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Sample records for time measurement reduce

  1. Motivational Counseling to Reduce Sitting Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; Linneberg, Allan; Møller, Trine C

    2014-01-01

    counseling intervention aimed at reducing sitting time. DESIGN: A randomized, controlled, observer-blinded, community-based trial with two parallel groups using open-end randomization with 1:1 allocation. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: A total of 166 sedentary adults were consecutively recruited from the population......-based Health2010 Study. INTERVENTION: Participants were randomized to a control (usual lifestyle) or intervention group with four individual theory-based counseling sessions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Objectively measured overall sitting time (ActivPAL 3TM, 7 days); secondary measures were breaks in sitting time......, anthropometric measures, and cardiometabolic biomarkers, assessed at baseline and after 6 months. Data were collected in 2010-2012 and analyzed in 2013-2014 using repeated measures multiple regression analyses. RESULTS: Ninety-three participants were randomized to the intervention group and 73 to the control...

  2. Tobacco Control Measures to Reduce Socioeconomic Inequality in Smoking: The Necessity, Time-Course Perspective, and Future Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Iso, Hiroyasu; Brunner, Eric

    2018-04-05

    Previous systematic reviews of population-level tobacco control interventions and their effects on smoking inequality by socioeconomic factors concluded that tobacco taxation reduce smoking inequality by income (although this is not consistent for other socioeconomic factors, such as education). Inconsistent results have been reported for socioeconomic differences, especially for other tobacco control measures, such as smoke-free policies and anti-tobacco media campaigns. To understand smoking inequality itself and to develop strategies to reduce smoking inequality, knowledge of the underlying principles or mechanisms of the inequality over a long time-course may be important. For example, the inverse equity hypothesis recognizes that inequality may evolve in stages. New population-based interventions are initially primarily accessed by the affluent and well-educated, so there is an initial increase in socioeconomic inequality (early stage). These inequalities narrow when the deprived population can access the intervention after the affluent have gained maximum benefit (late stage). Following this hypothesis, all tobacco control measures may have the potential to reduce smoking inequality, if they continue for a long term, covering and reaching all socioeconomic subgroups. Re-evaluation of the impact of the interventions on smoking inequality using a long time-course perspective may lead to a favorable next step in equity effectiveness. Tackling socioeconomic inequality in smoking may be a key public health target for the reduction of inequality in health.

  3. Can use of online measurements in EVOP designs reduce the time to locate production optimum?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Heidi Mai-Lis; Jørgensen, Erik; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to investigate if application of online sensor measurements can improve the use of Evolutionary operation (EVOP) tools in livestock farms by reducing manual recording and by observing intermediate problem measures at an early stage. An example with reduction of tail...

  4. Reducing Recreational Sedentary Screen Time: A Community Guide Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey Buchanan, Leigh; Rooks-Peck, Cherie R; Finnie, Ramona K C; Wethington, Holly R; Jacob, Verughese; Fulton, Janet E; Johnson, Donna B; Kahwati, Leila C; Pratt, Charlotte A; Ramirez, Gilbert; Mercer, Shawna L; Glanz, Karen

    2016-03-01

    Sedentary time spent with screen media is associated with obesity among children and adults. Obesity has potentially serious health consequences, such as heart disease and diabetes. This Community Guide systematic review examined the effectiveness and economic efficiency of behavioral interventions aimed at reducing recreational (i.e., neither school- nor work-related) sedentary screen time, as measured by screen time, physical activity, diet, and weight-related outcomes. For this review, an earlier ("original") review (search period, 1966 through July 2007) was combined with updated evidence (search period, April 2007 through June 2013) to assess effectiveness of behavioral interventions aimed at reducing recreational sedentary screen time. Existing Community Guide systematic review methods were used. Analyses were conducted in 2013-2014. The review included 49 studies. Two types of behavioral interventions were evaluated that either (1) focus on reducing recreational sedentary screen time only (12 studies); or (2) focus equally on reducing recreational sedentary screen time and improving physical activity or diet (37 studies). Most studies targeted children aged ≤13 years. Children's composite screen time (TV viewing plus other forms of recreational sedentary screen time) decreased 26.4 (interquartile interval= -74.4, -12.0) minutes/day and obesity prevalence decreased 2.3 (interquartile interval= -4.5, -1.2) percentage points versus a comparison group. Improvements in physical activity and diet were reported. Three study arms among adults found composite screen time decreased by 130.2 minutes/day. Among children, these interventions demonstrated reduced screen time, increased physical activity, and improved diet- and weight-related outcomes. More research is needed among adolescents and adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Is lowering reducing sugars concentration in French fries an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentration in food service establishments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the actual effectiveness of lowering reducing sugars concentration in par-fried potato strips on the concentration and variation of acrylamide in French fries prepared in real-life situations in food service establishments. Acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and characteristics of fryers were recorded. Data showed that the use of par-fried potato strips with lower concentrations of reducing sugars than the commonly used potato strips was an effective measure to reduce acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under standardised frying conditions. However, there was still large variation in the acrylamide concentrations in French fries, although the variation in reducing sugars concentrations in low and normal types of par-fried potato strips was very small and the frying conditions were similar. Factors that could affect the temperature-time profile of frying oil were discussed, such as setting a lower frying temperature at the end than at the start of frying, product/oil ratio and thawing practice. These need to be controlled in daily practice to reduce variation in acrylamide. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tile Drainage Density Reduces Groundwater Travel Times and Compromises Riparian Buffer Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Keith E; Wolter, Calvin F; Isenhart, Thomas M; Schultz, Richard C

    2015-11-01

    Strategies to reduce nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate) pollution delivered to streams often seek to increase groundwater residence time to achieve measureable results, yet the effects of tile drainage on residence time have not been well documented. In this study, we used a geographic information system groundwater travel time model to quantify the effects of artificial subsurface drainage on groundwater travel times in the 7443-ha Bear Creek watershed in north-central Iowa. Our objectives were to evaluate how mean groundwater travel times changed with increasing drainage intensity and to assess how tile drainage density reduces groundwater contributions to riparian buffers. Results indicate that mean groundwater travel times are reduced with increasing degrees of tile drainage. Mean groundwater travel times decreased from 5.6 to 1.1 yr, with drainage densities ranging from 0.005 m (7.6 mi) to 0.04 m (62 mi), respectively. Model simulations indicate that mean travel times with tile drainage are more than 150 times faster than those that existed before settlement. With intensive drainage, less than 2% of the groundwater in the basin appears to flow through a perennial stream buffer, thereby reducing the effectiveness of this practice to reduce stream nitrate loads. Hence, strategies, such as reconnecting tile drainage to buffers, are promising because they increase groundwater residence times in tile-drained watersheds. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Reduced-Item Food Audits Based on the Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Susan N; Menzies, Tim J; Colburn, Trina A; Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2015-10-01

    The community food environment may contribute to obesity by influencing food choice. Store and restaurant audits are increasingly common methods for assessing food environments, but are time consuming and costly. A valid, reliable brief measurement tool is needed. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate reduced-item food environment audit tools for stores and restaurants. Nutrition Environment Measures Surveys for stores (NEMS-S) and restaurants (NEMS-R) were completed in 820 stores and 1,795 restaurants in West Virginia, San Diego, and Seattle. Data mining techniques (correlation-based feature selection and linear regression) were used to identify survey items highly correlated to total survey scores and produce reduced-item audit tools that were subsequently validated against full NEMS surveys. Regression coefficients were used as weights that were applied to reduced-item tool items to generate comparable scores to full NEMS surveys. Data were collected and analyzed in 2008-2013. The reduced-item tools included eight items for grocery, ten for convenience, seven for variety, and five for other stores; and 16 items for sit-down, 14 for fast casual, 19 for fast food, and 13 for specialty restaurants-10% of the full NEMS-S and 25% of the full NEMS-R. There were no significant differences in median scores for varying types of retail food outlets when compared to the full survey scores. Median in-store audit time was reduced 25%-50%. Reduced-item audit tools can reduce the burden and complexity of large-scale or repeated assessments of the retail food environment without compromising measurement quality. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A simple ergonomic measure reduces fluoroscopy time during ERCP: A multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowhari, Fahd; Hopman, Wilma M; Hookey, Lawrence

    2017-03-01

    between the endoscopy and fluoroscopy screens in the ERCP suite significantly reduces the total fluoroscopy time, and therefore radiation exposure to patients and staff involved in the procedure.

  9. Reduction of Poisson noise in measured time-resolved data for time-domain diffuse optical tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawa, S; Endo, Y; Hoshi, Y; Yamada, Y

    2012-01-01

    A method to reduce noise for time-domain diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is proposed. Poisson noise which contaminates time-resolved photon counting data is reduced by use of maximum a posteriori estimation. The noise-free data are modeled as a Markov random process, and the measured time-resolved data are assumed as Poisson distributed random variables. The posterior probability of the occurrence of the noise-free data is formulated. By maximizing the probability, the noise-free data are estimated, and the Poisson noise is reduced as a result. The performances of the Poisson noise reduction are demonstrated in some experiments of the image reconstruction of time-domain DOT. In simulations, the proposed method reduces the relative error between the noise-free and noisy data to about one thirtieth, and the reconstructed DOT image was smoothed by the proposed noise reduction. The variance of the reconstructed absorption coefficients decreased by 22% in a phantom experiment. The quality of DOT, which can be applied to breast cancer screening etc., is improved by the proposed noise reduction.

  10. APD Response Time Measurements for Future TOF-E Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, M. J.; Ogasawara, K.; Dayeh, M. A.; Desai, M. I.

    2017-12-01

    In space physics, the ability to detect ions is crucial to understanding plasma distributions in the solar wind. This usually typically requires the determination of the particle's mass, charge, and total energy. Current ion detection schemes are implemented in three sequential parts; an electrostatic analyzer for energy per charge (E/Q) measurements, a time-of-flight (TOF) for mass per charge (M/Q) measurements, and a solid-state detector (SSD) for total energy (E) measurements. Recent work has suggested the use of avalanche photodiode detectors (APD) for a simultaneous TOF and total energy (TOF-E) measurement system, which would replace traditional SSDs, simplify design, and reduce costs. Although TOF based ion spectrometry typically requires timing resolution of systems.

  11. Active learning reduces annotation time for clinical concept extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholghi, Mahnoosh; Sitbon, Laurianne; Zuccon, Guido; Nguyen, Anthony

    2017-10-01

    To investigate: (1) the annotation time savings by various active learning query strategies compared to supervised learning and a random sampling baseline, and (2) the benefits of active learning-assisted pre-annotations in accelerating the manual annotation process compared to de novo annotation. There are 73 and 120 discharge summary reports provided by Beth Israel institute in the train and test sets of the concept extraction task in the i2b2/VA 2010 challenge, respectively. The 73 reports were used in user study experiments for manual annotation. First, all sequences within the 73 reports were manually annotated from scratch. Next, active learning models were built to generate pre-annotations for the sequences selected by a query strategy. The annotation/reviewing time per sequence was recorded. The 120 test reports were used to measure the effectiveness of the active learning models. When annotating from scratch, active learning reduced the annotation time up to 35% and 28% compared to a fully supervised approach and a random sampling baseline, respectively. Reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations resulted in 20% further reduction of the annotation time when compared to de novo annotation. The number of concepts that require manual annotation is a good indicator of the annotation time for various active learning approaches as demonstrated by high correlation between time rate and concept annotation rate. Active learning has a key role in reducing the time required to manually annotate domain concepts from clinical free text, either when annotating from scratch or reviewing active learning-assisted pre-annotations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reverse time migration by Krylov subspace reduced order modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir, Hadi Mahdavi; Javaherian, Abdolrahim; Shomali, Zaher Hossein; Firouz-Abadi, Roohollah Dehghani; Gholamy, Shaban Ali

    2018-04-01

    Imaging is a key step in seismic data processing. To date, a myriad of advanced pre-stack depth migration approaches have been developed; however, reverse time migration (RTM) is still considered as the high-end imaging algorithm. The main limitations associated with the performance cost of reverse time migration are the intensive computation of the forward and backward simulations, time consumption, and memory allocation related to imaging condition. Based on the reduced order modeling, we proposed an algorithm, which can be adapted to all the aforementioned factors. Our proposed method benefit from Krylov subspaces method to compute certain mode shapes of the velocity model computed by as an orthogonal base of reduced order modeling. Reverse time migration by reduced order modeling is helpful concerning the highly parallel computation and strongly reduces the memory requirement of reverse time migration. The synthetic model results showed that suggested method can decrease the computational costs of reverse time migration by several orders of magnitudes, compared with reverse time migration by finite element method.

  13. Measuring health inequalities over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bergonzoli

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: several methodologies have been used to measure health inequalities. Most of them do so in a cross- sectional fashion, causing significant loss of information. None of them measure health inequalities in social territories over time. Methods: this article presents two approaches measure health inequalities: one approach consists of a refinement of cross-sectional study, by using the analysis of ANOVA variance (ANOVA procedure to explore whether the gap between social territories is real or due to chance. Several adjustments were made to limit errors inevitably found in multiple comparisons. Polynomial procedures were then applied to identify and evaluate any trends. The second sociales se utilizó approach measures the health gap between social territories or strata (as defined in this study over time using the Poisson regression. These approaches were applied using life expectancy and maternal mortality data from Venezuela. Results: a positive relationship between tendenterritories and life expectancy was found, with a significant cia linal trend. The relation between maternal mortality and materna y territorios sociales fue cuadrática. La medición desocial territories was quadratic. The measurement of the la brecha, gap between least developed social territory and the most, a developed territory showed a gap reduction from the first to the second decade, mainly because of an increase of territorio social maternal mortality in the more developed area, rather than a real improvement in the least developed. Conclusions: study helps to clarify the impact that public policies and interventions have in reducing the health gap. Knowledge that a health gap between social territories can decrease without showing improvement in the least developed sector , is an important finding for monitoring and evaluating health interventions for improving living and health conditions in the population.

  14. Defining the research agenda to measure and reduce tuberculosis stigmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, K; Bakker, M I; Bergson, S; Bhavaraju, R; Bond, V; Chikovore, J; Colvin, C; Craig, G M; Cremers, A L; Daftary, A; Engel, N; France, N Ferris; Jaramillo, E; Kimerling, M; Kipp, A; Krishnaratne, S; Mergenthaler, C; Ngicho, M; Redwood, L; Rood, E J J; Sommerland, N; Stangl, A; van Rie, A; van Brakel, W; Wouters, E; Zwerling, A; Mitchell, E M H

    2017-11-01

    Crucial to finding and treating the 4 million tuberculosis (TB) patients currently missed by national TB programmes, TB stigma is receiving well-deserved and long-delayed attention at the global level. However, the ability to measure and evaluate the success of TB stigma-reduction efforts is limited by the need for additional tools. At a 2016 TB stigma-measurement meeting held in The Hague, The Netherlands, stigma experts discussed and proposed a research agenda around four themes: 1) drivers: what are the main drivers and domains of TB stigma(s)?; 2) consequences: how consequential are TB stigmas and how are negative impacts most felt?; 3) burden: what is the global prevalence and distribution of TB stigma(s) and what explains any variation? 4): intervention: what can be done to reduce the extent and impact of TB stigma(s)? Each theme was further subdivided into research topics to be addressed to move the agenda forward. These include greater clarity on what causes TB stigmas to emerge and thrive, the difficulty of measuring the complexity of stigma, and the improbability of a universal stigma 'cure'. Nevertheless, these challenges should not hinder investments in the measurement and reduction of TB stigma. We believe it is time to focus on how, and not whether, the global community should measure and reduce TB stigma.

  15. Real-time temperature field measurement based on acoustic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Yong; Jia, Jiabin; Polydorides, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic tomography can be used to measure the temperature field from the time-of-flight (TOF). In order to capture real-time temperature field changes and accurately yield quantitative temperature images, two improvements to the conventional acoustic tomography system are studied: simultaneous acoustic transmission and TOF collection along multiple ray paths, and an offline iteration reconstruction algorithm. During system operation, all the acoustic transceivers send modulated and filtered wideband Kasami sequences simultaneously to facilitate fast and accurate TOF measurements using cross-correlation detection. For image reconstruction, the iteration process is separated and executed offline beforehand to shorten computation time for online temperature field reconstruction. The feasibility and effectiveness of the developed methods are validated in the simulation study. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method can reduce the processing time per frame from 160 ms to 20 ms, while the reconstruction error remains less than 5%. Hence, the proposed method has great potential in the measurement of rapid temperature change with good temporal and spatial resolution. (paper)

  16. Reducing Attendance Time in LR-EPONs With Differentiated Services

    KAUST Repository

    Elrasad, Amr

    2015-04-09

    This work presents a novel on-the-fly void filling scheme for Long-Reach EPON called Size Controlled Batch Void Filling (SCBVF). SCBVF aims at reducing the time between consecutive bandwidth grants (attendance time) and hence reducing the average delay for delay-sensitive traffic.

  17. REDUCING LEAD TIME USING FUZZY LOGIC AT JOB SHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMİN GÜNDOĞAR

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available One problem encountering at the job shop scheduling is minimum production size of machine is different from each another. This case increases lead time. A new approach was improved to reduce lead time. In this new approach, the parts, which materials are in stock and orders coming very frequently are assigned to machine to reduce lead time. Due the fact that there are a lot of machine and orders, it is possible to become so1ne probletns. In this paper, fuzzy logic is used to cope with this problem. New approach was simulated at the job sop that has owner 15 machinery and 50 orders. Simulation results showed that new approach reduced lead time between 27.89% and 32.36o/o

  18. Flight-time spread of uniform field sector magnet system for use in nuclear life-time measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Akihiko; Mamei, Masayuki; Yamada, Yoshihiro; Ohira, Kyozo

    1984-01-01

    A nuclear life-time measurement apparatus incorporating a deflecting β-ray spectrometer with electron pre-accelerator has been constructed. A new arrangement consisting of two double angular focusing sector magnets based on the principle of symmetry has been devised so as to reduce the time spread in the spectrometer, which up till now has been the weak point of such systems. The time spread in the spectrometer was estimated to be asymptotically equals 0.1 ns by a simulation method, and good agreement was obtained between this estimated value and the experimental value. A prompt time resolution of 1.25 ns (FWHM) was obtained. The half-lives of the 199 and 401 keV levels in 75 As were measured with an acceleration voltage up to 30 kV to check the reliability of the apparatus. The values were found to be 0.87+-0.04 ns and 1.74+-0.05 ns, respectively, in good agreement with previous measurements. (author)

  19. Efficacy of New Measures Saving Time in Acute Stroke Management: A Quantified Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Mohedano, Ana María; García Pastor, Andrés; Díaz Otero, Fernando; Vázquez Alen, Pilar; Vales Montero, Marta; Luque Buzo, Elisa; Redondo Ráfales, Nuria; Chavarria Cano, Beatriz; Fernández Bullido, Yolanda; Villanueva Osorio, Jose Antonio; Gil Núñez, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    Time to treatment remains the most important factor in acute ischemic stroke prognosis. We quantified the effect of new interventions reducing in-hospital delays in acute stroke management and assessed its repercussion on door-to-imaging (DTI), imaging-to-needle (ITN), and door-to-needle (DTN) times. Prospective registry of consecutive stroke patients who were candidates for reperfusion therapy attended in a tertiary care hospital from February 1 to December 31, 2014. A series of measures aimed at reducing in-hospital delays were implemented. We compared DTI, ITN, and DTN times between patients who underwent the interventions and those who did not. 231 patients. DTI time was lower when personal history was reviewed and tests were ordered before patient arrival (2.5 minutes saved, P = .016) and when electrocardiogram was not made (5.4 minutes saved, P time significantly (14 and 12 minutes saved, respectively, P time. Completing all steps resulted in the lowest DTI and ITN times (13 and 19 minutes, respectively). Every measure is an important part of a chain focused on saving time in acute stroke: the lowest DTI and ITN times were obtained when all steps were completed. Measures shortening ITN time produced a greater impact on DTN time reduction; therefore, ITN interventions should be considered a critical part of new protocols and guidelines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A comprehensive tool for measuring mammographic density changes over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mikael; Li, Jingmei; Leifland, Karin; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per

    2018-06-01

    Mammographic density is a marker of breast cancer risk and diagnostics accuracy. Density change over time is a strong proxy for response to endocrine treatment and potentially a stronger predictor of breast cancer incidence. We developed STRATUS to analyse digital and analogue images and enable automated measurements of density changes over time. Raw and processed images from the same mammogram were randomly sampled from 41,353 healthy women. Measurements from raw images (using FDA approved software iCAD) were used as templates for STRATUS to measure density on processed images through machine learning. A similar two-step design was used to train density measures in analogue images. Relative risks of breast cancer were estimated in three unique datasets. An alignment protocol was developed using images from 11,409 women to reduce non-biological variability in density change. The protocol was evaluated in 55,073 women having two regular mammography screens. Differences and variances in densities were compared before and after image alignment. The average relative risk of breast cancer in the three datasets was 1.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-1.8] per standard deviation of percent mammographic density. The discrimination was AUC 0.62 (CI 0.60-0.64). The type of image did not significantly influence the risk associations. Alignment decreased the non-biological variability in density change and re-estimated the yearly overall percent density decrease from 1.5 to 0.9%, p density measures was not influenced by mammogram type. The alignment protocol reduced the non-biological variability between images over time. STRATUS has the potential to become a useful tool for epidemiological studies and clinical follow-up.

  1. Employing innovative techniques to reduce inspection times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heumueller, R.; Guse, G.; Dirauf, F.; Fischer, E.

    1997-01-01

    Shorter inspection periods mean lower revision costs and less tight revision schedules, but must not detract from the quality of inspection findings. This requirement imposes upon the company performing the inspection the need for top achievements both in quality management and in the use of innovative techniques. Flexible equipment systems and inspection techniques adapted to specific purposes are able to reduce inspection times in many inspection jobs. As part of a complete system designed to reduce inspection times, the new Saphir (Siemens Alok Phased Array Integrated Reliable UT-System) inspection equipment system is the core of most of the recent innovations. Being an integrated inspection equipment system, it is able to handle conventional US probes as well as arrays and phased arrays. It is open for further matching to specific inspection and administrative requirements and developments, and it may be incorporated in the network of an integrated system with a database. A technological leap in probe design in the past few years has allowed controllable wave fields to be generated which are in no way inferior to those of conventional probes with fixed angles of incidence. In this way, a number of inspection techniques can be implemented with a single probe. This reduces inspection times, setup and retooling times, and doses. Typical examples already used in practice are the LLT (longitudinal-longitudinal-transverse waves) technique and the integration of inspections for longitudinal and transverse defects in a single run. In the near future, surfaces with complicated curvatures will be inspected by novel modular robot systems consisting of individual modules of linear axes and rotational axes. (orig.) [de

  2. Reducing Design Cycle Time and Cost Through Process Resequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James L.

    2004-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, companies are under enormous pressure to reduce the time and cost of their design cycle. One method for reducing both time and cost is to develop an understanding of the flow of the design processes and the effects of the iterative subcycles that are found in complex design projects. Once these aspects are understood, the design manager can make decisions that take advantage of decomposition, concurrent engineering, and parallel processing techniques to reduce the total time and the total cost of the design cycle. One software tool that can aid in this decision-making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). The DeMAID software minimizes the feedback couplings that create iterative subcycles, groups processes into iterative subcycles, and decomposes the subcycles into a hierarchical structure. The real benefits of producing the best design in the least time and at a minimum cost are obtained from sequencing the processes in the subcycles.

  3. Lean six sigma methodologies improve clinical laboratory efficiency and reduce turnaround times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Tamer C; Goruroglu Ozturk, Ozlem; Kibar, Filiz; Cetiner, Salih; Matyar, Selcuk; Daglioglu, Gulcin; Yaman, Akgun

    2018-01-01

    Organizing work flow is a major task of laboratory management. Recently, clinical laboratories have started to adopt methodologies such as Lean Six Sigma and some successful implementations have been reported. This study used Lean Six Sigma to simplify the laboratory work process and decrease the turnaround time by eliminating non-value-adding steps. The five-stage Six Sigma system known as define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) is used to identify and solve problems. The laboratory turnaround time for individual tests, total delay time in the sample reception area, and percentage of steps involving risks of medical errors and biological hazards in the overall process are measured. The pre-analytical process in the reception area was improved by eliminating 3 h and 22.5 min of non-value-adding work. Turnaround time also improved for stat samples from 68 to 59 min after applying Lean. Steps prone to medical errors and posing potential biological hazards to receptionists were reduced from 30% to 3%. Successful implementation of Lean Six Sigma significantly improved all of the selected performance metrics. This quality-improvement methodology has the potential to significantly improve clinical laboratories. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Time of flight measurements based on FPGA using a breast dedicated PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, A; García-Olcina, R; Martos, J; Soret, J; Torres, J; Benlloch, J M; González, A J; Sánchez, F

    2014-01-01

    In this work the implementation of a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) using a Nutt delay line FPGA-based and applied on a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) device is going to be presented in order to check the system's suitability for Time of Flight (TOF) measurements. In recent years, FPGAs have shown great advantages for precise time measurements in PET. The architecture employed for these measurements is described in detail. The system developed was tested on a dedicated breast PET prototype, composed of LYSO crystals and Positive Sensitive Photomultipliers (PSPMTs). Two distinct experiments were carried out for this purpose. In the first test, system linearity was evaluated in order to calibrate the time measurements, providing a linearity error of less than 2% and an average time resolution of 1.4 ns FWHM. The second set of measurements tested system resolution, resulting in a FWHM as good as 1.35 ns. The results suggest that the coincidence window for the current PET can be reduced in order to minimize the random events and thus, achieve better image quality

  5. Enhancing outpatient clinics management software by reducing patients’ waiting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Almomani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA gives great attention to improving the quality of services provided by health care sectors including outpatient clinics. One of the main drawbacks in outpatient clinics is long waiting time for patients—which affects the level of patient satisfaction and the quality of services. This article addresses this problem by studying the Outpatient Management Software (OMS and proposing solutions to reduce waiting times. Many hospitals around the world apply solutions to overcome the problem of long waiting times in outpatient clinics such as hospitals in the USA, China, Sri Lanka, and Taiwan. These clinics have succeeded in reducing wait times by 15%, 78%, 60% and 50%, respectively. Such solutions depend mainly on adding more human resources or changing some business or management policies. The solutions presented in this article reduce waiting times by enhancing the software used to manage outpatient clinics services. Both quantitative and qualitative methods have been used to understand current OMS and examine level of patient’s satisfaction. Five main problems that may cause high or unmeasured waiting time have been identified: appointment type, ticket numbering, doctor late arrival, early arriving patient and patients’ distribution list. These problems have been mapped to the corresponding OMS components. Solutions to the above problems have been introduced and evaluated analytically or by simulation experiments. Evaluation of the results shows a reduction in patient waiting time. When late doctor arrival issues are solved, this can reduce the clinic service time by up to 20%. However, solutions for early arriving patients reduces 53.3% of vital time, 20% of the clinic time and overall 30.3% of the total waiting time. Finally, well patient-distribution lists make improvements by 54.2%. Improvements introduced to the patients’ waiting time will consequently affect patients’ satisfaction and improve

  6. 'Stutter timing' for charge decay time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, John; Harbour, John; Pavey, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.

  7. Assessing the impact of a waiting time survey on reducing waiting times in urban primary care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Daniels

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A waiting time survey (WTS conducted in several clinics in Cape Town, South Africa provided recommendations on how to shorten waiting times (WT. A follow-up study was conducted to assess whether WT had reduced. Using a stratified sample of 22 clinics, a before and after study design assessed changes in WT. The WT was measured and perceptions of clinic managers were elicited, about the previous survey’s recommendations. The overall median WT decreased by 21 minutes (95%CI: 11.77- 30.23, a 28% decrease from the previous WTS. Although no specific factor was associated with decreases in WT, implementation of recommendations to reduce WT was 2.67 times (95%CI: 1.33-5.40 more likely amongst those who received written recommendations and 2.3 times (95%CI: 1.28- 4.19 more likely amongst managers with 5 or more years’ experience. The decrease in WT found demonstrates the utility of a WTS in busy urban clinics in developing country contexts. Experienced facility managers who timeously receive customised reports of their clinic’s performance are more likely to implement changes that positively impact on reducing WT.

  8. Reducing preoperative fasting time: A trend based on evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Dock-Nascimento, Diana Borges

    2010-03-27

    Preoperative fasting is mandatory before anesthesia to reduce the risk of aspiration. However, the prescribed 6-8 h of fasting is usually prolonged to 12-16 h for various reasons. Prolonged fasting triggers a metabolic response that precipitates gluconeogenesis and increases the organic response to trauma. Various randomized trials and meta-analyses have consistently shown that is safe to reduce the preoperative fasting time with a carbohydrate-rich drink up to 2 h before surgery. Benefits related to this shorter preoperative fasting include the reduction of postoperative gastrointestinal discomfort and insulin resistance. New formulas containing amino acids such as glutamine and other peptides are being studied and are promising candidates to be used to reduce preoperative fasting time.

  9. Rheological measurements in reduced gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiyarov, Sayavur I.; Overfelt, Ruel A.

    1999-01-01

    Rheology of fluidized beds and settling suspensions were studied experimentally in a series of reduced gravity parabolic flights aboard NASA's KC-135 aircraft. Silica sands of two different size distributions were fluidized by air. The slurries were made using silica sand and Glycerol solution. The experimental set up incorporated instrumentation to measure the air flow rate, the pressure drop and the apparent viscosity of the fluidized sand and sand suspensions at a wide range of the shear rates. The fluidization chamber and container had transparent walls to allow visualization of the structure changes involved in fluidization and in Couette flow in reduced gravity. Experiments were performed over a broad range of gravitational accelerations including microgravity and double gravity conditions. The results of the flight and ground experiments reveal significant differences in overall void fraction and hence in the apparent viscosity of fluidized sand and sand suspensions under microgravity as compared to one-g conditions.

  10. Small Steps: Preliminary effectiveness and feasibility of an incremental goal-setting intervention to reduce sitting time in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, L K; Rowlands, A V; Gardiner, P A; Standage, M; English, C; Olds, T

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary effectiveness and feasibility of a theory-informed program to reduce sitting time in older adults. Pre-experimental (pre-post) study. Thirty non-working adult (≥ 60 years) participants attended a one hour face-to-face intervention session and were guided through: a review of their sitting time; normative feedback on sitting time; and setting goals to reduce total sitting time and bouts of prolonged sitting. Participants chose six goals and integrated one per week incrementally for six weeks. Participants received weekly phone calls. Sitting time and bouts of prolonged sitting (≥ 30 min) were measured objectively for seven days (activPAL3c inclinometer) pre- and post-intervention. During these periods, a 24-h time recall instrument was administered by computer-assisted telephone interview. Participants completed a post-intervention project evaluation questionnaire. Paired t tests with sequential Bonferroni corrections and Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated for all outcomes. Twenty-seven participants completed the assessments (71.7 ± 6.5 years). Post-intervention, objectively-measured total sitting time was significantly reduced by 51.5 min per day (p=0.006; d=-0.58) and number of bouts of prolonged sitting by 0.8 per day (p=0.002; d=-0.70). Objectively-measured standing increased by 39 min per day (p=0.006; d=0.58). Participants self-reported spending 96 min less per day sitting (p<0.001; d=-0.77) and 32 min less per day watching television (p=0.005; d=-0.59). Participants were highly satisfied with the program. The 'Small Steps' program is a feasible and promising avenue for behavioral modification to reduce sitting time in older adults. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Attention Inhibition Training Can Reduce Betel-Nut Chewing Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chou Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Betel nut (or areca is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for observing chewing behavior. The Go/No-Go task constituted three phases (pretest, training and posttest. In the taste test, the habitual chewers were asked to rate the flavors of one betel nut and one gum. The purpose (blind to the chewers of this taste test was to observe whether their picking order and chewing time were affected by experimental manipulation. Results from the Go/No-Go task showed successful training. Further, the training groups (the inhibit-areca and inhibit-non-areca groups showed a significant reduction in betel nut chewing time, in comparison to the control group. Since both training groups showed reduced chewing time, the inhibition training may affect general control ability, in regardless of the stimulus (areca or not to be inhibited. Reduced chewing time is important for reducing areca-related diseases.

  12. Reducing gas flaring in Russia: Gloomy outlook in times of economic insecurity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loe, Julia S.P.; Ladehaug, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Reducing Russia,s high levels of Associated Petroleum Gas (APG) flaring has been high on the Russian political agenda since 2007. In 2009 a decree requiring APG utilization of minimum 95 percent was adopted, valid from 1 January 2012. The oil industry has implemented various measures to reduce flaring, but not to a sufficiently large extent to make the 2012 deadline. This paper concludes that the utilization goal could be reached within 3–5 years if there is political will and the oil industry is given appropriate enabling measures. However, in a time of economic insecurity, domestically as well as in Russia’s primary export market in Europe, maintaining the status quo to ensure political stability is likely to be prioritized by the authorities at the expense of investments and structural reform which may be a premise for reaching the APG utilization goal. - Highlights: ► Russia's APG utilization goal will most likely not be reached within 3-5 years. ► The main reason for not reaching the 95 % target is lack of political will. ► Petroleum producers lack enabling measures for APG utilization. ► Reaching the target will most likely require structural gas sector reform. ► Reform is unlikely due to prioritization of political stability.

  13. Participatory workplace interventions can reduce sedentary time for office workers--a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Sharon; Straker, Leon; Gilson, Nicholas D; Smith, Anne J

    2013-01-01

    Occupational sedentary behaviour is an important contributor to overall sedentary risk. There is limited evidence for effective workplace interventions to reduce occupational sedentary time and increase light activity during work hours. The purpose of the study was to determine if participatory workplace interventions could reduce total sedentary time, sustained sedentary time (bouts >30 minutes), increase the frequency of breaks in sedentary time and promote light intensity activity and moderate/vigorous activity (MVPA) during work hours. A randomised controlled trial (ANZCTR NUMBER: ACTN12612000743864) was conducted using clerical, call centre and data processing workers (n = 62, aged 25-59 years) in 3 large government organisations in Perth, Australia. Three groups developed interventions with a participatory approach: 'Active office' (n = 19), 'Active Workstation' and promotion of incidental office activity; 'Traditional physical activity' (n = 14), pedometer challenge to increase activity between productive work time and 'Office ergonomics' (n = 29), computer workstation design and breaking up computer tasks. Accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X, 7 days) determined sedentary time, sustained sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time, light intensity activity and MVPA on work days and during work hours were measured before and following a 12 week intervention period. For all participants there was a significant reduction in sedentary time on work days (-1.6%, p = 0.006) and during work hours (-1.7%, p = 0.014) and a significant increase in number of breaks/sedentary hour on work days (0.64, p = 0.005) and during work hours (0.72, p = 0.015); there was a concurrent significant increase in light activity during work hours (1.5%, p = 0.012) and MVPA on work days (0.6%, p = 0.012). This study explored novel ways to modify work practices to reduce occupational sedentary behaviour. Participatory workplace interventions can reduce

  14. Measuring and managing radiologist workload: measuring radiologist reporting times using data from a Radiology Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Ian A.; MacDonald, Sharon L.S.; Floyd, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, there has been no objective method of measuring the time required for radiologists to produce reports during normal work. We have created a technique for semi-automated measurement of radiologist reporting time, and through it produced a robust set of absolute time requirements and relative value units for consultant reporting of diagnostic examinations in our hospital. A large sample of reporting times, recorded automatically by the Radiology Information System (COMRAD, Software Innovations, Christchurch, New Zealand) along with the description of each examination being reported, was placed in a database. Analysis was confined to diagnostic reporting by consultant radiologists. A spreadsheet was produced, listing the total number and the frequency of reporting times of each distinct examination. Outliers with exceptionally long report times (more than 10min for plain radiography, 30min for ultrasound, or 60min for CT or MRI with some exceptions) were culled; this removed 9.5% of the total. Complex CTs requiring separate workstation time were assigned times by consensus. The median time for the remainder of each sample was the assigned absolute reporting time in minutes and seconds. Relative value units were calculated using the reporting time for a single view department chest X-ray of 1min 38s including verifying a report made using speech recognition software. A schedule of absolute and relative values, based on over 179,000 reports, forms Table 2 of this paper. The technique provides a schedule of reporting times with reduced subjective input, which is more robust than existing systems for measuring reporting time.

  15. ASIC for time-of-flight measurements with picosecond timing resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankova, Vera; Shen, Wei; Harion, Tobias [Kirchhoff-Institute for Physics, Heidelberg Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images are especially affected by a high level of noise. This noise affects the potential to detect and discriminate the tumor in relation to the background. Including Time-of-Flight information, with picosecond time resolution, within the conventional PET scanners will improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and in sequence the quality of the medical images. A mix-mode ASIC (STIC3) has been developed for high precision timing measurements with Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPM). The STiC3 is 64-channel chip, with fully differential analog front-end for crosstalk and electronic noise immunity. It integrates Time to Digital Converters (TDC) with time binning of 50.2 ps for time and energy measurements. Measurements of the of the analog front-end show a time jitter less than 20 ps and jitter of the TDC together with the digital part is around 37 ps. Further the timing of a channel has been tested by injecting a pulse into two channels and measuring the time difference of the recorded timestamps. A Coincidence Time Resolution (CTR) of 215 ps FWHM has been obtained with 3.1 x 3.1 x 15 mm{sup 2} LYSO:Ce scintillator crystals and Hamamatsu SiPM matric (S12643-050CN(x)). Characterization measurements with the chip and its performances are presented.

  16. Real time NO emissions measurement during cold start in LPG SI engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Gong; Liu, Zhimin; Li, Zhilong; Qiu, Dongping; Li, Liguang

    2007-01-01

    To identify combustion occurrence is very important. Traditionally, cylinder pressure has been used as a criterion of combustion occurrence, but it can be unreliable when identifying lean mixture combustion (there is little difference in the cylinder pressure trace between the firing cycle and motoring cycles at the lean combustion limit). This is particularly important for fuels like LPG, which have a good capacity for lean combustion. In this study, a fast response NO detector, CambustionfNOx400, based on the chemiluminescence method, was used to measure real time NO emissions in order to evaluate the technique as a criterion for establishing combustion occurrence. At the same time, this paper presents an investigation of the characteristics of real time NO emissions of the first firing cycle during cold start in a LPG SI engine to determine the optimal excess air factor of the first firing cycle, and the cylinder pressure and crank shaft speed of the engine were measured and recorded. Test results show that the excess air ratio directly influences the cylinder pressure, engine speed and NO emissions of the first firing cycle. As the excess air coefficient is reduced from the lean misfiring limit, NO emissions increase quickly, then reduce quickly and then reduce slowly. NO emissions generally increase with peak cylinder pressure, even at constant excess air coefficient. Real time NO emissions can be used to identify cylinder combustion and misfire occurrence during engine cranking, even at the dilute combustion limit, and real time NO emission can be used to understand the combustion and misfire occurrence. (author)

  17. A generalized, periodic nonlinearity-reduced interferometer for straightness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Chienming

    2008-01-01

    Periodic nonlinearity is a systematic error limiting the accuracy of displacement measurements at the nanometer level. However, an interferometer with a displacement measurement accuracy of less than 1 nm is required in nanometrology and in fundamental scientific research. To meet this requirement, a generalized, periodic nonlinearity-reduced interferometer, based on three construction principles has been developed for straightness measurements. These three construction principles have resulted in an interferometer with a highly stable design with reduced periodic nonlinearity. Verifications by a straightness interferometer have demonstrated that the periodic nonlinearity was less than 40 pm. The results also demonstrate that the interferometer design is capable of subnanometer accuracy and is useful in nanometrology

  18. Time-resolved measurements of luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, Bradley B. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); McShane, Michael J., E-mail: mcshane@tamu.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, 408 Mechanical Engineering Office Building, Spence Street, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Luminescence sensing and imaging has become more widespread in recent years in a variety of industries including the biomedical and environmental fields. Measurements of luminescence lifetime hold inherent advantages over intensity-based response measurements, and advances in both technology and methods have enabled their use in a broader spectrum of applications including real-time medical diagnostics. This review will focus on recent advances in analytical methods, particularly calculation techniques, including time- and frequency-domain lifetime approaches as well as other time-resolved measurements of luminescence. -- Highlights: • Developments in technology have led to widespread use of luminescence lifetime. • Growing interest for sensing and imaging applications. • Recent advances in approaches to lifetime calculations are reviewed. • Advantages and disadvantages of various methods are weighed. • Other methods for measurement of luminescence lifetime also described.

  19. Time-resolved measurements of luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Bradley B.; McShane, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Luminescence sensing and imaging has become more widespread in recent years in a variety of industries including the biomedical and environmental fields. Measurements of luminescence lifetime hold inherent advantages over intensity-based response measurements, and advances in both technology and methods have enabled their use in a broader spectrum of applications including real-time medical diagnostics. This review will focus on recent advances in analytical methods, particularly calculation techniques, including time- and frequency-domain lifetime approaches as well as other time-resolved measurements of luminescence. -- Highlights: • Developments in technology have led to widespread use of luminescence lifetime. • Growing interest for sensing and imaging applications. • Recent advances in approaches to lifetime calculations are reviewed. • Advantages and disadvantages of various methods are weighed. • Other methods for measurement of luminescence lifetime also described

  20. Is direct measurement of time possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Is direct measurement of time possible? The answer to this question may depend upon how one understands time. Is time an essential constituent of physical reality? Or is what scientists are talking about when they use the symbol ‘t’ or the word ‘time’ an human cultural construct, as the Chief of the USA NIST Divisions of Time and Frequency and of Quantum Physics has suggested. Few aspects of physics do not reference activity to time, but many discussions within either view of time seem to use one same, largely traditional, language of time. Briefly considering the question of measurement, including from a formal measure-theoretic point of view, clarifies the situation.

  1. Time Series Data Analysis of Wireless Sensor Network Measurements of Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Siddhartha; Bergmann, Neil; Jurdak, Raja; Kusy, Branislav

    2017-05-26

    Wireless sensor networks have gained significant traction in environmental signal monitoring and analysis. The cost or lifetime of the system typically depends on the frequency at which environmental phenomena are monitored. If sampling rates are reduced, energy is saved. Using empirical datasets collected from environmental monitoring sensor networks, this work performs time series analyses of measured temperature time series. Unlike previous works which have concentrated on suppressing the transmission of some data samples by time-series analysis but still maintaining high sampling rates, this work investigates reducing the sampling rate (and sensor wake up rate) and looks at the effects on accuracy. Results show that the sampling period of the sensor can be increased up to one hour while still allowing intermediate and future states to be estimated with interpolation RMSE less than 0.2 °C and forecasting RMSE less than 1 °C.

  2. Interventions to reduce postpartum stress in first-time mothers: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Hibah; Saliba, Matilda; Chaaya, Monique; Naasan, Georges

    2014-10-15

    The postpartum period can be a challenging time particularly for first-time mothers. This study aimed to assess two different interventions designed to reduce stress in the postpartum among first-time mothers. Healthy first-time mothers with healthy newborns were recruited from hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon after delivery. The two interventions were a 20-minute film addressing common stressors in the postpartum period and a 24-hour telephone support hotline. Participants were randomized to one of four study arms to receive either the postpartum support film, the hotline service, both interventions, or a music CD (control). Participants were interviewed at eight to twelve weeks postpartum for assessment of levels of stress as measured by the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). Of the 632 eligible women, 552 (88%) agreed to participate in the study. Of those, 452 (82%) completed the study. Mean PSS-10 scores of mothers who received the film alone (15.76) or the film with the hotline service (15.86) were significantly lower than that of the control group (18.93) (p-value film and the 24-hour telephone hotline service reduced stress in the postpartum period in first-time mothers. These simple interventions can be easily implemented and could have an important impact on the mental wellbeing of new mothers. The trial was registered with clinicaltrials.gov (identifier # NCT00857051) on March 5, 2009.

  3. A time-series method for automated measurement of changes in mitotic and interphase duration from time-lapse movies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic D Sigoillot

    Full Text Available Automated time-lapse microscopy can visualize proliferation of large numbers of individual cells, enabling accurate measurement of the frequency of cell division and the duration of interphase and mitosis. However, extraction of quantitative information by manual inspection of time-lapse movies is too time-consuming to be useful for analysis of large experiments.Here we present an automated time-series approach that can measure changes in the duration of mitosis and interphase in individual cells expressing fluorescent histone 2B. The approach requires analysis of only 2 features, nuclear area and average intensity. Compared to supervised learning approaches, this method reduces processing time and does not require generation of training data sets. We demonstrate that this method is as sensitive as manual analysis in identifying small changes in interphase or mitotic duration induced by drug or siRNA treatment.This approach should facilitate automated analysis of high-throughput time-lapse data sets to identify small molecules or gene products that influence timing of cell division.

  4. DCE-PWI 3D T1-measurement as function of time or flip angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Irene Klærke; Peters, David Alberg; Tietze, Anna

    saturation) time [1,2]. This work investigates how off-set in flip angles in the presence of B1 inhomogeneities propagates into large errors in the T1 estimates. The errors are markedly reduced when the measurement is performed as a function of time, however this requires signal preparation....

  5. Solution of large nonlinear time-dependent problems using reduced coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mish, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    This research is concerned with the idea of reducing a large time-dependent problem, such as one obtained from a finite-element discretization, down to a more manageable size while preserving the most-important physical behavior of the solution. This reduction process is motivated by the concept of a projection operator on a Hilbert Space, and leads to the Lanczos Algorithm for generation of approximate eigenvectors of a large symmetric matrix. The Lanczos Algorithm is then used to develop a reduced form of the spatial component of a time-dependent problem. The solution of the remaining temporal part of the problem is considered from the standpoint of numerical-integration schemes in the time domain. All of these theoretical results are combined to motivate the proposed reduced coordinate algorithm. This algorithm is then developed, discussed, and compared to related methods from the mechanics literature. The proposed reduced coordinate method is then applied to the solution of some representative problems in mechanics. The results of these problems are discussed, conclusions are drawn, and suggestions are made for related future research

  6. Participatory workplace interventions can reduce sedentary time for office workers--a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Parry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Occupational sedentary behaviour is an important contributor to overall sedentary risk. There is limited evidence for effective workplace interventions to reduce occupational sedentary time and increase light activity during work hours. The purpose of the study was to determine if participatory workplace interventions could reduce total sedentary time, sustained sedentary time (bouts >30 minutes, increase the frequency of breaks in sedentary time and promote light intensity activity and moderate/vigorous activity (MVPA during work hours. METHODS: A randomised controlled trial (ANZCTR NUMBER: ACTN12612000743864 was conducted using clerical, call centre and data processing workers (n = 62, aged 25-59 years in 3 large government organisations in Perth, Australia. Three groups developed interventions with a participatory approach: 'Active office' (n = 19, 'Active Workstation' and promotion of incidental office activity; 'Traditional physical activity' (n = 14, pedometer challenge to increase activity between productive work time and 'Office ergonomics' (n = 29, computer workstation design and breaking up computer tasks. Accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X, 7 days determined sedentary time, sustained sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time, light intensity activity and MVPA on work days and during work hours were measured before and following a 12 week intervention period. RESULTS: For all participants there was a significant reduction in sedentary time on work days (-1.6%, p = 0.006 and during work hours (-1.7%, p = 0.014 and a significant increase in number of breaks/sedentary hour on work days (0.64, p = 0.005 and during work hours (0.72, p = 0.015; there was a concurrent significant increase in light activity during work hours (1.5%, p = 0.012 and MVPA on work days (0.6%, p = 0.012. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored novel ways to modify work practices to reduce occupational sedentary behaviour

  7. Reducing sedentary time in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes: process evaluation of the STAND (Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J. H. Biddle

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing sedentary behaviour may have important health implications. This study evaluated the potential enablers and barriers for outcomes of a randomised controlled trial (RCT designed to evaluate a pragmatic education based intervention designed to reduce sedentary (sitting behaviour in young adults at high risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods Data were collected from participants in the intervention group immediately after an educational workshop addressing sedentary time and diabetes risk (n = 71, through phone interviews 6 weeks (n = 45 after the workshop, and at the conclusion of the 12-month trial (n = 10. The two education session facilitators were also interviewed about the intervention. Results The RCT showed no difference in sedentary time at 12 months between intervention and control arms. The lack of behaviour change appeared not to be attributed to the workshops, which were well led and very favourably received according to feedback. However, factors contributing to this lack of behaviour change include lack of perceived health risk from baseline measures feedback; the preference to adopt physically active behaviours rather than to sit less; certain barriers to sitting less; motivational drift after the 3-month follow-up measurements where participants had no contact for a further 9 months; and, for some, unreliability of the self-monitoring tool. Conclusions The workshop was well led and well received by the attendees but future interventions need to consider more contact with participants, discuss any specific benefits around simply standing to reduce sitting time, address the barriers to sitting less, and provide a more user-friendly and reliable self-monitoring tool. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN08434554 , MRC project 91409. Registered retrospectively on 22 February 2011.

  8. Directly acting spring loaded safety valves as shock reducing measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismaier, A.; Schluecker, E.

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic shocks as induced by fast closure of armatures or by sudden pump failures are massive impacts in piping systems and require extensive measures to absorb the generated load. Basically the avoidance of water hammers are preferable but in case of emergency shutdowns unavoidable hydraulic shocks have to be reduced by appropriate measures. The authors describe experiments with spring loaded safety valves as shock reducing measures. It was shown that the vale dimensions is essential for the efficacy. A realistic modeling is possible using the one-dimensional fluid mechanics code ROLAST.

  9. Measuring device for control rod driving time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Hanabusa, Masatoshi.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a measuring device for control driving time having a function capable of measuring a selected control rod driving time and measuring an entire control rod driving time simultaneously. A calculation means and a store means for the selected rod control rod driving time, and a calculation means and a store means for the entire control rod driving time are disposed individually. Each of them measures the driving time and stores the data independent of each other based on a selected control rod insert ion signal and an entire control rod insertion signal. Even if insertion of selected and entire control rods overlaps, each of the control rod driving times can be measured reliably to provide an advantageous effect capable of more accurately conducting safety evaluation for the nuclear reactor based on the result of the measurement. (N.H.)

  10. Method and apparatus for real-time measurement of fuel gas compositions and heating values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Pratapas, John M.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Jangale, Vilas V.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary embodiment can be an apparatus for real-time, in situ measurement of gas compositions and heating values. The apparatus includes a near infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, a mid infrared sensor for measuring concentrations of carbon monoxide and a semiconductor based sensor for measuring concentrations of hydrogen gas. A data processor having a computer program for reducing the effects of cross-sensitivities of the sensors to components other than target components of the sensors is also included. Also provided are corresponding or associated methods for real-time, in situ determination of a composition and heating value of a fuel gas.

  11. Early time implosion symmetry from two-axis shock-timing measurements on indirect drive NIF experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, J. D., E-mail: moody4@llnl.gov; Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Munro, D. H.; Barker, D. A.; Baker, K. L.; Döppner, T.; Hash, N. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; LaFortune, K.; Landen, O. L.; LePape, S.; MacGowan, B. J.; Ralph, J. E.; Ross, J. S.; Widmayer, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Nikroo, A.; Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Boehly, T. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    An innovative technique has been developed and used to measure the shock propagation speed along two orthogonal axes in an inertial confinement fusion indirect drive implosion target. This development builds on an existing target and diagnostic platform for measuring the shock propagation along a single axis. A 0.4 mm square aluminum mirror is installed in the ablator capsule which adds a second orthogonal view of the x-ray-driven shock speeds. The new technique adds capability for symmetry control along two directions of the shocks launched in the ablator by the laser-generated hohlraum x-ray flux. Laser power adjustments in four different azimuthal cones based on the results of this measurement can reduce time-dependent symmetry swings during the implosion. Analysis of a large data set provides experimental sensitivities of the shock parameters to the overall laser delivery and in some cases shows the effects of laser asymmetries on the pole and equator shock measurements.

  12. Efficacy of a Multi-Component Intervention to Reduce Workplace Sitting Time in Office Workers: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Benjamin D; Edwardson, Charlotte L; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K; Champion, Rachael B; Bailey, Daniel P

    2018-05-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a work-based multicomponent intervention to reduce office workers' sitting time. Offices (n = 12; 89 workers) were randomized into an 8-week intervention (n = 48) incorporating organizational, individual, and environmental elements or control arm. Sitting time, physical activity, and cardiometabolic health were measured at baseline and after the intervention. Linear mixed modelling revealed no significant change in workplace sitting time, but changes in workplace prolonged sitting time (-39 min/shift), sit-upright transitions (7.8 per shift), and stepping time (12 min/shift) at follow-up were observed, in favor of the intervention group (P < 0.001). Results for cardiometabolic health markers were mixed. This short multicomponent workplace intervention was successful in reducing prolonged sitting and increasing physical activity in the workplace, although total sitting time was not reduced and the impact on cardiometabolic health was minimal.

  13. Reducing the throughput time of the diagnostic track involving CT scanning with computer simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lent, Wineke A.M. van, E-mail: w.v.lent@nki.nl [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), P.O. Box 90203, 1006 BE Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Twente, IGS Institute for Innovation and Governance Studies, Department of Health Technology Services Research (HTSR), Enschede (Netherlands); Deetman, Joost W., E-mail: j.deetman@nki.nl [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), P.O. Box 90203, 1006 BE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Teertstra, H. Jelle, E-mail: h.teertstra@nki.nl [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), P.O. Box 90203, 1006 BE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Muller, Sara H., E-mail: s.muller@nki.nl [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), P.O. Box 90203, 1006 BE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hans, Erwin W., E-mail: e.w.hans@utwente.nl [University of Twente, School of Management and Governance, Dept. of Industrial Engineering and Business Intelligence Systems, Enschede (Netherlands); Harten, Wim H. van, E-mail: w.v.harten@nki.nl [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), P.O. Box 90203, 1006 BE Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Twente, IGS Institute for Innovation and Governance Studies, Department of Health Technology Services Research (HTSR), Enschede (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    Introduction: To examine the use of computer simulation to reduce the time between the CT request and the consult in which the CT report is discussed (diagnostic track) while restricting idle time and overtime. Methods: After a pre implementation analysis in our case study hospital, by computer simulation three scenarios were evaluated on access time, overtime and idle time of the CT; after implementation these same aspects were evaluated again. Effects on throughput time were measured for outpatient short-term and urgent requests only. Conclusion: The pre implementation analysis showed an average CT access time of 9.8 operating days and an average diagnostic track of 14.5 operating days. Based on the outcomes of the simulation, management changed the capacity for the different patient groups to facilitate a diagnostic track of 10 operating days, with a CT access time of 7 days. After the implementation of changes, the average diagnostic track duration was 12.6 days with an average CT access time of 7.3 days. The fraction of patients with a total throughput time within 10 days increased from 29% to 44% while the utilization remained equal with 82%, the idle time increased by 11% and the overtime decreased by 82%. The fraction of patients that completed the diagnostic track within 10 days improved with 52%. Computer simulation proved useful for studying the effects of proposed scenarios in radiology management. Besides the tangible effects, the simulation increased the awareness that optimizing capacity allocation can reduce access times.

  14. Reducing the throughput time of the diagnostic track involving CT scanning with computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lent, Wineke A.M. van; Deetman, Joost W.; Teertstra, H. Jelle; Muller, Sara H.; Hans, Erwin W.; Harten, Wim H. van

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: To examine the use of computer simulation to reduce the time between the CT request and the consult in which the CT report is discussed (diagnostic track) while restricting idle time and overtime. Methods: After a pre implementation analysis in our case study hospital, by computer simulation three scenarios were evaluated on access time, overtime and idle time of the CT; after implementation these same aspects were evaluated again. Effects on throughput time were measured for outpatient short-term and urgent requests only. Conclusion: The pre implementation analysis showed an average CT access time of 9.8 operating days and an average diagnostic track of 14.5 operating days. Based on the outcomes of the simulation, management changed the capacity for the different patient groups to facilitate a diagnostic track of 10 operating days, with a CT access time of 7 days. After the implementation of changes, the average diagnostic track duration was 12.6 days with an average CT access time of 7.3 days. The fraction of patients with a total throughput time within 10 days increased from 29% to 44% while the utilization remained equal with 82%, the idle time increased by 11% and the overtime decreased by 82%. The fraction of patients that completed the diagnostic track within 10 days improved with 52%. Computer simulation proved useful for studying the effects of proposed scenarios in radiology management. Besides the tangible effects, the simulation increased the awareness that optimizing capacity allocation can reduce access times.

  15. The influence of measurement and relaxation time on flux jumps in high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaobin; Zhou Youhe; Tu Shandong

    2010-01-01

    The influence of the magnetization and relaxation time on flux jumps in high temperature superconductors (HTSC) under varying magnetic field is studied using the fundamental electromagnetic field equations and the thermal diffusion equation; temperature variety corresponding to flux jump is also discussed. We find that for a low sweep rate of the applied magnetic field, the measurement and relaxation times can reduce flux jump and to constrain the number of flux jumps, even stabilizing the HTSC, since much heat produced by the motion of magnetic flux can transfer into coolant during the measurement and relaxation times. As high temperature superconductors are subjected to a high sweep rate or a strong pulsed magnetic field, magnetization undergoes from stability or oscillation to jump for different pause times. And the period of temperature oscillation is equal to the measurement and relaxation time.

  16. Prehospital trauma care reduces mortality. Ten-year results from a time-cohort and trauma audit study in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Mudhafar K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blunt implementation of Western trauma system models is not feasible in low-resource communities with long prehospital transit times. The aims of the study were to evaluate to which extent a low-cost prehospital trauma system reduces trauma deaths where prehospital transit times are long, and to identify specific life support interventions that contributed to survival. Methods In the study period from 1997 to 2006, 2,788 patients injured by land mines, war, and traffic accidents were managed by a chain-of-survival trauma system where non-graduate paramedics were the key care providers. The study was conducted with a time-period cohort design. Results 37% of the study patients had serious injuries with Injury Severity Score ≥ 9. The mean prehospital transport time was 2.5 hours (95% CI 1.9 - 3.2. During the ten-year study period trauma mortality was reduced from 17% (95% CI 15 -19 to 4% (95% CI 3.5 - 5, survival especially improving in major trauma victims. In most patients with airway problems, in chest injured, and in patients with external hemorrhage, simple life support measures were sufficient to improve physiological severity indicators. Conclusion In case of long prehospital transit times simple life support measures by paramedics and lay first responders reduce trauma mortality in major injuries. Delegating life-saving skills to paramedics and lay people is a key factor for efficient prehospital trauma systems in low-resource communities.

