Time-gated Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takei, Nobuyuki; Lee, Noriyuki; Furusawa, Akira; Moriyama, Daiki; Neergaard-Nielsen, J. S.
2006-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate the creation and characterization of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation between optical beams in a time-gated fashion. The correlated beams are created with two independent continuous-wave optical parametric oscillators and a half beam splitter. We define the temporal modes using a square temporal filter with duration T and make time-resolved measurements on the generated state. We observe correlations between the relevant conjugate variables in the temporal mode which correspond to EPR correlation. Our scheme is extendable to continuous-variable quantum teleportation of a non-Gaussian state defined in the time domain such as a superposition of coherent states
Unequal-time correlators for cosmology
Kitching, T. D.; Heavens, A. F.
2017-03-01
Measurements of the power spectrum from large-scale structure surveys have, to date, assumed an equal-time approximation, where the full cross-correlation power spectrum of the matter density field evaluated at different times (or distances) has been approximated either by the power spectrum at a fixed time or in an improved fashion, by a geometric mean P (k ;r1,r2)=[P (k ;r1)P (k ;r2)]1 /2 . In this paper we investigate the expected impact of the geometric mean ansatz and present an application in assessing the impact on weak-gravitational-lensing cosmological parameter inference, using a perturbative unequal time correlator. As one might expect, we find that the impact of this assumption is greatest at large separations in redshift Δ z ≳0.3 where the change in the amplitude of the matter power spectrum can be as much as 10 percent for k ≳5 h Mpc-1 . However, of more concern is that the corrections for small separations, where the clustering is not close to zero, may not be negligibly small. In particular, we find that for a Euclid- or LSST-like weak lensing experiment, the assumption of equal-time correlators may result in biased predictions of the cosmic shear power spectrum, and that the impact is strongly dependent on the amplitude of the intrinsic alignment signal. To compute unequal-time correlations to sufficient accuracy will require advances in either perturbation theory to high k modes or extensive use of simulations.
Time-localized wavelet multiple regression and correlation
Fernández-Macho, Javier
2018-02-01
This paper extends wavelet methodology to handle comovement dynamics of multivariate time series via moving weighted regression on wavelet coefficients. The concept of wavelet local multiple correlation is used to produce one single set of multiscale correlations along time, in contrast with the large number of wavelet correlation maps that need to be compared when using standard pairwise wavelet correlations with rolling windows. Also, the spectral properties of weight functions are investigated and it is argued that some common time windows, such as the usual rectangular rolling window, are not satisfactory on these grounds. The method is illustrated with a multiscale analysis of the comovements of Eurozone stock markets during this century. It is shown how the evolution of the correlation structure in these markets has been far from homogeneous both along time and across timescales featuring an acute divide across timescales at about the quarterly scale. At longer scales, evidence from the long-term correlation structure can be interpreted as stable perfect integration among Euro stock markets. On the other hand, at intramonth and intraweek scales, the short-term correlation structure has been clearly evolving along time, experiencing a sharp increase during financial crises which may be interpreted as evidence of financial 'contagion'.
Phase correlation of foreign exchange time series
Wu, Ming-Chya
2007-03-01
Correlation of foreign exchange rates in currency markets is investigated based on the empirical data of USD/DEM and USD/JPY exchange rates for a period from February 1 1986 to December 31 1996. The return of exchange time series is first decomposed into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by the empirical mode decomposition method. The instantaneous phases of the resultant IMFs calculated by the Hilbert transform are then used to characterize the behaviors of pricing transmissions, and the correlation is probed by measuring the phase differences between two IMFs in the same order. From the distribution of phase differences, our results show explicitly that the correlations are stronger in daily time scale than in longer time scales. The demonstration for the correlations in periods of 1986-1989 and 1990-1993 indicates two exchange rates in the former period were more correlated than in the latter period. The result is consistent with the observations from the cross-correlation calculation.
Image correlation spectroscopy: mapping correlations in space, time, and reciprocal space.
Wiseman, Paul W
2013-01-01
This chapter presents an overview of two recent implementations of image correlation spectroscopy (ICS). The background theory is presented for spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy and image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICS and STICCS, respectively) as well as k-(reciprocal) space image correlation spectroscopy (kICS). An introduction to the background theory is followed by sections outlining procedural aspects for properly implementing STICS, STICCS, and kICS. These include microscopy image collection, sampling in space and time, sample and fluorescent probe requirements, signal to noise, and background considerations that are all required to properly implement the ICS methods. Finally, procedural steps for immobile population removal and actual implementation of the ICS analysis programs to fluorescence microscopy image time stacks are described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Time-varying correlation and common structures in volatility
Liu, Yang
2016-01-01
This thesis studies time series properties of the covariance structure of multivariate asset returns. First, the time-varying feature of correlation is investigated at the intraday level with a new correlation model incorporating the intraday correlation dynamics. Second, the thesis develops a
The Cherenkov correlated timing detector: materials, geometry and timing constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aronstein, D.; Bergfeld, T.; Horton, D.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thayer, G.; Boyer, V.; Honscheid, K.; Kichimi, H.; Sugaya, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kanda, S.; Olsen, S.; Ueno, K.; Tamura, N.; Yoshimura, K.; Lu, C.; Marlow, D.; Mindas, C.; Prebys, E.; Pomianowski, P.
1996-01-01
The key parameters of Cherenkov correlated timing (CCT) detectors are discussed. Measurements of radiator geometry, optical properties of radiator and coupling materials, and photon detector timing performance are presented. (orig.)
Do the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool children?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Katherine L Downing
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Preschool children can spend up to 12 h a day in sedentary time and few meet current recommendations for screen time. Little is known about ecological correlates that could be targeted to decrease specific versus total sedentary behaviour. This study examined whether the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool boys and girls. Methods Parents participating in the HAPPY Study in 2008/09 in Melbourne, Australia reported their child’s usual screen time and potential individual, social and physical environment correlates. Children wore ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers for eight days to objectively assess sedentary time (<100 counts.min−1. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed, stratified by sex and controlling for child age, preschool/childcare attendance and clustering by centre of recruitment. Correlates significantly associated with screen time or sedentary time in individual models (p < 0.05 were included in final combined models. Results Children were sedentary for 301.1 (SD 34.1 minutes/day and spent 108.5 (SD 69.6 minutes/day in screen time. There were no sex differences in screen or sedentary time. In the final models, sleep duration was inversely associated with girls’ sedentary time and boys’ screen time. The only other consistent correlates for boys and girls were parental self-efficacy to limit screen time and screen time rules, which were inversely associated with screen time for both sexes. Parents reporting that they get bored watching their child play was inversely associated and maternal television viewing was positively associated with boys’ screen time. Paternal age was positively associated with boys’ sedentary time. Maternal ethnicity was inversely associated and paternal education, child preferences for sedentary behaviour, and parental concerns about child’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour were positively associated with girls’ screen time
Time-dependent friction and solvation time correlation function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samanta, Alok; Ali, Sk Musharaf; Ghosh, Swapan K
2005-01-01
We have derived a new relation between the time-dependent friction and solvation time correlation function (STCF) for non-polar fluids. The friction values calculated using this relation and simulation results on STCF for a Lennard-Jones fluid are shown to have excellent agreement with the same obtained through mode-coupling theory. Also derived is a relation between the time-dependent dielectric friction and STCF for polar fluids. Routes are thus provided to obtain the time-dependent friction (non-polar as well as dielectric) from an experimentally measured quantity like STCF, even if the interparticle interaction potential is not known
Finite-correlation-time effects in the kinematic dynamo problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schekochihin, Alexander A.; Kulsrud, Russell M.
2001-01-01
Most of the theoretical results on the kinematic amplification of small-scale magnetic fluctuations by turbulence have been confined to the model of white-noise-like (δ-correlated in time) advecting turbulent velocity field. In this work, the statistics of the passive magnetic field in the diffusion-free regime are considered for the case when the advecting flow is finite-time correlated. A new method is developed that allows one to systematically construct the correlation-time expansion for statistical characteristics of the field such as its probability density function or the complete set of its moments. The expansion is valid provided the velocity correlation time is smaller than the characteristic growth time of the magnetic fluctuations. This expansion is carried out up to first order in the general case of a d-dimensional arbitrarily compressible advecting flow. The growth rates for all moments of the magnetic-field strength are derived. The effect of the first-order corrections due to the finite correlation time is to reduce these growth rates. It is shown that introducing a finite correlation time leads to the loss of the small-scale statistical universality, which was present in the limit of the δ-correlated velocity field. Namely, the shape of the velocity time-correlation profile and the large-scale spatial structure of the flow become important. The latter is a new effect, that implies, in particular, that the approximation of a locally-linear shear flow does not fully capture the effect of nonvanishing correlation time. Physical applications of this theory include the small-scale kinematic dynamo in the interstellar medium and protogalactic plasmas
Nuclear disassembly time scales using space time correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Durand, D.; Colin, J.; Lecolley, J.F.; Meslin, C.; Aboufirassi, M.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Galin, J.; and others.
1996-01-01
The lifetime, τ, with respect to multifragmentation of highly excited nuclei is deduced from the analysis of strongly damped Pb+Au collisions at 29 MeV/u. The method is based on the study of space-time correlations induced by 'proximity' effects between fragments emitted by the two primary products of the reaction and gives the time between the re-separation of the two primary products and the subsequent multifragment decay of one partner. (author)
The hurst exponent and long-time correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, G.; Antar, G.; Devynck, P.
1999-10-01
The rescaled range statistics (R/S) method is applied to the ion saturation current fluctuations measured by Langmuir probe at edge on Tore Supra to evaluate the Hurst exponent. Data block randomization is carried out to the data sets in order to investigate the relationship between the Hurst exponent and long time correlation. It is observed that h is well above 0.5 in the long time self-similar range. However, it is found that the information which leads to H > 0.5 is totally contained in the short-time correlation and no link to long times is found. (authors)
Nuclear disassembly time scales using space time correlations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durand, D.; Colin, J.; Lecolley, J.F.; Meslin, C.; Aboufirassi, M.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Bilwes, B.; Cosmo, F. [Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (France); Galin, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); and others
1996-09-01
The lifetime, {tau}, with respect to multifragmentation of highly excited nuclei is deduced from the analysis of strongly damped Pb+Au collisions at 29 MeV/u. The method is based on the study of space-time correlations induced by `proximity` effects between fragments emitted by the two primary products of the reaction and gives the time between the re-separation of the two primary products and the subsequent multifragment decay of one partner. (author). 2 refs.
Conception and fabrication of a real time automatic correlator (multi-correlator)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berthier, D.
1967-10-01
The purpose of this work is to elaborate a specific computer able to display the real.time correlation function of two variables represented by two electrical signals. The various functions to be done are dealt with the best suited technology: delays from numerical method, hybrid multiplication, analog integration. This method proved very versatile so that it has been possible to modify the circuits with more performing components without changing the general conception of the whole system. In particular, the bandwidth, which was originally 125 kHz (1966) is now 1 MHz and will be 5 MHz, January 1968. Many results are obtained from the correlator such as: - determination of pulse responses of linear systems (1. and 2. order filters, oscillating circuits); - extraction of signals from noise; - measurement of time and space correlation in a turbulent plasma; - treatment of electro-biological signals. (author) [fr
Wang, Fang; Wang, Lin; Chen, Yuming
2017-08-31
In order to investigate the time-dependent cross-correlations of fine particulate (PM2.5) series among neighboring cities in Northern China, in this paper, we propose a new cross-correlation coefficient, the time-lagged q-L dependent height crosscorrelation coefficient (denoted by p q (τ, L)), which incorporates the time-lag factor and the fluctuation amplitude information into the analogous height cross-correlation analysis coefficient. Numerical tests are performed to illustrate that the newly proposed coefficient ρ q (τ, L) can be used to detect cross-correlations between two series with time lags and to identify different range of fluctuations at which two series possess cross-correlations. Applying the new coefficient to analyze the time-dependent cross-correlations of PM2.5 series between Beijing and the three neighboring cities of Tianjin, Zhangjiakou, and Baoding, we find that time lags between the PM2.5 series with larger fluctuations are longer than those between PM2.5 series withsmaller fluctuations. Our analysis also shows that cross-correlations between the PM2.5 series of two neighboring cities are significant and the time lags between two PM2.5 series of neighboring cities are significantly non-zero. These findings providenew scientific support on the view that air pollution in neighboring cities can affect one another not simultaneously but with a time lag.
Time-dependent correlations in electricity markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Escarela-Perez, Rafael
2010-01-01
In the last years, many electricity markets were subjected to deregulated operation where prices are set by the action of market participants. In this form, producers and consumers rely on demand and price forecasts to decide their bidding strategies, allocate assets, negotiate bilateral contracts, hedge risks, and plan facility investments. A basic feature of efficient market hypothesis is the absence of correlations between price increments over any time scale leading to random walk-type behavior of prices, so arbitrage is not possible. However, recent studies have suggested that this is not the case and correlations are present in the behavior of diverse electricity markets. In this paper, a temporal quantification of electricity market correlations is made by means of detrended fluctuation and Allan analyses. The approach is applied to two Canadian electricity markets, Ontario and Alberta. The results show the existence of correlations in both demand and prices, exhibiting complex time-dependent behavior with lower correlations in winter while higher in summer. Relatively steady annual cycles in demand but unstable cycles in prices are detected. On the other hand, the more significant nonlinear effects (measured in terms of a multifractality index) are found for winter months, while the converse behavior is displayed during the summer period. In terms of forecasting models, our results suggest that nonlinear recursive models (e.g., feedback NNs) should be used for accurate day-ahead price estimation. In contrast, linear models can suffice for demand forecasting purposes. (author)
Correlation and multifractality in climatological time series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedron, I T
2010-01-01
Climate can be described by statistical analysis of mean values of atmospheric variables over a period. It is possible to detect correlations in climatological time series and to classify its behavior. In this work the Hurst exponent, which can characterize correlation and persistence in time series, is obtained by using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) method. Data series of temperature, precipitation, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed, maximum squall, atmospheric pressure and randomic series are studied. Furthermore, the multifractality of such series is analyzed applying the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MF-DFA) method. The results indicate presence of correlation (persistent character) in all climatological series and multifractality as well. A larger set of data, and longer, could provide better results indicating the universality of the exponents.
Portal pressure correlated to visceral circulation times
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friman, L [Serafimerlasarettet, Stockholm (Sweden)
1979-01-01
Visceral angiography was performed in 7 patients with normal portal pressure and in 10 with portal hypertension. Circulation times, size of vessels and portal pressure were determined. At celiac angiography, a direct correlation was found between time for maximum filling of portal vein and portal pressure, provided no vascular abnormalities existed. At superior mesenteric angiography such a correlation was not found; loss of flow by shunts in portal hypertension being one explanation. Portocaval shunts are common in the celiac system, but uncommon in the superior mesenteric system.
Portal pressure correlated to visceral circulation times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friman, L.
1979-01-01
Visceral angiography was performed in 7 patients with normal portal pressure and in 10 with portal hypertension. Circulation times, size of vessels and portal pressure were determined. At celiac angiography, a direct correlation was found between time for maximum filling of portal vein and portal pressure, provided no vascular abnormalities existed. At superior mesenteric angiography such a correlation was not found; loss of flow by shunts in portal hypertension being one explanation. Portocaval shunts are common in the celiac system, but uncommon in the superior mesenteric system. (Auth.)
Efficient quantum algorithm for computing n-time correlation functions.
Pedernales, J S; Di Candia, R; Egusquiza, I L; Casanova, J; Solano, E
2014-07-11
We propose a method for computing n-time correlation functions of arbitrary spinorial, fermionic, and bosonic operators, consisting of an efficient quantum algorithm that encodes these correlations in an initially added ancillary qubit for probe and control tasks. For spinorial and fermionic systems, the reconstruction of arbitrary n-time correlation functions requires the measurement of two ancilla observables, while for bosonic variables time derivatives of the same observables are needed. Finally, we provide examples applicable to different quantum platforms in the frame of the linear response theory.
Long time correlations in standard mapping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rolland, P.
1985-09-01
Using an original method based on a statistics of runs, we have shown the existence of long time correlations in the Standard Mapping, as well as the role they play in the increase of the diffusion coefficient [fr
Finite correlation time effects in kinematic dynamo problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schekochihin, A.A.; Kulsrud, R.M.
2000-01-01
One-point statistics of the magnetic fluctuations in kinematic regime with large Prandtl number and non delta-correlated in time advecting velocity field are studied. A perturbation expansion in the ratio of the velocity correlation time to the dynamo growth time is constructed in the spirit of the Kliatskin-Tatarskii functional method and carried out to first order. The convergence properties are improved compared to the commonly used van Kampen-Terwiel method. The zeroth-order growth rate of the magnetic energy is estimated to be reduced (in three dimensions) by approximately 40%. This reduction is quite close to existing numerical results
Shell model for time-correlated random advection of passive scalars
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ken Haste; Muratore-Ginanneschi, P.
1999-01-01
We study a minimal shell model for the advection of a passive scalar by a Gaussian time-correlated velocity field. The anomalous scaling properties of the white noise limit are studied analytically. The effect of the time correlations are investigated using perturbation theory around the white...... noise limit and nonperturbatively by numerical integration. The time correlation of the velocity field is seen to enhance the intermittency of the passive scalar. [S1063-651X(99)07711-9]....
Algebraic relaxation of a time correlation function
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, S.; Kumar, C.N.; Tankeshwar, K.
2004-06-01
A second order non-linear differential equation obtained from Mori's integro- differential equation is shown to transform to another form which provides algebraic decay to a time correlation function. Involved parameters in algebraic formula are related to exact properties of the corresponding correlation function. The model has been used to study a sol-gel system which is known, experimentally, to exhibit a power law decay to stress auto-correlation function. The expression obtained for the viscosity shows a logarithmic divergence at some critical value of the parameter. Some features of the model have also been tested using available information about Lennard-Jones fluids. (author)
A flexible time recording and time correlation analysis system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shenhav, N.J.; Leiferman, G.; Segal, Y.; Notea, A.
1983-01-01
A system was developed to digitize and record the time intervals between detection event pulses, feed to its input channels from a detection device. The accumulated data is transferred continuously in real time to a disc through a PDP 11/34 minicomputer. Even though the system was designed for a specific scope, i.e., the comparative study of passive neutron nondestructive assay methods, it can be characterized by its features as a general purpose time series recorder. The time correlation analysis is performed by software after completion of the data accumulation. The digitizing clock period is selectable and any value, larger than a minimum of 100 ns, may be selected. Bursts of up to 128 events with a frequency up to 10 MHz may be recorded. With the present recorder-minicomputer combination, the maximal average recording frequency is 40 kHz. (orig.)
Time correlation between mononucleosis and initial symptoms of MS
Endriz, John; Ho, Peggy P.
2017-01-01
Objective: To determine the average age of MS onset vs the age at which Epstein-Barr infection has previously occurred and stratify this analysis by sex and the blood level of Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) antibody. Methods: Using infectious mononucleosis (IM) as a temporal marker in data from the Swedish epidemiologic investigation of MS, 259 adult IM/MS cases were identified and then augmented to account for “missing” childhood data so that the average age of MS onset could be determined for cases binned by age of IM (as stratified by sex and EBNA1 titer level). Results: Mean age of IM vs mean age of MS reveals a positive time correlation for all IM ages (from ∼5 to ∼30 years), with IM-to-MS delay decreasing with increased age. When bifurcated by sex or EBNA1 blood titer levels, males and high-titer subpopulations show even stronger positive time correlation, while females and low-titer populations show negative time correlation in early childhood (long IM/MS delay). The correlation becomes positive in females beyond puberty. Conclusions: IM/MS time correlation implies causality if IM is time random. Alternative confounding models seem implausible, in light of constraints imposed by time-invariant delay observed here. Childhood infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in females and/or those genetically prone to low EBNA1 blood titers will develop MS slowly. Males and/or high EBNA1-prone develop MS more rapidly following IM infection at all ages. For all, postpubescent EBV infection is critical for the initiation and rapid development of MS. PMID:28271078
Exact time-dependent exchange-correlation potentials for strong-field electron dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lein, Manfred; Kuemmel, Stephan
2005-01-01
By solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation and inverting the time-dependent Kohn-Sham scheme we obtain the exact time-dependent exchange-correlation potential of density-functional theory for the strong-field dynamics of a correlated system. We demonstrate that essential features of the exact exchange-correlation potential can be related to derivative discontinuities in stationary density-functional theory. Incorporating the discontinuity in a time-dependent density-functional calculation greatly improves the description of the ionization process
Correlations in Many-Body systems from two-time Greens functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morawetz, K.; Kohler, H.S.
2000-01-01
The Kadanoff-Baym (KB) equations are solved numerically for infinite nuclear matter. In particular we calculate correlation energies and correlation times. Approximating the Green's functions in the KB collision kernel by the free Green's functions the Levinson equation is obtained. This approximation is valid for weak interactions and/or low densities. It relates to the extended quasi-particle approximation for the spectral function. The Levinson correlation energy reduces for large times to a second order Born approximation for the energy. Comparing the Levinson, Born and KB calculations allows for an estimate of higher order spectral corrections to the correlations. (authors)
Strategy correlations and timing of adaptation in Minority Games
Galla, Tobias; Sherrington, David
2005-01-01
We study the role of strategy correlations and timing of adaptation for the dynamics of Minority Games, both simulationally and analytically. Using the exact generating functional approach a la De Dominicis we compute the phase diagram and the behaviour of batch and on-line games with correlated strategies, complementing exisiting replica studies of their statics. It is shown that the timing of adaptation can be relevant; while conventional games with uncorrelated strategies are nearly insens...
Real-Time Corrected Traffic Correlation Model for Traffic Flow Forecasting
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hua-pu Lu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problems of short-term traffic flow forecasting. The main goal is to put forward traffic correlation model and real-time correction algorithm for traffic flow forecasting. Traffic correlation model is established based on the temporal-spatial-historical correlation characteristic of traffic big data. In order to simplify the traffic correlation model, this paper presents correction coefficients optimization algorithm. Considering multistate characteristic of traffic big data, a dynamic part is added to traffic correlation model. Real-time correction algorithm based on Fuzzy Neural Network is presented to overcome the nonlinear mapping problems. A case study based on a real-world road network in Beijing, China, is implemented to test the efficiency and applicability of the proposed modeling methods.
Cross-correlation time-of-flight analysis of molecular beam scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nowikow, C.V.; Grice, R.
1979-01-01
The theory of the cross-correlation method of time-of-flight analysis is presented in a form which highlights its formal similarity to the conventional method. A time-of-flight system for the analysis of crossed molecular beam scattering is described, which is based on a minicomputer interface and can operate in both the cross-correlation and conventional modes. The interface maintains the synchronisation of chopper disc rotation and channel advance indefinitely in the cross-correlation method and can acquire data in phase with the beam modulation in both methods. The shutter function of the cross-correlation method is determined and the deconvolution analysis of the data is discussed. (author)
Multi-frame pyramid correlation for time-resolved PIV
Sciacchitano, A.; Scarano, F.; Wieneke, B.
2012-01-01
A novel technique is introduced to increase the precision and robustness of time-resolved particle image velocimetry (TR-PIV) measurements. The innovative element of the technique is the linear combination of the correlation signal computed at different separation time intervals. The domain of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clifton, P.M.
1985-03-01
This study examines the sensitivity of the travel time distribution predicted by a reference case model to (1) scale of representation of the model parameters, (2) size of the model domain, (3) correlation range of log-transmissivity, and (4) cross correlations between transmissivity and effective thickness. The basis for the reference model is the preliminary stochastic travel time model previously documented by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. Results of this study show the following. The variability of the predicted travel times can be adequately represented when the ratio between the size of the zones used to represent the model parameters and the log-transmissivity correlation range is less than about one-fifth. The size of the model domain and the types of boundary conditions can have a strong impact on the distribution of travel times. Longer log-transmissivity correlation ranges cause larger variability in the predicted travel times. Positive cross correlation between transmissivity and effective thickness causes a decrease in the travel time variability. These results demonstrate the need for a sound conceptual model prior to conducting a stochastic travel time analysis
Tao, Guohua; Miller, William H
2011-07-14
An efficient time-dependent importance sampling method is developed for the Monte Carlo calculation of time correlation functions via the initial value representation (IVR) of semiclassical (SC) theory. A prefactor-free time-dependent sampling function weights the importance of a trajectory based on the magnitude of its contribution to the time correlation function, and global trial moves are used to facilitate the efficient sampling the phase space of initial conditions. The method can be generally applied to sampling rare events efficiently while avoiding being trapped in a local region of the phase space. Results presented in the paper for two system-bath models demonstrate the efficiency of this new importance sampling method for full SC-IVR calculations.
Local normalization: Uncovering correlations in non-stationary financial time series
Schäfer, Rudi; Guhr, Thomas
2010-09-01
The measurement of correlations between financial time series is of vital importance for risk management. In this paper we address an estimation error that stems from the non-stationarity of the time series. We put forward a method to rid the time series of local trends and variable volatility, while preserving cross-correlations. We test this method in a Monte Carlo simulation, and apply it to empirical data for the S&P 500 stocks.
Space-time correlations in urban sprawl.
Hernando, A; Hernando, R; Plastino, A
2014-02-06
Understanding demographic and migrational patterns constitutes a great challenge. Millions of individual decisions, motivated by economic, political, demographic, rational and/or emotional reasons underlie the high complexity of demographic dynamics. Significant advances in quantitatively understanding such complexity have been registered in recent years, as those involving the growth of cities but many fundamental issues still defy comprehension. We present here compelling empirical evidence of a high level of regularity regarding time and spatial correlations in urban sprawl, unravelling patterns about the inertia in the growth of cities and their interaction with each other. By using one of the world's most exhaustive extant demographic data basis--that of the Spanish Government's Institute INE, with records covering 111 years and (in 2011) 45 million people, distributed among more than 8000 population nuclei--we show that the inertia of city growth has a characteristic time of 15 years, and its interaction with the growth of other cities has a characteristic distance of 80 km. Distance is shown to be the main factor that entangles two cities (60% of total correlations). The power of our current social theories is thereby enhanced.
Efficient use of correlation entropy for analysing time series data
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The correlation dimension D2 and correlation entropy K2 are both important quantifiers in nonlinear time series analysis. However, use of D2 has been more common compared to K2 as a discriminating measure. One reason for this is that D2 is a static measure and can be easily evaluated from a time series.
Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ginzburg, V N; Lozhkarev, V V; Luchinin, G A; Mironov, S Yu; Khazanov, Efim A; Yakovlev, I V [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhnii Novgorod (Russian Federation); Didenko, N V; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Lutsenko, Andrei P [' Avesta-project' Ltd., Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)
2008-11-30
A third-order correlator with a single-shot time window and a full dynamic range of 10{sup 8} is developed. The time contrast of radiation from the front-end system of a petawatt femtosecond laser complex measured with the correlator within time windows {+-}1 ps and {+-}100 ps was 10{sup 4} and more than 10{sup 8}, respectively. Based on the theoretical analysis of the cross-correlator operation, a number of requirements providing the optimal functioning of the cross-correlator are found. The reasons restricting the technical parameters of the correlator are discussed. (measurement of parameters of laser radiation)
Third-order correlator for measuring the time profile of petawatt laser pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginzburg, V N; Lozhkarev, V V; Luchinin, G A; Mironov, S Yu; Khazanov, Efim A; Yakovlev, I V; Didenko, N V; Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Lutsenko, Andrei P
2008-01-01
A third-order correlator with a single-shot time window and a full dynamic range of 10 8 is developed. The time contrast of radiation from the front-end system of a petawatt femtosecond laser complex measured with the correlator within time windows ±1 ps and ±100 ps was 10 4 and more than 10 8 , respectively. Based on the theoretical analysis of the cross-correlator operation, a number of requirements providing the optimal functioning of the cross-correlator are found. The reasons restricting the technical parameters of the correlator are discussed. (measurement of parameters of laser radiation)
LeBlanc, Allana G; Broyles, Stephanie T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Leduc, Geneviève; Boyer, Charles; Borghese, Michael M; Tremblay, Mark S
2015-03-18
Demographic, family, and home characteristics play an important role in determining childhood sedentary behaviour. The objective of this paper was to identify correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and correlates of self-reported screen time (ST) in Canadian children. Child- and parent-reported household, socio-demographic, behavioural, and diet related data were collected; directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were also collected for each child. Participants with complete demographic, anthropometric, and either SED (n=524, 41% boys) or ST (n=567, 42% boys) data from the Canadian site of the International Study of Childhood Obesity Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) were included in analysis. Sixteen potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel general linear models, adjusting for sex, ethnicity, number of siblings, and socio-economic status. All explanatory variables moderately associated (peducation, and unhealthy eating pattern score and negatively associated with healthy eating pattern score, and weekend breakfast consumption. Few common correlates existed between boys and girls. Several factors were identified as correlates of SED and/or of ST in Canadian children; however, few correlates were common for both SED and ST, and for both boys and girls. This suggests that a single strategy to reduce SED and ST is unlikely to be effective. Future work should examine a variety of other, non-screen based sedentary behaviours and their potential correlates in the hopes of creating tailored public health messages to reduce SED and ST in both boys, and girls.
