonatology. Lower cost options are available for teaching clinical skills and procedural training in neonatal intubation, chest tube insertion, and pericardiocentesis, among others. Cost-effective, low-cost options for simulation-based education can be developed and shared in order to optimize the neonatal simulation training experience. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Expanding career options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, Rineke

    2009-01-01

    The musical landscape in Europe shows a complex picture. Societal change leads to change in the careers of artists. We see an increasing number of unstable jobs in the music profession. It no longer offers many opportunities for full-time, long-term contract work, but is often more project-based,

  17. 48 CFR 552.217-71 - Notice Regarding Option(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice Regarding Option(s... Notice Regarding Option(s). As prescribed in 517.208(b), insert the following provision: Notice Regarding Option(s) (NOV 1992) The General Services Administration (GSA) has included an option to [Insert...

  18. Flexibility and Project Value: Interactions and Multiple Real Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čulík, Miroslav

    2010-06-01

    This paper is focused on a project valuation with embedded portfolio of real options including their interactions. Valuation is based on the criterion of Net Present Value on the simulation basis. Portfolio includes selected types of European-type real options: option to expand, contract, abandon and temporarily shut down and restart a project. Due to the fact, that in reality most of the managerial flexibility takes the form of portfolio of real options, selected types of options are valued not only individually, but also in combination. The paper is structured as follows: first, diffusion models for forecasting of output prices and variable costs are derived. Second, project value is estimated on the assumption, that no real options are present. Next, project value is calculated with the presence of selected European-type options; these options and their impact on project value are valued first in isolation and consequently in different combinations. Moreover, intrinsic value evolution of given real options with respect to the time of exercising is analysed. In the end, results are presented graphically; selected statistics and risk measures (Value at Risk, Expected Shortfall) of the NPV's distributions are calculated and commented.

  19. Options on capacity imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Since the start of this year, the Dutch energy company Nuon has been using a computer system to formulate real-time responses to national capacity imbalances in the electricity supply market. The work earns Nuon a fixed fee from TenneT (Dutch Transmission System Operator) and ensures a more stable imbalance price for everyone. The key to success has been the decision to start the project from scratch [nl

  20. Expensing stock options: a fair-value approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Palepu, Krishna G

    2003-12-01

    Now that companies such as General Electric and Citigroup have accepted the premise that employee stock options are an expense, the debate is shifting from whether to report options on income statements to how to report them. The authors present a new accounting mechanism that maintains the rationale underlying stock option expensing while addressing critics' concerns about measurement error and the lack of reconciliation to actual experience. A procedure they call fair-value expensing adjusts and eventually reconciles cost estimates made at grant date with subsequent changes in the value of the options, and it does so in a way that eliminates forecasting and measurement errors over time. The method captures the chief characteristic of stock option compensation--that employees receive part of their compensation in the form of a contingent claim on the value they are helping to produce. The mechanism involves creating entries on both the asset and equity sides of the balance sheet. On the asset side, companies create a prepaid-compensation account equal to the estimated cost of the options granted; on the owners'-equity side, they create a paid-in capital stock-option account for the same amount. The prepaid-compensation account is then expensed through the income statement, and the stock option account is adjusted on the balance sheet to reflect changes in the estimated fair value of the granted options. The amortization of prepaid compensation is added to the change in the option grant's value to provide the total reported expense of the options grant for the year. At the end of the vesting period, the company uses the fair value of the vested option to make a final adjustment on the income statement to reconcile any difference between that fair value and the total of the amounts already reported.