  17. Reducing waiting time and raising outpatient satisfaction in a Chinese public tertiary general hospital-an interrupted time series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Lin, Qian; Zhao, Pengyu; Zhang, Qiongyao; Xu, Kai; Chen, Huiying; Hu, Cecile Jia; Stuntz, Mark; Li, Hong; Liu, Yuanli

    2017-08-22

    It is globally agreed that a well-designed health system deliver timely and convenient access to health services for all patients. Many interventions aiming to reduce waiting times have been implemented in Chinese public tertiary hospitals to improve patients' satisfaction. However, few were well-documented, and the effects were rarely measured with robust methods. We conducted a longitudinal study of the length of waiting times in a public tertiary hospital in Southern China which developed comprehensive data collection systems. Around an average of 60,000 outpatients and 70,000 prescribed outpatients per month were targeted for the study during Oct 2014-February 2017. We analyzed longitudinal time series data using a segmented linear regression model to assess changes in levels and trends of waiting times before and after the introduction of waiting time reduction interventions. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to indicate the strength of association between waiting times and patient satisfactions. The statistical significance level was set at 0.05. The monthly average length of waiting time decreased 3.49 min (P = 0.003) for consultations and 8.70 min (P = 0.02) for filling prescriptions in the corresponding month when respective interventions were introduced. The trend shifted from baseline slight increasing to afterwards significant decreasing for filling prescriptions (P =0.003). There was a significant negative correlation between waiting time of filling prescriptions and outpatient satisfaction towards pharmacy services (r = -0.71, P = 0.004). The interventions aimed at reducing waiting time and raising patient satisfaction in Fujian Provincial Hospital are effective. A long-lasting reduction effect on waiting time for filling prescriptions was observed because of carefully designed continuous efforts, rather than a one-time campaign, and with appropriate incentives implemented by a taskforce authorized by the hospital managers. This

  18. Reducing waiting time and raising outpatient satisfaction in a Chinese public tertiary general hospital-an interrupted time series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is globally agreed that a well-designed health system deliver timely and convenient access to health services for all patients. Many interventions aiming to reduce waiting times have been implemented in Chinese public tertiary hospitals to improve patients’ satisfaction. However, few were well-documented, and the effects were rarely measured with robust methods. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study of the length of waiting times in a public tertiary hospital in Southern China which developed comprehensive data collection systems. Around an average of 60,000 outpatients and 70,000 prescribed outpatients per month were targeted for the study during Oct 2014-February 2017. We analyzed longitudinal time series data using a segmented linear regression model to assess changes in levels and trends of waiting times before and after the introduction of waiting time reduction interventions. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to indicate the strength of association between waiting times and patient satisfactions. The statistical significance level was set at 0.05. Results The monthly average length of waiting time decreased 3.49 min (P = 0.003 for consultations and 8.70 min (P = 0.02 for filling prescriptions in the corresponding month when respective interventions were introduced. The trend shifted from baseline slight increasing to afterwards significant decreasing for filling prescriptions (P =0.003. There was a significant negative correlation between waiting time of filling prescriptions and outpatient satisfaction towards pharmacy services (r = −0.71, P = 0.004. Conclusions The interventions aimed at reducing waiting time and raising patient satisfaction in Fujian Provincial Hospital are effective. A long-lasting reduction effect on waiting time for filling prescriptions was observed because of carefully designed continuous efforts, rather than a one-time campaign, and with appropriate incentives

  19. Additive measures of travel time variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelson, Leonid; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper derives a measure of travel time variability for travellers equipped with scheduling preferences defined in terms of time-varying utility rates, and who choose departure time optimally. The corresponding value of travel time variability is a constant that depends only on preference...... parameters. The measure is unique in being additive with respect to independent parts of a trip. It has the variance of travel time as a special case. Extension is provided to the case of travellers who use a scheduled service with fixed headway....

  20. Reducing overlay sampling for APC-based correction per exposure by replacing measured data with computational prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Oh, Jong Hun; Kim, Hyun Sik; Sung, Jun Ha; Kea, Marc

    2016-03-01

    One of the keys to successful mass production of sub-20nm nodes in the semiconductor industry is the development of an overlay correction strategy that can meet specifications, reduce the number of layers that require dedicated chuck overlay, and minimize measurement time. Three important aspects of this strategy are: correction per exposure (CPE), integrated metrology (IM), and the prioritization of automated correction over manual subrecipes. The first and third aspects are accomplished through an APC system that uses measurements from production lots to generate CPE corrections that are dynamically applied to future lots. The drawback of this method is that production overlay sampling must be extremely high in order to provide the system with enough data to generate CPE. That drawback makes IM particularly difficult because of the throughput impact that can be created on expensive bottleneck photolithography process tools. The goal is to realize the cycle time and feedback benefits of IM coupled with the enhanced overlay correction capability of automated CPE without impacting process tool throughput. This paper will discuss the development of a system that sends measured data with reduced sampling via an optimized layout to the exposure tool's computational modelling platform to predict and create "upsampled" overlay data in a customizable output layout that is compatible with the fab user CPE APC system. The result is dynamic CPE without the burden of extensive measurement time, which leads to increased utilization of IM.

  1. Energy measurement using a resonator based time-of-flight system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; Clifft, B.; Johnson, K.W.; Lewis, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    A resonant pick-up time-of-flight system has been developed for the precise measurement of beam energy at the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS). The excellent timing characteristics available with ATLAS beams make it desirable to design the beam transport system to be isochronous. The advantages of the resonant time-of-flight system over other energy analysis systems such as the dispersive magnet system are numerous. The system is non-interceptive and non-destructive and preserves the beam phase space. It is non-dispersive. Path length variations are not introduced into the beam which would reduce the timing resolution. It has a large signal-to-noise ratio when compared to non-resonant beam pick-up techniques. It provides the means to precisely set the linac energy and potentially to control the energy in a feedback loop. Finally, the resonant pick-up time-of-flight system is less expensive than an equivalent magnetic system. It consists of two beam-excited resonators, associated electronics to decode the information, a computer interface to the linac PDP 11/34 control computer, and software to analyze the information and deduce the measured beam energy. This report describes the system and its components and gives a schematic overview

  2. A novel approach to reduce environmental noise in microgravity measurements using a Scintrex CG5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddice, Daniel; Atkins, Phillip; Rodgers, Anthony; Metje, Nicole; Goncharenko, Yuriy; Chapman, David

    2018-05-01

    The accuracy and repeatability of microgravity measurements for surveying purposes are affected by two main sources of noise; instrument noise from the sensor and electronics, and environmental sources of noise from anthropogenic activity, wind, microseismic activity and other sources of vibrational noise. There is little information in the literature on the quantitative values of these different noise sources and their significance for microgravity measurements. Experiments were conducted to quantify these sources of noise with multiple instruments, and to develop methodologies to reduce these unwanted signals thereby improving the accuracy or speed of microgravity measurements. External environmental sources of noise were found to be concentrated at higher frequencies (> 0.1 Hz), well within the instrument's bandwidth. In contrast, the internal instrumental noise was dominant at frequencies much lower than the reciprocal of the maximum integration time, and was identified as the limiting factor for current instruments. The optimum time for integration was found to be between 120 and 150 s for the instruments tested. In order to reduce the effects of external environmental noise on microgravity measurements, a filtering and despiking technique was created using data from noisy environments next to a main road and outside on a windy day. The technique showed a significant improvement in the repeatability of measurements, with between 40% and 50% lower standard deviations being obtained over numerous different data sets. The filtering technique was then tested in field conditions by using an anomaly of known size, and a comparison made between different filtering methods. Results showed improvements with the proposed method performing better than a conventional, or boxcar, averaging process. The proposed despiking process was generally found to be ineffective, with greater gains obtained when complete measurement records were discarded. Field survey results were

  3. Measures to reduce construction time of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolchedantsev, Leonid; Adamtsevich, Aleksey; Stupakova, Olga; Drozdov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The organizational and technological solutions for high-rise buildings construction efficiency increase are considered, primarily - decrease of typical floor construction time and improvement of bearing structures concrete quality. The essence of offered technology is: a concrete mixing station and a polygon mainly for load-bearing wall panels with starter bars casting are located on the building site; for reinforced concrete components manufacturing and butt joints grouting the warmed-up concrete mixtures are used. The results of researches and elaborations carried out by the SPSUACE in area of a preliminary warming-up of concrete mixtures are presented. The possibility and feasibility of their usage in high-rise buildings and of excess height buildings construction including cast-in-place and precast execution are shown. The essence of heat-vibro treating of concrete mixture is revealed as a kind of prior electroresistive curing, and the achieved results are: accelerated concrete strength gain, power inputs decrease, concrete quality improvement. It is shown that the location of a concrete mixing station on the building site enables to broaden possibilities of the "thermos" method use and to avoid concrete mixtures warming up in medium-mass structures erection (columns, girders) during the high-rise buildings construction. It is experimentally proved that the splice between precast elements encased with warmed-up concrete mixture is equal with conjugated elements in strength.

  4. Effect of intervention programs in schools to reduce screen time: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roggia Friedrich

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:to evaluate the effects of intervention program strategies on the time spent on activities such as watching television, playing videogames, and using the computer among schoolchildren.SOURCES:a search for randomized controlled trials available in the literature was performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library using the following Keywords randomized controlled trial, intervention studies, sedentary lifestyle, screen time, and school. A summary measure based on the standardized mean difference was used with a 95% confidence interval.DATA SYNTHESIS: a total of 1,552 studies were identified, of which 16 were included in the meta-analysis. The interventions in the randomized controlled trials (n = 8,785 showed a significant effect in reducing screen time, with a standardized mean difference (random effect of: -0.25 (-0.37, -0.13, p < 0.01.CONCLUSION:interventions have demonstrated the positive effects of the decrease of screen time among schoolchildren.

  5. Reducing of Manufacturing Lead Time by Implementation of Lean Manufacturing Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Salem Ketan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations today are interesting to implementing lean manufacturing principles that should enable them to eliminating the wastes to reducing a manufacturing lead time. This paper concentrates on increasing the competitive level of the company in globalization markets and improving of the productivity by reducing the manufacturing lead time. This will be by using the main tool of lean manufacturing which is value stream mapping (VSM to identifying all the activities of manufacturing process (value and non-value added activities to reducing elimination of wastes (non-value added activities by converting a manufacturing system to pull instead of push by applying some of pull system strategies as kanban and first on first out lane (FIFO. ARENA software is used to simulate the current and future state. This work is executed in the state company for electrical industries in Baghdad. The obtained results of the application showed that implementation of lean principles helped on reducing of a manufacturing lead time by 33%.

  6. Measuring multiscaling in financial time-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonocore, R.J.; Aste, T.; Di Matteo, T.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the origin of multiscaling in financial time-series and investigate how to best quantify it. Our methodology consists in separating the different sources of measured multifractality by analyzing the multi/uni-scaling behavior of synthetic time-series with known properties. We use the results from the synthetic time-series to interpret the measure of multifractality of real log-returns time-series. The main finding is that the aggregation horizon of the returns can introduce a strong bias effect on the measure of multifractality. This effect can become especially important when returns distributions have power law tails with exponents in the range (2, 5). We discuss the right aggregation horizon to mitigate this bias.

  7. An USB-based time measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Xi; Liu Shubin; An Qi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we report the electronics of a timing measurement system of PTB(portable TDC board), which is a handy tool based on USB interface, customized for high precision time measurements without any crates. The time digitization is based on the High Performance TDC Chip (HPTDC). The real-time compensation for HPTDC outputs and the USB master logic are implemented in an ALTERA's Cyclone FPGA. The architecture design and logic design are described in detail. Test of the system showed a time resolution of 13.3 ps. (authors)

  8. Elaboration of reduced versions of Measurement tools: A practical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekane Balluerka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to show, from a practical perspective, the guidelines that may be followed to create a reduced version of a measurement tool. Therefore, it describes in detail the process of creating the reduced Basque version of the CDS scale (Children's Depression Scale; Lang and Tisher, 1978, which measures depression in children and adolescents. In a first study, the items that make up the reduced version of the CDS (CDS-R are selected from a set of analysis conducted on a sample of 886 children and adolescents who were administered the extensive version of the CDS adapted to the Basque language (Balluerka, Gorostiaga, and Haranburu, 2012. Subsequently, the CDS-R is validated on a sample of 2,165 participants. This second study examines the factorial structure, the internal consistency and the temporal stability of the instrument, as well as the relationship between its dimensions and gender, academic performance, emotional intelligence and attachment. Thus, evidence is obtained on the reliability and validity of the reduced version of the instrument, which guarantees suitable evaluation of the construct the instrument is intended to measure.

  9. Reduced computational cost in the calculation of worst case response time for real time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Urriza, José M.; Schorb, Lucas; Orozco, Javier D.; Cayssials, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    Modern Real Time Operating Systems require reducing computational costs even though the microprocessors become more powerful each day. It is usual that Real Time Operating Systems for embedded systems have advance features to administrate the resources of the applications that they support. In order to guarantee either the schedulability of the system or the schedulability of a new task in a dynamic Real Time System, it is necessary to know the Worst Case Response Time of the Real Time tasks ...

  10. Real-time deformation measurement using a transportable shearography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, A. L.; van Brug, Hedser H.; Frankena, Hans J.

    1997-03-01

    A new system for deformation visualization has been developed, being a real time phase stepped shearing speckle interferometer. This system provides the possibility to measure quantitatively deformations of diffusely reflecting objects in an industrial environment. The main characteristics of this interferometer are its speed of operation and its reduced sensitivity to external disturbances. Apart from its semiconductor laser source, this system has a shoe-box size and is mounted on a tripod for easy handling during inspection. This paper describes the shearing speckle interferometry set-up, as it is developed at our laboratory and its potential for detecting defects.

  11. Reducing preoperative fasting time: A trend based on evidence

    OpenAIRE

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Dock-Nascimento, Diana Borges

    2010-01-01

    Preoperative fasting is mandatory before anesthesia to reduce the risk of aspiration. However, the prescribed 6-8 h of fasting is usually prolonged to 12-16 h for various reasons. Prolonged fasting triggers a metabolic response that precipitates gluconeogenesis and increases the organic response to trauma. Various randomized trials and meta-analyses have consistently shown that is safe to reduce the preoperative fasting time with a carbohydrate-rich drink up to 2 h before surgery. Benefits re...

  12. Double threshold discriminator for timing measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, A.R.; Oslopova, T.V.; Pestov, Yu.N.

    1995-01-01

    The new type of a discriminator is based on the idea of simultaneous time measurements at two different thresholds for each pulse. Instead of using two independent electronic TDC channels this discriminator produces an output pulse with the timing taking into account the information from two time measurements ''on-line''. The operation principle, analytical calculations and experimental results are presented. The time walk of the discriminator at the level of 10 ps in the range of the input pulse height of 0.2-1.5 V has been obtained. ((orig.))

  13. Reduced order for nuclear reactor model in frequency and time domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugroho, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    In control system theory, a model can be represented by frequency or time domain. In frequency domain, the model was represented by transfer function. in time domain, the model was represented by state space. for the sake of simplification in computation, it is necessary to reduce the model order. the main aim of this research is to find the best in nuclear reactor model. Model order reduction in frequency domain can be done utilizing pole-zero cancellation method; while in time domain utilizing balanced aggregation method the balanced aggregation method was developed by moore (1981). In this paper, the two kinds of method were applied to reduce a nuclear reactor model which was constructed by neutron dynamics and heat transfer equations. to validate that the model characteristics were not change when model order reduction applied, the response was utilized for full and reduced order. it was shown that the nuclear reactor order model can be reduced from order 8 to 2 order 2 is the best order for nuclear reactor model

  14. Measuring Quality Improvement in Acute Ischemic Stroke Care: Interrupted Time Series Analysis of Door-to-Needle Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Margreet van Dishoeck

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients with acute ischemic stroke, early treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA improves functional outcome by effectively reducing disability and dependency. Timely thrombolysis, within 1 h, is a vital aspect of acute stroke treatment, and is reflected in the widely used performance indicator ‘door-to-needle time' (DNT. DNT measures the time from the moment the patient enters the emergency department until he/she receives intravenous rtPA. The purpose of the study was to measure quality improvement from the first implementation of thrombolysis in stroke patients in a university hospital in the Netherlands. We further aimed to identify specific interventions that affect DNT. Methods: We included all patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a large university hospital in the Netherlands between January 2006 and December 2012, and focused on those treated with thrombolytic therapy on admission. Data were collected routinely for research purposes and internal quality measurement (the Erasmus Stroke Study. We used a retrospective interrupted time series design to study the trend in DNT, analyzed by means of segmented regression. Results: Between January 2006 and December 2012, 1,703 patients with ischemic stroke were admitted and 262 (17% were treated with rtPA. Patients treated with thrombolysis were on average 63 years old at the time of the stroke and 52% were male. Mean age (p = 0.58 and sex distribution (p = 0.98 did not change over the years. The proportion treated with thrombolysis increased from 5% in 2006 to 22% in 2012. In 2006, none of the patients were treated within 1 h. In 2012, this had increased to 81%. In a logistic regression analysis, this trend was significant (OR 1.6 per year, CI 1.4-1.8. The median DNT was reduced from 75 min in 2006 to 45 min in 2012 (p Conclusion and Implications: The DNT steadily improved from the first implementation of thrombolysis. Specific

  15. Improved measurement linearity and precision for AMCW time-of-flight range imaging cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Andrew D; Dorrington, Adrian A; Cree, Michael J; Carnegie, Dale A

    2010-08-10

    Time-of-flight range imaging systems utilizing the amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW) technique often suffer from measurement nonlinearity due to the presence of aliased harmonics within the amplitude modulation signals. Typically a calibration is performed to correct these errors. We demonstrate an alternative phase encoding approach that attenuates the harmonics during the sampling process, thereby improving measurement linearity in the raw measurements. This mitigates the need to measure the system's response or calibrate for environmental changes. In conjunction with improved linearity, we demonstrate that measurement precision can also be increased by reducing the duty cycle of the amplitude modulated illumination source (while maintaining overall illumination power).

  16. 'Stutter timing' for charge decay time measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, John [Infostatic, 2 Monica Drive, Pittville, Cheltenham, GL50 4NQ (United Kingdom); Harbour, John [Hawthorne Technical Design, The Hawthornes, Startley, Chippenham, SN15 5HG,UK (United Kingdom); Pavey, Ian, E-mail: jchubb@infostatic.co.uk [Chilworth Technology Ltd, Beta House, Southampton Science Park, Southampton, SO16 7NS (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.

  17. Measurement of Voice Onset Time in Maxillectomy Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I.; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients ...

  18. Measurement of voice onset time in maxillectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Mariko; Sumita, Yuka I; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2014-01-01

    Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients for objective speech evaluation. We examined voice onset time for /ka/ and /ta/ in 13 maxillectomy patients by calculating the number of valid measurements of voice onset time out of three trials for each syllable. Wilcoxon's signed rank test showed that voice onset time measurements were more successful for /ka/ and /ta/ when a prosthesis was used (Z = -2.232, P = 0.026 and Z = -2.401, P = 0.016, resp.) than when a prosthesis was not used. These results indicate a prosthesis affected voice onset measurement in these patients. Although more research in this area is needed, measurement of voice onset time has the potential to be used to evaluate consonant production in maxillectomy patients wearing a prosthesis.

  19. Measurement of Voice Onset Time in Maxillectomy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Hattori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective speech evaluation using acoustic measurement is needed for the proper rehabilitation of maxillectomy patients. For digital evaluation of consonants, measurement of voice onset time is one option. However, voice onset time has not been measured in maxillectomy patients as their consonant sound spectra exhibit unique characteristics that make the measurement of voice onset time challenging. In this study, we established criteria for measuring voice onset time in maxillectomy patients for objective speech evaluation. We examined voice onset time for /ka/ and /ta/ in 13 maxillectomy patients by calculating the number of valid measurements of voice onset time out of three trials for each syllable. Wilcoxon’s signed rank test showed that voice onset time measurements were more successful for /ka/ and /ta/ when a prosthesis was used (Z=−2.232, P=0.026 and Z=−2.401, P=0.016, resp. than when a prosthesis was not used. These results indicate a prosthesis affected voice onset measurement in these patients. Although more research in this area is needed, measurement of voice onset time has the potential to be used to evaluate consonant production in maxillectomy patients wearing a prosthesis.

  20. Implementation of a real-time compliance dashboard to help reduce SICU ventilator-associated pneumonia with the ventilator bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaydfudim, Victor; Dossett, Lesly A; Starmer, John M; Arbogast, Patrick G; Feurer, Irene D; Ray, Wayne A; May, Addison K; Pinson, C Wright

    2009-07-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) causes significant morbidity and mortality in critically ill surgical patients. Recent studies suggest that the success of preventive measures is dependent on compliance with ventilator bundle parameters. Implementation of an electronic dashboard will improve compliance with the bundle parameters and reduce rates of VAP in our surgical intensive care unit (SICU). Time series analysis of VAP rates between January 2005 and July 2008, with dashboard implementation in July 2007. Multidisciplinary SICU at a tertiary-care referral center with a stable case mix during the study period. Patients admitted to the SICU between January 2005 and July 2008. Infection control data were used to establish rates of VAP and total ventilator days. For the time series analysis, VAP rates were calculated as quarterly VAP events per 1000 ventilator days. Ventilator bundle compliance was analyzed after dashboard implementation. Differences between expected and observed VAP rates based on time series analysis were used to estimate the effect of intervention. Average compliance with the ventilator bundle improved from 39% in August 2007 to 89% in July 2008 (P dashboard (P = .01). Quarterly VAP rates were significantly reduced in the November 2007 through January 2008 and February through April 2008 periods (P dashboard improved compliance with ventilator bundle measures and is associated with reduced rates of VAP in our SICU.

  1. Measurement time and statistics for a noise thermometer with a synthetic-noise reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. R.; Benz, S. P.; Labenski, J. R.; Nam, S. W.; Qu, J. F.; Rogalla, H.; Tew, W. L.

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes methods for reducing the statistical uncertainty in measurements made by noise thermometers using digital cross-correlators and, in particular, for thermometers using pseudo-random noise for the reference signal. First, a discrete-frequency expression for the correlation bandwidth for conventional noise thermometers is derived. It is shown how an alternative frequency-domain computation can be used to eliminate the spectral response of the correlator and increase the correlation bandwidth. The corresponding expressions for the uncertainty in the measurement of pseudo-random noise in the presence of uncorrelated thermal noise are then derived. The measurement uncertainty in this case is less than that for true thermal-noise measurements. For pseudo-random sources generating a frequency comb, an additional small reduction in uncertainty is possible, but at the cost of increasing the thermometer's sensitivity to non-linearity errors. A procedure is described for allocating integration times to further reduce the total uncertainty in temperature measurements. Finally, an important systematic error arising from the calculation of ratios of statistical variables is described.

  2. Incorporation of Time Delayed Measurements in a Discrete-time Kalman Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Thomas Dall; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    In many practical systems there is a delay in some of the sensor devices, for instance vision measurements that may have a long processing time. How to fuse these measurements in a Kalman filter is not a trivial problem if the computational delay is critical. Depending on how much time...... using past and present estimates of the Kalman filter and calculating an optimal gain for this extrapolated measurement...... there is at hand, the designer has to make trade offs between optimality and computational burden of the filter. In this paper various methods in the literature along with a new method proposed by the authors will be presented and compared. The new method is based on “extrapolating” the measurement to present time...

  3. The IPERMOB System for Effective Real-Time Road Travel Time Measurement and Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Martelli, Francesca; Renda, Maria Elena; Santi, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Accurate, real-time measurement and estimation of road travel time is considered a central problem in the design of advanced Intelligent Transportation Systems. In particular, whether eective, real-time collection of travel time measurements in a urban area is possible is, to the best of our knowledge, still an open problem. In this paper, we introduce the IPERMOB system for efficient, real-time collection of travel time measurements in urban areas through vehicular networks. We demonstrate t...

  4. Using hyperentanglement to enhance resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and measurement time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F.

    2017-03-01

    A hyperentanglement-based atmospheric imaging/detection system involving only a signal and an ancilla photon will be considered for optical and infrared frequencies. Only the signal photon will propagate in the atmosphere and its loss will be classical. The ancilla photon will remain within the sensor experiencing low loss. Closed form expressions for the wave function, normalization, density operator, reduced density operator, symmetrized logarithmic derivative, quantum Fisher information, quantum Cramer-Rao lower bound, coincidence probabilities, probability of detection, probability of false alarm, probability of error after M measurements, signal-to-noise ratio, quantum Chernoff bound, time-on-target expressions related to probability of error, and resolution will be provided. The effect of noise in every mode will be included as well as loss. The system will provide the basic design for an imaging/detection system functioning at optical or infrared frequencies that offers better than classical angular and range resolution. Optimization for enhanced resolution will be included. The signal-to-noise ratio will be increased by a factor equal to the number of modes employed during the hyperentanglement process. Likewise, the measurement time can be reduced by the same factor. The hyperentanglement generator will typically make use of entanglement in polarization, energy-time, orbital angular momentum and so on. Mathematical results will be provided describing the system's performance as a function of loss mechanisms and noise.

  5. Comparison of Travel-Time and Amplitude Measurements for Deep-Focusing Time-Distance Helioseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabdian, Majid; Fournier, Damien; Gizon, Laurent

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of deep-focusing time-distance helioseismology is to construct seismic measurements that have a high sensitivity to the physical conditions at a desired target point in the solar interior. With this technique, pairs of points on the solar surface are chosen such that acoustic ray paths intersect at this target (focus) point. Considering acoustic waves in a homogeneous medium, we compare travel-time and amplitude measurements extracted from the deep-focusing cross-covariance functions. Using a single-scattering approximation, we find that the spatial sensitivity of deep-focusing travel times to sound-speed perturbations is zero at the target location and maximum in a surrounding shell. This is unlike the deep-focusing amplitude measurements, which have maximum sensitivity at the target point. We compare the signal-to-noise ratio for travel-time and amplitude measurements for different types of sound-speed perturbations, under the assumption that noise is solely due to the random excitation of the waves. We find that, for highly localized perturbations in sound speed, the signal-to-noise ratio is higher for amplitude measurements than for travel-time measurements. We conclude that amplitude measurements are a useful complement to travel-time measurements in time-distance helioseismology.

  6. Participants' Perceptions on the Use of Wearable Devices to Reduce Sitting Time: Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Michelle; Lewars, Brittany; Hurst, Samantha; Crist, Katie; Nebeker, Camille; Madanat, Hala; Nichols, Jeanne; Rosenberg, Dori E; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2018-03-31

    participants voted, as several participants reported using a "process of elimination" as opposed to choosing favorites because none of the devices were ideal for reducing sitting time. To overcome the limitations in current devices, future wearable devices designed to reduce sitting time should include the following features: waterproof, long battery life, accuracy in measuring sitting time, real time feedback on progress toward sitting reduction goals, and flexible options for prompts to take breaks from sitting. ©Michelle Takemoto, Brittany Lewars, Samantha Hurst, Katie Crist, Camille Nebeker, Hala Madanat, Jeanne Nichols, Dori E Rosenberg, Jacqueline Kerr. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 31.03.2018.

  7. ISOL yield predictions from holdup-time measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spejewski, Eugene H.; Carter, H Kennon; Mervin, Brenden T.; Prettyman, Emily S.; Kronenberg, Andreas; Stracener, Daniel W

    2008-01-01

    A formalism based on a simple model is derived to predict ISOL yields for all isotopes of a given element based on a holdup-time measurement of a single isotope of that element. Model predictions, based on parameters obtained from holdup-time measurements, are compared to independently-measured experimental values

  8. Quality Improvement Cycles that Reduced Waiting Times at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was decided to undertake quality improvement (QI) cycles to analyse and improve the situation, using waiting time as a measure of improvement. Methods: A QI team was chosen to conduct two QI cycles. The allocated time for QI cycle 1 was from May to August 2006 and for QI cycle 2 from September to December 2006.

  9. Reducing lumber thickness variation using real-time statistical process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Young; Brian H. Bond; Jan Wiedenbeck

    2002-01-01

    A technology feasibility study for reducing lumber thickness variation was conducted from April 2001 until March 2002 at two sawmills located in the southern U.S. A real-time statistical process control (SPC) system was developed that featured Wonderware human machine interface technology (HMI) with distributed real-time control charts for all sawing centers and...

  10. Reducing Uncertainty: Implementation of Heisenberg Principle to Measure Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Svirina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of uncertainty reduction in estimation of future company performance, which is a result of wide range of enterprise's intangible assets probable efficiency. To reduce this problem, the paper suggests to use quantum economy principles, i.e. implementation of Heisenberg principle to measure efficiency and potential of intangible assets of the company. It is proposed that for intangibles it is not possible to estimate both potential and efficiency at a certain time point. To provide a proof for these thesis, the data on resources potential and efficiency from mid-Russian companies was evaluated within deterministic approach, which did not allow to evaluate probability of achieving certain resource efficiency, and quantum approach, which allowed to estimate the central point around which the probable efficiency of resources in concentrated. Visualization of these approaches was performed by means of LabView software. It was proven that for tangible assets performance estimation a deterministic approach should be used; while for intangible assets the quantum approach allows better quality of future performance prediction. On the basis of these findings we proposed the holistic approach towards estimation of company resource efficiency in order to reduce uncertainty in modeling company performance.

  11. Continuous performance task in ADHD: Is reaction time variability a key measure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Florence; Pipingas, Andrew; Harris, Elizabeth V; Farrow, Maree; Silberstein, Richard B

    2018-01-01

    To compare the use of the Continuous Performance Task (CPT) reaction time variability (intraindividual variability or standard deviation of reaction time), as a measure of vigilance in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and stimulant medication response, utilizing a simple CPT X-task vs an A-X-task. Comparative analyses of two separate X-task vs A-X-task data sets, and subgroup analyses of performance on and off medication were conducted. The CPT X-task reaction time variability had a direct relationship to ADHD clinician severity ratings, unlike the CPT A-X-task. Variability in X-task performance was reduced by medication compared with the children's unmedicated performance, but this effect did not reach significance. When the coefficient of variation was applied, severity measures and medication response were significant for the X-task, but not for the A-X-task. The CPT-X-task is a useful clinical screening test for ADHD and medication response. In particular, reaction time variability is related to default mode interference. The A-X-task is less useful in this regard.

  12. Drift-time measurement electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pernicka, M.

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the construction was to improve the time resolution without using the facility of time stretching, to have a fast read-out possibility, and to be still cheaper in price in comparison to other systems. A possibility was thus foreseen for using the firm Fairchild. These integrated circuits (IC) have, for example, a propagation delay of 0.75 ns for a gate. One can expect therefore less time jitter and less time difference between the different inputs. Furthermore this IC offers a greater flexibility and therefore the number of ICs decreases and distances become smaller. Working with clock frequencies up to 166.6 MHz is easily possible without running into timing problems. On the other hand, to make full use of the advantages of this IC, it was necessary to build the print as a multilayer. The only risk could be in the use of a completely new product. A further aim was to build for this system a second type of drift-time module with a short time range for measuring drift time and pulse length in rotated multiwire proportional chambers. A brief outline of the specifications of the different modules is given in table 1. (Auth.)

  13. Time decay and photoluminescence measurement of PbWO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baylac, M.

    1997-09-01

    This report presented the experimental characterization of the PbWO 4 crystals that we will be used for the photon detector of the Compton polarimeter at the Jefferson laboratory. We could draw 3 main features from this study. The transmission rate of the crystals is about 60 % in the scintillation wavelength region. From the decay time analysis, we deduced 3 decay components of the PbWO 4 , predicted by other measurements: τ 1 ∼5 ns, τ 2 ∼20 ns, τ 3 ∼100 ns, taking respectively 26 %, 30 % and 4 % of the total light amplitude emitted by the crystals. Moreover, we showed the existence of a fourth decay constant (τ 4 ∼1μs) taking 40 % of the total quantity of light which is responsible for the bad precision on the third constant determination. We could not characterize this component accurately because of the limited time range of the recordings. To improve the determination of the super-slow component, we need to perform the measurements again on a longer time scale, on the order of a few microseconds. We eventually measured the light yield of the PbWO 4 crystals. With a first analysis, we found about 3.5 photoelectrons per MeV whereas the constructors note gave about 10. We then reduced the light loss in the experimental set up by wrapping the last open end of the crystal. The results were slightly improved. Eventually, we increased the recording time, to take account the super-low decay, and found that the crystals yield about 6 photoelectrons per MeV which is still less than predicted. (author)

  14. Correlates of objectively measured sedentary time and self-reported screen time in Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allana G; Broyles, Stephanie T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leduc, Geneviève; Boyer, Charles; Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-03-18

    Demographic, family, and home characteristics play an important role in determining childhood sedentary behaviour. The objective of this paper was to identify correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and correlates of self-reported screen time (ST) in Canadian children. Child- and parent-reported household, socio-demographic, behavioural, and diet related data were collected; directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were also collected for each child. Participants with complete demographic, anthropometric, and either SED (n=524, 41% boys) or ST (n=567, 42% boys) data from the Canadian site of the International Study of Childhood Obesity Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) were included in analysis. Sixteen potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel general linear models, adjusting for sex, ethnicity, number of siblings, and socio-economic status. All explanatory variables moderately associated (peducation, and unhealthy eating pattern score and negatively associated with healthy eating pattern score, and weekend breakfast consumption. Few common correlates existed between boys and girls. Several factors were identified as correlates of SED and/or of ST in Canadian children; however, few correlates were common for both SED and ST, and for both boys and girls. This suggests that a single strategy to reduce SED and ST is unlikely to be effective. Future work should examine a variety of other, non-screen based sedentary behaviours and their potential correlates in the hopes of creating tailored public health messages to reduce SED and ST in both boys, and girls.

  15. Time measurements for thermalequilibrium in spodumene crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, A.T.; Isotani, S.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments for measurement of time taken to reach thermal equilibrium in Spodumene crystals - 2mm to 5,4mm thick - in the temperature range 100 0 to 250 0 C are described. The measurements indicate a linear relationship between time and thickenes for heating as well as for cooling. Difference in thermal equilibrium time for heating and for cooling is about of 20 seconds. (author) [pt

  16. IMU-based Real-time Pose Measurement system for Anterior Pelvic Plane in Total Hip Replacement Surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhe Cao; Shaojie Su; Hao Tang; Yixin Zhou; Zhihua Wang; Hong Chen

    2017-07-01

    With the aging of population, the number of Total Hip Replacement Surgeries (THR) increased year by year. In THR, inaccurate position of the implanted prosthesis may lead to the failure of the operation. In order to reduce the failure rate and acquire the real-time pose of Anterior Pelvic Plane (APP), we propose a measurement system in this paper. The measurement system includes two parts: Initial Pose Measurement Instrument (IPMI) and Real-time Pose Measurement Instrument (RPMI). IPMI is used to acquire the initial pose of the APP, and RPMI is used to estimate the real-time pose of the APP. Both are composed of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and magnetometer sensors. To estimate the attitude of the measurement system, the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is adopted in this paper. The real-time pose of the APP could be acquired together with the algorithm designed in the paper. The experiment results show that the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) is within 1.6 degrees, which meets the requirement of THR operations.

  17. Dead time effects in laser Doppler anemometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Buchhave, Preben; George, William K.

    2014-01-01

    frequency range, starting around the cutoff frequency due to the finite size of the MV. Using computer-generated data mimicking the LDA data, these effects have previously been shown to appear due to the effect of dead time, i.e., the finite time during which the system is not able to acquire new...... measurements. These dead times can be traced back to the fact that the burst-mode LDA cannot measure more than one signal burst at a time. Since the dead time is approximately equal to the residence time for a particle traversing a measurement volume, we are dealing with widely varying dead times, which...

  18. Nanosecond time measurements of single pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Jingyuan; Cheng Shiyuan

    1986-01-01

    This report mainly describes the principle specification of circuit design and time-interval calibrations of model SHS 500 time-to-digital converter. Its range is 12 to 500 ns, with six ranges: 50, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ns. The precision of measured time-interval is 0.3% of full scale and time resolution is 0.1% of full scale

  19. Evaluation of a breath-motion-correction technique in reducing measurement error in hepatic CT perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Wei; Liu Jianyu; Li Xuan; Li Jianying; Liao Jingmin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a breath-motion-correction (BMC) technique in reducing measurement error of the time-density curve (TDC) in hepatic CT perfusion imaging. Methods: Twenty-five patients with suspected liver diseases underwent hepatic CT perfusion scans. The right branch of portal vein was selected as the anatomy of interest and performed BMC to realign image slices for the TDC according to the rule of minimizing the temporal changes of overall structures. Ten ROIs was selected on the right branch of portal vein to generate 10 TDCs each with and without BMC. The values of peak enhancement and the time-to-peak enhancement for each TDC were measured. The coefficients of variation (CV) of peak enhancement and the time-to-peak enhancement were calculated for each patient with and without BMC. Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to evaluate the difference between the CV of the two parameters obtained with and without BMC. Independent-samples t test was used to evaluate the difference between the values of peak enhancement obtained with and without BMC. Results: The median (quartiles) of CV of peak enhancement with BMC [2.84% (2.10%, 4.57%)] was significantly lower than that without BMC [5.19% (3.90%, 7.27%)] (Z=-3.108,P<0.01). The median (quartiles) of CV of time-to-peak enhancement with BMC [2.64% (0.76%, 4.41%)] was significantly lower than that without BMC [5.23% (3.81%, 7.43%)] (Z=-3.924, P<0.01). In 8 cases, TDC demonstrated statistically significant higher peak enhancement with BMC (P<0.05). Conclusion: By applying the BMC technique we can effectively reduce measurement error for parameters of the TDC in hepatic CT perfusion imaging. (authors)

  20. Multi-site magnetotelluric measurement system with real-time data analysis. Final technical report No. 210

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J.D.; Bostick, F.X. Jr.; Smith, H.W.

    1981-09-01

    A magnetotelluric measurement system has been designed to provide a more cost effective electrical method for geothermal and mineral exploration. The theoretical requirements and sensitivities of the magnetotelluric inversion process were specifically addressed in determining system performance requirements. Significantly reduced instrument noise levels provide improved data quality, and simultaneous measurement at up to six locations provides reduced cost per site. Remotely located, battery powered, instrumentation packages return data to a central controlling site through a 2560 baud wire-line or radio link. Each remote package contains preamplifiers, data conditioning filters, and a 12-bit gain ranging A-D converter for frequencies from 0.001 Hz to 8 Hz. Data frequencies above 8 Hz are processed sequentially by a heterodyne receiver to reduce bandwidth to within the limits of the 2560 baud data link. The central data collection site provides overall control for the entire system. The system operator interacts with the system through a CRT terminal, and he receives hard copy from a matrix graphics printer. Data from the remote packages may be recorded in time sequence on a magnetic tape cartridge system, or an optional Hewlett-Packard 21MX minicomputer can be used to perform real-time frequency analysis. The results of this analysis provide feedback to the operator for improved evaluation of system performance and for selection of future measurement sites.

  1. An Energy-Based Similarity Measure for Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Brunagel

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A new similarity measure, called SimilB, for time series analysis, based on the cross-ΨB-energy operator (2004, is introduced. ΨB is a nonlinear measure which quantifies the interaction between two time series. Compared to Euclidean distance (ED or the Pearson correlation coefficient (CC, SimilB includes the temporal information and relative changes of the time series using the first and second derivatives of the time series. SimilB is well suited for both nonstationary and stationary time series and particularly those presenting discontinuities. Some new properties of ΨB are presented. Particularly, we show that ΨB as similarity measure is robust to both scale and time shift. SimilB is illustrated with synthetic time series and an artificial dataset and compared to the CC and the ED measures.

  2. Using quality improvement methods to reduce clear fluid fasting times in children on a preoperative ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Richard J G; Stuart, Grant M; Willdridge, Daniel J; Thomas, Mark

    2017-08-01

    We applied quality improvement (QI) methodology to identify the different aspects of why children fasted for prolonged periods in our institution. Our aim was for 75% of all children to be fasted for clear fluid for less than 4 hours. Prolonged fasting in children can increase thirst and irritability and have adverse effects on haemodynamic stability on induction. By reducing this, children may be less irritable, more comfortable and more physiologically stable, improving the preoperative experience for both children and carers. We conducted a QI project from January 2014 until August 2016 at a large tertiary pediatric teaching hospital. Baseline data and the magnitude of the problem were obtained from pilot studies. This allowed us to build a key driver diagram, a process map and conduct a failure mode and effects analysis. Using a framework of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles our key interventions primarily focused on reducing confusion over procedure start times, giving parents accurate information, empowering staff and reducing variation by allowing children to drink on arrival (up to one hour) before surgery. Prior to this project, using the 6,4,2 fasting rule for solids, breast milk, and clear fluids, respectively, 19% of children were fasted for fluid for less than 4 hours, mean fluid fasting time was 6.3 hours (SD 4.48). At the conclusion 72% of patients received a drink within 4 hours, mean fluid fasting reduced to 3.1 hours (SD 2.33). The secondary measures of aspiration (4.14:10 000) and cancellations have not increased since starting this project. By using established QI methodology we reduced the mean fluid fasting time for day admissions at our hospital to 3.1 hours and increased the proportion of children fasting for less than 4 hours from 19% to 72%. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Reducing the Cost and Time to Perform a Human Factors Engineering Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geary, L.C. Dr.

    2003-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, a contractor to the Department of Energy, has developed a new software tool for automating the Human Factors Engineering design review, analysis, and evaluation processes. The set of design guidelines, used in the tool, was obtained from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Regulatory Guide, NUREG- 0700 - Human System Interface Design Review Guideline. This tool has been described at a previous IEEE Conference on Human Factors and Power Plants. The original software tool in NUREG- 0700 was used to evaluate a facility and a separate independent evaluation was performed using the new tool for the same facility. A comparison was made between the two different tools; both in results obtained and cost and time to complete the evaluation. The results demonstrate a five to ten fold reduction in time and cost to complete the evaluation using the newly developed tool while maintaining consistent evaluation results. The time to per form the review was measured in weeks using the new software tool rather than months using the existing NUREG-0700 tool. The new tool has been so successful that it was applied to two additional facilities with the same reduced time and cost savings. Plans have been made to use the new tool at other facilities in order to provide the same savings

  4. [Reducing patient waiting time for the outpatient phlebotomy service using six sigma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Kyung; Song, Kyung Eun; Lee, Won Kil

    2009-04-01

    One of the challenging issues of the outpatient phlebotomy services at most hospitals is that patients have a long wait. The outpatient phlebotomy team of Kyungpook National University Hospital applied six sigma breakthrough methodologies to reduce the patient waiting time. The DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control) model was employed to approach the project. Two hundred patients visiting the outpatient phlebotomy section were asked to answer the questionnaires at inception of the study to ascertain root causes. After correction, we surveyed 285 patients for same questionnaires again to follow-up the effects. A defect was defined as extending patient waiting time so long and at the beginning of the project, the performance level was 2.61 sigma. Using fishbone diagram, all the possible reasons for extending patient waiting time were captured, and among them, 16 causes were proven to be statistically significant. Improvement plans including a new receptionist, automatic specimen transport system, and adding one phlebotomist were put into practice. As a result, the number of patients waited more than 5 min significantly decreased, and the performance level reached 3.0 sigma in December 2007 and finally 3.35 sigma in July 2008. Applying the six sigma, the performance level of waiting times for blood drawing exceeding five minutes were improved from 2.61 sigma to 3.35 sigma.

  5. A study of a measure for reducing radiation dose in dental radiography for children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Hidemi

    1982-01-01

    For this investigation the author employed the stabilized TLD and measured the effect of doses on several organs (of children) using water and Mix-D phantom. Based upon this data, the author developed an exposure cone (of children) which was thought to be the best concrete method for reduction of absorbed doses for children who are most frequentry X-rayed and therefore most likely to reduced absorbed doses in a considerable amount. The major findings have been obtained concerning this cone compared with the standard cone as follows. 1. The full mouth 6-film examination showed the largest of the absorbed doses to be on skin, eyes and the thyroid gland. 2. For example, the dose on thyroid gland with a full mouth 6-film examination was 0.734R. 3. The dose on the gonad was less than 0.001R with every technique. 4. Using the developed exposure cone for children we have succeeded in reducing the amount of doses on these organs. In addition the image quality improved due to the reduction of scattered X-rays. 5. Using the developed exposure cone (for children) the risk of thyroid cancer can be reduced a level of 10 -6 to a level of 10 -7 as compared with the standard exposure cone. 6. Supposing that it is over the crystalline lens limits of dose-equivalent in a year at several times with full mouth 6-film examinations can be estimated which with standard cone was about three times, developed cone was about eighty-eight times in a year. (J.P.N.)

  6. Spatial analyses of cost efficient measures to reduce N-leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.; Abildtrup, Jens; Ørum, Jens Erik

    (WFD). The analysis shows that the geographical position of the measures are very important in order to achieve the expected nutrient reduction. The current income varies a lot in the River basin and this might influence the choice of cost effective measures to reduce nutrient load. Furthermore a close......The Nitrate Directive has only been implemented satisfactorily in a few EU countries. The Commission have accepted the Danish implementation of the directive based on the Plan for the Aquatic Environment II. The costs of this plan has been calculated to 70 million € or 2,0 € per kg N in reduced...... leaching. The farmers have paid 60% of the costs. The paper then describes an example of a regional analysis covering the River Basin of Ringkøbing Fjord in Denmark, which indicates the type of calculations needed to find the measures and costs in order to comply with parts of the Water Framework Directive...

  7. A Randomised Controlled Trial to Reduce Sedentary Time in Young Adults at Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Project STAND (Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J H Biddle

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, a serious and prevalent chronic disease, is traditionally associated with older age. However, due to the rising rates of obesity and sedentary lifestyles, it is increasingly being diagnosed in the younger population. Sedentary (sitting behaviour has been shown to be associated with greater risk of cardio-metabolic health outcomes, including T2DM. Little is known about effective interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in younger adults at risk of T2DM. We aimed to investigate, through a randomised controlled trial (RCT design, whether a group-based structured education workshop focused on sitting reduction, with self-monitoring, reduced sitting time.Adults aged 18-40 years who were either overweight (with an additional risk factor for T2DM or obese were recruited for the Sedentary Time ANd Diabetes (STAND RCT. The intervention programme comprised of a 3-hour group-based structured education workshop, use of a self-monitoring tool, and follow-up motivational phone call. Data were collected at three time points: baseline, 3 and 12 months after baseline. The primary outcome measure was accelerometer-assessed sedentary behaviour after 12 months. Secondary outcomes included other objective (activPAL and self-reported measures of sedentary behaviour and physical activity, and biochemical, anthropometric, and psycho-social variables.187 individuals (69% female; mean age 33 years; mean BMI 35 kg/m2 were randomised to intervention and control groups. 12 month data, when analysed using intention-to-treat analysis (ITT and per-protocol analyses, showed no significant difference in the primary outcome variable, nor in the majority of the secondary outcome measures.A structured education intervention designed to reduce sitting in young adults at risk of T2DM was not successful in changing behaviour at 12 months. Lack of change may be due to the brief nature of such an intervention and lack of focus on environmental change

  8. Transit time measurement of Juqueri river waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata Bedmar, E.; Garcia A, E.; Albuquerque, A.M. de; Sanchez, W.

    1975-01-01

    The time of travel of the Juqueri River water through the east branch of the Pirapora Reservoir was measured using radioactive tracers (6 Ci 131 I in Kl Solution). The changes in Juqueri River flow rate were also measured during the run. The center of mass of the radioactive cloud was used for the time of travel calculations. Six measurements of the Juqueri River flow rate were perfomed in different days, using the total count method. Fifty, millicuries of 131 I were used in each run. The results of time travel obtained under non-steady conditions, and their correction for steady state are also discussed

  9. On the Performance of the Measure for Diagnosing Multiple High Leverage Collinearity-Reducing Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Bagheri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence indicating that the existing measures which are designed to detect a single high leverage collinearity-reducing observation are not effective in the presence of multiple high leverage collinearity-reducing observations. In this paper, we propose a cutoff point for a newly developed high leverage collinearity-influential measure and two existing measures ( and to identify high leverage collinearity-reducing observations, the high leverage points which hide multicollinearity in a data set. It is important to detect these observations as they are responsible for the misleading inferences about the fitting of the regression model. The merit of our proposed measure and cutoff point in detecting high leverage collinearity-reducing observations is investigated by using engineering data and Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P

  11. In situ real-time measurement of physical characteristics of airborne bacterial particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae Hee; Lee, Jung Eun

    2013-12-01

    Bioaerosols, including aerosolized bacteria, viruses, and fungi, are associated with public health and environmental problems. One promising control method to reduce the harmful effects of bioaerosols is thermal inactivation via a continuous-flow high-temperature short-time (HTST) system. However, variations in bioaerosol physical characteristics - for example, the particle size and shape - during the continuous-flow inactivation process can change the transport properties in the air, which can affect particle deposition in the human respiratory system or the filtration efficiency of ventilation systems. Real-time particle monitoring techniques are a desirable alternative to the time-consuming process of microscopic analysis that is conventionally used in sampling and particle characterization. Here, we report in situ real-time optical scattering measurements of the physical characteristics of airborne bacteria particles following an HTST process in a continuous-flow system. Our results demonstrate that the aerodynamic diameter of bacterial aerosols decreases when exposed to a high-temperature environment, and that the shape of the bacterial cells is significantly altered. These variations in physical characteristics using optical scattering measurements were found to be in agreement with the results of scanning electron microscopy analysis.

  12. Defibrillator charging before rhythm analysis significantly reduces hands-off time during resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. K.; Folkestad, L.; Brabrand, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to reduce hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation as increased hands-off time leads to higher mortality. METHODS: The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2005 and ERC 2010 guidelines were compared with an alternative sequence (ALT). Pulseless ventricular...... physicians were included. All had prior experience in advanced life support. Chest compressions were shorter interrupted using ALT (mean, 6.7 vs 13.0 seconds). Analyzing data for ventricular tachycardia scenarios only, hands-off time was shorter using ALT (mean, 7.1 vs 18.2 seconds). In ERC 2010 vs ALT, 12...... physicians were included. Two physicians had not prior experience in advanced life support. Hands-off time was reduced using ALT (mean, 3.9 vs 5.6 seconds). Looking solely at ventricular tachycardia scenarios, hands-off time was shortened using ALT (mean, 4.5 vs 7.6 seconds). No significant reduction...

  13. Participatory Workplace Interventions Can Reduce Sedentary Time for Office Workers?A Randomised Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Parry, Sharon; Straker, Leon; Gilson, Nicholas D.; Smith, Anne J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occupational sedentary behaviour is an important contributor to overall sedentary risk. There is limited evidence for effective workplace interventions to reduce occupational sedentary time and increase light activity during work hours. The purpose of the study was to determine if participatory workplace interventions could reduce total sedentary time, sustained sedentary time (bouts >30 minutes), increase the frequency of breaks in sedentary time and promote light intensity activ...

  14. Auroral radar measurements at 16-cm wavelength with high range and time resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlegel, K.; Turunen, T.; Moorcroft, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    Auroral radar measurements performed with the EISCAT facility are presented. Backscatter cross sections of the irregularities produced by the two-stream (Farley-Buneman) or gradient drift plasma instabilities have been recorded with a range separation of 1.5 km, corresponding to a spacing of successive values in height of about 0.4 km. The apparent height profiles of the backscatter have a width of about 5-6 km and occur between 95 and 112 km altitude, with a mean at 104 km. Very often, fast motions of the backscatter layers are observed which can be explained as fast moving ionospheric structures controlled by magnetospheric convection. The maximal time resolution of the measurements is 12.5 ms. The statistics of the backscatter amplitudes at this time resolution is close to a Rice distribution with a Rice parameter a ∼ 3.7. The observed backscatter spectra do not change significantly in shape when the integration time is reduced from 5 s to 100 ms

  15. Real-time heart rate measurement for multi-people using compressive tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lingling; Zhao, Yuejin; Liu, Ming; Kong, Lingqin; Dong, Liquan; Ma, Feilong; Pang, Zongguang; Cai, Zhi; Zhang, Yachu; Hua, Peng; Yuan, Ruifeng

    2017-09-01

    The rise of aging population has created a demand for inexpensive, unobtrusive, automated health care solutions. Image PhotoPlethysmoGraphy(IPPG) aids in the development of these solutions by allowing for the extraction of physiological signals from video data. However, the main deficiencies of the recent IPPG methods are non-automated, non-real-time and susceptible to motion artifacts(MA). In this paper, a real-time heart rate(HR) detection method for multiple subjects simultaneously was proposed and realized using the open computer vision(openCV) library, which consists of getting multiple subjects' facial video automatically through a Webcam, detecting the region of interest (ROI) in the video, reducing the false detection rate by our improved Adaboost algorithm, reducing the MA by our improved compress tracking(CT) algorithm, wavelet noise-suppression algorithm for denoising and multi-threads for higher detection speed. For comparison, HR was measured simultaneously using a medical pulse oximetry device for every subject during all sessions. Experimental results on a data set of 30 subjects show that the max average absolute error of heart rate estimation is less than 8 beats per minute (BPM), and the processing speed of every frame has almost reached real-time: the experiments with video recordings of ten subjects under the condition of the pixel resolution of 600× 800 pixels show that the average HR detection time of 10 subjects was about 17 frames per second (fps).

  16. [A new measurement method of time-resolved spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhi-gang; Huang, Shi-hua; Liang, Chun-jun; Lei, Quan-sheng

    2007-02-01

    A new method for measuring time-resolved spectrum (TRS) is brought forward. Programming with assemble language controlled the micro-control-processor (AT89C51), and a kind of peripheral circuit constituted the drive circuit, which drived the stepping motor to run the monochromator. So the light of different kinds of expected wavelength could be obtained. The optical signal was transformed to electrical signal by optical-to-electrical transform with the help of photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu 1P28). The electrical signal of spectrum data was transmitted to the oscillograph. Connecting the two serial interfaces of RS232 between the oscillograph and computer, the electrical signal of spectrum data could be transmitted to computer for programming to draw the attenuation curve and time-resolved spectrum (TRS) of the swatch. The method for measuring time-resolved spectrum (TRS) features parallel measurement in time scale but serial measurement in wavelength scale. Time-resolved spectrum (TRS) and integrated emission spectrum of Tb3+ in swatch Tb(o-BBA)3 phen were measured using this method. Compared with the real time-resolved spectrum (TRS). It was validated to be feasible, credible and convenient. The 3D spectra of fluorescence intensity-wavelength-time, and the integrated spectrum of the swatch Tb(o-BBA)3 phen are given.

  17. Picosecond time measurement using ultra fast analog memories

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, D.; Delagnes, E.; Maalmi, J.

    2009-01-01

    International audience; The currently existing electronics dedicated to precise time measurement is mainly based on the use of constant fraction discriminators (CFD) associated with Time to Digital Converters (TDC). The constant fraction technique minimizes the time walk effect (dependency of timing on the pulse amplitude). Several attempts have been made to integrate CFD in multi-channel ASICs. But the time resolution measured on the most advanced one is of the order of 30 ps rms. Two main t...

  18. Two to five repeated measurements per patient reduced the required sample size considerably in a randomized clinical trial for patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smedslund Geir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient reported outcomes are accepted as important outcome measures in rheumatology. The fluctuating symptoms in patients with rheumatic diseases have serious implications for sample size in clinical trials. We estimated the effects of measuring the outcome 1-5 times on the sample size required in a two-armed trial. Findings In a randomized controlled trial that evaluated the effects of a mindfulness-based group intervention for patients with inflammatory arthritis (n=71, the outcome variables Numerical Rating Scales (NRS (pain, fatigue, disease activity, self-care ability, and emotional wellbeing and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-20 were measured five times before and after the intervention. For each variable we calculated the necessary sample sizes for obtaining 80% power (α=.05 for one up to five measurements. Two, three, and four measures reduced the required sample sizes by 15%, 21%, and 24%, respectively. With three (and five measures, the required sample size per group was reduced from 56 to 39 (32 for the GHQ-20, from 71 to 60 (55 for pain, 96 to 71 (73 for fatigue, 57 to 51 (48 for disease activity, 59 to 44 (45 for self-care, and 47 to 37 (33 for emotional wellbeing. Conclusions Measuring the outcomes five times rather than once reduced the necessary sample size by an average of 27%. When planning a study, researchers should carefully compare the advantages and disadvantages of increasing sample size versus employing three to five repeated measurements in order to obtain the required statistical power.