Decay of Complex-Time Determinantal and Pfaffian Correlation Functionals in Lattices
Aza, N. J. B.; Bru, J.-B.; de Siqueira Pedra, W.
2018-06-01
We supplement the determinantal and Pfaffian bounds of Sims and Warzel (Commun Math Phys 347:903-931, 2016) for many-body localization of quasi-free fermions, by considering the high dimensional case and complex-time correlations. Our proof uses the analyticity of correlation functions via the Hadamard three-line theorem. We show that the dynamical localization for the one-particle system yields the dynamical localization for the many-point fermionic correlation functions, with respect to the Hausdorff distance in the determinantal case. In Sims and Warzel (2016), a stronger notion of decay for many-particle configurations was used but only at dimension one and for real times. Considering determinantal and Pfaffian correlation functionals for complex times is important in the study of weakly interacting fermions.
Decay of Complex-Time Determinantal and Pfaffian Correlation Functionals in Lattices
Aza, N. J. B.; Bru, J.-B.; de Siqueira Pedra, W.
2018-04-01
We supplement the determinantal and Pfaffian bounds of Sims and Warzel (Commun Math Phys 347:903-931, 2016) for many-body localization of quasi-free fermions, by considering the high dimensional case and complex-time correlations. Our proof uses the analyticity of correlation functions via the Hadamard three-line theorem. We show that the dynamical localization for the one-particle system yields the dynamical localization for the many-point fermionic correlation functions, with respect to the Hausdorff distance in the determinantal case. In Sims and Warzel (2016), a stronger notion of decay for many-particle configurations was used but only at dimension one and for real times. Considering determinantal and Pfaffian correlation functionals for complex times is important in the study of weakly interacting fermions.
Wavelet Correlation Coefficient of 'strongly correlated' financial time series
Razdan, Ashok
2003-01-01
In this paper we use wavelet concepts to show that correlation coefficient between two financial data's is not constant but varies with scale from high correlation value to strongly anti-correlation value This studies is important because correlation coefficient is used to quantify degree of independence between two variables. In econophysics correlation coefficient forms important input to evolve hierarchial tree and minimum spanning tree of financial data.
Extinction Time of a Metapopulation Driven by Colored Correlated Noises
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jiangcheng
2010-01-01
The simplified incidence function model which is driven by the colored correlated noises is employed to investigate the extinction time of a metapopulation perturbed by environments. The approximate Fokker-Planck Equation and the mean first passage time which denotes the extinction time (T ex ) are obtained by virtue of the Novikov theorem and the Fox approach. After introducing a noise intensity ratio and a dimensionless parameter R = D/α (D and α are the multiplicative and additive colored noise intensities respectively), and then performing numerical computations, the results indicate that: (i) The absolute value of correlation strength Λ and its correlation time τ 3 play opposite roles on the T ex ; (ii) For the case of 0 2 play opposite roles on the T ex in which R > 1 is the best condition, and there is one-peak structure on the T ex - D plot; (iii) For the case of -1 1 play opposite roles on the T ex in which R ex - τ 2 plot. (general)
Temporal and spectral manipulations of correlated photons using a time-lens
Mittal, Sunil; Orre, Venkata Vikram; Restelli, Alessandro; Salem, Reza; Goldschmidt, Elizabeth A.; Hafezi, Mohammad
2017-01-01
A common challenge in quantum information processing with photons is the limited ability to manipulate and measure correlated states. An example is the inability to measure picosecond scale temporal correlations of a multi-photon state, given state-of-the-art detectors have a temporal resolution of about 100 ps. Here, we demonstrate temporal magnification of time-bin entangled two-photon states using a time-lens, and measure their temporal correlation function which is otherwise not accessibl...
A KST framework for correlation network construction from time series signals
Qi, Jin-Peng; Gu, Quan; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Ping
2018-04-01
A KST (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and T statistic) method is used for construction of a correlation network based on the fluctuation of each time series within the multivariate time signals. In this method, each time series is divided equally into multiple segments, and the maximal data fluctuation in each segment is calculated by a KST change detection procedure. Connections between each time series are derived from the data fluctuation matrix, and are used for construction of the fluctuation correlation network (FCN). The method was tested with synthetic simulations and the result was compared with those from using KS or T only for detection of data fluctuation. The novelty of this study is that the correlation analyses was based on the data fluctuation in each segment of each time series rather than on the original time signals, which would be more meaningful for many real world applications and for analysis of large-scale time signals where prior knowledge is uncertain.
Wavelet based correlation coefficient of time series of Saudi Meteorological Data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rehman, S.; Siddiqi, A.H.
2009-01-01
In this paper, wavelet concepts are used to study a correlation between pairs of time series of meteorological parameters such as pressure, temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and wind speed. The study utilized the daily average values of meteorological parameters of nine meteorological stations of Saudi Arabia located at different strategic locations. The data used in this study cover a period of 16 years between 1990 and 2005. Besides obtaining wavelet spectra, we also computed the wavelet correlation coefficients between two same parameters from two different locations and show that strong correlation or strong anti-correlation depends on scale. The cross-correlation coefficients of meteorological parameters between two stations were also calculated using statistical function. For coastal to costal pair of stations, pressure time series was found to be strongly correlated. In general, the temperature data were found to be strongly correlated for all pairs of stations and the rainfall data the least.
Long-time tails of correlation and memory functions
Sawada, Isao
2002-11-01
We review the generalized Langevin equation, which is a transformation and reformulation of equation of motion, from the two viewpoints: the projection operator method developed by Mori and the recurrence relations method developed by Lee. The fluctuating forces acting on the Bloch electrons’ current are clarified the strongly colored quantum fluctuations with the spontaneous interband transitions leading to a long-time tail of 1/ t for the envelope of the memory function. The velocity autocorrelation functions in the coupled harmonic oscillator on the Bethe lattice have a long-time tail of 1/t t. The oscillation and the form of decay found in correlation functions affect transport coefficients given by the integrated intensity up to infinity. We also study the force-force correlation functions often used as an approximation to the memory function.
Brunozzi, Denise; Shakur, Sophia F; Ismail, Rahim; Linninger, Andreas; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Charbel, Fady T; Alaraj, Ali
2018-02-01
Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) provides an excellent anatomic characterization of cerebral vasculature, but hemodynamic assessment is often qualitative and subjective. Various clinical algorithms have been produced to semiquantify flow from the data obtained from DSA, but few have tested them against reliable flow values. An arched flow model was created and injected with contrast material. Seventeen injections were acquired in anterior-posterior and lateral DSA projections, and 4 injections were acquired in oblique projection. Image intensity change over the angiogram cycle of each DSA run was analyzed through a custom MATLAB code. Time-density plots obtained were divided into 3 components (time-density times, TDTs): TDT 10%-100% (time needed for contrast material to change image intensity from 10% to 100%), TDT 100%-10% (time needed for contrast material to change image intensity from 100% to 10%), and TDT 25%-25% (time needed for contrast material to change from 25% image intensity to 25%). Time-density index (TDI) was defined as model cross-sectional area to TDT ratio, and it was measured against different flow rates. TDI 10%-100% , TDI 100%-10% , and TDI 25%-25% all correlated significantly with flow (P < 0.001). TDI 10%-100% , TDI 100%-10% , and TDI 25%-25% showed, respectively, a correlation coefficient of 0.91, 0.91, and 0.97 in the anterior-posterior DSA projections (P < 0.001). In the lateral DSA projection, TDI 100%-10% showed a weaker correlation (r = 0.57; P = 0.03). Also in the oblique DSA projection, TDIs correlated significantly with flow. TDI on DSA correlates significantly with flow. Although in vitro studies might overlook conditions that occur in patients, this method appears to correlate with the flow and could offer a semiquantitative method to evaluate the cerebral blood flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The generalized correlation method for estimation of time delay in power plants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostic, Lj.
1981-01-01
The generalized correlation estimation is developed for determining time delay between signals received at two spatially separated sensors in the presence of uncorrelated noise in a power plant. This estimator can be realized as a pair of receiver prefilters followed by a cross correlator. The time argument at which the correlator achieves a maximum is the delay estimate. (author)
Long-time correlations in the stochastic regime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karney, C.F.F.
1982-11-01
The phase space for Hamiltonians of two degrees of freedom is usually divided into stochastic and integrable components. Even when well into the stochastic regime, integrable orbits may surround small stable regions or islands. The effect of these islands on the correlation function for the stochastic trajectories is examined. Depending on the value of the parameter describing the rotation number for the elliptic fixed point at the center of the island, the long-time correlation function may decay as t -5 or exponentially, but more commonly it decays much more slowly (roughly as t -1 ). As a consequence these small islands may have a profound effect on the properties such as the diffusion coefficient, of the stochastic orbits
Apparatus for Measurements of Time and Space Correlation
Favre, Alexandre; Gaviglio, J; Dumas, R
1955-01-01
A brief review is made of improvements to an experimental apparatus for time and space correlation designed for study of turbulence. Included is a description of the control of the measurements and a few particular applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sajjad Alizadeh
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Conventional Time Reversal (TR technique suffers from performance degradation in time varying Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Ultra-Wideband (MIMO-UWB systems due to outdating Channel State Information (CSI over time progressions. That is, the outdated CSI degrades the TR performance significantly in time varying channels. The correlation property of time correlated channels can improve the TR performance against other traditional TR designs. Based on this property, at first, we propose a robust TR-MIMO-UWB system design for a time-varying channel in which the CSI is updated only at the beginning of each block of data where the CSI is assumed to be known. As the channel varies over time, pre-processor blindly pre-equalizes the channel during the next symbol time by using the correlation property. Then, a novel recursive power allocation strategy is derived over time-correlated time-varying TR-MIMO-UWB channels. We show that the proposed power loading technique, considerably improves the BER performance of TR-MIMO-UWB system in imperfect CSI with robust pre-filter. The proposed algorithms lead to a cost-efficient CSI updating procedure for the TR optimization. Simulation results are provided to confirm the new design performance against traditional method.
Social correlates of leisure-time sedentary behaviours in Canadian adults.
Huffman, S; Szafron, M
2017-03-01
Research on the correlates of sedentary behaviour among adults is needed to design health interventions to modify this behaviour. This study explored the associations of social correlates with leisure-time sedentary behaviour of Canadian adults, and whether these associations differ between different types of sedentary behaviour. A sample of 12,021 Canadian adults was drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey, and analyzed using binary logistic regression to model the relationships that marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support have with overall time spent sitting, using a computer, playing video games, watching television, and reading during leisure time. Covariates included gender, age, education, income, employment status, perceived health, physical activity level, body mass index (BMI), and province or territory of residence. Extensive computer time was primarily negatively related to being in a common law relationship, and primarily positively related to being single/never married. Being single/never married was positively associated with extensive sitting time in men only. Having children under 12 in the household was protective against extensive video game and reading times. Increasing social support was negatively associated with extensive computer time in men and women, while among men increasing social support was positively associated with extensive sitting time. Computer, video game, television, and reading time have unique correlates among Canadian adults. Marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support should be considered in future analyses of sedentary activities in adults.
Social correlates of leisure-time sedentary behaviours in Canadian adults
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Huffman
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Research on the correlates of sedentary behaviour among adults is needed to design health interventions to modify this behaviour. This study explored the associations of social correlates with leisure-time sedentary behaviour of Canadian adults, and whether these associations differ between different types of sedentary behaviour. A sample of 12,021 Canadian adults was drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey, and analyzed using binary logistic regression to model the relationships that marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support have with overall time spent sitting, using a computer, playing video games, watching television, and reading during leisure time. Covariates included gender, age, education, income, employment status, perceived health, physical activity level, body mass index (BMI, and province or territory of residence. Extensive computer time was primarily negatively related to being in a common law relationship, and primarily positively related to being single/never married. Being single/never married was positively associated with extensive sitting time in men only. Having children under 12 in the household was protective against extensive video game and reading times. Increasing social support was negatively associated with extensive computer time in men and women, while among men increasing social support was positively associated with extensive sitting time. Computer, video game, television, and reading time have unique correlates among Canadian adults. Marital status, the presence of children in the household, and social support should be considered in future analyses of sedentary activities in adults.
Testing for time-based correlates of perceived gender discrimination.
Blau, Gary; Tatum, Donna Surges; Ward-Cook, Kory; Dobria, Lidia; McCoy, Keith
2005-01-01
Using a sample of 201 medical technologists (MTs) over a five-year period, this study extends initial findings on perceived gender discrimination (PGD) by Blau and Tatum (2000) by applying organizational justice variables and internal-external locus of control as hypothesized correlates of PGD. Three types of organizational justice were measured: distributive, procedural, and interactional. General relationships found include locus of control being related to PGD such that internals perceived lower PGD. Also, distributive, procedural, and interactional justice were negatively related to PGD. However, increasing the time interval between these correlates weakened their relationships. The relationship of interactional justice to PGD remained the most "resistant" to attenuation over time.
Advanced time-correlated single photon counting applications
Becker, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
This book is an attempt to bridge the gap between the instrumental principles of multi-dimensional time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) and typical applications of the technique. Written by an originator of the technique and by sucessful users, it covers the basic principles of the technique, its interaction with optical imaging methods and its application to a wide range of experimental tasks in life sciences and clinical research. The book is recommended for all users of time-resolved detection techniques in biology, bio-chemistry, spectroscopy of live systems, live cell microscopy, clinical imaging, spectroscopy of single molecules, and other applications that require the detection of low-level light signals at single-photon sensitivity and picosecond time resolution.
van den Broek, PLC; van Egmond, J; van Rijn, CM; Takens, F; Coenen, AML; Booij, LHDJ
2005-01-01
Background: This study assessed the feasibility of online calculation of the correlation integral (C(r)) aiming to apply C(r)derived statistics. For real-time application it is important to reduce calculation time. It is shown how our method works for EEG time series. Methods: To achieve online
Broek, P.L.C. van den; Egmond, J. van; Rijn, C.M. van; Takens, F.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Booij, L.H.D.J.
2005-01-01
This study assessed the feasibility of online calculation of the correlation integral (C(r)) aiming to apply C(r)-derived statistics. For real-time application it is important to reduce calculation time. It is shown how our method works for EEG time series. Methods: To achieve online calculation of
Time delay correlations in chaotic scattering and random matrix approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehmann, N.; Savin, D.V.; Sokolov, V.V.; Sommers, H.J.
1994-01-01
We study the correlations in the time delay a model of chaotic resonance scattering based on the random matrix approach. Analytical formulae which are valid for arbitrary number of open channels and arbitrary coupling strength between resonances and channels are obtained by the supersymmetry method. The time delay correlation function, through being not a Lorentzian, is characterized, similar to that of the scattering matrix, by the gap between the cloud of complex poles of the S-matrix and the real energy axis. 28 refs.; 4 figs
Real-time finite-temperature correlators from AdS/CFT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barnes, Edwin; Vaman, Diana; Wu Chaolun; Arnold, Peter
2010-01-01
In this paper we use anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence ideas in conjunction with insights from finite-temperature real-time field theory formalism to compute 3-point correlators of N=4 super Yang-Mills operators, in real time and at finite temperature. To this end, we propose that the gravity field action is integrated only over the right and left quadrants of the Penrose diagram of the anti-de Sitter-Schwarzschild background, with a relative sign between the two terms. For concreteness we consider the case of a scalar field in the black hole background. Using the scalar field Schwinger-Keldysh bulk-to-boundary propagators, we give the general expression of a 3-point real-time Green's correlator. We then note that this particular prescription amounts to adapting the finite-temperature analog of Veltman's circling rules to tree-level Witten diagrams, and comment on the retarded and Feynman scalar bulk-to-boundary propagators. We subject our prescription to several checks: Kubo-Martin-Schwinger identities, the largest time equation, and the zero-temperature limit. When specializing to a particular retarded (causal) 3-point function, we find a very simple answer: the momentum-space correlator is given by three causal (two advanced and one retarded) bulk-to-boundary propagators, meeting at a vertex point which is integrated from spatial infinity to the horizon only. This result is expected based on analyticity, since the retarded n-point functions are obtained by analytic continuation from the imaginary-time Green's function, and based on causality considerations.
Neuroanatomical correlates of time perspective: A voxel-based morphometry study.
Chen, Zhiyi; Guo, Yiqun; Feng, Tingyong
2018-02-26
Previous studies indicated that time perspective can affect many behaviors, such as decisions, risk taking, substance abuse and health behaviors. However, very little is known about the neural substrates of time perspective (TP). To address this question, we characterized different dimensions of TP (including the Past, Present, and Future TP) using standardized Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI), and quantified the gray matter volume using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method across two independent samples. Our whole-brain analysis (sample 1, N=150) revealed Past-Negative TP was positively correlated with the GMV of a cluster in LPFC whereas Past-Positive was negatively correlated with the GMV in OFC, and Future TP was negatively correlated with GMV in mPFC. Moreover, two present scales (Present-Hedonistic and Present-Fatalistic TPs) were positively correlated with the GMV of regions in MTG and precuneus, respectively. We further examined the reliability of these correlations between multidimensional TPs and neuroanatomical structures in another independent sample (sample 2, N=58). Results verified our findings that GMV in LPFC could predict Past-Negative TP while GMV in OFC could predict Past-Positive TP, and the GMV in MTG could predict Present-Hedonistic while the GMV in presuneus could predict Present-Fatalistic, as well as the GMV in mPFC could predict Future TP. Thus, our findings suggest that the existence of selective neural basis underlying TPs, and further provide the stable biomarkers for multidimensional TPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Multi-time, multi-scale correlation functions in turbulence and in turbulent models
Biferale, L.; Boffetta, G.; Celani, A.; Toschi, F.
1999-01-01
A multifractal-like representation for multi-time, multi-scale velocity correlation in turbulence and dynamical turbulent models is proposed. The importance of subleading contributions to time correlations is highlighted. The fulfillment of the dynamical constraints due to the equations of motion is
Autocorrelation and cross-correlation in time series of homicide and attempted homicide
Machado Filho, A.; da Silva, M. F.; Zebende, G. F.
2014-04-01
We propose in this paper to establish the relationship between homicides and attempted homicides by a non-stationary time-series analysis. This analysis will be carried out by Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (DCCA), and DCCA cross-correlation coefficient, ρ(n). Through this analysis we can identify a positive cross-correlation between homicides and attempted homicides. At the same time, looked at from the point of view of autocorrelation (DFA), this analysis can be more informative depending on time scale. For short scale (days), we cannot identify auto-correlations, on the scale of weeks DFA presents anti-persistent behavior, and for long time scales (n>90 days) DFA presents a persistent behavior. Finally, the application of this new type of statistical analysis proved to be efficient and, in this sense, this paper can contribute to a more accurate descriptive statistics of crime.
Schoolderman, A.J.; Suttorp, L.G.
1989-01-01
The long-time behaviour of the longitudinal and the transverse heat conductivity time correlation functions for a magnetized one-component plasma is studied by means of kinetic theory. To that end these correlation functions, which are defined as the inverse Laplace transforms of the dynamic heat
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lacevic, N.; Starr, F. W.; Schrøder, Thomas
2003-01-01
correlation function g4(r,t) and corresponding "structure factor" S4(q,t) which measure the spatial correlations between the local liquid density at two points in space, each at two different times, and so are sensitive to dynamical heterogeneity. We study g4(r,t) and S4(q,t) via molecular dynamics......Relaxation in supercooled liquids above their glass transition and below the onset temperature of "slow" dynamics involves the correlated motion of neighboring particles. This correlated motion results in the appearance of spatially heterogeneous dynamics or "dynamical heterogeneity." Traditional...... two-point time-dependent density correlation functions, while providing information about the transient "caging" of particles on cooling, are unable to provide sufficiently detailed information about correlated motion and dynamical heterogeneity. Here, we study a four-point, time-dependent density...
IBM PC based real time photon correlator [Paper No.:D2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumaravadivelu, C.; Nageswaran, A.; Weling, S. A.
1993-01-01
The design aspects and development of IBM PC based real time photon correlator is presented. This system computes 64 auto-correlation functions in real time. Sample data is 4-bit wide. Correlation functions are computed in hard wired logic using discrete components. A combination of parallel and pipelined architecture is adopted to compute the correlation in realtime. A high speed controller generates the required control signals for the computing hardware and also provides handshake signals to IBM PC to access the computed results. IBM PC bus is extended and interfaced to correlation computing hardware. IBM PC collects the experimental parameters through user friendly menu and initiates the correlation hardware and continues to collect the correlation build ups and displays them on the screen. Extensive test and maintenance features are incorporated into the system. This system is developed for Material Science Division in Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) to study static and dynamic properties of macro molecules and colloidal particles in dispersion using light scattering technique. It can also be used to study the flow characteristics of sodium in nuclear reactors. It can be used in dynamic neutron scattering experiments. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs
Spatial- and Time-Correlated Detection of Fission Fragments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Platkevic M.
2012-02-01
Full Text Available With the goal to measure angular correlations of fission fragments in rare fission decay (e.g. ternary and quaternary fission, a multi-detector coincidence system based on two and up to four position sensitive pixel detectors Timepix has been built. In addition to the high granularity, wide dynamic range and per pixel signal threshold, these devices are equipped with per pixel energy and time sensitivity providing more information (position, energy, time, enhances particle-type identification and selectivity of event-by-event detection. Operation of the device with the integrated USB 2.0 based readout interface FITPix and the control and data acquisition software tool Pixelman enables online visualization and flexible/adjustable operation for a different type of experiments. Spatially correlated fission fragments can be thus registered in coincidence. Similarly triggered measurements are performed using an integrated spectrometric module with analogue signal chain electronics. The current status of development together with demonstration of the technique with a 252Cf source is presented.
Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James E. Peterman
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Drag area (Ad is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP and indirectly (Est AP. Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT, and economy. $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak ($\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$lmin−1 and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45. The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05 when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = − 0.92. AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = − 0.75 or Est AP (r = − 0.71. In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.
Supernova-regulated ISM. V. Space and Time Correlations
Hollins, J. F.; Sarson, G. R.; Shukurov, A.; Fletcher, A.; Gent, F. A.
2017-11-01
We apply correlation analysis to random fields in numerical simulations of the supernova-driven interstellar medium (ISM) with the magnetic field produced by dynamo action. We solve the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in a shearing Cartesian box representing a local region of the ISM, subject to thermal and kinetic energy injection by supernova explosions, and parameterized, optically thin radiative cooling. We consider the cold, warm, and hot phases of the ISM separately; the analysis mostly considers the warm gas, which occupies the bulk of the domain. Various physical variables have different correlation lengths in the warm phase: 40,50, and 60 {pc} for the random magnetic field, density, and velocity, respectively, in the midplane. The correlation time of the random velocity is comparable to the eddy turnover time, about {10}7 {year}, although it may be shorter in regions with a higher star formation rate. The random magnetic field is anisotropic, with the standard deviations of its components {b}x/{b}y/{b}z having approximate ratios 0.5/0.6/0.6 in the midplane. The anisotropy is attributed to the global velocity shear from galactic differential rotation and locally inhomogeneous outflow to the galactic halo. The correlation length of Faraday depth along the z axis, 120 {pc}, is greater than for electron density, 60{--}90 {pc}, and the vertical magnetic field, 60 {pc}. Such comparisons may be sensitive to the orientation of the line of sight. Uncertainties of the structure functions of synchrotron intensity rapidly increase with the scale. This feature is hidden in a power spectrum analysis, which can undermine the usefulness of power spectra for detailed studies of interstellar turbulence.
Time Correlations of Lightning Flash Sequences in Thunderstorms Revealed by Fractal Analysis
Gou, Xueqiang; Chen, Mingli; Zhang, Guangshu
2018-01-01
By using the data of lightning detection and ranging system at the Kennedy Space Center, the temporal fractal and correlation of interevent time series of lightning flash sequences in thunderstorms have been investigated with Allan factor (AF), Fano factor (FF), and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) methods. AF, FF, and DFA methods are powerful tools to detect the time-scaling structures and correlations in point processes. Totally 40 thunderstorms with distinguishing features of a single-cell storm and apparent increase and decrease in the total flash rate were selected for the analysis. It is found that the time-scaling exponents for AF (αAF) and FF (αFF) analyses are 1.62 and 0.95 in average, respectively, indicating a strong time correlation of the lightning flash sequences. DFA analysis shows that there is a crossover phenomenon—a crossover timescale (τc) ranging from 54 to 195 s with an average of 114 s. The occurrence of a lightning flash in a thunderstorm behaves randomly at timescales τc but shows strong time correlation at scales >τc. Physically, these may imply that the establishment of an extensive strong electric field necessary for the occurrence of a lightning flash needs a timescale >τc, which behaves strongly time correlated. But the initiation of a lightning flash within a well-established extensive strong electric field may involve the heterogeneities of the electric field at a timescale τc, which behave randomly.
Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations
Bernaola-Galván, P.; Oliver, J.L.; Hackenberg, M.; Coronado, A.V.; Ivanov, P.Ch.; Carpena, P.
2012-01-01
Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome. PMID:23645997
Segmentation of time series with long-range fractal correlations.
Bernaola-Galván, P; Oliver, J L; Hackenberg, M; Coronado, A V; Ivanov, P Ch; Carpena, P
2012-06-01
Segmentation is a standard method of data analysis to identify change-points dividing a nonstationary time series into homogeneous segments. However, for long-range fractal correlated series, most of the segmentation techniques detect spurious change-points which are simply due to the heterogeneities induced by the correlations and not to real nonstationarities. To avoid this oversegmentation, we present a segmentation algorithm which takes as a reference for homogeneity, instead of a random i.i.d. series, a correlated series modeled by a fractional noise with the same degree of correlations as the series to be segmented. We apply our algorithm to artificial series with long-range correlations and show that it systematically detects only the change-points produced by real nonstationarities and not those created by the correlations of the signal. Further, we apply the method to the sequence of the long arm of human chromosome 21, which is known to have long-range fractal correlations. We obtain only three segments that clearly correspond to the three regions of different G + C composition revealed by means of a multi-scale wavelet plot. Similar results have been obtained when segmenting all human chromosome sequences, showing the existence of previously unknown huge compositional superstructures in the human genome.
Correlation measure to detect time series distances, whence economy globalization
Miśkiewicz, Janusz; Ausloos, Marcel
2008-11-01
An instantaneous time series distance is defined through the equal time correlation coefficient. The idea is applied to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) yearly increments of 21 rich countries between 1950 and 2005 in order to test the process of economic globalisation. Some data discussion is first presented to decide what (EKS, GK, or derived) GDP series should be studied. Distances are then calculated from the correlation coefficient values between pairs of series. The role of time averaging of the distances over finite size windows is discussed. Three network structures are next constructed based on the hierarchy of distances. It is shown that the mean distance between the most developed countries on several networks actually decreases in time, -which we consider as a proof of globalization. An empirical law is found for the evolution after 1990, similar to that found in flux creep. The optimal observation time window size is found ≃15 years.
On the zero temperature limit of the Kubo-transformed quantum time correlation function
Hernández de la Peña, Lisandro
2014-04-01
The zero temperature limit of several quantum time correlation functions is analysed. It is shown that while the canonical quantum time correlation function retains the full dynamical information as temperature approaches zero, the Kubo-transformed and the thermally symmetrised quantum time correlation functions lose all dynamical information at this limit. This is shown to be a consequence of the projection onto the ground state, via the limiting process of the quantities ? and ?, either together as a product, or separately. Although these findings would seem to suggest that finite-temperature methods commonly used to estimate Kubo correlation functions would be incapable of retaining any ground state dynamics, we propose a route for recovering in principle all dynamical information at the ground state. It is first shown that the usual frequency space relation between canonical and Kubo correlation functions also holds for microcanonical time correlation functions. Since the Kubo-transformed microcanonical correlation function can be obtained from the usual finite-temperature function by including a projection onto the corresponding microcanonical ensemble, finite-temperature methods, properly modified to incorporate such a constraint, can be used to capture full quantum dynamics at any arbitrary energy state, including the ground state. This approach is illustrated with the application of centroid dynamics to the ground state dynamics of the harmonic oscillator.