  19. Association between birth weight and objectively measured sedentary time is mediated by central adiposity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrand, Maria; Kolle, Elin; Hansen, Bjørge H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Birth weight is an early correlate of disease later in life, and animal studies suggest that low birth weight is associated with reduced activity and increased sedentary time. Whether birth weight predicts later sedentary time in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We examined the relation...... between birth weight and sedentary time in youth and examined whether this association was mediated by central adiposity. DESIGN: We used pooled cross-sectional data from 8 observational studies conducted between 1997 and 2007 that consisted of 10,793 youth (boys: 47%) aged 6-18 y from the International...... Children's Accelerometry Database. Birth weight was measured in hospitals or maternally reported, sedentary time was assessed by using accelerometry (

  20. A behaviour change intervention to reduce sedentary time in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sonia Wing Mei; Alison, Jennifer; Dennis, Sarah; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Spencer, Lissa; McNamara, Renae; Sims, Susan; McKeough, Zoe

    2017-07-01

    Replacing sedentary behaviour with light intensity physical activity (ie, activities classified as less than three metabolic equivalents, such as slow-paced walking) may be a more realistic strategy for reducing cardiometabolic risk in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease than only aiming to increase levels of moderate-vigorous intensity physical activity. Behaviour change interventions to reduce sedentary behaviour in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have not yet been developed or tested. Is a 6-week behaviour change intervention effective and feasible in reducing sedentary time in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? This study will be a multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial with concealed allocation, assessor blinding, and intention-to-treat analysis, comparing a 6-week behaviour change intervention aimed at reducing sedentary time with a sham intervention in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Seventy participants will be recruited from the waiting lists for pulmonary rehabilitation programs at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital and Prince of Wales Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The behaviour change intervention aims to reduce sedentary time through a process of guided goal setting with participants to achieve two target behaviours: (1) replace sitting and lying down with light-intensity physical activity where possible, and (2) stand up and move for 2minutes after 30minutes of continuous sedentary time. Three face-to-face sessions and three phone sessions will be held with a physiotherapist over the 6-week intervention period. The 'capability', 'opportunity', 'motivation' and 'behaviour' (COM-B) model will be applied to each participant to determine which components of behaviour (capability, opportunity or motivation) need to change in order to reduce sedentary time. Based on this 'behavioural diagnosis', the Behaviour Change Wheel will be used to systematically select appropriate behaviour change

  1. Reduced dose measurement of absolute myocardial blood flow using dynamic SPECT imaging in a porcine model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmins, Rachel; Klein, Ran; Petryk, Julia; Marvin, Brian; Kemp, Robert A. de; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Wells, R. Glenn; Wei, Lihui

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measurements provide important additional information over traditional relative perfusion imaging. Recent advances in camera technology have made this possible with single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). Low dose protocols are desirable to reduce the patient radiation risk; however, increased noise may reduce the accuracy of MBF measurements. The authors studied the effect of reducing dose on the accuracy of dynamic SPECT MBF measurements. Methods: Nineteen 30–40 kg pigs were injected with 370 + 1110 MBq of Tc-99m sestamibi or tetrofosmin or 37 + 111 MBq of Tl-201 at rest + stress. Microspheres were injected simultaneously to measure MBF. The pigs were imaged in list-mode for 11 min starting at the time of injection using a Discovery NM 530c camera (GE Healthcare). Each list file was modified so that 3/4, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 of the original counts were included in the projections. Modified projections were reconstructed with CT-based attenuation correction and an energy window-based scatter correction and analyzed with FlowQuant kinetic modeling software using a 1-compartment model. A modified Renkin-Crone extraction function was used to convert the tracer uptake rate K1 to MBF values. The SPECT results were compared to those from microspheres. Results: Correlation between SPECT and microsphere MBF values for the full injected activity was r ≥ 0.75 for all 3 tracers and did not significantly degrade over all count levels. The mean MBF and MFR and the standard errors in the estimates were not significantly worse than the full-count data at 1/4-counts (Tc99m-tracers) and 1/2-counts (Tl-201). Conclusions: Dynamic SPECT measurement of MBF and MFR in pigs can be performed with 1/4 (Tc99m-tracers) or 1/2 (Tl-201) of the standard injected activity without significantly reducing accuracy and precision

  2. Reduced dose measurement of absolute myocardial blood flow using dynamic SPECT imaging in a porcine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmins, Rachel; Klein, Ran; Petryk, Julia; Marvin, Brian; Kemp, Robert A. de; Ruddy, Terrence D.; Wells, R. Glenn, E-mail: gwells@ottawaheart.ca [Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y4W7 (Canada); Wei, Lihui [Nordion, Inc., Ottawa, Ontario K2K 1X8 (Canada)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: Absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) measurements provide important additional information over traditional relative perfusion imaging. Recent advances in camera technology have made this possible with single-photon emission tomography (SPECT). Low dose protocols are desirable to reduce the patient radiation risk; however, increased noise may reduce the accuracy of MBF measurements. The authors studied the effect of reducing dose on the accuracy of dynamic SPECT MBF measurements. Methods: Nineteen 30–40 kg pigs were injected with 370 + 1110 MBq of Tc-99m sestamibi or tetrofosmin or 37 + 111 MBq of Tl-201 at rest + stress. Microspheres were injected simultaneously to measure MBF. The pigs were imaged in list-mode for 11 min starting at the time of injection using a Discovery NM 530c camera (GE Healthcare). Each list file was modified so that 3/4, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, and 1/32 of the original counts were included in the projections. Modified projections were reconstructed with CT-based attenuation correction and an energy window-based scatter correction and analyzed with FlowQuant kinetic modeling software using a 1-compartment model. A modified Renkin-Crone extraction function was used to convert the tracer uptake rate K1 to MBF values. The SPECT results were compared to those from microspheres. Results: Correlation between SPECT and microsphere MBF values for the full injected activity was r ≥ 0.75 for all 3 tracers and did not significantly degrade over all count levels. The mean MBF and MFR and the standard errors in the estimates were not significantly worse than the full-count data at 1/4-counts (Tc99m-tracers) and 1/2-counts (Tl-201). Conclusions: Dynamic SPECT measurement of MBF and MFR in pigs can be performed with 1/4 (Tc99m-tracers) or 1/2 (Tl-201) of the standard injected activity without significantly reducing accuracy and precision.

  3. Development of real-time measurement of methanol-concentration in polymer electrolyte membrane using a local NMR sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kuniyasu; Ito, Kohei; Haishi, Tomoyuki

    2007-01-01

    A real-time sensor to measure methanol concentration in polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) was developed for reducing methanol cross-over in Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). The principle of the methanol sensor is based on the chemical shift of CH and OH species under high magnetic field. The sensor consists of a planar surface coil of 1.3 mm outside diameter. NMR signal from PEM being exposed to CH3OH solvent was measured using NMR sensor. Time-dependence changes of methanol concentration in PEM were obtained from analyzing spectrum of NMR signal. (author)

  4. Measurement of the Dead-Time in a Multichannel Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L.; Olsen, J.

    1973-01-01

    By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses.......By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses....

  5. Measures of reducing obstetric emergencies hysterectomy incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guo-ping; Wang, Bao-lian; Wang, Yan-hong

    2016-03-01

    To study the obstetric emergency hysterectomy which can reduce the incidence of measures. In maternity of Xinxiang Central Hospital, the total number of deliveries cases has been up to 50,526 in 20 years, of which 48 cases were retrospectively analyzed for the clinical data of Emergency uterine surgery cases. Cases underwent obstetric emergency hysterectomy accounted for 0.095% of total deliveries (48/50 526), in which 11 cases of vaginal delivery, 37 cases of cesarean section. The indications for surgery: 27 cases were cased by placental factors accounted for 56.25%; 14 cases of uterine inertia, accounting for 29.17%; uterine rupture in 4 cases, accounting for 8.33%; 3 cases of coagulopathy, accounting for 6.25%. Where the maternal placental factors hysterectomy is the most common (69.70%, 23/33) and the predominant factor is early maternal uterine inertia (60.00%, 9/15). There are 74.09% (20/27) of patients with placental abnormalities history of previous cesarean section or uterine surgery. The major risk factors leading to obstetric emergency hysterectomy is placental factors. Preventing the occurrence of placental abnormalities planting actively can effectively reduce the rate of obstetric hysterectomy.

  6. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  7. Kalman filtering techniques for reducing variance of digital speckle displacement measurement noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ Target dynamics are assumed to be known in measuring digital speckle displacement. Use is made of a simple measurement equation, where measurement noise represents the effect of disturbances introduced in measurement process. From these assumptions, Kalman filter can be designed to reduce variance of measurement noise. An optical and analysis system was set up, by which object motion with constant displacement and constant velocity is experimented with to verify validity of Kalman filtering techniques for reduction of measurement noise variance.

  8. The cost of travel time variability: three measures with properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelson, Leonid; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between three types of measures of the cost of travel time variability: measures based on scheduling preferences and implicit departure time choice, Bernoulli type measures based on a univariate function of travel time, and mean-dispersion measures. We...

  9. Monte-Carlo studies of the performance of scintillator detectors for time-of-flight measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, X.H.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we report on a Monte-Carlo program, SToF, developed to evaluate the performance of scintillator-based Time-of-Flight (TOF) detectors. This program has been used in the design of the TOF system for the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. The program was used to evaluate the intrinsic time-of-flight resolution of various scintillator and light-guide geometries, and the results of these simulations are presented here. The simulation results agree extremely well with measured pulse-height and time distributions with one adjustable parameter. These results, thus, explain also the reduced quantities, such as the position dependence of the time resolution, etc, implying that SToF will be generally useful for estimating the performance of TOF detectors. ((orig.))

  10. Reducing the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution: options and developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Kevin J; Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Hopkins, John

    2012-12-01

    1. Much concern has been expressed about the ecological consequences of night-time light pollution. This concern is most often focused on the encroachment of artificial light into previously unlit areas of the night-time environment, but changes in the spectral composition, duration and spatial pattern of light are also recognized as having ecological effects.2. Here, we examine the potential consequences for organisms of five management options to reduce night-time light pollution. These are to (i) prevent areas from being artificially lit; (ii) limit the duration of lighting; (iii) reduce the 'trespass' of lighting into areas that are not intended to be lit (including the night sky); (iv) change the intensity of lighting; and (v) change the spectral composition of lighting.3. Maintaining and increasing natural unlit areas is likely to be the most effective option for reducing the ecological effects of lighting. However, this will often conflict with other social and economic objectives. Decreasing the duration of lighting will reduce energy costs and carbon emissions, but is unlikely to alleviate many impacts on nocturnal and crepuscular animals, as peak times of demand for lighting frequently coincide with those in the activities of these species. Reducing the trespass of lighting will maintain heterogeneity even in otherwise well-lit areas, providing dark refuges that mobile animals can exploit. Decreasing the intensity of lighting will reduce energy consumption and limit both skyglow and the area impacted by high-intensity direct light. Shifts towards 'whiter' light are likely to increase the potential range of environmental impacts as light is emitted across a broader range of wavelengths.4.Synthesis and applications. The artificial lightscape will change considerably over coming decades with the drive for more cost-effective low-carbon street lighting solutions and growth in the artificially lit area. Developing lighting strategies that minimize adverse

  11. Are anomalously short tunnelling times measurable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, V.; Muga, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Low and Mende have analyzed the conditions that would make possible an actual measurement of an anomalously short traversal time through a potential barrier concluding that such a measurement cannot be made because it is not possible to describe the tunnelling of a wave packet initially close to the barrier by the open-quote open-quote usual wave packet space time analysis close-quote close-quote. We complement this work in several ways: It is argued that the described failure of the usual formalism occurs under a set of too restrictive conditions, some of them not physically motivated, so it does not necessarily imply the impossibility of such a measurement. However, by retaining only conditions well motivated on physical grounds we have performed a systematic numerical check which shows that the conclusion by Low and Mende is indeed generally valid. It is shown that, as speculated by Low and Mende, the process is dominated by over the barrier transmission. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  12. Uncertainties for pressure-time efficiency measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdal, Jørgen; Jonsson, Pontus; Dahlhaug, Ole Gunnar; Nielsen, Torbjørn; Cervantes, Michel

    2010-01-01

     In connection with the pressure-time project at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology and Luleå University of Technology, a number of tests with the pressure-time method have been performed at the Waterpower Laboratory in Trondheim, Norway. The aim is to lower the uncertainty and improve usability of the method. Also a field test at the Anundsjoe power plant in Sweden has been performed. The pressure-time measurement is affected by random uncertainty. To minimize the effect of t...

  13. Implementation of Kalman filter algorithm on models reduced using singular pertubation approximation method and its application to measurement of water level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, Vimala; Khusnul Arif, Didik; Adzkiya, Dieky

    2018-03-01

    The systems contained in the universe often have a large order. Thus, the mathematical model has many state variables that affect the computation time. In addition, generally not all variables are known, so estimations are needed to measure the magnitude of the system that cannot be measured directly. In this paper, we discuss the model reduction and estimation of state variables in the river system to measure the water level. The model reduction of a system is an approximation method of a system with a lower order without significant errors but has a dynamic behaviour that is similar to the original system. The Singular Perturbation Approximation method is one of the model reduction methods where all state variables of the equilibrium system are partitioned into fast and slow modes. Then, The Kalman filter algorithm is used to estimate state variables of stochastic dynamic systems where estimations are computed by predicting state variables based on system dynamics and measurement data. Kalman filters are used to estimate state variables in the original system and reduced system. Then, we compare the estimation results of the state and computational time between the original and reduced system.

  14. Production of pizza dough with reduced fermentation time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Limongi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to reduce the fermentation time of pizza dough by evaluating the development of the dough during fermentation using a Chopin® rheofermentometer and verifying the influence of time and temperature using a 2² factorial design. The focus was to produce characteristic soft pizza dough with bubbles and crispy edges and soft in the center. These attributes were verified by the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The dough was prepared with the usual ingredients, fermented at a temperature range from 27 to 33 ºC for 30 to 42 minutes, enlarged, added with tomato sauce, baked, and frozen. The influence of the variables time and temperature on the release of carbon dioxide (H'm was confirmed with positive and significant effect, using a rheofermentometer, which was not observed for the development or maximum height of the dough (Hm. The same fermentation conditions of the experimental design were used for the production of the pizza dough in the industrial process; it was submitted to Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA, in which the samples were described by nine attributes. The results showed that some samples had the desired characteristics of pizza dough, demonstrated by the principal component analysis (PCA, indicating a 30 % fermentation time reduction when compared to the conventional process.

  15. Measurement of time delays in gated radiotherapy for realistic respiratory motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chugh, Brige P.; Quirk, Sarah; Conroy, Leigh; Smith, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Gated radiotherapy is used to reduce internal motion margins, escalate target dose, and limit normal tissue dose; however, its temporal accuracy is limited. Beam-on and beam-off time delays can lead to treatment inefficiencies and/or geographic misses; therefore, AAPM Task Group 142 recommends verifying the temporal accuracy of gating systems. Many groups use sinusoidal phantom motion for this, under the tacit assumption that use of sinusoidal motion for determining time delays produces negligible error. The authors test this assumption by measuring gating time delays for several realistic motion shapes with increasing degrees of irregularity. Methods: Time delays were measured on a linear accelerator with a real-time position management system (Varian TrueBeam with RPM system version 1.7.5) for seven motion shapes: regular sinusoidal; regular realistic-shape; large (40%) and small (10%) variations in amplitude; large (40%) variations in period; small (10%) variations in both amplitude and period; and baseline drift (30%). Film streaks of radiation exposure were generated for each motion shape using a programmable motion phantom. Beam-on and beam-off time delays were determined from the difference between the expected and observed streak length. Results: For the system investigated, all sine, regular realistic-shape, and slightly irregular amplitude variation motions had beam-off and beam-on time delays within the AAPM recommended limit of less than 100 ms. In phase-based gating, even small variations in period resulted in some time delays greater than 100 ms. Considerable time delays over 1 s were observed with highly irregular motion. Conclusions: Sinusoidal motion shapes can be considered a reasonable approximation to the more complex and slightly irregular shapes of realistic motion. When using phase-based gating with predictive filters even small variations in period can result in time delays over 100 ms. Clinical use of these systems for patients

  16. Measurement of time delays in gated radiotherapy for realistic respiratory motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Brige P.; Quirk, Sarah; Conroy, Leigh; Smith, Wendy L., E-mail: Wendy.Smith@albertahealthservices.ca [Department of Medical Physics, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Gated radiotherapy is used to reduce internal motion margins, escalate target dose, and limit normal tissue dose; however, its temporal accuracy is limited. Beam-on and beam-off time delays can lead to treatment inefficiencies and/or geographic misses; therefore, AAPM Task Group 142 recommends verifying the temporal accuracy of gating systems. Many groups use sinusoidal phantom motion for this, under the tacit assumption that use of sinusoidal motion for determining time delays produces negligible error. The authors test this assumption by measuring gating time delays for several realistic motion shapes with increasing degrees of irregularity. Methods: Time delays were measured on a linear accelerator with a real-time position management system (Varian TrueBeam with RPM system version 1.7.5) for seven motion shapes: regular sinusoidal; regular realistic-shape; large (40%) and small (10%) variations in amplitude; large (40%) variations in period; small (10%) variations in both amplitude and period; and baseline drift (30%). Film streaks of radiation exposure were generated for each motion shape using a programmable motion phantom. Beam-on and beam-off time delays were determined from the difference between the expected and observed streak length. Results: For the system investigated, all sine, regular realistic-shape, and slightly irregular amplitude variation motions had beam-off and beam-on time delays within the AAPM recommended limit of less than 100 ms. In phase-based gating, even small variations in period resulted in some time delays greater than 100 ms. Considerable time delays over 1 s were observed with highly irregular motion. Conclusions: Sinusoidal motion shapes can be considered a reasonable approximation to the more complex and slightly irregular shapes of realistic motion. When using phase-based gating with predictive filters even small variations in period can result in time delays over 100 ms. Clinical use of these systems for patients

  17. Reduced glomerular angiotensin II receptor density in diabetes mellitus in the rat: time course and mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    Glomerular angiotensin II receptors are reduced in number in early diabetes mellitus, which may contribute to hyperfiltration and glomerular injury. The time course and role of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in the pathogenesis of the receptor abnormality were studied in male Sprague-Dawley rats made diabetic with streptozotocin (65 mg, iv). Glomerular angiotensin II receptors were measured by Scatchard analysis; insulin, renin activity, angiotensin II, and aldosterone were measured by RIA. Diabetes mellitus was documented at 24 h by a rise in plasma glucose (vehicle-injected control, 133 +/- 4; diabetic, 482 +/- 22 mg/dl and a fall in plasma insulin (control, 53.1 +/- 5.7; diabetic, 35.6 +/- 4.0 microIU/ml. At 24 h glomerular angiotensin II receptor density was decreased by 26.5% in diabetic rats (control, 75.5 +/- 9.6 X 10(6); diabetic, 55.5 +/- 8.3 X 10(6) receptors/glomerulus. Receptor occupancy could not explain the defect, because there was reduced binding in diabetic glomeruli after pretreatment with 3 M MgCl 2 , a maneuver that caused dissociation of previously bound hormone. There was a progressive return of the receptor density toward normal over the 60 days following induction of diabetes, with diabetic glomeruli measuring 22.7%, 14.8%, and 3.7% fewer receptors than age-matched controls at 11 days, 1 month, and 2 months, respectively

  18. A mathematical model for reducing the composting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Larreategui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The environment is still affected by the inappropriate use of organic matter waste, but a culture of recycling and reuse has been promoted in Ecuador to reduce carbon footprint. The composting, a technique to digest organic matter, which traditionally takes 16-24 weeks, is still inefficient to use. Therefore, this paper concerns the optimization of the composting process in both quality and production time. The variables studied were: type of waste (fruits and vegetables and type of bioaccelerator (yeast and indigenous microorganisms. By using a full factorial random design 22, a quality compost was obtained in 7 weeks of processing. Quality factors as temperature, density, moisture content, pH and carbon-nitrogen ratio allowed the best conditions for composting in the San Gabriel del Baba community (Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador. As a result of this study, a mathematical surface model which explains the relationship between the temperature and the digestion time of organic matter was obtained.

  19. Caffeine Reduces Reaction Time and Improves Performance in Simulated-Contest of Taekwondo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Victor G. F.; Santos, Vander R. F.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Almeida, Jose W.; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Kiss, Maria A. P. D. M.; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on reaction time during a specific taekwondo task and athletic performance during a simulated taekwondo contest. Ten taekwondo athletes ingested either 5 mg·kg−1 body mass caffeine or placebo and performed two combats (spaced apart by 20 min). The reaction-time test (five kicks “Bandal Tchagui”) was performed immediately prior to the first combat and immediately after the first and second combats. Caffeine improved reaction time (from 0.42 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.07 s) only prior to the first combat (P = 0.004). During the first combat, break times during the first two rounds were shorter in caffeine ingestion, followed by higher plasma lactate concentrations compared with placebo (P = 0.029 and 0.014, respectively). During the second combat, skipping-time was reduced, and relative attack times and attack/skipping ratio was increased following ingestion of caffeine during the first two rounds (all P Caffeine resulted in no change in combat intensity parameters between the first and second combat (all P > 0.05), but combat intensity was decreased following placebo (all P caffeine reduced reaction time in non-fatigued conditions and delayed fatigue during successive taekwondo combats. PMID:24518826

  20. Evaluation of focused ultrasound algorithms: Issues for reducing pre-focal heating and treatment time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiannakou, Marinos; Trimikliniotis, Michael; Yiallouras, Christos; Damianou, Christakis

    2016-02-01

    Due to the heating in the pre-focal field the delay between successive movements in high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) are sometimes as long as 60s, resulting to treatment time in the order of 2-3h. Because there is generally a requirement to reduce treatment time, we were motivated to explore alternative transducer motion algorithms in order to reduce pre-focal heating and treatment time. A 1 MHz single element transducer with 4 cm diameter and 10 cm focal length was used. A simulation model was developed that estimates the temperature, thermal dose and lesion development in the pre-focal field. The simulated temperature history that was combined with the motion algorithms produced thermal maps in the pre-focal region. Polyacrylimde gel phantom was used to evaluate the induced pre-focal heating for each motion algorithm used, and also was used to assess the accuracy of the simulation model. Three out of the six algorithms having successive steps close to each other, exhibited severe heating in the pre-focal field. Minimal heating was produced with the algorithms having successive steps apart from each other (square, square spiral and random). The last three algorithms were improved further (with small cost in time), thus eliminating completely the pre-focal heating and reducing substantially the treatment time as compared to traditional algorithms. Out of the six algorithms, 3 were successful in eliminating the pre-focal heating completely. Because these 3 algorithms required no delay between successive movements (except in the last part of the motion), the treatment time was reduced by 93%. Therefore, it will be possible in the future, to achieve treatment time of focused ultrasound therapies shorter than 30 min. The rate of ablated volume achieved with one of the proposed algorithms was 71 cm(3)/h. The intention of this pilot study was to demonstrate that the navigation algorithms play the most important role in reducing pre-focal heating. By evaluating in

  1. Practical Solutions for Reducing Container Ships’ Waiting Times at Ports Using Simulation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdorreza Sheikholeslami; Gholamreza Ilati; Yones Eftekhari Yeganeh

    2013-01-01

    The main challenge for container ports is the planning required for berthing container ships while docked in port. Growth of containerization is creating problems for ports and container terminals as they reach their capacity limits of various resources which increasingly leads to traffic and port congestion. Good planning and management of container terminal operations reduces waiting time for liner ships. Reducing the waiting time improves the terminal’s productivity and decreases the port difficulties. Two important keys to reducing waiting time with berth allocation are determining suitable access channel depths and increasing the number of berths which in this paper are studied and analyzed as practical solutions. Simulation based analysis is the only way to understand how various resources interact with each other and how they are affected in the berthing time of ships. We used the Enterprise Dynamics software to produce simulation models due to the complexity and nature of the problems. We further present case study for berth allocation simulation of the biggest container terminal in Iran and the optimum access channel depth and the number of berths are obtained from simulation results. The results show a significant reduction in the waiting time for container ships and can be useful for major functions in operations and development of container ship terminals.

  2. Effect of reduced exposure times on the cytotoxicity of resin luting cements cured by high-power led

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulfem Ergun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Applications of resin luting agents and high-power light-emitting diodes (LED light-curing units (LCUs have increased considerably over the last few years. However, it is not clear whether the effect of reduced exposure time on cytotoxicity of such products have adequate biocompatibility to meet clinical success. This study aimed at assessing the effect of reduced curing time of five resin luting cements (RLCs polymerized by high-power LED curing unit on the viability of a cell of L-929 fibroblast cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disc-shaped samples were prepared in polytetrafluoroethylene moulds with cylindrical cavities. The samples were irradiated from the top through the ceramic discs and acetate strips using LED LCU for 20 s (50% of the manufacturer's recommended exposure time and 40 s (100% exposure time. After curing, the samples were transferred into a culture medium for 24 h. The eluates were obtained and pipetted onto L-929 fibroblast cultures (3x10(4 per well and incubated for evaluating after 24 h. Measurements were performed by dimethylthiazol diphenyltetrazolium assay. Statistical significance was determined by two-way ANOVA and two independent samples were compared by t-test. RESULTS: Results showed that eluates of most of the materials polymerized for 20 s (except Rely X Unicem and Illusion reduced to a higher extent cell viability compared to samples of the same materials polymerized for 40 s. Illusion exhibited the least cytotoxicity for 20 s exposure time compared to the control (culture without samples followed by Rely X Unicem and Rely X ARC (90.81%, 88.90%, and 83.11%, respectively. For Rely X ARC, Duolink and Lute-It 40 s exposure time was better (t=-1.262 p=0,276; t=-9.399 p=0.001; and t=-20.418 p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that reduction of curing time significantly enhances the cytotoxicity of the studied resin cement materials, therefore compromising their clinical

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Time measurement device with four femtosecond stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Petr; Prochazka, Ivan; Kodet, Jan

    2010-10-01

    We present the experimental results of extremely precise timing in the sense of time-of-arrival measurements in a local time scale. The timing device designed and constructed in our laboratory is based on a new concept using a surface acoustic wave filter as a time interpolator. Construction of the device is briefly described. The experiments described were focused on evaluating the timing precision and stability. Low-jitter test pulses with a repetition frequency of 763 Hz were generated synchronously to the local time base and their times of arrival were measured. The resulting precision of a single measurement was typically 900 fs RMS, and a timing stability TDEV of 4 fs was achieved for time intervals in the range from 300 s to 2 h. To our knowledge this is the best value reported to date for the stability of a timing device. The experimental results are discussed and possible improvements are proposed.

  4. High-efficient method for spectrometric data real time processing with increased resolution of a measuring channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkinaze, S.I.; Voronov, V.A.; Nechaev, Yu.I.

    1988-01-01

    Solution of reduction problem as a mean to increase spectrometric tract resolution when it is realized using the digit-by-digit modified method and special strategy, significantly reducing the time of processing, is considered. The results presented confirm that the complex measurement tract plus microcomputer is equivalent to the use of the tract with a higher resolution, and the use of the digit-by-digit modified method permits to process spectrometric information in real time scale

  5. Time efficiency of tritium measurement in the environmental water by electrolysis enrichment (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Y.; Koganezawa, T.; Iida, T.

    2003-01-01

    Now the electrolysis enrichment is necessary for tritium measurement of the environmental water in Japan. Generally, the electrolysis needs distilling the sample water before and after the electrolysis. To save the time to measure, it was investigated that a possibility of the omission of the distillation after the electrolysis and of the substitution the filtration for the distillation before the electrolysis. The electrolysis was carried out with a device using solid polymer electrolyte layer, which was recently developed in Japan. Initially, impurities eluted from the device were measured by enrichment of ultra pure water. Although some impurities eluted from the layer, the concentrations were so low that the enriched water brought ineffectual quenching for the liquid scintillation counting. Secondly, two filtration methods, i.e.; micro filtration with the pore size of 0.1 μm and reverse osmosis, were applied to eliminate the impurities in the environmental waters before the electrolysis. Although the impurity concentrations in the samples by the filtrations were higher than those by the distillation, the filtered water brought only slight quenching. However, the frequent electrolysis of the water treated with the micro filtration caused degradation of the electrolysis cell. Consequently, the distillation after the electrolysis may omit, and the reverse osmosis treatment may alternate the distillation before the electrolysis. Improving the treatment will not only save the time and labor but also reduce the error with the treatment. The measurement technique proposed here will take 25 hours to measure one sample using the electrolysis device produced commercially. A hypothetic electrolysis device of which final sample volume were 20 cm 3 could allow the measuring time of 10 hours. (author)

  6. Reduced variability and execution time to reach a target with a needle GPS system: Comparison between physicians, residents and nurse anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fevre, Marie-Cécile; Vincent, Caroline; Picard, Julien; Vighetti, Arnaud; Chapuis, Claire; Detavernier, Maxime; Allenet, Benoît; Payen, Jean-François; Bosson, Jean-Luc; Albaladejo, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound (US) guided needle positioning is safer than anatomical landmark techniques for central venous access. Hand-eye coordination and execution time depend on the professional's ability, previous training and personal skills. Needle guidance positioning systems (GPS) may theoretically reduce execution time and facilitate needle positioning in specific targets, thus improving patient comfort and safety. Three groups of healthcare professionals (41 anaesthesiologists and intensivists, 41 residents in anaesthesiology and intensive care, 39 nurse anaesthetists) were included and required to perform 3 tasks (positioning the tip of a needle in three different targets in a silicon phantom) by using successively a conventional US-guided needle positioning and a needle GPS. We measured execution times to perform the tasks, hand-eye coordination and the number of repositioning occurrences or errors in handling the needle or the probe. Without the GPS system, we observed a significant inter-individual difference for execution time (Pgaming were found to be independent factors associated with a shorter execution time. Use of GPS attenuated the inter-individual and group variability. We observed a reduced execution time and improved hand-eye coordination in all groups as compared to US without GPS. Neither US training, video gaming nor demographic personal or professional factors were found to be significantly associated with reduced execution time when GPS was used. US associated with GPS systems may improve safety and decrease execution time by reducing inter-individual variability between professionals for needle-handling procedures. Copyright © 2016 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceived Time as a Measure of Mental Workload

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Holmegaard, Kristin Due

    2013-01-01

    The mental workload imposed by systems is important to their operation and usability. Consequently, researchers and practitioners need reliable, valid, and easy-to-administer methods for measuring mental workload. The ratio of perceived time to clock time appears to be such a method, yet mental...... is a performance-related rather than task-related dimension of mental workload. We find a higher perceived time ratio for timed than untimed tasks. According to subjective workload ratings and pupil-diameter measurements the timed tasks impose higher mental workload. This finding contradicts the prospective...... paradigm, which asserts that perceived time decreases with increasing mental workload. We also find a higher perceived time ratio for solved than unsolved tasks, while subjective workload ratings indicate lower mental workload for the solved tasks. This finding shows that the relationship between...

  8. Use of Response Time for Measuring Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick C. Kyllonen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review some of the key literature on response time as it has played a role in cognitive ability measurement, providing a historical perspective as well as covering current research. We discuss the speed-level distinction, dimensions of speed and level in cognitive abilities frameworks, speed–accuracy tradeoff, approaches to addressing speed–accuracy tradeoff, analysis methods, particularly item response theory-based, response time models from cognitive psychology (ex-Gaussian function, and the diffusion model, and other uses of response time in testing besides ability measurement. We discuss several new methods that can be used to provide greater insight into the speed and level aspects of cognitive ability and speed–accuracy tradeoff decisions. These include item-level time limits, the use of feedback (e.g., CUSUMs, explicit scoring rules that combine speed and accuracy information (e.g., count down timing, and cognitive psychology models. We also review some of the key psychometric advances in modeling speed and level, which combine speed and ability measurement, address speed–accuracy tradeoff, allow for distinctions between response times on items responded to correctly and incorrectly, and integrate psychometrics with information-processing modeling. We suggest that the application of these models and tools is likely to advance both the science and measurement of human abilities for theory and applications.

  9. Time Resolved Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Hogan, J.; Wampler, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of deposition in current tokamaks are crucial to gain a predictive understanding of deposition with a view to mitigating tritium retention and deposition on diagnostic mirrors expected in next-step devices. Two quartz crystal microbalances have been installed on NSTX at a location 0.77m outside the last closed flux surface. This configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. The deposits were analyzed ex-situ and found to be dominantly carbon, oxygen, and deuterium. A rear facing quartz crystal recorded deposition of lower sticking probability molecules at 10% of the rate of the front facing one. Time resolved measurements over a 4-week period with 497 discharges, recorded 29.2 (micro)g/cm 2 of deposition, however surprisingly, 15.9 (micro)g/cm 2 of material loss occurred at 7 discharges. The net deposited mass of 13.3 (micro)g/cm 2 matched the mass of 13.5 (micro)g/cm 2 measured independently by ion beam analysis. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that transient processes are likely to dominate the deposition

  10. Reducing dose calculation time for accurate iterative IMRT planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Lauterbach, Marc; Tong, Shidong; Wu Qiuwen; Mohan, Radhe

    2002-01-01

    A time-consuming component of IMRT optimization is the dose computation required in each iteration for the evaluation of the objective function. Accurate superposition/convolution (SC) and Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations are currently considered too time-consuming for iterative IMRT dose calculation. Thus, fast, but less accurate algorithms such as pencil beam (PB) algorithms are typically used in most current IMRT systems. This paper describes two hybrid methods that utilize the speed of fast PB algorithms yet achieve the accuracy of optimizing based upon SC algorithms via the application of dose correction matrices. In one method, the ratio method, an infrequently computed voxel-by-voxel dose ratio matrix (R=D SC /D PB ) is applied for each beam to the dose distributions calculated with the PB method during the optimization. That is, D PB xR is used for the dose calculation during the optimization. The optimization proceeds until both the IMRT beam intensities and the dose correction ratio matrix converge. In the second method, the correction method, a periodically computed voxel-by-voxel correction matrix for each beam, defined to be the difference between the SC and PB dose computations, is used to correct PB dose distributions. To validate the methods, IMRT treatment plans developed with the hybrid methods are compared with those obtained when the SC algorithm is used for all optimization iterations and with those obtained when PB-based optimization is followed by SC-based optimization. In the 12 patient cases studied, no clinically significant differences exist in the final treatment plans developed with each of the dose computation methodologies. However, the number of time-consuming SC iterations is reduced from 6-32 for pure SC optimization to four or less for the ratio matrix method and five or less for the correction method. Because the PB algorithm is faster at computing dose, this reduces the inverse planning optimization time for our implementation

  11. Measurement and analysis of thermal conductivity of isotopically controlled silicon layers by time-resolved X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eon, S.; Frieling, R.; Bracht, H. [Institute for Materials Physics, University of Muenster, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Plech, A. [Institute for Photon Science and Synchrotron Radiation (IPS), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Nanostructuring is considered to be an efficient way to tailor phonon scattering and to reduce the thermal conductivity while keeping good electronic properties. This can be ideally realized by mass modulation of chemical identical elements. In this work, we report measurements of the crossplane thermal conductivity of isotopically modulated {sup 28}Si/{sup 30}Si multilayer structures and of isotopically pure {sup 28}Si layers by means of time-resolved X-ray scattering. Compared to earlier investigations, an improved measurement technique has been applied to determine the cooling behavior of a top gold metal layer after laser excitation with picosecond time resolution until thermal equilibration is established. Detailed analysis of the cooling behavior not only confirms a reduced thermal conductivity of {sup 28}Si/{sup 30}Si multilayer structures compared to natural and isotopically enriched {sup 28}Si layers but also provides evidence of direct laser heating of the Si layer. This and extrinsic effects affecting the cooling behavior of the gold layer are taken into account to determine the thermal conductivity by means of the pump-and-probe measurement technique. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Measuring Transient Detonation/Shock Behavior;Time-of-Arrival Detection and Waveform Determination.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Marcus Alexander; Willis, Michael David; Covert, Timothy Todd

    2014-09-01

    The miniaturization of explosive components has driven the need for a corresponding miniaturization of the current diagnostic techniques available to measure the explosive phenomena. Laser interferometry and the use of spectrally coated optical windows have proven to be an essential interrogation technique to acquire particle velocity time history data in one- dimensional gas gun and relatively large-scale explosive experiments. A new diagnostic technique described herein allows for experimental measurement of apparent particle velocity time histories in microscale explosive configurations and can be applied to shocks/non-shocks in inert materials. The diagnostic, Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors (EFOS), has been tested in challenging microscopic experimental configurations that give confidence in the technique's ability to measure the apparent particle velocity time histories of an explosive with pressure outputs in the tenths of kilobars to several kilobars. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors also allow for several measurements to be acquired in a single experiment because they are microscopic, thus reducing the number of experiments necessary. The future of EFOS technology will focus on further miniaturization, material selection appropriate for the operating pressure regime, and extensive hydrocode and optical analysis to transform apparent particle velocity time histories into true particle velocity time histories as well as the more meaningful pressure time histories.

  13. Mapping Rice Cropping Systems in Vietnam Using an NDVI-Based Time-Series Similarity Measurement Based on DTW Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Guan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS time-series data has been widely used in the fields of crop and rice classification. The cloudy and rainy weather characteristics of the monsoon season greatly reduce the likelihood of obtaining high-quality optical remote sensing images. In addition, the diverse crop-planting system in Vietnam also hinders the comparison of NDVI among different crop stages. To address these problems, we apply a Dynamic Time Warping (DTW distance-based similarity measure approach and use the entire yearly NDVI time series to reduce the inaccuracy of classification using a single image. We first de-noise the NDVI time series using S-G filtering based on the TIMESAT software. Then, a standard NDVI time-series base for rice growth is established based on field survey data and Google Earth sample data. NDVI time-series data for each pixel are constructed and the DTW distance with the standard rice growth NDVI time series is calculated. Then, we apply thresholds to extract rice growth areas. A qualitative assessment using statistical data and a spatial assessment using sampled data from the rice-cropping map reveal a high mapping accuracy at the national scale between the statistical data, with the corresponding R2 being as high as 0.809; however, the mapped rice accuracy decreased at the provincial scale due to the reduced number of rice planting areas per province. An analysis of the results indicates that the 500-m resolution MODIS data are limited in terms of mapping scattered rice parcels. The results demonstrate that the DTW-based similarity measure of the NDVI time series can be effectively used to map large-area rice cropping systems with diverse cultivation processes.

  14. Bystander cells enhance NK cytotoxic efficiency by reducing search time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Renping; Schwarz, Karsten; Mangeat, Matthieu; Schwarz, Eva C; Hamed, Mohamed; Bogeski, Ivan; Helms, Volkhard; Rieger, Heiko; Qu, Bin

    2017-03-13

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a central role during innate immune responses by eliminating pathogen-infected or tumorigenic cells. In the microenvironment, NK cells encounter not only target cells but also other cell types including non-target bystander cells. The impact of bystander cells on NK killing efficiency is, however, still elusive. In this study we show that the presence of bystander cells, such as P815, monocytes or HUVEC, enhances NK killing efficiency. With bystander cells present, the velocity and persistence of NK cells were increased, whereas the degranulation of lytic granules remained unchanged. Bystander cell-derived H 2 O 2 was found to mediate the acceleration of NK cell migration. Using mathematical diffusion models, we confirm that local acceleration of NK cells in the vicinity of bystander cells reduces their search time to locate target cells. In addition, we found that integrin β chains (β1, β2 and β7) on NK cells are required for bystander-enhanced NK migration persistence. In conclusion, we show that acceleration of NK cell migration in the vicinity of H 2 O 2 -producing bystander cells reduces target cell search time and enhances NK killing efficiency.

  15. Real time refractive index measurement by ESPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torroba, R.; Joenathan, C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a method to measure refractive index variations in real time is reported. A technique to introduce reference fringes in real time is discussed. Both the theoretical and experimental results are presented and an example with phase shifting is given. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  16. Timely resolved measurements on CdSe nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, B.E. von

    2006-01-01

    By means of infrared spectroscopy the influence of the organic cover on structure and dynamics of CdSe nanoparticles was studied. First a procedure was developed, which allows to get from the static infrared spectrum informations on the quality of the organic cover and the binding behaviour of the ligands. On qualitatively high-grade and well characterized samples thereafter the dynamics of the lowest-energy electron level 1S e was time-resolvedly meausred in thew visible range. As reference served CdSe TOPO, which was supplemented by samples with the ligands octanthiole, octanic acid, octylamine, naphthoquinone, benzoquinone, and pyridine. The studied nanoparticles had a diameter of 4.86 nm. By means of the excitation-scanning or pump=probe procedure first measurements in the picosecond range were performed. The excitation wavelengths were thereby spectrally confined and so chosen that selectively the transitions 1S 3/2 -1S-e and 1P 3/2 -1P e but not the intermediately lyingt transition 2S 3/2 -1S e were excited. The excitation energies were kept so low that the excitation of several excitons in one crystal could be avoided. The scanning wavelength in the infrared corresponded to the energy difference between the electron levels 1S e and 1P e . The transients in the picosecond range are marked by a steep increasement of the signal, on which a multi-exponential decay follows. The increasement, which reproduces the popiulation of the excited state, isa inependent on the choice of the ligands. The influence of the organic cover is first visible in the different decay times of the excited electron levels. the decay of the measurement signal of CdSe TOPO can be approximatively described by three time constants: a decay constant in the early picosecond region, a time constant around hundert picoseconds, and a time constant of some nanoseconds. At increasing scanning wavelength the decay constants become longer. By directed excitation of the 1S 3/2 -1S e and the 1P 3

  17. Real-time database for high resolution neutron monitor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigies, Christian T.; Rother, Oliver M.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; Heber, Bernd [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The worldwide network of standardised neutron monitors is, after 50 years, still the state-of-the-art instrumentation to measure spectral variations of the primary cosmic ray component. These measurements are an ideal complement to space based cosmic ray measurements. Data from the approximately 50 IGY and NM64 neutron monitors is stored locally but also available through data collections sites like the World Data Center (WDC) or the IZMIRAN ftp server. The data from the WDC is in a standard format, but only hourly values are available. IZMIRAN collects the data in the best available time resolution, but the data arrives on the ftp server only hours, sometimes days, after the measurements. Also, the high time-resolution measurements of the different stations do not have a common format, a conversion routine for each station is needed before they can be used for scientific analysis. Supported by the 7th framework program of the European Commission, we are setting up a real-time database where high resolution cosmic ray measurements will be stored and accessible immediately after the measurement. Stations that do not have 1-minute resolution measurements will be upgraded to 1-minute or better resolution with an affordable standard registration system, that will submit the measurements to the database via the internet in real-time.

  18. Reducing systematic errors in measurements made by a SQUID magnetometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, L.F.; Kaptás, D.; Balogh, J.

    2014-01-01

    A simple method is described which reduces those systematic errors of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer that arise from possible radial displacements of the sample in the second-order gradiometer superconducting pickup coil. By rotating the sample rod (and hence the sample) around its axis into a position where the best fit is obtained to the output voltage of the SQUID as the sample is moved through the pickup coil, the accuracy of measuring magnetic moments can be increased significantly. In the cases of an examined Co 1.9 Fe 1.1 Si Heusler alloy, pure iron and nickel samples, the accuracy could be increased over the value given in the specification of the device. The suggested method is only meaningful if the measurement uncertainty is dominated by systematic errors – radial displacement in particular – and not by instrumental or environmental noise. - Highlights: • A simple method is described which reduces systematic errors of a SQUID. • The errors arise from a radial displacement of the sample in the gradiometer coil. • The procedure is to rotate the sample rod (with the sample) around its axis. • The best fit to the SQUID voltage has to be attained moving the sample through the coil. • The accuracy of measuring magnetic moment can be increased significantly

  19. Quantum supremacy in constant-time measurement-based computation: A unified architecture for sampling and verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jacob; Sanders, Stephen; Miyake, Akimasa

    2017-12-01

    While quantum speed-up in solving certain decision problems by a fault-tolerant universal quantum computer has been promised, a timely research interest includes how far one can reduce the resource requirement to demonstrate a provable advantage in quantum devices without demanding quantum error correction, which is crucial for prolonging the coherence time of qubits. We propose a model device made of locally interacting multiple qubits, designed such that simultaneous single-qubit measurements on it can output probability distributions whose average-case sampling is classically intractable, under similar assumptions as the sampling of noninteracting bosons and instantaneous quantum circuits. Notably, in contrast to these previous unitary-based realizations, our measurement-based implementation has two distinctive features. (i) Our implementation involves no adaptation of measurement bases, leading output probability distributions to be generated in constant time, independent of the system size. Thus, it could be implemented in principle without quantum error correction. (ii) Verifying the classical intractability of our sampling is done by changing the Pauli measurement bases only at certain output qubits. Our usage of random commuting quantum circuits in place of computationally universal circuits allows a unique unification of sampling and verification, so they require the same physical resource requirements in contrast to the more demanding verification protocols seen elsewhere in the literature.

  20. Linear Parameter Varying Versus Linear Time Invariant Reduced Order Controller Design of Turboprop Aircraft Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widowati

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of parameter varying reduced order controllers to aircraft model is proposed. The generalization of the balanced singular perturbation method of linear time invariant (LTI system is used to reduce the order of linear parameter varying (LPV system. Based on the reduced order model the low-order LPV controller is designed by using synthesis technique. The performance of the reduced order controller is examined by applying it to lateral-directional control of aircraft model having 20th order. Furthermore, the time responses of the closed loop system with reduced order LPV controllers and reduced order LTI controller is compared. From the simulation results, the 8th order LPV controller can maintain stability and to provide the same level of closed-loop systems performance as the full-order LPV controller. It is different with the reduced-order LTI controller that cannot maintain stability and performance for all allowable parameter trajectories.

  1. Discrete time interval measurement system: fundamentals, resolution and errors in the measurement of angular vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez de León, F C; Meroño Pérez, P A

    2010-01-01

    The traditional method for measuring the velocity and the angular vibration in the shaft of rotating machines using incremental encoders is based on counting the pulses at given time intervals. This method is generically called the time interval measurement system (TIMS). A variant of this method that we have developed in this work consists of measuring the corresponding time of each pulse from the encoder and sampling the signal by means of an A/D converter as if it were an analog signal, that is to say, in discrete time. For this reason, we have denominated this method as the discrete time interval measurement system (DTIMS). This measurement system provides a substantial improvement in the precision and frequency resolution compared with the traditional method of counting pulses. In addition, this method permits modification of the width of some pulses in order to obtain a mark-phase on every lap. This paper explains the theoretical fundamentals of the DTIMS and its application for measuring the angular vibrations of rotating machines. It also displays the required relationship between the sampling rate of the signal, the number of pulses of the encoder and the rotating velocity in order to obtain the required resolution and to delimit the methodological errors in the measurement

  2. Beyond AIRSpeed: How Organizational Modeling and Simulation Further Reduced Engine Maintenance Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hagan, Joel; Slack, William; Zolin, Roxanne; Dillard, John

    2007-01-01

    The Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Division (AIMD) at Naval Air Station (NAS) Lemoore, CA, has worked aggressively to reduce engine maintenance time using the tools of the NAVAIR Enterprise AiRSpeed (AiRSpeed) program...

  3. Boltzmann babies in the proper time measure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousso, Raphael; Bousso, Raphael; Freivogel, Ben; Yang, I-Sheng

    2007-12-20

    After commenting briefly on the role of the typicality assumption in science, we advocate a phenomenological approach to the cosmological measure problem. Like any other theory, a measure should be simple, general, well defined, and consistent with observation. This allows us to proceed by elimination. As an example, we consider the proper time cutoff on a geodesic congruence. It predicts that typical observers are quantum fluctuations in the early universe, or Boltzmann babies. We sharpen this well-known youngness problem by taking into account the expansion and open spatial geometry of pocket universes. Moreover, we relate the youngness problem directly to the probability distribution for observables, such as the temperature of the cosmic background radiation. We consider a number of modifications of the proper time measure, but find none that would make it compatible with observation.

  4. Measuring Time in Sporting Competitions with the Domain-Specific Language EasyTime

    OpenAIRE

    Fister Jr., Iztok; Fister, Iztok

    2012-01-01

    Measuring time in mass sporting competitions is unthinkable manually today because of their long duration and unreliability. Besides, automatic timing devices based on the RFID technology have become cheaper. However, these devices cannot operate stand-alone. To work efficiently, they need a computer timing system for monitoring results. Such system should be capable of processing the incoming events, encoding and assigning results to a individual competitor, sorting results according to the ...

  5. Effects of barium concentration on oropharyngeal swallow timing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, Shauna L; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-02-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between "thin" (40 % w/v concentration) and "ultrathin" (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; mean age = 31 years) each performed a series of three noncued 5-ml swallows each of ultrathin and thin liquid barium solutions in videofluoroscopy. Timing measures were compared between barium concentrations using a mixed-model ANOVA. The measures of interest were stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Significant differences were observed in the timing measures of swallowing with respect to barium concentration. In all cases, longer durations were seen with the higher barium concentration. Barium concentration influences timing parameters in healthy swallowing, even between ultrathin and thin concentrations. Clinicians need to understand and control for the impact of different barium stimuli on swallowing physiology.

  6. Tunneling Time and Weak Measurement in Strong Field Ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Tomáš; Mishra, Siddhartha; Doran, Brent R; Gordon, Daniel F; Landsman, Alexandra S

    2016-06-10

    Tunneling delays represent a hotly debated topic, with many conflicting definitions and little consensus on when and if such definitions accurately describe the physical observables. Here, we relate these different definitions to distinct experimental observables in strong field ionization, finding that two definitions, Larmor time and Bohmian time, are compatible with the attoclock observable and the resonance lifetime of a bound state, respectively. Both of these definitions are closely connected to the theory of weak measurement, with Larmor time being the weak measurement value of tunneling time and Bohmian trajectory corresponding to the average particle trajectory, which has been recently reconstructed using weak measurement in a two-slit experiment [S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, Science 332, 1170 (2011)]. We demonstrate a big discrepancy in strong field ionization between the Bohmian and weak measurement values of tunneling time, and we suggest this arises because the tunneling time is calculated for a small probability postselected ensemble of electrons. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of experiments in attosecond science, suggesting that tunneling is unlikely to be an instantaneous process.

  7. A cost sensitive inpatient bed reservation approach to reduce emergency department boarding times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shanshan; Chinnam, Ratna Babu; Murat, Alper; Batarse, Bassam; Neemuchwala, Hakimuddin; Jordan, Will

    2015-03-01

    Emergency departments (ED) in hospitals are experiencing severe crowding and prolonged patient waiting times. A significant contributing factor is boarding delays where admitted patients are held in ED (occupying critical resources) until an inpatient bed is identified and readied in the admit wards. Recent research has suggested that if the hospital admissions of ED patients can be predicted during triage or soon after, then bed requests and preparations can be triggered early on to reduce patient boarding time. We propose a cost sensitive bed reservation policy that recommends optimal bed reservation times for patients. The policy relies on a classifier that estimates the probability that the ED patient will be admitted using the patient information collected and readily available at triage or right after. The policy is cost sensitive in that it accounts for costs associated with patient admission prediction misclassification as well as costs associated with incorrectly selecting the reservation time. Results from testing the proposed bed reservation policy using data from a VA Medical Center are very promising and suggest significant cost saving opportunities and reduced patient boarding times.

  8. An intervention to preschool children for reducing screen time: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, G; Demirli Caylan, N; Karacan, C D

    2015-05-01

    Screen time, defined as time spent watching television, DVDs, or videos or playing computer or video games, has been related to serious health consequences in children, such as impaired language acquisition, violent behaviour, tobacco smoking and obesity. Our aim was to determine if a simple intervention aimed at preschool-aged children, applied at the health maintenance visits, in the primary care setting, would be effective in reducing screen time. We used a two group randomized controlled trial design. Two- to 6-year-old children and their parents were randomly assigned to receive an intervention to reduce their screen time, BMI and parental report of aggressive behaviour. At the end of the intervention we made home visits at 2, 6 and 9 months and the parents completed questionnaire. Parents in the intervention group reported less screen time and less aggressive behaviour than those in the control group but there were no differences in BMI z scores. This study shows that a preschool-based intervention can lead to reductions in young children's television/video viewing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Timing jitter measurements at the SLC electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodja, J.; Browne, M.J.; Clendenin, J.E.

    1989-03-01

    The SLC thermionic gun and electron source produce a beam of up to 15 /times/ 10 10 /sub e//minus/ in a single S-band bunch. A 170 keV, 2 ns FWHM pulse out of the gun is compressed by means of two subharmonic buncher cavities followed by an S-band buncher and a standard SLAC accelerating section. Ceramic gaps in the beam pipe at the output of the gun allow a measure of the beam intensity and timing. A measurement at these gaps of the timing jitter, with a resolution of <10 ps, is described. 3 refs., 5 figs

  10. Efficiency of mitigation measures to reduce particulate air pollution--a case study during the Olympic Summer Games 2008 in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleicher, Nina; Norra, Stefan; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Wang, Shulan

    2012-06-15

    Atmospheric particles were studied before, during, and after the period of the Olympic Summer Games in Beijing, China, in August 2008 in order to investigate the efficiency of the mitigation measures implemented by the Chinese Government. Total suspended particles (TSP) and fine particles (PM(2.5) and PM(1)) were collected continuously from October 2007 to February 2009 and were analyzed in detail with regard to mass and element concentrations, water-soluble ions, and black carbon (BC). Mass as well as element concentrations during the Olympic air quality control period were lower than the respective concentrations during the time directly before and after the Olympic Games. The results showed that the applied aerosol source control measures, such as shutting down industries and reducing traffic, had a huge impact on the reduction of aerosol pollution in Beijing. However, the meteorological conditions, especially rainfall, certainly also contributed to the successful reduction of particulate air pollution. Coarse particles were reduced more efficiently than finer particles, which indicates that long-range transport of atmospheric particles is difficult to control and that presumably the established mitigation area was not large enough. The study further showed that elements from predominantly anthropogenic sources, such as S, Cu, As, Cd, and Pb, as well as BC, were reduced more efficiently during the Olympic Games than elements for which geogenic sources are more significant, such as Al, Fe, Rb or Sr. Furthermore, the mentioned anthropogenic element concentrations were reduced more in the finer PM(2.5) samples whereas geogenic ones were reduced stronger in TSP samples including the coarser fraction. Consequently, it can be assumed that the mitigation measures, as intended, were successful in reducing more toxic and health-relevant particles from anthropogenic sources. Firework displays, especially at the Opening Ceremony, could be identified as a special short-time

  11. Acute immobilization stress following contextual fear conditioning reduces fear memory: timing is essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwaya, Akemi; Lee, Hyunjin; Park, Jonghyuk; Lee, Hosung; Muto, Junko; Nakajima, Sanae; Ohta, Shigeo; Mikami, Toshio

    2016-02-24

    Histone acetylation is regulated in response to stress and plays an important role in learning and memory. Chronic stress is known to deteriorate cognition, whereas acute stress facilitates memory formation. However, whether acute stress facilitates memory formation when it is applied after fear stimulation is not yet known. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of acute stress applied after fear training on memory formation, mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), epigenetic regulation of BDNF expression, and corticosterone level in mice in vivo. Mice were subjected to acute immobilization stress for 30 min at 60 or 90 min after contextual fear conditioning training, and acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 14 (H3K14) and level of corticosterone were measured using western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. A freezing behavior test was performed 24 h after training, and mRNA expression of BDNF was measured using real-time polymerase chain reactions. Different groups of mice were used for each test. Freezing behavior significantly decreased with the down-regulation of BDNF mRNA expression caused by acute immobilization stress at 60 min after fear conditioning training owing to the reduction of H3K14 acetylation. However, BDNF mRNA expression and H3K14 acetylation were not reduced in animals subjected to immobilization stress at 90 min after the training. Further, the corticosterone level was significantly high in mice subjected to immobilization stress at 60 min after the training. Acute immobilization stress for 30 min at 60 min after fear conditioning training impaired memory formation and reduced BDNF mRNA expression and H3K14 acetylation in the hippocampus of mice owing to the high level of corticosterone.

  12. Strategies to reduce PWR inspection time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, J.; Gonzalez, E.

    2001-01-01

    During last few years, a constant reduction in inspection time was clearly demanded by most nuclear plant owners. This requirement has to be accomplished without any impact in inspection quality that, in general, has also to be improved. All this in a market with increasing competition that forces price reductions. Under these new demands from our customers, Tecnatom reoriented its development efforts to improve his products and services to meet this challenges. Two of our main inspection activities that have clear impact in outage duration are Steam Generator and Vessel inspections. This paper describes the improvements made in these two activities as an example of the reorientation of our development efforts with a focus on the technical improvements made on the software and robotic tools applied as in the data acquisition and analysis systems. In the Steam Generator inspections, new robots with dual guide tubes are commonly used. New eddy current instruments and software were developed to keep up with the data rates produced by the faster acquisition system. Use of automatic analysis software is also helping to improve speed while reducing cost and improving overall job quality. Production rates are close to double from the previous inspection system. (author)

  13. A strategy for reducing turnaround time in design optimization using a distributed computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Katherine C.; Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.

    1988-01-01

    There is a need to explore methods for reducing lengthly computer turnaround or clock time associated with engineering design problems. Different strategies can be employed to reduce this turnaround time. One strategy is to run validated analysis software on a network of existing smaller computers so that portions of the computation can be done in parallel. This paper focuses on the implementation of this method using two types of problems. The first type is a traditional structural design optimization problem, which is characterized by a simple data flow and a complicated analysis. The second type of problem uses an existing computer program designed to study multilevel optimization techniques. This problem is characterized by complicated data flow and a simple analysis. The paper shows that distributed computing can be a viable means for reducing computational turnaround time for engineering design problems that lend themselves to decomposition. Parallel computing can be accomplished with a minimal cost in terms of hardware and software.

  14. NOTE ON TRAVEL TIME SHIFTS DUE TO AMPLITUDE MODULATION IN TIME-DISTANCE HELIOSEISMOLOGY MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigam, R.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Correct interpretation of acoustic travel times measured by time-distance helioseismology is essential to get an accurate understanding of the solar properties that are inferred from them. It has long been observed that sunspots suppress p-mode amplitude, but its implications on travel times have not been fully investigated so far. It has been found in test measurements using a 'masking' procedure, in which the solar Doppler signal in a localized quiet region of the Sun is artificially suppressed by a spatial function, and using numerical simulations that the amplitude modulations in combination with the phase-speed filtering may cause systematic shifts of acoustic travel times. To understand the properties of this procedure, we derive an analytical expression for the cross-covariance of a signal that has been modulated locally by a spatial function that has azimuthal symmetry and then filtered by a phase-speed filter typically used in time-distance helioseismology. Comparing this expression to the Gabor wavelet fitting formula without this effect, we find that there is a shift in the travel times that is introduced by the amplitude modulation. The analytical model presented in this paper can be useful also for interpretation of travel time measurements for the non-uniform distribution of oscillation amplitude due to observational effects.

  15. Real-time diamagnetic flux measurements on ASDEX Upgrade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, L; Geiger, B; Bilato, R; Maraschek, M; Odstrčil, T; Fischer, R; Fuchs, J C; McCarthy, P J; Mertens, V; Schuhbeck, K H

    2016-05-01

    Real-time diamagnetic flux measurements are now available on ASDEX Upgrade. In contrast to the majority of diamagnetic flux measurements on other tokamaks, no analog summation of signals is necessary for measuring the change in toroidal flux or for removing contributions arising from unwanted coupling to the plasma and poloidal field coil currents. To achieve the highest possible sensitivity, the diamagnetic measurement and compensation coil integrators are triggered shortly before plasma initiation when the toroidal field coil current is close to its maximum. In this way, the integration time can be chosen to measure only the small changes in flux due to the presence of plasma. Two identical plasma discharges with positive and negative magnetic field have shown that the alignment error with respect to the plasma current is negligible. The measured diamagnetic flux is compared to that predicted by TRANSP simulations. The poloidal beta inferred from the diamagnetic flux measurement is compared to the values calculated from magnetic equilibrium reconstruction codes. The diamagnetic flux measurement and TRANSP simulation can be used together to estimate the coupled power in discharges with dominant ion cyclotron resonance heating.

  16. Time-of-flight measurements of the plasma density in the T-11M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, V. G.; Petrov, A. A.; Malyshev, A. Yu.; Markov, V. K.; Babarykin, A. V.

    2006-01-01

    The average plasma density in the T-11M tokamak is determined by means of an O-mode time-of-flight refractometer measuring the propagation time τ of microwave pulses through the plasma. Since the front duration τ fr of these pulses is shorter than 2 ns, filtering the measured signal cannot reduce the signal-to-noise ratio below a certain level. This circumstance impedes the use of this diagnostics in larger devices, where the signals may be substantially attenuated because of the larger chamber size and larger waveguide losses. There are several ways to overcome these difficulties: to raise the microwave power, to increase the sensitivity of the receivers, etc. In this paper, a technique is described that is based on the differential method for determining the propagation time of a microwave signal through the plasma. In this method, the plasma is probed by two continuous microwaves with close frequencies and the phase difference between them Δφ 12 is measured. As long as the condition Δφ 12 < 2π is satisfied, the measurements are unambiguous, because there are no phase jumps by a value multiple of 2π, as is usually the case in conventional interferometers at an increased level of MHD activity, in regimes with a rapid density growth, etc. This method allows the signal to be filtered, thereby ensuring an appreciable improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio in comparison with the pulsed methods. The first measurements of the average density along the +3-cm chord were performed with the help of this new differential time-of-flight refractometer in the T-11M tokamak. The refractometry data agree well with the interferometric data and are used to recover the plasma-density profile

  17. A critical review of measures to reduce radioactive doses from drinking water and consumption of freshwater foodstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.T.; Voitsekhovitch, O.V.; Haakanson, L.; Hilton, J.

    2001-01-01

    Following a radioactive fallout event, there are a number of possible intervention measures to reduce radioactive doses to the public via the surface water pathway. We have critically reviewed the options available to decision-makers in the event of radioactive contamination of surface waters. We believe that the most effective and viable measures to reduce radioactivity in drinking water are those which operate at the water treatment and distribution stage. Intervention measures to reduce concentrations of radioactivity in rivers and reservoirs are expected to be much less viable and efficient at reducing doses via the drinking water pathway. Bans on consumption of freshwater fish can be effective, but there are few viable measures to reduce radioactivity in fish prior to the preparation stage. Lake liming and biomanipulation have been found to be ineffective for radiocaesium, although the addition of potassium to lakewaters appears promising in some situations. Lake liming may be effective in reducing radiostrontium in fish, though this has not, to our knowledge, been tested. De-boning fish contaminated by strontium is probably the most effective food preparation measure, but salting and freezing can also reduce radiocaesium concentrations in fish. The provision of accurate information to the public is highlighted as a key element of countermeasure implementation

  18. Time optimization of 90Sr measurements: Sequential measurement of multiple samples during ingrowth of 90Y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Stina; Tovedal, Annika; Björnham, Oscar; Ramebäck, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to a more rapid determination of a series of samples containing 90 Sr by making the Cherenkov measurement of the daughter nuclide 90 Y more time efficient. There are many instances when an optimization of the measurement method might be favorable, such as; situations requiring rapid results in order to make urgent decisions or, on the other hand, to maximize the throughput of samples in a limited available time span. In order to minimize the total analysis time, a mathematical model was developed which calculates the time of ingrowth as well as individual measurement times for n samples in a series. This work is focused on the measurement of 90 Y during ingrowth, after an initial chemical separation of strontium, in which it is assumed that no other radioactive strontium isotopes are present. By using a fixed minimum detectable activity (MDA) and iterating the measurement time for each consecutive sample the total analysis time will be less, compared to using the same measurement time for all samples. It was found that by optimization, the total analysis time for 10 samples can be decreased greatly, from 21 h to 6.5 h, when assuming a MDA of 1 Bq/L and at a background count rate of approximately 0.8 cpm. - Highlights: • An approach roughly a factor of three more efficient than an un-optimized method. • The optimization gives a more efficient use of instrument time. • The efficiency increase ranges from a factor of three to 10, for 10 to 40 samples.

  19. Measurement-theoretic foundations of time discounting in economics

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad Heilmann

    2008-01-01

    In economics, the concept of time discounting introduces weights on future goods to make these less valuable. Yet, both the conceptual motivation for time discounting and its specic functional form remain contested. To address these problems, this paper provides a measurement-theoretic framework of representation for time discounting. The representation theorem characterises time discounting factors by representations of time dierences. This general result can be interpreted with existing the...

  20. Time-resolved brightness measurements by streaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Joshua S.; Speirs, Rory W.; McCulloch, Andrew J.; Scholten, Robert E.

    2018-03-01

    Brightness is a key figure of merit for charged particle beams, and time-resolved brightness measurements can elucidate the processes involved in beam creation and manipulation. Here we report on a simple, robust, and widely applicable method for the measurement of beam brightness with temporal resolution by streaking one-dimensional pepperpots, and demonstrate the technique to characterize electron bunches produced from a cold-atom electron source. We demonstrate brightness measurements with 145 ps temporal resolution and a minimum resolvable emittance of 40 nm rad. This technique provides an efficient method of exploring source parameters and will prove useful for examining the efficacy of techniques to counter space-charge expansion, a critical hurdle to achieving single-shot imaging of atomic scale targets.

  1. Economic and environmental performance of alternative policy measures to reduce nutrient surpluses in Finnish agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. LEHTONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an economic sector level analysis of the effectiveness of different policy measures in decreasing nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P surpluses from agriculture in order to reduce nutrient runoff from agricultural fields to watercourses and to improve water quality of surface waters. Assuming no changes in the EU level policies after CAP reform 2003 we focus on national level policy measures such as full or partial de-coupling of national support from production, payments for reduced nutrient surpluses of N and P, and N fertiliser tax. None of the analysed policy measures is superior one with respect to environmental performance, since full decoupling of national support would be the most effective in reducing P surpluses while payment for reduced nutrient surplus performed best with respect to N surpluses. Economic performance (farmers’ compliance cost per %-reduction of N or P surplus of full and partial de-coupling of national support is clearly better than that of specialised agri-environmental policy instruments, because both decoupling scenarios result in the increase of farmers’ income in comparison to base scenario, and thus compliance costs are in fact negative in these two cases. Our analysis confirms the fact that the overall policy package matters a lot for the effectiveness of agrienvironmental policy measures. Environmental performance of agri-environmental policy measures may be significantly reduced, if they are implemented jointly with production coupled income support policies. Thus, in order to increase the effectiveness of agri-environmental policy measures agricultural income support policies should be decoupled from production and this alone would bring substantial reduction in nutrient surpluses.;

  2. Kelvin probe microscopy and electronic transport measurements in reduced graphene oxide chemical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayias, Christopher E.; MacNaughton, Samuel; Sonkusale, Sameer; Staii, Cristian

    2013-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an electronically hybrid material that displays remarkable chemical sensing properties. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the chemical gating effects in RGO-based chemical sensors. The gas sensing devices are patterned in a field-effect transistor geometry, by dielectrophoretic assembly of RGO platelets between gold electrodes deposited on SiO2/Si substrates. We show that these sensors display highly selective and reversible responses to the measured analytes, as well as fast response and recovery times (tens of seconds). We use combined electronic transport/Kelvin probe microscopy measurements to quantify the amount of charge transferred to RGO due to chemical doping when the device is exposed to electron-acceptor (acetone) and electron-donor (ammonia) analytes. We demonstrate that this method allows us to obtain high-resolution maps of the surface potential and local charge distribution both before and after chemical doping, to identify local gate-susceptible areas on the RGO surface, and to directly extract the contact resistance between the RGO and the metallic electrodes. The method presented is general, suggesting that these results have important implications for building graphene and other nanomaterial-based chemical sensors.

  3. Kelvin probe microscopy and electronic transport measurements in reduced graphene oxide chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehayias, Christopher E; MacNaughton, Samuel; Sonkusale, Sameer; Staii, Cristian

    2013-06-21

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) is an electronically hybrid material that displays remarkable chemical sensing properties. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of the chemical gating effects in RGO-based chemical sensors. The gas sensing devices are patterned in a field-effect transistor geometry, by dielectrophoretic assembly of RGO platelets between gold electrodes deposited on SiO2/Si substrates. We show that these sensors display highly selective and reversible responses to the measured analytes, as well as fast response and recovery times (tens of seconds). We use combined electronic transport/Kelvin probe microscopy measurements to quantify the amount of charge transferred to RGO due to chemical doping when the device is exposed to electron-acceptor (acetone) and electron-donor (ammonia) analytes. We demonstrate that this method allows us to obtain high-resolution maps of the surface potential and local charge distribution both before and after chemical doping, to identify local gate-susceptible areas on the RGO surface, and to directly extract the contact resistance between the RGO and the metallic electrodes. The method presented is general, suggesting that these results have important implications for building graphene and other nanomaterial-based chemical sensors.

  4. Time-resolved absorption measurements on OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; DaSilva, L.; Delettrez, J.; Gregory, G.G.; Richardson, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of the incident laser light that is scattered and/or refracted from targets irradiated by the 24 uv-beam OMEGA laser at LLE, have provided some interesting features related to time-resolved absorption. The decrease in laser absorption characteristic of irradiating a target that implodes during the laser pulse has been observed. The increase in absorption expected as the critical density surface moves from a low to a high Z material in the target has also been noted. The detailed interpretation of these results is made through comparisons with simulation using the code LILAC, as well as with streak data from time-resolved x-ray imaging and spectroscopy. In addition, time and space-resolved imaging of the scattered light yields information on laser irradiation uniformity conditions on the target. The report consists of viewgraphs

  5. Economic aspects of non-technical measures to reduce traffic emissions; Wirtschaftliche Aspekte nichttechnischer Massnahmen zur Emissionsminderung im Verkehr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doll, Claus; Hartwig, Johannes; Senger, Florian; Schade, Wolfgang [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany); Maibach, Markus; Sutter, Daniel; Bertschmann, Damaris [Infrastruktur- und Entwicklungsplanung Umwelt- und Wirtschaftsfragen (INFRAS), Zuerich (Switzerland); Lambrecht, Udo; Knoerr, Wolfram; Duennebeil, Frank [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Aim and methodology: This study looks at the impact of selected transport policy measures on environment, transport users, economy and society by the year 2030. Considered are shifts to cycling, walking and public transport, shorter car trips and more efficient car use in passenger travel, as well as more rail in freight transport. Out of the transport user perspective private costs, travel time, health effects, air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissions, noise and traffic safety are assessed. Macroeconomic impacts are appraised using the system-dynamics transport and economics model ASTRA-D. Results: The environmental impacts of the measures diverge widely and are dominated by the costs of greenhouse gas emissions. Measures, which include long-distance travel, achieve higher impacts than pure urban transport measures. In particular for public transport considerable potentials to reduce its external costs from air pollution were identified. Active mobility enhances personal health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases. However, the safety of cyclists and pedestrians in cities requires increased attention. The investment costs for the measures investigated differ strongly, but reach up to 10 billion Euros annually for more attractive local destinations. Accordingly, employment develops positively in almost all measures, and the gross domestic product (GDP) is slightly above the base case in 2030 in four out of the five cases. Recommendations: sensible bundles of measures may clearly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of transport policy. Core elements are ''push-nd-pull'' approaches combining transport shift and funding policies.

  6. Observers' measurements in premetric electrodynamics: Time and radar length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürlebeck, Norman; Pfeifer, Christian

    2018-04-01

    The description of an observer's measurement in general relativity and the standard model of particle physics is closely related to the spacetime metric. In order to understand and interpret measurements, which test the metric structure of the spacetime, like the classical Michelson-Morley, Ives-Stilwell, Kennedy-Thorndike experiments or frequency comparison experiments in general, it is necessary to describe them in theories, which go beyond the Lorentzian metric structure. However, this requires a description of an observer's measurement without relying on a metric. We provide such a description of an observer's measurement of the fundamental quantities time and length derived from a premetric perturbation of Maxwell's electrodynamics and a discussion on how these measurements influence classical relativistic observables like time dilation and length contraction. Most importantly, we find that the modification of electrodynamics influences the measurements at two instances: the propagation of light is altered as well as the observer's proper time normalization. When interpreting the results of a specific experiment, both effects cannot be disentangled, in general, and have to be taken into account.

  7. Measurement of the Rise-Time in a Single Sided Ladder Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    In this note we report on the measurement of the preamplifier output rise time for a SVXII chip mounted on a D0 single sided ladder. The measurements were performed on the ladder 001-883-L, using the laser test stand of Lab D. The rise time was measured for different values of the response (or bandwidth) of the preamplifier. As a bigger bandwidth results in longer rise times and therefore in less noise, the largest possible bandwidth consistent with the time between bunch crossings should be chosen to operate the detectors. The rise time is defined as the time elapsed between 10% and 90% of the charge is collected. It is also interesting to measure the time for full charge collection and the percentage of charge collected in 132 ns and 396 ns. The results are shown in table 1, for bandwidths between 2 and 63 (binary numbers). The uncertainty on the time measurement is considered to be ∼ 10 ns. Figure 1 schematically defines the four quantities measured: rise time, time of full charge collection, and percentage of charge collected in 132 ns and 396 ns. Figures 2 to 8 are the actual measurements for bandwidths of 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32 and 63. Figure 9 is a second measurement for BW=24, used as a consistency check of the system and the time measurement performed on the plots. The data indicate that the single sided ladders can be operated at BW=63 for 396 ns and BW=12 for 132 ns, achieving full charge collection. This will result in smaller noise than originally anticipated.

  8. Material Classification Using Raw Time-of-Flight Measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen; Heide, Felix; Swanson, Robin J.; Klein, Jonathan; Callenberg, Clara; Hullin, Matthias; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a material classification method using raw time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. ToF cameras capture the correlation between a reference signal and the temporal response of material to incident illumination. Such measurements encode unique

  9. Potential barrier classification by short-time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the short-time dynamics of a delta-function potential barrier on an initially confined wave packet. There are mainly two conclusions: (A) At short times the probability density of the first particles that passed through the barrier is unaffected by it. (B) When the barrier is absorptive (i.e., its potential is imaginary) it affects the transmitted wave function at shorter times than a real potential barrier. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between an imaginary and a real potential barrier by measuring its effect at short times only on the transmitting wave function

  10. Potential barrier classification by short-time measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Er'El; Marchewka, Avi

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the short-time dynamics of a delta-function potential barrier on an initially confined wave packet. There are mainly two conclusions: (A) At short times the probability density of the first particles that passed through the barrier is unaffected by it. (B) When the barrier is absorptive (i.e., its potential is imaginary) it affects the transmitted wave function at shorter times than a real potential barrier. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between an imaginary and a real potential barrier by measuring its effect at short times only on the transmitting wave function.

  11. Measuring the Impact of Convenient Water Supply on Household Time Use in Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J.; Masuda, Y.; Fortmann, L.; Smith-Nilson, M.; Gugerty, M.

    2012-12-01

    What is the impact of providing convenient water supply on water carriers' pattern of time use? How much of the freed time is re-allocated to paid market work, education (for girls), agricultural labor, or leisure? Do women report spending more time on activities they enjoy? Does convenient water supply lead to a re-allocation of leisure time to other household members? These questions are an important, but largely missing, piece of the economic evidence base for investment in the water supply sector. Cairncross and Valdmanis (2007) observe that "given the relevance of the time-saving benefit to water supply policy and the fact that the benefit is usually uppermost in the mind of the consumer, it is remarkable how few data have been collected on the amounts of time spent collecting water". We address this gap by measuring changes in time use among female water carriers before and after new water systems are installed in three rural villages in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. The timing of completion of the projects in the three villages was staggered over time for logistical reasons, so our quasi-experimental design allows us to control for any region-wide changes in time use. Because of low literacy levels, we used a pictorial time use elicitation approach based on respondents' recall of the previous day as well as the standard questions used in the DHS and LSMS ("how many minutes..."). We measured time use for all household members over the age of 10. We use this unique panel dataset with both pre- and post-project time use data to examine not only the effect on water carriers' time use but also any intra-household reallocation of time savings. In total, we interviewed 454 randomly-selected households in the three villages over three rainy seasons, and collected time use information on 1,590 household members. Primary water carriers spend (pre-project) an average of 110 minutes per day collecting water, roughly representative of water collection times reported in

  12. A hybrid solution using computational prediction and measured data to accurately determine process corrections with reduced overlay sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Ben F.; Mokaberi, Babak; Mandoy, Ram; Pate, Alex; Huijgen, Ralph; McBurney, Mike; Chen, Owen

    2017-03-01

    Reducing overlay error via an accurate APC feedback system is one of the main challenges in high volume production of the current and future nodes in the semiconductor industry. The overlay feedback system directly affects the number of dies meeting overlay specification and the number of layers requiring dedicated exposure tools through the fabrication flow. Increasing the former number and reducing the latter number is beneficial for the overall efficiency and yield of the fabrication process. An overlay feedback system requires accurate determination of the overlay error, or fingerprint, on exposed wafers in order to determine corrections to be automatically and dynamically applied to the exposure of future wafers. Since current and future nodes require correction per exposure (CPE), the resolution of the overlay fingerprint must be high enough to accommodate CPE in the overlay feedback system, or overlay control module (OCM). Determining a high resolution fingerprint from measured data requires extremely dense overlay sampling that takes a significant amount of measurement time. For static corrections this is acceptable, but in an automated dynamic correction system this method creates extreme bottlenecks for the throughput of said system as new lots have to wait until the previous lot is measured. One solution is using a less dense overlay sampling scheme and employing computationally up-sampled data to a dense fingerprint. That method uses a global fingerprint model over the entire wafer; measured localized overlay errors are therefore not always represented in its up-sampled output. This paper will discuss a hybrid system shown in Fig. 1 that combines a computationally up-sampled fingerprint with the measured data to more accurately capture the actual fingerprint, including local overlay errors. Such a hybrid system is shown to result in reduced modelled residuals while determining the fingerprint, and better on-product overlay performance.

  13. Comparison of Objectively Measured and Self-reported Time Spent Sitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagersted-Olsen, Julie; Korshøj, M; Skotte, J

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, methods for objective quantification of sitting time have been lacking. The aim of this study was to validate self-reported measures against objectively measured total sitting time and longest continuous time with uninterrupted sitting during working hours, leisure time on workday...... a retrospective 7-day questionnaire. A generalized linear model showed the difference between the methods. No significant correlations were found between objective and self-reported sitting time (r...

  14. Fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy: Achieving sub-cycle time resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatay, Durmus U.; Harrison, Jeffrey S.; Glaz, Micah S.; Giridharagopal, Rajiv; Ginger, David S., E-mail: ginger@chem.washington.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The ability to measure microsecond- and nanosecond-scale local dynamics below the diffraction limit with widely available atomic force microscopy hardware would enable new scientific studies in fields ranging from biology to semiconductor physics. However, commercially available scanning-probe instruments typically offer the ability to measure dynamics only on time scales of milliseconds to seconds. Here, we describe in detail the implementation of fast time-resolved electrostatic force microscopy using an oscillating cantilever as a means to measure fast local dynamics following a perturbation to a sample. We show how the phase of the oscillating cantilever relative to the perturbation event is critical to achieving reliable sub-cycle time resolution. We explore how noise affects the achievable time resolution and present empirical guidelines for reducing noise and optimizing experimental parameters. Specifically, we show that reducing the noise on the cantilever by using photothermal excitation instead of piezoacoustic excitation further improves time resolution. We demonstrate the discrimination of signal rise times with time constants as fast as 10 ns, and simultaneous data acquisition and analysis for dramatically improved image acquisition times.

  15. Analysis characteristics determination of electrohydraulic control system operation to reduce the operation time of a powered roof support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurgacz, Dawid

    2018-01-01

    The article discusses basic functions of a powered roof support in a longwall unit. The support function is to provide safety by protecting mine workings against uncontrolled falling of rocks. The subject of the research includes the measures to shorten the time of roof support shifting. The roof support is adapted to transfer, in hazard conditions of rock mass tremors, dynamic loads caused by mining exploitation. The article presents preliminary research results on the time reduction of the unit advance to increase the extraction process and thus reduce operating costs. Conducted stand tests showed the ability to increase the flow for 3/2-way valve cartridges. The level of fluid flowing through the cartridges is adequate to control individual actuators.

  16. Making Time for Nature: Visual Exposure to Natural Environments Lengthens Subjective Time Perception and Reduces Impulsivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith S Berry

    Full Text Available Impulsivity in delay discounting is associated with maladaptive behaviors such as overeating and drug and alcohol abuse. Researchers have recently noted that delay discounting, even when measured by a brief laboratory task, may be the best predictor of human health related behaviors (e.g., exercise currently available. Identifying techniques to decrease impulsivity in delay discounting, therefore, could help improve decision-making on a global scale. Visual exposure to natural environments is one recent approach shown to decrease impulsive decision-making in a delay discounting task, although the mechanism driving this result is currently unknown. The present experiment was thus designed to evaluate not only whether visual exposure to natural (mountains, lakes relative to built (buildings, cities environments resulted in less impulsivity, but also whether this exposure influenced time perception. Participants were randomly assigned to either a natural environment condition or a built environment condition. Participants viewed photographs of either natural scenes or built scenes before and during a delay discounting task in which they made choices about receiving immediate or delayed hypothetical monetary outcomes. Participants also completed an interval bisection task in which natural or built stimuli were judged as relatively longer or shorter presentation durations. Following the delay discounting and interval bisection tasks, additional measures of time perception were administered, including how many minutes participants thought had passed during the session and a scale measurement of whether time "flew" or "dragged" during the session. Participants exposed to natural as opposed to built scenes were less impulsive and also reported longer subjective session times, although no differences across groups were revealed with the interval bisection task. These results are the first to suggest that decreased impulsivity from exposure to natural as

  17. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph with reduced amplitude zone detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as ''RAZs''. RAZs are displayed as ''go, no-go'' signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  18. Measurement of time processing ability and daily time management in children with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeslätt, Gunnel; Granlund, Mats; Kottorp, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Improvement is needed in methods for planning and evaluating interventions designed to facilitate daily time management for children with intellectual disability, Asperger syndrome, or other developmental disorders. The aim of this study was to empirically investigate the hypothesized relation between children's time processing ability (TPA), daily time management, and self-rated autonomy. Such a relationship between daily time management and TPA may support the idea that TPA is important for daily time management and that children with difficulties in TPA might benefit from intervention aimed at improving daily time management. Participants were children aged 6 to 11 years with dysfunctions such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, or physical or intellectual disabilities (N = 118). TPA was measured with the instrument KaTid. All data were transformed to interval measures using applications of Rasch models and then further analysed with correlation and regression analysis. The results demonstrate a moderate significant relation between the parents' ratings of daily time management and TPA of the children, and between the self-rating of autonomy and TPA. There was also a significant relation between self-ratings of autonomy and the parents' rating of the children's daily time management. Parents' ratings of their children's daily time management explain 25% of the variation in TPA, age of the children explains 22%, while the child's self-rating of autonomy can explain 9% of the variation in TPA. The three variables together explain 38% of the variation in TPA. The results indicate the viability of the instrument for assessing TPA also in children with disabilities and that the ability measured by KaTid is relevant for daily time management. TPA seems to be a factor for children's daily time management that needs to be taken into consideration when planning and evaluating interventions designed to facilitate everyday functioning for children with

  19. Reducing children's television-viewing time: a qualitative study of parents and their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Amy B; Hersey, James C; McDivitt, Judith A; Heitzler, Carrie D

    2006-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children over age 2 years spend dining room. Although virtually all of the parents reported having guidelines for children's television viewing, few had rules restricting the time children spend watching television. Data from this exploratory study suggest several potential barriers to implementing a 2-hour limit, including: parents' need to use television as a safe and affordable distraction, parents' own heavy television viewing patterns, the role that television plays in the family's day-to-day routine, and a belief that children should spend their weekend leisure time as they wish. Interviews revealed that for many of these families there is a lack of concern that television viewing is a problem for their child, and there remains confusion about the boundaries of the recommendation of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Parents in this study expressed interest in taking steps toward reducing children's television time but also uncertainty about how to go about doing so. Results suggest possible strategies to reduce the amount of time children spend in front of the screen.

  20. Reduced Operating Time but Not Blood Loss With Cruciate Retaining Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermesan, Dinu; Trocan, Ilie; Prejbeanu, Radu; Poenaru, Dan V; Haragus, Horia; Gratian, Damian; Marrelli, Massimo; Inchingolo, Francesco; Caprio, Monica; Cagiano, Raffaele; Tatullo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the use of retaining or replacing cruciate implants for patients with limited deformity who undergo a total knee replacement. Scope of this paper is to evaluate whether a cruciate sparing total knee replacement could have a reduced operating time compared to a posterior stabilized implant. Methods For this purpose, we performed a randomized study on 50 subjects. All procedures were performed by a single surgeon in the same conditions to minimize bias and only knees with a less than 20 varus deviation and/or maximum 15° fixed flexion contracture were included. Results Surgery time was significantly shorter with the cruciate retaining implant (P = 0.0037). The mean duration for the Vanguard implant was 68.9 (14.7) and for the NexGen II Legacy was 80.2 (11.3). A higher range of motion, but no significant Knee Society Scores at 6 months follow-up, was used as controls. Conclusions In conclusion, both implants had the potential to assure great outcomes. However, if a decision has to be made, choosing a cruciate retaining procedure could significantly reduce the surgical time. When performed under tourniquet, this gain does not lead to reduced blood loss. PMID:25584102

  1. Time-resolved flow reconstruction with indirect measurements using regression models and Kalman-filtered POD ROM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Romain; Chatellier, Ludovic; David, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    This article is devoted to the estimation of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) flow fields using a time-resolved point measurements of a voltage signal obtained by hot-film anemometry. A multiple linear regression model is first defined to map the TR-PIV flow fields onto the voltage signal. Due to the high temporal resolution of the signal acquired by the hot-film sensor, the estimates of the TR-PIV flow fields are obtained with a multiple linear regression method called orthonormalized partial least squares regression (OPLSR). Subsequently, this model is incorporated as the observation equation in an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) applied on a proper orthogonal decomposition reduced-order model to stabilize it while reducing the effects of the hot-film sensor noise. This method is assessed for the reconstruction of the flow around a NACA0012 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 1000 and an angle of attack of {20}°. Comparisons with multi-time delay-modified linear stochastic estimation show that both the OPLSR and EnKF combined with OPLSR are more accurate as they produce a much lower relative estimation error, and provide a faithful reconstruction of the time evolution of the velocity flow fields.

  2. The Stop-Only-While-Shocking algorithm reduces hands-off time by 17% during cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Koch; Mohammed, Anna; Pedersen, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Reducing hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is believed to increase survival after cardiac arrests because of the sustaining of organ perfusion. The aim of our study was to investigate whether charging the defibrillator before rhythm analyses and shock delivery...... significantly reduced hands-off time compared with the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2010 CPR guideline algorithm in full-scale cardiac arrest scenarios. METHODS: The study was designed as a full-scale cardiac arrest simulation study including administration of drugs. Participants were randomized...... compressions. RESULTS: Sample size was calculated with an α of 0.05 and 80% power showed that we should test four scenarios with each algorithm. Twenty-nine physicians participated in 11 scenarios. Hands-off time was significantly reduced 17% using the SOWS algorithm compared with ERC2010 [22.1% (SD 2.3) hands...

  3. Flash X-Ray (FXR) Accelerator Optimization Electronic Time-Resolved Measurement of X-Ray Source Size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, J; Ong, M; Wargo, P

    2005-01-01

    discuss an x-ray source size measurement system which utilizes a traditional roll-bar setup combined with a high resolution gated CCD camera, fast-response organic plastic scintillator, and image processing and analysis software, which is executable on a standard PC running which is executable on a standard PC running LabVIEW and Matlab. Analysis time is reduced from several hours to several minutes, while our experimental results demonstrate good agreement with both traditional film-based roll-bar measurements as well as the entirely unrelated technique of x-ray pinhole camera measurements; in addition, our time-resolved measurements show a significant variation in source size throughout the 70 ns beam pulse, a phenomenon which requires further investigation and indicates the possibility of greatly improving final spot size

  4. Reducing wait time in a hospital pharmacy to promote customer service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slowiak, Julie M; Huitema, Bradley E; Dickinson, Alyce M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 2 different interventions on wait times at a hospital outpatient pharmacy: (1) giving feedback to employees about customer satisfaction with wait times and (2) giving a combined intervention package that included giving more specific feedback about actual wait times and goal setting for wait time reduction in addition to the customer satisfaction feedback. The relationship between customer satisfaction ratings and wait times was examined to determine whether wait times affected customer service satisfaction. Participants were 10 employees (4 pharmacists and 6 technicians) of an outpatient pharmacy. Wait times and customer satisfaction ratings were collected for "waiting customers." An ABCBA' within-subjects design was used to assess the effects of the interventions on both wait time and customer satisfaction, where A was the baseline (no feedback and no goal setting); B was the customer satisfaction feedback; C was the customer satisfaction feedback, the wait time feedback, and the goal setting for wait time reduction; and A' was a follow-up condition that was similar to the original baseline condition. Wait times were reduced by approximately 20%, and there was concomitant increased shift in levels of customer satisfaction, as indicated by the correlation between these variables (r = -0.57 and P customer's wait time. Data from this study may provide useful preliminary benchmarking data for standard pharmacy wait times.

  5. Audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Greer, P. B.; Arm, J.; Keall, P.; Kim, T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that audiovisual (AV) biofeedback can improve image quality and reduce scan time for respiratory-gated 3D thoracic MRI. For five healthy human subjects respiratory motion guidance in MR scans was provided using an AV biofeedback system, utilizing real-time respiratory motion signals. To investigate the improvement of respiratory-gated 3D MR images between free breathing (FB) and AV biofeedback (AV), each subject underwent two imaging sessions. Respiratory-related motion artifacts and imaging time were qualitatively evaluated in addition to the reproducibility of external (abdominal) motion. In the results, 3D MR images in AV biofeedback showed more anatomic information such as a clear distinction of diaphragm, lung lobes and sharper organ boundaries. The scan time was reduced from 401±215 s in FB to 334±94 s in AV (p-value 0.36). The root mean square variation of the displacement and period of the abdominal motion was reduced from 0.4±0.22 cm and 2.8±2.5 s in FB to 0.1±0.15 cm and 0.9±1.3 s in AV (p-value of displacement audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential to be a useful motion management tool in medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  6. Reducing and measuring fluctuations in the MST RFP: Enhancement of energy confinement and measurement of the MHD dynamo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Almagri, A.F.

    1996-09-01

    A three- to five-fold enhancement of the energy confinement time in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) has been achieved in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) by reducing the amplitude of tearing mode fluctuations responsible for anomalous transport in the core of the RFP. By applying a transient poloidal inductive electric field to flatten the current density profile, the fluctuation amplitude b/B decreases from 1.5% to 0.8%, the electron temperature T e0 increases from 250 eV to 370 eV, the ohmic input power decreases from 4.5 MW to approximately 1.5 MW, the poloidal beta β 0 increases from 6% to 9%, and the energy confinement time τ E increases from 1 ms to ∼5 ms in I φ = 340 kA plasmas with density n = 1 x 10 19 m -3 . Current profile control methods are being developed for the RFP in a program to eliminate transport associated with these current-gradient-driven fluctuations. In addition to controlling the amplitude of the tearing modes, we are vigorously pursuing an understanding of the physics of these fluctuations. In particular, plasma flow, both equilibrium and fluctuating, plays a critical role in a diversity of physical phenomena in MST. The key results: 1) Edge probe measurements show that the MHD dynamo is active in low collisionality plasmas, while at high collisionality a new mechanism, the 'electron diamagnetic dynamo,' is observed. 2) Core spectroscopic measurements show that the toroidal velocity fluctuations of the plasma are coherent with the large-scale magnetic tearing modes; the scalar product of these two fluctuating quantities is similar to that expected for the MHD dynamo electromotive force. 3) Toroidal plasma flow in MST exhibits large radial shear and can be actively controlled, including unlocking locked discharges, by modifying E r with a robust biased probe. 24 refs

  7. One Improvement Method of Reducing Duration Directly to Solve Time-Cost Tradeoff Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-xun, Qi; Dedong, Sun

    Time and cost are two of the most important factors for project plan and schedule management, and specially, time-cost tradeoff problem is one classical problem in project scheduling, which is also a difficult problem. Methods of solving the problem mainly contain method of network flow and method of mending the minimal cost. Thereinto, for the method of mending the minimal cost is intuitionistic, convenient and lesser computation, these advantages make the method being used widely in practice. But disadvantage of the method is that the result of each step is optimal but the terminal result maybe not optimal. In this paper, firstly, method of confirming the maximal effective quantity of reducing duration is designed; secondly, on the basis of above method and the method of mending the minimal cost, the main method of reducing duration directly is designed to solve time-cost tradeoff problem, and by analyzing validity of the method, the method could obtain more optimal result for the problem.

  8. Applying Systems Engineering Reduces Radiology Transport Cycle Times in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Benjamin A.; Yun, Brian J.; Lev, Michael H.; Raja, Ali S.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Emergency department (ED) crowding is widespread, and can result in care delays, medical errors, increased costs, and decreased patient satisfaction. Simultaneously, while capacity constraints on EDs are worsening, contributing factors such as patient volume and inpatient bed capacity are often outside the influence of ED administrators. Therefore, systems engineering approaches that improve throughput and reduce waste may hold the most readily available gains. Decreasing radiology turnaround times improves ED patient throughput and decreases patient waiting time. We sought to investigate the impact of systems engineering science targeting ED radiology transport delays and determine the most effective techniques. Methods This prospective, before-and-after analysis of radiology process flow improvements in an academic hospital ED was exempt from institutional review board review as a quality improvement initiative. We hypothesized that reorganization of radiology transport would improve radiology cycle time and reduce waste. The intervention included systems engineering science-based reorganization of ED radiology transport processes, largely using Lean methodologies, and adding no resources. The primary outcome was average transport time between study order and complete time. All patients presenting between 8/2013–3/2016 and requiring plain film imaging were included. We analyzed electronic medical record data using Microsoft Excel and SAS version 9.4, and we used a two-sample t-test to compare data from the pre- and post-intervention periods. Results Following the intervention, average transport time decreased significantly and sustainably. Average radiology transport time was 28.7 ± 4.2 minutes during the three months pre-intervention. It was reduced by 15% in the first three months (4.4 minutes [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.5–7.3]; to 24.3 ± 3.3 min, P=0.021), 19% in the following six months (5.4 minutes, 95% CI [2.7–8.2]; to 23.3 ± 3

  9. Measuring work-life balance using time diary data

    OpenAIRE

    Kimberly Fisher; Richard Layte

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines how time diaries facilitate the study of work-life balance. We first compare aggregate time spent in paid work, unpaid work, attending to personal needs, and free time across seven countries using the Multinational Time Use Study. We then measure the overlap of work with other activities in two ways. First, we map the timing of episodes of work over the day, and overlay these maps onto maps of leisure time. A social group can be said to have a work-life balance if their pe...

  10. KERMA-based radiation dose management system for real-time patient dose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyo-Tae; Heo, Ye-Ji; Oh, Kyung-Min; Nam, Sang-Hee; Kang, Sang-Sik; Park, Ji-Koon; Song, Yong-Keun; Park, Sung-Kwang

    2016-07-01

    Because systems that reduce radiation exposure during diagnostic procedures must be developed, significant time and financial resources have been invested in constructing radiation dose management systems. In the present study, the characteristics of an existing ionization-based system were compared to those of a system based on the kinetic energy released per unit mass (KERMA). Furthermore, the feasibility of using the KERMA-based system for patient radiation dose management was verified. The ionization-based system corrected the effects resulting from radiation parameter perturbations in general radiography whereas the KERMA-based system did not. Because of this difference, the KERMA-based radiation dose management system might overestimate the patient's radiation dose due to changes in the radiation conditions. Therefore, if a correction factor describing the correlation between the systems is applied to resolve this issue, then a radiation dose management system can be developed that will enable real-time measurement of the patient's radiation exposure and acquisition of diagnostic images.

  11. Timing of pilocarpine treatment during head and neck radiotherapy: concomitant administration reduces xerostomia better than post-radiation pilocarpine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, Robert P.; Mark, Rufus J.; Juillard, Guy F.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To study whether oral pilocarpine administration during and three months after head and neck radiotherapy can prevent or reduce the expected post-radiation xerostomia. This regimen was compared to no treatment and to post-radiotherapy pilocarpine administration, which has previously been shown to reduce symptoms of xerostomia in several randomized trials. Methods: Xerostomia assessments were performed using a visual analog scale xerostomia questionnaire that measures oral dryness, oral comfort, difficulty with sleep, speech and eating. Higher scores indicate less xerostomia. All the patients had all major salivary glands in the initial field treated to ≥ 4,500 cGy. The concomitant pilocarpine group received 5 mg pilocarpine q.i.d. beginning on day one of radiotherapy and continuing for 3 months after completion of radiation. The control group had their baseline xerostomia measured prior to receiving pilocarpine. They subsequently took 5 mg pilocarpine t.i.d. for one month at which time they underwent a second xerostomia assessment. Xerostomia scores for each group were averaged and compared using the Student's t-test. Results: Seventeen patients who received pilocarpine during head and neck irradiation were compared to 12 post-radiotherapy patients who had not yet taken pilocarpine and the same patients after taking pilocarpine for one month. The mean intervals between completion of radiation and evaluation of xerostomia were 16 months for the control group and 17 months for the pilocarpine treated groups. The primary tumor sites treated as well as the total tumor doses were equivalent between the groups. Only one of the pilocarpine treated patients was still taking pilocarpine at the time of evaluation. Results are shown. For each component of xerostomia measured as well as the composite of all components, the group that had received pilocarpine during radiation had significantly less xerostomia than the no pilocarpine group (p<0.01 for each). Post

  12. Time-resolved beam energy measurements at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudgings, D.W.; Clark, D.A.; Bryant, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    A narrow atomic photodetachment resonance is used to measure the LAMPF beam energy. Energy and time resolution are adequate to permit the use of this method in studying transient changes in accelerated beam energy

  13. Transforming Nursing Programs to Reduce Time to Completion. Strategies for Transformative Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, A.; King, D.; Combs, M.

    2016-01-01

    This brief focuses on the efforts of the nursing programs at Phillips Community College of the University of Arkansas (PCCUA) to reduce time to completion, increase achievement, and enhance student support. To accomplish these goals, PCCUA involved healthcare providers, faculty, students, college curriculum committees, the Accreditation Commission…

  14. Solar energy system reduces time taken to inhibit microbial growth in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phitthayarachasak, Thanathep; Thepa, Sirichai; Kongkiattikajorn, Jirasak [Energy Technology Division, School of Energy Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthid Road, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    This research studied how to reduce the time consumption and to increase and improve the efficiency of the solarization process. The asymmetry compound parabolic concentrator (ACPC) was developed to produce boiling water to be utilized while the solarization process was in operation. This could decrease the time consumed in the solarization process from 4 to 6 weeks to 4 h, with a temperature of approximately 41.25 C at the various depth levels, not exceeding 50 cm. The test to inhibit the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causative agent of wilt in crops leaves, indicated that R. solanacearum was reduced from the total bacterial population of 10.9 x 10{sup 8} colony forming unit/g soil (cfu g{sup -1}) at soil surface to 9.0 x 10{sup 7}, 7.5 x 10{sup 4} and 4.1 x 10{sup 3} cfu g{sup -1} within 1, 2 and 4 h, respectively. (author)

  15. Reducing acquisition time in clinical MRI by data undersampling and compressed sensing reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Kieren Grant

    2015-11-01

    MRI is often the most sensitive or appropriate technique for important measurements in clinical diagnosis and research, but lengthy acquisition times limit its use due to cost and considerations of patient comfort and compliance. Once an image field of view and resolution is chosen, the minimum scan acquisition time is normally fixed by the amount of raw data that must be acquired to meet the Nyquist criteria. Recently, there has been research interest in using the theory of compressed sensing (CS) in MR imaging to reduce scan acquisition times. The theory argues that if our target MR image is sparse, having signal information in only a small proportion of pixels (like an angiogram), or if the image can be mathematically transformed to be sparse then it is possible to use that sparsity to recover a high definition image from substantially less acquired data. This review starts by considering methods of k-space undersampling which have already been incorporated into routine clinical imaging (partial Fourier imaging and parallel imaging), and then explains the basis of using compressed sensing in MRI. The practical considerations of applying CS to MRI acquisitions are discussed, such as designing k-space undersampling schemes, optimizing adjustable parameters in reconstructions and exploiting the power of combined compressed sensing and parallel imaging (CS-PI). A selection of clinical applications that have used CS and CS-PI prospectively are considered. The review concludes by signposting other imaging acceleration techniques under present development before concluding with a consideration of the potential impact and obstacles to bringing compressed sensing into routine use in clinical MRI.

  16. Time Synchronized Wireless Sensor Network for Vibration Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchimura, Yutaka; Nasu, Tadashi; Takahashi, Motoichi

    Network based wireless sensing has become an important area of research and various new applications for remote sensing are expected to emerge. One of the promising applications is structural health monitoring of building or civil engineering structure and it often requires vibration measurement. For the vibration measurement via wireless network, time synchronization is indispensable. In this paper, we introduce a newly developed time synchronized wireless sensor network system. The system employs IEEE 802.11 standard based TSF counter and sends the measured data with the counter value. TSF based synchronization enables consistency on common clock among different wireless nodes. We consider the scale effect on the synchronization accuracy and the effect is evaluated by stochastic analysis and simulation studies. A new wireless sensing system is developed and the hardware and software specifications are shown. The experiments are conducted in a reinforced concrete building and results show good performance enough for vibration measurement purpose.

  17. Stability of continuous-time quantum filters with measurement imperfections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, H.; Pellegrini, C.; Rouchon, P.

    2014-07-01

    The fidelity between the state of a continuously observed quantum system and the state of its associated quantum filter, is shown to be always a submartingale. The observed system is assumed to be governed by a continuous-time Stochastic Master Equation (SME), driven simultaneously by Wiener and Poisson processes and that takes into account incompleteness and errors in measurements. This stability result is the continuous-time counterpart of a similar stability result already established for discrete-time quantum systems and where the measurement imperfections are modelled by a left stochastic matrix.

  18. Improving patient care over weekends by reducing on-call work load and better time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, Syed Anjum Ali

    2014-01-01

    The Royal College of Physicians states that "handover, particularly of temporary 'on-call' responsibility, has been identified as a point at which errors are likely to occur."[1] Working a weekend on-call covering medical wards is often busy and stressful for all junior doctors. The high volume of routine and unplanned tasks make the situation even worse. In Nevill Hall hospital Abergavenny, we measured the workload on a junior doctor for medical ward cover on weekends by counting the number of times he/she was bleeped for routine tasks. Initial study demonstrated that on average 30-40% of time on a long day shift was spent on jobs which could have been done on the preceding Friday. The "FRIDAYS" checklist was introduced for clinical staff (particularly junior doctors) to identify these jobs. According to this model, all the junior doctors were encouraged to review: F: Phlebotomy R: Rewriting drug charts I: IV fluids D: discharge summaries A: Antibiotic review Y: Yellow book/Warfarin dose S: Status of resuscitation and escalation plans before leaving the wards on Friday afternoon. This implementation successfully showed reduction in weekend workload, allowing the ward cover to be focused on care and safety of comparatively sick patients while at the same time reducing the stress for the on-call team.

  19. Does Enhancing Work-Time Control and Flexibility Reduce Turnover? A Naturally Occurring Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L; Hill, Rachelle

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the turnover effects of an organizational innovation (ROWE-Results Only Work Environment) aimed at moving away from standard time practices to focus on results rather than time spent at work. To model rates of turnover, we draw on survey data from a sample of employees at a corporate headquarters (N = 775) and institutional records of turnover over eight months following the ROWE implementation. We find the odds of turnover are indeed lower for employees participating in the ROWE initiative, which offers employees greater work-time control and flexibility, and that this is the case regardless of employees' gender, age, or family life stage. ROWE also moderates the turnover effects of organizational tenure and negative home-to-work spillover, physical symptoms, and job insecurity, with those in ROWE who report these situations generally less likely to leave the organization. Additionally, ROWE reduces turnover intentions among those remaining with the corporation. This research moves the "opting-out" argument from one of private troubles to an issue of greater employee work-time control and flexibility by showing that an organizational policy initiative can reduce turnover.

  20. Negative emotional stimuli reduce contextual cueing but not response times in inefficient search

    OpenAIRE

    Kunar, Melina A.; Watson, Derrick G.; Cole, Louise (Researcher in Psychology); Cox, Angeline

    2014-01-01

    In visual search, previous work has shown that negative stimuli narrow the focus of attention and speed reaction times (RTs). This paper investigates these two effects by first asking whether negative emotional stimuli narrow the focus of attention to reduce the learning of a display context in a contextual cueing task and, second, whether exposure to negative stimuli also reduces RTs in inefficient search tasks. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either negative or neutral images (faces or...

  1. Audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D; Keall, P; Kim, T; Greer, P B; Arm, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that audiovisual (AV) biofeedback can improve image quality and reduce scan time for respiratory-gated 3D thoracic MRI. For five healthy human subjects respiratory motion guidance in MR scans was provided using an AV biofeedback system, utilizing real-time respiratory motion signals. To investigate the improvement of respiratory-gated 3D MR images between free breathing (FB) and AV biofeedback (AV), each subject underwent two imaging sessions. Respiratory-related motion artifacts and imaging time were qualitatively evaluated in addition to the reproducibility of external (abdominal) motion. In the results, 3D MR images in AV biofeedback showed more anatomic information such as a clear distinction of diaphragm, lung lobes and sharper organ boundaries. The scan time was reduced from 401±215 s in FB to 334±94 s in AV (p-value 0.36). The root mean square variation of the displacement and period of the abdominal motion was reduced from 0.4±0.22 cm and 2.8±2.5 s in FB to 0.1±0.15 cm and 0.9±1.3 s in AV (p-value of displacement <0.01 and p-value of period 0.12). This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential to be a useful motion management tool in medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  2. Time resolved measurements of triton burnup in JET plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conroy, S.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.; Huxtable, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    Triton production from one branch of the deuteron-deuteron fusion reaction is routinely measured at 6 ms time intervals in JET plasma discharges by recording the 2.5 MeV neutrons produced in the other branch using a set of calibrated fission chambers. The burnup of the tritons is measured by detecting the 14 MeV t-d neutrons with a 0.2 cm 3 Si(Li) diode. The 2.5 MeV neutron flux can be used in a simple time dependent calculation based on classical slowing-down theory to predict the 14 MeV neutron flux. The measured flux and the triton slowing-down time are systematically lower than the values estimated from the key plasma parameters but the differences are within the experimental errors. (author). 19 refs, 8 figs

  3. Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA Wormhole Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Karlsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  4. Stopped-flow technique for transit time measurement in a gas jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rengan, K.; Lin, J.; Lim, T.; Meyer, R.A.; Harrell, J.

    1985-01-01

    A 'stopped-flow' technique for the measurement of transit time of reaction products in a gas jet is described. The method involved establishing the gas flow through the jet system when the reactor is operating steadily and allowing the pressure to reach equilibrium values. The gas flow is stopped by means of electrically operated valves. The transit-time measurement is achieved by opening the valves and initiating the multiscanning of total activity simultaneously. The value obtained agrees well with the transit time measured by pulsing the reactor. The 'stopped-flow' technique allows on-line measurement of transit time in any gas jet system where the physical transportation time is the major component of the transit time. This technique is especially useful for systems installed in reactors which do not have pulsing capability. (orig.)

  5. Time-temperature superposition in viscous liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    2001-01-01

    with a reduced time definition based on a recently proposed expression for the relaxation time, where G [infinity] reflects the fictive temperature. All parameters entering the reduced time were determined from independent measurements of the frequency-dependent shear modulus of the equilibrium liquid....

  6. Time interval measurement between to emission: a systematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizard, G.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Durand, D.; Genoux-Lubain, A.; Horn, D.; Kerambrun, A.; Laville, J.L.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Mahi, M.; Meslin, C.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    A systematic study of the evolution of intervals of fragment emission times as a function of the energy deposited in the compound system was performed. Several measurements, Ne at 60 MeV/u, Ar at 30 and 60 MeV/u and two measurements for Kr at 60 MeV/u (central and semi-peripheral collisions) are presented. In all the experiments the target was Au and the mass of the compounds system was around A = 200. The excitation energies per nucleon reached in the case of these heavy systems cover the range of 3 to 5.5 MeV/u. The method used to determine the emission time intervals is based on the correlation functions associated to the relative angle distributions. The gaps between the data and simulations allow to evaluate the emission times. A rapid decrease of these time intervals was observed when the excitation energy increased. This variation starts at 500 fm/c which corresponds to a sequential emission. This relatively long time which indicates a weak interaction between fragments, corresponds practically to the measurement threshold. The shortest intervals (about 50 fm/c) are associated to a spontaneous multifragmentation and were observed in the case of central collisions at Ar+Au and Kr+Au at 60 MeV/u. Two interpretations are possible. The multifragmentation process might be viewed as a sequential process of very short time-separation or else, one can separate two zones heaving in mind that the multifragmentation is predominant from 4,5 MeV/u excitation energy upwards. This question is still open and its study is under way at LPC. An answer could come from the study of the rupture process of an excited nucleus, notably by the determination of its life-time

  7. Measuring older adults' sedentary time: reliability, validity, and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paul A; Clark, Bronwyn K; Healy, Genevieve N; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Owen, Neville

    2011-11-01

    With evidence that prolonged sitting has deleterious health consequences, decreasing sedentary time is a potentially important preventive health target. High-quality measures, particularly for use with older adults, who are the most sedentary population group, are needed to evaluate the effect of sedentary behavior interventions. We examined the reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change of a self-report sedentary behavior questionnaire that assessed time spent in behaviors common among older adults: watching television, computer use, reading, socializing, transport and hobbies, and a summary measure (total sedentary time). In the context of a sedentary behavior intervention, nonworking older adults (n = 48, age = 73 ± 8 yr (mean ± SD)) completed the questionnaire on three occasions during a 2-wk period (7 d between administrations) and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph model GT1M) for two periods of 6 d. Test-retest reliability (for the individual items and the summary measure) and validity (self-reported total sedentary time compared with accelerometer-derived sedentary time) were assessed during the 1-wk preintervention period, using Spearman (ρ) correlations and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Responsiveness to change after the intervention was assessed using the responsiveness statistic (RS). Test-retest reliability was excellent for television viewing time (ρ (95% CI) = 0.78 (0.63-0.89)), computer use (ρ (95% CI) = 0.90 (0.83-0.94)), and reading (ρ (95% CI) = 0.77 (0.62-0.86)); acceptable for hobbies (ρ (95% CI) = 0.61 (0.39-0.76)); and poor for socializing and transport (ρ < 0.45). Total sedentary time had acceptable test-retest reliability (ρ (95% CI) = 0.52 (0.27-0.70)) and validity (ρ (95% CI) = 0.30 (0.02-0.54)). Self-report total sedentary time was similarly responsive to change (RS = 0.47) as accelerometer-derived sedentary time (RS = 0.39). The summary measure of total sedentary time has good repeatability and modest validity and is

  8. Effect of counting system dead time on thyroid uptake measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkin, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Equations are derived and the results of numerical calculations shown that illustrate the effect of counting system dead time on measured thyroid uptake of radioiodine. It is predicted that the observed uptake is higher than the true uptake due to system dead time. This is shown for both paralyzing and nonparalyzing dead time. The effect of increasing the administered activity is shown to increase the measured uptake, in a manner predicted by the paralyzable and nonparalyzable dead time models

  9. Isothermal calorimeter for measurements of time-dependent heat generation rate in individual supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteshari, Obaidallah; Lau, Jonathan; Krishnan, Atindra; Dunn, Bruce; Pilon, Laurent

    2018-01-01

    Heat generation in electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs) may lead to temperature rise and reduce their lifetime and performance. This study aims to measure the time-dependent heat generation rate in individual carbon electrode of EDLCs under various charging conditions. First, the design, fabrication, and validation of an isothermal calorimeter are presented. The calorimeter consisted of two thermoelectric heat flux sensors connected to a data acquisition system, two identical and cold plates fed with a circulating coolant, and an electrochemical test section connected to a potentiostat/galvanostat system. The EDLC cells consisted of two identical activated carbon electrodes and a separator immersed in an electrolyte. Measurements were performed on three cells with different electrolytes under galvanostatic cycling for different current density and polarity. The measured time-averaged irreversible heat generation rate was in excellent agreement with predictions for Joule heating. The reversible heat generation rate in the positive electrode was exothermic during charging and endothermic during discharging. By contrast, the negative electrode featured both exothermic and endothermic heat generation during both charging and discharging. The results of this study can be used to validate existing thermal models, to develop thermal management strategies, and to gain insight into physicochemical phenomena taking place during operation.

  10. On the determinants of measurement error in time-driven costing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardinaels, E.; Labro, E.

    2008-01-01

    Although time estimates are used extensively for costing purposes, they are prone to measurement error. In an experimental setting, we research how measurement error in time estimates varies with: (1) the level of aggregation in the definition of costing system activities (aggregated or

  11. Reducing employee travelling time through smart commuting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A N N A; Yusoff, Z M; Aziz, I S; Omar, D

    2014-01-01

    Extremely congested roads will definitely delay the arrival time of each trip.This certainly impacted the journey of employees. Tardiness at the workplace has become a perturbing issue for companies where traffic jams are the most common worker excuses. A depressing consequence on daily life and productivity of the employee occurs. The issues of commuting distance between workplace and resident area become the core point of this research. This research will emphasize the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) technique to explore the distance parameter to the employment area and will focus on the accessibility pattern of low-cost housing. The research methodology consists of interview sessions and a questionnaire to residents of low-cost housing areas in Melaka Tengah District in Malaysia. The combination of these processes will show the criteria from the selected parameter for each respondent from their resident area to the employment area. This will further help in the recommendation of several options for a better commute or improvement to the existing routes and public transportations system. Thus enhancing quality of life for employees and helping to reduce stress, decrease lateness, absenteeism and improving productivity in workplace

  12. Reducing employee travelling time through smart commuting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A. N. N. A.; Yusoff, Z. M.; Aziz, I. S.; Omar, D.

    2014-02-01

    Extremely congested roads will definitely delay the arrival time of each trip.This certainly impacted the journey of employees. Tardiness at the workplace has become a perturbing issue for companies where traffic jams are the most common worker excuses. A depressing consequence on daily life and productivity of the employee occurs. The issues of commuting distance between workplace and resident area become the core point of this research. This research will emphasize the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) technique to explore the distance parameter to the employment area and will focus on the accessibility pattern of low-cost housing. The research methodology consists of interview sessions and a questionnaire to residents of low-cost housing areas in Melaka Tengah District in Malaysia. The combination of these processes will show the criteria from the selected parameter for each respondent from their resident area to the employment area. This will further help in the recommendation of several options for a better commute or improvement to the existing routes and public transportations system. Thus enhancing quality of life for employees and helping to reduce stress, decrease lateness, absenteeism and improving productivity in workplace.

  13. Proper-time resolution function for measurement of time evolution of B mesons at the KEK B-Factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, H.; Aihara, H.; Higuchi, T.; Kawai, H.; Nakadaira, T.; Tanaka, J.; Tomura, T.; Yokoyama, M.; Hazumi, M.; Sakai, Y.; Sumisawa, K.; Kawasaki, T.

    2004-01-01

    The proper-time resolution function for the measurement of the time evolution of B mesons with the Belle detector at KEKB is studied in detail. The obtained resolution function is applied to the measurement of B meson lifetimes, the B0B-bar 0 oscillation frequency and time-dependent CP asymmetries

  14. Measurability of quantum fields and the energy-time uncertainty relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensky, Mikhail B

    2011-01-01

    Quantum restrictions on the measurability of an electromagnetic field strength and their relevance to the energy-time uncertainty relation are considered. The minimum errors in measuring electromagnetic field strengths, as they were estimated by the author (1988) in the framework of the phenomenological method of restricted path integral (RPI), are compared with the analogous estimates found by Landau and Peierls (1931) and by Bohr and Rosenfeld (1933) with the help of certain measurement setups. RPI-based restrictions, including those of Landau and Peierls as a special case, hold for any measuring schemes meeting the strict definition of measurement. Their fundamental nature is confirmed by the fact that their associated field detectability condition has the form of the energy-time uncertainty relation. The weaker restrictions suggested by Bohr and Rosenfeld rely on an extended definition of measurement. The energy-time uncertainty relation, which is the condition for the electromagnetic field to be detectable, is applied to the analysis of how the near-field scanning microscope works. (methodological notes)

  15. CMS High Level Trigger Timing Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, Clint

    2015-01-01

    The two-level trigger system employed by CMS consists of the Level 1 (L1) Trigger, which is implemented using custom-built electronics, and the High Level Trigger (HLT), a farm of commercial CPUs running a streamlined version of the offline CMS reconstruction software. The operational L1 output rate of 100 kHz, together with the number of CPUs in the HLT farm, imposes a fundamental constraint on the amount of time available for the HLT to process events. Exceeding this limit impacts the experiment's ability to collect data efficiently. Hence, there is a critical need to characterize the performance of the HLT farm as well as the algorithms run prior to start up in order to ensure optimal data taking. Additional complications arise from the fact that the HLT farm consists of multiple generations of hardware and there can be subtleties in machine performance. We present our methods of measuring the timing performance of the CMS HLT, including the challenges of making such measurements. Results for the performance of various Intel Xeon architectures from 2009-2014 and different data taking scenarios are also presented. (paper)

  16. Implementing unsteady friction in pressure-time measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Pontus; Ramdal, Jorgen; Cervantes, Michel; Nielsen, Torbjørn Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory measurements using the pressure‐time method showed a velocity or Reynolds number dependent error of the flow estimate. It was suspected that the quasi steady friction formulation of the method was the cause. This was investigated, and it was proved that implementing a model for unsteady friction into the calculations improved the result. This paper presents the process of this investigation, and proposes a new method for treatment of the friction term in the pressure‐time method.

  17. Timing performance measurements of Si-PM-based LGSO phoswich detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Okumura, Satoshi; Yeom, Jung Yeol

    2016-01-01

    Since the timing resolution was significantly improved using silicon photomultipliers (Si-PMs) combined with fast scintillators, we expect that phoswich detectors will be used in future TOF-PET systems. However, no practical phoswich detector has been proposed for TOF-PET detectors. We conducted timing performance measurements of phoswich detectors comprised of two types of Ce-doped LGSO scintillators with different decay times coupled to Si-PMs and digitized the output signals using a high bandwidth digital oscilloscope. We prepared three types of LGSOs (LGSO-fast, LGSO-standard, and LGSO-slow) with different Ce concentrations. After measuring the decay time, the energy performance, and the timing performance of each LGSO, we conducted pulse shape analysis and timing resolution measurements for two versions of phoswich LGSOs: LGSO-standard/LGSO-fast and LGSO-slow/LGSO-fast combinations. The pulse shape spectra for a 10-mm-long crystal LGSO-slow/LGSO-fast combination showed good separation of the front and back crystals with a peak-to-valley ratio of 2.0. The timing resolutions for the 20-mm-long crystal LGSO-slow/LGSO-fast combination were ~300 ps FWHM. The timing resolutions for the phoswich LGSOs were slightly inferior than that measured with the individual LGSO fast, but the acquired timing resolution for the phoswich configuration, ~300 ps with a LGSO-slow/LGSO-fast combination, is adequate for TOF-PET systems. We conclude that LGSO phoswich detectors are promising for TOF-DOI-PET systems.