The time-oriented boundary states and the Lorentzian-spinfoam correlation functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bianchi, Eugenio; Ding You
2012-01-01
A time-oriented semiclassical boundary state is introduced to calculate the correlation function in the Lorentzian Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine spinfoam model. The resulting semiclassical correlation function is shown to match with the one in Regge calculus in a proper limit.
Self-organized criticality, long-time correlations, and the standard transport paradigm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krommes, J.A.
2000-01-01
Some aspects of low-frequency, long-wavelength fluctuations are considered. A stochastic model is used to show that power-law time correlations need not arise from self-organized criticality. A formula for the frequency spectrum of uncorrelated, overlapping avalanches is shown to be a special case of the spectral balance equation of renormalized statistical turbulence theory. It is argued that there need be no contradiction between the presence of long-time correlations and the existence of local transport coefficients
Optimization of time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Xiufeng; Du Haiying; Sun Jinsheng
2011-01-01
The paper proposes a performance improving scheme for the conventional time-correlated single photon counting spectrometer and develops a high speed data acquisition card based on PCI bus and FPGA technologies. The card is used to replace the multi-channel analyzer to improve the capability and decrease the volume of the spectrometer. The process of operation is introduced along with the integration of the spectrometer system. Many standard samples are measured. The experimental results show that the sensitivity of the spectrometer is single photon counting, and the time resolution of fluorescence lifetime measurement can be picosecond level. The instrument could measure the time-resolved spectroscopy. (authors)
Stationary echo canceling in velocity estimation by time-domain cross-correlation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
1993-01-01
The application of stationary echo canceling to ultrasonic estimation of blood velocities using time-domain cross-correlation is investigated. Expressions are derived that show the influence from the echo canceler on the signals that enter the cross-correlation estimator. It is demonstrated...
Schizotypal perceptual aberrations of time: correlation between score, behavior and brain activity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shahar Arzy
Full Text Available A fundamental trait of the human self is its continuum experience of space and time. Perceptual aberrations of this spatial and temporal continuity is a major characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disturbances--including schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder and schizotypy. We have previously found the classical Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS scores, related to body and space, to be positively correlated with both behavior and temporo-parietal activation in healthy participants performing a task involving self-projection in space. However, not much is known about the relationship between temporal perceptual aberration, behavior and brain activity. To this aim, we composed a temporal Perceptual Aberration Scale (tPAS similar to the traditional PAS. Testing on 170 participants suggested similar performance for PAS and tPAS. We then correlated tPAS and PAS scores to participants' performance and neural activity in a task of self-projection in time. tPAS scores correlated positively with reaction times across task conditions, as did PAS scores. Evoked potential mapping and electrical neuroimaging showed self-projection in time to recruit a network of brain regions at the left anterior temporal cortex, right temporo-parietal junction, and occipito-temporal cortex, and duration of activation in this network positively correlated with tPAS and PAS scores. These data demonstrate that schizotypal perceptual aberrations of both time and space, as reflected by tPAS and PAS scores, are positively correlated with performance and brain activation during self-projection in time in healthy individuals along the schizophrenia spectrum.
Grayscale optical correlator for real-time onboard ATR
Chao, Tien-Hsin; Zhou, Hanying; Reyes, George F.
2001-03-01
Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been developing grayscale optical correlator (GOC) for a variety of automatic target recognition (ATR) applications. As reported in previous papers, a 128 X 128 camcorder-sized GOC has been demonstrated for real-time field ATR demos. In this paper, we will report the recent development of a prototype 512 X 512 GOC utilizing a new miniature ferroelectric liquid crystal spatial light modulator with a 7-micrometers pixel pitch. Experimental demonstration of ATR applications using this new GOC will be presented. The potential of developing a matchbox-sized GOC will also be discussed. A new application of synthesizing new complex-valued correlation filters using this real-axis 512 X 512 SLM will also be included.
Non-Gaussian lineshapes and dynamics of time-resolved linear and nonlinear (correlation) spectra.
Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Matyushov, Dmitry V
2014-07-17
Signatures of nonlinear and non-Gaussian dynamics in time-resolved linear and nonlinear (correlation) 2D spectra are analyzed in a model considering a linear plus quadratic dependence of the spectroscopic transition frequency on a Gaussian nuclear coordinate of the thermal bath (quadratic coupling). This new model is contrasted to the commonly assumed linear dependence of the transition frequency on the medium nuclear coordinates (linear coupling). The linear coupling model predicts equality between the Stokes shift and equilibrium correlation functions of the transition frequency and time-independent spectral width. Both predictions are often violated, and we are asking here the question of whether a nonlinear solvent response and/or non-Gaussian dynamics are required to explain these observations. We find that correlation functions of spectroscopic observables calculated in the quadratic coupling model depend on the chromophore's electronic state and the spectral width gains time dependence, all in violation of the predictions of the linear coupling models. Lineshape functions of 2D spectra are derived assuming Ornstein-Uhlenbeck dynamics of the bath nuclear modes. The model predicts asymmetry of 2D correlation plots and bending of the center line. The latter is often used to extract two-point correlation functions from 2D spectra. The dynamics of the transition frequency are non-Gaussian. However, the effect of non-Gaussian dynamics is limited to the third-order (skewness) time correlation function, without affecting the time correlation functions of higher order. The theory is tested against molecular dynamics simulations of a model polar-polarizable chromophore dissolved in a force field water.
Generalized Correlation Coefficient for Non-Parametric Analysis of Microarray Time-Course Data.
Tan, Qihua; Thomassen, Mads; Burton, Mark; Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Kruse, Torben
2017-06-06
Modeling complex time-course patterns is a challenging issue in microarray study due to complex gene expression patterns in response to the time-course experiment. We introduce the generalized correlation coefficient and propose a combinatory approach for detecting, testing and clustering the heterogeneous time-course gene expression patterns. Application of the method identified nonlinear time-course patterns in high agreement with parametric analysis. We conclude that the non-parametric nature in the generalized correlation analysis could be an useful and efficient tool for analyzing microarray time-course data and for exploring the complex relationships in the omics data for studying their association with disease and health.
Neonatal periventricular leukomalacia: real-time sonographic diagnosis with CT correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chow, P.P.; Horgan, J.G.; Taylor, K.J.W.
1985-01-01
The utility of real-time sonography in the diagnosis of neonatal periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) has been described only recently. Six cases are reported of PVL diagnosed by serial real-time scanning. The sonographic findings were correlated with the computed tomographic findings and the clinical history. In five of six infants in whom scanning was performed, characteristic multiseptated periventricular cavitations developed 2-3 weeks after birth or later. A transition from normal to increased periventricular echogenicity was often observed before the development of the periventricular cavitations in nonhemorrhagic PVL. The parenchymal abnormality demonstrated by sonography correlated well with an abnormal neurologic outcome. It is suggested that serial real-time scanning be performed in neonates whose history suggests the possibility of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Nonspecific predictors of PVL include seizures, apnea, disturbed mental status, abnormal muscle tone, and leg weakness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Faerman, V A; Cheremnov, A G; Avramchuk, V V; Luneva, E E
2014-01-01
In the current work the relevance of nondestructive test method development applied for pipeline leak detection is considered. It was shown that acoustic emission testing is currently one of the most widely spread leak detection methods. The main disadvantage of this method is that it cannot be applied in monitoring long pipeline sections, which in its turn complicates and slows down the inspection of the line pipe sections of main pipelines. The prospects of developing alternative techniques and methods based on the use of the spectral analysis of signals were considered and their possible application in leak detection on the basis of the correlation method was outlined. As an alternative, the time-frequency correlation function calculation is proposed. This function represents the correlation between the spectral components of the analyzed signals. In this work, the technique of time-frequency correlation function calculation is described. The experimental data that demonstrate obvious advantage of the time-frequency correlation function compared to the simple correlation function are presented. The application of the time-frequency correlation function is more effective in suppressing the noise components in the frequency range of the useful signal, which makes maximum of the function more pronounced. The main drawback of application of the time- frequency correlation function analysis in solving leak detection problems is a great number of calculations that may result in a further increase in pipeline time inspection. However, this drawback can be partially reduced by the development and implementation of efficient algorithms (including parallel) of computing the fast Fourier transform using computer central processing unit and graphic processing unit
Comparison of correlation analysis techniques for irregularly sampled time series
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Rehfeld
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Geoscientific measurements often provide time series with irregular time sampling, requiring either data reconstruction (interpolation or sophisticated methods to handle irregular sampling. We compare the linear interpolation technique and different approaches for analyzing the correlation functions and persistence of irregularly sampled time series, as Lomb-Scargle Fourier transformation and kernel-based methods. In a thorough benchmark test we investigate the performance of these techniques.
All methods have comparable root mean square errors (RMSEs for low skewness of the inter-observation time distribution. For high skewness, very irregular data, interpolation bias and RMSE increase strongly. We find a 40 % lower RMSE for the lag-1 autocorrelation function (ACF for the Gaussian kernel method vs. the linear interpolation scheme,in the analysis of highly irregular time series. For the cross correlation function (CCF the RMSE is then lower by 60 %. The application of the Lomb-Scargle technique gave results comparable to the kernel methods for the univariate, but poorer results in the bivariate case. Especially the high-frequency components of the signal, where classical methods show a strong bias in ACF and CCF magnitude, are preserved when using the kernel methods.
We illustrate the performances of interpolation vs. Gaussian kernel method by applying both to paleo-data from four locations, reflecting late Holocene Asian monsoon variability as derived from speleothem δ^{18}O measurements. Cross correlation results are similar for both methods, which we attribute to the long time scales of the common variability. The persistence time (memory is strongly overestimated when using the standard, interpolation-based, approach. Hence, the Gaussian kernel is a reliable and more robust estimator with significant advantages compared to other techniques and suitable for large scale application to paleo-data.
Econophysics — complex correlations and trend switchings in financial time series
Preis, T.
2011-03-01
This article focuses on the analysis of financial time series and their correlations. A method is used for quantifying pattern based correlations of a time series. With this methodology, evidence is found that typical behavioral patterns of financial market participants manifest over short time scales, i.e., that reactions to given price patterns are not entirely random, but that similar price patterns also cause similar reactions. Based on the investigation of the complex correlations in financial time series, the question arises, which properties change when switching from a positive trend to a negative trend. An empirical quantification by rescaling provides the result that new price extrema coincide with a significant increase in transaction volume and a significant decrease in the length of corresponding time intervals between transactions. These findings are independent of the time scale over 9 orders of magnitude, and they exhibit characteristics which one can also find in other complex systems in nature (and in physical systems in particular). These properties are independent of the markets analyzed. Trends that exist only for a few seconds show the same characteristics as trends on time scales of several months. Thus, it is possible to study financial bubbles and their collapses in more detail, because trend switching processes occur with higher frequency on small time scales. In addition, a Monte Carlo based simulation of financial markets is analyzed and extended in order to reproduce empirical features and to gain insight into their causes. These causes include both financial market microstructure and the risk aversion of market participants.
Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Duvvuru, Arjun; Sultornsanee, Sivarit; Kamarthi, Sagar
2016-02-01
The cross correlation coefficient has been widely applied in financial time series analysis, in specific, for understanding chaotic behaviour in terms of stock price and index movements during crisis periods. To better understand time series correlation dynamics, the cross correlation matrices are represented as networks, in which a node stands for an individual time series and a link indicates cross correlation between a pair of nodes. These networks are converted into simpler trees using different schemes. In this context, Minimum Spanning Trees (MST) are the most favoured tree structures because of their ability to preserve all the nodes and thereby retain essential information imbued in the network. Although cross correlations underlying MSTs capture essential information, they do not faithfully capture dynamic behaviour embedded in the time series data of financial systems because cross correlation is a reliable measure only if the relationship between the time series is linear. To address the issue, this work investigates a new measure called phase synchronization (PS) for establishing correlations among different time series which relate to one another, linearly or nonlinearly. In this approach the strength of a link between a pair of time series (nodes) is determined by the level of phase synchronization between them. We compare the performance of phase synchronization based MST with cross correlation based MST along selected network measures across temporal frame that includes economically good and crisis periods. We observe agreement in the directionality of the results across these two methods. They show similar trends, upward or downward, when comparing selected network measures. Though both the methods give similar trends, the phase synchronization based MST is a more reliable representation of the dynamic behaviour of financial systems than the cross correlation based MST because of the former's ability to quantify nonlinear relationships among time
Study of water flowrate using time transient and cross-correlation techniques with 82Br radiotracer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salgado, William L.; Brandao, Luiz E.B.
2013-01-01
This paper aims to determinate the water flowrate using Time Transient and Cross-Correlation techniques. The detection system uses two NaI (T1) detectors adequately positioned on the outside of pipe and a gamma-ray source ( 82 Br radiotracer). The water flowrate measurements using Time Transient and Cross-Correlation techniques were compared to invasive conventional measurements of the flowrate previously installed in pipeline. Discrepancies between Time Transient and Cross-Correlation techniques flowmeter previously installed in pipeline. Discrepancies between Time Transient and Cross-Correlation techniques flowrate values were found to be less than 3% in relation to conventional ones. (author)
Short-range correlations in an extended time-dependent mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madler, P.
1982-01-01
A generalization is performed of the time-dependent mean-field theory by an explicit inclusion of strong short-range correlations on a level of microscopic reversibility relating them to realistic nucleon-nucleon forces. Invoking a least action principle for correlated trial wave functions, equations of motion for the correlation functions and the single-particle model wave function are derived in lowest order of the FAHT cluster expansion. Higher order effects as well as long-range correlations are consider only to the extent to which they contribute to the mean field via a readjusted phenomenological effective two-body interaction. The corresponding correlated stationary problem is investigated and appropriate initial conditions to describe a heavy ion reaction are proposed. The singleparticle density matrix is evaluated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Songbai; Wu Jun; Zhu Jianyu; Tian Dongfeng; Xie Dong
2011-01-01
The active methodology of time correlation coincidence measurement of neutron is an effective verification means to authenticate uranium metal. A collimated 252 Cf neutron source was used to investigate mass and enrichment of uranium metal through the neutron transport simulation for different enrichments and different masses of uranium metal, then time correlation coincidence counts of them were obtained. By analyzing the characteristic of time correlation coincidence counts, the monotone relationships were founded between FWTH of time correlation coincidence and multiplication factor, between the total coincidence counts in FWTH for time correlation coincidence and mass of 235 U multiplied by multiplication factor, and between the ratio of neutron source penetration and mass of uranium metal. Thus the methodology to authenticate mass and enrichment of uranium metal was established with time correlation coincidence by active neutron investigation. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gong, S.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2014-10-15
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a well-established technique to study binding interactions or the diffusion of fluorescently labeled biomolecules in vitro and in vivo. Fast FCS experiments require parallel data acquisition and analysis which can be achieved by exploiting a multi-channel Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) array and a corresponding multi-input correlator. This paper reports a 32-channel FPGA based correlator able to perform 32 auto/cross-correlations simultaneously over a lag-time ranging from 10 ns up to 150 ms. The correlator is included in a 32 × 1 SPAD array module, providing a compact and flexible instrument for high throughput FCS experiments. However, some inherent features of SPAD arrays, namely afterpulsing and optical crosstalk effects, may introduce distortions in the measurement of auto- and cross-correlation functions. We investigated these limitations to assess their impact on the module and evaluate possible workarounds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, S.; Labanca, I.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M.
2014-01-01
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) is a well-established technique to study binding interactions or the diffusion of fluorescently labeled biomolecules in vitro and in vivo. Fast FCS experiments require parallel data acquisition and analysis which can be achieved by exploiting a multi-channel Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) array and a corresponding multi-input correlator. This paper reports a 32-channel FPGA based correlator able to perform 32 auto/cross-correlations simultaneously over a lag-time ranging from 10 ns up to 150 ms. The correlator is included in a 32 × 1 SPAD array module, providing a compact and flexible instrument for high throughput FCS experiments. However, some inherent features of SPAD arrays, namely afterpulsing and optical crosstalk effects, may introduce distortions in the measurement of auto- and cross-correlation functions. We investigated these limitations to assess their impact on the module and evaluate possible workarounds
Tao, Guohua; Miller, William H
2012-09-28
An efficient time-dependent (TD) Monte Carlo (MC) importance sampling method has recently been developed [G. Tao and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 024104 (2011)] for the evaluation of time correlation functions using the semiclassical (SC) initial value representation (IVR) methodology. In this TD-SC-IVR method, the MC sampling uses information from both time-evolved phase points as well as their initial values, and only the "important" trajectories are sampled frequently. Even though the TD-SC-IVR was shown in some benchmark examples to be much more efficient than the traditional time-independent sampling method (which uses only initial conditions), the calculation of the SC prefactor-which is computationally expensive, especially for large systems-is still required for accepted trajectories. In the present work, we present an approximate implementation of the TD-SC-IVR method that is completely prefactor-free; it gives the time correlation function as a classical-like magnitude function multiplied by a phase function. Application of this approach to flux-flux correlation functions (which yield reaction rate constants) for the benchmark H + H(2) system shows very good agreement with exact quantum results. Limitations of the approximate approach are also discussed.
Local wavelet correlation: applicationto timing analysis of multi-satellite CLUSTER data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Soucek
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Multi-spacecraft space observations, such as those of CLUSTER, can be used to infer information about local plasma structures by exploiting the timing differences between subsequent encounters of these structures by individual satellites. We introduce a novel wavelet-based technique, the Local Wavelet Correlation (LWC, which allows one to match the corresponding signatures of large-scale structures in the data from multiple spacecraft and determine the relative time shifts between the crossings. The LWC is especially suitable for analysis of strongly non-stationary time series, where it enables one to estimate the time lags in a more robust and systematic way than ordinary cross-correlation techniques. The technique, together with its properties and some examples of its application to timing analysis of bow shock and magnetopause crossing observed by CLUSTER, are presented. We also compare the performance and reliability of the technique with classical discontinuity analysis methods. Key words. Radio science (signal processing – Space plasma physics (discontinuities; instruments and techniques
Time-of-flight camera via a single-pixel correlation image sensor
Mao, Tianyi; Chen, Qian; He, Weiji; Dai, Huidong; Ye, Ling; Gu, Guohua
2018-04-01
A time-of-flight imager based on single-pixel correlation image sensors is proposed for noise-free depth map acquisition in presence of ambient light. Digital micro-mirror device and time-modulated IR-laser provide spatial and temporal illumination on the unknown object. Compressed sensing and ‘four bucket principle’ method are combined to reconstruct the depth map from a sequence of measurements at a low sampling rate. Second-order correlation transform is also introduced to reduce the noise from the detector itself and direct ambient light. Computer simulations are presented to validate the computational models and improvement of reconstructions.
Multivariate Option Pricing with Time Varying Volatility and Correlations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rombouts, Jeroen V.K.; Stentoft, Lars Peter
In recent years multivariate models for asset returns have received much attention, in particular this is the case for models with time varying volatility. In this paper we consider models of this class and examine their potential when it comes to option pricing. Specifically, we derive the risk...... neutral dynamics for a general class of multivariate heteroskedastic models, and we provide a feasible way to price options in this framework. Our framework can be used irrespective of the assumed underlying distribution and dynamics, and it nests several important special cases. We provide an application...... to options on the minimum of two indices. Our results show that not only is correlation important for these options but so is allowing this correlation to be dynamic. Moreover, we show that for the general model exposure to correlation risk carries an important premium, and when this is neglected option...
A new quantum statistical evaluation method for time correlation functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Loss, D.; Schoeller, H.
1989-01-01
Considering a system of N identical interacting particles, which obey Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein statistics, the authors derive new formulas for correlation functions of the type C(t) = i= 1 N A i (t) Σ j=1 N B j > (where B j is diagonal in the free-particle states) in the thermodynamic limit. Thereby they apply and extend a superoperator formalism, recently developed for the derivation of long-time tails in semiclassical systems. As an illustrative application, the Boltzmann equation value of the time-integrated correlation function C(t) is derived in a straight-forward manner. Due to exchange effects, the obtained t-matrix and the resulting scattering cross section, which occurs in the Boltzmann collision operator, are now functionals of the Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein distribution
Television Time among Brazilian Adolescents: Correlated Factors are Different between Boys and Girls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diego Augusto Santos Silva
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of excess television time and verify correlated factors in adolescent males and females. Methods. This cross-sectional study included 2,105 adolescents aged from 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Television time was self-reported, corresponding to the time spent watching television in a typical week. Several correlates were examined including age, skin color, socioeconomic status, parent education, physical activity level, consumption of fruits and vegetables, smoking status, alcohol use, and sports team participation. Results. The prevalence excess television time (≥2 hours/day in girls and boys was 70.9% and 66.2%, respectively. Girls with low socioeconomic status or inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables were more likely to have excess television time. Among boys, those >16 years of age or with black skin color were more likely to have excess television time. Conclusions. Excess television time was observed in more than two-thirds of adolescents, being more evident in girls. Correlated factors differed according to sex. Efforts to reduce television time among Brazilian adolescents, and replace with more active pursuits, may yield desirable public health benefits.
Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Tremblay, Mark Stephen; Gonçalves, Eliane Cristina de Andrade; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of excess television time and verify correlated factors in adolescent males and females. This cross-sectional study included 2,105 adolescents aged from 13 to 18 years from the city of Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Television time was self-reported, corresponding to the time spent watching television in a typical week. Several correlates were examined including age, skin color, socioeconomic status, parent education, physical activity level, consumption of fruits and vegetables, smoking status, alcohol use, and sports team participation. The prevalence excess television time (≥ 2 hours/day) in girls and boys was 70.9% and 66.2%, respectively. Girls with low socioeconomic status or inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables were more likely to have excess television time. Among boys, those >16 years of age or with black skin color were more likely to have excess television time. Excess television time was observed in more than two-thirds of adolescents, being more evident in girls. Correlated factors differed according to sex. Efforts to reduce television time among Brazilian adolescents, and replace with more active pursuits, may yield desirable public health benefits.
Pal, Mayukha; Madhusudana Rao, P.; Manimaran, P.
2014-12-01
We apply the recently developed multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis method to investigate the cross-correlation behavior and fractal nature between two non-stationary time series. We analyze the daily return price of gold, West Texas Intermediate and Brent crude oil, foreign exchange rate data, over a period of 18 years. The cross correlation has been measured from the Hurst scaling exponents and the singularity spectrum quantitatively. From the results, the existence of multifractal cross-correlation between all of these time series is found. We also found that the cross correlation between gold and oil prices possess uncorrelated behavior and the remaining bivariate time series possess persistent behavior. It was observed for five bivariate series that the cross-correlation exponents are less than the calculated average generalized Hurst exponents (GHE) for q0 and for one bivariate series the cross-correlation exponent is greater than GHE for all q values.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adjepong, S.K.; Okujagu, C.
1987-12-01
We present the preliminary results of an investigation of the correlation between the temporal variations of the time-series of ground air temperature and incident solar radiation recorded at Port Harcourt (lat. 4 deg. 51' N, long. 7 deg. 01' E), Nigeria, during a five-year period (1981 through 1985). Computed cross-correlation functions of the daily time-series reveal correlation at time lags which are approximate harmonics of the 27-day solar rotation cycle. The cross-correlation function of the mean monthly series shows correlation at a time lag of 12 months implying a dominant annual-cycle component in the variation of either series. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs
Correlates of First-Time Mothers' Postpartum Stress
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chich-Hsiu Hung
2006-10-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine first-time mothers' postpartum stress and its correlates following discharge from the hospital or clinic after vaginal delivery. One hundred and eightythree first-time mothers were enrolled from hospitals and clinics in Kaohsiung City. All first-time mothers reported normal pregnancies and vaginal deliveries, delivered healthy infants at term, and were surveyed during their postpartum periods after discharge from hospitals or clinics. The Hung Postpartum Stress Scale was used to examine first-time mothers' postpartum stress and stressors during their postpartum periods. The top ten postpartum stressors perceived by the women were: “the baby getting sick suddenly”, “the flabby flesh of my belly”, “the unpredictability of the baby's schedule”, “interrupted sleep”, “the shape of the baby's head due to the sleeping position”, “not sleeping enough”, “lack of information regarding infant's growth and development”, “the baby's crying”, “my life is restricted”, and “the baby choking during feeding”. There were no significant differences between the first-time mothers' demographic characteristics and their postpartum stress and its three components (negative body changes, maternal role attainment, lack of social support, respectively. Insight into the study results of first-time mothers' post- partum stress and stressors provides a reference for health professionals that the development of programs and resources addressing primiparous women's unique needs are required.
Time gated phase-correlation distributed Brillouin fibre sensor
Denisov, Andrey; Soto, Marcelo A.; Thévenaz, Luc
2013-05-01
A random access distributed Brillouin fibre sensor is presented, based on phase modulation using a pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS) together with time gating. The standard phase-correlation technique is known to show a noise level increasing linearly with the number of measured points due to weak gratings generated randomly along the whole sensing fibre. Here we show how intensity modulated pump and time gated detection significantly improve the signal-tonoise ratio (SNR) of the system with no impact on the spatial resolution. A measurement with 1.1 cm spatial resolution over 3.3 km is demonstrated, representing 300'000 equivalent points. The limitations of the proposed technique are discussed through the paper.
Scale and time dependence of serial correlations in word-length time series of written texts
Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.
2014-11-01
This work considered the quantitative analysis of large written texts. To this end, the text was converted into a time series by taking the sequence of word lengths. The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) was used for characterizing long-range serial correlations of the time series. To this end, the DFA was implemented within a rolling window framework for estimating the variations of correlations, quantified in terms of the scaling exponent, strength along the text. Also, a filtering derivative was used to compute the dependence of the scaling exponent relative to the scale. The analysis was applied to three famous English-written literary narrations; namely, Alice in Wonderland (by Lewis Carrol), Dracula (by Bram Stoker) and Sense and Sensibility (by Jane Austen). The results showed that high correlations appear for scales of about 50-200 words, suggesting that at these scales the text contains the stronger coherence. The scaling exponent was not constant along the text, showing important variations with apparent cyclical behavior. An interesting coincidence between the scaling exponent variations and changes in narrative units (e.g., chapters) was found. This suggests that the scaling exponent obtained from the DFA is able to detect changes in narration structure as expressed by the usage of words of different lengths.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vincent, C.H.
1992-01-01
An exact solution is found for dead-time losses between detections occurring within a gate interval, with constant dead time and with allowance for time correlation between detections from the same spontaneous initial event. This is used to obtain a close approximation to the losses with a multi-channel detection system, with allowance for dead times briding the gate opening. This is applied, inversely, to calculate the true detection multiplicity rates from the distribution of the recorded counts within that interval. A suggestion is made for a circuit change to give a major reduction in dead-time effects. The unavoidable statistical errors that would remain are calculated. Their minimization and the limits of such minimization are discussed. (orig.)
Odic, Darko; Lisboa, Juan Valle; Eisinger, Robert; Olivera, Magdalena Gonzalez; Maiche, Alejandro; Halberda, Justin
2016-01-01
What is the relationship between our intuitive sense of number (e.g., when estimating how many marbles are in a jar), and our intuitive sense of other quantities, including time (e.g., when estimating how long it has been since we last ate breakfast)? Recent work in cognitive, developmental, comparative psychology, and computational neuroscience has suggested that our representations of approximate number, time, and spatial extent are fundamentally linked and constitute a "generalized magnitude system". But, the shared behavioral and neural signatures between number, time, and space may alternatively be due to similar encoding and decision-making processes, rather than due to shared domain-general representations. In this study, we investigate the relationship between approximate number and time in a large sample of 6-8 year-old children in Uruguay by examining how individual differences in the precision of number and time estimation correlate with school mathematics performance. Over four testing days, each child completed an approximate number discrimination task, an approximate time discrimination task, a digit span task, and a large battery of symbolic math tests. We replicate previous reports showing that symbolic math abilities correlate with approximate number precision and extend those findings by showing that math abilities also correlate with approximate time precision. But, contrary to approximate number and time sharing common representations, we find that each of these dimensions uniquely correlates with formal math: approximate number correlates more strongly with formal math compared to time and continues to correlate with math even when precision in time and individual differences in working memory are controlled for. These results suggest that there are important differences in the mental representations of approximate number and approximate time and further clarify the relationship between quantity representations and mathematics. Copyright
A distributed timing system for sychronizing control and data correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stettler, M.; Thout, M.; Dalesio, L.R.; Cole, R.; Fite, C.; Slentz, G.; Warren, D.
1992-01-01
Synchronization is necessary in experimental physics machines to provide positive control over related events. The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) timing system provides this function through a distributed control system, known as the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The EPICS timing system was designed to take advantage of a distributed architecture, and provides time stamping for synchronous data correlation as well as event control. The system has been successfully demonstrated on over a dozen controller nodes for operation and data analysis. The design of the hardware, software, and operational results are discussed
Correlation filtering in financial time series (Invited Paper)
Aste, T.; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Tumminello, M.; Mantegna, R. N.
2005-05-01
We apply a method to filter relevant information from the correlation coefficient matrix by extracting a network of relevant interactions. This method succeeds to generate networks with the same hierarchical structure of the Minimum Spanning Tree but containing a larger amount of links resulting in a richer network topology allowing loops and cliques. In Tumminello et al.,1 we have shown that this method, applied to a financial portfolio of 100 stocks in the USA equity markets, is pretty efficient in filtering relevant information about the clustering of the system and its hierarchical structure both on the whole system and within each cluster. In particular, we have found that triangular loops and 4 element cliques have important and significant relations with the market structure and properties. Here we apply this filtering procedure to the analysis of correlation in two different kind of interest rate time series (16 Eurodollars and 34 US interest rates).
Cendagorta, Joseph R.; Bačić, Zlatko; Tuckerman, Mark E.
2018-03-01
We introduce a scheme for approximating quantum time correlation functions numerically within the Feynman path integral formulation. Starting with the symmetrized version of the correlation function expressed as a discretized path integral, we introduce a change of integration variables often used in the derivation of trajectory-based semiclassical methods. In particular, we transform to sum and difference variables between forward and backward complex-time propagation paths. Once the transformation is performed, the potential energy is expanded in powers of the difference variables, which allows us to perform the integrals over these variables analytically. The manner in which this procedure is carried out results in an open-chain path integral (in the remaining sum variables) with a modified potential that is evaluated using imaginary-time path-integral sampling rather than requiring the generation of a large ensemble of trajectories. Consequently, any number of path integral sampling schemes can be employed to compute the remaining path integral, including Monte Carlo, path-integral molecular dynamics, or enhanced path-integral molecular dynamics. We believe that this approach constitutes a different perspective in semiclassical-type approximations to quantum time correlation functions. Importantly, we argue that our approximation can be systematically improved within a cumulant expansion formalism. We test this approximation on a set of one-dimensional problems that are commonly used to benchmark approximate quantum dynamical schemes. We show that the method is at least as accurate as the popular ring-polymer molecular dynamics technique and linearized semiclassical initial value representation for correlation functions of linear operators in most of these examples and improves the accuracy of correlation functions of nonlinear operators.
Cendagorta, Joseph R; Bačić, Zlatko; Tuckerman, Mark E
2018-03-14
We introduce a scheme for approximating quantum time correlation functions numerically within the Feynman path integral formulation. Starting with the symmetrized version of the correlation function expressed as a discretized path integral, we introduce a change of integration variables often used in the derivation of trajectory-based semiclassical methods. In particular, we transform to sum and difference variables between forward and backward complex-time propagation paths. Once the transformation is performed, the potential energy is expanded in powers of the difference variables, which allows us to perform the integrals over these variables analytically. The manner in which this procedure is carried out results in an open-chain path integral (in the remaining sum variables) with a modified potential that is evaluated using imaginary-time path-integral sampling rather than requiring the generation of a large ensemble of trajectories. Consequently, any number of path integral sampling schemes can be employed to compute the remaining path integral, including Monte Carlo, path-integral molecular dynamics, or enhanced path-integral molecular dynamics. We believe that this approach constitutes a different perspective in semiclassical-type approximations to quantum time correlation functions. Importantly, we argue that our approximation can be systematically improved within a cumulant expansion formalism. We test this approximation on a set of one-dimensional problems that are commonly used to benchmark approximate quantum dynamical schemes. We show that the method is at least as accurate as the popular ring-polymer molecular dynamics technique and linearized semiclassical initial value representation for correlation functions of linear operators in most of these examples and improves the accuracy of correlation functions of nonlinear operators.
Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Bucksch, Jens; Schneider, Sven; Froboese, Ingo
2014-12-11
Sitting time is ubiquitous for most adults in developed countries and is most prevalent in three domains: in the workplace, during transport and during leisure time. The correlates of prolonged sitting time in workplace settings are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the gender-specific associations between the socio-demographic, behavioural and cognitive correlates of work-related sitting time. A cross-sectional sample of working German adults (n = 1515; 747 men; 43.5 ± 11.0 years) completed questionnaires regarding domain-specific sitting times and physical activity (PA) and answered statements concerning beliefs about sitting. To identify gender-specific correlates of work-related sitting time, we used a series of linear regressions. The overall median was 2 hours of work-related sitting time/day. Regression analyses showed for men (β = -.43) and for women (β = -.32) that work-related PA was negatively associated with work-related sitting time, but leisure-related PA was not a significant correlate. For women only, transport-related PA (β = -.07) was a negative correlate of work-related sitting time, suggesting increased sitting times during work with decreased PA in transport. Education and income levels were positively associated, and in women only, age (β = -.14) had a negative correlation with work-related sitting time. For both genders, TV-related sitting time was negatively associated with work-related sitting time. The only association with cognitive correlates was found in men for the belief 'Sitting for long periods does not matter to me' (β = .10) expressing a more positive attitude towards sitting with increasing sitting durations. The present findings show that in particular, higher educated men and women as well as young women are high-risk groups to target for reducing prolonged work-related sitting time. In addition, our findings propose considering increasing transport-related PA, especially in women, as
Socio-demographic correlates of leisure time physical activity among Portuguese adults
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adilson Marques
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to identify socio-demographic correlates of leisure time physical activity among Portuguese adults. Subjects aged 31-60 years (1,076 males, 1,383 females were categorized into two groups according to recommended physical activities ranging from ≥ 10 or < 10 MET.hours.week-1. Leisure time physical activity data was self-reported, including activities, duration of each session and frequency. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were applied to the results. Among men, having a high socioeconomic status (OR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.30-2.76; p = 0.001 was associated with attaining the recommended level of physical activity. For women, middle education levels were associated with physical activity (OR = 1.36; 95%CI: 1.01-1.85. Moreover, middle socioeconomic status (OR = 1.45; 95%CI: 0.80-1.91; p = 0.009 was also positively associated with meeting physical activities recommendations in the unadjusted analysis. Men and women had different patterns of socio-demographic correlates. An intervention designed to improve the levels of physical activity among Portuguese adults may take these correlates into account.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clifton, P.M.
1984-12-01
The deep basalt formations beneath the Hanford Site are being investigated for the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess their suitability as a host medium for a high level nuclear waste repository. Predicted performance of the proposed repository is an important part of the investigation. One of the performance measures being used to gauge the suitability of the host medium is pre-waste-emplacement groundwater travel times to the accessible environment. Many deterministic analyses of groundwater travel times have been completed by Rockwell and other independent organizations. Recently, Rockwell has completed a preliminary stochastic analysis of groundwater travel times. This document presents analyses that show the sensitivity of the results from the previous stochastic travel time study to: (1) scale of representation of model parameters, (2) size of the model domain, (3) correlation range of log-transmissivity, and (4) cross-correlation between transmissivity and effective thickness. 40 refs., 29 figs., 6 tabs
Qian, Xi-Yuan; Liu, Ya-Min; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene
2015-06-01
When common factors strongly influence two power-law cross-correlated time series recorded in complex natural or social systems, using detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) without considering these common factors will bias the results. We use detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPXA) to uncover the intrinsic power-law cross correlations between two simultaneously recorded time series in the presence of nonstationarity after removing the effects of other time series acting as common forces. The DPXA method is a generalization of the detrended cross-correlation analysis that takes into account partial correlation analysis. We demonstrate the method by using bivariate fractional Brownian motions contaminated with a fractional Brownian motion. We find that the DPXA is able to recover the analytical cross Hurst indices, and thus the multiscale DPXA coefficients are a viable alternative to the conventional cross-correlation coefficient. We demonstrate the advantage of the DPXA coefficients over the DCCA coefficients by analyzing contaminated bivariate fractional Brownian motions. We calculate the DPXA coefficients and use them to extract the intrinsic cross correlation between crude oil and gold futures by taking into consideration the impact of the U.S. dollar index. We develop the multifractal DPXA (MF-DPXA) method in order to generalize the DPXA method and investigate multifractal time series. We analyze multifractal binomial measures masked with strong white noises and find that the MF-DPXA method quantifies the hidden multifractal nature while the multifractal DCCA method fails.
Ignition delay time correlation of fuel blends based on Livengood-Wu description
Khaled, Fathi
2017-08-17
In this work, a universal methodology for ignition delay time (IDT) correlation of multicomponent fuel mixtures is reported. The method is applicable over wide ranges of temperatures, pressures, and equivalence ratios. n-Heptane, iso-octane, toluene, ethanol and their blends are investigated in this study because of their relevance to gasoline surrogate formulation. The proposed methodology combines benefits from the Livengood-Wu integral, the cool flame characteristics and the Arrhenius behavior of the high-temperature ignition delay time to suggest a simple and comprehensive formulation for correlating the ignition delay times of pure components and blends. The IDTs of fuel blends usually have complex dependences on temperature, pressure, equivalence ratio and composition of the blend. The Livengood-Wu integral is applied here to relate the NTC region and the cool flame phenomenon. The integral is further extended to obtain a relation between the IDTs of fuel blends and pure components. Ignition delay times calculated using the proposed methodology are in excellent agreement with those simulated using a detailed chemical kinetic model for n-heptane, iso-octane, toluene, ethanol and blends of these components. Finally, very good agreement is also observed for combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) predictions between simulations performed with detailed chemistry and calculations using the developed ignition delay correlation.
Modes of correlated angular motion in live cells across three distinct time scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harrison, Andrew W; Kenwright, David A; Woodman, Philip G; Allan, Victoria J; Waigh, Thomas A
2013-01-01
Particle tracking experiments with high speed digital microscopy yield the positions and trajectories of lipid droplets inside living cells. Angular correlation analysis shows that the lipid droplets have uncorrelated motion at short time scales (τ 10 ms, becomes persistent, indicating directed movement. The motion at all time scales is associated with the lipid droplets being tethered to and driven along the microtubule network. The point at which the angular correlation changes from anti-persistent to persistent motion corresponds to the cross over between sub-diffusive and super diffusive motion, as observed by mean square displacement analysis. Correct analysis of the angular correlations of the detector noise is found to be crucial in modelling the observed phenomena. (paper)
Pan, Feng; Tao, Guohua
2013-03-07
Full semiclassical (SC) initial value representation (IVR) for time correlation functions involves a double phase space average over a set of two phase points, each of which evolves along a classical path. Conventionally, the two initial phase points are sampled independently for all degrees of freedom (DOF) in the Monte Carlo procedure. Here, we present an efficient importance sampling scheme by including the path correlation between the two initial phase points for the bath DOF, which greatly improves the performance of the SC-IVR calculations for large molecular systems. Satisfactory convergence in the study of quantum coherence in vibrational relaxation has been achieved for a benchmark system-bath model with up to 21 DOF.
Yuan, Naiming; Xoplaki, Elena; Zhu, Congwen; Luterbacher, Juerg
2016-06-01
In this paper, two new methods, Temporal evolution of Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis (TDCCA) and Temporal evolution of Detrended Partial-Cross-Correlation Analysis (TDPCCA), are proposed by generalizing DCCA and DPCCA. Applying TDCCA/TDPCCA, it is possible to study correlations on multi-time scales and over different periods. To illustrate their properties, we used two climatological examples: i) Global Sea Level (GSL) versus North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO); and ii) Summer Rainfall over Yangtze River (SRYR) versus previous winter Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). We find significant correlations between GSL and NAO on time scales of 60 to 140 years, but the correlations are non-significant between 1865-1875. As for SRYR and PDO, significant correlations are found on time scales of 30 to 35 years, but the correlations are more pronounced during the recent 30 years. By combining TDCCA/TDPCCA and DCCA/DPCCA, we proposed a new correlation-detection system, which compared to traditional methods, can objectively show how two time series are related (on which time scale, during which time period). These are important not only for diagnosis of complex system, but also for better designs of prediction models. Therefore, the new methods offer new opportunities for applications in natural sciences, such as ecology, economy, sociology and other research fields.
Correlated continuous time random walk and option pricing
Lv, Longjin; Xiao, Jianbin; Fan, Liangzhong; Ren, Fuyao
2016-04-01
In this paper, we study a correlated continuous time random walk (CCTRW) with averaged waiting time, whose probability density function (PDF) is proved to follow stretched Gaussian distribution. Then, we apply this process into option pricing problem. Supposing the price of the underlying is driven by this CCTRW, we find this model captures the subdiffusive characteristic of financial markets. By using the mean self-financing hedging strategy, we obtain the closed-form pricing formulas for a European option with and without transaction costs, respectively. At last, comparing the obtained model with the classical Black-Scholes model, we find the price obtained in this paper is higher than that obtained from the Black-Scholes model. A empirical analysis is also introduced to confirm the obtained results can fit the real data well.
A distributed timing system for synchronizing control and data correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stettler, M.; Thuot, M.; Dalesio, L.R.; Cole, R.; Fite, C.; Slentz, G.; Warren, D.
1992-01-01
Synchronization is necessary in experimental physics machines to provide positive control over related events. The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) timing system provides this function through a distributed control system, known as the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The EPICS timing system was designed to take advantage of a distributed architecture, and provides time stamping for synchronous data correlation as well as event control. The system has been successfully demonstrated on over a dozen controller nodes for operation and data analysis. The design of the hardware, software, and operational results are discussed. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs
Distribution of diffusion times determined by fluorescence (lifetime) correlation spectroscopy
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Pánek, Jiří; Loukotová, Lenka; Hrubý, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr
2018-01-01
Roč. 51, č. 8 (2018), s. 2796-2804 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1507 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polymer solution * fluorescence correlation spectroscopy * diffusion time distribution Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 5.835, year: 2016
Wang, Can-Jun; Wei, Qun; Mei, Dong-Cheng
2008-03-01
The associated relaxation time T and the normalized correlation function C(s) for a tumor cell growth system subjected to color noises are investigated. Using the Novikov theorem and Fox approach, the steady probability distribution is obtained. Based on them, the expressions of T and C(s) are derived by means of projection operator method, in which the effects of the memory kernels of the correlation function are taken into account. Performing the numerical computations, it is found: (1) With the cross-correlation intensity |λ|, the additive noise intensity α and the multiplicative noise self-correlation time τ increasing, the tumor cell numbers can be restrained; And the cross-correlation time τ, the multiplicative noise intensity D can induce the tumor cell numbers increasing; However, the additive noise self-correlation time τ cannot affect the tumor cell numbers; The relaxation time T is a stochastic resonant phenomenon, and the distribution curves exhibit a single-maximum structure with D increasing. (2) The cross-correlation strength λ weakens the related activity between two states of the tumor cell numbers at different time, and enhances the stability of the tumor cell growth system in the steady state; On the contrast, τ and τ enhance the related activity between two states at different time; However, τ has no effect on the related activity between two states at different time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papanikolaou, Nickolas; Papadaki, Eufrosini; Karampekios, Spyros; Maris, Thomas; Prassopoulos, Panos; Gourtsoyiannis, Nicholas; Spilioti, Martha
2004-01-01
The aim of the current study was to perform T2 relaxation time measurements in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and correlate them with magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) measurements, in order to investigate in more detail the various histopathological changes that occur in lesions and normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). A total number of 291 measurements of MTR and T2 relaxation times were performed in 13 MS patients and 10 age-matched healthy volunteers. Measurements concerned MS plaques (105), NAWM (80), and ''dirty'' white matter (DWM; 30), evenly divided between the MS patients, and normal white matter (NWM; 76) in the healthy volunteers. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time analysis was performed, and also possible linearity between MTR and mean T2 relaxation times was evaluated using linear regression analysis in all subgroups. Biexponential relaxation was more pronounced in ''black-hole'' lesions (16.6%) and homogeneous enhancing plaques (10%), whereas DWM, NAWM, and mildly hypointense lesions presented biexponential behavior with a lower frequency(6.6, 5, and 3.1%, respectively). Non-enhancing isointense lesions and normal white matter did not reveal any biexponentional behavior. Linear regression analysis between monoexponential T2 relaxation time and MTR measurements demonstrated excellent correlation for DWM(r=-0.78, p<0.0001), very good correlation for black-hole lesions(r=-0.71, p=0.002), good correlation for isointense lesions(r=-0.60, p=0.005), moderate correlation for mildly hypointense lesions(r=-0.34, p=0.007), and non-significant correlation for homogeneous enhancing plaques, NAWM, and NWM. Biexponential T2 relaxation-time behavior is seen in only very few lesions (mainly on plaques with high degree of demyelination and axonal loss). A strong correlation between MTR and monoexponential T2 values was found in regions where either inflammation or demyelination predominates; however, when both pathological conditions coexist, this linear
Empirical mode decomposition and long-range correlation analysis of sunspot time series
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Yu; Leung, Yee
2010-01-01
Sunspots, which are the best known and most variable features of the solar surface, affect our planet in many ways. The number of sunspots during a period of time is highly variable and arouses strong research interest. When multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) is employed to study the fractal properties and long-range correlation of the sunspot series, some spurious crossover points might appear because of the periodic and quasi-periodic trends in the series. However many cycles of solar activities can be reflected by the sunspot time series. The 11-year cycle is perhaps the most famous cycle of the sunspot activity. These cycles pose problems for the investigation of the scaling behavior of sunspot time series. Using different methods to handle the 11-year cycle generally creates totally different results. Using MF-DFA, Movahed and co-workers employed Fourier truncation to deal with the 11-year cycle and found that the series is long-range anti-correlated with a Hurst exponent, H, of about 0.12. However, Hu and co-workers proposed an adaptive detrending method for the MF-DFA and discovered long-range correlation characterized by H≈0.74. In an attempt to get to the bottom of the problem in the present paper, empirical mode decomposition (EMD), a data-driven adaptive method, is applied to first extract the components with different dominant frequencies. MF-DFA is then employed to study the long-range correlation of the sunspot time series under the influence of these components. On removing the effects of these periods, the natural long-range correlation of the sunspot time series can be revealed. With the removal of the 11-year cycle, a crossover point located at around 60 months is discovered to be a reasonable point separating two different time scale ranges, H≈0.72 and H≈1.49. And on removing all cycles longer than 11 years, we have H≈0.69 and H≈0.28. The three cycle-removing methods—Fourier truncation, adaptive detrending and the
Nonequilibrium Physics at Short Time Scales: Formation of Correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peliti, L
2005-01-01
It is a happy situation when similar concepts and theoretical techniques can be applied to widely different physical systems because of a deep similarity in the situations being studied. The book illustrates this well; it focuses on the description of correlations in quantum systems out of equilibrium at very short time scales, prompted by experiments with short laser pulses in semiconductors, and in complex reactions in heavy nuclei. In both cases the experiments are characterized by nonlinear dynamics and by strong correlations out of equilibrium. In some systems there are also important finite-size effects. The book comprises several independent contributions of moderate length, and I sometimes felt that a more intensive effort in cross-coordination of the different contributions could have been of help. It is divided almost equally between theory and experiment. In the theoretical part, there is a thorough discussion both of the kinematic aspects (description of correlations) and the dynamical ones (evaluation of correlations). The experimental part is naturally divided according to the nature of the system: the interaction of pulsed lasers with matter on the one hand, and the correlations in finite-size systems (nanoparticles and nuclei) on the other. There is also a discussion on the dynamics of superconductors, a subject currently of great interest. Although an effort has been made to keep each contribution self-contained, I must admit that reading level is uneven. However, there are a number of thorough and stimulating contributions that make this book a useful introduction to the topic at the level of graduate students or researchers acquainted with quantum statistical mechanics. (book review)
Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jun
2017-09-01
In attempt to reproduce price dynamics of financial markets, a stochastic agent-based financial price model is proposed and investigated by stochastic exclusion process. The exclusion process, one of interacting particle systems, is usually thought of as modeling particle motion (with the conserved number of particles) in a continuous time Markov process. In this work, the process is utilized to imitate the trading interactions among the investing agents, in order to explain some stylized facts found in financial time series dynamics. To better understand the correlation behaviors of the proposed model, a new time-dependent intrinsic detrended cross-correlation (TDI-DCC) is introduced and performed, also, the autocorrelation analyses are applied in the empirical research. Furthermore, to verify the rationality of the financial price model, the actual return series are also considered to be comparatively studied with the simulation ones. The comparison results of return behaviors reveal that this financial price dynamics model can reproduce some correlation features of actual stock markets.
Precise timing correlation in telemetry recording and processing systems
Pickett, R. B.; Matthews, F. L.
1973-01-01
Independent PCM telemetry data signals received from missiles must be correlated to within + or - 100 microseconds for comparison with radar data. Tests have been conducted to determine RF antenna receiving system delays; delays associated with wideband analog tape recorders used in the recording, dubbing and repdocuing processes; and uncertainties associated with computer processed time tag data. Several methods used in the recording of timing are evaluated. Through the application of a special time tagging technique, the cumulative timing bias from all sources is determined and the bias removed from final data. Conclusions show that relative time differences in receiving, recording, playback and processing of two telemetry links can be accomplished with a + or - 4 microseconds accuracy. In addition, the absolute time tag error (with respect to UTC) can be reduced to less than 15 microseconds. This investigation is believed to be the first attempt to identify the individual error contributions within the telemetry system and to describe the methods of error reduction within the telemetry system and to describe the methods of error reduction and correction.
Kaiser, Tobias S; Neumann, Dietrich; Heckel, David G
2011-05-20
The intertidal zone of seacoasts, being affected by the superimposed tidal, diurnal and lunar cycles, is temporally the most complex environment on earth. Many marine organisms exhibit lunar rhythms in reproductive behaviour and some show experimental evidence of endogenous control by a circalunar clock, the molecular and genetic basis of which is unexplored. We examined the genetic control of lunar and diurnal rhythmicity in the marine midge Clunio marinus (Chironomidae, Diptera), a species for which the correct timing of adult emergence is critical in natural populations. We crossed two strains of Clunio marinus that differ in the timing of the diurnal and lunar rhythms of emergence. The phenotype distribution of the segregating backcross progeny indicates polygenic control of the lunar emergence rhythm. Diurnal timing of emergence is also under genetic control, and is influenced by two unlinked genes with major effects. Furthermore, the lunar and diurnal timing of emergence is correlated in the backcross generation. We show that both the lunar emergence time and its correlation to the diurnal emergence time are adaptive for the species in its natural environment. The correlation implies that the unlinked genes affecting lunar timing and the two unlinked genes affecting diurnal timing could be the same, providing an unexpectedly close interaction of the two clocks. Alternatively, the genes could be genetically linked in a two-by-two fashion, suggesting that evolution has shaped the genetic architecture to stabilize adaptive combinations of lunar and diurnal emergence times by tightening linkage. Our results, the first on genetic control of lunar rhythms, offer a new perspective to explore their molecular clockwork.
Heterogeneous dynamics of ionic liquids: A four-point time correlation function approach
Liu, Jiannan; Willcox, Jon A. L.; Kim, Hyung J.
2018-05-01
Many ionic liquids show behavior similar to that of glassy systems, e.g., large and long-lasted deviations from Gaussian dynamics and clustering of "mobile" and "immobile" groups of ions. Herein a time-dependent four-point density correlation function—typically used to characterize glassy systems—is implemented for the ionic liquids, choline acetate, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Dynamic correlation beyond the first ionic solvation shell on the time scale of nanoseconds is found in the ionic liquids, revealing the cooperative nature of ion motions. The traditional solvent, acetonitrile, on the other hand, shows a much shorter length-scale that decays after a few picoseconds.
The factors affecting the 95Nb/95Zr and 140La/95Zr-cooling time correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haddad, Kh
2005-03-01
The factors affecting the 95 Nb/ 95 Zr and 140 La/ 95 Zr-cooling time correlations were studied by analysing the gamma scanning results of the IRT fuel assemblies. the results showed that, these ratios are stable along the fuel assembly regardless of the position of the measured section. This allow to limit gamma scanning of the whole assembly on the measurement of the central section. The effects of irradiation history and conditions, burnup, control rods on the 95 Nb/ 95 Zr and 140 La/ 95 Zr-cooling time correlations were studied. The results showed the following: the identical irradiation history and conditions during the last irradiation, whose period is comparable with half lives of the used fission products, is fundamental condition for fission product ratio-cooling time correlation. The background resulting from burnup cause high systematic error in the measured results and it does not cause arbitrary error; whereas control rods cause high arbitrary error. The 95 Nb/ 95 Zr-cooling time correlation is more sensitive than the 140 La/ 95 Zr-cooling time correlation. (author)
Long-time correlation for the chaotic orbit in the two-wave Hamiltonian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatori, Tadatsugu; Irie, Haruyuki.
1987-03-01
The time correlation function of velocity is found to decay with the power law for the orbit governed by a Hamiltonian, H = v 2 /2-M cos x - P cos[k(x - t)]. The renormalization group technique can predict the power of decay for the correlation function defined by the ensemble average. The power spectrum becomes the 1/f-type for a special case. (author)
Clustering and correlates of screen-time and eating behaviours among young adolescents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalie Pearson
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Screen-time and eating behaviours are associated in adolescents, but few studies have examined the clustering of these health behaviours in this age group. The identification of clustered health behaviours, and influences on adolescents’ clustered health behaviours, at the time when they are most likely to become habitual, is important for intervention design. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and clustering of health behaviours in adolescents, and examine the sociodemographic, individual, behavioural, and home social and physical environmental correlates of clustered health behaviours. Methods Adolescents aged 11–12 years (n = 527, 48% boys completed a questionnaire during class-time which assessed screen-time (ST, fruit and vegetable (FV, and energy-dense (ED snack consumption using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Health behaviours were categorised into high and low frequencies based on recommendations for FV and ST and median splits for ED snacks. Adolescents reported on their habits, self-efficacy, eating at the television (TV, eating and watching TV together with parents, restrictive parenting practices, and the availability and accessibility of foods within the home. Behavioural clustering was assessed using an observed over expected ratio (O/E. Correlates of clustered behaviours were examined using multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Results Approximately 70% reported having two or three health risk behaviours. Overall, O/E ratios were close to 1, which indicates clustering. The three risk behaviour combination of low FV, high ED, and high ST occurred more frequently than expected (O/E ratio = 1.06 95% CI 1.01, 1.15. Individual, behavioural, and social and physical home environmental correlates were differentially associated with behavioural clusters. Correlates consistently associated with clusters included eating ED snacks while watching TV, eating at the TV with parents, and
Clustering and correlates of screen-time and eating behaviours among young adolescents.
Pearson, Natalie; Griffiths, Paula; Biddle, Stuart Jh; Johnston, Julie P; McGeorge, Sonia; Haycraft, Emma
2017-05-31
Screen-time and eating behaviours are associated in adolescents, but few studies have examined the clustering of these health behaviours in this age group. The identification of clustered health behaviours, and influences on adolescents' clustered health behaviours, at the time when they are most likely to become habitual, is important for intervention design. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and clustering of health behaviours in adolescents, and examine the sociodemographic, individual, behavioural, and home social and physical environmental correlates of clustered health behaviours. Adolescents aged 11-12 years (n = 527, 48% boys) completed a questionnaire during class-time which assessed screen-time (ST), fruit and vegetable (FV), and energy-dense (ED) snack consumption using a Food Frequency Questionnaire. Health behaviours were categorised into high and low frequencies based on recommendations for FV and ST and median splits for ED snacks. Adolescents reported on their habits, self-efficacy, eating at the television (TV), eating and watching TV together with parents, restrictive parenting practices, and the availability and accessibility of foods within the home. Behavioural clustering was assessed using an observed over expected ratio (O/E). Correlates of clustered behaviours were examined using multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Approximately 70% reported having two or three health risk behaviours. Overall, O/E ratios were close to 1, which indicates clustering. The three risk behaviour combination of low FV, high ED, and high ST occurred more frequently than expected (O/E ratio = 1.06 95% CI 1.01, 1.15. Individual, behavioural, and social and physical home environmental correlates were differentially associated with behavioural clusters. Correlates consistently associated with clusters included eating ED snacks while watching TV, eating at the TV with parents, and the availability and accessibility of ED snack foods
Travel Cost Inference from Sparse, Spatio-Temporally Correlated Time Series Using Markov Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Bin; Guo, Chenjuan; Jensen, Christian S.