  18. Frequency-dependent Dispersion Measures and Implications for Pulsar Timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, J. M.; Shannon, R. M.; Stinebring, D. R.

    2016-01-01

    The dispersion measure (DM), the column density of free electrons to a pulsar, is shown to be frequency dependent because of multipath scattering from small-scale electron-density fluctuations. DMs vary between propagation paths whose transverse extent varies strongly with frequency, yielding arrival times that deviate from the high-frequency scaling expected for a cold, uniform, unmagnetized plasma (1/frequency2). Scaling laws for thin phase screens are verified with simulations; extended media are also analyzed. The rms DM difference across an octave band near 1.5 GHz is ˜ 4 × 10-5 pc cm-3 for pulsars at ˜1 kpc distance. The corresponding arrival-time variations are a few to hundreds of nanoseconds for DM ≲ 30 pc cm-3 but increase rapidly to microseconds or more for larger DMs and wider frequency ranges. Chromatic DMs introduce correlated noise into timing residuals with a power spectrum of “low pass” form. The correlation time is roughly the geometric mean of the refraction times for the highest and lowest radio frequencies used, ranging from days to years, depending on the pulsar. We discuss implications for methodologies that use large frequency separations or wide bandwidth receivers for timing measurements. Chromatic DMs are partially mitigable by including an additional chromatic term in arrival time models. Without mitigation, an additional term in the noise model for pulsar timing is implied. In combination with measurement errors from radiometer noise, an arbitrarily large increase in total frequency range (or bandwidth) will yield diminishing benefits and may be detrimental to overall timing precision.

  19. An improvement of isochronous mass spectrometry: Velocity measurements using two time-of-flight detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuai, P.; Xu, X.; Zhang, Y.H.; Xu, H.S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Wang, M.

    2016-01-01

    Isochronous mass spectrometry (IMS) in storage rings is a powerful tool for mass measurements of exotic nuclei with very short half-lives down to several tens of microseconds, using a multicomponent secondary beam separated in-flight without cooling. However, the inevitable momentum spread of secondary ions limits the precision of nuclear masses determined by using IMS. Therefore, the momentum measurement in addition to the revolution period of stored ions is crucial to reduce the influence of the momentum spread on the standard deviation of the revolution period, which would lead to a much improved mass resolving power of IMS. One of the proposals to upgrade IMS is that the velocity of secondary ions could be directly measured by using two time-of-flight (double TOF) detectors installed in a straight section of a storage ring. In this paper, we outline the principle of IMS with double TOF detectors and the method to correct the momentum spread of stored ions.

  20. A new approach for bioassays based on frequency- and time-domain measurements of magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oisjöen, Fredrik; Schneiderman, Justin F; Astalan, Andrea Prieto; Kalabukhov, Alexey; Johansson, Christer; Winkler, Dag

    2010-01-15

    We demonstrate a one-step wash-free bioassay measurement system capable of tracking biochemical binding events. Our approach combines the high resolution of frequency- and high speed of time-domain measurements in a single device in combination with a fast one-step bioassay. The one-step nature of our magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) based assay reduces the time between sample extraction and quantitative results while mitigating the risks of contamination related to washing steps. Our method also enables tracking of binding events, providing the possibility of, for example, investigation of how chemical/biological environments affect the rate of a binding process or study of the action of certain drugs. We detect specific biological binding events occurring on the surfaces of fluid-suspended MNPs that modify their magnetic relaxation behavior. Herein, we extrapolate a modest sensitivity to analyte of 100 ng/ml with the present setup using our rapid one-step bioassay. More importantly, we determine the size-distributions of the MNP systems with theoretical fits to our data obtained from the two complementary measurement modalities and demonstrate quantitative agreement between them. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke van Nassau

    Full Text Available As the detrimental health effects of sedentary behaviour are well established, insight into the individual and environmental factors that influence adults' sedentary behaviour is needed. Most studies to date rely on self-reported measures of sedentary time. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults. Between March and August 2014, Belgian (n = 133 and Dutch (n = 223 adults, recruited as sub-sample of the SPOTLIGHT survey, wore an ActiGraph accelerometer to provide objectively measured sedentary and moderate to vigorous physical activity time. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic (country of residence, age, gender and educational level, lifestyle (sleep, smoking, sugar-containing beverage consumption, alcohol intake, health (body mass index, self-rated health, work (employment status and type of work, happiness, physical environmental (owning a car, number of screens, socioeconomic status and residential density and social environmental factors (social network, social cohesion. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that Belgian participants had a lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to Dutch participants. Women, older participants and those meeting the WHO recommendation for physical activity were also less likely to sit for 9 hours or more per day. Participants doing (heavy manual work or being in education, homemaker, unemployed had lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to participants with a sitting job. Those with a higher self-reported social network also had lower odds for sedentary time. No associations between physical and other social environmental characteristics and sedentary time were found. Our findings add to the growing evidence of factors associated with prolonged sedentary time in adults. These findings may

  2. Measures of spike train synchrony for data with multiple time scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satuvuori, Eero; Mulansky, Mario; Bozanic, Nebojsa; Malvestio, Irene; Zeldenrust, Fleur; Lenk, Kerstin; Kreuz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background Measures of spike train synchrony are widely used in both experimental and computational neuroscience. Time-scale independent and parameter-free measures, such as the ISI-distance, the SPIKE-distance and SPIKE-synchronization, are preferable to time scale parametric measures, since by

  3. A "Neurological Emergency Trolley" reduces turnaround time for high-risk medications in a general intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajzenberg, Henry; Newman, Paula; Harris, Gail-Anne; Cranston, Marnie; Boyd, J Gordon

    2018-02-01

    To reduce medication turnaround times during neurological emergencies, a multidisciplinary team developed a neurological emergency crash trolley in our intensive care unit. This trolley includes phenytoin, hypertonic saline and mannitol, as well as other equipment. The aim of this study was to assess whether the cart reduced turnaround times for these medications. In this retrospective cohort study, medication delivery times for two year epochs before and after its implementation were compared. Eligible patients were identified from our intensive care unit screening log. Adults who required emergent use of phenytoin, hypertonic saline or mannitol while in the intensive care unit were included. Groups were compared with nonparametric analyses. 33-bed general medical-surgical intensive care unit in an academic teaching hospital. Time to medication administration. In the pre-intervention group, there were 43 patients with 66 events. In the post-intervention group, there were 45 patients with 80 events. The median medication turnaround time was significantly reduced after implementation of the neurological emergency trolley (25 vs. 10minutes, p=0.003). There was no statistically significant difference in intensive care or 30-day survival between the two cohorts. The implementation of a novel neurological emergency crash trolley in our intensive care unit reduced medication turnaround times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Technical Note: Reducing the spin-up time of integrated surface water–groundwater models

    KAUST Repository

    Ajami, H.

    2014-06-26

    One of the main challenges in catchment scale application of coupled/integrated hydrologic models is specifying a catchment\\'s initial conditions in terms of soil moisture and depth to water table (DTWT) distributions. One approach to reduce uncertainty in model initialization is to run the model recursively using a single or multiple years of forcing data until the system equilibrates with respect to state and diagnostic variables. However, such "spin-up" approaches often require many years of simulations, making them computationally intensive. In this study, a new hybrid approach was developed to reduce the computational burden of spin-up time for an integrated groundwater-surface water-land surface model (ParFlow.CLM) by using a combination of ParFlow.CLM simulations and an empirical DTWT function. The methodology is examined in two catchments located in the temperate and semi-arid regions of Denmark and Australia respectively. Our results illustrate that the hybrid approach reduced the spin-up time required by ParFlow.CLM by up to 50%, and we outline a methodology that is applicable to other coupled/integrated modelling frameworks when initialization from equilibrium state is required.

  5. Time expansion chamber and single ionization cluster measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walenta, A.H.

    1978-10-01

    The time expansion chamber (TEC), a new type of drift chamber, allows the measurement of microscopic details of ionization. The mean drift time interval from subsequent sngle ionization clusters of a relativistic particle in the TEC can be made large enough compared to the width of a anode signal to allow the recording of the clusters separately. Since single primary electrons can be detected, the cluster counting would allow an improved particle separation using the relativistic rise of primary ionization. In another application, very high position accuracy for track detectors or improved energy resolution may be obtained. Basic ionization phenomena and drift properties can be measured at the single electron level

  6. Variable flip angle excitation for reduced acquisition time magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, T.C.; Ortendahl, D.A.; Hylton, N.M.; Carlson, J.W.; Crooks, L.E.; Kaufman, L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes an MRI technique which can be used to acquire images at short TR values while maintaining the sensitivity to disease found in longer TR images. For spin echo imaging there are three acquisition parameters that can be set in the imaging protocol; TR, the repetition interval; TE, the time of echo and Θ, the excitation flip angle. Standard imaging techniques set Θ to 90 degrees regardless of the TR value. With Θ fixed, imaging systems have been optimized by varying the value for TE and TR with the results in general indicating the need for long TR values. However, if the flip angle is included as a variable acquisition parameter the optimal operating point can be changed. The solution to the Bloch equation shows a functional relationship between the flip angle and the ratio TR/T1. This functionality was first observed by Ernst and Anderson as a method to increase the signal generated in fourier transform magnetic resonance spectroscopy. When TR/T1<1 the optimum flip angle for producing maximum magnetization in the transverse plane is less then 90 degrees. Therefore, by reducing both TR and flip angle it is possible to maintain signal intensity while reducing the time of data acquisition

  7. Autonomous watersheds: Reducing flooding and stream erosion through real-time control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkez, B.; Wong, B. P.

    2017-12-01

    We introduce an analytical toolchain, based on dynamical system theory and feedback control, to determine how many control points (valves, gates, pumps, etc.) are needed to transform urban watersheds from static to adaptive. Advances and distributed sensing and control stand to fundamentally change how we manage urban watersheds. In lieu of new and costly infrastructure, the real-time control of stormwater systems will reduce flooding, mitigate stream erosion, and improve the treatment of polluted runoff. We discuss the how open source technologies, in the form of wireless sensor nodes and remotely-controllable valves (open-storm.org), have been deployed to build "smart" stormwater systems in the Midwestern US. Unlike "static" infrastructure, which cannot readily adapt to changing inputs and land uses, these distributed control assets allow entire watersheds to be reconfigured on a storm-by-storm basis. Our results show how the control of even just a few valves within urban catchments (1-10km^2) allows for the real-time "shaping" of hydrographs, which reduces downstream erosion and flooding. We also introduce an equivalence framework that can be used by decision-makers to objectively compare investments into "smart" system to more traditional solutions, such as gray and green stormwater infrastructure.

  8. Iohexol plasma clearance measurement in older adults with chronic kidney disease-sampling time matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Natalie; Loesment, Amina; Martus, Peter; Jakob, Olga; Gaedeke, Jens; Kuhlmann, Martin; Bartel, Jan; Schuchardt, Mirjam; Tölle, Markus; Huang, Tao; van der Giet, Markus; Schaeffner, Elke

    2015-08-01

    Accurate and precise measurement of GFR is important for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sampling time of exogenous filtration markers may have great impact on measured GFR (mGFR) results, but there is still uncertainty about optimal timing of plasma clearance measurement in patients with advanced CKD, for whom 24-h measurement is recommended. This satellite project of the Berlin Initiative Study evaluates whether 24-h iohexol plasma clearance reveals a clinically relevant difference compared with 5-h measurement in older adults. In 104 participants with a mean age of 79 years and diagnosed CKD, we performed standard GFR measurement over 5 h (mGFR300) using iohexol plasma concentrations at 120, 180, 240 and 300 min after injection. With an additional sample at 1440 min, we assessed 24-h GFR measurement (mGFR1440). Study design was cross-sectional. Calculation of mGFR was conducted with a one compartment model using the Brochner-Mortensen equation to calculate the fast component. mGFR values were compared with estimated GFR values (MDRD, CKD-EPI, BIS1, Revised Lund-Malmö and Cockcroft-Gault). In all 104 subjects, mGFR1440 was lower than mGFR300 (23 ± 8 versus 29 ± 9 mL/min/1.73 m(2), mean ± SD; P clearance up to 5 h leads to a clinically relevant overestimation of GFR compared with 24-h measurement. In clinical care, this effect should be bore in mind especially for patients with considerably reduced GFR levels. A new correction formula has been developed to predict mGFR1440 from mGFR300. For accurate GFR estimates in elderly CKD patients, we recommend the Revised Lund Malmö equation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  9. Time response measurements of LASL diagnostic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocker, L.P.

    1970-07-01

    The measurement and data analysis techniques developed under the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's detector improvement program were used to characterize the time and frequency response of selected LASL Compton, fluor-photodiode (NPD), and fluor-photomultiplier (NPM) diagnostic detectors. Data acquisition procedures and analysis methods presently in use are summarized, and detector time and frequency data obtained using the EG and G/AEC electron linear accelerator fast pulse (approximately 50 psec FWHM) as the incident radiation driving function are presented. (U.S.)

  10. Programs and measures to reduce GHG emissions in agriculture and waste treatment in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mareckova, K.; Bratislava, S.; Kucirek, S.

    1996-12-31

    Slovakia is a UN FCCC Annex I country and is obliged to limit its anthropogenic GHG emissions in the year 2000 to 1990 level. The key greenhouse gas in Slovakia is CO{sub 2} resulting mainly from fuel combustion processes. However the share of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is approximately 20% of the total emissions on GWP basis. These gases are occurring mainly in non-energy sectors. The construction of the non-CO{sub 2} emission scenarios to reduce GHG and the uncertainty in N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} emission estimation are discussed focusing on agriculture and waste treatment. The presentation will also include information on emission trends of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O since 1988. There are already implemented measures reducing GHG emissions in Slovakia, however, not motivated by global warming. A short view of implemented measures with an assessment of their benefit concerning non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions reduction and some proposed mitigation options for agriculture and waste treatment are shown. Expected difficulties connected with preparing scenarios and with implementation of reducing measures are discussed.

  11. Measurement of informal care: an empirical study into the valid measurement of time spent on informal caregiving.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Bernard van den; Spauwen, Pol

    2006-01-01

    The incorporation of informal care into economic evaluations of health care is troublesome. The debate focuses on the valuation of time spent on informal caregiving, while time measurement, a related and may be even a more important issue, tends to be neglected. Valid time measurement is a necessary

  12. Subtleties in the BABAR measurement of time-reversal violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrati, Aielet

    2015-01-01

    A first measurement of time-reversal (T) asymmetries that are not also CP asymmetries has been recently achieved by the B A B AR collaboration. In this talk, which follows the work done in Ref. [1], I discuss the subtleties of this measurement in the presence of direct CP violation, CPT violation, wrong strangeness decays and wrong sign semi-leptonic decays. In particular, I explain why, in order to identify the measured asymmetries with time-reversal violation, one needs to assume (i) the absence of wrong strangeness decays or of CPT violation in strangeness changing decays, and (ii) the absence of wrong sign decays. (paper)

  13. Reduced linear noise approximation for biochemical reaction networks with time-scale separation: The stochastic tQSSA+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Narmada; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2018-03-01

    Biochemical reaction networks often involve reactions that take place on different time scales, giving rise to "slow" and "fast" system variables. This property is widely used in the analysis of systems to obtain dynamical models with reduced dimensions. In this paper, we consider stochastic dynamics of biochemical reaction networks modeled using the Linear Noise Approximation (LNA). Under time-scale separation conditions, we obtain a reduced-order LNA that approximates both the slow and fast variables in the system. We mathematically prove that the first and second moments of this reduced-order model converge to those of the full system as the time-scale separation becomes large. These mathematical results, in particular, provide a rigorous justification to the accuracy of LNA models derived using the stochastic total quasi-steady state approximation (tQSSA). Since, in contrast to the stochastic tQSSA, our reduced-order model also provides approximations for the fast variable stochastic properties, we term our method the "stochastic tQSSA+". Finally, we demonstrate the application of our approach on two biochemical network motifs found in gene-regulatory and signal transduction networks.

  14. Microprocessor-controlled time domain reflectometer for dynamic shock position measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virchow, C.F.; Conrad, G.E.; Holt, D.M.; Hodson, E.K.

    1980-01-01

    Time-domain reflectometry is used in a novel way to measure dynamically shock propagation in various media. The primary component in this measurement system is a digital time domain reflectometer, which uses local intelligence, a Motorola 6800 microprocessor, to make the unit adaptable and versatile. The recorder, its operating theory and its method of implementation are described and typical data are reviewed. Applications include nuclear explosion yield estimates and explosive energy flow measurements

  15. Reducing the time until psychotherapy initiation reduces sick leave duration in participants diagnosed with anxiety and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Sandra; Marco, José H; Andani, Joaquín

    2018-01-01

    Sick leave in patients with a mental disorder is characterized by having a long duration. Studies suggest that the time until a patient on sick leave for a common mental health disorder initiates evaluation and treatment by a healthcare professional is an important factor in the duration of the sick leave. However, in these studies, the intervention was not performed by a mental health specialist. The aim of this study was to find out whether the length of sick leave was associated with the time before initiating psychotherapy, age, time until returning to work after psychotherapy ends, and duration of psychotherapy. In a further analysis, we examined whether the model composed of age, duration of psychotherapy, and time before initiating psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave. The sample consisted of 2,423 participants, 64.1% (n = 1,554) women and 35.9% (n = 869) men, who were on sick leave for anxiety disorders or depressive disorder. The total duration of the sick leave of participants diagnosed with depression and anxiety was positively associated with the time before beginning psychotherapy. Time before beginning psychotherapy predicted the length of sick leave when the variables age and duration of psychotherapy were controlled. It is necessary to reduce the time until beginning psychotherapy in people on sick leave for common mental disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Intelli-Restore as an Instantaneous Approach for Reduced Data Recovery Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lukandu Ateya

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the competitive and regulatory pressures and the high demands and dependence placed on data, there is need for higher data availability and a faster means of recovering the data in case it becomes corrupted or lost. Based on results provided on the reasons behind the long / high data recovery times by Kenyan SMEs this paper provides a solution that reduces the data recovery time. In order to solve the problem of high data recovery times, an instantaneous data recovery strategy based on an existing Continuous Data Protection (CDP architecture is introduced as an important component of a well-rounded backup and recovery strategy. CDP is a disk based backup solution which ensures that data is retrieved at a much faster rate during recovery. The solution presented in this paper could help organizations adopt or complement existing data recovery strategies.

  17. Flow-rate measurement using radioactive tracers and transit time method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turtiainen, Heikki

    1986-08-01

    The transit time method is a flow measurement method based on tracer techniques. Measurement is done by injecting to the flow a pulse of tracer and measuring its transit time between two detection positions. From the transit time the mean flow velosity and - using the pipe cross section area - the volume flow rate can be calculated. When a radioisotope tracer is used the measurement can be done from outside the pipe and without disturbing the process (excluding the tracer injection). The use of the transit time method has been limited because of difficulties associated with handling and availability of radioactive tracers and lack of equipment suitable for routine use in industrial environments. The purpose of this study was to find out if these difficulties may be overcome by using a portable isotope generator as a tracer source and automating the measurement. In the study a test rig and measuring equipment based on the use of a ''1''3''7Cs/''1''3''7''''mBa isotope generator were constructed. They were used to study the accuracy and error sources of the method and to compare different algorithms to calculate the transit time. The usability of the method and the equipment in industrial environments were studied by carrying out over 20 flow measurements in paper and pulp mills. On the basis of the results of the study, a project for constructing a compact radiatracer flowmeter for industrial use has been started. The application range of this kind of meter is very large. The most obvious applications are in situ calibration of flowmeters, material and energy balance studies, process equipment analyses (e.g. pump efficiency analyses). At the moment tracer techniques are the only methods applicable to these measurements on-line and with sufficient accuracy

  18. FREQUENCY-DEPENDENT DISPERSION MEASURES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PULSAR TIMING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordes, J. M. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Shannon, R. M. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Stinebring, D. R., E-mail: cordes@astro.cornell.edu, E-mail: ryan.shannon@csiro.au, E-mail: dan.stinebring@oberlin.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Oberlin College, Oberlin, OH 44074 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    The dispersion measure (DM), the column density of free electrons to a pulsar, is shown to be frequency dependent because of multipath scattering from small-scale electron-density fluctuations. DMs vary between propagation paths whose transverse extent varies strongly with frequency, yielding arrival times that deviate from the high-frequency scaling expected for a cold, uniform, unmagnetized plasma (1/frequency{sup 2}). Scaling laws for thin phase screens are verified with simulations; extended media are also analyzed. The rms DM difference across an octave band near 1.5 GHz is ∼ 4 × 10{sup −5} pc cm{sup −3} for pulsars at ∼1 kpc distance. The corresponding arrival-time variations are a few to hundreds of nanoseconds for DM ≲ 30 pc cm{sup −3} but increase rapidly to microseconds or more for larger DMs and wider frequency ranges. Chromatic DMs introduce correlated noise into timing residuals with a power spectrum of “low pass” form. The correlation time is roughly the geometric mean of the refraction times for the highest and lowest radio frequencies used, ranging from days to years, depending on the pulsar. We discuss implications for methodologies that use large frequency separations or wide bandwidth receivers for timing measurements. Chromatic DMs are partially mitigable by including an additional chromatic term in arrival time models. Without mitigation, an additional term in the noise model for pulsar timing is implied. In combination with measurement errors from radiometer noise, an arbitrarily large increase in total frequency range (or bandwidth) will yield diminishing benefits and may be detrimental to overall timing precision.

  19. Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharian, M; Khan, R F H

    2010-04-01

    For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient's breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL) 'X-Ray ON' status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL 'X-Ray ON' indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle) a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 +/- 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for the treatment delivery

  20. A RECURSIVE ALGORITHM SUITABLE FOR REAL-TIME MEASUREMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bucci

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a recursive algorithm suitable for realtime measurement applications, based on an indirect technique, useful in those applications where the required quantities cannot be measured in a straightforward way. To cope with time constraints a parallel formulation of it, suitable to be implemented on multiprocessor systems, is presented. The adopted concurrent implementation is based on factorization techniques. Some experimental results related to the application of the system for carrying out measurements on synchronous motors are included.

  1. Measuring small time periods in earth sciences by uranium series disequilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhary, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    During the last three decades mass spectrometry in India has seen its application in almost every field of science. In particular, TIMS has revolutionized geological sciences by taking it from a mainly descriptive to modern quantitative Earth Sciences. It has largely contributed in measurement of precise time scales of geological processes. During the last decade, focus has primarily been on measurement of time scales of these fundamental processes. Some of the radiometric methods initially developed for measuring shorter time-scales have their own problems. The intermediate nuclides in the uranium and thorium decay series having much shorter half lives compared to their parents, provide a useful tool to measure intermediate time scales. These isotopes had earlier been ignored due to analytical difficulties associated with their measurement. The development of new generation mass spectrometers with very high abundance sensitivity has now made it possible to measure these isotopic ratios. Consequently U-series isotopic measurements have put unique and at times the only quantitative constraints on the processes taking place in the interior of the Earth. Since such mass spectrometers have recently been installed in some of the laboratories in India, scientific investigation may now be taken up in some of the unexplored areas of Earth Sciences in our country

  2. Evaluation of policy measures and methods to reduce diffuse water pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, Ute; Doehler, Helmut; Eurich-Menden, Brigitte; Goemann, Horst; Jaeger, Peter; Kreins, Peter; Moeller, Christine; Prigge, Achim; Ristenpart, Erik; Schultheiss, Ute

    2006-11-15

    After considerable improvements of wastewater treatment, the loads of nutrients and plant protection agents, deriving from agriculture and heavy metals from urban drainages effluents as well as from erosion of agricultural soils are the main sources of nutrients and harmful substances in the loads of water bodies. The targets of the project were on the one hand the analysis of the political and legislative framework of both policy fields and on the other hand the evaluation of several, selected water protection measures with regard to their contribution to reduce water pollution, their economical effects as well as their political enforceability. The focus was laid on diffuse water pollution caused by agriculture. As main reasons for the diffuse water pollution stagnating at high level, the analysis of the political framework identified a lack of implementation discipline of water law, followed by the fragmented and insufficient water protection legislation itself and the previous design of the common agricultural policy slanted towards increasing productivity. For the future co-operation of agricultural and water authorities in implementation of their reforms and better definition of 'Good Farming Practice' are recommended. The second investigation level focuses on the analysis and assessment of selected measures to reduce the input of nutrients and plant protection agents. This part was done with help of calculation models focussing on the specific cost/benefit ratios for water protection. In detail the following measures have been analysed: decoupling of direct payments, coupling of livestock farming to areas, tax on mineral nitrogen, pesticide levy, buffer stripes alongside of watercourses, all season crop cover on arable land, soil cultivation procedures, changing the use of arable land, optimisation of animal nutrition, optimisation of manure storage and application, co-operative agreements, education and training. Co-operations and water protection

  3. Risk-reducing mastectomy and salpingo-oophorectomy in unaffected BRCA mutation carriers: uptake and timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, A-B; Gerdes, Anne-Marie Axø; Andersen, M K

    2010-01-01

    from 306 healthy BRCA carriers with no personal history of ovarian or breast cancer. We found a 10-year uptake of 75% for risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy and 50% for risk-reducing mastectomy by time to event analysis. Age and childbirth influenced this decision. The uptake rate has not changed......Once female carriers of a BRCA mutation are identified they have to make decisions on risk management. The aim of this study is to outline the uptake of risk-reducing surgery in the Danish population of BRCA mutation positive women and to search for factors affecting this decision. We analysed data...

  4. Use of a large time-compensated scintillation detector in neutron time-of-flight measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    A scintillator for neutron time-of-flight measurements is positioned at a desired angle with respect to the neutron beam, and as a function of the energy thereof, such that the sum of the transit times of the neutrons and photons in the scintillator are substantially independent of the points of scintillations within the scintillator. Extrapolated zero timing is employed rather than the usual constant fraction timing. As a result, a substantially larger scintillator can be employed that substantially increases the data rate and shortens the experiment time. 3 claims

  5. Reducing time delays in the management of ischemic stroke patients in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, Simone; Arnaboldi, Marco; Bezzi, Giacomo; Bono, Giorgio; Grampa, Giampiero; Guidotti, Mario; Perrone, Patrizia; Salmaggi, Andrea; Zarcone, Davide; Zoli, Alberto; Agostoni, Elio

    2016-07-15

    Thrombolysis represents the best therapy for ischemic stroke but the main limitation of its administration is time. The avoidable delay is a concept reflecting the effectiveness of management pathway. For this reason, we projected a study concerning the detection of main delays with following introduction of corrective factors. In this paper we describe the results after these corrections. Consecutive patients admitted for ischemic stroke during a 3-months period to 35 hospitals of a macro-area of Northern Italy were enrolled. Each time of management was registered, identifying three main intervals: pre-hospital, in-hospital and total times. Previous corrective interventions were: 1.increasing of population awareness to use the Emergency Medical Service (EMS); 2.pre-notification of Emergency Department; 3.use of high urgency codes; 4.use of standardised operational algorithm. Statistical analysis was conducted using time-to-event analysis and Cox proportional hazard regression. 1084 patients were enrolled. EMS was alerted for 56.3% of subjects, mainly in females and severe strokes (ptimes were 113 and 105min, while total time was 240. High urgency codes at transport contributed to reduce pre-hospital and in-hospital time (p<0.05). EMS use and high urgency codes promoted thrombolysis. Treatment within 4.5hours from symptom onset was performed in 14% of patients more than the first phase of study. The implementation of an organizational system based on EMS and concomitant high urgency codes use was effective to reduce avoidable delay and to increase thrombolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Kwaw S; Ferraro, Paul J; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Robalino, Juan A

    2008-10-21

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services.

  7. Study and realization of a parallel plate avalanche counter used for time of flight and localization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrin, P.O.

    1985-01-01

    A parallel Plates Avalanche Counter (P.P.A.C.) allowing high resolution training and localization is studied. It is designed to be placed on the beam trajectory-including the magnetic spectrometer of SARA accelerator at ISN Grenoble. Two purposes are searched: firstly to improve the time-of-flight measurement due to the very high intrinsic time resolution (it can be less than 150 ps), secondly to measure with accuracy the scattering angle of the particle on the target, due to its localization. The detector thickness has been reduced to set aside as unimportant the disturbance produced on the particle trajectory. The theoretical aspect of the detector operation and a quantitative study of the disturbances it causes on particle energy are presented. The set-up and its necessary surroundings are described with experimental results of its characteristics [fr

  8. In-flight fast-timing measurements in "1"5"2Sm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaisir, C.; Gaudefroy, L.; Meot, V.; Blanc, A.; Daugas, J.M.; Roig, O.; Arnal, N.; Bonnet, T.; Gobet, F.; Hannachi, F.; Tarisien, M.; Versteegen, M.; Roger, T.; Rejmund, M.; Navin, A.; Schmitt, C.; Fremont, G.; Goupil, J.; Pancin, J.; Spitaels, C.; Zielinska, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the first application of in-flight fast-timing measurements, a method developed in order to directly measure lifetimes in the picosecond to nanosecond range. As a proof of principle of the method, lifetimes of the states belonging to the ground-state band in "1"5"2Sm are measured up to the 8"+_1 state. An excellent agreement with recommended values is found. A slightly improved determination of the spectroscopic quadrupole moment of the 4"+_1 state is also reported. In-flight fast-timing measurements open interesting opportunities for future studies of collective properties in radioactive nuclei. (authors)

  9. Optimal distribution of integration time for intensity measurements in Stokes polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Liu, Tiegen; Huang, Bingjing; Song, Zhanjie; Hu, Haofeng

    2015-10-19

    We consider the typical Stokes polarimetry system, which performs four intensity measurements to estimate a Stokes vector. We show that if the total integration time of intensity measurements is fixed, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator depends on the distribution of the integration time at four intensity measurements. Therefore, by optimizing the distribution of integration time, the variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be decreased. In this paper, we obtain the closed-form solution of the optimal distribution of integration time by employing Lagrange multiplier method. According to the theoretical analysis and real-world experiment, it is shown that the total variance of the Stokes vector estimator can be significantly decreased about 40% in the case discussed in this paper. The method proposed in this paper can effectively decrease the measurement variance and thus statistically improves the measurement accuracy of the polarimetric system.

  10. Objectively Measured Total and Occupational Sedentary Time in Three Work Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; Coffeng, Jennifer K.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Boot, Cécile R. L.; Hendriksen, Ingrid J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sedentary behaviour increases the risk for morbidity. Our primary aim is to determine the proportion and factors associated with objectively measured total and occupational sedentary time in three work settings. Secondary aim is to study the proportion of physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts. Methods Data were obtained using ActiGraph accelerometers from employees of: 1) a financial service provider (n = 49 men, 31 women), 2) two research institutes (n = 30 men, 57 women), and 3) a construction company (n = 38 men). Total (over the whole day) and occupational sedentary time, physical activity and prolonged sedentary bouts (lasting ≥30 minutes) were calculated by work setting. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine general, health and work-related factors associated with sedentary time. Results The employees of the financial service provider and the research institutes spent 76–80% of their occupational time in sedentary behaviour, 18–20% in light intensity physical activity and 3–5% in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. Occupational time in prolonged sedentary bouts was 27–30%. Total time was less sedentary (64–70%), and had more light intensity physical activity (26–33%). The employees of the construction company spent 44% of their occupational time in sedentary behaviour, 49% in light, and 7% in moderate intensity physical activity, and spent 7% in sedentary bouts. Total time spent in sedentary behavior was 56%, 40% in light, and 4% in moderate intensity physical behaviour, and 12% in sedentary bouts. For women, low to intermediate education was the only factor that was negatively associated with occupational sedentary time. Conclusions Sedentary behaviour is high among white-collar employees, especially in highly educated women. A relatively small proportion of sedentary time was accrued in sedentary bouts. It is recommended that worksite health promotion efforts should focus on reducing sedentary

  11. Real-time hostile attribution measurement and aggression in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaros, Anna; Lochman, John E; Rosenbaum, Jill; Jimenez-Camargo, Luis Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Hostile attributions are an important predictor of aggression in children, but few studies have measured hostile attributions as they occur in real-time. The current study uses an interactive video racing game to measure hostile attributions while children played against a presumed peer. A sample of 75 children, ages 10-13, used nonverbal and verbal procedures to respond to ambiguous provocation by their opponent. Hostile attributions were significantly positively related to parent-rated reactive aggression, when controlling for proactive aggression. Hostile attributions using a nonverbal response procedure were negatively related to proactive aggression, when controlling for reactive aggression. Results suggest hostile attributions in real-time occur quickly and simultaneously with social interaction, which differs from the deliberative, controlled appraisals measured with vignette-based instruments. The relation between real-time hostile attributions and reactive aggression could be accounted for by the impulsive response style that is characteristic of reactive aggression, whereas children exhibiting proactive aggression may be more deliberate and intentional in their responding, resulting in a negative relation with real-time hostile attributions. These findings can be used both to identify children at risk for aggression and to enhance preventive interventions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Use of videoconferencing in Wales to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, travel costs and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Delyth; Tranter, Glynis; Axford, Alan T

    2009-01-01

    In September 2005 a telemedicine service was started to assist multidisciplinary teams in Wales to improve cancer services. In October 2006 and October 2007 users of videoconferencing equipment at one site completed questionnaires. During October 2006 a total of 18,000 km of car travel were avoided, equivalent to 1696 kg of CO(2) emission. During October 2007 a total of 20,800 km of car travel were avoided, equivalent to 2590 kg of CO(2) emission. We estimate that 48 trees would take a year to absorb that quantity of CO(2). The results of the surveys show that exploiting telemedicine makes better use of staff time, reduces the time spent travelling and assists in reducing climate change by limiting the emissions of CO(2).

  13. RubiShort: Reducing scan time in 82Rb heart scans to minimize movements artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jeppe; Vraa, Kaspar J.; Harms, Hans

    .013x, R2=0.98; %Reversible: y=1.008x, R2=0.95; TPD: y=1.000x, R2=0.99). Conclusion:, Scan time of myocardial perfusion scans using 82Rb can be reduced from 7 min. to 5 min. without loss of quantitative accuracy. Since patient motion is frequent in the last minutes of the scans, scan time reduction...

  14. A real-time BWR stability measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    March-Leuba, J.; King, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of a portable, real-time system used for nonperturbational measurements of stability in boiling water reactors. The algorithm used in this system estimates the closed-loop asymptotic decay ratio using only the naturally occurring neutron noise and it is based on the univariate autoregressive methodology. (author)

  15. Real-time personal dose measurement and management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Cheng Chang; Liu Zhengshan; Yang Huating; Deng Changming; Zhang Xiu; Guo Zhanjie

    2001-01-01

    The composition and design of a real-time personal dose measurement and management system are described. Accordingly, some pertinent hardware circuits and software codes including their operation modes are presented

  16. Proceedings Norwegian-Polish Seminar on Measures to Reduce the Pollution of the Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The report presents papers presented at the Norwegian-Polish Seminar on Measures to Reduce the Pollution of the Environment held in Oslo on the 25th August 1998. The report contains also a chairman report on discussions during the meeting. (Author)

  17. An assessment of available measures to reduce traction energy use in railway networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, Heather; Roberts, Clive; Hillmansen, Stuart; Schmid, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Railway networks are defined in terms of their distinguishing features. • Current energy saving measures are reviewed and categorised by the energy use they target. • The achievable energy savings of different measures are compared dependent on the network type. • The success of a measure depends on the characteristics of the network, vehicle and service. • Measures should be evaluated at system level due to interdependencies. - Abstract: Rail is becoming an increasingly popular choice to satisfy transportation demands locally, nationally and internationally, due to its inherent efficiency and high capacity. Despite this, operators are facing pressure to reduce rail energy consumption to meet efficiency targets, whilst still maintaining service quality and managing increased demand. A number of individual measures have been proposed to reduce energy in the rail sector, often showing good results on specific case studies. It is generally agreed that the attainable savings of a given measure change dependant on the route, vehicle and service characteristics. However, there is little information in the literature specifically regarding which measures are most suitable for given network types, or how they interact. This paper therefore aims to begin evaluating the available measures in terms of their suitability for different systems. Firstly, networks are defined in terms of their distinguishing features. As traction accounts for the majority of all energy use in the rail sector, the traction flow through a vehicle is considered as the starting point for an evaluation of measures. Current technologies and procedures are reviewed and categorised based on which area of traction use they target. Thought is given to the factors that affect implementation and the networks where they are applied. A key output of this paper is a comparison of the achievable energy savings of different measures dependent on the network type. It is hoped that this will

  18. Coherence measures in automatic time-migration velocity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, Jonathas S; Costa, Jessé C; Schleicher, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    Time-migration velocity analysis can be carried out automatically by evaluating the coherence of migrated seismic events in common-image gathers (CIGs). The performance of gradient methods for automatic time-migration velocity analysis depends on the coherence measures used as the objective function. We compare the results of four different coherence measures, being conventional semblance, differential semblance, an extended differential semblance using differences of more distant image traces and the product of the latter with conventional semblance. In our numerical experiments, the objective functions based on conventional semblance and on the product of conventional semblance with extended differential semblance provided the best velocity models, as evaluated by the flatness of the resulting CIGs. The method can be easily extended to anisotropic media. (paper)

  19. Does spending time outdoors reduce stress? A review of real-time stress response to outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Sara F. Jacoby; Eugenia C. South

    2018-01-01

    Everyday environmental conditions impact human health. One mechanism underlying this relationship is the experience of stress. Through systematic review of published literature, we explore how stress has been measured in real-time non-laboratory studies of stress responses to deliberate exposure to outdoor environments. The types of exposures evaluated in this review...

  20. Accuracy, reproducibility, and time efficiency of dental measurements using different technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünheid, Thorsten; Patel, Nishant; De Felippe, Nanci L; Wey, Andrew; Gaillard, Philippe R; Larson, Brent E

    2014-02-01

    Historically, orthodontists have taken dental measurements on plaster models. Technological advances now allow orthodontists to take these measurements on digital models. In this study, we aimed to assess the accuracy, reproducibility, and time efficiency of dental measurements taken on 3 types of digital models. emodels (GeoDigm, Falcon Heights, Minn), SureSmile models (OraMetrix, Richardson, Tex), and AnatoModels (Anatomage, San Jose, Calif) were made for 30 patients. Mesiodistal tooth-width measurements taken on these digital models were timed and compared with those on the corresponding plaster models, which were used as the gold standard. Accuracy and reproducibility were assessed using the Bland-Altman method. Differences in time efficiency were tested for statistical significance with 1-way analysis of variance. Measurements on SureSmile models were the most accurate, followed by those on emodels and AnatoModels. Measurements taken on SureSmile models were also the most reproducible. Measurements taken on SureSmile models and emodels were significantly faster than those taken on AnatoModels and plaster models. Tooth-width measurements on digital models can be as accurate as, and might be more reproducible and significantly faster than, those taken on plaster models. Of the models studied, the SureSmile models provided the best combination of accuracy, reproducibility, and time efficiency of measurement. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goharian M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient′s breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore™ (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management™ (RPM system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL ′X-Ray ON′ status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL ′X-Ray ON′ indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 ± 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for

  2. Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goharian, M.; Khan, R.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient's breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL) 'X-Ray ON' status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL 'X-Ray ON' indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle) a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 ± 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for the treatment delivery

  3. Effectiveness of employer financial incentives in reducing time to report worker injury: an interrupted time series study of two Australian workers' compensation jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Tyler J; Gray, Shannon; Hassani-Mahmooei, Behrooz; Collie, Alex

    2018-01-05

    Early intervention following occupational injury can improve health outcomes and reduce the duration and cost of workers' compensation claims. Financial early reporting incentives (ERIs) for employers may shorten the time between injury and access to compensation benefits and services. We examined ERI effect on time spent in the claim lodgement process in two Australian states: South Australia (SA), which introduced them in January 2009, and Tasmania (TAS), which introduced them in July 2010. Using administrative records of 1.47 million claims lodged between July 2006 and June 2012, we conducted an interrupted time series study of ERI impact on monthly median days in the claim lodgement process. Time periods included claim reporting, insurer decision, and total time. The 18-month gap in implementation between the states allowed for a multiple baseline design. In SA, we analysed periods within claim reporting: worker and employer reporting times (similar data were not available in TAS). To account for external threats to validity, we examined impact in reference to a comparator of other Australian workers' compensation jurisdictions. Total time in the process did not immediately change, though trend significantly decreased in both jurisdictions (SA: -0.36 days per month, 95% CI -0.63 to -0.09; TAS: 0.35, -0.50 to -0.20). Claim reporting time also decreased in both (SA: -1.6 days, -2.4 to -0.8; TAS: -5.4, -7.4 to -3.3). In TAS, there was a significant increase in insurer decision time (4.6, 3.9 to 5.4) and a similar but non-significant pattern in SA. In SA, worker reporting time significantly decreased (-4.7, -5.8 to -3.5), but employer reporting time did not (-0.3, -0.8 to 0.2). The results suggest that ERIs reduced claim lodgement time and, in the long-term, reduced total time in the claim lodgement process. However, only worker reporting time significantly decreased in SA, indicating that ERIs may not have shortened the process through the intended target of

  4. Direct night-time ejection of particle-phase reduced biogenic sulfur compounds from the ocean to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Cassandra J; Furutani, Hiroshi; Guazzotti, Sergio A; Coffee, Keith R; Jung, Jinyoung; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Prather, Kimberly A

    2015-04-21

    The influence of oceanic biological activity on sea spray aerosol composition, clouds, and climate remains poorly understood. The emission of organic material and gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from the ocean represents well-documented biogenic processes that influence particle chemistry in marine environments. However, the direct emission of particle-phase biogenic sulfur from the ocean remains largely unexplored. Here we present measurements of ocean-derived particles containing reduced sulfur, detected as elemental sulfur ions (e.g., (32)S(+), (64)S2(+)), in seven different marine environments using real-time, single particle mass spectrometry; these particles have not been detected outside of the marine environment. These reduced sulfur compounds were associated with primary marine particle types and wind speeds typically between 5 and 10 m/s suggesting that these particles themselves are a primary emission. In studies with measurements of seawater properties, chlorophyll-a and atmospheric DMS concentrations were typically elevated in these same locations suggesting a biogenic source for these sulfur-containing particles. Interestingly, these sulfur-containing particles only appeared at night, likely due to rapid photochemical destruction during the daytime, and comprised up to ∼67% of the aerosol number fraction, particularly in the supermicrometer size range. These sulfur-containing particles were detected along the California coast, across the Pacific Ocean, and in the southern Indian Ocean suggesting that these particles represent a globally significant biogenic contribution to the marine aerosol burden.

  5. Use of Six Sigma Methodology to Reduce Appointment Lead-Time in Obstetrics Outpatient Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Barrios, Miguel A; Felizzola Jiménez, Heriberto

    2016-10-01

    This paper focuses on the issue of longer appointment lead-time in the obstetrics outpatient department of a maternal-child hospital in Colombia. Because of extended appointment lead-time, women with high-risk pregnancy could develop severe complications in their health status and put their babies at risk. This problem was detected through a project selection process explained in this article and to solve it, Six Sigma methodology has been used. First, the process was defined through a SIPOC diagram to identify its input and output variables. Second, six sigma performance indicators were calculated to establish the process baseline. Then, a fishbone diagram was used to determine the possible causes of the problem. These causes were validated with the aid of correlation analysis and other statistical tools. Later, improvement strategies were designed to reduce appointment lead-time in this department. Project results evidenced that average appointment lead-time reduced from 6,89 days to 4,08 days and the deviation standard dropped from 1,57 days to 1,24 days. In this way, the hospital will serve pregnant women faster, which represents a risk reduction of perinatal and maternal mortality.

  6. Measuring time and risk preferences: Reliability, stability, domain specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wölbert, E.M.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To accurately predict behavior economists need reliable measures of individual time preferences and attitudes toward risk and typically need to assume stability of these characteristics over time and across decision domains. We test the reliability of two choice tasks for eliciting discount rates,

  7. Controlling spark timing for consecutive cycles to reduce the cyclic variations of SI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleli, Alirıza; Ceviz, Mehmet Akif; Erenturk, Köksal

    2015-01-01

    Minimization of the cyclic variations is one of the most important design goal for spark-ignited engines. Primary motivation of this study is to reduce the cyclic variations in spark ignition engines by controlling the spark timing for consecutive cycles. A stochastic model was performed between spark timing and in–cylinder maximum pressure by using the system identification techniques. The incylinder maximum pressure of the next cycle was predicted with this model. Minimum variance and generalized minimum variance controllers were designed to regulate the in–cylinder maximum pressure by changing the spark timing for consecutive cycles of the test engine. The produced control algorithms were built in LabView environment and installed to the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) chassis. According to the test results, the in–cylinder maximum pressure of the next pressure cycle can be predicted fairly well, and the spark timing can be regulated to keep the in–cylinder maximum pressure in a desired band to reduce the cyclic variations. At fixed spark timing experiments, the COV Pmax and COV imep were 3.764 and 0.677%, whereas they decreased to 3.208 and 0.533% when GMV controller was applied, respectively. - Highlights: • Cycle per cycle spark timing control was carried out. • A stochastic process model was described between P max and the spark timing. • The cyclic variations in P max was decreased by keeping it in a desired band. • Different controllers were used to adjust spark timing signal of the next cycle. • COV Pmax was decreased by about 15% by using GMV controller

  8. Accuracy of single photoelectron time spread measurement of fast photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1975-01-01

    The accuracy of time spread measurements of fast photomultipliers was investigated, using single photoelectrons. The effect of the finite light pulse width on the measurement accuracy was determined and discussed. Experimental data were obtained on a special measuring system for light pulse widths ranging from 200 psec to 10 nsec, using fast photomultipliers 8850 and C31024 with optimized operating conditions for minimum transit time spread. A modified exponential function expression and curve-fitting parameters are given, which fit closely the experimentally obtained data over a wide dynamic range of light pulse widths. (U.S.)

  9. Real-Time 3D Profile Measurement Using Structured Light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L; Zhang, Z J; Ma, H; Yu, Y J

    2006-01-01

    The paper builds a real-time system of 3D profile measurement using structured-light imaging. It allows a hand-held object to rotate free in the space-time coded light field, which is projected by the projector. The surface of measured objects with projected coded light is imaged; the system shows surface reconstruction results of objects online. This feedback helps user to adjust object's pose in the light field according to the dismissed or error data, which would achieve the integrality of data used in reconstruction. This method can acquire denser data cloud and have higher reconstruction accuracy and efficiency. According to the real-time requirements, the paper presents the non-restricted light plane modelling which suits stripe structured light system, designs the three-frame stripes space-time coded pattern, and uses the advance ICP algorithms to acquire 3D data alignment from multiple view

  10. Solution of resource allocation problem for identification of cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.; Kuptsov, I.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents a methodology of selection of cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks. The methodology relies on a graded security model used in practice in different applications. The method is based on the controlled finite Markov chain approach set in combination with discrete dynamic programming and MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making) techniques that enables the expert to select the cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks depending on availability of resources. The analysis performed with different number of possible measures confirms the conclusions that the implementation of extra-large costs may not produce the required effect, and the increase in resources above a certain level does not appear sensitive. Diversification in improving the effectiveness of other measures seems more rational and efficient for the whole system than the unlimited improvement of the effectiveness of only one measure

  11. Solution of resource allocation problem for identification of cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrianov, A.; Kuptsov, I. [Obninsk Institute for Nuclear Power Engineering, Studgorodok 1, Obninsk, Kaluga region 249030 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    This report presents a methodology of selection of cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks. The methodology relies on a graded security model used in practice in different applications. The method is based on the controlled finite Markov chain approach set in combination with discrete dynamic programming and MCDM (Multi Criteria Decision Making) techniques that enables the expert to select the cost-effective measures to reduce nuclear proliferation risks depending on availability of resources. The analysis performed with different number of possible measures confirms the conclusions that the implementation of extra-large costs may not produce the required effect, and the increase in resources above a certain level does not appear sensitive. Diversification in improving the effectiveness of other measures seems more rational and efficient for the whole system than the unlimited improvement of the effectiveness of only one measure.

  12. Human factors related to time-dependent infection control measures: "Scrub the hub" for venous catheters and feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspari, Lindsay; Epstein, Elizabeth; Blackman, Amy; Jin, Li; Kaufman, David A

    2017-06-01

    The use of catheter hub decontamination protocols is a common practice to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections. However, few data exist on the most effective disinfection procedure prior to hub access accounting for human factors and time-dependent practices in real time in the clinical setting. An observational design with a multimodal intervention was used in this study in a neonatal intensive care unit. Direct observations on nurse compliance of scrub times with decontamination when accessing of venous catheter and feeding tube hubs were conducted during 3 phases: (1) baseline period prior to any interventions; (2) during an educational intervention phase; and (3) during a timer intervention period when using a timing device, either an actual timer or music button. Overall, both education and the timing device interventions increased the mean scrub time ± SD of venous catheter hubs. Mean baseline scrub times of 10 ± 5 seconds were lower compared with 23 ± 12 seconds after educational intervention (P music button use (P observed with scrub times of feeding tubes. Time-based infection control measures, such as scrubbing the hub, must be implemented with aids that qualify specific times to account for human factors, to ensure adherence to time-dependent measures aimed at decreasing nosocomial infections. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Time-resolved and doppler-reduced laser spectroscopy on atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, H.

    1991-10-01

    Radiative lifetimes have been studied in neutral boron, carbon, silicon and strontium, in singly ionized gadolinium and tantalum and in molecular carbon monoxide and C 2 . The time-resolved techniques were based either on pulsed lasers or pulse-modulated CW lasers. Several techniques have been utilized for the production of free atoms and ions such as evaporation into an atomic beam, sputtering in hollow cathodes and laser-produced plasmas. Hyperfine interactions in boron, copper and strontium have been examined using quantum beat spectroscopy, saturation spectroscopy and collimated atomic beam spectroscopy. Measurement techniques based on effusive hollow cathodes as well as laser produced plasmas in atomic physics have been developed. Investigations on laser produced plasmas using two colour beam deflection tomography for determination of electron densities have been performed. Finally, new possibilities for view-time-expansion in light-in-flight holography using mode-locked CW lasers have been demonstrated. (au)

  14. Time-dependent occupation numbers in reduced-density-matrix-functional theory: Application to an interacting Landau-Zener model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Requist, Ryan; Pankratov, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    We prove that if the two-body terms in the equation of motion for the one-body reduced density matrix are approximated by ground-state functionals, the eigenvalues of the one-body reduced density matrix (occupation numbers) remain constant in time. This deficiency is related to the inability of such an approximation to account for relative phases in the two-body reduced density matrix. We derive an exact differential equation giving the functional dependence of these phases in an interacting Landau-Zener model and study their behavior in short- and long-time regimes. The phases undergo resonances whenever the occupation numbers approach the boundaries of the interval [0,1]. In the long-time regime, the occupation numbers display correlation-induced oscillations and the memory dependence of the functionals assumes a simple form.

  15. History of measures taken to reduce radiation exposure at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondou, Masashi; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Yabushita, Kazuo; Dekijima, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station currently has five reactors, Units 1 to 5. Units 1 and 2 halted commercial operation in January 2009 and are now being prepared for decommissioning. Units 3 to 5 are operating at the rated thermal output with the gross electrical output of 3504 MWe. Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station has been operating for about 30 years since Unit 1 started up in 1976. Various measures have been taken to control water chemistry: for controlling SCC in the core internals and structural materials, hydrogen injection and noble metal injection were implemented; and to reduce radiation exposure for workers, condensate filter demineralizers were added, hollow fiber filters and pleated filters were installed in the condensate cleanup system, and zinc injection was performed. This paper describes measures taken at Hamaoka to reduce exposure in terms of water chemistry and techniques to monitor ion impurities in the reactor water. (author)

  16. Measurement of 14C time scale of the rings of a tree by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Hirotaka; Furukawa, Michiaki; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Akiko; Nakamura, Toshio.

    1996-01-01

    14 C time scale is different from a histrical data in order that it is calculated by assuming that the concentration of 14 C in the sample has not been changed by age. The object of this work is to make clear the errors in measurement of 14 C time scale of the ring of a tree known the tree age. The every year ring of a Hinoki in Kiso, 950 years old, was used as a sample. The most external ring is determined as 1923 years old on the basis of the dendrochronology. The rings after 1120 years were used as the samples. α-cellulose, the most stable component in the structural components of cell of tree, was prepared from each ring. About 8 mg of α-cellulose was reduced to graphite to be measured by the tandem thoron analytic meter. The results obtained showed that 14 C time scale was older than that of the histrical data in the twelfth and thirteenth century, but it was more new than that of the histrical data from the late seventeenth to the middle of eighteenth century. The results were agreement with that of Stuiver and Pearson (1933). (S.Y.)

  17. Measuring the corrosion rate of steel in concrete – effect of measurement technique, polarisation time and current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Peter Vagn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2012-01-01

    , are in some studies considered the main reasons for the variations. This paper presents an experimental study on the quantitative effect of polarisation time and current on the measured polarisation resistance – and thus the corrosion current density – of passively and actively corroding steel. Two...... electrochemical techniques often used in instruments for on-site corrosion rate measurements are investigated. On passively corroding reinforcement the measured polarisation resistance was for both techniques found to be highly affected by the polarisation time and current and no plateaus at either short or long...... rate for actively corroding steel. For both techniques guidelines for polarisation times and currents are given for (on-site) non-destructive corrosion rate measurements on reinforcement steel in concrete....

  18. Energy supply measures to reduce regional carbon intensity: opportunities and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McEvoy, D.; Gibbs, D.C.; Longhurst, J.W.S. [University of Hull, Hull (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geography

    1998-07-01

    The perceived threat of `enhanced` global warming has become a widespread public concern since the late 1980s, with the balance of informed opinion urging world-wide collaboration on combating the causes of global warming. The increasingly globalised status of the majority of late twentieth century economies ensures that remedial action will ultimately require a degree of international cooperation. Although the formulation of environmentally friendly energy policies, including carbon reduction strategies, can be framed at international and national levels, recent trends are for CO{sub 2} reduction measures to be instigated by regional, or local, authorities. This paper focuses on the city-region of Greater Manchester, UK, and reviews both existing and potential energy supply options for reducing regional CO{sub 2} emissions, highlighting the benefits and obstacles facing carbon reduction measures implemented at a `local` scale. Mitigation action at this level is considered desirable as remedial measures have most chance of success when accompanied by the supportive involvement of local people. 73 refs.

  19. Measuring the value of process improvement initiatives in a preoperative assessment center using time-driven activity-based costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Katy E; Albright, Heidi W; Frenzel, John C; Incalcaterra, James R; Rubio, Augustin C; Jones, Jessica F; Feeley, Thomas W

    2013-12-01

    The value and impact of process improvement initiatives are difficult to quantify. We describe the use of time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) in a clinical setting to quantify the value of process improvements in terms of cost, time and personnel resources. Difficulty in identifying and measuring the cost savings of process improvement initiatives in a Preoperative Assessment Center (PAC). Use TDABC to measure the value of process improvement initiatives that reduce the costs of performing a preoperative assessment while maintaining the quality of the assessment. Apply the principles of TDABC in a PAC to measure the value, from baseline, of two phases of performance improvement initiatives and determine the impact of each implementation in terms of cost, time and efficiency. Through two rounds of performance improvements, we quantified an overall reduction in time spent by patient and personnel of 33% that resulted in a 46% reduction in the costs of providing care in the center. The performance improvements resulted in a 17% decrease in the total number of full time equivalents (FTE's) needed to staff the center and a 19% increase in the numbers of patients assessed in the center. Quality of care, as assessed by the rate of cancellations on the day of surgery, was not adversely impacted by the process improvements. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A Time-Measurement System Based on Isotopic Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Duc T.; Karpius, P.J.; MacArthur, D.W.; Thron, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    A time-measurement system can be built based on the ratio of gamma-ray peak intensities from two radioactive isotopes. The ideal system would use a parent isotope with a short half-life decaying to a long half-life daughter. The activities of the parent-daughter isotopes would be measured using a gamma-ray detector system. The time can then be determined from the ratio of the activities. The best-known candidate for such a system is the 241 Pu- 241 Am parent-daughter pair. However, this 241 Pu- 241 Am system would require a high-purity germanium detector system and sophisticated software to separate and distinguish between the many gamma-ray peaks produced by the decays of the two isotopes. An alternate system would use two different isotopes, again one with a short half-life and one with a half-life that is long relative to the other. The pair of isotopes 210 Pb and 241 Am (with half-lives of 22 and 432 years, respectively) appears suitable for such a system. This time-measurement system operates by measuring the change in the ratio of the 47-keV peak of 210 Pb to the 60-keV peak of 241 Am. For the system to work reasonably well, the resolution of the detector would need to be such that the two gamma-ray peaks are well separated so that their peak areas can be accurately determined using a simple region-of-interest (ROI) method. A variety of detectors were tested to find a suitable system for this application. The results of these tests are presented here.

  1. Biofeedback effectiveness to reduce upper limb muscle activity during computer work is muscle specific and time pressure dependent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Pernille; Søgaard, Karen; Blangsted, Anne Katrine

    2011-01-01

    trapezius (TRA) can reduce bilateral TRA activity but not extensor digitorum communis (EDC) activity; (2) biofeedback from EDC can reduce activity in EDC but not in TRA; (3) biofeedback is more effective in no time constraint than in the time constraint working condition. Eleven healthy women performed......Continuous electromyographic (EMG) activity level is considered a risk factor in developing muscle disorders. EMG biofeedback is known to be useful in reducing EMG activity in working muscles during computer work. The purpose was to test the following hypotheses: (1) unilateral biofeedback from...... computer work during two different working conditions (time constraint/no time constraint) while receiving biofeedback. Biofeedback was given from right TRA or EDC through two modes (visual/auditory) by the use of EMG or mechanomyography as biofeedback source. During control sessions (no biofeedback), EMG...