2013-01-01
of such time series offers insight into the underlying system and enables prediction of system behavior. While the techniques presented in the paper apply more generally, we consider the case of transportation systems and aim to predict travel cost from GPS tracking data from probe vehicles. Specifically, each...... road segment has an associated travel-cost time series, which is derived from GPS data. We use spatio-temporal hidden Markov models (STHMM) to model correlations among different traffic time series. We provide algorithms that are able to learn the parameters of an STHMM while contending...... with the sparsity, spatio-temporal correlation, and heterogeneity of the time series. Using the resulting STHMM, near future travel costs in the transportation network, e.g., travel time or greenhouse gas emissions, can be inferred, enabling a variety of routing services, e.g., eco-routing. Empirical studies...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Canjun; Wei Qun; Mei Dongcheng
2008-01-01
The associated relaxation time T c and the normalized correlation function C(s) for a tumor cell growth system subjected to color noises are investigated. Using the Novikov theorem and Fox approach, the steady probability distribution is obtained. Based on them, the expressions of T c and C(s) are derived by means of projection operator method, in which the effects of the memory kernels of the correlation function are taken into account. Performing the numerical computations, it is found: (1) With the cross-correlation intensity |λ|, the additive noise intensity α and the multiplicative noise self-correlation time τ 1 increasing, the tumor cell numbers can be restrained; And the cross-correlation time τ 3 , the multiplicative noise intensity D can induce the tumor cell numbers increasing; However, the additive noise self-correlation time τ 2 cannot affect the tumor cell numbers; The relaxation time T c is a stochastic resonant phenomenon, and the distribution curves exhibit a single-maximum structure with D increasing. (2) The cross-correlation strength λ weakens the related activity between two states of the tumor cell numbers at different time, and enhances the stability of the tumor cell growth system in the steady state; On the contrast, τ 1 and τ 3 enhance the related activity between two states at different time; However, τ 2 has no effect on the related activity between two states at different time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shcheslavskiy, V., E-mail: vis@becker-hickl.de; Becker, W. [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Morozov, P.; Divochiy, A. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Smirnov, K. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation)
2016-05-15
Time resolution is one of the main characteristics of the single photon detectors besides quantum efficiency and dark count rate. We demonstrate here an ultrafast time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup consisting of a newly developed single photon counting board SPC-150NX and a superconducting NbN single photon detector with a sensitive area of 7 × 7 μm. The combination delivers a record instrument response function with a full width at half maximum of 17.8 ps and system quantum efficiency ∼15% at wavelength of 1560 nm. A calculation of the root mean square value of the timing jitter for channels with counts more than 1% of the peak value yielded about 7.6 ps. The setup has also good timing stability of the detector–TCSPC board.
St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Handschy, Mark A.
2015-04-01
The variability in wind-generated electricity complicates the integration of this electricity into the electrical grid. This challenge steepens as the percentage of renewably-generated electricity on the grid grows, but variability can be reduced by exploiting geographic diversity: correlations between wind farms decrease as the separation between wind farms increases. But how far is far enough to reduce variability? Grid management requires balancing production on various timescales, and so consideration of correlations reflective of those timescales can guide the appropriate spatial scales of geographic diversity grid integration. To answer ‘how far is far enough,’ we investigate the universal behavior of geographic diversity by exploring wind-speed correlations using three extensive datasets spanning continents, durations and time resolution. First, one year of five-minute wind power generation data from 29 wind farms span 1270 km across Southeastern Australia (Australian Energy Market Operator). Second, 45 years of hourly 10 m wind-speeds from 117 stations span 5000 km across Canada (National Climate Data Archive of Environment Canada). Finally, four years of five-minute wind-speeds from 14 meteorological towers span 350 km of the Northwestern US (Bonneville Power Administration). After removing diurnal cycles and seasonal trends from all datasets, we investigate dependence of correlation length on time scale by digitally high-pass filtering the data on 0.25-2000 h timescales and calculating correlations between sites for each high-pass filter cut-off. Correlations fall to zero with increasing station separation distance, but the characteristic correlation length varies with the high-pass filter applied: the higher the cut-off frequency, the smaller the station separation required to achieve de-correlation. Remarkable similarities between these three datasets reveal behavior that, if universal, could be particularly useful for grid management. For high
Time correlation functions and transport coefficients in a dilute superfluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirkpatrick, T.R.; Dorfman, J.R.
1985-01-01
Time correlation functions for the transport coefficients in the linear Landau-Khalatnikov equations are derived on the basis of a formal theory. These Green--Kubo expressions are then explicitly evaluated for a dilute superfluid and the resulting transport coefficiencts are shown to be identical to those obtained previously by using a distribution function method
Tracking of multiple objects with time-adjustable composite correlation filters
Ruchay, Alexey; Kober, Vitaly; Chernoskulov, Ilya
2017-09-01
An algorithm for tracking of multiple objects in video based on time-adjustable adaptive composite correlation filtering is proposed. For each frame a bank of composite correlation filters are designed in such a manner to provide invariance to pose, occlusion, clutter, and illumination changes. The filters are synthesized with the help of an iterative algorithm, which optimizes the discrimination capability for each object. The filters are adapted to the objects changes online using information from the current and past scene frames. Results obtained with the proposed algorithm using real-life scenes are presented and compared with those obtained with state-of-the-art tracking methods in terms of detection efficiency, tracking accuracy, and speed of processing.
Time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andriashin, A.V.; Devkin, B.V.; Lychagin, A.A.; Minko, J.V.; Mironov, A.N.; Nesterenko, V.S.; Sztaricskai, T.; Petoe, G.; Vasvary, L.
1986-01-01
A time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra from (n,xnγ) reactions is described. The operation and the main parameters are discussed. The resolution in the neutron channel is 2.2 ns/m at the 150 keV neutron energy threshold. A simultaneous measurement of the time-of-flight and amplitude distributions makes it possible to study gamma correlated neutron spectra as well as the prompt gamma spectra in coincidence with selected energy neutrons. In order to test the spectrometer, measurements of the neutron spectrum in coincidence with the 846 keV gamma line of 56 Fe were carried out at an incident neutron energy of 14.1 MeV. (Auth.)
Generalized Correlation Coefficient for Non-Parametric Analysis of Microarray Time-Course Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tan, Qihua; Thomassen, Mads; Burton, Mark
2017-01-01
the heterogeneous time-course gene expression patterns. Application of the method identified nonlinear time-course patterns in high agreement with parametric analysis. We conclude that the non-parametric nature in the generalized correlation analysis could be an useful and efficient tool for analyzing microarray...... time-course data and for exploring the complex relationships in the omics data for studying their association with disease and health....
Liu, Jian; Miller, William H
2008-09-28
The maximum entropy analytic continuation (MEAC) method is used to extend the range of accuracy of the linearized semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR)/classical Wigner approximation for real time correlation functions. LSC-IVR provides a very effective "prior" for the MEAC procedure since it is very good for short times, exact for all time and temperature for harmonic potentials (even for correlation functions of nonlinear operators), and becomes exact in the classical high temperature limit. This combined MEAC+LSC/IVR approach is applied here to two highly nonlinear dynamical systems, a pure quartic potential in one dimensional and liquid para-hydrogen at two thermal state points (25 and 14 K under nearly zero external pressure). The former example shows the MEAC procedure to be a very significant enhancement of the LSC-IVR for correlation functions of both linear and nonlinear operators, and especially at low temperature where semiclassical approximations are least accurate. For liquid para-hydrogen, the LSC-IVR is seen already to be excellent at T=25 K, but the MEAC procedure produces a significant correction at the lower temperature (T=14 K). Comparisons are also made as to how the MEAC procedure is able to provide corrections for other trajectory-based dynamical approximations when used as priors.
Correlated electron dynamics and memory in time-dependent density functional theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thiele, Mark
2009-01-01
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is an exact reformulation of the time-dependent many-electron Schroedinger equation, where the problem of many interacting electrons is mapped onto the Kohn-Sham system of noninteracting particles which reproduces the exact electronic density. In the Kohn-Sham system all non-classical many-body effects are incorporated in the exchange-correlation potential which is in general unknown and needs to be approximated. It is the goal of this thesis to investigate the connection between memory effects and correlated electron dynamics in strong and weak fields. To this end one-dimensional two-electron singlet systems are studied. At the same time these systems include the onedimensional helium atom model, which is an established system to investigate the crucial effects of correlated electron dynamics in external fields. The studies presented in this thesis show that memory effects are negligible for typical strong field processes. Here the approximation of the spatial nonlocality is of primary importance. For the photoabsorption spectra on the other hand the neglect of memory effects leads to qualitative and quantitative errors, which are shown to be connected to transitions of double excitation character. To develop a better understanding of the conditions under which memory effects become important quantum fluid dynamics has been found to be especially suitable. It represents a further exact reformulation of the quantum mechanic many-body problem which is based on hydrodynamic quantities such as density and velocity. Memory effects are shown to be important whenever the velocity field develops strong gradients and dissipative effects contribute. (orig.)
Correlated electron dynamics and memory in time-dependent density functional theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thiele, Mark
2009-07-28
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is an exact reformulation of the time-dependent many-electron Schroedinger equation, where the problem of many interacting electrons is mapped onto the Kohn-Sham system of noninteracting particles which reproduces the exact electronic density. In the Kohn-Sham system all non-classical many-body effects are incorporated in the exchange-correlation potential which is in general unknown and needs to be approximated. It is the goal of this thesis to investigate the connection between memory effects and correlated electron dynamics in strong and weak fields. To this end one-dimensional two-electron singlet systems are studied. At the same time these systems include the onedimensional helium atom model, which is an established system to investigate the crucial effects of correlated electron dynamics in external fields. The studies presented in this thesis show that memory effects are negligible for typical strong field processes. Here the approximation of the spatial nonlocality is of primary importance. For the photoabsorption spectra on the other hand the neglect of memory effects leads to qualitative and quantitative errors, which are shown to be connected to transitions of double excitation character. To develop a better understanding of the conditions under which memory effects become important quantum fluid dynamics has been found to be especially suitable. It represents a further exact reformulation of the quantum mechanic many-body problem which is based on hydrodynamic quantities such as density and velocity. Memory effects are shown to be important whenever the velocity field develops strong gradients and dissipative effects contribute. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pleimling, Michel; Täuber, Uwe C
2015-01-01
Vortex lines in type-II superconductors display complicated relaxation processes due to the intricate competition between their mutual repulsive interactions and pinning to attractive point or extended defects. We perform extensive Monte Carlo simulations for an interacting elastic line model with either point-like or columnar pinning centers. From measurements of the space- and time-dependent height-height correlation function for lateral flux line fluctuations, we extract a characteristic correlation length that we use to investigate different non-equilibrium relaxation regimes. The specific time dependence of this correlation length for different disorder configurations displays characteristic features that provide a novel diagnostic tool to distinguish between point-like pinning centers and extended columnar defects. (paper)
Time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andryashin, A.V.; Devlein, B.V.; Lychagin, A.A.; Minko, Y.V.; Mironov, A.N.; Nesterenko, V.S.
1986-01-01
A time-of-flight spectrometer for the measurement of gamma correlated neutron spectra form (n,xnγ) reactions is described. The operation and the main parameters are discussed. The resolution in the neutron channel is 2.2 ns/m at the 150 keV neutron energy threshold. A simultaneous measurement of the time-of-flight and amplitude distributions makes it possible to study gamma correlated neutron spectra as well as the prompt gamma spectra in coincidence with selected energy neutrons. In order to test the spectrometer, measurements of the neutron spectrum in coincidence with the 846 keV gamma line of 56 Fe were carried out at an incident neutron energy of 14.1 MeV. (author). 3 figs., 6 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Byung Ki; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Yong Joo; Kang, Duck Sik
1999-01-01
To determine the usefulness of MgSO 4 for measuring the systemic circulation time. Systemic circulation time, defined as elapsed time from the injection of MgSO 4 solution to the point of pharyngeal burning sensation, was measured in 63 volunteers. MgSO 4 was injected into a superficial vein of an upper extremity. Using dynamic electron beam computed tomography at the level of the abdominal aorta and celiac axis, a time-intensity curve was plotted, and for these two locations, maximal enhancement time was compared. For 60 of the 63 subjects, both systemic circulation time and maximal enhancement time were determined. Average systemic circulation time was 17.4 (SD:3.6) secs. and average maximal enhancement times at the level of the abdominal aorta and celiac axis were 17.5 (SD:3.0) secs. and 18.5 (SD:3.2) secs., respectively. Correlation coefficients between systemic circulation time and maximal enhancement time for the abdominal aorta and celiac axis were 0.73 (p 4 injection and maximal enhancement time for the abdominal aorta showed significant correlation. Thus, to determine the appropriate scanning time in contrast-enhanced radiological studies, MgSO 4 can be used instead of a test bolus study
Time-Resolved PIV for Space-Time Correlations in Hot Jets
Wernet, Mark P.
2007-01-01
Temporally Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) is being used to characterize the decay of turbulence in jet flows a critical element for understanding the acoustic properties of the flow. A TR-PIV system, developed in-house at the NASA Glenn Research Center, is capable of acquiring planar PIV image frame pairs at up to 10 kHz. The data reported here were collected at Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.9 and at temperature ratios of 0.89 and 1.76. The field of view of the TR-PIV system covered 6 nozzle diameters along the lip line of the 50.8 mm diameter jet. The cold flow data at Mach 0.5 were compared with hotwire anemometry measurements in order to validate the new TR-PIV technique. The axial turbulence profiles measured across the shear layer using TR-PIV were thinner than those measured using hotwire anemometry and remained centered along the nozzle lip line. The collected TR-PIV data illustrate the differences in the single point statistical flow properties of cold and hot jet flows. The planar, time-resolved velocity records were then used to compute two-point space-time correlations of the flow at the Mach 0.9 flow condition. The TR-PIV results show that there are differences in the convective velocity and growth rate of the turbulent structures between cold and hot flows at the same Mach number.
Out-of-Time-Ordered Density Correlators in Luttinger Liquids.
Dóra, Balázs; Moessner, Roderich
2017-07-14
Information scrambling and the butterfly effect in chaotic quantum systems can be diagnosed by out-of-time-ordered (OTO) commutators through an exponential growth and large late time value. We show that the latter feature shows up in a strongly correlated many-body system, a Luttinger liquid, whose density fluctuations we study at long and short wavelengths, both in equilibrium and after a quantum quench. We find rich behavior combining robustly universal and nonuniversal features. The OTO commutators display temperature- and initial-state-independent behavior and grow as t^{2} for short times. For the short-wavelength density operator, they reach a sizable value after the light cone only in an interacting Luttinger liquid, where the bare excitations break up into collective modes. This challenges the common interpretation of the OTO commutator in chaotic systems. We benchmark our findings numerically on an interacting spinless fermion model in 1D and find persistence of central features even in the nonintegrable case. As a nonuniversal feature, the short-time growth exhibits a distance-dependent power.
Physiological Correlations with Short, Medium, and Long Cycling Time-Trial Performance
Borszcz, Fernando K.; Tramontin, Artur F.; de Souza, Kristopher M.; Carminatti, Lorival J.; Costa, Vitor P.
2018-01-01
Purpose: Several studies have demonstrated that physiological variables predict cycling endurance performance. However, it is still unclear whether the predictors will change over different performance durations. The aim of this study was to assess the correlations between physiological variables and cycling time trials with different durations.…
Quantifying NMR relaxation correlation and exchange in articular cartilage with time domain analysis
Mailhiot, Sarah E.; Zong, Fangrong; Maneval, James E.; June, Ronald K.; Galvosas, Petrik; Seymour, Joseph D.
2018-02-01
Measured nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation data in articular cartilage has been shown to be multi-exponential and correlated to the health of the tissue. The observed relaxation rates are dependent on experimental parameters such as solvent, data acquisition methods, data analysis methods, and alignment to the magnetic field. In this study, we show that diffusive exchange occurs in porcine articular cartilage and impacts the observed relaxation rates in T1-T2 correlation experiments. By using time domain analysis of T2-T2 exchange spectroscopy, the diffusive exchange time can be quantified by measurements that use a single mixing time. Measured characteristic times for exchange are commensurate with T1 in this material and so impacts the observed T1 behavior. The approach used here allows for reliable quantification of NMR relaxation behavior in cartilage in the presence of diffusive fluid exchange between two environments.
Imaginary time density-density correlations for two-dimensional electron gases at high density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Motta, M.; Galli, D. E. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy); Moroni, S. [IOM-CNR DEMOCRITOS National Simulation Center and SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Vitali, E. [Department of Physics, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 23187-8795 (United States)
2015-10-28
We evaluate imaginary time density-density correlation functions for two-dimensional homogeneous electron gases of up to 42 particles in the continuum using the phaseless auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo method. We use periodic boundary conditions and up to 300 plane waves as basis set elements. We show that such methodology, once equipped with suitable numerical stabilization techniques necessary to deal with exponentials, products, and inversions of large matrices, gives access to the calculation of imaginary time correlation functions for medium-sized systems. We discuss the numerical stabilization techniques and the computational complexity of the methodology and we present the limitations related to the size of the systems on a quantitative basis. We perform the inverse Laplace transform of the obtained density-density correlation functions, assessing the ability of the phaseless auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo method to evaluate dynamical properties of medium-sized homogeneous fermion systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Petrosian, Vahe'; Singal, Jack; Ostrowski, Michal
2013-01-01
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which have been observed up to redshifts z ≈ 9.5, can be good probes of the early universe and have the potential to test cosmological models. Dainotti's analysis of GRB Swift afterglow light curves with known redshifts and a definite X-ray plateau shows an anti-correlation between the rest-frame time when the plateau ends (the plateau end time) and the calculated luminosity at that time (or approximately an anti-correlation between plateau duration and luminosity). Here, we present an update of this correlation with a larger data sample of 101 GRBs with good light curves. Since some of this correlation could result from the redshift dependences of these intrinsic parameters, namely, their cosmological evolution, we use the Efron-Petrosian method to reveal the intrinsic nature of this correlation. We find that a substantial part of the correlation is intrinsic and describe how we recover it and how this can be used to constrain physical models of the plateau emission, the origin of which is still unknown. The present result could help to clarify the debated nature of the plateau emission
Real time implementation of the parametric imaging correlation algorithms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bogorodski, Piotr; Wolek, Tomasz; Wasielewski, Jaroslaw; Piatkowski, Adam [Medical and Nuclear Electronics Division, Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-665 Warsaw, Nowowiejska 15/19 (Poland)
1999-12-31
A novel method for functional image evaluation from image set obtained in contrast aided Ultrafast Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging will be presented. The method converts temporal set of images of first-pass transit of injected contrast, to a single parametric image. The main difference between proposed procedure and other widely accepted methods is fast, that our method applies correlation and discrimination analysis to each concentration-time curve, instead of fitting them to the given a priori tracer kinetics model. A stress will be put on execution speed (i.e. shortening of the time required to obtain a perfusion relevant image), and easiest user interface allowing the physician to utilize the system without any technical assistance. Both execution speed and user interface should satisfy requirements in the interventional procedures. (authors)
Quasiprobability behind the out-of-time-ordered correlator
Yunger Halpern, Nicole; Swingle, Brian; Dressel, Justin
2018-04-01
Two topics, evolving rapidly in separate fields, were combined recently: the out-of-time-ordered correlator (OTOC) signals quantum-information scrambling in many-body systems. The Kirkwood-Dirac (KD) quasiprobability represents operators in quantum optics. The OTOC was shown to equal a moment of a summed quasiprobability [Yunger Halpern, Phys. Rev. A 95, 012120 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevA.95.012120]. That quasiprobability, we argue, is an extension of the KD distribution. We explore the quasiprobability's structure from experimental, numerical, and theoretical perspectives. First, we simplify and analyze Yunger Halpern's weak-measurement and interference protocols for measuring the OTOC and its quasiprobability. We decrease, exponentially in system size, the number of trials required to infer the OTOC from weak measurements. We also construct a circuit for implementing the weak-measurement scheme. Next, we calculate the quasiprobability (after coarse graining) numerically and analytically: we simulate a transverse-field Ising model first. Then, we calculate the quasiprobability averaged over random circuits, which model chaotic dynamics. The quasiprobability, we find, distinguishes chaotic from integrable regimes. We observe nonclassical behaviors: the quasiprobability typically has negative components. It becomes nonreal in some regimes. The onset of scrambling breaks a symmetry that bifurcates the quasiprobability, as in classical-chaos pitchforks. Finally, we present mathematical properties. We define an extended KD quasiprobability that generalizes the KD distribution. The quasiprobability obeys a Bayes-type theorem, for example, that exponentially decreases the memory required to calculate weak values, in certain cases. A time-ordered correlator analogous to the OTOC, insensitive to quantum-information scrambling, depends on a quasiprobability closer to a classical probability. This work not only illuminates the OTOC's underpinnings, but also generalizes
Universal Earthquake-Occurrence Jumps, Correlations with Time, and Anomalous Diffusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corral, Alvaro
2006-01-01
Spatiotemporal properties of seismicity are investigated for a worldwide (WW) catalog and for southern California in the stationary case (SC), showing a nearly universal scaling behavior. Distributions of distances between consecutive earthquakes (jumps) are magnitude independent and show two power-law regimes, separated by jump values about 200 (WW) and 15 km (SC). Distributions of waiting times conditioned to the value of jumps show that both variables are correlated, in general, but turn out to be independent when only short or long jumps are considered. Finally, diffusion profiles are found to be independent on the magnitude, contrary to what the waiting-time distributions suggest
Exact Time-Dependent Exchange-Correlation Potential in Electron Scattering Processes
Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Lacombe, Lionel; Watanabe, Kazuyuki; Maitra, Neepa T.
2017-12-01
We identify peak and valley structures in the exact exchange-correlation potential of time-dependent density functional theory that are crucial for time-resolved electron scattering in a model one-dimensional system. These structures are completely missed by adiabatic approximations that, consequently, significantly underestimate the scattering probability. A recently proposed nonadiabatic approximation is shown to correctly capture the approach of the electron to the target when the initial Kohn-Sham state is chosen judiciously, and it is more accurate than standard adiabatic functionals but ultimately fails to accurately capture reflection. These results may explain the underestimation of scattering probabilities in some recent studies on molecules and surfaces.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yeqing Zhang
2018-02-01
Full Text Available For the objective of essentially decreasing computational complexity and time consumption of signal acquisition, this paper explores a resampling strategy and variable circular correlation time strategy specific to broadband multi-frequency GNSS receivers. In broadband GNSS receivers, the resampling strategy is established to work on conventional acquisition algorithms by resampling the main lobe of received broadband signals with a much lower frequency. Variable circular correlation time is designed to adapt to different signal strength conditions and thereby increase the operation flexibility of GNSS signal acquisition. The acquisition threshold is defined as the ratio of the highest and second highest correlation results in the search space of carrier frequency and code phase. Moreover, computational complexity of signal acquisition is formulated by amounts of multiplication and summation operations in the acquisition process. Comparative experiments and performance analysis are conducted on four sets of real GPS L2C signals with different sampling frequencies. The results indicate that the resampling strategy can effectively decrease computation and time cost by nearly 90–94% with just slight loss of acquisition sensitivity. With circular correlation time varying from 10 ms to 20 ms, the time cost of signal acquisition has increased by about 2.7–5.6% per millisecond, with most satellites acquired successfully.
Zhang, Yeqing; Wang, Meiling; Li, Yafeng
2018-01-01
For the objective of essentially decreasing computational complexity and time consumption of signal acquisition, this paper explores a resampling strategy and variable circular correlation time strategy specific to broadband multi-frequency GNSS receivers. In broadband GNSS receivers, the resampling strategy is established to work on conventional acquisition algorithms by resampling the main lobe of received broadband signals with a much lower frequency. Variable circular correlation time is designed to adapt to different signal strength conditions and thereby increase the operation flexibility of GNSS signal acquisition. The acquisition threshold is defined as the ratio of the highest and second highest correlation results in the search space of carrier frequency and code phase. Moreover, computational complexity of signal acquisition is formulated by amounts of multiplication and summation operations in the acquisition process. Comparative experiments and performance analysis are conducted on four sets of real GPS L2C signals with different sampling frequencies. The results indicate that the resampling strategy can effectively decrease computation and time cost by nearly 90–94% with just slight loss of acquisition sensitivity. With circular correlation time varying from 10 ms to 20 ms, the time cost of signal acquisition has increased by about 2.7–5.6% per millisecond, with most satellites acquired successfully. PMID:29495301
Correlated continuous-time random walks—scaling limits and Langevin picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magdziarz, Marcin; Metzler, Ralf; Szczotka, Wladyslaw; Zebrowski, Piotr
2012-01-01
In this paper we analyze correlated continuous-time random walks introduced recently by Tejedor and Metzler (2010 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 43 082002). We obtain the Langevin equations associated with this process and the corresponding scaling limits of their solutions. We prove that the limit processes are self-similar and display anomalous dynamics. Moreover, we extend the model to include external forces. Our results are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations
Time Resolved PIV for Space-Time Correlations in Hot Jets
Wernet, Mark P.
2007-01-01
Temporally Resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (TR-PIV) is the newest and most exciting tool recently developed to support our continuing efforts to characterize and improve our understanding of the decay of turbulence in jet flows -- a critical element for understanding the acoustic properties of the flow. A new TR-PIV system has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center which is capable of acquiring planar PIV image frame pairs at up to 25 kHz. The data reported here were collected at Mach numbers of 0.5 and 0.9 and at temperature ratios of 0.89 and 1.76. The field of view of the TR-PIV system covered 6 nozzle diameters along the lip line of the 50.8 mm diameter jet. The cold flow data at Mach 0.5 were compared with hotwire anemometry measurements in order to validate the new TR-PIV technique. The axial turbulence profiles measured across the shear layer using TR-PIV were thinner than those measured using hotwire anemometry and remained centered along the nozzle lip line. The collected TR-PIV data illustrate the differences in the single point statistical flow properties of cold and hot jet flows. The planar, time-resolved velocity records were then used to compute two-point space-time correlations of the flow at the Mach 0.9 flow condition. The TR-PIV results show that there are differences in the convective velocity and growth rate of the turbulent structures between cold and hot flows at the same Mach number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De-Yi, Chen; Li, Zhang
2009-01-01
This paper investigates the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in a single-mode laser driven by time-modulated correlated coloured noise sources. The power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio R of the laser intensity are calculated by the linear approximation. The effects caused by noise self-correlation time τ 1 , τ 2 and cross-correlated time τ 3 for stochastic resonance are analysed in two ways: τ 1 , τ 2 and τ 3 are taken to be the independent variables and the parameters respectively. The effects of the gain coefficient Γ and loss coefficient K on the stochastic resonance are also discussed. It is found that besides the presence of the standard form and the broad sense of stochastic resonance, the number of extrema in the curve of R versus K is reduced with the increase of the gain coefficient Γ
Amplitudes of solar p modes: Modelling of the eddy time-correlation function
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belkacem, K [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout 17-B 4000 Liege (Belgium); Samadi, R; Goupil, M J, E-mail: Kevin.Belkacem@ulg.ac.BE [LESIA, UMR8109, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Universite Denis Diderot, Obs. de Paris, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France)
2011-01-01
Modelling amplitudes of stochastically excited oscillations in stars is a powerful tool for understanding the properties of the convective zones. For instance, it gives us information on the way turbulent eddies are temporally correlated in a very large Reynolds number regime. We discuss the way the time correlation between eddies is modelled and we present recent theoretical developments as well as observational results. Eventually, we discuss the physical underlying meaning of the results by introducing the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, which is a sub-class of a Gaussian Markov process.
Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H Eugene
2011-04-01
We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes "bad news" for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.