  2. Optimal testing input sets for reduced diagnosis time of nuclear power plant digital electronic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.S.; Seong, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the optimal testing input sets required for the fault diagnosis of the nuclear power plant digital electronic circuits. With the complicated systems such as very large scale integration (VLSI), nuclear power plant (NPP), and aircraft, testing is the major factor of the maintenance of the system. Particularly, diagnosis time grows quickly with the complexity of the component. In this research, for reduce diagnosis time the authors derived the optimal testing sets that are the minimal testing sets required for detecting the failure and for locating of the failed component. For reduced diagnosis time, the technique presented by Hayes fits best for the approach to testing sets generation among many conventional methods. However, this method has the following disadvantages: (a) it considers only the simple network (b) it concerns only whether the system is in failed state or not and does not provide the way to locate the failed component. Therefore the authors have derived the optimal testing input sets that resolve these problems by Hayes while preserving its advantages. When they applied the optimal testing sets to the automatic fault diagnosis system (AFDS) which incorporates the advanced fault diagnosis method of artificial intelligence technique, they found that the fault diagnosis using the optimal testing sets makes testing the digital electronic circuits much faster than that using exhaustive testing input sets; when they applied them to test the Universal (UV) Card which is a nuclear power plant digital input/output solid state protection system card, they reduced the testing time up to about 100 times

  3. Simultaneous specimen current and time-dependent cathodoluminescence measurements on gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, E. M., E-mail: e.campo@bangor.ac.uk; Hopkins, L. [School of Electronic Engineering, Bangor University, Gwynedd LL57 1UT (United Kingdom); Pophristic, M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of the Science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Ferguson, I. T. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, Missouri 65409 (United States)

    2016-06-28

    Time-dependent cathodoluminescence (CL) and specimen current (SC) are monitored to evaluate trapping behavior and evolution of charge storage. Examination of CL and SC suggests that the near band edge emission in GaN is reduced primarily by the activation of traps upon irradiation, and Gallium vacancies are prime candidates. At the steady state, measurement of the stored charge by empiric-analytical methods suggests that all available traps within the interaction volume have been filled, and that additional charge is being stored interstitially, necessarily beyond the interaction volume. Once established, the space charge region is responsible for the steady state CL emission and, prior to build up, it is responsible for the generation of diffusion currents. Since the non-recombination effects resulting from diffusion currents that develop early on are analogous to those leading to device failure upon aging, this study is fundamental toward a holistic insight into optical properties in GaN.

  4. Measuring the opportunity loss of time spent boarding admitted patients in the emergency department: a multihospital analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Raymond; Farley, Heather; Twanmoh, Joseph; Urumov, Andrej; Evans, Bruce; Olsen, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) crowding is an international crisis affecting the timeliness and quality of patient care. Boarding of admitted patients in the ED is recognized as a major contributor to ED crowding. The opportunity loss of this time is the benefit or value it could produce if it were used for something else. In crowded EDs, the typical alternative use of this time is to treat patients waiting to be seen. Various ED performance benchmarks related to inpatient boarding have been proposed, but they are not commonly reported and have yet to be evaluated to determine whether they correlate with the opportunity loss of time used for boarding. This study quantified several measures of ED boarding in a variety of hospital settings and looked for correlations between them and the opportunity loss of the time spent on boarding. In particular, average boarding time per admission was found to be easy to measure. Results revealed that it had a near-perfect linear correlation with opportunity loss. The opportunity loss of every 30 minutes of average boarding time equaled the time required to see 3.5 percent of the ED's daily census. For busy hospitals, the opportunity loss allowed sufficient time for staff to be able to see up to 36 additional patients per day. This correlation suggests that average boarding time per admission may be useful in evaluating efforts to reduce ED crowding and improve patient care.

  5. In reactor measurements, modeling and assessments to predict liquid injection shutdown system nozzle to Calandria tube time to contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirstein, K.; Kalenchuk, D.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few years there has been an expanding effort to assess the potential for Calandria Tubes (CTs) coming into contact with Liquid Injection Shutdown System (LISS) Nozzles to ensure continued contact-free operation as required by CSA N285.4. LISS Nozzles (LINs), which run perpendicular to and between rows of fuel channels, sag at a slower rate than the fuel channels. As a result certain LINs may come in contact with CTs above them. The CT/LIN gaps can be predicted from calculated CT sag, LIN sag and a number of component and installation tolerances. This method however results in very conservative predictions when compared to measurements, confirmed with the in reactor measurements initiated in 2000, when gaps were successfully measured the first time using images obtained from a camera-assisted measurement tool inserted into the calandria. To reduce the conservatism of the CT/LIN gap predictions, statistical CT/LIN gap models are used instead. They are derived from a comparison between calculated gaps based on nominal dimensions and the visual image based measured gaps. These reactor specific (typically 95% confidence level) CT/LIN gap models account for all uncertainties and deviations from nominal values. Prediction error margins reduce as more in-reactor gap measurements become available. Each year more measurements are being made using this standardized visual CT/LIN proximity method. The subsequently prepared reactor-specific models have been used to provide time to contact for every channel above the LINs at these stations. In a number of cases it has been used to demonstrate that the reactor can be operated to its end of life before refurbishment with no predicted contact, or specific at-risk channels have been identified for which appropriate remedial actions could be implemented in a planned manner. (author)

  6. Directly acting spring loaded safety valves as shock reducing measure; Direkt wirkende, federbelastete Sicherheitsventile als Druckstossreduzierende Massnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismaier, A.; Schluecker, E. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Prozessmaschinen und Anlagentechnik (IPAT)

    2010-05-15

    Hydraulic shocks as induced by fast closure of armatures or by sudden pump failures are massive impacts in piping systems and require extensive measures to absorb the generated load. Basically the avoidance of water hammers are preferable but in case of emergency shutdowns unavoidable hydraulic shocks have to be reduced by appropriate measures. The authors describe experiments with spring loaded safety valves as shock reducing measures. It was shown that the vale dimensions is essential for the efficacy. A realistic modeling is possible using the one-dimensional fluid mechanics code ROLAST.

  7. Cooperative measures to support the Indo-Pak Agreement Reducing Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Sitakanta [Centre for Air Power Studies, New Delhi (India); Ahmed, Mansoor [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-04-01

    In 2012, India and Pakistan reaffirmed the Agreement on Reducing the Risk from Accidents Relating to Nuclear Weapons. Despite a history of mutual animosity and persistent conflict between the two countries, this agreement derives strength from a few successful nuclear confidence building measures that have stood the test of time. It also rests on the hope that the region would be spared a nuclear holocaust from an accidental nuclear weapon detonation that might be misconstrued as a deliberate use of a weapon by the other side. This study brings together two emerging strategic analysts from South Asia to explore measures to support the Agreement and further develop cooperation around this critical issue. This study briefly dwells upon the strategic landscape of nuclear South Asia with the respective nuclear force management structures, doctrines, and postures of India and Pakistan. It outlines the measures in place for the physical protection and safety of nuclear warheads, nuclear materials, and command and control mechanisms in the two countries, and it goes on to identify the prominent, emerging challenges posed by the introduction of new weapon technologies and modernization of the respective strategic forces. This is followed by an analysis of the agreement itself leading up to a proposed framework for cooperative measures that might enhance the spirit and implementation of the agreement.

  8. Influence of Sensor Ingestion Timing on Consistency of Temperature Measures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goodman, Daniel A; Kenefick, Robert W; Cadarette, Bruce S; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2009-01-01

    ... (ITS) to measure core body temperature have been demonstrated. However, the effect of elapsed time between ITS ingestion and Tint measurement has not been thoroughly studied. Methods: Eight volunteers...

  9. Apparatus for Measurements of Time and Space Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Alexandre; Gaviglio, J; Dumas, R

    1955-01-01

    A brief review is made of improvements to an experimental apparatus for time and space correlation designed for study of turbulence. Included is a description of the control of the measurements and a few particular applications.

  10. Using environmental tracers to determine the relative importance of travel times in the unsaturated and saturated zones for the delay of nitrate reduction measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Christoph; Purtschert, Roland; Hunkeler, Daniel; Hug, Rainer; Sültenfuss, Jürgen

    2018-06-01

    Groundwater quality in many regions with intense agriculture has deteriorated due to the leaching of nitrate and other agricultural pollutants. Modified agricultural practices can reduce the input of nitrate to groundwater bodies, but it is crucial to determine the time span over which these measures become effective at reducing nitrate levels in pumping wells. Such estimates can be obtained from hydrogeological modeling or lumped-parameter models (LPM) in combination with environmental tracer data. Two challenges in such tracer-based estimates are (i) accounting for the different modes of transport in the unsaturated zone (USZ), and (ii) assessing uncertainties. Here we extend a recently published Bayesian inference scheme for simple LPMs to include an explicit USZ model and apply it to the Dünnerngäu aquifer, Switzerland. Compared to a previous estimate of travel times in the aquifer based on a 2D hydrogeological model, our approach provides a more accurate assessment of the dynamics of nitrate concentrations in the aquifer. We find that including tracer measurements (3H/3He, 85Kr, 39Ar, 4He) reduces uncertainty in nitrate predictions if nitrate time series at wells are not available or short, but does not necessarily lead to better predictions if long nitrate time series are available. Additionally, the combination of tracer data with nitrate time series allows for a separation of the travel times in the unsaturated and saturated zone.

  11. Real-time scatter measurement and correction in film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    A technique for real-time scatter measurement and correction in scanning film radiography is described. With this technique, collimated x-ray fan beams are used to partially reject scattered radiation. Photodiodes are attached to the aft-collimator for sampled scatter measurement. Such measurement allows the scatter distribution to be reconstructed and subtracted from digitized film image data for accurate transmission measurement. In this presentation the authors discuss the physical and technical considerations of this scatter correction technique. Examples are shown that demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Improved x-ray transmission measurement and dual-energy subtraction imaging are demonstrated with phantoms

  12. Time-of-flight measurement in the DZero Central Fiber Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juan Estrada

    2003-01-01

    We continue evaluation of the new electronics developed for the Central Fiber Tracker and Preshower detectors. With the custom TriP chip and MCM II we have measured the position of the hits along the fiber by comparing the time of arrival of the photons at the VLPC with the expected timing relative to the beam. The measured rms resolution at the center of the fibers is 46cm for hits with more than 8 photo-electrons and is dominated by the statistics of photon arrival time. The corresponding resolution near the ends of the fibers (where more photoelectrons are collected) is calculated to be of order 27cm. With a second submission of the TriP chip to add the time-of-flight measuring capability we will effectively double the number of channels in the central fiber tracker. This capability will increase the maximum luminosity at which D0 can do tracking from ∼ 100 · 10 30 cm -2 s -1 to ∼ 200 · 10 30 cm -2 s -1 (at a bench mark tracking specification). The cost of replacing the electronics is of order $500K and the necessary lead time is 1.5 years

  13. Time-resolved measurement of the quantum states of photons using two-photon interference with short-time reference pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Changliang; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2011-01-01

    To fully utilize the energy-time degree of freedom of photons for optical quantum-information processes, it is necessary to control and characterize the temporal quantum states of the photons at extremely short time scales. For measurements of the temporal coherence of the quantum states beyond the time resolution of available detectors, two-photon interference with a photon in a short-time reference pulse may be a viable alternative. In this paper, we derive the temporal measurement operators for the bunching statistics of a single-photon input state with a photon from a weak coherent reference pulse. It is shown that the effects of the pulse shape of the reference pulse can be expressed in terms of a spectral filter selecting the bandwidth within which the measurement can be treated as an ideal projection on eigenstates of time. For full quantum tomography, temporal coherence can be determined by using superpositions of reference pulses at two different times. Moreover, energy-time entanglement can be evaluated based on the two-by-two entanglement observed in the coherences between pairs of detection times.

  14. Can increasing adult vaccination rates reduce lost time and increase productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittle, Chad

    2014-12-01

    This article addresses limited vaccination coverage by providing an overview of the epidemiology of influenza, pertussis, and pneumonia, and the impact these diseases have on work attendance for the worker, the worker's family, and employer profit. Studies focused on the cost of vaccination programs, lost work time, lost employee productivity and acute disease treatment are discussed, as well as strategies for increasing vaccination coverage to reduce overall health care costs for employers. Communicating the benefits of universal vaccination for employees and their families and combating vaccine misinformation among employees are outlined. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Time-dependent measurements of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Gligorov, Vladimir Vava

    2011-01-01

    The startup of the LHC opens many new frontiers in precision flavour physics, in particular expanding the field of precision time-dependent CP violation measurements to the $B^0_s$ system. This contribution reviews the status of time-dependent measurements of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ at the LHC's dedicated flavour physics experiment, LHCb. Particular attention is given to the measurement of $\\gamma$ from the decay mode $B^0_s \\to D^{\\pm}_s K^{\\mp}$, a theoretically clean and precise method which is unique to LHCb. The performance of the LHCb detector for this and related modes is reviewed in light of early data taking and found to be close to the nominal simulation performance, and the outlook for these measurements in 2011 is briefly touched on.

  16. Surgical management of secondary hyperparathyroidism: how to effectively reduce recurrence at the time of primary surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D; Yin, Y; Hou, L; Dai, W

    2016-05-01

    Successful parathyroidectomy (PTX) often results in a dramatic drop in the parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels, relieves the patient from clinical symptoms, and reduces mortality. Although PTX is generally a successful treatment for progressive secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) patients subjected to surgery, a significant proportion develops recurrent SHPT following PTX. SHPT requiring PTX occurs more commonly in progressive chronic kidney disease and in long-term lithium therapy. Operative approaches include subtotal PTX, total PTX with or without autotransplantation, and possible thymectomy. Each approach has its proponents, advantages, and disadvantages. Although PTX offers the highest percentage cure for SHPT, compared to all other medical and surgical treatment, recurrent hyperparathyroidism can be observed in some patients dependent on follow-up time. A literature review and analysis of recent data regarding how to reduce recurrence of SHPT at the time of primary surgery was performed. The current literature and our own experience in the field have confirmed that pre-operative imaging, thymectomy, stereo magnifier, and surgical procedure may effectively reduce recurrence of SHPT at the time of primary surgery.

  17. USING CENTER HOLE HEAT TRANSFER TO REDUCE FORMATION TIMES FOR CERAMIC WASTE FORMS FROM PYROPROCESSING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth J. Bateman; Charles W. Solbrig

    2006-01-01

    The waste produced from processing spent fuel from the EBR II reactor must be processed into a waste form suitable for long term storage in Yucca Mountain. The method chosen produces zeolite granules mixed with glass frit, which must then be converted into a solid. This is accomplished by loading it into a can and heating to 900 C in a furnace regulated at 915 C. During heatup to 900 C, the zeolite and glass frit react and consolidate to produce a sodalite monolith. The resultant ceramic waste form (CWF) is then cooled. The waste is 52 cm in diameter and initially 300 cm long but consolidates to 150 cm long during the heating process. After cooling it is then inserted in a 5-DHLW/DOE SNF Long Canister. Without intervention, the waste takes 82 hours to heat up to 900 C in a furnace designed to geometrically fit the cylindrical waste form. This paper investigates the reduction in heating times possible with four different methods of additional heating through a center hole. The hole size is kept small to maximize the amount of CWF that is processed in a single run. A hole radius of 1.82 cm was selected which removes only 1% of the CWF. A reference computation was done with a specified inner hole surface temperature of 915 C to provide a benchmark for the amount of improvement which can be made. It showed that the heatup time can potentially be reduced to 43 hours with center hole heating. The first method, simply pouring high temperature liquid aluminum into the hole, did not produce any noticeable effect on reducing heat up times. The second method, flowing liquid aluminum through the hole, works well as long as the velocity is high enough (2.5 cm/sec) to prevent solidification of the aluminum during the initial front movement of the aluminum into the center hole. The velocity can be reduced to 1 cm/sec after the initial front has traversed the ceramic. This procedure reduces the formation time to near that of the reference case. The third method, flowing a gas

  18. Bessel function expansion to reduce the calculation time and memory usage for cylindrical computer-generated holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Yusuke; Barada, Daisuke; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Yatagai, Toyohiko

    2017-07-10

    This study proposes a method to reduce the calculation time and memory usage required for calculating cylindrical computer-generated holograms. The wavefront on the cylindrical observation surface is represented as a convolution integral in the 3D Fourier domain. The Fourier transformation of the kernel function involving this convolution integral is analytically performed using a Bessel function expansion. The analytical solution can drastically reduce the calculation time and the memory usage without any cost, compared with the numerical method using fast Fourier transform to Fourier transform the kernel function. In this study, we present the analytical derivation, the efficient calculation of Bessel function series, and a numerical simulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the analytical solution through comparisons of calculation time and memory usage.

  19. Time-resolved spectral measurements above 80 A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.; Ceglio, N.; Medecki, H.

    1983-01-01

    We have made time-resolved spectral measurements above 80 A from laser-produced plasmas. These are made using a transmission grating spectrograph whose primary components are a cylindrically-curved x-ray mirror for light collection, a transmission grating for spectral dispersions, and an x-ray streak camera for temporal resolution. A description of the instrument and an example of the data are given

  20. Outdoor time, physical activity and sedentary time among young children: The 2012-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Richard; Garriguet, Didier; Tremblay, Mark S

    2017-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that children who spend more time outdoors are more active and spend less time sedentary, but these studies were limited by the use of small convenience samples. We examined the relationship between outdoor time and measures of physical activity (PA), screen time and sedentary time in a nationally-representative sample of young children. Parental reports of outdoor time were obtained for 594 children aged 3-6 years (47.8% girls) who participated in the 2012-2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Participants were asked to wear an Actical accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Outdoor time and screen time were assessed by parent reports. The relationships between outdoor time and measures of PA, screen time and sedentary time were examined with linear regression models. Adherence to PA guidelines was estimated based on a betabinomial distribution, and adherence with the screen time guidelines was assessed through logistic regression models. All analyses were stratified by age group (3-4 and 5-6 year olds) and adjusted for sex, parental education and household income. Among 5-6 year olds, each additional hour spent outdoors was associated with an additional 10 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (95% CI: 6-14), 27,455 more accelerometer counts/day (95% CI: 11,929-42,980) and an increased likelihood of meeting the PA guidelines (OR = 2.53; 95% CI: 1.68-3.82). No significant relationships were observed among 3-4 year olds. Outdoor time has a large effect on PA among 5-6 year olds at a population level. Future studies should examine the correlates of outdoor time to inform novel PA promotion interventions.

  1. High frequency, high time resolution time-to-digital converter employing passive resonating circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Giancarlo; Abba, Andrea; Geraci, Angelo

    2010-05-01

    A method for measuring time intervals accurate to the picosecond range is based on phase measurements of oscillating waveforms synchronous with their beginning and/or end. The oscillation is generated by triggering an LC resonant circuit, whose capacitance is precharged. By using high Q resonators and a final active quenching of the oscillation, it is possible to conjugate high time resolution and a small measurement time, which allows a high measurement rate. Methods for fast analysis of the data are considered and discussed with reference to computing resource requirements, speed, and accuracy. Experimental tests show the feasibility of the method and a time accuracy better than 4 ps rms. Methods aimed at further reducing hardware resources are finally discussed.

  2. High frequency, high time resolution time-to-digital converter employing passive resonating circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripamonti, Giancarlo; Abba, Andrea; Geraci, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    A method for measuring time intervals accurate to the picosecond range is based on phase measurements of oscillating waveforms synchronous with their beginning and/or end. The oscillation is generated by triggering an LC resonant circuit, whose capacitance is precharged. By using high Q resonators and a final active quenching of the oscillation, it is possible to conjugate high time resolution and a small measurement time, which allows a high measurement rate. Methods for fast analysis of the data are considered and discussed with reference to computing resource requirements, speed, and accuracy. Experimental tests show the feasibility of the method and a time accuracy better than 4 ps rms. Methods aimed at further reducing hardware resources are finally discussed.

  3. Validation of a simple response-time measure of listening effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; van Rijn, Hedderik; Başkent, Deniz

    This study compares two response-time measures of listening effort that can be combined with a clinical speech test for a more comprehensive evaluation of total listening experience; verbal response times to auditory stimuli (RTaud) and response times to a visual task (RTsvis) in a dual- task

  4. Applying the Lean principles of the Toyota Production System to reduce wait times in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, David; Vail, Gord; Thomas, Sophia; Schmidt, Nicki

    2010-01-01

    In recognition of patient wait times, and deteriorating patient and staff satisfaction, we set out to improve these measures in our emergency department (ED) without adding any new funding or beds. In 2005 all staff in the ED at Hôtel-Dieu Grace Hospital began a transformation, employing Toyota Lean manufacturing principles to improve ED wait times and quality of care. Lean techniques such as value-stream mapping, just-in-time delivery techniques, workplace organization, reduction of systemic wastes, use of the worker as the source of quality improvement and ongoing refinement of our process steps formed the basis of our project. Our ED has achieved major improvements in departmental flow without adding any additional ED or inpatient beds. The mean registration to physician time has decreased from 111 minutes to 78 minutes. The number of patients who left without being seen has decreased from 7.1% to 4.3%. The length of stay (LOS) for discharged patients has decreased from a mean of 3.6 to 2.8 hours, with the largest decrease seen in our patients triaged at levels 4 or 5 using the Canadian Emergency Department Triage and Acuity Scale. We noted an improvement in ED patient satisfaction scores following the implementation of Lean principles. Lean manufacturing principles can improve the flow of patients through the ED, resulting in greater patient satisfaction along with reduced time spent by the patient in the ED.

  5. Direct Measurements of Smartphone Screen-Time: Relationships with Demographics and Sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Matthew A.; Bettencourt, Laura; Kaye, Leanne; Moturu, Sai T.; Nguyen, Kaylin T.; Olgin, Jeffrey E.; Pletcher, Mark J.; Marcus, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Smartphones are increasingly integrated into everyday life, but frequency of use has not yet been objectively measured and compared to demographics, health information, and in particular, sleep quality. Aims The aim of this study was to characterize smartphone use by measuring screen-time directly, determine factors that are associated with increased screen-time, and to test the hypothesis that increased screen-time is associated with poor sleep. Methods We performed a cross-sectio...

  6. A method to increase optical timing spectra measurement rates using a multi-hit TDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, W.W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for using a modern time to digital converter (TDC) to increase the data collection rate for optical timing measurements such as scintillator decay times. It extends the conventional delayed coincidence method, where a synchronization signal ''starts'' a TDC and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) sampling the optical signal ''stops'' the TDC. Data acquisition rates are low with the conventional method because ε, the light collection efficiency of the ''stop'' PMT, is artificially limited to ε∼0.01 photons per ''start'' signal to reduce the probability of detecting more than one photon during the sampling period. With conventional TDCs, these multiple photon events bias the time spectrum since only the first ''stop'' pulse is digitized. The new method uses a modern TDC to detect whether additional ''stop'' signals occur during the sampling period, and actively reject these multiple photon events. This allows ε to be increased to almost 1 photon per ''start'' signal, which maximizes the data acquisition rate at a value nearly 20 times higher. Multi-hit TDCs can digitize the arrival times of n ''stop'' signals per ''start'' signal, which allows ε to be increased to ∼3n/4. While overlap of the ''stop'' signals prevents the full gain in data collection rate to be realized, significant improvements are possible for most applications. (orig.)

  7. Toward real-time measurement of atmospheric mercury concentrations using cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Faïn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS is a direct absorption technique that utilizes path lengths up to multiple kilometers in a compact absorption cell and has a significantly higher sensitivity than conventional absorption spectroscopy. This tool opens new prospects for study of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0 because of its high temporal resolution and reduced sample volume requirements (<0.5 l of sample air. We developed a new sensor based on CRDS for measurement of (Hg0 mass concentration. Sensor characteristics include sub-ng m−3 detection limit and high temporal resolution using a frequency-doubled, tuneable dye laser emitting pulses at ~253.65 nm with a pulse repetition frequency of 50 Hz. The dye laser incorporates a unique piezo element attached to its tuning grating allowing it to tune the laser on and off the Hg0 absorption line on a pulse-to-pulse basis to facilitate differential absorption measurements. Hg0 absorption measurements with this CRDS laboratory prototype are highly linearly related to Hg0 concentrations determined by a Tekran 2537B analyzer over an Hg0 concentration range from 0.2 ng m−3 to 573 ng m−3, implying excellent linearity of both instruments. The current CRDS instrument has a sensitivity of 0.10 ng Hg0 m−3 at 10-s time resolution. Ambient-air tests showed that background Hg0 levels can be detected at low temporal resolution (i.e., 1 s, but also highlight a need for high-frequency (i.e., pulse-to-pulse differential on/off-line tuning of the laser wavelength to account for instabilities of the CRDS system and variable background absorption interferences. Future applications may include ambient Hg0 flux measurements with eddy covariance techniques, which require measurements of Hg0 concentrations with sub-ng m−3 sensitivity and sub-second time

  8. Use of Remote Technology in the Surface Water Environmental Monitoring Program at SRS Reducing Measurements in the Field - 13336

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.; Terry, B.; Meyer, A.; Hall, J.; Allen, P.; Hughey, D.; Hartley, T.

    2013-01-01

    There are a wide range of sensor and remote technology applications available for use in environmental monitoring programs. Each application has its own set of limitations and can be challenging when attempting to utilize it under diverse environmental field conditions. The Savannah River Site Environmental Monitoring Program has implemented several remote sensing and surface water flow technologies that have increased the quality of the data while reducing the number of field measurements. Implementation of this technology reduced the field time for personnel that commute across the Savannah River Site (SRS) over a span of 310 square miles. The wireless surface water flow technology allows for immediate notification of changing field conditions or equipment failure thus reducing data-loss or erroneous field data and improving data-quality. This wireless flow technology uses the stage-to-flow methodology coupled with implementation of a robust highly accurate Acoustic Doppler Profiler system for measuring discharge under various field conditions. Savings for implementation of the wireless flow application and Flowlink R technology equates to approximately 1175 hours annually for the radiological liquid effluent and surveillance programs. The SonTek River Suveyor and Flowtracker technologies are utilized for calibration of the wireless flow monitoring devices in the site streams and validation of effluent flows at the SRS. Implementation of similar wireless devices is also planned in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Storm-water Monitoring Program. SRS personnel have been developing a unique flow actuator device. This device activates an ISCO TM automated sampler under flowing conditions at storm-water outfall locations across the site. This technology is unique in that it was designed to be used under field conditions with rapid changes in flow and sedimentation where traditional actuators have been unsuccessful in tripping the automated

  9. Time-of-flight measurements of heavy ions using Si PIN diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strekalovsky, A. O., E-mail: alex.strek@bk.ru; Kamanin, D. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Pyatkov, Yu. V. [National Nuclear Research University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute) (Russian Federation); Kondratyev, N. A.; Zhuchko, V. E. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Ilić, S. [University of Novi Sad (Serbia); Alexandrov, A. A.; Alexandrova, I. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Jacobs, N. [University of Stellenbosch, Faculty of Military Science, Military Academy (South Africa); Kuznetsova, E. A.; Mishinsky, G. V.; Strekalovsky, O. V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A new off-line timing method for PIN diode signals is presented which allows the plasma delay effect to be suppressed. Velocities of heavy ions measured by the new method are in good agreement within a wide range of masses and energies with velocities measured by time stamp detectors based on microchannel plates.

  10. Reduced time for urinary alkalinization before high-dose methotrexate with preadmission oral bicarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintzel, Polly E; Campbell, Alan D; Yost, Kathleen J; Brinker, Brett T; Arradaza, Nicole V; Frobish, Daniel; Wehr, Alison M; O'Rourke, Timothy J

    2012-06-01

    Hydration and urinary alkalinization are essential for reducing renal dysfunction with high dose methotrexate (HDMTX). This report presents an analysis of institutional methods used to achieve adequate urinary alkalinization and output for patients receiving single agent HDMTX. Renal and metabolic parameters of tolerance were examined. Medical records of adult patients receiving HDMTX during the calendar years of 2008-2009 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the time to achieve urine pH > 7. Number of hospital days, bicarbonate dose, ordered hydration rate, urine output, and urine pH were assessed. A survival analysis model was run for time to urine pH > 7 using preadmission oral bicarbonate as a predictor variable and including a frailty term. Observational statistics were performed for other parameters. The analysis included 79 encounters for ten patients. Urine pH > 7 was achieved more rapidly in patients receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate (P = 0.012). The number of patients receiving HDMTX on the same day as admission was greater for those receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate (47%) in comparison to those who did not (2%), and they spent less time in the hospital. A standard regimen for hydration and urinary alkalinization based on this project is reported. The nature and frequency of adverse events were as expected for this treatment. At our institution, the time to achieve urinary alkalinization was reduced for patients receiving preadmission oral bicarbonate which facilitated chemotherapy infusion on the same day as admission and decreased the number of calendar days that patients stayed in the hospital.

  11. Magnetic field pitch angle and perpendicular velocity measurements from multi-point time-delay estimation of poloidal correlation reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisiazhniuk, D.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Conway, G. D.; Happel, T.; Lebschy, A.; Manz, P.; Nikolaeva, V.; Stroth, U.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2017-02-01

    In fusion machines, turbulent eddies are expected to be aligned with the direction of the magnetic field lines and to propagate in the perpendicular direction. Time delay measurements of density fluctuations can be used to calculate the magnetic field pitch angle α and perpendicular velocity {{v}\\bot} profiles. The method is applied to poloidal correlation reflectometry installed at ASDEX Upgrade and TEXTOR, which measure density fluctuations from poloidally and toroidally separated antennas. Validation of the method is achieved by comparing the perpendicular velocity (composed of the E× B drift and the phase velocity of turbulence {{v}\\bot}={{v}E× B}+{{v}\\text{ph}} ) with Doppler reflectometry measurements and with neoclassical {{v}E× B} calculations. An important condition for the application of the method is the presence of turbulence with a sufficiently long decorrelation time. It is shown that at the shear layer the decorrelation time is reduced, limiting the application of the method. The magnetic field pitch angle measured by this method shows the expected dependence on the magnetic field, plasma current and radial position. The profile of the pitch angle reproduces the expected shape and values. However, comparison with the equilibrium reconstruction code cliste suggests an additional inclination of turbulent eddies at the pedestal position (2-3°). This additional angle decreases towards the core and at the edge.

  12. Analysis in measurements of gastric emptying time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Ho; Lee, Man Koo

    1997-01-01

    Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying time has been reported to be influenced by the variation in depth of radionuclide within the stomach. This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between anterior image, the total anteroposterior image and the tissue attenuation correction(geometric mean). A dual-head scintillation camera(ADAC, USA) was used to investigate effect of such changes. We were performed 16 normal subject gastric emptying studies with 99 mTC labelled scramble egg, milk and solid meal(610 Kcal, 300 g). The results are as follows; On anterior image, T 1/2 emptying time was delayed by 5 min, 6.5%(range : 3 ∼ 18 min, 5∼31.4%) compared with the geometric mean. But there was no different gastric emptying time between the total anteroposterior image and geometric mean. Therefore, if will be useful to use the method of geometric mean or the total anteroposterior image to evaluate the gastric emptying time accurately

  13. Analysis in measurements of gastric emptying time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choon Ho [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Man Koo [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying time has been reported to be influenced by the variation in depth of radionuclide within the stomach. This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between anterior image, the total anteroposterior image and the tissue attenuation correction(geometric mean). A dual-head scintillation camera(ADAC, USA) was used to investigate effect of such changes. We were performed 16 normal subject gastric emptying studies with {sup 99}mTC labelled scramble egg, milk and solid meal(610 Kcal, 300 g). The results are as follows; On anterior image, T{sub 1/2} emptying time was delayed by 5 min, 6.5%(range : 3 {approx} 18 min, 5{approx}31.4%) compared with the geometric mean. But there was no different gastric emptying time between the total anteroposterior image and geometric mean. Therefore, if will be useful to use the method of geometric mean or the total anteroposterior image to evaluate the gastric emptying time accurately.

  14. Measuring physical inactivity: do current measures provide an accurate view of "sedentary" video game time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Simon; Taylor, Anne W; Dal Grande, Eleonora; Berry, Narelle

    2014-01-01

    Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames) can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n = 2026) were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children's video game time. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as "sedentary" may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.

  15. Using the area under the curve to reduce measurement error in predicting young adult blood pressure from childhood measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nancy R; Rosner, Bernard A; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2004-11-30

    Tracking correlations of blood pressure, particularly childhood measures, may be attenuated by within-person variability. Combining multiple measurements can reduce this error substantially. The area under the curve (AUC) computed from longitudinal growth curve models can be used to improve the prediction of young adult blood pressure from childhood measures. Quadratic random-effects models over unequally spaced repeated measures were used to compute the area under the curve separately within the age periods 5-14 and 20-34 years in the Bogalusa Heart Study. This method adjusts for the uneven age distribution and captures the underlying or average blood pressure, leading to improved estimates of correlation and risk prediction. Tracking correlations were computed by race and gender, and were approximately 0.6 for systolic, 0.5-0.6 for K4 diastolic, and 0.4-0.6 for K5 diastolic blood pressure. The AUC can also be used to regress young adult blood pressure on childhood blood pressure and childhood and young adult body mass index (BMI). In these data, while childhood blood pressure and young adult BMI were generally directly predictive of young adult blood pressure, childhood BMI was negatively correlated with young adult blood pressure when childhood blood pressure was in the model. In addition, racial differences in young adult blood pressure were reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for childhood blood pressure, childhood BMI, and young adult BMI, suggesting that other genetic or lifestyle factors contribute to this difference. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Measuring Sea-Ice Motion in the Arctic with Real Time Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozena, J. M.; Hagen, R. A.; Peters, M. F.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, in coordination with other groups, has been collecting sea-ice data in the Arctic off the north coast of Alaska with an airborne system employing a radar altimeter, LiDAR and a photogrammetric camera in an effort to obtain wide swaths of measurements coincident with Cryosat-2 footprints. Because the satellite tracks traverse areas of moving pack ice, precise real-time estimates of the ice motion are needed to fly a survey grid that will yield complete data coverage. This requirement led us to develop a method to find the ice motion from the aircraft during the survey. With the advent of real-time orthographic photogrammetric systems, we developed a system that measures the sea ice motion in-flight, and also permits post-process modeling of sea ice velocities to correct the positioning of radar and LiDAR data. For the 2013 and 2014 field seasons, we used this Real Time Ice Motion Estimation (RTIME) system to determine ice motion using Applanix's Inflight Ortho software with an Applanix DSS439 system. Operationally, a series of photos were taken in the survey area. The aircraft then turned around and took more photos along the same line several minutes later. Orthophotos were generated within minutes of collection and evaluated by custom software to find photo footprints and potential overlap. Overlapping photos were passed to the correlation software, which selects a series of "chips" in the first photo and looks for the best matches in the second photo. The correlation results are then passed to a density-based clustering algorithm to determine the offset of the photo pair. To investigate any systematic errors in the photogrammetry, we flew several flight lines over a fixed point on various headings, over an area of non-moving ice in 2013. The orthophotos were run through the correlation software to find any residual offsets, and run through additional software to measure chip positions and offsets relative to the aircraft

  17. Picosecond resolution on relativistic heavy ions' time-of-flight measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebran, A.; Taieb, J.; Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.

    2013-01-01

    We developed a time-of-flight measurement system for relativistic heavy ions with a requested resolution of 40 ps Full Width Half Maximum. Such a resolution is mandatory to assign the correct mass number to every fission fragment, identified using the Bρ-ToF-ΔE method with the recoil spectrometer designed for the SOFIA experiment—which hold very recently at GSI. To achieve such a performance, fast plastic scintillators read-out by dedicated photomultiplier tubes were chosen among other possible options. We have led several test-measurements from 2009 to 2011, in order to investigate: the effect of the addition of a quenching molecule in the scintillator's matrix, the influence of the detector's size and the impact of the photomultiplier tube. The contribution of the dedicated electronics is also characterized. Time-of-flight measurements were performed realized with electron pulses and relativistic heavy ions, respectively provided by the LASER driven electron–accelerator (ELSA) at CEA–DAM Ile-de-France and by the SIS18/FRS facility at GSI. The reported results exhibit a time resolution better than 20 ps Full Width Half Maximum reached with the last prototype at GSI with an Uranium beam. These results confirm that the SOFIA experiment should enable the measurement of the relativistic fission fragments' time-of-flight with the requested resolution

  18. Real-time and high accuracy frequency measurements for intermediate frequency narrowband signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Meng, Xiaofeng; Nie, Jing; Lin, Liwei

    2018-01-01

    Real-time and accurate measurements of intermediate frequency signals based on microprocessors are difficult due to the computational complexity and limited time constraints. In this paper, a fast and precise methodology based on the sigma-delta modulator is designed and implemented by first generating the twiddle factors using the designed recursive scheme. This scheme requires zero times of multiplications and only half amounts of addition operations by using the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) and the combination of the Rife algorithm and Fourier coefficient interpolation as compared with conventional methods such as DFT and Fast Fourier Transform. Experimentally, when the sampling frequency is 10 MHz, the real-time frequency measurements with intermediate frequency and narrowband signals have a measurement mean squared error of ±2.4 Hz. Furthermore, a single measurement of the whole system only requires approximately 0.3 s to achieve fast iteration, high precision, and less calculation time.

  19. Using Indirect Turbulence Measurements for Real-Time Parameter Estimation in Turbulent Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Borja; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of indirect turbulence measurements for real-time estimation of parameters in a linear longitudinal dynamics model in atmospheric turbulence was studied. It is shown that measuring the atmospheric turbulence makes it possible to treat the turbulence as a measured explanatory variable in the parameter estimation problem. Commercial off-the-shelf sensors were researched and evaluated, then compared to air data booms. Sources of colored noise in the explanatory variables resulting from typical turbulence measurement techniques were identified and studied. A major source of colored noise in the explanatory variables was identified as frequency dependent upwash and time delay. The resulting upwash and time delay corrections were analyzed and compared to previous time shift dynamic modeling research. Simulation data as well as flight test data in atmospheric turbulence were used to verify the time delay behavior. Recommendations are given for follow on flight research and instrumentation.

  20. Time-of-Flight Adjustment Procedure for Acoustic Measurements in Structural Timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danbiel F. Llana; Guillermo Iñiguez-Gonzalez; Francisco Arriaga; Xiping Wang

    2016-01-01

    The effect of timber length on time-of-flight acoustic longitudinal measurements was investigated on the structural timber of four Spanish species: radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), laricio pine (Pinus nigra Arn.), and maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Time-of-flight longitudinal measurements were conducted on 120 specimens of...

  1. Time resolved measurements of cathode fall in high frequency fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadrath, S; Garner, R C; Lieder, G H; Ehlbeck, J

    2007-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the time resolved cathode and anode falls of high frequency fluorescent lamps for a range of discharge currents typically encountered in dimming mode. Measurements were performed with the movable anode technique. Supporting spectroscopic emission measurements were made of key transitions (argon 420.1 nm and mercury 435.8 nm), whose onset coincide with cathode fall equalling the value associated with the energy, relative to the ground state, of the upper level of the respective transition. The measurements are in general agreement with the well-known understanding of dimmed lamp operation: peak cathode fall decreases with increasing lamp current and with increasing auxiliary coil heating. However, the time dependence of the measurements offers additional insight

  2. Investment horizons : A time-dependent measure of asset performance

    OpenAIRE

    Ingve Simonsen; Anders Johansen; Mogens H. Jensen

    2005-01-01

    We review a resent {\\em time-dependent} performance measure for economical time series -- the (optimal) investment horizon approach. For stock indices, the approach shows a pronounced gain-loss asymmetry that is {\\em not} observed for the individual stocks that comprise the index. This difference may hint towards an synchronize of the draw downs of the stocks.

  3. Material Classification Using Raw Time-of-Flight Measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2016-12-13

    We propose a material classification method using raw time-of-flight (ToF) measurements. ToF cameras capture the correlation between a reference signal and the temporal response of material to incident illumination. Such measurements encode unique signatures of the material, i.e. the degree of subsurface scattering inside a volume. Subsequently, it offers an orthogonal domain of feature representation compared to conventional spatial and angular reflectance-based approaches. We demonstrate the effectiveness, robustness, and efficiency of our method through experiments and comparisons of real-world materials.

  4. Comparison of real-time instruments and gravimetric method when measuring particulate matter in a residential building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuocheng; Calderón, Leonardo; Patton, Allison P; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Senick, Jennifer; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-11-01

    This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the Northeastern US and compared performance of those instruments. PM 2.5 24-hr average concentrations were determined using a Personal Modular Impactor (PMI) with 2.5 µm cut (SKC Inc., Eighty Four, PA) and a direct reading pDR-1500 (Thermo Scientific, Franklin, MA) as well as its filter. 1-hr average PM 2.5 concentrations were measured in the same apartments with an Aerotrak Optical Particle Counter (OPC) (model 8220, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN) and a DustTrak DRX mass monitor (model 8534, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN). OPC and DRX measurements were compared with concurrent 1-hr mass concentration from the pDR-1500. The pDR-1500 direct reading showed approximately 40% higher particle mass concentration compared to its own filter (n = 41), and 25% higher PM 2.5 mass concentration compared to the PMI 2.5 filter. The pDR-1500 direct reading and PMI 2.5 in non-smoking homes (self-reported) were not significantly different (n = 10, R 2 = 0.937), while the difference between measurements for smoking homes was 44% (n = 31, R 2 = 0.773). Both OPC and DRX data had substantial and significant systematic and proportional biases compared with pDR-1500 readings. However, these methods were highly correlated: R 2 = 0.936 for OPC versus pDR-1500 reading and R 2 = 0.863 for DRX versus pDR-1500 reading. The data suggest that accuracy of aerosol mass concentrations from direct-reading instruments in indoor environments depends on the instrument, and that correction factors can be used to reduce biases of these real-time monitors in residential green buildings with similar aerosol properties. This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the northeastern United States and compared performance of those instruments. The data show that while the use of real-time

  5. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation reduces psychophysically measured surround suppression in the human visual cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Spiegel

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS is a safe, non-invasive technique for transiently modulating the balance of excitation and inhibition within the human brain. It has been reported that anodal tDCS can reduce both GABA mediated inhibition and GABA concentration within the human motor cortex. As GABA mediated inhibition is thought to be a key modulator of plasticity within the adult brain, these findings have broad implications for the future use of tDCS. It is important, therefore, to establish whether tDCS can exert similar effects within non-motor brain areas. The aim of this study was to assess whether anodal tDCS could reduce inhibitory interactions within the human visual cortex. Psychophysical measures of surround suppression were used as an index of inhibition within V1. Overlay suppression, which is thought to originate within the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN, was also measured as a control. Anodal stimulation of the occipital poles significantly reduced psychophysical surround suppression, but had no effect on overlay suppression. This effect was specific to anodal stimulation as cathodal stimulation had no effect on either measure. These psychophysical results provide the first evidence for tDCS-induced reductions of intracortical inhibition within the human visual cortex.

  6. Method for simultaneous measurement of borehole and formation neutron decay-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Arnold, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of making in situ measurements of the thermal neutron decay time of earth formations in the vicinity of a wellbore. The borehole and earth formations are irradiated, with pulsed fast neutrons and, during the interval between neutron pulses, capture gamma radiation is measured in at least four, non-overlapping, contiguous time intervals. Count-rates representative of thermal neutron populations in the borehole and the formations are made during each of the time intervals. A background radiation measurement for correcting the count-rates is preferably also periodically made. The count-rates are combined to derive simultaneously the formation and borehole neutron lifetime components which are recorded as a function of borehole depth. (author)

  7. Decay of autoionizing states in time-dependent density functional and reduced density matrix functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Varun; Brics, Martins; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Autoionizing states are inaccessible to time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) using known, adiabatic Kohn-Sham (KS) potentials. We determine the exact KS potential for a numerically exactly solvable model Helium atom interacting with a laser field that is populating an autoionizing state. The exact single-particle density of the population in the autoionizing state corresponds to that of the energetically lowest quasi-stationary state in the exact KS potential. We describe how this exact potential controls the decay by a barrier whose height and width allows for the density to tunnel out and decay with the same rate as in the ab initio time-dependent Schroedinger calculation. However, devising a useful exchange-correlation potential that is capable of governing such a scenario in general and in more complex systems is hopeless. As an improvement over TDDFT, time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory has been proposed. We are able to obtain for the above described autoionization process the exact time-dependent natural orbitals (i.e., the eigenfunctions of the exact, time-dependent one-body reduced density matrix) and study the potentials that appear in the equations of motion for the natural orbitals and the structure of the two-body density matrix expanded in them.

  8. A Feedback Optimal Control Algorithm with Optimal Measurement Time Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Jost

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear model predictive control has been established as a powerful methodology to provide feedback for dynamic processes over the last decades. In practice it is usually combined with parameter and state estimation techniques, which allows to cope with uncertainty on many levels. To reduce the uncertainty it has also been suggested to include optimal experimental design into the sequential process of estimation and control calculation. Most of the focus so far was on dual control approaches, i.e., on using the controls to simultaneously excite the system dynamics (learning as well as minimizing a given objective (performing. We propose a new algorithm, which sequentially solves robust optimal control, optimal experimental design, state and parameter estimation problems. Thus, we decouple the control and the experimental design problems. This has the advantages that we can analyze the impact of measurement timing (sampling independently, and is practically relevant for applications with either an ethical limitation on system excitation (e.g., chemotherapy treatment or the need for fast feedback. The algorithm shows promising results with a 36% reduction of parameter uncertainties for the Lotka-Volterra fishing benchmark example.

  9. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  10. [Evaluation and Optimization of Microvascular Arterial Anastomoses by Transit Time Flow Measurement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberhold, S; Röttker, J; Bartmann, D; Solbach, A; Keiner, S; Welz, A; Bootz, F; Laffers, W

    2016-03-01

    INDRODUCTION: The regular application of transit time flow measurement in microvascular anastomoses during heart surgery has lead to improvements of the outcome of coronary artery bypass grafts. Our study was meant to discover whether this measurement method was also applicable for evaluation and optimization of microvascular arterial anastomoses of radial forearm flaps. In this prospective examination a combining ultrasound imaging and transit time flow measurement device (VeriQ, MediStim) was used during surgery to assess anastomotic quality of 15 radial forearm flaps. Pulsatility index (PI) and mean blood flow were measured immediately after opening the arterial anastomosis as well as 15 min afterwards. Furthermore, application time and description of handling were recorded seperately for every assessment. Mean blood flow immediately after opening the anastomosis and 15 min later were 3.9 and 3.4 ml/min resepectively showing no statistically significant difference (p=0.96). There was no significance in the increase of pulsatility index from 22.1 to 27.2 (p=0.09) during the same time range, either. Due to measurement results showing atypical pulse curves in 2 cases decision for surgical revision of the anastomoses was made. All forearm flaps showed good vascularisation during follow-up. Time for device set up, probe placement and measurements was about 20 min. Handling was described to be uncomplicated without exception. There were no noteworthy problems. Transit time flow measurement contributes to the improvement of anastomotic quality and therefore to the overall outcome of radial forearm flaps. The examined measurement method provides objective results and is useful for documentation purposes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Particle identification by time-of-flight measurement in the SAPHIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann-Rothe, P.

    1993-02-01

    Using photoproduction data which have been measured with the SAPHIR-detector with different target materials (C H 2 solid , H 2 liquid , D 2 liquid ) a detailed investigation and discussion of the detectors performance to measure the time of flight of charged particles and to separate between particles of different mass has been accomplished. A FORTRAN program has been written which provides a calibration of the scintillator panels of the TOF hodoscopes, calculates correction factors for the time-walk effect an finally, by combining the time of flight with track momentum measurement, determines particle masses. The current configuration of the detector makes it possible to separate between proton and pion up to a particle momentum of 1.6 GeV/c. Proton and kaon can be separated up to a momentum of 1.3 GeV/c, kaon and pion up to a momentum of 0.85 GeV/c. (prog.) [de

  12. Primary and secondary effects of real-time feedback to reduce vertical loading rate during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggaley, M; Willy, R W; Meardon, S A

    2017-05-01

    Gait modifications are often proposed to reduce average loading rate (AVLR) during running. While many modifications may reduce AVLR, little work has investigated secondary gait changes. Thirty-two rearfoot runners [16M, 16F, 24.7 (3.3) years, 22.72 (3.01) kg/m 2 , >16 km/week] ran at a self-selected speed (2.9 ± 0.3 m/s) on an instrumented treadmill, while 3D mechanics were calculated via real-time data acquisition. Real-time visual feedback was provided in a randomized order to cue a forefoot strike (FFS), a minimum 7.5% decrease in step length, or a minimum 15% reduction in AVLR. AVLR was reduced by FFS (mean difference = 26.4 BW/s; 95% CI = 20.1, 32.7; P < 0.001), shortened step length (8.4 BW/s; 95% CI = 2.9, 14.0; P = 0.004), and cues to reduce AVLR (14.9 BW/s; 95% CI = 10.2, 19.6; P < 0.001). FFS, shortened step length, and cues to reduce AVLR all reduced eccentric knee joint work per km [(-48.2 J/kg*m; 95% CI = -58.1, -38.3; P < 0.001), (-35.5 J/kg*m; 95% CI = -42.4, 28.6; P < 0.001), (-23.1 J/kg*m; 95% CI = -33.3, -12.9; P < 0.001)]. However, FFS and cues to reduce AVLR also increased eccentric ankle joint work per km [(54.49 J/kg*m; 95% CI = 45.3, 63.7; P < 0.001), (9.20 J/kg*m; 95% CI = 1.7, 16.7; P = 0.035)]. Potentially injurious secondary effects associated with FFS and cues to reduce AVLR may undermine their clinical utility. Alternatively, a shortened step length resulted in small reductions in AVLR, without any potentially injurious secondary effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Can intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) reduce time to surgery for malleolar fractures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, K B; Jordy, A; Viberg, Bjarke

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgery of malleolar fractures are often delayed due to oedema of the ankle. The use of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) is thought to reduce oedema of the fracture site and thereby time to surgery in patients with malleolar fractures. PURPOSE: To investigate the influence...... of IPC on the time from admission to surgery in adult patients with internal fixated primary malleolar fractures. METHODS: February 1st 2013 IPC was introduced as a standard treatment for all patients admitted with a malleolar fracture. Data was retrieved from the hospital database 2 years prior...... for patients operated after 24h was 21.5 (4.1-57.0) hours for the control group and 18.4 (7.4-32.3) hours in the IPC group (p=0.353). INTERPRETATION: There was no benefit from IPC on time to surgery in patients with acute primary malleolar fracture in a cohort with a mean surgical delay less than 24h....

  14. Reducing the scan time in gastric emptying scintigraphy by using mathematical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Min Ki; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Choe, Won Sick [Gachon Medical School Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Byeong Il; Lee, Jae Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-15

    Gastric emptying scan (GES) is usually acquired up to 2 hours. Our study investigated whether a fraction of meal-retention in the stomach at 120 minutes (FR120) was predicted from the data measured for 90 minutes by using non-linear curve fitting. We aimed at saving the delayed imaging by utilizing mathematical models. Ninety-six patients underwent GES immediately after taking a boiled egg with 74 MBq (2 mCi) Tc-99m DTPA. The patients were divided into Group I (T{sub 1/2} {<=} 90 min) and Group II (90 minmeasured fraction of meal-retention at each time (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min) by non-linear curve fitting (MATLAB 5.3) and another simple exponential fitting was performed on the fractions at late times (60,75, and 90 min). A predicted FR120 was calculated from the acquired functional formulas. A correlation coefficient between the measured FR120 and the predicted FR120 was computed (MedCalc 6.0). Correlation coefficients(r) between the measured FR120 and the predicted FRA120 of each mathematical functions were as follows: simple exponential function (Group I: 0.8858, Group II: 0.5982, {rho} < 0.0001), power exponential function (Group I: 0.8755, Group II: 0.6008, {rho} < 0.0001), modified power exponential function (Group I: 0.8892, Group II: 0.5882, {rho} < 0.0001), and simple exponential function at the late times (Group I: 0.9085, Group II: 0.6832, {rho} < 0.0001). In all the fitting models, the predicted FR120 were significantly correlated with the measured FR120 in Group I but not in Group II. There was no statistically significant difference in correlation among the 4 mathematical models. In the cases with T{sub 1/2} {<=} 90 min, the predicted FR120 is significantly

  15. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory applied to laser-driven, correlated two-electron dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brics, Martins; Kapoor, Varun; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with known and practicable exchange-correlation potentials does not capture highly correlated electron dynamics such as single-photon double ionization, autoionization, or nonsequential ionization. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory (TDRDMFT) may remedy these problems. The key ingredients in TDRDMFT are the natural orbitals (NOs), i.e., the eigenfunctions of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM), and the occupation numbers (OCs), i.e., the respective eigenvalues. The two-body reduced density matrix (2-RDM) is then expanded in NOs, and equations of motion for the NOs can be derived. If the expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM were known exactly, the problem at hand would be solved. In practice, approximations have to be made. We study the prospects of TDRDMFT following a top-down approach. We solve the exact two-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a model Helium atom in intense laser fields in order to study highly correlated phenomena such as the population of autoionizing states or single-photon double ionization. From the exact wave function we calculate the exact NOs, OCs, the exact expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM, and the exact potentials in the equations of motion. In that way we can identify how many NOs and which level of approximations are necessary to capture such phenomena.

  16. Measuring the electron bunch timing with femtosecond resolution at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, Marie Kristin

    2013-03-01

    Bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs) are an integral part of the laser-based synchronisation system which is being developed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).The operation principle comprises the measurement of the electron bunch arrival time relative to the optical timing reference, which is provided by actively length-stabilised fibre-links of the synchronisation system. The monitors are foreseen to be used as a standard diagnostic tool, not only for FLASH but also for the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL). The present bunch arrival time monitors have evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to beneficial diagnostic devices, which are almost permanently available during standard machine operation. This achievement has been a major objective of this thesis. The developments went in parallel to improvements in the reliable and low-maintenance operation of the optical synchronisation system. The key topics of this thesis comprised the characterisation and optimisation of the opto-mechanical front-ends of both, the fibre-links and the BAMs. The extent of applications involving the bunch arrival time information has been enlarged, providing automated measurements for properties of the RF acceleration modules, for instance, the RF on-crest phase determination and the measurement of energy fluctuations. Furthermore, two of the currently installed BAMs are implemented in an active phase and gradient stabilisation of specific modules in order to minimise the arrival time jitter of the electron bunches at the location of the FEL undulators, which is crucial for a high timing resolution of pump-probe experiments.

  17. Measuring the electron bunch timing with femtosecond resolution at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Marie Kristin

    2013-03-15

    Bunch arrival time monitors (BAMs) are an integral part of the laser-based synchronisation system which is being developed at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH).The operation principle comprises the measurement of the electron bunch arrival time relative to the optical timing reference, which is provided by actively length-stabilised fibre-links of the synchronisation system. The monitors are foreseen to be used as a standard diagnostic tool, not only for FLASH but also for the future European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser (European XFEL). The present bunch arrival time monitors have evolved from proof-of-principle experiments to beneficial diagnostic devices, which are almost permanently available during standard machine operation. This achievement has been a major objective of this thesis. The developments went in parallel to improvements in the reliable and low-maintenance operation of the optical synchronisation system. The key topics of this thesis comprised the characterisation and optimisation of the opto-mechanical front-ends of both, the fibre-links and the BAMs. The extent of applications involving the bunch arrival time information has been enlarged, providing automated measurements for properties of the RF acceleration modules, for instance, the RF on-crest phase determination and the measurement of energy fluctuations. Furthermore, two of the currently installed BAMs are implemented in an active phase and gradient stabilisation of specific modules in order to minimise the arrival time jitter of the electron bunches at the location of the FEL undulators, which is crucial for a high timing resolution of pump-probe experiments.

  18. CFD simulation of homogenisation time measured by radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyn, J.; Novy, M.; Zitny, R.; Mostik, M.; Jahoda, M.

    2004-01-01

    A methodology for CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation of radiotracer experiments was suggested. The most important parts of the methodology for validation of CFD results by radiotracers are: a) successful simulation of tracer experiment by CFD code (numerical solution of tracer dispersion in a stirred tank), which results in tracer concentration field at several time intervals; b) post-process data treatment, which uses detection chain description and which enables to simulate the detector measurement of homogenisation time from the tracer concentration field evaluated by CFD code. (author)

  19. Radioluminescence Decay Time Measurements in Silver-Doped Cadmium-Sulphide Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, R.

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-induced radioluminescence decay times of CdS(Ag) crystals have been measured at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 300 K by using single-photon counting technique. These measurements indicate a complex and non-exponential type of decay time profiles, which are in general composed of two decay components, the fast one having about 3 ns and the slow one having about 6 ns. The decay times were found to be almost temperature independent. It was experimentally proved that the fast one is originating from the 594 nm emission line, whereas the slow one is originating from the 576 nm emission line. The whole wavelength-dependences of decay times (t 1 /e and t 1 /e 2 ) were also presented. The observation of fast and non-exponential decay times shows that the recombination mechanisms in CdS(Ag) crystals are not simple, responsible centers are not isolated, and there might be more than one radioluminescence center. This suggests the existence of

  20. Time poverty in Brazil: measurement and analysis of its determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Lopes Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes well-being on an individual level, through the allocation of work hours done by adults and children and thus it measures time poverty in Brazil. In order to achieve such measurement, poverty indicators such as Foster, Greer and Thorbecke (FGT were adapted into a time poverty mode. Additionally, an analysis of its determinants was also conducted. Among other findings, the fact that women (either children and adult ones are the time-poorest individuals in urban or rural areas. Another unfortunate finding is that the high rate of time poverty among children, numerically 16,1% is not far from the adult rate which is of 19,7%. The overall composite time poor individual profile is of an African-Brazilian adult woman of little education, not necessarily income poor and residing in an urban area of the northeast region, living in a household of few people, she is the mother of children who are younger than 14 years old.

  1. MRPC-PET: A new technique for high precision time and position measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroud, K.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Li, S.; Williams, M.C.S.; Zichichi, A.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to consider a new technology for medical diagnosis: the MRPC-PET. This technology allows excellent time resolution together with 2-D position information thus providing a fundamental step in this field. The principle of this method is based on the Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) capable of high precision time measurements. We have previously found that the route to precise timing is differential readout (this requires matching anode and cathode strips); thus crossed strip readout schemes traditionally used for 2-D readout cannot be exploited. In this paper we consider the time difference from the two ends of the strip to provide a high precision measurement along the strip; the average time gives precise timing. The MRPC-PET thus provides a basic step in the field of medical technology: excellent time resolution together with 2-D position measurement.

  2. A position-sensitive start detector for time-of-flight measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Shikazono, Naomoto; Isoyama, Goro.