Wang, Duan; Podobnik, Boris; Horvatić, Davor; Stanley, H. Eugene
2011-04-01
We propose a modified time lag random matrix theory in order to study time-lag cross correlations in multiple time series. We apply the method to 48 world indices, one for each of 48 different countries. We find long-range power-law cross correlations in the absolute values of returns that quantify risk, and find that they decay much more slowly than cross correlations between the returns. The magnitude of the cross correlations constitutes “bad news” for international investment managers who may believe that risk is reduced by diversifying across countries. We find that when a market shock is transmitted around the world, the risk decays very slowly. We explain these time-lag cross correlations by introducing a global factor model (GFM) in which all index returns fluctuate in response to a single global factor. For each pair of individual time series of returns, the cross correlations between returns (or magnitudes) can be modeled with the autocorrelations of the global factor returns (or magnitudes). We estimate the global factor using principal component analysis, which minimizes the variance of the residuals after removing the global trend. Using random matrix theory, a significant fraction of the world index cross correlations can be explained by the global factor, which supports the utility of the GFM. We demonstrate applications of the GFM in forecasting risks at the world level, and in finding uncorrelated individual indices. We find ten indices that are practically uncorrelated with the global factor and with the remainder of the world indices, which is relevant information for world managers in reducing their portfolio risk. Finally, we argue that this general method can be applied to a wide range of phenomena in which time series are measured, ranging from seismology and physiology to atmospheric geophysics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang You-Fu; Liu Shu-Lin; Jiang Rui-Hong; Liu Ying-Hui
2013-01-01
We study the correlation between detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and the Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) in nonlinear time series analysis in this paper. Typical dynamic systems including a logistic map and a Duffing model are investigated. Moreover, the influence of Gaussian random noise on both the DFA and LZC are analyzed. The results show a high correlation between the DFA and LZC, which can quantify the non-stationarity and the nonlinearity of the time series, respectively. With the enhancement of the random component, the exponent a and the normalized complexity index C show increasing trends. In addition, C is found to be more sensitive to the fluctuation in the nonlinear time series than α. Finally, the correlation between the DFA and LZC is applied to the extraction of vibration signals for a reciprocating compressor gas valve, and an effective fault diagnosis result is obtained
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Valerie Carson
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the most important demographic correlates of sedentary behavior and physical activity will help identify the groups of children that are most in need of intervention. Little is known in regards to the demographic correlates of sedentary behavior and physical activity in toddlers (aged 12–35 months, where long-term behavioral patterns may initially be formed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the associations between demographic correlates and specific types of sedentary behavior and physical activity in this age group. Methods Findings are based on 149 toddlers (19.0 ± 1.9 months and their parents (33.7 ± 4.7 years recruited from immunization clinics in Edmonton, Canada as part of the Parents’ Role in Establishing healthy Physical activity and Sedentary behavior habits (PREPS project. Toddlers’ and parental demographic characteristics and toddlers’ television viewing, video/computer games, and overall screen time were measured via the PREPS parental questionnaire. Toddlers’ objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity (light, moderate to vigorous, and total were accelerometer-derived using Actigraph wGT3X-BT monitors. Simple and multiple linear regression models were conducted to examine associations. Results In the multiple linear regression models, toddlers’ age, toddlers’ sex (female versus male, toddlers’ race/ethnicity (other versus European-Canadian/Caucasian, and household income ($50,001 to $100,000 versus > $100,000 were significantly positively associated, and main type of child care (child care center versus parental care was significantly negatively associated with screen time. Similar findings were observed with television viewing, except null associations were observed for toddlers’ sex. Toddlers’ race/ethnicity (other versus European-Canadian/Caucasian was significantly positively associated and main type of child care (child care
Neural correlates of belief-bias reasoning under time pressure: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.
Tsujii, Takeo; Watanabe, Shigeru
2010-04-15
The dual-process theory of reasoning explained the belief-bias effect, the tendency for human reasoning to be erroneously biased when logical conclusions are incongruent with belief about the world, by proposing a belief-based fast heuristic system and a logic-based slow analytic system. Although the claims were supported by behavioral findings that the belief-bias effect was enhanced when subjects were not given sufficient time for reasoning, the neural correlates were still unknown. The present study therefore examined the relationship between the time-pressure effect and activity in the inferior frontal cortex (IFC) during belief-bias reasoning using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Forty-eight subjects performed congruent and incongruent reasoning tasks, involving long-span (20 s) and short-span trials (10 s). Behavioral analysis found that only incongruent reasoning performance was impaired by the time-pressure of short-span trials. NIRS analysis found that the time-pressure decreased right IFC activity during incongruent trials. Correlation analysis showed that subjects with enhanced right IFC activity could perform better in incongruent trials, while subjects for whom the right IFC activity was impaired by the time-pressure could not maintain better reasoning performance. These findings suggest that the right IFC may be responsible for the time-pressure effect in conflicting reasoning processes. When the right IFC activity was impaired in the short-span trials in which subjects were not given sufficient time for reasoning, the subjects may rely on the fast heuristic system, which result in belief-bias responses. We therefore offer the first demonstration of neural correlates of time-pressure effect on the IFC activity in belief-bias reasoning. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Are the correlates of sport participation similar to those of screen time?
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Mark S. Allen
2015-01-01
Conclusion: Our findings show that demographic, socioeconomic and environmental factors measured at age 4 predict sport participation and screen time at age 12, and that the correlates of childhood sport participation and childhood sedentary behavior may be more similar than previously estimated.
Time and spectrum-resolving multiphoton correlator for 300–900 nm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnsen, Kelsey D.; Thibault, Marilyne; Jennewein, Thomas [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department for Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kolenderski, Piotr, E-mail: kolenderski@fizyka.umk.pl [Institute for Quantum Computing and Department for Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave. West, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Institute of Physics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, 87-100 Torun (Poland); Scarcella, Carmelo; Tosi, Alberto [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)
2014-10-14
We demonstrate a single-photon sensitive spectrometer in the visible range, which allows us to perform time-resolved and multi-photon spectral correlation measurements at room temperature. It is based on a monochromator composed of two gratings, collimation optics, and an array of single photon avalanche diodes. The time resolution can reach 110 ps and the spectral resolution is 2 nm/pixel, limited by the design of the monochromator. This technique can easily be combined with commercial monochromators and can be useful for joint spectrum measurements of two photons emitted in the process of parametric down conversion, as well as time-resolved spectrum measurements in optical coherence tomography or medical physics applications.
EEG correlates of cognitive time scales in the Necker-Zeno model for bistable perception.
Kornmeier, J; Friedel, E; Wittmann, M; Atmanspacher, H
2017-08-01
The Necker-Zeno model of bistable perception provides a formal relation between the average duration of meta-stable percepts (dwell times T) of ambiguous figures and two other basic time scales (t 0 , ΔT) underlying cognitive processing. The model predicts that dwell times T covary with t 0 , ΔT or both. We tested this prediction by exploiting that observers, in particular experienced meditators, can volitionally control dwell times T. Meditators and non-meditators observed bistable Necker cubes either passively or tried to hold their current percept. The latencies of a centro-parietal event-related potential (CPP) were recorded as a physiological correlate of t 0 . Dwell times T and the CPP latencies, correlated with t 0 , differed between conditions and observer groups, while ΔT remained constant in the range predicted by the model. The covariation of CPP latencies and dwell times, as well as their quadratic functional dependence extends previous psychophysical confirmation of the Necker-Zeno model to psychophysiological measures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kispert, L.D.; Bowman, M.K.; Norris, J.R.; Brown, M.S.
1982-01-01
An electron spin echo (ESE) study of the internal motion of the CH 2 protons in irradiated zinc acetate dihydrate crystals shows that quantitative measurements of the motional correlation time can be obtained quite directly from pulsed measurements. In the slow motional limit, the motional correlation time is equal to the phase memory time determined by ESE. In the fast motional limit, the motional correlation time is proportional to the no motion spectral second moment divided by the ESE phase memory time. ESE offers a convenient method of studying motion, electron transfer, conductivity, etc. in a variety of systems too complicated for study by ordinary EPR. New systems for study by ESE include biological samples, organic polymers, liquid solutions of radicals with unresolved hyperfine, etc. When motion modulates large anisotropic hyperfine couplings, ESE measurements of the phase memory time are sensitive to modulation of pseudosecular hyperfine interactions
Timing of first sex before marriage and its correlates: evidence from India.
Santhya, K G; Acharya, Rajib; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J; Ram, Usha
2011-03-01
While several studies have documented the extent of pre-marital sexual experience among young people in India, little work has been done to explore the factors that are correlated with the timing of pre-marital sexual initiation. This paper examines age at initiation of pre-marital sex, circumstances in which first sex was experienced, nature of first sexual experience and correlates of age at initiation of pre-marital sex. Life table estimates suggest that pre-marital sexual initiation occurred in adolescence for 1 in 20 young women and 1 in 10 young men. For the majority of these young people, their first sex was with an opposite-sex romantic partner. First sex, moreover, was unprotected for the majority and forced for sizeable proportion of young women. A number of individual, family-, peer- and community-level factors were correlated with age at first pre-marital sex. Moreover, considerable gender differences were apparent in the correlates of age at first pre-marital sex, with peer- and parent-level factors found more often to be significant for young women than men.
Marques, Adilson; Sallis, James F; Martins, João; Diniz, José; Carreiro Da Costa, Francisco
2014-01-01
Understanding correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors may contribute to fostering active lifestyles. This study aimed to identify correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors in leisure-time among Portuguese urban children, during school days. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 802 students (416 boys), aged 10-12 years. A questionnaire was used to collect data of physical activity, sedentary behaviors, psychological and behavioral variables related to physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Analyses were run separately for boys and girls. Television viewing occupied the most leisure-time of boys and girls, followed by computer usage, and video game playing. These behaviors occupied 259.7 min/day for boys and 208.6 for girls (P = 0.002). Reported moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 23.7 min for boys and 12.8 min for girls (P time with joint physical activity time. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhuang, Katie Z.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.
2014-01-01
Correlation between cortical activity and electromyographic (EMG) activity of limb muscles has long been a subject of neurophysiological studies, especially in terms of corticospinal connectivity. Interest in this issue has recently increased due to the development of brain-machine interfaces with output signals that mimic muscle force. For this study, three monkeys were implanted with multielectrode arrays in multiple cortical areas. One monkey performed self-timed touch pad presses, whereas the other two executed arm reaching movements. We analyzed the dynamic relationship between cortical neuronal activity and arm EMGs using a joint cross-correlation (JCC) analysis that evaluated trial-by-trial correlation as a function of time intervals within a trial. JCCs revealed transient correlations between the EMGs of multiple muscles and neural activity in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortical areas. Matching results were obtained using spike-triggered averages corrected by subtracting trial-shuffled data. Compared with spike-triggered averages, JCCs more readily revealed dynamic changes in cortico-EMG correlations. JCCs showed that correlation peaks often sharpened around movement times and broadened during delay intervals. Furthermore, JCC patterns were directionally selective for the arm-reaching task. We propose that such highly dynamic, task-dependent and distributed relationships between cortical activity and EMGs should be taken into consideration for future brain-machine interfaces that generate EMG-like signals. PMID:25210153
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ling Zhang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We study a multi-period mean-variance portfolio selection problem with an uncertain time horizon and serial correlations. Firstly, we embed the nonseparable multi-period optimization problem into a separable quadratic optimization problem with uncertain exit time by employing the embedding technique of Li and Ng (2000. Then we convert the later into an optimization problem with deterministic exit time. Finally, using the dynamic programming approach, we explicitly derive the optimal strategy and the efficient frontier for the dynamic mean-variance optimization problem. A numerical example with AR(1 return process is also presented, which shows that both the uncertainty of exit time and the serial correlations of returns have significant impacts on the optimal strategy and the efficient frontier.
Nonlinear Analysis on Cross-Correlation of Financial Time Series by Continuum Percolation System
Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun
We establish a financial price process by continuum percolation system, in which we attribute price fluctuations to the investors’ attitudes towards the financial market, and consider the clusters in continuum percolation as the investors share the same investment opinion. We investigate the cross-correlations in two return time series, and analyze the multifractal behaviors in this relationship. Further, we study the corresponding behaviors for the real stock indexes of SSE and HSI as well as the liquid stocks pair of SPD and PAB by comparison. To quantify the multifractality in cross-correlation relationship, we employ multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis method to perform an empirical research for the simulation data and the real markets data.
In vivo time-gated diffuse correlation spectroscopy at quasi-null source-detector separation.
Pagliazzi, M; Sekar, S Konugolu Venkata; Di Sieno, L; Colombo, L; Durduran, T; Contini, D; Torricelli, A; Pifferi, A; Mora, A Dalla
2018-06-01
We demonstrate time domain diffuse correlation spectroscopy at quasi-null source-detector separation by using a fast time-gated single-photon avalanche diode without the need of time-tagging electronics. This approach allows for increased photon collection, simplified real-time instrumentation, and reduced probe dimensions. Depth discriminating, quasi-null distance measurement of blood flow in a human subject is presented. We envision the miniaturization and integration of matrices of optical sensors of increased spatial resolution and the enhancement of the contrast of local blood flow changes.
Solbraa, Ane Kristiansen; Ekelund, Ulf; Holme, Ingar M; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Aadland, Eivind; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred
2015-11-01
Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), perceived health and health behavior are correlates known to affect physical activity and sedentary time. However, studies have often been cross-sectional, and less is known about long-term correlates. Thus, the aims were to investigate 1) the associations between a set of characteristics (demographic, biological, psychological, and behavioral) and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time at 13-year follow-up, and 2) the association between changes in these characteristics over time and physical activity and sedentary time. Baseline characteristics were collected in 40-year-olds in 1996, and follow-up data on objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time were obtained in 2009 (n = 240). Data were analyzed by multiple linear regressions. Self-reported physical activity (P physical activity (MVPA) whereas BMI (P = .034) and increased BMI (P = .014) were negatively associated with MVPA at follow-up. Women spent less time being sedentary than men (P = .019). Education (P < .001) was positively associated and improved perceived health (P = .010) was negatively associated with sedentary time at follow-up. MVPA and sedentary time at follow-up were associated with behavioral, biological and demographic correlates. However, the nature of our analyses prevents us from inferring causality.
Multi-Level Pre-Correlation RFI Flagging for Real-Time Implementation on UniBoard
Dumez-Viou, Cédric; Weber, Rodolphe; Ravier, Philippe
2016-03-01
Because of the denser active use of the spectrum, and because of radio telescopes higher sensitivity, radio frequency interference (RFI) mitigation has become a sensitive topic for current and future radio telescope designs. Even if quite sophisticated approaches have been proposed in the recent years, the majority of RFI mitigation operational procedures are based on post-correlation corrupted data flagging. Moreover, given the huge amount of data delivered by current and next generation radio telescopes, all these RFI detection procedures have to be at least automatic and, if possible, real-time. In this paper, the implementation of a real-time pre-correlation RFI detection and flagging procedure into generic high-performance computing platforms based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) is described, simulated and tested. One of these boards, UniBoard, developed under a Joint Research Activity in the RadioNet FP7 European programme is based on eight FPGAs interconnected by a high speed transceiver mesh. It provides up to 4 TMACs with ®Altera Stratix IV FPGA and 160 Gbps data rate for the input data stream. The proposed concept is to continuously monitor the data quality at different stages in the digital preprocessing pipeline between the antennas and the correlator, at the station level and the core level. In this way, the detectors are applied at stages where different time-frequency resolutions can be achieved and where the interference-to-noise ratio (INR) is maximum right before any dilution of RFI characteristics by subsequent channelizations or signal recombinations. The detection decisions could be linked to a RFI statistics database or could be attached to the data for later stage flagging. Considering the high in-out data rate in the pre-correlation stages, only real-time and go-through detectors (i.e. no iterative processing) can be implemented. In this paper, a real-time and adaptive detection scheme is described. An ongoing case study has been
The Source of Time-Correlated Photons at 1.064 μm and its Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gostev P.P.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The source of time-correlated photon-pairs at 1064 nm is described. The source consists of the spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC generator, pumped by cw laser operating at 532 nm, and the measuring and control appliances. One of the main parts of the electronic systems is the “time-to-digital converter” which is designed and built by our group. The system allows to create and detect correlation of photon pairs with resolution better than 1 ns. We adduce the results of a quantum key distribution through open air. The key length was about 5000 bits and the accuracy ~0.1%.
Some measurements of time and space correlation in wind tunnel
Favre, A; Gaviglio, J; Dumas, R
1955-01-01
Results are presented of research obtained by means of an apparatus for measurement of time and space correlation and of a spectral analyzer in the study of the longitudinal component of turbulence velocities in a wind tunnel downstream of a grid of meshes. Application to the case of a flat-plate boundary layer is illustrated. These researches were made at the Laboratoire de Mecanique de l'Atmosphere de l'I.M.F.M. for the O.N.E.R.A.
The Cherenkov correlated timing detector: beam test results from quartz and acrylic bars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kichimi, H.; Sugaya, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kanda, S.; Olsen, S.; Ueno, K.; Varner, G.; Bergfeld, T.; Bialek, J.; Lorenc, J.; Palmer, M.; Rudnick, G.; Selen, M.; Auran, T.; Boyer, V.; Honscheid, K.; Tamura, N.; Yoshimura, K.; Lu, C.; Marlow, D.; Mindas, C.; Prebys, E.; Asai, M.; Kimura, A.; Hayashi, S.
1996-01-01
Several prototypes of a Cherenkov correlated timing (CCT) detector have been tested at the KEK-PS test beam line. We describe the results for Cherenkov light yields and timing characteristics from quartz and acrylic bar prototypes. A Cherenkov angle resolution is found to be 15 mrad at a propagation distance of 100 cm with a 2 cm thick quartz bar prototype. (orig.)
Lattimer, C R; Azzam, M; Kalodiki, E; Geroulakos, G
2014-03-01
Venous filling time (VFT90) is the time taken to reach 90% of the venous volume in the calf. It is recorded by air-plethysmography (APG(®)) and is assumed to measure global venous reflux duration. However, this has never been confirmed by duplex. The aim of the study was to compare VFT on APG to venous reflux time/duration (RT) measured simultaneously with duplex on the same patients. Twenty-six consecutive patients, M:F = 16:10, age (25-78), C1 = 1, C2 = 4, C3 = 8, C4a = 6, C4b = 4, C5 = 2, C6 = 1, underwent simultaneous APG with duplex. The venous filling index (VFI, mL/second), VFT90 (seconds), great saphenous vein (GSV) RT on duplex, averaged thigh GSV diameter and thigh length (length) between the APG sensor air-cuff and duplex transducer were recorded. The VFT100 was calculated by VFT90/0.9. The additional time taken to fill the thigh was achieved using the VFI, length and deep vein diameter (d), to determine the corrected reflux duration: CRD = VFT100 + (length × πd(2)/4 (1/VFI)). Twenty-five patients are presented. One patient with very mild reflux (VFT90 = 55.9 seconds) had an indeterminate endpoint on duplex and was excluded. The median (range) VFI and GSV diameter was 4.9(1.3-15.5) mL/second and 7(4-17) mm, respectively. The VFT90 and VFT100 both correlated with RT on duplex (Spearman, P duplex RT at 24 (16.9) versus 28 (20) seconds respectively, P duplex by performing simultaneous measurements. There was an excellent correlation between the VFT90 versus duplex RT, thereby comparing reverse flow in a single superficial vein against the legs overall venous haemodynamic status. These tests can both be used in the quantification of reflux.
EVOLUTION OF THE CROSS-CORRELATION AND TIME LAG OF 4U 1735-44 ALONG THE BRANCHES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lei Yajuan; Zhang Haotong; Zhang Chengmin; Yuan Hailong; Dong Yiqiao; Zhao Yongheng; Zhang Yanxia; Qu Jinlu; Song Liming; Wang Dehua; Yin Hongxing
2013-01-01
We analyze the cross-correlation function between the soft and hard X-rays of atoll source 4U 1735-44 with RXTE data, and find anti-correlated soft and hard time lags of about a hecto-second. In the island state, the observations do not show any obvious correlations, and most observations of the banana branch show a positive correlation. However, anti-correlations are detected in the upper banana branch. These results are different from those of Z-sources (Cyg X-2, GX 5-1), where anti-correlations are detected in the horizontal branch and upper normal branch. In this case, the lag timescales of both this atoll and Z-sources are found to be similar, at a magnitude of several tens to hundreds of seconds. As a comparison, it is noted that anti-correlated lags lasting thousands of seconds have been reported from several black hole candidates in their intermediate states. In addition, for an observation containing four segments that show positive or anti-correlation, we analyze the spectral evolution with the hybrid model. In the observation, the anti-correlation is detected at the highest flux. The fitting results show that the Comptonized component is not the lowest at the highest flux, which suggests that the anti-correlation corresponds to the transition between the soft and hard states. Finally, we compare the corresponding results of atoll source 4U 1735-44 with those observed in Z-sources and black hole candidates, and the possible origins of the anti-correlated time lags are discussed
EVOLUTION OF THE CROSS-CORRELATION AND TIME LAG OF 4U 1735-44 ALONG THE BRANCHES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lei Yajuan; Zhang Haotong; Zhang Chengmin; Yuan Hailong; Dong Yiqiao; Zhao Yongheng; Zhang Yanxia [Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Qu Jinlu; Song Liming [Particle Astrophysics Center, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Dehua [Astronomy Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Yin Hongxing, E-mail: leiyjcwmy@163.com [School of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University, Weihai 264209 (China)
2013-09-15
We analyze the cross-correlation function between the soft and hard X-rays of atoll source 4U 1735-44 with RXTE data, and find anti-correlated soft and hard time lags of about a hecto-second. In the island state, the observations do not show any obvious correlations, and most observations of the banana branch show a positive correlation. However, anti-correlations are detected in the upper banana branch. These results are different from those of Z-sources (Cyg X-2, GX 5-1), where anti-correlations are detected in the horizontal branch and upper normal branch. In this case, the lag timescales of both this atoll and Z-sources are found to be similar, at a magnitude of several tens to hundreds of seconds. As a comparison, it is noted that anti-correlated lags lasting thousands of seconds have been reported from several black hole candidates in their intermediate states. In addition, for an observation containing four segments that show positive or anti-correlation, we analyze the spectral evolution with the hybrid model. In the observation, the anti-correlation is detected at the highest flux. The fitting results show that the Comptonized component is not the lowest at the highest flux, which suggests that the anti-correlation corresponds to the transition between the soft and hard states. Finally, we compare the corresponding results of atoll source 4U 1735-44 with those observed in Z-sources and black hole candidates, and the possible origins of the anti-correlated time lags are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pohl, A.; Hübers, H.-W. [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institute of Physics, Newtonstraße 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 29, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Semenov, A. [Institute of Optical Sensor Systems, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Rutherfordstrasse 29, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hoehl, A.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Abbestraße 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany); Ries, M.; Wüstefeld, G. [Helmholz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ilin, K.; Thoma, P.; Siegel, M. [Institute of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Systems, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hertzstrasse 16, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)
2016-03-21
Decaying oscillations of the electric field in repetitive pulses of coherent synchrotron radiation in the terahertz frequency range was evaluated by means of time-resolving and correlation techniques. Comparative analysis of real-time voltage transients of the electrical response and interferograms, which were obtained with an ultrafast zero-bias Schottky diode detector and a Martin-Puplett interferometer, delivers close values of the pulse duration. Consistent results were obtained via the correlation technique with a pair of Golay Cell detectors and a pair of resonant polarisation-sensitive superconducting detectors integrated on one chip. The duration of terahertz synchrotron pulses does not closely correlate with the duration of single-cycle electric field expected for the varying size of electron bunches. We largely attribute the difference to the charge density oscillations in electron bunches and to the low-frequency spectral cut-off imposed by both the synchrotron beamline and the coupling optics of our detectors.
Cerebellar Shaping of Motor Cortical Firing Is Correlated with Timing of Motor Actions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdulraheem Nashef
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Summary: In higher mammals, motor timing is considered to be dictated by cerebellar control of motor cortical activity, relayed through the cerebellar-thalamo-cortical (CTC system. Nonetheless, the way cerebellar information is integrated with motor cortical commands and affects their temporal properties remains unclear. To address this issue, we activated the CTC system in primates and found that it efficiently recruits motor cortical cells; however, the cortical response was dominated by prolonged inhibition that imposed a directional activation across the motor cortex. During task performance, cortical cells that integrated CTC information fired synchronous bursts at movement onset. These cells expressed a stronger correlation with reaction time than non-CTC cells. Thus, the excitation-inhibition interplay triggered by the CTC system facilitates transient recruitment of a cortical subnetwork at movement onset. The CTC system may shape neural firing to produce the required profile to initiate movements and thus plays a pivotal role in timing motor actions. : Nashef et al. identified a motor cortical subnetwork recruited by cerebellar volley that was transiently synchronized at movement onset. Cerebellar control of cortical firing was dominated by inhibition that shaped task-related firing of neurons and may dictate motor timing. Keywords: motor control, primates, cerebellar-thalamo-cortical, synchrony, noise correlation, reaction time
A general statistical test for correlations in a finite-length time series.
Hanson, Jeffery A; Yang, Haw
2008-06-07
The statistical properties of the autocorrelation function from a time series composed of independently and identically distributed stochastic variables has been studied. Analytical expressions for the autocorrelation function's variance have been derived. It has been found that two common ways of calculating the autocorrelation, moving-average and Fourier transform, exhibit different uncertainty characteristics. For periodic time series, the Fourier transform method is preferred because it gives smaller uncertainties that are uniform through all time lags. Based on these analytical results, a statistically robust method has been proposed to test the existence of correlations in a time series. The statistical test is verified by computer simulations and an application to single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy is discussed.
Probing early-time correlations in heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavin, Sean; Moschelli, George
2013-01-01
We investigate the common influence of correlations arising from initial state parton density fluctuations on measured multiplicity and momentum fluctuations as well as flow fluctuations. We calculate both a universal correlation scale in an initial stage Glasma flux tube picture and the modification to these correlations from later stage hydrodynamic flow. We find quantitative agreement with measurements over a range of collision systems and energies.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Yu-Rong
2011-01-01
This paper considers the stochastic resonance for a time-delayed mono-stable system, driven by correlated multiplicative and additive white noise. It finds that the output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) varies non-monotonically with the delayed times. The SNR varies non-monotonically with the increase of the intensities of the multiplicative and additive noise, with the increase of the correlation strength between the two noises, as well as with the system parameter. (general)
Lyapunov Exponent and Out-of-Time-Ordered Correlator's Growth Rate in a Chaotic System.
Rozenbaum, Efim B; Ganeshan, Sriram; Galitski, Victor
2017-02-24
It was proposed recently that the out-of-time-ordered four-point correlator (OTOC) may serve as a useful characteristic of quantum-chaotic behavior, because, in the semiclassical limit ℏ→0, its rate of exponential growth resembles the classical Lyapunov exponent. Here, we calculate the four-point correlator C(t) for the classical and quantum kicked rotor-a textbook driven chaotic system-and compare its growth rate at initial times with the standard definition of the classical Lyapunov exponent. Using both quantum and classical arguments, we show that the OTOC's growth rate and the Lyapunov exponent are, in general, distinct quantities, corresponding to the logarithm of the phase-space averaged divergence rate of classical trajectories and to the phase-space average of the logarithm, respectively. The difference appears to be more pronounced in the regime of low kicking strength K, where no classical chaos exists globally. In this case, the Lyapunov exponent quickly decreases as K→0, while the OTOC's growth rate may decrease much slower, showing a higher sensitivity to small chaotic islands in the phase space. We also show that the quantum correlator as a function of time exhibits a clear singularity at the Ehrenfest time t_{E}: transitioning from a time-independent value of t^{-1}lnC(t) at ttime at t>t_{E}. We note that the underlying physics here is the same as in the theory of weak (dynamical) localization [Aleiner and Larkin, Phys. Rev. B 54, 14423 (1996)PRBMDO0163-182910.1103/PhysRevB.54.14423; Tian, Kamenev, and Larkin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 124101 (2004)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.93.124101] and is due to a delay in the onset of quantum interference effects, which occur sharply at a time of the order of the Ehrenfest time.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peronio, P.; Acconcia, G.; Rech, I.; Ghioni, M. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2015-11-15
Time-Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) has been long recognized as the most sensitive method for fluorescence lifetime measurements, but often requiring “long” data acquisition times. This drawback is related to the limited counting capability of the TCSPC technique, due to pile-up and counting loss effects. In recent years, multi-module TCSPC systems have been introduced to overcome this issue. Splitting the light into several detectors connected to independent TCSPC modules proportionally increases the counting capability. Of course, multi-module operation also increases the system cost and can cause space and power supply problems. In this paper, we propose an alternative approach based on a new detector and processing electronics designed to reduce the overall system dead time, thus enabling efficient photon collection at high excitation rate. We present a fast active quenching circuit for single-photon avalanche diodes which features a minimum dead time of 12.4 ns. We also introduce a new Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC) able to attain extra-short dead time thanks to the combination of a scalable array of monolithically integrated TACs and a sequential router. The fast TAC (F-TAC) makes it possible to operate the system towards the upper limit of detector count rate capability (∼80 Mcps) with reduced pile-up losses, addressing one of the historic criticisms of TCSPC. Preliminary measurements on the F-TAC are presented and discussed.
Wen, Ming; Su, Dejun
2015-10-01
Little is known about leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) correlates in high-risk youth prone to obesity, insulin resistance, and associated morbidities. This study examined LTPA correlates among Latino youth identified with acanthosis nigricans (AN), a skin condition typically caused by metabolic impairment. Data were collected on 305 AN-positive Latino youth of ages 5-15 and one of their biological parents in 2012 from Texas. Ordinal logit regression was performed to analyze the data. Five health and behavioral LTPA correlates were identified, including child time spent in TV watching or videogame playing (OR of highest quartile vs. lowest quartile = 0.45; p = 0.01), child fair/poor health (OR 0.42; p = 0.01), parent obesity (OR 0.63; p = 0.06), parent daily physical exercise for more than 30 min (OR 2.20; p < 0.01), and parent housework time (OR 0.76; p < 0.05). Parent socioeconomic status was insignificant. For at-risk Latino youth, physical activity intervention strategies should take both behavioral and health factors into account.