    1978-08-01

    A position-sensitive start detector for a time-of-flight measurement is described. In this detector microchannel plates were used to obtain time and position signals simultaneously. A time resolution of 121 psec FWHM and a position resolution of 0.28 mm FWHM were obtained for α-particles from an 241 Am source. (auth.)

  3. 76 FR 61284 - Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic Recreational Sector of Golden...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 0907271173-0629-03] RIN 0648-XA701 Accountability Measures and Reduced Season for the South Atlantic.... SUMMARY: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of golden tilefish in...

  4. Fission time-scale from the measurement of pre-scission light ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and hence can only probe a part of the fission time distribution. .... with the conclusion of recent fission time-scale measurements using the fission probability ... using the statistical model code JOANNE2 suitably modified to include the GDR ...

  5. Analysis of high-level radioactive slurries as a method to reduce DWPF turnaround times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.; Bibler, N.E.; Ferrara, D.M.; Hay, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) samples as slurries rather than as dried or vitrified samples is an effective way to reduce sample turnaround times. Slurries can be dissolved with a mixture of concentrated acids to yield solutions for elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Slurry analyses can be performed in eight hours, whereas analyses of vitrified samples require up to 40 hours to complete. Analyses of melter feed samples consisting of the DWPF borosilicate frit and either simulated or actual DWPF radioactive sludge were typically within a range of 3--5% of the predicted value based on the relative amounts of sludge and frit added to the slurry. The results indicate that the slurry analysis approach yields analytical accuracy and precision competitive with those obtained from analyses of vitrified samples. Slurry analyses offer a viable alternative to analyses of solid samples as a simple way to reduce analytical turnaround times

  6. Outdoor time, physical activity, sedentary time, and health indicators at ages 7 to 14: 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larouche, Richard; Garriguet, Didier; Gunnell, Katie E; Goldfield, Gary S; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-09-21

    International data show that the majority of children and youth are not sufficiently active. According to recent research, children who spend more time outdoors accumulate more daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and engage in less sedentary behaviour. However, the generalizability of these findings is uncertain, and few studies investigated whether outdoor time is associated with other physical and psychosocial health indicators. This study examined associations between outdoor time and measures of physical activity, sedentary time, and physical and psychosocial health in a nationally representative sample of 7-to-14-year-olds (n = 1,159) who participated in the 2012/2013 Canadian Health Measures Survey. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured with Actical accelerometers. Direct measures of height, weight, waist circumference, grip strength, blood pressure, cholesterol, and glycohemoglobin were obtained. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was used to assess psychosocial health. Relationships between outdoor time and physical health measures were examined with multi-variable linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, parental education, and household income. Logistic regression models controlling for the same variables were used for psychosocial health. Each additional hour spent outdoors per day was associated with 7.0 more minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, 762 more steps, and 13 fewer minutes of sedentary time. As well, each hour outdoors was associated with lower odds of negative psychosocial outcomes (specifically, peer relationship problems and total difficulties score). Outdoor time was not associated with any of the measures of physical health. Children reporting more time outdoors are more active, less sedentary, and less likely to have peer relationship problems, compared with those who spend less time outdoors.

  7. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs: developing survey items to measure awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeill Ann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1 the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2 the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented.

  8. Surveillance indicators for potential reduced exposure products (PREPs): developing survey items to measure awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Karen; Biener, Lois; Garrett, Catherine A; Allen, Jane; Cummings, K Michael; Hartman, Anne; Marcus, Stephen; McNeill, Ann; O'Connor, Richard J; Parascandola, Mark; Pederson, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the past decade, tobacco companies have introduced cigarettes and smokeless tobacco products (known as Potential Reduced Exposure Products, PREPs) with purportedly lower levels of some toxins than conventional cigarettes and smokeless products. It is essential that public health agencies monitor awareness, interest, use, and perceptions of these products so that their impact on population health can be detected at the earliest stages. Methods This paper reviews and critiques existing strategies for measuring awareness of PREPs from 16 published and unpublished studies. From these measures, we developed new surveillance items and subjected them to two rounds of cognitive testing, a common and accepted method for evaluating questionnaire wording. Results Our review suggests that high levels of awareness of PREPs reported in some studies are likely to be inaccurate. Two likely sources of inaccuracy in awareness measures were identified: 1) the tendency of respondents to misclassify "no additive" and "natural" cigarettes as PREPs and 2) the tendency of respondents to mistakenly report awareness as a result of confusion between PREPs brands and similarly named familiar products, for example, Eclipse chewing gum and Accord automobiles. Conclusion After evaluating new measures with cognitive interviews, we conclude that as of winter 2006, awareness of reduced exposure products among U.S. smokers was likely to be between 1% and 8%, with the higher estimates for some products occurring in test markets. Recommended measurement strategies for future surveys are presented. PMID:19840394

  9. Ignition delay time measurements of primary reference fuel blends

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed

    2017-02-07

    Ignition delay times of four different primary reference fuels (PRF), mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane, were measured behind reflected shock waves in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The PRFs were formulated to match the RON of two high-octane gasolines (RON 95 and 91) and two prospective low-octane naphtha fuels (RON 80 and 70). Experiments were carried out over a wide range of temperatures (700–1200K), pressures (10, 20, and 40bar) and equivalence ratios (0.5 and 1). Kinetic modeling predictions from four chemical kinetic mechanisms are compared with the experimental data. Ignition delay correlations are developed to reproduce the measured ignition delay times. Brute force sensitivity analyses are carried out to identify reactions that affect ignition delay times at specific temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio. The large experimental data set provided in the current work will serve as a benchmark for the validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms of primary reference fuel blends.

  10. Ignition delay time measurements of primary reference fuel blends

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbad, Mohammed; Javed, Tamour; Khaled, Fathi; Badra, Jihad; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    Ignition delay times of four different primary reference fuels (PRF), mixtures of n-heptane and iso-octane, were measured behind reflected shock waves in a high-pressure shock tube facility. The PRFs were formulated to match the RON of two high-octane gasolines (RON 95 and 91) and two prospective low-octane naphtha fuels (RON 80 and 70). Experiments were carried out over a wide range of temperatures (700–1200K), pressures (10, 20, and 40bar) and equivalence ratios (0.5 and 1). Kinetic modeling predictions from four chemical kinetic mechanisms are compared with the experimental data. Ignition delay correlations are developed to reproduce the measured ignition delay times. Brute force sensitivity analyses are carried out to identify reactions that affect ignition delay times at specific temperature, pressure and equivalence ratio. The large experimental data set provided in the current work will serve as a benchmark for the validation of chemical kinetic mechanisms of primary reference fuel blends.

  11. Time resolved mass flow measurements for a fast gas delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruden, E.L.; Degnan, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Scott, M.C.; Graham, J.D.; Coffey, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    A technique is demonstrated whereby the delivered mass and flow rate vs. time of a short rise time gas delivery system may be accurately determined. The gas mass M which flows past a point in a gas delivery system by an arbitrary time t may be accurately measured if that point is sealed off within a time interval short compared to the mass flow time scale. If the ejected mass is allowed to equilibrate in a known volume after being cut off from its source, a conventional static pressure measurement before and after injection, and application of the ideal gas law suffices. Assuming reproducibility, a time history M(t) may be generated, allowing the flow rate vs. time dM(t)/dt to be determined. Mass flow measurements are presented for a fast delivery system in which the flow of argon through a 3.2 mm I.D., 0.76 mm thick copper tube is cut off by imploding (θ pinching) the tube using a single turn tungsten magnetic field coil. Pinch discharge parameters are 44 μf, 20 kV, 47 nH, 3.5 mΩ, 584 kA, and 8.63 ps current period. Optical measurements of the tube's internal area vs. time indicate that the tube is sealed 2 ps from the time the tube is still 90% open (7 μs from the start of pinch current). The pinch delay is varied from 500--1,500 ps from the valve trigger (0--1,000 ps from the start of gas flow). The mass injected into the test volume is ∼ 100 μg during this interval. The leak rate of the sealed tube results in a mass increase of only ∼ 0.1 μg by the time the pressure gauge stabilizes (6 s). Results are correlated with piezoelectric probe measurements of the gas flow and 2-D axisymmetric numerical simulations of the θ pinch process. Simulations of a θ pinch suitable for characterizing an annular supersonic nozzle typical of those used in gas puff z pinches are discussed

  12. Developing a reduced consumer-led lexicon to measure emotional response to beer

    OpenAIRE

    Chaya, Carolina; Eaton, Curtis; Hewson, Louise; Fernández Vázquezc, Rocío; Fernández-Ruiz, Virginia; Smart, Katherine A.; Hort, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Previous researchers have recently recommended and utilised consumer-led lexicons to measure emotional response. This study further advances this approach by 1) making the lexicon generation process more efficient by using consumer focus groups as opposed to individual consumer interviews and 2) decreasing the number of responses required from each consumer by reducing the lexicon to categories of similar terms. In response to 10 lager samples which were manipulated in order to control select...

  13. Characterization of irradiated APDs for picosecond time measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centis Vignali, M.; Dalal, R.; Gallinaro, M.; Harrop, B.; Jain, G.; Lu, C.; McClish, M.; McDonald, K. T.; Moll, M.; Newcomer, F. M.; Ugobono, S. Otero; White, S.

    2018-01-01

    For their operation at the CERN High Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC), the ATLAS and CMS experiments are planning to implement dedicated systems to measure the time of arrival of minimum ionizing particles with an accuracy of about 30 ps. The timing detectors will be subjected to radiation levels corresponding up to a 1-MeV neutrons fluence (Φeq) of 1015 cm-2 for the goal integrated luminosity of HL-LHC of 3000 fb-1. In this paper, deep-diffused Avalanche Photo Diodes (APDs) produced by Radiation Monitoring Devices are examined as candidate timing detectors for HL-LHC applications. These APDs are operated at 1.8 kV, resulting in a gain of up to 500. The timing performance of the detectors is evaluated using a pulsed laser. The effects of radiation damage on current, signal amplitude, noise, and timing performance of the APDs are evaluated using detectors irradiated with neutrons up to Φeq = 1015 cm-2.

  14. Measurements of electron avalanche formation time in W-band microwave air breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, Alan M.; Hummelt, Jason S.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    We present measurements of formation times of electron avalanche ionization discharges induced by a focused 110 GHz millimeter-wave beam in atmospheric air. Discharges take place in a free volume of gas, with no nearby surfaces or objects. When the incident field amplitude is near the breakdown threshold for pulsed conditions, measured formation times are ∼0.1-2 μs over the pressure range 5-700 Torr. Combined with electric field breakdown threshold measurements, the formation time data shows the agreement of 110 GHz air breakdown with the similarity laws of gas discharges.

  15. Measurements of electron avalanche formation time in W-band microwave air breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Alan M.; Hummelt, Jason S.; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2011-08-01

    We present measurements of formation times of electron avalanche ionization discharges induced by a focused 110 GHz millimeter-wave beam in atmospheric air. Discharges take place in a free volume of gas, with no nearby surfaces or objects. When the incident field amplitude is near the breakdown threshold for pulsed conditions, measured formation times are ˜0.1-2 μs over the pressure range 5-700 Torr. Combined with electric field breakdown threshold measurements, the formation time data shows the agreement of 110 GHz air breakdown with the similarity laws of gas discharges.

  16. [Measuring nursing care times--methodologic and documentation problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomeyczik, S; Hunstein, D

    2001-08-01

    The time for needed nursing care is one important measurement as a basic for financing care. In Germany the Long Term Care Insurance (LTCI) reimburses nursing care depending on the time family care givers need to complete selected activities. The LTCI recommends certain time ranges for these activities, which are wholly compensatory, as a basic for assessment. The purpose is to enhance assessment justice and comparability. With the example of a German research project, which had to investigate the duration of these activities and the reasons for differences, questions are raised about some definition and interpretation problems. There are definition problems, since caring activities especially in private households are nearly never performed as clearly defined modules. Moreover, often different activities are performed simultaneously. However, the most important question is what exactly time numbers can say about the essentials of nursing care.

  17. Part-time work as a pre-retirement measure

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 7 December 2006, the Director-General has approved the extension of the Part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure for the year 2007, i.e. until 31 December 2007. Human Resources Department Tel. 72808/74128

  18. Part-time work as a pre-retirement measure

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee at its meeting on 2 November 2007, the Director-General has approved the extension of the part-time work scheme as a pre-retirement measure for the year 2008, i.e. until 31 December 2008. Human Resources Department Tel. 74484/73903

  19. Effect of intervention programs in schools to reduce screen time: a meta‐analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Roggia Friedrich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the effects of intervention program strategies on the time spent on activities such as watching television, playing videogames, and using the computer among schoolchildren. Sources: a search for randomized controlled trials available in the literature was performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library using the following Keywords randomized controlled trial, intervention studies, sedentary lifestyle, screen time, and school. A summary measure based on the standardized mean difference was used with a 95% confidence interval. Data synthesis: a total of 1,552 studies were identified, of which 16 were included in the meta‐analysis. The interventions in the randomized controlled trials (n = 8,785 showed a significant effect in reducing screen time, with a standardized mean difference (random effect of: −0.25 (−0.37, −0.13, p < 0.01. Conclusion: interventions have demonstrated the positive effects of the decrease of screen time among schoolchildren. Resumo: Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos das estratégias dos programas de intervenção sobre o tempo dedicado a atividades como assistir à televisão, jogar videogame e usar computador em escolares. Fonte dos dados: foi realizada busca de estudos controlados randomizados, disponíveis nas bases de dados eletrônicas PubMed, Lilacs, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science e Cochrane Library, com os descritores: randomized controlled trial, intervention studies, sedentary lifestyle, screen time e school. Medida de sumário baseada na diferença das médias padronizadas foi usada com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Síntese dos dados: foram identificados 1.552 estudos, dos quais 16 foram incluídos na meta‐análise. As intervenções nos estudos controlados randomizados (n = 8.785 apresentaram efeito significativo na redução do tempo em frente à tela, com diferença das médias padronizadas (efeito rand

  20. Reducing the metabolic cost of walking with an ankle exoskeleton: interaction between actuation timing and power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galle, Samuel; Malcolm, Philippe; Collins, Steven Hartley; De Clercq, Dirk

    2017-04-27

    Powered ankle-foot exoskeletons can reduce the metabolic cost of human walking to below normal levels, but optimal assistance properties remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of different assistance timing and power characteristics in an experiment with a tethered ankle-foot exoskeleton. Ten healthy female subjects walked on a treadmill with bilateral ankle-foot exoskeletons in 10 different assistance conditions. Artificial pneumatic muscles assisted plantarflexion during ankle push-off using one of four actuation onset timings (36, 42, 48 and 54% of the stride) and three power levels (average positive exoskeleton power over a stride, summed for both legs, of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.5 W∙kg -1 ). We compared metabolic rate, kinematics and electromyography (EMG) between conditions. Optimal assistance was achieved with an onset of 42% stride and average power of 0.4 W∙kg -1 , leading to 21% reduction in metabolic cost compared to walking with the exoskeleton deactivated and 12% reduction compared to normal walking without the exoskeleton. With suboptimal timing or power, the exoskeleton still reduced metabolic cost, but substantially less so. The relationship between timing, power and metabolic rate was well-characterized by a two-dimensional quadratic function. The assistive mechanisms leading to these improvements included reducing muscular activity in the ankle plantarflexors and assisting leg swing initiation. These results emphasize the importance of optimizing exoskeleton actuation properties when assisting or augmenting human locomotion. Our optimal assistance onset timing and average power levels could be used for other exoskeletons to improve assistance and resulting benefits.

  1. Determination of time delay between ventricles contraction using impedance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowska, M; Poliński, A; Wtorek, J

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents a novel approach to assessment of ventricular dyssynchrony basing on multichannel electrical impedance measurements. Using a proper placement of electrodes, the sensitivity approach allows estimating time difference between chambers contraction from over determined nonlinear system of equations. The theoretical considerations which include Finite Element Method simulations were verified using measurements on healthy 28 year's old woman. The nonlinear least squares method was applied to obtain a time difference between heart chambers contraction. The obtained value was in a good agreement with theoretical values found in literature.

  2. Quantitative density measurements from a real-time neutron radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRae, D.D.; Jenkins, R.W. Jr.; Brenizer, J.S.; Tobin, K.W.; Hosticka, B.; Sulcoski, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    An advanced video system has been assembled from commercially available equipment to support the real-time neutron radiography facility established jointly by the University of Virginia Department of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics, and the Philip Morris Research Center. A schematic diagram of the equipment used for real-time neutron radiography is presented. To obtain quantitative density measurements with this system, several modifications of both hardware and image processing software were required. After implementation of these changes, the system was capable of determining material densities by measuring the degree of neutron attenuation

  3. Surface-Borne Time-of-Reception Measurements (STORM), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon proposes the Surface-borne Time-Of-Reception Measurements (STORM) system as a method to locate the position of lightning strikes on aerospace vehicles....

  4. Understanding the exposure-time effect on speckle contrast measurements for laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Koji; Kubota, Shigeo

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of exposure time on speckle noise for laser displays, speckle contrast measurement method was developed observable at a human eye response time using a high-sensitivity camera which has a signal multiplying function. The nonlinearity of camera light sensitivity was calibrated to measure accurate speckle contrasts, and the measuring lower limit noise of speckle contrast was improved by applying spatial-frequency low pass filter to the captured images. Three commercially available laser displays were measured over a wide range of exposure times from tens of milliseconds to several seconds without adjusting the brightness of laser displays. The speckle contrast of raster-scanned mobile projector without any speckle-reduction device was nearly constant over various exposure times. On the contrary to this, in full-frame projection type laser displays equipped with a temporally-averaging speckle-reduction device, some of their speckle contrasts close to the lower limits noise were slightly increased at the shorter exposure time due to the noise. As a result, the exposure-time effect of speckle contrast could not be observed in our measurements, although it is more reasonable to think that the speckle contrasts of laser displays, which are equipped with the temporally-averaging speckle-reduction device, are dependent on the exposure time. This discrepancy may be attributed to the underestimation of temporal averaging factor. We expected that this method is useful for evaluating various laser displays and clarify the relationship between the speckle noise and the exposure time for a further verification of speckle reduction.

  5. Shortening Delivery Times of Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy by Reducing Proton Energy Layers During Treatment Plan Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Water, Steven van de, E-mail: s.vandewater@erasmusmc.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kooy, Hanne M. [F. H. Burr Proton Therapy Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To shorten delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy by reducing the number of energy layers in the treatment plan. Methods and Materials: We have developed an energy layer reduction method, which was implemented into our in-house-developed multicriteria treatment planning system “Erasmus-iCycle.” The method consisted of 2 components: (1) minimizing the logarithm of the total spot weight per energy layer; and (2) iteratively excluding low-weighted energy layers. The method was benchmarked by comparing a robust “time-efficient plan” (with energy layer reduction) with a robust “standard clinical plan” (without energy layer reduction) for 5 oropharyngeal cases and 5 prostate cases. Both plans of each patient had equal robust plan quality, because the worst-case dose parameters of the standard clinical plan were used as dose constraints for the time-efficient plan. Worst-case robust optimization was performed, accounting for setup errors of 3 mm and range errors of 3% + 1 mm. We evaluated the number of energy layers and the expected delivery time per fraction, assuming 30 seconds per beam direction, 10 ms per spot, and 400 Giga-protons per minute. The energy switching time was varied from 0.1 to 5 seconds. Results: The number of energy layers was on average reduced by 45% (range, 30%-56%) for the oropharyngeal cases and by 28% (range, 25%-32%) for the prostate cases. When assuming 1, 2, or 5 seconds energy switching time, the average delivery time was shortened from 3.9 to 3.0 minutes (25%), 6.0 to 4.2 minutes (32%), or 12.3 to 7.7 minutes (38%) for the oropharyngeal cases, and from 3.4 to 2.9 minutes (16%), 5.2 to 4.2 minutes (20%), or 10.6 to 8.0 minutes (24%) for the prostate cases. Conclusions: Delivery times of intensity modulated proton therapy can be reduced substantially without compromising robust plan quality. Shorter delivery times are likely to reduce treatment uncertainties and costs.

  6. Reduction of the jitter of single-flux-quantum time-to-digital converters for time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, K.; Muramatsu, Y.; Yamanashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, N.; Zen, N.; Ohkubo, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We proposed single-flux-quantum (SFQ) time-to-digital converters (TDCs) for TOF-MS. • SFQ TDC can measure time intervals between multiple signals with high-resolution. • SFQ TDC can directly convert the time intervals into binary data. • We designed two types of SFQ TDCs to reduce the jitter. • The jitter is reduced to less than 100 ps. - Abstract: We have been developing a high-resolution superconducting time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) system, which utilizes a superconducting strip ion detector (SSID) and a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) time-to-digital converter (TDC). The SFQ TDC can measure time intervals between multiple input signals and directly convert them into binary data. In our previous study, 24-bit SFQ TDC with a 3 × 24-bit First-In First-Out (FIFO) buffer was designed and implemented using the AIST Nb standard process 2 (STP2), whose time resolution and dynamic range are 100 ps and 1.6 ms, respectively. In this study we reduce the jitter of the TDC by using two different approaches: one uses an on-chip clock generator with an on-chip low-pass filter for reducing the noise in the bias current, and the other uses a low-jitter external clock source at room temperature. We confirmed that the jitter is reduced to less than 100 ps in the latter approach

  7. Reduction of the jitter of single-flux-quantum time-to-digital converters for time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, K., E-mail: sano-kyosuke-cw@ynu.jp [Department Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Muramatsu, Y.; Yamanashi, Y.; Yoshikawa, N. [Department Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Zen, N.; Ohkubo, M. [Research Institute of Instrumentation Frontier, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We proposed single-flux-quantum (SFQ) time-to-digital converters (TDCs) for TOF-MS. • SFQ TDC can measure time intervals between multiple signals with high-resolution. • SFQ TDC can directly convert the time intervals into binary data. • We designed two types of SFQ TDCs to reduce the jitter. • The jitter is reduced to less than 100 ps. - Abstract: We have been developing a high-resolution superconducting time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) system, which utilizes a superconducting strip ion detector (SSID) and a single-flux-quantum (SFQ) time-to-digital converter (TDC). The SFQ TDC can measure time intervals between multiple input signals and directly convert them into binary data. In our previous study, 24-bit SFQ TDC with a 3 × 24-bit First-In First-Out (FIFO) buffer was designed and implemented using the AIST Nb standard process 2 (STP2), whose time resolution and dynamic range are 100 ps and 1.6 ms, respectively. In this study we reduce the jitter of the TDC by using two different approaches: one uses an on-chip clock generator with an on-chip low-pass filter for reducing the noise in the bias current, and the other uses a low-jitter external clock source at room temperature. We confirmed that the jitter is reduced to less than 100 ps in the latter approach.

  8. Reducing the scan time in gastric emptying scintigraphy by using mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Min Ki; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Choe, Won Sick; Lee, Byeong Il; Lee, Jae Sung

    2005-01-01

    Gastric emptying scan (GES) is usually acquired up to 2 hours. Our study investigated whether a fraction of meal-retention in the stomach at 120 minutes (FR120) was predicted from the data measured for 90 minutes by using non-linear curve fitting. We aimed at saving the delayed imaging by utilizing mathematical models. Ninety-six patients underwent GES immediately after taking a boiled egg with 74 MBq (2 mCi) Tc-99m DTPA. The patients were divided into Group I (T 1/2 ≤ 90 min) and Group II (90 min 1/2 ≤ 120 min). Group I (n=51) had 21 men and 30 women, and Group II (n=45) 15 men and 30 women. There was no significant difference in age and sex between the two groups. Simple exponential, power exponential, and modified power exponential curves were acquired from the measured fraction of meal-retention at each time (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min) by non-linear curve fitting (MATLAB 5.3) and another simple exponential fitting was performed on the fractions at late times (60,75, and 90 min). A predicted FR120 was calculated from the acquired functional formulas. A correlation coefficient between the measured FR120 and the predicted FR120 was computed (MedCalc 6.0). Correlation coefficients(r) between the measured FR120 and the predicted FRA120 of each mathematical functions were as follows: simple exponential function (Group I: 0.8858, Group II: 0.5982, ρ 1/2 ≤ 90 min, the predicted FR120 is significantly correlated with the measured FR120. Therefore, FR120 can be predicted from the data measured for 90 minutes by using non-linear curve fitting, saving the delayed imaging after 90 minutes when T 1/2 ≤ 90 min is ascertained

  9. Measures to reduce particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide; Massnahmen zur Reduzierung von Feinstaub und Stickstoffdioxid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diegmann, Volker; Pfaefflin, Florian; Wiegand, Goetz; Wursthorn, Heike [IVU Umwelt GmbH, Freiburg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    1. Clean Air Plans and Action Plans published in Germany up to October 2005 are comparatively analysed. In the synopsis, these plans outline an extensive representation of the current air pollution situation, the different methods of forecast and the measures discussed. A thematic map representing the data of the clean air plans is used as an important means to the comparative reporting. The comparison shows among other things the regional (specific to Federal States) distinctions in the methods used and described. 2. A scheme of measures is being developed and filled with data, in order to research and evaluate the measures for PM{sub 10} and NO{sub 2} reduction as described in the plans. Source groups, fields of action, types and target values serve to classify the measures. The PM{sub 10} reducing measures analysed within the framework of the project are focussing with 79 % on the source group of motor vehicle traffic. Analyses of publications in other European countries show a focus on motor vehicle traffic as well. 3. The reduction potential of measures concerning PM10 emissions of motor vehicle traffic is determined. Selected measures are being analysed in regard to their impact limit and the administrative executive level. The emission and concentration reduction potential is being calculated for different configurations. If procurable, a concluding estimation of the cost efficiency is carried out und implementation conditions and barriers are discussed. 4. The most important results in section 3 are summarized in the separate abridged report 'Traffic measures to reduce particulate matter - possibilities and reduction potentials'. (orig.)

  10. Workload Capacity: A Response Time-Based Measure of Automation Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamani, Yusuke; McCarley, Jason S

    2016-05-01

    An experiment used the workload capacity measure C(t) to quantify the processing efficiency of human-automation teams and identify operators' automation usage strategies in a speeded decision task. Although response accuracy rates and related measures are often used to measure the influence of an automated decision aid on human performance, aids can also influence response speed. Mean response times (RTs), however, conflate the influence of the human operator and the automated aid on team performance and may mask changes in the operator's performance strategy under aided conditions. The present study used a measure of parallel processing efficiency, or workload capacity, derived from empirical RT distributions as a novel gauge of human-automation performance and automation dependence in a speeded task. Participants performed a speeded probabilistic decision task with and without the assistance of an automated aid. RT distributions were used to calculate two variants of a workload capacity measure, COR(t) and CAND(t). Capacity measures gave evidence that a diagnosis from the automated aid speeded human participants' responses, and that participants did not moderate their own decision times in anticipation of diagnoses from the aid. Workload capacity provides a sensitive and informative measure of human-automation performance and operators' automation dependence in speeded tasks. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  11. Effectiveness of emission reducing measures for cattle farms; Effectiviteit van emissiereducerende maatregelen rondom veehouderijbedrijven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraai, A.; Bleeker, A. [ECN, Biomassa, Kolen en Milieuonderzoek, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-11-15

    The results of a survey on the cost effectiveness of measures with the goal to reduce emissions of fine dust from livestock production are presented. All these measures have their advantages and disadvantages. This report mainly focuses on the reduction of particulate matter. Other environmental problems in agriculture, e.g. ammonia and odour, can also be tackled with these measures. Different measures are compared for cost effectiveness in Euro per kg PM10 reduction and also the reduction percentage. Oil sprinkling and electrostatic filter systems appear as cost effective and the air quality in the air as well as in the stable is improved. These techniques can be combined with end-of-pipe techniques, e.g. air scrubbers, or even better, combined scrubbers to reduce other emissions as ammonia and odour. Many techniques are still in a research phase; therefore estimations are made most of the times. More measuring has to be carried to improve the accuracy of the reduction percentages. Besides, practical feasibility and animal welfare have to be taken into account with every measure taken. [Dutch] In deze rapportage is de kosteneffectiviteit van maatregelen in kaart gebracht, die als doel hebben de fijnstofemissies vanuit de landbouw te reduceren. In deze rapportage is vooral gezocht naar maatregelen om fijn stof te reduceren. De andere milieuproblemen in de landbouw als ammoniak en geur zouden hiermee eveneens gereduceerd kunnen worden. Uit de analyse is gebleken dat alle voermaatregelen kostbaar zijn terwijl de reductie niet erg groot is, deze opties zijn daardoor minder kosteneffectief. Olie vernevelen en het toepassen van een elektrostatisch filter lijken effectieve en niet te kostbare maatregelen, waarbij ook de luchtkwaliteit in de stal wordt verbeterd. Deze technieken zouden gecombineerd kunnen worden met de luchtwassers of gecombineerde wassers om meerdere luchtverontreinigingscomponenten te reduceren. Vegetatie aanplanten rondom boerderijen is een optie die

  12. Nursing students' time management, reducing stress and gaining satisfaction: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Rafii, Forough

    2012-03-01

    In the course of their studies, nursing students must learn many skills and acquire the knowledge required for their future profession. This study investigates how Iranian nursing students manage their time according to the circumstances and obstacles of their academic field. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Twenty-one nursing students were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the method suggested by Corbin and Strauss. One of the three processes that the nursing students used was "unidirectional time management." This pattern consists of accepting the nursing field, overcoming uncertainty, assessing conditions, feeling stress, and trying to reduce stress and create satisfaction. It was found that students allotted most of their time to academic tasks in an attempt to overcome their stress. The findings of this study indicate the need for these students to have time for the extra-curricular activities and responsibilities that are appropriate to their age. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  13. Time-Lapse Measurement of Wellbore Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguid, A.

    2017-12-01

    Well integrity is becoming more important as wells are used longer or repurposed. For CO2, shale gas, and other projects it has become apparent that wells represent the most likely unintended migration pathway for fluids out of the reservoir. Comprehensive logging programs have been employed to determine the condition of legacy wells in North America. These studies provide examples of assessment technologies. Logging programs have included pulsed neutron logging, ultrasonic well mapping, and cement bond logging. While these studies provide examples of what can be measured, they have only conducted a single round of logging and cannot show if the well has changed over time. Recent experience with time-lapse logging of three monitoring wells at a US Department of Energy sponsored CO2 project has shown the full value of similar tools. Time-lapse logging has shown that well integrity changes over time can be identified. It has also shown that the inclusion of and location of monitoring technologies in the well and the choice of construction materials must be carefully considered. Two of the wells were approximately eight years old at the time of study; they were constructed with steel and fiberglass casing sections and had lines on the outside of the casing running to the surface. The third well was 68 years old when it was studied and was originally constructed as a production well. Repeat logs were collected six or eight years after initial logging. Time-lapse logging showed the evolution of the wells. The results identified locations where cement degraded over time and locations that showed little change. The ultrasonic well maps show clearly that the lines used to connect the monitoring technology to the surface are visible and have a local effect on cement isolation. Testing and sampling was conducted along with logging. It provided insight into changes identified in the time-lapse log results. Point permeability testing was used to provide an in-situ point

  14. Real-time measurement and control at Jet. Experiment Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felton, R.; Zabeo, L.; Sartori, F.; Piccolo, F.; Farthing, J.; Budd, T.; Dorling, S.; McCullen, P.; Harling, J.; Dalley, S.; Goodyear, A.; Stephen, A.; Card, P.; Bright, M.; Lucock, R.; Jones, E.; Griph, S.; Hogben, C.; Beldishevski, M.; Buckley, M.; Davis, J.; Young, I.; Hemming, O.; Wheatley, M.; Heesterman, P.; Lloyd, G.; Walters, M.; Bridge, R.; Leggate, H.; Howell, D.; Zastrow, K.D.; Giroud, C.; Coffey, I.; Hawkes, N.; Stamp, M.; Barnsley, R.; Edlington, T.; Guenther, K.; Gowers, C.; Popovichef, S.; Huber, A.; Ingesson, C.; Joffrin, E.; Mazon, D.; Moreau, D.; Murari, A.; Riva, M.; Barana, O.; Bolzonella, T.; Valisa, M.; Innocente, P.; Zerbini, M.; Bosak, K.; Blum, J.; Vitale, E.; Crisanti, F.; La Luna, E. de; Sanchez, J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past few ears, the preparation of ITER-relevant plasma scenarios has been the main focus experimental activity on tokamaks. The development of integrated, simultaneous, real-time controls of plasma shape, current, pressure, temperature, radiation, neutron profiles, and also impurities, ELMs (edge localized modes) and MHD are now seen to be essential for further development of quasi-steady state conditions with feedback, or the stabilisation of transient phenomena with event-driven actions. For this thrust, the EFDA JET Real Time Project has developed a set of real-time plasma measurements, experiment control, and communication facilities. The Plasma Diagnostics used for real-time experiments are Far Infra Red interferometry, polarimetry, visible, UV and X-ray spectroscopy, LIDAR, bolometry, neutron and magnetics. Further analysis systems produce integrated results such as temperature profiles on geometry derived from MHD equilibrium solutions. The Actuators include toroidal, poloidal and divertor coils, gas and pellet fuelling, neutral beam injection, radiofrequency (ICRH) waves and microwaves (LH). The Heating/Fuelling Operators can either define a power or gas request waveform or select the real-time instantaneous power/gas request from the Real Time Experiment Central Control (RTCC) system. The Real Time Experiment Control system provides both a high-level, control-programming environment and interlocks with the actuators. A MATLAB facility is being developed for the development of more complex controllers. The plasma measurement, controller and plant control systems communicate in ATM network. The EFDA Real Time project is essential groundwork for future reactors such as ITER. It involves many staff from several institutions. The facility is now frequently used in experiments. (authors)

  15. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  16. Evaluation of airway protection: Quantitative timing measures versus penetration/aspiration score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine A

    2017-10-01

    Quantitative measures of swallowing function may improve the reliability and accuracy of modified barium swallow (MBS) study interpretation. Quantitative study analysis has not been widely instituted, however, secondary to concerns about the time required to make measures and a lack of research demonstrating impact on MBS interpretation. This study compares the accuracy of the penetration/aspiration (PEN/ASP) scale (an observational visual-perceptual assessment tool) to quantitative measures of airway closure timing relative to the arrival of the bolus at the upper esophageal sphincter in identifying a failure of airway protection during deglutition. Retrospective review of clinical swallowing data from a university-based outpatient clinic. Swallowing data from 426 patients were reviewed. Patients with normal PEN/ASP scores were identified, and the results of quantitative airway closure timing measures for three liquid bolus sizes were evaluated. The incidence of significant airway closure delay with and without a normal PEN/ASP score was determined. Inter-rater reliability for the quantitative measures was calculated. In patients with a normal PEN/ASP score, 33% demonstrated a delay in airway closure on at least one swallow during the MBS study. There was no correlation between PEN/ASP score and airway closure delay. Inter-rater reliability for the quantitative measure of airway closure timing was nearly perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.973). The use of quantitative measures of swallowing function, in conjunction with traditional visual perceptual methods of MBS study interpretation, improves the identification of airway closure delay, and hence, potential aspiration risk, even when no penetration or aspiration is apparent on the MBS study. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2314-2318, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. A Reduced-Order Controller Considering High-Order Modal Information of High-Rise Buildings for AMD Control System with Time-Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuo-Hua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-delays of control force calculation, data acquisition, and actuator response will degrade the performance of Active Mass Damper (AMD control systems. To reduce the influence, model reduction method is used to deal with the original controlled structure. However, during the procedure, the related hierarchy information of small eigenvalues will be directly discorded. As a result, the reduced-order model ignores the information of high-order mode, which will reduce the design accuracy of an AMD control system. In this paper, a new reduced-order controller based on the improved Balanced Truncation (BT method is designed to reduce the calculation time and to retain the abandoned high-order modal information. It includes high-order natural frequency, damping ratio, and vibration modal information of the original structure. Then, a control gain design method based on Guaranteed Cost Control (GCC algorithm is presented to eliminate the adverse effects of data acquisition and actuator response time-delays in the design process of the reduced-order controller. To verify its effectiveness, the proposed methodology is applied to a numerical example of a ten-storey frame and an experiment of a single-span four-storey steel frame. Both numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the reduced-order controller with GCC algorithm has an excellent control effect; meanwhile it can compensate time-delays effectively.

  18. Measurement of the residence time distribution in industrial flotation equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yianatos, Juan; Diaz, F; Rodriguez, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    This work presents a determination of the effective liquid and solid residence time in mechanical cell banks of primary and sweep flotation, and in cleaning flotation columns, at Codelco-Chile's Salvador Division. The determination was carried out using the residence time distribution (RTD) measurement with radioactive tracers. Br-82 was used as the trace element for the liquid. Different kinds of minerals were used to trace the solid: a) activated global tailing (non floatable), b) tailing activated by size classifications (non floatable) and c) activated floatable mineral. The residence time measurement defined effective volumes of 50-80% of the total volume in flotation cell banks, and effective volumes of 77% of the total volume of large-size flotation solids. The effective residence time of the solid (23%+212 microns) in industrial flotation cell banks was 5% below that for the liquid. The residence time of the mineral decreased with increased particle size. Thick mineral (>150 microns) showed a residence time 8% below that for thin mineral (<45 microns). The RTD of industrial mechanical cell banks is adequately represented with a number of perfect mixers in series equivalent to the number of real bank cells. The RTD of the industrial columns equals less than two perfect mixers in series and adjusts better when considering a perfect mixers in series model, but in a different size. Common operating problems could also be observed and analyzed through the RTD measurement, such as embankment of the equipment and the deficient regulation of the outflow, used to control the pulp level (Cw)

  19. Potential and cost-effectiveness of CO{sub 2}-reducing measures in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellersten, K.; Westermark, M.; Yan, J. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology/Energy Processes

    2001-07-01

    Using the two criteria of potential CO{sub 2} reduction and cost of CO{sub 2} reduction several technical options in the pulp and paper industry are investigated. Principal CO{sub 2} reducing measures include: decreasing fuel consumption through improved heat exchanging or new processes with lower heat demand, decreasing electricity consumption, substituting fossil fuels with biofuels, exporting refined biofuels for external use, increasing CO{sub 2} neutral electricity generation, improving waste heat utilization and decreasing specific raw material consumption. The results show that electricity conservation and improvement of existing steam power cycles are the most cost-effective options that have a large potential to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Outsourcing of industrial energy operations to utilities may enable CO{sub 2} reducing measures that would not be carried out by industry due to differences in demands for profit on spent capita. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Negative emotional stimuli reduce contextual cueing but not response times in inefficient search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; Watson, Derrick G; Cole, Louise; Cox, Angeline

    2014-02-01

    In visual search, previous work has shown that negative stimuli narrow the focus of attention and speed reaction times (RTs). This paper investigates these two effects by first asking whether negative emotional stimuli narrow the focus of attention to reduce the learning of a display context in a contextual cueing task and, second, whether exposure to negative stimuli also reduces RTs in inefficient search tasks. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either negative or neutral images (faces or scenes) prior to a contextual cueing task. In a typical contextual cueing experiment, RTs are reduced if displays are repeated across the experiment compared with novel displays that are not repeated. The results showed that a smaller contextual cueing effect was obtained after participants viewed negative stimuli than when they viewed neutral stimuli. However, in contrast to previous work, overall search RTs were not faster after viewing negative stimuli (Experiments 2 to 4). The findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional content on visual processing and the ability to use scene context to help facilitate search.

  1. Neutron spectrum measurement using rise-time discrimination method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zhiping; Suzuki, C.; Kosako, T.; Ma Jizeng

    2009-01-01

    PSD method can be used to measure the fast neutron spectrum in n/γ mixed field. A set of assemblies for measuring the pulse height distribution of neutrons is built up,based on a large volume NE213 liquid scintillator and standard NIM circuits,through the rise-time discrimination method. After that,the response matrix is calculated using Monte Carlo method. The energy calibration of the pulse height distribution is accomplished using 60 Co radioisotope. The neutron spectrum of the mono-energetic accelerator neutron source is achieved by unfolding process. Suggestions for further improvement of the system are presented at last. (authors)

  2. Real-Time Inhibitor Recession Measurements in the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhorter, Bruce B.; Ewing, Mark E.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Real-time char line recession measurements were made on propellant inhibitors of the Space Shuttle Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM). The RSRM FSM-8 static test motor propellant inhibitors (composed of a rubber insulation material) were successfully instrumented with eroding potentiometers and thermocouples. The data was used to establish inhibitor recession versus time relationships. Normally, pre-fire and post-fire insulation thickness measurements establish the thermal performance of an ablating insulation material. However, post-fire inhibitor decomposition and recession measurements are complicated by the fact that most of the inhibitor is back during motor operation. It is therefore a difficult task to evaluate the thermal protection offered by the inhibitor material. Real-time measurements would help this task. The instrumentation program for this static test motor marks the first time that real-time inhibitors. This report presents that data for the center and aft field joint forward facing inhibitors. The data was primarily used to measure char line recession of the forward face of the inhibitors which provides inhibitor thickness reduction versus time data. The data was also used to estimate the inhibitor height versus time relationship during motor operation.

  3. A Computer-Based Glucose Management System Reduces the Incidence of Forgotten Glucose Measurements: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Tsuyoshi; Teramoto, Kei; Koshitani, Rie; Fujioka, Yohei; Endo, Yusuke; Ueki, Masaru; Kato, Masahiko; Taniguchi, Shin-Ichi; Kondo, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro

    2018-04-17

    Frequent glucose measurements are needed for good blood glucose control in hospitals; however, this requirement means that measurements can be forgotten. We developed a novel glucose management system using an iPod ® and electronic health records. A time schedule system for glucose measurement was developed using point-of-care testing, an iPod ® , and electronic health records. The system contains the glucose measurement schedule and an alarm sounds if a measurement is forgotten. The number of times measurements were forgotten was analyzed. Approximately 7000 glucose measurements were recorded per month. Before implementation of the system, the average number of times measurements were forgotten was 4.8 times per month. This significantly decreased to 2.6 times per month after the system started. We also analyzed the incidence of forgotten glucose measurements as a proportion of the total number of measurements for each period and found a significant difference between the two 9-month periods (43/64,049-24/65,870, P = 0.014, chi-squared test). This computer-based blood glucose monitoring system is useful for the management of glucose monitoring in hospitals. Johnson & Johnson Japan.

  4. Do work-place initiated measures reduce sickness absence? Preventive measures and sickness absence among older workers in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtsundstad, Tove I; Nielsen, Roy A

    2014-03-01

    The article examines whether preventive measures and work adjustments at the establishment level affects sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. We combine survey data from a representative sample of 713 Norwegian companies, mapping the prevalence of preventive health measures in the work place in 2005, with register data on sickness absence and demographic variables for workers aged 50 years or older in 2001 and 2007. By means of a difference-in-differences approach, we compare changes and differences in the likelihood of sickness absence among the sample group, with and without the various measures/ instruments in 2005 respectively. In general, work-place preventive measures at the establishment level have not contributed to reducing the probability for sickness absence among workers aged 50 years and older. However, analyses comparing differences between industries find that the work-place measures have had a positive effect on public administration employees. Whether work-place preventive initiatives influence levels of sickness absence seems to be contingent on sector and industry. Therefore, work-place measures may be more effective in the public administration sector where most employees have office jobs compared to sectors such as manufacturing, construction and transportation, where many employees have manual work and more physical demanding jobs. Work-place initiatives thus seem to have less effect on preventing sickness absence in sectors dominated by manual labour.

  5. Timely Referral to Outpatient Nephrology Care Slows Progression and Reduces Treatment Costs of Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Lonnemann

    2017-03-01

    Discussion: Timely referral to outpatient nephrology care is associated with slowed disease progression, less hospital admissions, reduced total treatment costs, and improved survival in patients with CKD.

  6. AIMBAT: A Python/Matplotlib Tool for Measuring Teleseismic Arrival Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, X.; van der Lee, S.; Lloyd, S.

    2013-12-01

    Python is an open-source, platform-independent, and object-oriented scripting language. It became more popular in the seismologist community since the appearance of ObsPy (Beyreuther et al. 2010, Megies et al. 2011), which provides a powerful framework for seismic data access and processing. This study introduces a new Python-based tool named AIMBAT (Automated and Interactive Measurement of Body-wave Arrival Times) for measuring teleseismic body-wave arrival times on large-scale seismic event data (Lou et al. 2013). Compared to ObsPy, AIMBAT is a lighter tool that is more focused on a particular aspect of seismic data processing. It originates from the widely used MCCC (Multi-Channel Cross-Correlation) method developed by VanDecar and Crosson (1990). On top of the original MCCC procedure, AIMBAT is automated in initial phase picking and is interactive in quality control. The core cross-correlation function is implemented in Fortran to boost up performance in addition to Python. The GUI (graphical user interface) of AIMBAT depends on Matplotlib's GUI-neutral widgets and event-handling API. A number of sorting and (de)selecting options are designed to facilitate the quality control of seismograms. By using AIMBAT, both relative and absolute teleseismic body-wave arrival times are measured. AIMBAT significantly improves efficiency and quality of the measurements. User interaction is needed only to pick the target phase arrival and to set a time window on the array stack. The package is easy to install and use, open-source, and is publicly available. Graphical user interface of AIMBAT.

  7. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  8. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  9. Real-time monitoring of emissions with traffic data, simulation and air quality measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klunder, G.A.; Wilmink, I.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility to decide when to apply a (dynamic) traffic management measure to improve the air quality or reduce CO2 emissions, based on a limited set of (measured) data. It is expected that a combination of monitoring and modeling is needed for reliable air quality

  10. AC loss time constant measurements on Nb3Al and NbTi multifilamentary superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, T.A.

    1988-03-01

    The AC loss time constant is a previously univestigated property of Nb 3 Al, a superconductor which, with recent technological developments, shows some advantages over the more commonly used superconductors, NbTi and Nb 3 Sn. Four Nb 3 Al samples with varying twist pitches and one NbTi sample are inductively measured for their AC loss time constants. The measured time constants are compared to the theoretical time constant limits imposed by the limits of the transverse resistivity found by Carr [5] and to the theoretical time constants found using the Bean Model as well as to each other. The measured time constants of the Nb 3 Al samples fall approximately halfway between the theoretical time constant limits, and the measured time constants of the NbTi sample is close to the theoretical lower time constant limit. The Bean Model adequately accounts for the variance of the permeability of the Nb 3 Al superconductor in a background magnetic field. Finally, the measured time constant values of the Nb 3 Al samples vary approximately according to the square of their twist pitch. (author)

  11. Capital and time: uncertainty and qualitative measures of inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Laura

    2014-12-01

    This review compares Piketty and Marx's approaches to capital and time in order to argue for the importance of qualitative measures of inequality. These latter measures emphasize varying experiences across classes and through history of uncertainty and insecurity. They explore how the social rhythms of capital profoundly affect the ability to plan a life-course. Quantitative measures such as those used by Piketty that focus on the amount of capital that accrues through time cannot capture such important phenomenon. This is especially because their calculations rest on absolute amounts of capital recorded in formal state statistics. Their limits are particularly revealed if we consider issues of: informal labour, social reproduction, and changing institutional forms of public debt. If we are to build the inter-disciplinary rapprochement between social science and economics that Piketty calls for it must be through asserting the value of qualitative measures of insecurity and its effects on decision making. These are important to track both at the macro-level of institutions and at the micro-level scale of human lives. It is, therefore, through emphasizing the existing strengths of both anthropology and history that we can meet Piketty's important challenge to make our scholarship relevant to current political and social debates. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  12. New Designs of Reduced-Order Observer-Based Controllers for Singularly Perturbed Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heonjong Yoo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The slow and fast reduced-order observers and reduced-order observer-based controllers are designed by using the two-stage feedback design technique for slow and fast subsystems. The new designs produce an arbitrary order of accuracy, while the previously known designs produce the accuracy of O(ϵ only where ϵ is a small singular perturbation parameter. Several cases of reduced-order observer designs are considered depending on the measured state space variables: only all slow variables are measured, only all fast variables are measured, and some combinations of the slow and fast variables are measured. Since the two-stage methods have been used to overcome the numerical ill-conditioning problem for Cases (III–(V, they have similar procedures. The numerical ill-conditioning problem is avoided so that independent feedback controllers can be applied to each subsystem. The design allows complete time-scale separation for both the reduced-order observer and controller through the complete and exact decomposition into slow and fast time scales. This method reduces both offline and online computations.

  13. Time-resolved measurement of global synchronization in the dust acoustic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. D.

    2014-10-01

    A spatially and temporally resolved measurement of the synchronization of the naturally occurring dust acoustic wave to an external drive and the relaxation from the driven wave mode back to the naturally occuring wave mode is presented. This measurement provides a time-resolved measurement of the synchronization of the self-excited dust acoustic wave with an external drive and the return to the self-excited mode. It is observed that the wave synchronizes to the external drive in a distinct time-dependent fashion, while there is an immediate loss of synchronization when the external modulation is discontinued.

  14. Detection of bump-on-tail reduced electron velocity distributions at the electron foreshock boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzenreiter, R.J.; Klimas, A.J.; Scudder, J.D.

    1984-02-01

    Reduced velocity distributions are derived from three-dimensional measurements of the velocity distribution of electrons in the 7 to 500 eV range in the electron foreshock. Bump-on-tail reduced distributions are presented for the first time at the foreshock boundary consistent with Filbert and Kellogg's proposed time-of-flight mechanism for generating the electron beams. In a significant number of boundary crossings, bump-on-tail reduced distributions were found in consecutive 3 sec measurements made 9 sec apart. It is concluded that, although the beams are linearly unstable to plasma waves according to the Penrose criterion, they persist on a time scale of 3 to 15 sec

  15. A continuous time-resolved measure decoded from EEG oscillatory activity predicts working memory task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrand, Elaine

    2018-06-01

    Working memory (WM), crucial for successful behavioral performance in most of our everyday activities, holds a central role in goal-directed behavior. As task demands increase, inducing higher WM load, maintaining successful behavioral performance requires the brain to work at the higher end of its capacity. Because it is depending on both external and internal factors, individual WM load likely varies in a continuous fashion. The feasibility to extract such a continuous measure in time that correlates to behavioral performance during a working memory task remains unsolved. Multivariate pattern decoding was used to test whether a decoder constructed from two discrete levels of WM load can generalize to produce a continuous measure that predicts task performance. Specifically, a linear regression with L2-regularization was chosen with input features from EEG oscillatory activity recorded from healthy participants while performing the n-back task, [Formula: see text]. The feasibility to extract a continuous time-resolved measure that correlates positively to trial-by-trial working memory task performance is demonstrated (r  =  0.47, p  performance before action (r  =  0.49, p  <  0.05). We show that the extracted continuous measure enables to study the temporal dynamics of the complex activation pattern of WM encoding during the n-back task. Specifically, temporally precise contributions of different spectral features are observed which extends previous findings of traditional univariate approaches. These results constitute an important contribution towards a wide range of applications in the field of cognitive brain-machine interfaces. Monitoring mental processes related to attention and WM load to reduce the risk of committing errors in high-risk environments could potentially prevent many devastating consequences or using the continuous measure as neurofeedback opens up new possibilities to develop novel rehabilitation techniques for

  16. Property of various correlation measures of open Dirac system with Hawking effect in Schwarzschild space–time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Juan; Xu, Shuai; Yu, Yang; Ye, Liu

    2015-01-01

    We explore the performance of various correlation measures for open Dirac system with Hawking effect in Schwarzschild space–time. Our results indicate that the impact of Hawking effect on physical accessible entanglement is weaker than that of decoherence. For generalized amplitude damping (GAD) channel, the entanglement sudden death (ESD) is analyzed in detail, and the inequivalence of quantization for Dirac particles in the black hole and Kruskal space–time is verified via quantum discord measure. In addition, as an example for interpreting Bell non-locality, we study the GAD channel with Hawking effect. It can be noticed that there is a boundary line of Bell violation for physically accessible states. That is, quantum non-locality would disappear when Hawking temperature exceeds a certain value. This critical temperature increases as a decoherence parameter decreases. In the case of phase damping (PD) channel, the interaction between the particle and noise environment does not produce bipartite system–environment entanglement. Then we discuss entanglement distributions, and find that the reduced physically accessible entanglement can be redistributed to physical inaccessible region. At last, we extend our investigation to an N-qubit system, and obtain a universal expression of the physical accessible entanglement

  17. Challenges in reducing the computational time of QSTS simulations for distribution system analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deboever, Jeremiah [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Zhang, Xiaochen [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Reno, Matthew J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broderick, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Grijalva, Santiago [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Therrien, Francis [CME International T& D, St. Bruno, QC (Canada)

    2017-06-01

    The rapid increase in penetration of distributed energy resources on the electric power distribution system has created a need for more comprehensive interconnection modelling and impact analysis. Unlike conventional scenario - based studies , quasi - static time - series (QSTS) simulation s can realistically model time - dependent voltage controllers and the diversity of potential impacts that can occur at different times of year . However, to accurately model a distribution system with all its controllable devices, a yearlong simulation at 1 - second resolution is often required , which could take conventional computers a computational time of 10 to 120 hours when an actual unbalanced distribution feeder is modeled . This computational burden is a clear l imitation to the adoption of QSTS simulation s in interconnection studies and for determining optimal control solutions for utility operations . Our ongoing research to improve the speed of QSTS simulation has revealed many unique aspects of distribution system modelling and sequential power flow analysis that make fast QSTS a very difficult problem to solve. In this report , the most relevant challenges in reducing the computational time of QSTS simulations are presented: number of power flows to solve, circuit complexity, time dependence between time steps, multiple valid power flow solutions, controllable element interactions, and extensive accurate simulation analysis.

  18. Grasp: Tracing, visualizing and measuring the behavior of real-time systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holenderski, M.J.; Heuvel, van den M.M.H.P.; Bril, R.J.; Lukkien, J.J.; Lipari, G.; Cucinotta, T.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding and validating the timing behavior of real-time systems is not trivial. Many real-time operating systems and their development environments do not provide tracing support, and provide only limited visualization, measurements and analysis tools. This paper presents Grasp, a tool for

  19. Three measures of longevity: time trends and record values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, V

    2010-01-01

    at birth increased from a level of 44 years in Sweden in 1840 to 82 years in Japan in 2005. The record median age at death shows increasing patterns similar to those observed in life expectancy at birth. However, the record modal age at death changes very little until the second half of the twentieth......This article examines the trend over time in the measures of “typical” longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy...... time from a dominance of child mortality reductions to a dominance of adult mortality reductions, which became evident by studying trends in the record modal age at death....

  20. Work measurement for estimating food preparation time of a bioregenerative diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabi, Ammar; Hunter, Jean; Jackson, Peter; Segal, Michele; Spies, Rupert; Wang, Carolyn; Lau, Christina; Ong, Christopher; Alexander, Conor; Raskob, Evan; hide

    2003-01-01

    During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and preparation is time lost for other purposes. Recipe design and diet planning for a space mission should therefore incorporate the time required to prepare the recipes as a critical factor. In this study, videotape analysis of an experienced chef was used to develop a database of recipe preparation time. The measurements were highly consistent among different measurement teams. Data analysis revealed a wide variation between the active times of different recipes, underscoring the need for optimization of diet planning. Potential uses of the database developed in this study are discussed and illustrated in this work.

  1. Measurements of cascade times of antiprotons in molecular hydrogen and helium

    CERN Document Server

    Bianconi, A; Corradini, M; Donzella, A; Gómez, G; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Venturelli, L; Vilar, R; Zenoni, A; Bertin, A; Bruschi, M; Capponi, M; De Castro, S; Donà, R; Galli, D; Giacobbe, B; Marconi, U; Massa, I; Piccinini, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Spighi, R; Vagnoni, V M; Vecchi, S; Villa, M; Vitale, A; Zoccoli, A; Cicalò, C; De Falco, A; Masoni, A; Puddu, G; Serci, S; Usai, G L; Gorchakov, O E; Prakhov, S N; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Tretyak, V I; Poli, M; Gianotti, P; Guaraldo, C; Lanaro, A; Lucherini, V; Petrascu, C; Ableev, V G; Ricci, R A; Vannucci, Luigi; Filippini, V; Fontana, A; Montagna, P; Rotondi, A; Salvini, P; Mirfakhraee, N; Bussa, M P; Busso, L; Cerello, P G; Denisov, O Yu; Ferrero, L; Garfagnini, R; Grasso, A; Maggiora, A; Panzarasa, A; Panzieri, D; Tosello, F; Botta, E; Bressani, Tullio; Calvo, D; Costa, S; D'Isep, F; Feliciello, A; Filippi, A; Marcello, S; Agnello, M; Iazzi, F; Minetti, B; Tessaro, S; Santi, L

    2000-01-01

    The OBELIX experiment at CERN collected samples of antiproton annihilations at rest in different gaseous targets, such as hydrogen, deuterium and helium. We analyze a set of the Obelix data using a new technique for measuring, for the first time, the cascade times independent of the capture energy and of the antiproton stopping power. We report on measurements of the cascade times for hydrogen at 3.4, 5.8, 9.8 and 150 mbar and for helium at 8.2, 50 and 150 mbar pressure. An estimate of the antiproton capture energy in hydrogen is also presented. (12 refs).

  2. Real-time scintillation probe measurement of left ventricular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.V.; Ostrow, H.G.; Bacharach, S.L.; Allen, S.I.; Bonow, R.O.; Johnston, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    The micro-processor based system described in this report was designed for maximum flexibility and utility. While the principle function of the system is to acquire, create, analyze and display (in real-time) left ventricular time activity (or volume) curves, provision is also made to acquire additional physiologic signals (e.g., ECG, flowmeter, etc.) and to calculate and display relationships between these various data. The system was designed for interactive use so that the system user can alter the course of a series of measurements based on previous results. These general capabilities are illustrated with several examples. In the first, LV function was measured continuously in a subject from (supine) rest through exercise and recovery. The second example illustrates the use of the system in acquiring (LV) pressure-volume loops. Several technical problems, such as correction for LV background radiation, appear at present to limit the probes applicability. Even now, however, probe systems are demonstrably useful in the study of global left ventricular function when this function is changing rapidly with time in response to various interventions. (orig.) [de

  3. Numerical simulation of homogenization time measurement by probes with different volume size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyn, J.; Novy, M.; Zitny, R.; Mostek, M.; Jahoda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Results of continuous homogenization time measurement of liquid in a stirred tank depend on the scale of scrutiny. Experimental techniques use a probe, which is situated inside as a conductivity method, or outside of the tank as in the case of gamma-radiotracer methods. Expected value of homogenization time evaluated for a given degree of homogenization is higher when using the conductivity method because the conductivity probe measures relatively small volume in contrast to application of radiotracer, when the volume is much greater. Measurement through the wall of tank is a great advantage of radiotracer application but a comparison of the results with another method supposes a determination of measured volume, which is not easy. Simulation of measurement by CFD code can help to solve the problem. Methodology for CFD simulation of radiotracer experiments was suggested. Commercial software was used for simulation of liquid homogenization in mixed vessel with Rushton turbine. Numerical simulation of liquid homogenization time by CFD for different values of detected volume was confronted with measurement of homogenization time with conductivity probe and with different radioisotopes 198 Au, 82 Br and 24 Na. Detected size of the tank volume was affected by different energy of radioisotope used. (author)

  4. Period, epoch, and prediction errors of ephemerides from continuous sets of timing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeg, H. J.

    2015-06-01

    Space missions such as Kepler and CoRoT have led to large numbers of eclipse or transit measurements in nearly continuous time series. This paper shows how to obtain the period error in such measurements from a basic linear least-squares fit, and how to correctly derive the timing error in the prediction of future transit or eclipse events. Assuming strict periodicity, a formula for the period error of these time series is derived, σP = σT (12 / (N3-N))1 / 2, where σP is the period error, σT the timing error of a single measurement, and N the number of measurements. Compared to the iterative method for period error estimation by Mighell & Plavchan (2013), this much simpler formula leads to smaller period errors, whose correctness has been verified through simulations. For the prediction of times of future periodic events, usual linear ephemeris were epoch errors are quoted for the first time measurement, are prone to an overestimation of the error of that prediction. This may be avoided by a correction for the duration of the time series. An alternative is the derivation of ephemerides whose reference epoch and epoch error are given for the centre of the time series. For long continuous or near-continuous time series whose acquisition is completed, such central epochs should be the preferred way for the quotation of linear ephemerides. While this work was motivated from the analysis of eclipse timing measures in space-based light curves, it should be applicable to any other problem with an uninterrupted sequence of discrete timings for which the determination of a zero point, of a constant period and of the associated errors is needed.

  5. A time-dependent measurement of charm CP violation at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, M

    2014-01-01

    A time dependent analysis of CP violation in charm mesons is presented through the measurement of the observable $A_{\\Gamma}$. This observable involves precise measurements of the D0 lifetime as it decays to a CP eigenstate. The results presented are the most precise to date. No CP violation is observed.

  6. Measuring Physical Inactivity: Do Current Measures Provide an Accurate View of “Sedentary” Video Game Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fullerton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Measures of screen time are often used to assess sedentary behaviour. Participation in activity-based video games (exergames can contribute to estimates of screen time, as current practices of measuring it do not consider the growing evidence that playing exergames can provide light to moderate levels of physical activity. This study aimed to determine what proportion of time spent playing video games was actually spent playing exergames. Methods. Data were collected via a cross-sectional telephone survey in South Australia. Participants aged 18 years and above (n=2026 were asked about their video game habits, as well as demographic and socioeconomic factors. In cases where children were in the household, the video game habits of a randomly selected child were also questioned. Results. Overall, 31.3% of adults and 79.9% of children spend at least some time playing video games. Of these, 24.1% of adults and 42.1% of children play exergames, with these types of games accounting for a third of all time that adults spend playing video games and nearly 20% of children’s video game time. Conclusions. A substantial proportion of time that would usually be classified as “sedentary” may actually be spent participating in light to moderate physical activity.

  7. Effect of hydraulic retention time on metal precipitation in sulfate reducing inverse fluidized bed reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Villa-Gómez, Denys Kristalia

    2014-02-13

    BACKGROUND: Metal sulfide recovery in sulfate reducing bioreactors is a challenge due to the formation of small precipitates with poor settling properties. The size of the metal sulfide precipitates with the change in operational parameters such as pH, sulfide concentration and reactor configuration has been previously studied. The effect of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the metal precipitate characteristics such as particle size for settling has not yet been addressed. RESULTS: The change in size of the metal (Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd) sulfide precipitates as a function of the HRT was studied in two sulfate reducing inversed fluidized bed (IFB) reactors operating at different chemical oxygen demand concentrations to produce high and low sulfide concentrations. The decrease of the HRT from 24 to 9h in both IFB reactors affected the contact time of the precipitates formed, thus making differences in aggregation and particle growth regardless of the differences in sulfide concentration. Further HRT decrease to 4.5h affected the sulfate reducing activity for sulfide production and hence, the supersaturation level and solid phase speciation. Metal sulfide precipitates affected the sulfate reducing activity and community in the biofilm, probably because of the stronger local supersaturation causing metal sulfides accumulation in the biofilm. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the HRT is an important factor determining the size and thus the settling rate of the metal sulfides formed in bioreactors.

  8. Measures to reduce car-fleet consumption - Estimation of effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Hammer, S.; Keller, M.; Schmidt, N.; Sammer, K.; Wuestenhagen, R.

    2005-09-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results of a study that estimated the effects of measures that were to be taken in order to reduce the fuel consumption of fleets of vehicles as part of the SwissEnergy programme. The research reported on aimed to estimate the effects of the Energy Label on energy consumption and research concerning the results to be expected from the introduction of a bonus-malus system. Questions reviewed include the effect of fuel consumption data on making decisions concerning which vehicle to purchase, the effects of the Energy Label on consumption, the awareness of other appropriate information sources, the possible effects of a bonus-malus system and how the effectiveness of the Energy Label could be improved. The answers and results obtained are reviewed and commented on. Finally, an overall appraisal of the situation is presented and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of the Energy Label are made

  9. Optimizing residence time, temperature and speed to improve TMP pulp properties and reduce energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.; Xu, E.; Cort, B.; Boileau, I.; Waller, A.

    1997-04-01

    The concept of reducing energy consumption in pulp mills by increasing the disc speed of refining has been established using single disc and double disc refiners in both pilot plant and mill applications. The RTS study evaluated in this paper reviews the effect of high-speed single disc refining coupled with shortdwell-high pressure retention conditions. Coupling these variables permitted evaluation of an optimum residence time, temperature and speed (RTS) operational window. The objective of the RTS conditions to sufficiently soften the wood chips through high temperature such that the fibre is more receptive to initial defiberization at high intensity. The improved pulp from the primary refiner at high intensity could potentially demonstrate improvements in physical pulp properties at a reduced specific energy requirement. The spruce/fir RTS-TMP described here required significantly less specific energy and produced TMP with slightly improved strength properties and equivalent optical properties compared to conventional TMP pulp. Studies on the radiate pine furnish indicated that the physical pulp property/specific energy relationships could be adjusted by manipulating the residence time. 4 refs., 10 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. Real-time particle volume fraction measurement in centrifuges by wireless electrical resistance detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagae, Fumiya; Okawa, Kazuya; Matsuno, Shinsuke; Takei, Masahiro; Zhao Tong; Ichijo, Noriaki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, wireless electrical resistance detector is developed as first step in order to develop electrical resistance tomography (ERT) that are attached wireless communication, and miniaturized. And the particle volume fraction measurement results appropriateness is qualitatively examined. The real-time particle volume fraction measurement is essential for centrifuges, because rotational velocity and supply should be controlled based on the results in order to obtain the effective separation, shorten process time and save energy. However, a technique for the particle volume fraction measurement in centrifuges has not existed yet. In other words, the real-time particle volume fraction measurement in centrifuges becomes innovative technologies. The experiment device reproduces centrifugation in two-phase using particle and salt solution as measuring object. The particle concentration is measured changing rotational velocity, supply and measurement section position. The measured concentration changes coincide with anticipated tendency of concentration changes. Therefore the particle volume fraction measurement results appropriateness are qualitatively indicated. (author)

  11. Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C F; Yue, Y; Poola, R; Wang, J

    2000-11-01

    A time-resolved radiographic technique has been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzle of a high-pressure single-hole diesel injector. The measurement was made using X-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 micros. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date.

  12. Validation of transit-time flowmetry for chronic measurements of regional blood flow in resting and exercising rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Amaral

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to validate the transit-time technique for long-term measurements of iliac and renal blood flow in rats. Flow measured with ultrasonic probes was confirmed ex vivo using excised arteries perfused at varying flow rates. An implanted 1-mm probe reproduced with accuracy different patterns of flow relative to pressure in freely moving rats and accurately quantitated the resting iliac flow value (on average 10.43 ± 0.99 ml/min or 2.78 ± 0.3 ml min-1 100 g body weight-1. The measurements were stable over an experimental period of one week but were affected by probe size (resting flows were underestimated by 57% with a 2-mm probe when compared with a 1-mm probe and by anesthesia (in the same rats, iliac flow was reduced by 50-60% when compared to the conscious state. Instantaneous changes of iliac and renal flow during exercise and recovery were accurately measured by the transit-time technique. Iliac flow increased instantaneously at the beginning of mild exercise (from 12.03 ± 1.06 to 25.55 ± 3.89 ml/min at 15 s and showed a smaller increase when exercise intensity increased further, reaching a plateau of 38.43 ± 1.92 ml/min at the 4th min of moderate exercise intensity. In contrast, exercise-induced reduction of renal flow was smaller and slower, with 18% and 25% decreases at mild and moderate exercise intensities. Our data indicate that transit-time flowmetry is a reliable method for long-term and continuous measurements of regional blood flow at rest and can be used to quantitate the dynamic flow changes that characterize exercise and recovery

  13. Effects of Barium Concentration on Oropharyngeal Swallow Timing Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Stokely, Shauna L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2013-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between “thin” (40 % w/v concentration) and “ultrathin” (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; ...

  14. Factors affecting measurement of optic parameters by time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Nobuko; Ueda, Yukio; Mimura, Tetsuya; Ohmae, Etsuko; Yoshimoto, Kenji; Wada, Hiroko; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Sakahara, Harumi

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the thickness and depth of tumors on hemoglobin measurements in breast cancer by optical spectroscopy and to demonstrate tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) and reduced scattering coefficient (μs‧) in breast tissue and breast cancer in relation to the skin-to-chest wall distance. We examined 53 tumors from 44 patients. Total hemoglobin concentration (tHb), SO2, and μs‧ were measured by time-resolved spectroscopy (TRS). The skin-to-chest wall distance and the size and depth of tumors were measured by ultrasonography. There was a positive correlation between tHb and tumor thickness, and a negative correlation between tHb and tumor depth. SO2 in breast tissue decreased when the skin-to-chest wall distance decreased, and SO2 in tumors tended to be lower than in breast tissue. In breast tissue, there was a negative correlation between μs‧ and the skin-to-chest wall distance, and μs‧ in tumors was higher than in breast tissue. Measurement of tHb in breast cancer by TRS was influenced by tumor thickness and depth. Although SO2 seemed lower and μs‧ was higher in breast cancer than in breast tissue, the skin-to-chest wall distance may have affected the measurements.

  15. Measurement of {sup 14}C time scale of the rings of a tree by accelerator mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Hirotaka; Furukawa, Michiaki [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Science; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Akiko; Nakamura, Toshio

    1996-12-01

    {sup 14}C time scale is different from a histrical data in order that it is calculated by assuming that the concentration of {sup 14}C in the sample has not been changed by age. The object of this work is to make clear the errors in measurement of {sup 14}C time scale of the ring of a tree known the tree age. The every year ring of a Hinoki in Kiso, 950 years old, was used as a sample. The most external ring is determined as 1923 years old on the basis of the dendrochronology. The rings after 1120 years were used as the samples. {alpha}-cellulose, the most stable component in the structural components of cell of tree, was prepared from each ring. About 8 mg of {alpha}-cellulose was reduced to graphite to be measured by the tandem thoron analytic meter. The results obtained showed that {sup 14}C time scale was older than that of the histrical data in the twelfth and thirteenth century, but it was more new than that of the histrical data from the late seventeenth to the middle of eighteenth century. The results were agreement with that of Stuiver and Pearson (1933). (S.Y.)

  16. Smartphone-based Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement Using Pulse Transit Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Meintjes, Andries; Baig, Mirza; Linden, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of low cost and easy to use personalized medical monitoring devices has opened the door for new and innovative methods of health monitoring to emerge. Cuff-less and continuous methods of measuring blood pressure are particularly attractive as blood pressure is one of the most important measurements of long term cardiovascular health. Current methods of noninvasive blood pressure measurement are based on inflation and deflation of a cuff with some effects on arteries where blood pressure is being measured. This inflation can also cause patient discomfort and alter the measurement results. In this work, a mobile application was developed to collate the PhotoPlethysmoGramm (PPG) waveform provided by a pulse oximeter and the electrocardiogram (ECG) for calculating the pulse transit time. This information is then indirectly related to the user's systolic blood pressure. The developed application successfully connects to the PPG and ECG monitoring devices using Bluetooth wireless connection and stores the data onto an online server. The pulse transit time is estimated in real time and the user's systolic blood pressure can be estimated after the system has been calibrated. The synchronization between the two devices was found to pose a challenge to this method of continuous blood pressure monitoring. However, the implemented continuous blood pressure monitoring system effectively serves as a proof of concept. This combined with the massive benefits that an accurate and robust continuous blood pressure monitoring system would provide indicates that it is certainly worthwhile to further develop this system.

  17. Burn-up measurements of LEU fuel for short cooling times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereda B, C.; Henriquez A, C.; Klein D, J.; Medel R, J.

    2005-01-01

    The measurements presented in this work were made essentially at in-pool gamma-spectrometric facility, installed inside of the secondary pool of the RECH-1 research reactor, where the measured fuel elements are under 2 meters of water. The main reason for using the in-pool facility was because of its capability to measure the burning of fuel elements without having to wait so long, that is with only 5 cooling days, which are the usual times between reactor operations. Regarding these short cooling times, this work confirms again the possibility of using the 95 Zr as a promising burnup monitor, in spite of the rough approximations used to do it. These results are statistically reasonable within the range calculated using codes. The work corroborates previous results, presented in Santiago de Chile, and it suggests future improvements in that way. (author)

  18. Energy measurement using a resonator-based time-of-flight system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, R.C.; Lewis, R.N.; Johnson, K.W.; Clifft, B.

    1983-01-01

    The resonant time-of-flight system which has been developed has several advantages over other potential approaches. The system is non-interceptive and nondestructive. The beam phase space is preserved. It is non-dispersive. Path length variations are not introduced into the beam transport which would reduce the timing resolution. It has a large signal-to-noise ratio when compared to non-resonant beam pick-up techniques. It provides the means to precisely set the linac energy and, potentially, to control the energy in a feedback loop is desired. It is less expensive than an equivalent magnetic system

  19. Perceptions of Life Changes: An Alternate Measure of Aging through Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Patricia K.; Kivett, Vira R.

    Retrospective strategies measuring perceived life changes over time can further the advancement of life span developmental research. Researchers have neglected the individual's perception of his/her life changes over time. This study attempts to determine discriminators of change over time as operationalized by perceptions of change. Subjects…

  20. Real-time electron density measurements from Cotton-Mouton effect in JET machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brombin, M.; Boboc, A.; Zabeo, L.; Murari, A.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time density profile measurements are essential for advanced fusion tokamak operation and interferometry is a proven method for this task. Nevertheless, as a consequence of edge localized modes, pellet injections, fast density increases, or disruptions, the interferometer is subject to fringe jumps, which produce loss of the signal preventing reliable use of the measured density in a real-time feedback controller. An alternative method to measure the density is polarimetry based on the Cotton-Mouton effect, which is proportional to the line-integrated electron density. A new analysis approach has been implemented and tested to verify the reliability of the Cotton-Mouton measurements for a wide range of plasma parameters and to compare the density evaluated from polarimetry with that from interferometry. The density measurements based on polarimetry are going to be integrated in the real-time control system of JET since the difference with the interferometry is within one fringe for more than 90% of the cases.

  1. Centrality measures in temporal networks with time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiangjuan; Zhao, Chengli; Zhang, Xue; Wang, Xiaojie; Yi, Dongyun

    2017-05-01

    The study of identifying important nodes in networks has a wide application in different fields. However, the current researches are mostly based on static or aggregated networks. Recently, the increasing attention to networks with time-varying structure promotes the study of node centrality in temporal networks. In this paper, we define a supra-evolution matrix to depict the temporal network structure. With using of the time series analysis, the relationships between different time layers can be learned automatically. Based on the special form of the supra-evolution matrix, the eigenvector centrality calculating problem is turned into the calculation of eigenvectors of several low-dimensional matrices through iteration, which effectively reduces the computational complexity. Experiments are carried out on two real-world temporal networks, Enron email communication network and DBLP co-authorship network, the results of which show that our method is more efficient at discovering the important nodes than the common aggregating method.

  2. The effect of dentine surface preparation and reduced application time of adhesive on bonding strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikaew, Pipop; Chowdhury, A F M Almas; Fukuyama, Mai; Kakuda, Shinichi; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Sano, Hidehiko

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effects of surface preparation and the application time of adhesives on the resin-dentine bond strengths with universal adhesives. Sixty molars were cut to exposed mid-coronal dentine and divided into 12 groups (n=5) based on three factors; (1) adhesive: G-Premio Bond (GP, GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan), Clearfil Universal Bond (CU, Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc., Okayama, Japan) and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SB, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA); (2) smear layer preparation: SiC paper ground dentine or bur-cut dentine; (3) application time: shortened time or as manufacturer's instruction. Fifteen resin-dentine sticks per group were processed for microtensile bond strength test (μTBS) according to non-trimming technique (1mm(2)) after storage in distilled water (37 °C) for 24h. Data were analyzed by three-way ANOVA and Dunnett T3 tests (α=0.05). Fractured surfaces were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Another 12 teeth were prepared and cut into slices for SEM examination of bonded interfaces. μTBS were higher when bonded to SiC-ground dentine according to manufacturer's instruction. Bonding to bur-cut dentine resulted in significantly lower μTBS (padhesive resin interface. This was more pronounced when adhesives were bonded with a reduced application time and on bur cut dentine. The performance of universal adhesives can be compromised on bur cut dentine and when applied with a reduced application time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shock timing measurements in DT ice layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, H. F.; Celliers, P. M.; Moody, J. D.; Sater, J.; Parham, T.; Kozioziemski, B.; Dylla-Spears, R. J.; Ross, J. S.; Lepape, S.; Ralph, J. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Kroll, J. J.; Yoxall, B. E.; Hamza, A. V.; Boehly, T. R.; Nikroo, A.; Landen, O. L.; Edwards, M. J.

    2013-10-01

    Shock timing experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are routinely conducted using the keyhole target geometry, in which the strength and timing of multiple shocks are measured in a liquid-deuterium (D2) filled capsule interior. These targets have recently been modified to improve the surrogacy to ignition implosions by replacing the standard, continuous liquid D2 capsule fill with a deuterium-tritium (DT) ice layer with a central DT gas fill. These experiments remove any possible material surrogacy difference between D2 and DT as well as incorporating the physics of multiple shock release and recompression events from an ice layer of finite thickness, an effect that is absent in the liquid-filled targets. Experimental results and comparisons with numerical simulation are presented. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. New layout of time resolved beam energy spectrum measurement for dragon-I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Shuqing; Zhang Kaizhi; Shi Jinshui

    2010-01-01

    A new layout of time resolved beam energy spectrum measurement is proposed for Dragon-I by a new method named RBS (rotating beams in solenoids). The basic theory of RBS and the new layout are presented and the measuring error is also discussed. The derived time resolved beam energy spectrum is discrete and is determined by measuring the beam's rotating angle and expanding width through a group of solenoids at the export of Dragon-I. (authors)

  5. Impact of AMS-02 Measurements on Reducing GCR Model Uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaba, T. C.; O'Neill, P. M.; Golge, S.; Norbury, J. W.

    2015-01-01

    For vehicle design, shield optimization, mission planning, and astronaut risk assessment, the exposure from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) poses a significant and complex problem both in low Earth orbit and in deep space. To address this problem, various computational tools have been developed to quantify the exposure and risk in a wide range of scenarios. Generally, the tool used to describe the ambient GCR environment provides the input into subsequent computational tools and is therefore a critical component of end-to-end procedures. Over the past few years, several researchers have independently and very carefully compared some of the widely used GCR models to more rigorously characterize model differences and quantify uncertainties. All of the GCR models studied rely heavily on calibrating to available near-Earth measurements of GCR particle energy spectra, typically over restricted energy regions and short time periods. In this work, we first review recent sensitivity studies quantifying the ions and energies in the ambient GCR environment of greatest importance to exposure quantities behind shielding. Currently available measurements used to calibrate and validate GCR models are also summarized within this context. It is shown that the AMS-II measurements will fill a critically important gap in the measurement database. The emergence of AMS-II measurements also provides a unique opportunity to validate existing models against measurements that were not used to calibrate free parameters in the empirical descriptions. Discussion is given regarding rigorous approaches to implement the independent validation efforts, followed by recalibration of empirical parameters.

  6. Application of spatial time domain reflectometry measurements in heterogeneous, rocky substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C.; Scheuermann, A.; Arnold, S.; Baumgartl, T.

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of soil moisture across depths using sensors is currently limited to point measurements or remote sensing technologies. Point measurements have limitations on spatial resolution, while the latter, although covering large areas may not represent real-time hydrologic processes, especially near the surface. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of elongated soil moisture probes—spatial time domain reflectometry (STDR)—and to describe transient soil moisture dynamics of unconsolidated mine waste rock materials. The probes were calibrated under controlled conditions in the glasshouse. Transient soil moisture content was measured using the gravimetric method and STDR. Volumetric soil moisture content derived from weighing was compared with values generated from a numerical model simulating the drying process. A calibration function was generated and applied to STDR field data sets. The use of elongated probes effectively assists in the real-time determination of the spatial distribution of soil moisture. It also allows hydrologic processes to be uncovered in the unsaturated zone, especially for water balance calculations that are commonly based on point measurements. The elongated soil moisture probes can potentially describe transient substrate processes and delineate heterogeneity in terms of the pore size distribution in a seasonally wet but otherwise arid environment.

  7. The concept of value stream mapping to reduce of work-time waste as applied the smart construction management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizar, Suripin, Wibowo, Mochamad Agung

    2017-11-01

    Delays in construction sites occur due to systematic additions of time waste in various activities that are part of the construction process. Work-time waste is non-adding value activity which used to differentiate between physical construction waste found on site and other waste which occurs during the construction process. The aim of this study is identification using the concept of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) to reduce of work-time waste as applied the smart construction management.VSM analysis is a method of business process improvement. The application of VSM began in the manufacturing community. The research method base on theoretically informed case study and literature review. The data have collected using questionnaire through personal interviews from 383 respondents on construction project in Indonesia. The results show that concept of VSM can identify causes of work-time waste. Base on result of questioners and quantitative approach analysis was obtained 29 variables that influence of work-time waste or non-value-adding activities. Base on three cases of construction project founded that average 14.88% of working time was classified as waste. Finally, the concept of VSM can recommend to identification of systematic for reveal current practices and opportunities for improvement towards global challenges. The concept of value stream mapping can help optimize to reduce work-time waste and improve quality standard of construction management. The concept is also can help manager to make a decision to reduce work-time waste so as to obtain of result in more efficient for performance and sustainable construction project.

  8. Time-resolved measurements of supersonic fuel sprays using synchrotron x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, C.F.; Yue, Y.; Poola, R.; Wang, J.

    2000-11-01

    A time-resolved radiographic technique has been developed for probing the fuel distribution close to the nozzle of a high-pressure single-hole diesel injector. The measurement was made using X-ray absorption of monochromatic synchrotron-generated radiation, allowing quantitative determination of the fuel distribution in this optically impenetrable region with a time resolution of better than 1 μs. These quantitative measurements constitute the most detailed near-nozzle study of a fuel spray to date

  9. Real-time motion analytics during brain MRI improve data quality and reduce costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosenbach, Nico U F; Koller, Jonathan M; Earl, Eric A; Miranda-Dominguez, Oscar; Klein, Rachel L; Van, Andrew N; Snyder, Abraham Z; Nagel, Bonnie J; Nigg, Joel T; Nguyen, Annie L; Wesevich, Victoria; Greene, Deanna J; Fair, Damien A

    2017-11-01

    Head motion systematically distorts clinical and research MRI data. Motion artifacts have biased findings from many structural and functional brain MRI studies. An effective way to remove motion artifacts is to exclude MRI data frames affected by head motion. However, such post-hoc frame censoring can lead to data loss rates of 50% or more in our pediatric patient cohorts. Hence, many scanner operators collect additional 'buffer data', an expensive practice that, by itself, does not guarantee sufficient high-quality MRI data for a given participant. Therefore, we developed an easy-to-setup, easy-to-use Framewise Integrated Real-time MRI Monitoring (FIRMM) software suite that provides scanner operators with head motion analytics in real-time, allowing them to scan each subject until the desired amount of low-movement data has been collected. Our analyses show that using FIRMM to identify the ideal scan time for each person can reduce total brain MRI scan times and associated costs by 50% or more. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Time Resolved Measurements of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Particles in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, A. G.; Garland, R.; Pöschl, U.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic aerosols are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and they influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere, climate, and public health. They play an important role in the spread of biological organisms and reproductive materials, and they can cause or enhance human, animal, and plant diseases. Moreover, they influence the Earth's energy budget by scattering and absorbing radiation, and they can initiate the formation of clouds and precipitation as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The composition, abundance, and origin of biogenic aerosol particles and components are, however, still not well understood and poorly quantified. Prominent examples of primary biogenic aerosol particles, which are directly emitted from the biosphere to the atmosphere, are pollen, bacteria, fungal spores, viruses, and fragments of animals and plants. During the Amazonian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (AMAZE-08) a large number of aerosol and gas-phase measurements were taken on a remote site close to Manaus, Brazil, during a period of five weeks in February and March 2008. This presented study is focused on data from an ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer (UVAPS, TSI inc.) that has been deployed for the first time in Amazonia. In this instrument, particle counting and aerodynamic sizing over the range of 0.5-20 µm are complemented by the measurement of UV fluorescence at 355 nm (excitation) and 420-575 nm (emission), respectively. Fluorescence at these wavelengths is characteristic for reduced pyridine nucleotides (e.g., NAD(P)H) and for riboflavin, which are specific for living cells. Thus particles exhibiting fluorescence signals can be regarded as "viable aerosols" or "fluorescent bioparticles" (FBAP), and their concentration can be considered as lower limit for the actual abundance of primary biogenic aerosol particles. Data from the UVAPS were averaged over 5 minute time intervals. The presence of bioparticles in the observed size range has been

  11. Objectively-measured outdoor time and physical and psychological function among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Bae, Seongryu; Harada, Kenji; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2017-10-01

    Objective measurements of outdoor time are essential to establishing evidence about the health benefits of going outdoors among older adults. To better understanding the health benefits of going outdoors, clarification of potential mediators to connect going outdoors with health benefits is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate associations of objectively-measured outdoor time with older adults' physical and psychological function, and examine the mediating role of physical activity on these associations. Baseline data from a randomized control trial of physical activity among older adults with global cognitive impairment was used. Data from 192 participants were analyzed. Measures included steps-per-day, objectively-measured outdoor time per day using global positioning systems, physical function (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-extremity strength), psychological function (depression, well-being) and basic factors. Path analysis showed that outdoor time was significantly associated with steps-per-day (path coefficient = 0.23) and depression (path coefficient = -0.16). Outdoor time was not directly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-extremity strength and well-being. However, steps-per-day was associated with cardiorespiratory fitness (path coefficient = 0.18), lower-extremity strength (path coefficient = -0.22) and well-being (path coefficient = 0.14). We found that objectively-measured outdoor time was indirectly associated with physical function, and both directly and indirectly with psychological function through physical activity among older adults. This finding indicates that going outdoors influences older adults' health outcomes, and is mainly mediated by physical activity. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1455-1462. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Density measurements of microsecond-conduction-time POS plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshelwood, D.; Goodrich, P.J.; Weber, B.V.; Commisso, R.J.; Grossmann, J.M.; Kellogg, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the electron density in a coaxial microsecond conduction time plasma opening switch during switch operation are described. Current conduction is observed to cause a radial redistribution of the switch plasma. A local reduction in axial line density of more than an order of magnitude occurs by the time opening begins. This reduction, and the scaling of conduction current with plasma density, indicate that current conduction in this experiment is limited by hydrodynamic effects. It is hypothesized that the density reduction allows the switch to open by an erosion mechanism. Initial numerical modeling efforts have reproduced the principal observed results. A model that predicts accurately the conduction current is presented

  13. A lower dimensional feature vector for identification of partial discharges of different origin using time measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evagorou, Demetres; Kyprianou, Andreas; Georghiou, George E; Lewin, Paul L; Stavrou, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Partial discharge (PD) classification into sources of different origin is essential in evaluating the severity of the damage caused by its activity on the insulation of power cables and their accessories. More specifically, some types of PD can be classified as having a detrimental effect on the integrity of the insulation while others can be deemed relatively harmless, rendering the correct classification of different PD types of vital importance to electrical utilities. In this work, a feature vector was proposed based on higher order statistics on selected nodes of the wavelet packet transform (WPT) coefficients of time domain measurements, which can compactly represent the characteristics of different PD sources. To assess its performance, experimental data acquired under laboratory conditions for four different PD sources encountered in power systems were used. The two learning machine methods, namely the support vector machine and the probabilistic neural network, employed as the classification algorithms, achieved overall classification rates of around 98%. In comparison, the utilization of the scaled, raw WPT coefficients as a feature vector resulted in classification accuracy of around 99%, but with a significantly higher number of dimensions (1304 to 16), validating the PD identification ability of the proposed feature. Dimensionality reduction becomes a key factor in online, real-time data collection and processing of PD measurements, reducing the classification effort and the data-storage requirements. Therefore, the proposed method can constitute a potential tool for such online measurements, after addressing issues related to on-site measurements such as the rejection of interference. (paper)

  14. Left ventricular fluid dynamics in heart failure: echocardiographic measurement and utilities of vortex formation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Kian Keong; Lee, Li Ching; Shen, Liang; Chong, Eric; Tan, Yee Leng; Chai, Ping; Yeo, Tiong Cheng; Wood, Malissa J

    2012-05-01

    In clinical heart failure (HF), inefficient propagation of blood through the left ventricle (LV) may result from suboptimal vortex formation (VF) ability of the LV during early diastole. We aim to (i) validate echocardiographic-derived vortex formation time (adapted) (VFTa) in control subjects and (ii) examine its utility in both systolic and diastolic HF. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 32 normal subjects and in 130 patients who were hospitalized with HF [91, reduced ejection fraction (rEF) and 39, preserved ejection fraction (pEF)]. In addition to biplane left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and conventional parameters, the Tei index and tissue Doppler (TD) indices were measured. VFTa was obtained using the formula: 4 × (1 - β)/π × α³ × LVEF, where β is the fraction of total transmitral diastolic stroke volume contributed by atrial contraction (assessed by time velocity integral of the mitral E- and A-waves) and α is the biplane end-diastolic volume (EDV)(1/3) divided by mitral annular diameter during early diastole. VFTa was correlated with demographic, cardiac parameters, and a composite clinical endpoint comprising cardiac death and repeat hospitalization for HF. Mean VFTa was 2.67 ± 0.8 in control subjects; reduced in HF, preserved EF HF, 2.21 ± 0.8; HF with reduced EF, 1.25 ± 0.6 (PTD early diastolic myocardial velocities (E', septal, r = 0.46; lateral, r = 0.43), systolic myocardial velocities (S', septal, r = 0.47; lateral, r = 0.41), and inversely with the Tei index (r = -0.41); all Ps < 0.001. Sixty-two HF patients (49%) met the composite endpoint. VFTa of <1.32 was associated with significantly reduced event-free survival (Kaplan Meier log rank = 16.3, P= 0.0001) and predicted the endpoint with a sensitivity and specificity of 65 and 72%, respectively. VFTa, a dimensionless index, incorporating LV geometry, systolic and diastolic parameters, may be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of HF.

  15. REDUCING AND OPTIMIZING THE CYCLE TIME OF PATIENTS DISCHARGE PROCESS IN A HOSPITAL USING SIX SIGMA DMAIC APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arun Vijay

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A lengthy and in-efficient process of discharging in-patients from the Hospital is an essential component that needs to be addressed in order to improve the quality of Health care facility. Even though, several quality methodologies are adopted to improve such services in Hospitals, the implementation of Six Sigma DMAIC methodology to improve the Hospital discharge process is much limited in the Literature. Thus, the objective of this research is to reduce the cycle time of the Patients discharge process using Six Sigma DMAIC Model in a multidisciplinary hospital setting in India. This study had been conducted through the five phases of the Six Sigma DMAIC Model using different Quality tools and techniques. This study suggested various improvement strategies to reduce the cycle time of Patients discharge process and after its implementation; there is a 61% reduction in the cycle time of the Patients discharge process. Also, a control pl an check sheet has been developed to sustain the Improvements obtained. This Study would be an eye opener for the Health Care Managers to reduce and optimize the cycle time of Patients discharge process in Hospitals using Six Sigma DMAIC Model.

  16. A programme to reduce down-time and site radiation dose through improvements in control rod design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izatt, J.A.; Scobie, J.

    1983-01-01

    In many nuclear facilities a high proportion of the total radiation dose to staff may be ascribed to very few routine operations. Often this critical operation will require significant shut-down time, both to perform the function itself and to allow sufficient decay time to reduce radiation levels to acceptable values. This situation arises on the UTR-300 reactor at S.U.R.R.C., where over the twenty years of operation it has been found necessary to carry out preventive, and on some occasions remedial, maintenance at least once per year on the in-core elements of the control rod assemblies. This had led inevitably to reduced availability of the reactor and to significant overall radiation doses to the few long-serving staff members who carry out this work. The source of the problem seems to lie in the basic design of the assemblies, which may have been adequate for the original 10 KW versions of this reactor, but has proven to be deficient in several respects at the present 300 KW operating level. In an attempt to reduce down-time and radiation dose to staff a radical re-design of the control assemblies was undertaken in-house, and a conversion programme has been underway over the last two years. Details of the design improvements are presented with a discussion of the operating experience to date. (author)

  17. RELATIVISTIC MEASUREMENTS FROM TIMING THE BINARY PULSAR PSR B1913+16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, J. M.; Huang, Y., E-mail: jweisber@carleton.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We present relativistic analyses of 9257 measurements of times-of-arrival from the first binary pulsar, PSR B1913+16, acquired over the last 35 years. The determination of the “Keplerian” orbital elements plus two relativistic terms completely characterizes the binary system, aside from an unknown rotation about the line of sight, leading to a determination of the masses of the pulsar and its companion: 1.438 ± 0.001 M {sub ☉} and 1.390 ± 0.001 M {sub ☉}, respectively. In addition, the complete system characterization allows for the creation of relativistic gravitation test by comparing measured and predicted sizes of various relativistic phenomena. We find that the ratio of the observed orbital period decrease caused by gravitational wave damping (corrected by a kinematic term) to the general relativistic prediction is 0.9983 ± 0.0016, thereby confirms the existence and strength of gravitational radiation as predicted by general relativity. For the first time in this system, we have also successfully measured the two parameters characterizing the Shapiro gravitational propagation delay, and found that their values are consistent with general relativistic predictions. For the first time in any system, we have also measured the relativistic shape correction to the elliptical orbit, δ {sub θ} , although its intrinsic value is obscured by currently unquantified pulsar emission beam aberration. We have also marginally measured the time derivative of the projected semimajor axis, which, when improved in combination with beam aberration modeling from geodetic precession observations, should ultimately constrain the pulsar’s moment of inertia.

  18. Picosecond resolution on relativistic heavy ions' time-of-flight measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebran, A., E-mail: adeline.ebran@cea.fr; Taieb, J., E-mail: julien.taieb@cea.fr; Belier, G.; Chatillon, A.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Pellereau, E.

    2013-11-11

    We developed a time-of-flight measurement system for relativistic heavy ions with a requested resolution of 40 ps Full Width Half Maximum. Such a resolution is mandatory to assign the correct mass number to every fission fragment, identified using the Bρ-ToF-ΔE method with the recoil spectrometer designed for the SOFIA experiment—which hold very recently at GSI. To achieve such a performance, fast plastic scintillators read-out by dedicated photomultiplier tubes were chosen among other possible options. We have led several test-measurements from 2009 to 2011, in order to investigate: the effect of the addition of a quenching molecule in the scintillator's matrix, the influence of the detector's size and the impact of the photomultiplier tube. The contribution of the dedicated electronics is also characterized. Time-of-flight measurements were performed realized with electron pulses and relativistic heavy ions, respectively provided by the LASER driven electron–accelerator (ELSA) at CEA–DAM Ile-de-France and by the SIS18/FRS facility at GSI. The reported results exhibit a time resolution better than 20 ps Full Width Half Maximum reached with the last prototype at GSI with an Uranium beam. These results confirm that the SOFIA experiment should enable the measurement of the relativistic fission fragments' time-of-flight with the requested resolution.

  19. A Reduced Form Framework for Modeling Volatility of Speculative Prices based on Realized Variation Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben G.; Bollerslev, Tim; Huang, Xin

    Building on realized variance and bi-power variation measures constructed from high-frequency financial prices, we propose a simple reduced form framework for effectively incorporating intraday data into the modeling of daily return volatility. We decompose the total daily return variability...

  20. Impact of exposure measurement error in air pollution epidemiology: effect of error type in time-series studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Gretchen T; Mulholland, James A; Russell, Armistead G; Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Waller, Lance A; Tolbert, Paige E

    2011-06-22

    Two distinctly different types of measurement error are Berkson and classical. Impacts of measurement error in epidemiologic studies of ambient air pollution are expected to depend on error type. We characterize measurement error due to instrument imprecision and spatial variability as multiplicative (i.e. additive on the log scale) and model it over a range of error types to assess impacts on risk ratio estimates both on a per measurement unit basis and on a per interquartile range (IQR) basis in a time-series study in Atlanta. Daily measures of twelve ambient air pollutants were analyzed: NO2, NOx, O3, SO2, CO, PM10 mass, PM2.5 mass, and PM2.5 components sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, elemental carbon and organic carbon. Semivariogram analysis was applied to assess spatial variability. Error due to this spatial variability was added to a reference pollutant time-series on the log scale using Monte Carlo simulations. Each of these time-series was exponentiated and introduced to a Poisson generalized linear model of cardiovascular disease emergency department visits. Measurement error resulted in reduced statistical significance for the risk ratio estimates for all amounts (corresponding to different pollutants) and types of error. When modelled as classical-type error, risk ratios were attenuated, particularly for primary air pollutants, with average attenuation in risk ratios on a per unit of measurement basis ranging from 18% to 92% and on an IQR basis ranging from 18% to 86%. When modelled as Berkson-type error, risk ratios per unit of measurement were biased away from the null hypothesis by 2% to 31%, whereas risk ratios per IQR were attenuated (i.e. biased toward the null) by 5% to 34%. For CO modelled error amount, a range of error types were simulated and effects on risk ratio bias and significance were observed. For multiplicative error, both the amount and type of measurement error impact health effect estimates in air pollution epidemiology. By modelling

  1. Real time alpha value measurement with Feynman-α method utilizing time series data acquisition on low enriched uranium system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonoike, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Shoichi; Miyoshi, Yoshinori

    2003-01-01

    As a part of the development of a subcriticality monitoring system, a system which has a time series data acquisition function of detector signals and a real time evaluation function of alpha value with the Feynman-alpha method was established, with which the kinetic parameter (alpha value) was measured at the STACY heterogeneous core. The Hashimoto's difference filter was implemented in the system, which enables the measurement at a critical condition. The measurement result of the new system agreed with the pulsed neutron method. (author)

  2. The Measurement and Interpretation of Surface Wave Group Arrival Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, G.; Kane, D.; Morrow, J.; Zhou, Y.; Tromp, J.

    2005-12-01

    We have recently developed an efficient technique for measuring the relative group arrival times of surface waves by using cross-correlation and cluster analysis of waveform envelope functions. Applying the analysis to minor arc Love and Rayleigh waves in the frequency band 7 to 35 mHz for all events over magnitude 5.5 results in a dataset of over 200,000 measurements at each frequency for long period Rayleigh waves (frequency less than 25 mHz) and about 100,000 measurements at the shorter periods. Analysis of transverse components results in about half as many Love wave measurements. Simple ray theory inversions of the relative arrival times for apparent group velocity produce maps which are accurate representations of the data (often over 90% variance reduction of the relative arrival times) and which show features strongly correlated with tectonics and crustal thickness. The apparent group velocity variations can be extremely large: 30% velocity variations for 20 mHz Rayleigh waves and 40% variations for 30 mHz Rayleigh waves and can have abrupt lateral changes. This raises the concern that non-ray theory effects could be important. Indeed, a recent analysis by Dahlen and Zhou (personal communication) suggests that the group arrival times should be a functions of both the group velocity AND the phase velocity. The simplest way to test the interpretation of the measurements is to perform the analysis on synthetic seismograms computed for a realistic model of the Earth. Here, we use the SEM with a model which incorporates realistic crust and mantle structure. We are currently computing synthetics for a suite of roughly 1000 events recorded globally that extend to a period of 18 seconds. We shall present the results of applying both ray-based and finite frequency inversions to the synthetic data as well as evaluating the effects of off path propagation at short periods using surface wave ray tracing.

  3. Measuring fragmentation in dissociative identity disorder: the integration measure and relationship to switching and time in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, M Rose; Chu, James A

    2014-01-01

    Some people with dissociative identity disorder (DID) have very little communication or awareness among the parts of their identity, while others experience a great deal of cooperation among alternate identities. Previous research on this topic has been sparse. Currently, there is no empirical measure of integration versus fragmentation in a person with DID. In this study, we report the development of such a measure. The goal of this study was to pilot the integration measure (IM) and to address its psychometric properties and relationships to other measures. The IM is the first standardized measure of integration in DID. Eleven women with DID participated in an experiment that included a variety of tasks. They filled out questionnaires about trauma and dissociation as well as the IM. They also provided verbal results about switching among alternate identities during the study sessions. Participants switched among identities an average of 5.8 times during the first session, and switching was highly correlated with trauma. Integration was related to switching, though this relationship may be non-linear. Integration was not related to time in psychotherapy. The IM provides a useful beginning to quantify and study integration and fragmentation in DID. Directions for future research are also discussed, including expanding the IM from this pilot. The IM may be useful in treatment settings to assess progress or change over time.

  4. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Peterman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drag area (Ad is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP and indirectly (Est AP. Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT, and economy. $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak ($\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$lmin−1 and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45. The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05 when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = − 0.92. AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = − 0.75 or Est AP (r = − 0.71. In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.

  5. CMOS direct time interval measurement of long-lived luminescence lifetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei; Yung, Ka Yi; Cheung, Maurice C; Chodavarapu, Vamsy P; Bright, Frank V

    2011-01-01

    We describe a Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Direct Time Interval Measurement (DTIM) Integrated Circuit (IC) to detect the decay (fall) time of the luminescence emission when analyte-sensitive luminophores are excited with an optical pulse. The CMOS DTIM IC includes 14 × 14 phototransistor array, transimpedance amplifier, regulated gain amplifier, fall time detector, and time-to-digital convertor. We examined the DTIM system to measure the emission lifetime of oxygen-sensitive luminophores tris(4,7-diphenyl-1, 10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) ([Ru(dpp)(3)](2+)) encapsulated in sol-gel derived xerogel thin-films. The DTIM system fabricated using TSMC 0.35 μm process functions to detect lifetimes from 4 μs to 14.4 μs but can be tuned to detect longer lifetimes. The system provides 8-bit digital output proportional to lifetimes and consumes 4.5 mW of power with 3.3 V DC supply. The CMOS system provides a useful platform for the development of reliable, robust, and miniaturized optical chemical sensors.

  6. A continuous time-resolved measure decoded from EEG oscillatory activity predicts working memory task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrand, Elaine

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Working memory (WM), crucial for successful behavioral performance in most of our everyday activities, holds a central role in goal-directed behavior. As task demands increase, inducing higher WM load, maintaining successful behavioral performance requires the brain to work at the higher end of its capacity. Because it is depending on both external and internal factors, individual WM load likely varies in a continuous fashion. The feasibility to extract such a continuous measure in time that correlates to behavioral performance during a working memory task remains unsolved. Approach. Multivariate pattern decoding was used to test whether a decoder constructed from two discrete levels of WM load can generalize to produce a continuous measure that predicts task performance. Specifically, a linear regression with L2-regularization was chosen with input features from EEG oscillatory activity recorded from healthy participants while performing the n-back task, n\\in [1,2] . Main results. The feasibility to extract a continuous time-resolved measure that correlates positively to trial-by-trial working memory task performance is demonstrated (r  =  0.47, p  <  0.05). It is furthermore shown that this measure allows to predict task performance before action (r  =  0.49, p  <  0.05). We show that the extracted continuous measure enables to study the temporal dynamics of the complex activation pattern of WM encoding during the n-back task. Specifically, temporally precise contributions of different spectral features are observed which extends previous findings of traditional univariate approaches. Significance. These results constitute an important contribution towards a wide range of applications in the field of cognitive brain–machine interfaces. Monitoring mental processes related to attention and WM load to reduce the risk of committing errors in high-risk environments could potentially prevent many devastating consequences or

  7. Fluoro-luminometric real-time measurement of bacterial viability and killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, Janne; Virta, Marko; Lilius, Esa Matti

    2003-10-01

    The viability and killing of Escherichia coli was measured on a real-time basis using a fluoro-luminometric device, which allows successive measurements of fluorescence and bioluminescence without user intervention. Bacteria were made fluorescent and bioluminescent by expression of gfp and insect luciferase (lucFF) genes. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a highly fluorescent, extremely stable protein, which accumulates in cells during growth, and therefore the measured fluorescence signal was proportional to the total number of cells. The luciferase reaction is dependent of ATP produced by living cells, so that the bioluminescence level was a direct measure of the viable cells. In contrast to the bacterial luciferase, the insect luciferase uses a water-soluble and nonvolatile substrate, which makes automated multi-well microplate assay possible. For the validation of the assay, the proportion of living and dead cell populations was experimentally modified by incubating E. coli cells in the presence of various ethanol concentrations. Bacterial viability and killing measured by a fluoro-luminometric assay correlated fairly well with the reference methods: conventional plate counting, optical density measurement and various flow cytometric analyses. The real-time assay described here allows following the changes in bacterial cultures and assessing the bactericidal and other effects of various chemical, immunological and physical agents simultaneously in large numbers of samples.

  8. Methodological issues in the estimation of parental time – Analysis of measures in a Canadian time-use survey

    OpenAIRE

    Cara B. Fedick; Shelley Pacholok; Anne H. Gauthier

    2005-01-01

    Extensive small scale studies have documented that when people assume the role of assisting a person with impairments or an older person, care activities account for a significant portion of their daily routines. Nevertheless, little research has investigated the problem of measuring the time that carers spend in care-related activities. This paper contrasts two different measures of care time – an estimated average weekly hours question in the 1998 Australian Survey of Disability, Ageing and...

  9. A qualitative study of contextual factors' impact on measures to reduce surgery cancellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovlid, Einar; Bukve, Oddbjørn

    2014-05-13

    Contextual factors influence quality improvement outcomes. Understanding this influence is important when adapting and implementing interventions and translating improvements into new settings. To date, there is limited knowledge about how contextual factors influence quality improvement processes. In this study, we explore how contextual factors affected measures to reduce surgery cancellations, which are a persistent problem in healthcare. We discuss the usefulness of the theoretical framework provided by the model for understanding success in quality (MUSIQ) for this kind of research. We performed a qualitative case study at Førde Hospital, Norway, where we had previously demonstrated a reduction in surgery cancellations. We interviewed 20 clinicians and performed content analysis to explore how contextual factors affected measures to reduce cancellations of planned surgeries. We identified three common themes concerning how contextual factors influenced the change process: 1) identifying a need to change, 2) facilitating system-wide improvement, and 3) leader involvement and support. Input from patients helped identify a need to change and contributed to the consensus that change was necessary. Reducing cancellations required improving the clinical system. This improvement process was based on a strategy that emphasized the involvement of frontline clinicians in detecting and improving system problems. Clinicians shared information about their work by participating in improvement teams to develop a more complete understanding of the clinical system and its interdependencies. This new understanding allowed clinicians to detect system problems and design adequate interventions. Middle managers' participation in the improvement teams and in regular work processes was important for successfully implementing and adapting interventions. Contextual factors interacted with one another and with the interventions to facilitate changes in the clinical system, reducing

  10. Measurement and Prediction of Time-independent and Time-dependent Rheological Behavior of Waxy Crude Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Yavar Karimi; Ali Reza Solaimany Nazar

    2017-01-01

    Wax deposition phenomenon changes the rheological behavior of waxy crude oil completely. In the current work, the rheological time-dependent and time-independent behaviors of waxy crude oil samples are studied and flow curve and compliance function are measured for the oil samples with various wax contents at different temperatures. A decrease in temperature and an increase in wax content lead to an increase in the viscosity and yield stress but a significant drop in compliance function. A mo...

  11. Remote sensing of temperature and wind using acoustic travel-time measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Manuela; Fischer, Gabi; Raabe, Armin; Weisse, Frank [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Meteorologie; Ziemann, Astrid [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Professur fuer Meteorologie

    2013-04-15

    A remote sensing technique to detect area-averaged temperature and flow properties within an area under investigation, utilizing acoustic travel-time measurements, is introduced. This technique uses the dependency of the speed of acoustic signals on the meteorological parameters temperature and wind along the propagation path. The method itself is scalable: It is applicable for investigation areas with an extent of some hundred square metres as well as for small-scale areas in the range of one square metre. Moreover, an arrangement of the acoustic transducers at several height levels makes it possible to determine profiles and gradients of the meteorological quantities. With the help of two examples the potential of this remote sensing technique for simultaneously measuring averaged temperature and flow fields is demonstrated. A comparison of time histories of temperature and wind values derived from acoustic travel-time measurements with point measurements shows a qualitative agreement whereas calculated root-mean-square errors differ for the two example applications. They amount to 1.4 K and 0.3 m/s for transducer distances of 60 m and 0.4 K and 0.2 m/s for transducer distances in the range of one metre. (orig.)

  12. Providing NHS staff with height-adjustable workstations and behaviour change strategies to reduce workplace sitting time: protocol for the Stand More AT (SMArT) Work cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, S E; Jackson, B R; Edwardson, C L; Yates, T; Biddle, S J H; Davies, M J; Dunstan, D; Esliger, D; Gray, L; Miller, P; Munir, F

    2015-12-09

    High levels of sedentary behaviour (i.e., sitting) are a risk factor for poor health. With high levels of sitting widespread in desk-based office workers, office workplaces are an appropriate setting for interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behaviour. This paper describes the development processes and proposed intervention procedures of Stand More AT (SMArT) Work, a multi-component randomised control (RCT) trial which aims to reduce occupational sitting time in desk-based office workers within the National Health Service (NHS). SMArT Work consists of 2 phases: 1) intervention development: The development of the SMArT Work intervention takes a community-based participatory research approach using the Behaviour Change Wheel. Focus groups will collect detailed information to gain a better understanding of the most appropriate strategies, to sit alongside the provision of height-adjustable workstations, at the environmental, organisational and individual level that support less occupational sitting. 2) intervention delivery and evaluation: The 12 month cluster RCT aims to reduce workplace sitting in the University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust. Desk-based office workers (n = 238) will be randomised to control or intervention clusters, with the intervention group receiving height-adjustable workstations and supporting techniques based on the feedback received from the development phase. Data will be collected at four time points; baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is a reduction in sitting time, measured by the activPAL(TM) micro at 12 months. Secondary outcomes include objectively measured physical activity and a variety of work-related health and psycho-social measures. A process evaluation will also take place. This study will be the first long-term, evidence-based, multi-component cluster RCT aimed at reducing occupational sitting within the NHS. This study will help form a better understanding and knowledge base of facilitators and

  13. SureCure{sup (R)}-A new material to reduces curing time and improve curing reproducibility of lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, David P.; Loosemore, Daniel V.; Botts, G. Dean [Hammond Lead Products Division, Hammond Group Inc., 2323 165th Street, Hammond, IN 46320 (United States)

    2006-08-25

    This paper introduces a technology that considerably reduces the time to cure the positive plates of lead-acid batteries. In each of several full-scale trials at automotive and industrial battery manufacturers, the simple replacement of 1wt.% of leady oxide with finely-divided tetrabasic lead sulfate (SureCure(TM) by Hammond Group Inc.) is shown to accelerate significantly the conversion of tribasic lead sulfate (3BS) to tetrabasic lead sulfate (4BS) in the curing process while improving crystal structure and reproducibility. Shorter curing times result in reduced labour and energy costs, as well as reduced fixed (curing chambers and plant footprint) and working (plate inventory) capital investment. (author)

  14. Direct Measurements of Smartphone Screen-Time: Relationships with Demographics and Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Matthew A; Bettencourt, Laura; Kaye, Leanne; Moturu, Sai T; Nguyen, Kaylin T; Olgin, Jeffrey E; Pletcher, Mark J; Marcus, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are increasingly integrated into everyday life, but frequency of use has not yet been objectively measured and compared to demographics, health information, and in particular, sleep quality. The aim of this study was to characterize smartphone use by measuring screen-time directly, determine factors that are associated with increased screen-time, and to test the hypothesis that increased screen-time is associated with poor sleep. We performed a cross-sectional analysis in a subset of 653 participants enrolled in the Health eHeart Study, an internet-based longitudinal cohort study open to any interested adult (≥ 18 years). Smartphone screen-time (the number of minutes in each hour the screen was on) was measured continuously via smartphone application. For each participant, total and average screen-time were computed over 30-day windows. Average screen-time specifically during self-reported bedtime hours and sleeping period was also computed. Demographics, medical information, and sleep habits (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI) were obtained by survey. Linear regression was used to obtain effect estimates. Total screen-time over 30 days was a median 38.4 hours (IQR 21.4 to 61.3) and average screen-time over 30 days was a median 3.7 minutes per hour (IQR 2.2 to 5.5). Younger age, self-reported race/ethnicity of Black and "Other" were associated with longer average screen-time after adjustment for potential confounders. Longer average screen-time was associated with shorter sleep duration and worse sleep-efficiency. Longer average screen-times during bedtime and the sleeping period were associated with poor sleep quality, decreased sleep efficiency, and longer sleep onset latency. These findings on actual smartphone screen-time build upon prior work based on self-report and confirm that adults spend a substantial amount of time using their smartphones. Screen-time differs across age and race, but is similar across socio-economic strata suggesting that

  15. Direct Measurements of Smartphone Screen-Time: Relationships with Demographics and Sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A Christensen

    Full Text Available Smartphones are increasingly integrated into everyday life, but frequency of use has not yet been objectively measured and compared to demographics, health information, and in particular, sleep quality.The aim of this study was to characterize smartphone use by measuring screen-time directly, determine factors that are associated with increased screen-time, and to test the hypothesis that increased screen-time is associated with poor sleep.We performed a cross-sectional analysis in a subset of 653 participants enrolled in the Health eHeart Study, an internet-based longitudinal cohort study open to any interested adult (≥ 18 years. Smartphone screen-time (the number of minutes in each hour the screen was on was measured continuously via smartphone application. For each participant, total and average screen-time were computed over 30-day windows. Average screen-time specifically during self-reported bedtime hours and sleeping period was also computed. Demographics, medical information, and sleep habits (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-PSQI were obtained by survey. Linear regression was used to obtain effect estimates.Total screen-time over 30 days was a median 38.4 hours (IQR 21.4 to 61.3 and average screen-time over 30 days was a median 3.7 minutes per hour (IQR 2.2 to 5.5. Younger age, self-reported race/ethnicity of Black and "Other" were associated with longer average screen-time after adjustment for potential confounders. Longer average screen-time was associated with shorter sleep duration and worse sleep-efficiency. Longer average screen-times during bedtime and the sleeping period were associated with poor sleep quality, decreased sleep efficiency, and longer sleep onset latency.These findings on actual smartphone screen-time build upon prior work based on self-report and confirm that adults spend a substantial amount of time using their smartphones. Screen-time differs across age and race, but is similar across socio-economic strata

  16. A novel silicon drift detector with two dimensional drift time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hijzen, E.A.; Schooneveld, E.M.; Van Eijk, C.W.E.; Hollander, R.W.; Sarro, P.M.; Van den Bogaard, A.

    1994-01-01

    Until now silicon drift detectors with two dimensional position resolution made use of drift time measurement in one dimension only. The resolution in the other dimension was obtained by dividing the collecting anode into small pixels. In this paper we present a new type of drift detector that uses drift time measurements for both dimensions. The design consists of concentric quadrilateral closed strips with a small collecting anode in the centre. At first electrons will travel perpendicular to the strips until they reach a diagonal. Then they will proceed along this diagonal until they are collected at the centre. Position resolution in two dimensions can be obtained when both the time the electrons need to reach the diagonal and the time they need to reach the centre are measured. The latter is obtained from the collecting anode, the former from a diagonal strip present at the back side of the detector. Compared to common 2D drift detectors this detector offers the advantage of a small amount of readout electronics. It also has the advantage of having just one small collecting anode with a very low capacitance, resulting in low noise and therefore in a good energy resolution. ((orig.))

  17. Reducing the Lift-Off Effect on Permeability Measurement for Magnetic Plates From Multifrequency Induction Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Mingyang; Zhu, Wenqian; Yin, Liyuan; Peyton, Anthony J.; Yin, Wuliang; Qu, Zhigang

    2017-01-01

    Lift-off variation causes errors in eddy current measurement of nonmagnetic plates as well as magnetic plates. For nonmagnetic plates, previous work has been carried out to address the issue. In this paper, we follow a similar strategy, but try to reduce the lift-off effect on another index--zero-crossing frequency for magnetic plates. This modified index, termed as the compensated zero-crossing frequency, can be obtained from the measured multifrequency inductance spectral data using the alg...

  18. Multiscale analysis of heart rate dynamics: entropy and time irreversibility measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Madalena D; Peng, Chung-Kang; Goldberger, Ary L

    2008-06-01

    Cardiovascular signals are largely analyzed using traditional time and frequency domain measures. However, such measures fail to account for important properties related to multiscale organization and non-equilibrium dynamics. The complementary role of conventional signal analysis methods and emerging multiscale techniques, is, therefore, an important frontier area of investigation. The key finding of this presentation is that two recently developed multiscale computational tools--multiscale entropy and multiscale time irreversibility--are able to extract information from cardiac interbeat interval time series not contained in traditional methods based on mean, variance or Fourier spectrum (two-point correlation) techniques. These new methods, with careful attention to their limitations, may be useful in diagnostics, risk stratification and detection of toxicity of cardiac drugs.