Neipert, Christine; Space, Brian
2006-12-14
Sum vibrational frequency spectroscopy, a second order optical process, is interface specific in the dipole approximation. At charged interfaces, there exists a static field, and as a direct consequence, the experimentally detected signal is a combination of enhanced second and static field induced third order contributions. There is significant evidence in the literature of the importance/relative magnitude of this third order contribution, but no previous molecularly detailed approach existed to separately calculate the second and third order contributions. Thus, for the first time, a molecularly detailed time correlation function theory is derived here that allows for the second and third order contributions to sum frequency vibrational spectra to be individually determined. Further, a practical, molecular dynamics based, implementation procedure for the derived correlation functions that describe the third order phenomenon is also presented. This approach includes a novel generalization of point atomic polarizability models to calculate the hyperpolarizability of a molecular system. The full system hyperpolarizability appears in the time correlation functions responsible for third order contributions in the presence of a static field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J Rasmus Nielsen
Full Text Available Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes zero observations and over-dispersion. The model utilises the fact the correlation between numbers of fish caught increases when the distance in space and time between the fish decreases, and the correlation between size groups in a haul increases when the difference in size decreases. Here the model is extended in two ways. Instead of assuming a natural scale size correlation, the model is further developed to allow for a transformed length scale. Furthermore, in the present application, the spatial- and size-dependent correlation between species was included. For cod (Gadus morhua and whiting (Merlangius merlangus, a common structured size correlation was fitted, and a separable structure between the time and space-size correlation was found for each species, whereas more complex structures were required to describe the correlation between species (and space-size. The within-species time correlation is strong, whereas the correlations between the species are weaker over time but strong within the year.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Julia M. Rohrer
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Time is a finite resource, strictly limited to 24 hours a day. How people spend these resources is in many ways determined by necessities and external constraints, yet research on personality-situation transactions shows that people also choose their environments to resonate with their personality. This finding implies that daily time use and individual traits should be correlated. However, few studies have linked modern methods for assessing time use to individual differences in personality traits. In this study, we investigate correlations between the Big Five traits and time spent on various daily activities in the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP, including 5,456 days in the lives of 1,364 individuals. Results converged towards previously reported personality-situation transactions. For example, extraversion predicted whether or not respondents reported meeting their friends, whereas openness was correlated negatively with watching TV. Effects were modest in size, ranging from r~~.10 to .25. Taking together, our findings corroborate the notion that our personality is robustly associated with the way we spend our lives.
Baeten; Bruggeman; Paepen; Carchon
2000-03-01
The non-destructive quantification of transuranic elements in nuclear waste management or in safeguards verifications is commonly performed by passive neutron assay techniques. To minimise the number of unknown sample-dependent parameters, Neutron Multiplicity Counting (NMC) is applied. We developed a new NMC-technique, called Time Interval Correlation Spectroscopy (TICS), which is based on the measurement of Rossi-alpha time interval distributions. Compared to other NMC-techniques, TICS offers several advantages.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Gianfreda
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss conditions giving rise to stationary position-momentum correlations among quantum states in the Fock and coherent basis associated with the natural invariant for the one-dimensional time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian operators such as the Kanai-Caldirola Hamiltonian. We also discuss some basic features such as quantum decoherence of the wave functions resulting from the corresponding quantum dynamics of these systems that exhibit no timedependence in their quantum correlations. In particular, steady statistical momentum averages are seen over well-defined time intervals in the evolution of a linear superposition of the basis states of modified exponentially damped mass systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiuli Sang
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We constructed a similarity model (based on Euclidean distance between rainfall and runoff to study time-correlated characteristics of rainfall-runoff similar patterns in the upstream Red River Basin and presented a detailed evaluation of the time correlation of rainfall-runoff similarity. The rainfall-runoff similarity was used to determine the optimum similarity. The results showed that a time-correlated model was found to be capable of predicting the rainfall-runoff similarity in the upstream Red River Basin in a satisfactory way. Both noised and denoised time series by thresholding the wavelet coefficients were applied to verify the accuracy of model. And the corresponding optimum similar sets obtained as the equation solution conditions showed an interesting and stable trend. On the whole, the annual mean similarity presented a gradually rising trend, for quantitatively estimating comprehensive influence of climate change and of human activities on rainfall-runoff similarity.
Chang, Yao-Chung; Lai, Chin-Feng; Chuang, Chi-Cheng; Hou, Cheng-Yu
2018-04-01
With the progress of science and technology, more and more machines are adpot to help human life better and more convenient. When the machines have been used for a longer period of time so that the machine components are getting old, the amount of power comsumption will increase and easily cause the machine to overheat. This also causes a waste of invisible resources. If the Internet of Everything (IoE) technologies are able to be applied into the enterprise information systems for monitoring the machines use time, it can not only make energy can be effectively used, but aslo create a safer living environment. To solve the above problem, the correlation predict model is established to collect the data of power consumption converted into power eigenvalues. This study takes the power eigenvalue as the independent variable and use time as the dependent variable in order to establish the decline curve. Ultimately, the scoring and estimation modules are employed to seek the best power eigenvalue as the independent variable. To predict use time, the correlation is discussed between the use time and the decline curve to improve the entire behavioural analysis of the facilitate recognition of the use time of machines.
Foundations for a time reliability correlation system to quantify human reliability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dougherty, E.M. Jr.; Fragola, J.R.
1988-01-01
Time reliability correlations (TRCs) have been used in human reliability analysis (HRA) in conjunction with probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to quantify post-initiator human failure events. The first TRCs were judgmental but recent data taken from simulators have provided evidence for development of a system of TRCs. This system has the equational form: t = tau R X tau U , where the first factor is the lognormally distributed random variable of successful response time, derived from the simulator data, and the second factor is a unitary lognormal random variable to account for uncertainty in the model. The first random variable is further factored into a median response time and a factor to account for the dominant type of behavior assumed to be involved in the response and a second factor to account for other influences on the reliability of the response
Park, Yoo Mi; Jeon, Han Ho; Park, Jae Jun; Kim, Jie-Hyun; Youn, Young Hoon; Park, Hyojin
2015-08-01
Timed barium esophagogram (TBE) and esophageal transit scintigraphy (ETS) have been adopted as useful ways to evaluate achalasia patients. TBE has merit as a simple, non-invasive, and convenient method. The study sought to compare the results of these two tests and verify their usefulness in evaluating treatment response. In addition, we assessed whether TBE could effectively replace ETS through correlation analysis. The medical records of 50 achalasia patients treated between September 2011 and June 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. The height and width of the barium column at 1, 2, and 5 min were measured by TBE. Half-life (T 1/2, min) and R 30 (percentage of remaining radioactivity 30 s after radioisotope ingestion) were measured by ETS. Both tests were performed before and after treatment, and the tests were carried out 1 and 2 days after procedures. And we analyzed the correlation between the parameters from the two tests. The parameters of TBE and ETS were improved after treatment (p treatment, the height and width results at 5 min from TBE positively correlated with the T 1/2 parameter from ETS (correlation coefficients of 0.59 and 0.75, respectively). After treatment, the correlation coefficients between the 5-min height and width of the barium column by TBE and T 1/2 by ETS were 0.55 and 0.46, respectively. Both TBE and ETS are useful modalities in assessing esophageal emptying and response to achalasia treatment. TBE and ETS results have a statistically significant correlation both pre- and post-treatment. We suggest that TBE could effectively replace ETS for the assessment of achalasia.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xie Wen-Xian; Xu Wei; Cai Li
2007-01-01
This paper shows the Fokker-Planck equation of a dynamical system driven by coloured cross-correlated white noises in the absence and presence of a small external force. Based on the Fokker-Planck equation and the definition of Shannon's information entropy, the time dependence of entropy flux and entropy production can be calculated. The present results can be used to explain the extremal behaviour of time dependence of entropy flux and entropy production in view of the dissipative parameter γ of the system, coloured cross-correlation time τ and coloured cross-correlation strength λ.
Roh, Eun Ha; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Park, Somi; Song, Ju-Eun
2017-12-01
In this study, we determined the factors influencing parenting efficacy of Asian immigrant, first-time mothers. The research design was a cross-sectional, correlational study. The study included 125 first-time mothers who immigrated and married Korean men, and were living in Korea. Data were collected using translated questionnaires, and analyzed for descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis. The major finding was that the parenting efficacy of immigrant women was influenced by childcare support from their husbands, maternal identity, and original nationality. The findings suggest that customized programs be developed and used to enhance parenting efficacy for Asian immigrant, first-time mothers. In developing such programs, the advantages of maternal identity, social support from the husband, and women's cultural context should be considered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Morgan, Christopher G.; Mitchell, A. C.; Murray, J. G.
1990-05-01
An imaging photon detector has been modified to incorporate fast timing electronics coupled to a custom built photon correlator interfaced to a RISC computer. Using excitation with intensity- muodulated light, fluorescence images can be readily obtained where contrast is determined by the decay time of emission, rather than by intensity. This technology is readily extended to multifrequency phase/demodulation fluorescence imaging or to differential polarised phase fluorometry. The potential use of the correlator for confocal imaging with a laser scanner is also briefly discussed.
The time-varying correlation between policy uncertainty and stock returns: Evidence from China
Xiong, Xiong; Bian, Yuxiang; Shen, Dehua
2018-06-01
In this paper, we use a new policy uncertainty index to investigate the time-varying correlation between economic policy uncertainty (EPU) and Chinese stock market returns. The correlation is examined in the period from January 1995 to December 2016. We show that absolute changes in EPU have a significant impact on stock market returns. Specifically, empirical results based on the DCC-GARCH model reveal that the correlation between EPU and stock returns has large fluctuations, especially during a financial crisis; in addition, the impact of EPU on the Shanghai stock market is greater than on the Shenzhen stock market. Robustness results reveal that the impact of EPU on state-owned enterprises is larger than on non-state enterprises. All of these results highlight the important role of EPU in the Chinese stock market, and shed light on such issues for future research.
Computational time-resolved and resonant x-ray scattering of strongly correlated materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bansil, Arun [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)
2016-11-09
Basic-Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy (BES/DOE) has made large investments in x-ray sources in the U.S. (NSLS-II, LCLS, NGLS, ALS, APS) as powerful enabling tools for opening up unprecedented new opportunities for exploring properties of matter at various length and time scales. The coming online of the pulsed photon source, literally allows us to see and follow the dynamics of processes in materials at their natural timescales. There is an urgent need therefore to develop theoretical methodologies and computational models for understanding how x-rays interact with matter and the related spectroscopies of materials. The present project addressed aspects of this grand challenge of x-ray science. In particular, our Collaborative Research Team (CRT) focused on developing viable computational schemes for modeling x-ray scattering and photoemission spectra of strongly correlated materials in the time-domain. The vast arsenal of formal/numerical techniques and approaches encompassed by the members of our CRT were brought to bear through appropriate generalizations and extensions to model the pumped state and the dynamics of this non-equilibrium state, and how it can be probed via x-ray absorption (XAS), emission (XES), resonant and non-resonant x-ray scattering, and photoemission processes. We explored the conceptual connections between the time-domain problems and other second-order spectroscopies, such as resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) because RIXS may be effectively thought of as a pump-probe experiment in which the incoming photon acts as the pump, and the fluorescent decay is the probe. Alternatively, when the core-valence interactions are strong, one can view K-edge RIXS for example, as the dynamic response of the material to the transient presence of a strong core-hole potential. Unlike an actual pump-probe experiment, here there is no mechanism for adjusting the time-delay between the pump and the probe. However, the core hole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schulz, Johannes H P; Chechkin, Aleksei V; Metzler, Ralf
2013-01-01
Standard continuous time random walk (CTRW) models are renewal processes in the sense that at each jump a new, independent pair of jump length and waiting time are chosen. Globally, anomalous diffusion emerges through scale-free forms of the jump length and/or waiting time distributions by virtue of the generalized central limit theorem. Here we present a modified version of recently proposed correlated CTRW processes, where we incorporate a power-law correlated noise on the level of both jump length and waiting time dynamics. We obtain a very general stochastic model, that encompasses key features of several paradigmatic models of anomalous diffusion: discontinuous, scale-free displacements as in Lévy flights, scale-free waiting times as in subdiffusive CTRWs, and the long-range temporal correlations of fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We derive the exact solutions for the single-time probability density functions and extract the scaling behaviours. Interestingly, we find that different combinations of the model parameters lead to indistinguishable shapes of the emerging probability density functions and identical scaling laws. Our model will be useful for describing recent experimental single particle tracking data that feature a combination of CTRW and FBM properties. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Xiao-Hui; Pei Chang-Xing; Nie Min
2010-01-01
Based on the classical time division multi-channel communication theory, we present a scheme of quantum time-division multi-channel communication (QTDMC). Moreover, the model of quantum time division switch (QTDS) and correlative protocol of QTDMC are proposed. The quantum bit error rate (QBER) is analyzed and the QBER simulation test is performed. The scheme shows that the QTDS can carry out multi-user communication through quantum channel, the QBER can also reach the reliability requirement of communication, and the protocol of QTDMC has high practicability and transplantable. The scheme of QTDS may play an important role in the establishment of quantum communication in a large scale in the future. (general)
Measuring time-of-flight in an ultrasonic LPS system using generalized cross-correlation.
Villladangos, José Manuel; Ureña, Jesús; García, Juan Jesús; Mazo, Manuel; Hernández, Alvaro; Jiménez, Ana; Ruíz, Daniel; De Marziani, Carlos
2011-01-01
In this article, a time-of-flight detection technique in the frequency domain is described for an ultrasonic local positioning system (LPS) based on encoded beacons. Beacon transmissions have been synchronized and become simultaneous by means of the DS-CDMA (direct-sequence code Division multiple access) technique. Every beacon has been associated to a 255-bit Kasami code. The detection of signal arrival instant at the receiver, from which the distance to each beacon can be obtained, is based on the application of the generalized cross-correlation (GCC), by using the cross-spectral density between the received signal and the sequence to be detected. Prior filtering to enhance the frequency components around the carrier frequency (40 kHz) has improved estimations when obtaining the correlation function maximum, which implies an improvement in distance measurement precision. Positioning has been achieved by using hyperbolic trilateration, based on the time differences of arrival (TDOA) between a reference beacon and the others.
Weber, Juliane; Zachow, Christopher; Witthaut, Dirk
2018-03-01
Wind power generation exhibits a strong temporal variability, which is crucial for system integration in highly renewable power systems. Different methods exist to simulate wind power generation but they often cannot represent the crucial temporal fluctuations properly. We apply the concept of additive binary Markov chains to model a wind generation time series consisting of two states: periods of high and low wind generation. The only input parameter for this model is the empirical autocorrelation function. The two-state model is readily extended to stochastically reproduce the actual generation per period. To evaluate the additive binary Markov chain method, we introduce a coarse model of the electric power system to derive backup and storage needs. We find that the temporal correlations of wind power generation, the backup need as a function of the storage capacity, and the resting time distribution of high and low wind events for different shares of wind generation can be reconstructed.
Weber, Juliane; Zachow, Christopher; Witthaut, Dirk
2018-03-01
Wind power generation exhibits a strong temporal variability, which is crucial for system integration in highly renewable power systems. Different methods exist to simulate wind power generation but they often cannot represent the crucial temporal fluctuations properly. We apply the concept of additive binary Markov chains to model a wind generation time series consisting of two states: periods of high and low wind generation. The only input parameter for this model is the empirical autocorrelation function. The two-state model is readily extended to stochastically reproduce the actual generation per period. To evaluate the additive binary Markov chain method, we introduce a coarse model of the electric power system to derive backup and storage needs. We find that the temporal correlations of wind power generation, the backup need as a function of the storage capacity, and the resting time distribution of high and low wind events for different shares of wind generation can be reconstructed.
Time evolution of quenched state and correlation to glassy effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilic, K.; Kilic, A.; Altinkok, A.; Yetis, H.; Cetin, O.; Durust, Y.
2005-01-01
In this work, dynamic changes generated by the driving current were studied in superconducting bulk polycrystalline YBCO sample via transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves). The evolution of nonlinear V-t curves was interpreted in terms of the formation of resistive and nonresistive flow channels and the spatial reorganization of the transport current in a multiply connected network of weak-link structure. The dynamic re-organization of driving current could cause an enhancement or suppression in the superconducting order parameter due to the magnitude of the driving current and coupling strength of weak-link structure along with the chemical and anisotropic states of the sample as the time proceeds. A nonzero voltage decaying with time, correlated to the quenched state, was recorded when the magnitude of initial driving current is reduced to a finite value. It was found that, after sufficiently long waiting time, the evolution of the quenched state could result in a superconducting state, depending on the magnitude of the driving current and temperature. We showed that the decays in voltage over time are consistent with an exponential time dependence which is related to the glassy state. Further, the effect of doping of organic material Bis dimethyl-glyoximato Copper (II) to YBCO could be monitored apparently via the comparison of the V-t curves corresponding to doped and undoped YBCO samples
Developmental patterns and parental correlates of youth leisure-time physical activity.
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M
2015-02-01
This study examined the developmental patterns and parental correlates of youth leisure-time physical activity from middle childhood through adolescence. On 5 occasions across 7 years, fathers, mothers, and children who were first- and second born from 201 European American, working- and middle-class families participated in home and multiple nightly phone interviews. Multilevel modeling revealed that, controlling for family socioeconomic status, neighborhood characteristics, and youth overweight status and physical health, leisure-time physical activity increased during middle childhood and declined across adolescence, and the decline was more pronounced for girls than for boys. Moreover, controlling for time-varying, parental work hours and youth interest in sports and outdoor activities, on occasions when fathers and mothers spent proportionally more time on these activities with youth than usual, youth also spent more total time on these activities than usual. The within-person association between mother-youth joint involvement and youth's total involvement in leisure-time physical activity reached statistical significance at the transition to adolescence, and became stronger over time. Findings highlight the importance of maintaining adolescents', especially girls', physical activity levels and targeting both fathers' and mothers' involvement to promote youth's physical activity. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Correlation, regression, and cointegration of nonstationary economic time series
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren
Yule (1926) introduced the concept of spurious or nonsense correlation, and showed by simulation that for some nonstationary processes, that the empirical correlations seem not to converge in probability even if the processes were independent. This was later discussed by Granger and Newbold (1974......), and Phillips (1986) found the limit distributions. We propose to distinguish between empirical and population correlation coeffients and show in a bivariate autoregressive model for nonstationary variables that the empirical correlation and regression coe¢ cients do not converge to the relevant population...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda; Simpson, Andre J. [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada); Simpson, Myrna J., E-mail: myrna.simpson@utoronto.c [Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, Ontario, M1C 1A4 (Canada)
2010-06-15
Eisenia fetida earthworms were exposed to phenanthrene for thirty days to compare hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction of soil and {sup 1}H NMR earthworm metabolomics as indicators of bioavailability. The phenanthrene 28-d LC{sub 50} value was 750 mg/kg (632-891, 95% confidence intervals) for the peat soil tested. The initial phenanthrene concentration was 319 mg/kg, which biodegraded to 16 mg/kg within 15 days, at which time HPCD extraction suggested that phenanthrene was no longer bioavailable. Multivariate statistical analysis of {sup 1}H NMR spectra for E. fetida tissue extracts indicated that phenanthrene exposed and control earthworms differed throughout the 30 day experiment despite the low phenanthrene concentrations present after 15 days. This metabolic response was better correlated to total phenanthrene concentrations (Q{sup 2} = 0.59) than HPCD-extractable phenanthrene concentrations (Q{sup 2} = 0.46) suggesting that {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics offers considerable promise as a novel, molecular-level method to directly monitor the bioavailability of contaminants to earthworms in the environment. - Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida earthworms to phenanthrene exposure are better correlated to total phenanthrene concentrations than to cyclodextrin-extractable concentrations through time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKelvie, Jennifer R.; Wolfe, David M.; Celejewski, Magda; Simpson, Andre J.; Simpson, Myrna J.
2010-01-01
Eisenia fetida earthworms were exposed to phenanthrene for thirty days to compare hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD) extraction of soil and 1 H NMR earthworm metabolomics as indicators of bioavailability. The phenanthrene 28-d LC 50 value was 750 mg/kg (632-891, 95% confidence intervals) for the peat soil tested. The initial phenanthrene concentration was 319 mg/kg, which biodegraded to 16 mg/kg within 15 days, at which time HPCD extraction suggested that phenanthrene was no longer bioavailable. Multivariate statistical analysis of 1 H NMR spectra for E. fetida tissue extracts indicated that phenanthrene exposed and control earthworms differed throughout the 30 day experiment despite the low phenanthrene concentrations present after 15 days. This metabolic response was better correlated to total phenanthrene concentrations (Q 2 = 0.59) than HPCD-extractable phenanthrene concentrations (Q 2 = 0.46) suggesting that 1 H NMR metabolomics offers considerable promise as a novel, molecular-level method to directly monitor the bioavailability of contaminants to earthworms in the environment. - Metabolic responses of Eisenia fetida earthworms to phenanthrene exposure are better correlated to total phenanthrene concentrations than to cyclodextrin-extractable concentrations through time.
[Correlation factors of 127 times pre-crisis state in patients with myasthenia gravis].
Ou, C Y; Ran, H; Qiu, L; Huang, Z D; Lin, Z Z; Deng, J; Liu, W B
2017-10-10
Objective: To investigate the clinical features of the Pre-Crisis State and analyze the correlated risk factors of Pre-Crisis State of myasthenia crisis. Methods: We included 93 patients with myasthenia gravis (MG) who experienced 127 times Pre-Crisis State between October 2007 and July 2016. Those patients were hospitalized in the MG specialize center, Department of Neurological Science, first Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University. The information of the general situation, the clinical manifestations and the blood gas analysis in those patients were collected using our innovated clinical research form. Statistic methods were applied including descriptive analysis, univariate logistic analysis, multivariate correlation logistic analysis, etc. Results: (1)The typical features of MG Pre-Crisis State included: dyspnea (127 times, 100% not requiring intubation or non-invasive ventilation), bulbar-muscle weakness (121 times, 95.28%), the increased blood partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO(2)) (94 times, 85.45%), expectoration weakness (99 times, 77.95%), sleep disorders (107 times, 84.25%) and the infection (99 times, 77.95%). The occurrence of dyspnea in combination with bulbar-muscle weakness ( P =0.002) or the increased blood PCO(2) ( P =0.042) often indicated the tendency of crisis. (2) The MG symptoms which were proportion to the occurrence of crisis includes: bulbar-muscle weakness ( P =0.028), fever ( P =0.028), malnutrition ( P =0.066), complications ( P =0.071), excess oropharyngeal secretions ( P =0.005) and the increased blood PCO(2) ( P =0.007). The perioperative period of thymectomy would not increase the risk of crisis. Conclusions: Dyspnea indicates the occurrence of the Pre-Crisis State of MG. In order to significantly reduce the morbidity of myasthenia crisis, the bulbar-muscle weakness, the increased blood PCO(2), expectoration weakness, sleep disorders, infection & fever and excess oropharyngeal secretions should be treated timely.
Regression analysis of longitudinal data with correlated censoring and observation times.
Li, Yang; He, Xin; Wang, Haiying; Sun, Jianguo
2016-07-01
Longitudinal data occur in many fields such as the medical follow-up studies that involve repeated measurements. For their analysis, most existing approaches assume that the observation or follow-up times are independent of the response process either completely or given some covariates. In practice, it is apparent that this may not be true. In this paper, we present a joint analysis approach that allows the possible mutual correlations that can be characterized by time-dependent random effects. Estimating equations are developed for the parameter estimation and the resulted estimators are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normal. The finite sample performance of the proposed estimators is assessed through a simulation study and an illustrative example from a skin cancer study is provided.
Estimating time-varying conditional correlations between stock and foreign exchange markets
Tastan, Hüseyin
2006-02-01
This study explores the dynamic interaction between stock market returns and changes in nominal exchange rates. Many financial variables are known to exhibit fat tails and autoregressive variance structure. It is well-known that unconditional covariance and correlation coefficients also vary significantly over time and multivariate generalized autoregressive model (MGARCH) is able to capture the time-varying variance-covariance matrix for stock market returns and changes in exchange rates. The model is applied to daily Euro-Dollar exchange rates and two stock market indexes from the US economy: Dow-Jones Industrial Average Index and S&P500 Index. The news impact surfaces are also drawn based on the model estimates to see the effects of idiosyncratic shocks in respective markets.
Dynamic Hebbian Cross-Correlation Learning Resolves the Spike Timing Dependent Plasticity Conundrum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tjeerd V. olde Scheper
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Spike Timing-Dependent Plasticity has been found to assume many different forms. The classic STDP curve, with one potentiating and one depressing window, is only one of many possible curves that describe synaptic learning using the STDP mechanism. It has been shown experimentally that STDP curves may contain multiple LTP and LTD windows of variable width, and even inverted windows. The underlying STDP mechanism that is capable of producing such an extensive, and apparently incompatible, range of learning curves is still under investigation. In this paper, it is shown that STDP originates from a combination of two dynamic Hebbian cross-correlations of local activity at the synapse. The correlation of the presynaptic activity with the local postsynaptic activity is a robust and reliable indicator of the discrepancy between the presynaptic neuron and the postsynaptic neuron's activity. The second correlation is between the local postsynaptic activity with dendritic activity which is a good indicator of matching local synaptic and dendritic activity. We show that this simple time-independent learning rule can give rise to many forms of the STDP learning curve. The rule regulates synaptic strength without the need for spike matching or other supervisory learning mechanisms. Local differences in dendritic activity at the synapse greatly affect the cross-correlation difference which determines the relative contributions of different neural activity sources. Dendritic activity due to nearby synapses, action potentials, both forward and back-propagating, as well as inhibitory synapses will dynamically modify the local activity at the synapse, and the resulting STDP learning rule. The dynamic Hebbian learning rule ensures furthermore, that the resulting synaptic strength is dynamically stable, and that interactions between synapses do not result in local instabilities. The rule clearly demonstrates that synapses function as independent localized
Correlation, Regression, and Cointegration of Nonstationary Economic Time Series
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren
), and Phillips (1986) found the limit distributions. We propose to distinguish between empirical and population correlation coefficients and show in a bivariate autoregressive model for nonstationary variables that the empirical correlation and regression coefficients do not converge to the relevant population...... values, due to the trending nature of the data. We conclude by giving a simple cointegration analysis of two interests. The analysis illustrates that much more insight can be gained about the dynamic behavior of the nonstationary variables then simply by calculating a correlation coefficient......Yule (1926) introduced the concept of spurious or nonsense correlation, and showed by simulation that for some nonstationary processes, that the empirical correlations seem not to converge in probability even if the processes were independent. This was later discussed by Granger and Newbold (1974...
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
2012-01-01
The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across…
Wu, Zi Yi; Xie, Ping; Sang, Yan Fang; Gu, Hai Ting
2018-04-01
The phenomenon of jump is one of the importantly external forms of hydrological variabi-lity under environmental changes, representing the adaption of hydrological nonlinear systems to the influence of external disturbances. Presently, the related studies mainly focus on the methods for identifying the jump positions and jump times in hydrological time series. In contrast, few studies have focused on the quantitative description and classification of jump degree in hydrological time series, which make it difficult to understand the environmental changes and evaluate its potential impacts. Here, we proposed a theatrically reliable and easy-to-apply method for the classification of jump degree in hydrological time series, using the correlation coefficient as a basic index. The statistical tests verified the accuracy, reasonability, and applicability of this method. The relationship between the correlation coefficient and the jump degree of series were described using mathematical equation by derivation. After that, several thresholds of correlation coefficients under different statistical significance levels were chosen, based on which the jump degree could be classified into five levels: no, weak, moderate, strong and very strong. Finally, our method was applied to five diffe-rent observed hydrological time series, with diverse geographic and hydrological conditions in China. The results of the classification of jump degrees in those series were closely accorded with their physically hydrological mechanisms, indicating the practicability of our method.
Flannery, D.; Keller, P.; Cartwright, S.; Loomis, J.
1987-06-01
Attractive correlation system performance potential is possible using magneto-optic spatial light modulators (SLM) to implement binary phase-only reference filters at high rates, provided the correlation performance of such reduced-information-content filters is adequate for the application. In the case studied here, the desired filter impulse response is a rectangular shape, which cannot be achieved with the usual binary phase-only filter formulation. The correlation application problem is described and techniques for synthesizing improved filter impulse response are considered. A compromise solution involves the cascading of a fixed amplitude-only weighting mask with the binary phase-only SLM. Based on simulations presented, this approach provides improved impulse responses and good correlation performance, while retaining the critical feature of real-time variations of the size, shape, and orientation of the rectangle by electronic programming of the phase pattern in the SLM. Simulations indicate that, for at least one very challenging input scene clutter situation, these filters provide higher correlation signal-to-noise than does "ideal" correlation, i.e. using a perfect rectangle filter response.
Long-time correlations of periodic, area-preserving maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meiss, J.D.; Cary, J.R.; Grebogi, C.; Crawford, J.D.; Kaufman, A.N.; Abarbanel, H.D.I.
1982-04-01
A simple analytical decay law for correlation functions of periodic, area-preserving maps is obtained. This law is compared with numerical experiments on the standard map. The agreement between experiment and theory is good when islands are absent, but poor when islands are present. When islands are present, the correlations have a long, slowly decaying tail
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moazzeni, Taleb; Jiang, Yingtao; Ma, Jian; Li, Ning
2009-01-01
One flow meter was developed especially for the environment of high irradiation, pressure, and temperature. The transit time of natural random temperature fluctuation in process, for example nuclear reactor, can be obtained based on the cross-correlation method, which has already been shown that it is capable in situations where no other flow meter can be used. Thereby, the flow rate can be derived in pipe flow if the area of cross-section is known. In practice, the evaluation of the integrals over the measurement time in cross-correlation method will lead errors caused by peak detection from flat cross correlation coefficient distribution or additional peaks. One Auto-Adaptive Impulse Response Function estimation is introduced and significantly narrower peak will be obtained. Fiber optic sensors are advantageous for temperature measurements in the reactor pressure vessels. However, the corrosive coolant (as liquid lead/lead alloy or molten salt coolant) is a barrier of the optic sensor in such application. Thermocouple with grounded stainless steel shielding material would have same life time with structure material in reactor, although thermocouple has relatively slow response. The degradation due to corrosion/erosion will not introduce measurement error or necessary calibration, because only the correlation between signals is taken into consideration during measurements. Experiments conducted in a testing hydraulic facility approved the considerable improvement of accuracy by this new algorithm using thermocouple temperature sensors. (author)
Harikrishnan, K. P.; Misra, R.; Ambika, G.
2009-09-01
We show that the combined use of correlation dimension (D2) and correlation entropy (K2) as discriminating measures can extract a more accurate information regarding the different types of noise present in a time series data. For this, we make use of an algorithmic approach for computing D2 and K2 proposed by us recently [Harikrishnan KP, Misra R, Ambika G, Kembhavi AK. Physica D 2006;215:137; Harikrishnan KP, Ambika G, Misra R. Mod Phys Lett B 2007;21:129; Harikrishnan KP, Misra R, Ambika G. Pramana - J Phys, in press], which is a modification of the standard Grassberger-Proccacia scheme. While the presence of white noise can be easily identified by computing D2 of data and surrogates, K2 is a better discriminating measure to detect colored noise in the data. Analysis of time series from a real world system involving both white and colored noise is presented as evidence. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such a combined analysis is undertaken on a real world data.
Uranium mass and neutron multiplication factor estimates from time-correlation coincidence counts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie, Wenxiong [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Center for Strategic Studies, Beijing 100088 (China); Li, Jiansheng [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, Mianyang 621900 (China); Zhu, Jianyu [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Center for Strategic Studies, Beijing 100088 (China)
2015-10-11
Time-correlation coincidence counts of neutrons are an important means to measure attributes of nuclear material. The main deficiency in the analysis is that an attribute of an unknown component can only be assessed by comparing it with similar known components. There is a lack of a universal method of measurement suitable for the different attributes of the components. This paper presents a new method that uses universal relations to estimate the mass and neutron multiplication factor of any uranium component with known enrichment. Based on numerical simulations and analyses of 64 highly enriched uranium components with different thicknesses and average radii, the relations between mass, multiplication and coincidence spectral features have been obtained by linear regression analysis. To examine the validity of the method in estimating the mass of uranium components with different sizes, shapes, enrichment, and shielding, the features of time-correlation coincidence-count spectra for other objects with similar attributes are simulated. Most of the masses and multiplications for these objects could also be derived by the formulation. Experimental measurements of highly enriched uranium castings have also been used to verify the formulation. The results show that for a well-designed time-dependent coincidence-count measuring system of a uranium attribute, there are a set of relations dependent on the uranium enrichment by which the mass and multiplication of the measured uranium components of any shape and size can be estimated from the features of the source-detector coincidence-count spectrum.
Diffusion and superdiffusion of a particle in a random potential with finite correlation time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebedev, N.; Maass, P.; Feng, S.
1995-01-01
We study theoretically the long time asymptotic of a quantum particle moving in a random time-dependent potential with finite correlation time, in d=1. By applying a new unitary numerical scheme we first show the minor importance of quantum interference and then derive an effective Langevin-type equation for the corresponding clasical problem in the limit of weak potential. We find that on intermediate time scales E kin (t)∼t 2/5 , while the true long time asymptotic is determined by a new friction term, which gives rise to a stationary power law velocity distribution, multifractality of the velocity moments, and a slowing down of the superdiffusive behavior
Gallagher, P.; Yancy, W.S.; Denissen, J.J.A.; Kühnel, A.; Voils, C.I.
2013-01-01
Objective: Previous studies examining correlates of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) have identified personality factors that are correlated with LTPA and practical factors that impede LTPA. The purpose of the present study was to test how several narrow traits predict daily reports of LTPA and
A study of the cross-correlation and time lag in black hole X-ray binary XTE J1859+226
Pei, Songpeng; Ding, Guoqiang; Li, Zhibing; Lei, Yajuan; Yuen, Rai; Qu, Jinlu
2017-07-01
With Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data, we systematically study the cross-correlation and time lag in all spectral states of black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) XTE J1859+226 in detail during its entire 1999-2000 outburst that lasted for 166 days. Anti-correlations and positive correlations and their respective soft and hard X-ray lags are only detected in the first 100 days of the outburst when the luminosity is high. This suggests that the cross-correlations may be related to high luminosity. Positive correlations are detected in every state of XTE J1859+226, viz., hard state, hard-intermediate state (HIMS), soft-intermediate state (SIMS) and soft state. However, anti-correlations are only detected in HIMS and SIMS, anti-correlated hard lags are only detected in SIMS, while anti-correlated soft lags are detected in both HIMS and SIMS. Moreover, the ratio of the observations with anti-correlated soft lags to hard lags detected in XTE J1859+226 is significantly different from that in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS LMXBs). So far, anti-correlations are never detected in the soft state of BHXBs but detected in every branch or state of NS LMXBs. This may be due to the origin of soft seed photons in BHXBs is confined to the accretion disk and, for NS LMXBs, from both accretion disk and the surface of the NS. We notice that the timescale of anti-correlated time lags detected in XTE J1859+226 is similar with that of other BHXBs and NS LMXBs. We suggest that anti-correlated soft lag detected in BHXB may result from fluctuation in the accretion disk as well as NS LMXB.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sardinha Luis B
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying leisure time activities performed before and after school that influence time in physical activity (PA and/or time spent sedentary can provide useful information when designing interventions aimed to promote an active lifestyle in young people. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between mode of transportation to school, outdoor play after school, participation in exercise in clubs, and TV viewing with objectively assessed PA and sedentary behaviour in children. Methods A total of 1327 nine- and 15-year-old children from three European countries (Norway, Estonia, Portugal participated as part of the European Youth Heart Study. PA was measured during two weekdays and two weekend days using the MTI accelerometer, and average percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA and time spent sedentary were derived. Potential correlates were assessed by self-report. Independent associations between self-reported correlates with percent time in MVPA and percent time sedentary were analysed by general linear models, adjusted by age, gender, country, measurement period, monitored days and parental socio-economic status. Results In 9-year-olds, playing outdoors after school was associated with higher percent time in MVPA (P Conclusion Frequency of outdoor play after school is a significant correlate for daily time in MVPA in 9-year-olds, while this correlate is attenuated in favour of participation in sport and exercise in clubs in 15-year-olds. Targeting walking to school or reduced TV viewing time in order to increase time in daily MVPA in children is unlikely to be sufficient. Correlates related to time spent sedentary need further examination.
Out-of-time-ordered correlators in a quantum Ising chain
Lin, Cheng-Ju; Motrunich, Olexei I.
2018-04-01
Out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOC) have been proposed to characterize quantum chaos in generic systems. However, they can also show interesting behavior in integrable models, resembling the OTOC in chaotic systems in some aspects. Here we study the OTOC for different operators in the exactly-solvable one-dimensional quantum Ising spin chain. The OTOC for spin operators that are local in terms of the Jordan-Wigner fermions has a "shell-like" structure: After the wavefront passes, the OTOC approaches its original value in the long-time limit, showing no signature of scrambling; the approach is described by a t-1 power law at long time t . On the other hand, the OTOC for spin operators that are nonlocal in the Jordan-Wigner fermions has a "ball-like" structure, with its value reaching zero in the long-time limit, looking like a signature of scrambling; the approach to zero, however, is described by a slow power law t-1 /4 for the Ising model at the critical coupling. These long-time power-law behaviors in the lattice model are not captured by conformal field theory calculations. The mixed OTOC with both local and nonlocal operators in the Jordan-Wigner fermions also has a "ball-like" structure, but the limiting values and the decay behavior appear to be nonuniversal. In all cases, we are not able to define a parametrically large window around the wavefront to extract the Lyapunov exponent.
Time correlation measurements from extensive air showers detected by the EEE telescopes
Abbrescia, M; Fabbri, F L; Gnesi, I; Bressan, E; Tosello, F; Librizzi, F; Coccia, E; Paoletti, R; Yanez, G; Li, S; Votano, L; Scribano, A; Avanzini, C; Piragino, G; Perasso, L; Regano, A; Ferroli, R Baldini; De Gruttola, D; Sartorelli, G; Siddi, E; Cifarelli, L; Di Giovanni, A; Frolov, V; Serci, S; Selvi, M; Zouyevski, R; Dreucci, M; Squarcia, S; Righini, G C; Agocs, A; Zichichi, A; La Rocca, P; Pilo, F; Miozzi, S; Massai, M; Cicalo, C; D'Incecco, M; Panareo, M; Gemme, G; Garbini, M; Aiola, S; Riggi, F; Hatzifotiadou, D; Scapparone, E; Chiavassa, A; Maggiora, A; Bencivenni, G; Gustavino, C; Spandre, G; Taiuti, M; Williams, M C S; Bossini, E; De Pasquale, S
2013-01-01
Time correlated events due to cosmic muons from extensive air showers have been detected by means of telescope pairs of the EEE (Extreme Energy Events) Project array. The coincidence rate, properly normalized for detector acceptance, efficiency and altitude location, has been extracted as a function of the relative distance between the telescopes. The results have been also compared with additional measurements carried out by small scintillator detectors at various distances.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Terras, V. [CNRS, ENS Lyon (France). Lab. de Physique
2010-12-15
We present a new method allowing us to derive the long-time and large-distance asymptotic behavior of the correlations functions of quantum integrable models from their exact representations. Starting from the form factor expansion of the correlation functions in finite volume, we explain how to reduce the complexity of the computation in the so-called interacting integrable models to the one appearing in free fermion equivalent models. We apply our method to the time-dependent zero-temperature current-current correlation function in the non-linear Schroedinger model and compute the first few terms in its asymptotic expansion. Our result goes beyond the conformal field theory based predictions: in the time-dependent case, other types of excitations than the ones on the Fermi surface contribute to the leading orders of the asymptotics. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozlowski, K.K.; Terras, V.
2010-12-01
We present a new method allowing us to derive the long-time and large-distance asymptotic behavior of the correlations functions of quantum integrable models from their exact representations. Starting from the form factor expansion of the correlation functions in finite volume, we explain how to reduce the complexity of the computation in the so-called interacting integrable models to the one appearing in free fermion equivalent models. We apply our method to the time-dependent zero-temperature current-current correlation function in the non-linear Schroedinger model and compute the first few terms in its asymptotic expansion. Our result goes beyond the conformal field theory based predictions: in the time-dependent case, other types of excitations than the ones on the Fermi surface contribute to the leading orders of the asymptotics. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Telesca, Luciano; Balasco, Marianna; Lapenna, Vincenzo
2007-01-01
Recent studies have shown that many natural phenomena are characterized by temporal fluctuations with long-range power-law correlations, suggesting a fractal geometry of the underlying dynamical system. The presence of power-law correlations are detected in four time series of self-potential signals, measured in a seismic area of southern Italy, by means of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), a method that permits the detection of long-range correlations in nonstationary time series. Results show scaling behaviour for all the signals recorded, indicating the presence of fractal features expressing a long-term correlation quantified by the numerical value of the scaling exponents. Our findings suggest a possible correlation between the earthquakes occurred in the area investigated and the relative maxima/minima of the mean and the standard deviation of the scaling exponents. Furthermore, the normalized average and standard deviation curves for all the signals tend to converge in correspondence with an earthquake
Chung, Sang Yong; Senapathi, Venkatramanan; Sekar, Selvam; Kim, Tae Hyung
2018-02-01
Monitoring and time-series analysis of the hydrological parameters electrical conductivity (EC), water pressure, precipitation and tide were carried out, to understand the characteristics of the parameter variations and their correlations at a coastal area in Busan, South Korea. The monitoring data were collected at a sharp interface between freshwater and saline water at the depth of 25 m below ground. Two well-logging profiles showed that seawater intrusion has largely expanded (progressed inland), and has greatly affected the groundwater quality in a coastal aquifer of tuffaceous sedimentary rock over a 9-year period. According to the time series analyses, the periodograms of the hydrological parameters present very similar trends to the power spectral densities (PSD) of the hydrological parameters. Autocorrelation functions (ACF) and partial autocorrelation functions (PACF) of the hydrological parameters were produced to evaluate their self-correlations. The ACFs of all hydrologic parameters showed very good correlation over the entire time lag, but the PACF revealed that the correlations were good only at time lag 1. Crosscorrelation functions (CCF) were used to evaluate the correlations between the hydrological parameters and the characteristics of seawater intrusion in the coastal aquifer system. The CCFs showed that EC had a close relationship with water pressure and precipitation rather than tide. The CCFs of water pressure with tide and precipitation were in inverse proportion, and the CCF of water pressure with precipitation was larger than that with tide.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berthier, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-10-01
The purpose of this work is to elaborate a specific computer able to display the real.time correlation function of two variables represented by two electrical signals. The various functions to be done are dealt with the best suited technology: delays from numerical method, hybrid multiplication, analog integration. This method proved very versatile so that it has been possible to modify the circuits with more performing components without changing the general conception of the whole system. In particular, the bandwidth, which was originally 125 kHz (1966) is now 1 MHz and will be 5 MHz, January 1968. Many results are obtained from the correlator such as: - determination of pulse responses of linear systems (1. and 2. order filters, oscillating circuits); - extraction of signals from noise; - measurement of time and space correlation in a turbulent plasma; - treatment of electro-biological signals. (author) [French] Nous nous sommes proposes de concevoir un calculateur specialise pour l'estimation en temps reel de la fonction de correlation de deux phenomenes representes par deux tensions electriques. Il a ete retenu les procedes de calcul s'adaptant le mieux aux diverses fonctions a realiser: retard par une technique numerique, multiplication hybride, integration analogique. Cette methode s'est revelee tres souple d'emploi: en effet les circuits ont pu etre modifies, sans changer la conception de l'appareil, au fur et a mesure de l'evolution des performances des composants electroniques. Ainsi la bande passante de l'appareil qui initialement etait de 125 KHz (1966) est actuellement de 1 MHz et sera 5 MHz en janvier 1968. De nombreux resultats ont ete obtenus avec l'appareil: - determination de reponses impulsionnelles de systemes lineaires (filtres 1er ordre, 2eme ordre, circuit oscillant, etc... ); - detection de signaux dans le bruit; - mesure de correlation spatiale et temporelle dans le plasma - traitement de signaux electrobiologiques. (auteur)
Correlation between weekly working time and burnout syndrome among anesthesiologists of Maceió-AL.
Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Eloi, Raissa Jardelino; Santos, Luciano Menezes Dos; Leão, Bruna Acioly; Lima, Fernando José Camelo de; Sousa-Rodrigues, Célio Fernando de
The current jobs are insufficient to determine the causative agent, as well as to identify characteristic high risk profiles for BS, leaving a clear need for more studies to this end. This study objective was to evaluate the correlation between weekly workload and BS dimensions. An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study performed with 43 anesthesiologists from Maceió-AL, with the application of Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) forms. Pearson's correlation coefficient r was used for the three dimensions and a 95% confidence interval for the prevalence of burnout syndrome and high scores in all three dimensions. Among the studied physicians, 51.16% were male and the average age was 49.82±12.05 years. For physicians who have been diagnosed with BS through the MBI, the average weekly working time 69.27±22.39h. The high level of frequency in at least one of the three dimensions was found in 67.44% of physicians, with this percentage being considered diagnostic for burnout syndrome in this population. This study showed no correlation between the weekly working time and the BS dimensions in this population. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Correlates of screen time among 8-19-year-old students in China.
Ye, Sunyue; Chen, Lijian; Wang, Qineng; Li, Qinggong
2018-04-10
Previous studies have shown that prolonged time spent on screen-based sedentary behavior was significantly associated with lower health status in children, independent of physical activity levels. The study aimed to explore the individual and environmental correlates of screen time (ST) among 8-19-year-old students in China. The study surveyed ST using a self-administered questionnaire in Chinese students aged 8-19 years; 1063 participants were included in the final analysis. Individual and environmental correlates of ST were assessed using a mixed-effects model (for continuous outcome variables) and multiple logistic regression model (for binary outcome variables). Prolonged ST was observed in 14.7% of boys and 8.9% of girls. Of the ST, weekend and mobile phone/tablet use represented 80% and 40%, respectively. A positive relationship was observed between media accessibility and ST in both boys and girls (p negative factor for longer ST (p mobile phone/tablet or a computer rather than viewing a TV, along with increased media accessibility, increased ST. These results indicate that greater media accessibility was positively associated and the presence of parents/others was negatively associated with prolonged ST in both Chinese boys and girls. Development of new and effective strategies against prolonged ST are required, especially for small screen device-based ST on weekends.
Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans G.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.
2012-01-01
The analysis of mutual ozone-temperature variations can provide useful information on their interdependencies relative to the photochemistry and dynamics governing their behavior. Previous studies have mostly been based on satellite measurements taken at a fixed local time in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. For these data, it is shown that the zonal mean ozone amounts and temperatures in the lower stratosphere are mostly positively correlated, while they are mostly negatively correlated in the upper stratosphere and in the lower mesosphere. The negative correlation, due to the dependence of photochemical reaction rates on temperature, indicates that ozone photochemistry is more important than dynamics in determining the ozone amounts. In this study, we provide new results by extending the analysis to include diurnal variations over 24 hrs of local time, and to larger spatial regimes, to include the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The results are based on measurements by the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite. For mean variations (i.e., averages over local time and longitude) in the MLT, our results show that there is a sharp reversal in the correlation near 80 km altitude, above which the ozone mixing ratio and temperature are mostly positively correlated, while they are mostly negatively correlated below 80 km. This is consistent with the view that above -80 km, effects due to dynamics are more important compared to photochemistry. For diurnal variations, both the ozone and temperature show phase progressions in local time, as a function of altitude and latitude. For temperature, the phase progression is as expected, as they represent migrating tides. For day time ozone, we also find regular phase progression in local time over the whole altitude range of our analysis, 25 to 105 km, at least for low latitudes. This was not previously known, although phase progressions had been noted by us and by others at lower altitudes. For diurnal
The correlates of leisure time physical activity among an adults population from southern Taiwan.
Chen, Yi-Ju; Huang, Ying-Hsiang; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Wu, Jin-Shang; Lin, Linda L; Chang, Chih-Jen; Yang, Yi-Ching
2011-06-03
Assessing the correlates of practicing physical activity during leisure time is important with regard to planning and designing public health strategies to increase beneficial behaviors among adult populations. Although the importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) is highlighted in many Western countries, there are not many publications on physical activity patterns, and even less on their correlates, in non-Western societies. The goal of this study was thus to explore the determinants influencing adults' leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in a city in southern Taiwan. A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in 2007, using a standardized questionnaire. Energy expenditure was dichotomized into two groups based on the recommended levels of moderate physical activity from LTPA: ≥10 or benefits of exercise (OR = 1.85;95%CI = 1.25-2.74), more sports media consumption (OR = 1.94;95%CI = 1.26-2.98), and higher self-efficacy (OR = 3.99;95%CI = 2.67-5.97) were more likely to engage in LTPA. Further analysis comparing different sources of social support showed only social support from friends had a significant positive association (OR = 1.73;95%CI = 1.14-2.63) with increased LTPA. LTPA in southern city of Taiwan showed some unique associations with age, socioeconomic status and media consumption that are not commonly reported in the Western World and similar associations with regards to psychosocial correlates of LTPA participation. Further studies from developing countries are warranted to highlight culture-specific differences in physical activity participation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brics, Martins; Kapoor, Varun; Bauer, Dieter [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany)
2013-07-01
Time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with known and practicable exchange-correlation potentials does not capture highly correlated electron dynamics such as single-photon double ionization, autoionization, or nonsequential ionization. Time-dependent reduced density matrix functional theory (TDRDMFT) may remedy these problems. The key ingredients in TDRDMFT are the natural orbitals (NOs), i.e., the eigenfunctions of the one-body reduced density matrix (1-RDM), and the occupation numbers (OCs), i.e., the respective eigenvalues. The two-body reduced density matrix (2-RDM) is then expanded in NOs, and equations of motion for the NOs can be derived. If the expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM were known exactly, the problem at hand would be solved. In practice, approximations have to be made. We study the prospects of TDRDMFT following a top-down approach. We solve the exact two-electron time-dependent Schroedinger equation for a model Helium atom in intense laser fields in order to study highly correlated phenomena such as the population of autoionizing states or single-photon double ionization. From the exact wave function we calculate the exact NOs, OCs, the exact expansion coefficients of the 2-RDM, and the exact potentials in the equations of motion. In that way we can identify how many NOs and which level of approximations are necessary to capture such phenomena.
Pandžić, Elvis; Abu-Arish, Asmahan; Whan, Renee M; Hanrahan, John W; Wiseman, Paul W
2018-02-16
Molecular, vesicular and organellar flows are of fundamental importance for the delivery of nutrients and essential components used in cellular functions such as motility and division. With recent advances in fluorescence/super-resolution microscopy modalities we can resolve the movements of these objects at higher spatio-temporal resolutions and with better sensitivity. Previously, spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy has been applied to map molecular flows by correlation analysis of fluorescence fluctuations in image series. However, an underlying assumption of this approach is that the sampled time windows contain one dominant flowing component. Although this was true for most of the cases analyzed earlier, in some situations two or more different flowing populations can be present in the same spatio-temporal window. We introduce an approach, termed velocity landscape correlation (VLC), which detects and extracts multiple flow components present in a sampled image region via an extension of the correlation analysis of fluorescence intensity fluctuations. First we demonstrate theoretically how this approach works, test the performance of the method with a range of computer simulated image series with varying flow dynamics. Finally we apply VLC to study variable fluxing of STIM1 proteins on microtubules connected to the plasma membrane of Cystic Fibrosis Bronchial Epithelial (CFBE) cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Eslami, Taban; Saeed, Fahad
2018-04-20
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging technique, which has been regularly used for studying brain’s functional activities in the past few years. A very well-used measure for capturing functional associations in brain is Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Pearson’s correlation is widely used for constructing functional network and studying dynamic functional connectivity of the brain. These are useful measures for understanding the effects of brain disorders on connectivities among brain regions. The fMRI scanners produce huge number of voxels and using traditional central processing unit (CPU)-based techniques for computing pairwise correlations is very time consuming especially when large number of subjects are being studied. In this paper, we propose a graphics processing unit (GPU)-based algorithm called Fast-GPU-PCC for computing pairwise Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Based on the symmetric property of Pearson’s correlation, this approach returns N ( N − 1 ) / 2 correlation coefficients located at strictly upper triangle part of the correlation matrix. Storing correlations in a one-dimensional array with the order as proposed in this paper is useful for further usage. Our experiments on real and synthetic fMRI data for different number of voxels and varying length of time series show that the proposed approach outperformed state of the art GPU-based techniques as well as the sequential CPU-based versions. We show that Fast-GPU-PCC runs 62 times faster than CPU-based version and about 2 to 3 times faster than two other state of the art GPU-based methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Degweker, S.B.
1996-01-01
The problem of deriving the statistics of time-correlated detector pulses in the presence of a non-extendible dead time is studied by constructing a Markov Chain to describe the process. Expressions for the transition matrix are derived for problems in the passive neutron assay of Pu and (zero-power) reactor noise. Perturbative and numerical solutions of the master equations are discussed for a simple problem in the passive neutron assay of Pu. Expressions for the mean count rate and variance in a given interval are derived. (Author)
Etienne, Xiaoli L.; Trujillo-Barrera, Andrés; Hoffman, Linwood A.
2017-01-01
We find distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) prices to be positively correlated with both corn and soybean meal prices in the long run. However, neither corn nor soybean meal prices respond to deviations from this long-run relationship. We also identify strong time-varying dynamic
Wang, Kang-Kang; Ye, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jun; Li, Sheng-Hong
2018-05-14
In this paper, the modified potential function, the stationary probability distribution function (SPDF), the mean growth time and the mean degeneration time for a vegetation growth system with time delay are investigated, where the vegetation system is assumed to be disturbed by cross-correlated multiplicative and additive noises. The results reveal some fact that the multiplicative and additive noises can both reduce the stability and speed up the decline of the vegetation system, while the strength of the noise correlation and time delay can both enhance the stability of the vegetation and slow down the depression process of the ecological system. On the other hand, with regard to the impacts of noises and time delay on the mean development and degeneration processes of the ecological system, it is discovered that 1) in the development process of the vegetation population, the increase of the noise correlation strength and time delay will restrain the regime shift from the barren state to the boom one, while the increase of the additive noise can lead to the fast regime shift from the barren state to the boom one. 2) Conversely, in the depression process of the ecological system, the increase of the strength of the correlation noise and time delay will prevent the regime shift from the boom state to the barren one. Comparatively, the increase of the additive and multiplicative noises can accelerate the regime shift from the boom state to the barren state.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian Schmitz
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Previous research has shown an inverse relation between response times in elementary cognitive tasks and intelligence, but findings are inconsistent as to which is the most informative score. We conducted a study (N = 200 using a battery of elementary cognitive tasks, working memory capacity (WMC paradigms, and a test of fluid intelligence (gf. Frequently used candidate scores and model parameters derived from the response time (RT distribution were tested. Results confirmed a clear correlation of mean RT with WMC and to a lesser degree with gf. Highly comparable correlations were obtained for alternative location measures with or without extreme value treatment. Moderate correlations were found as well for scores of RT variability, but they were not as strong as for mean RT. Additionally, there was a trend towards higher correlations for slow RT bands, as compared to faster RT bands. Clearer evidence was obtained in an ex-Gaussian decomposition of the response times: the exponential component was selectively related to WMC and gf in easy tasks, while mean response time was additionally predictive in the most complex tasks. The diffusion model parsimoniously accounted for these effects in terms of individual differences in drift rate. Finally, correlations of model parameters as trait-like dispositions were investigated across different tasks, by correlating parameters of the diffusion and the ex-Gaussian model with conventional RT and accuracy scores.
Dziekan, Thomas; Weissbach, Carmen; Voigt, Jan; Ebert, Bernd; MacDonald, Rainer; Bahner, Malte L.; Mahler, Marianne; Schirner, Michael; Berliner, Michael; Berliner, Birgitt; Osel, Jens; Osel, Ilka
2011-07-01
Fluorescence imaging using the dye indocyanine green as a contrast agent was investigated in a prospective clinical study for the detection of rheumatoid arthritis. Normalized variances of correlated time series of fluorescence intensities describing the bolus kinetics of the contrast agent in certain regions of interest were analyzed to differentiate healthy from inflamed finger joints. These values are determined using a robust, parameter-free algorithm. We found that the normalized variance of correlation functions improves the differentiation between healthy joints of volunteers and joints with rheumatoid arthritis of patients by about 10% compared to, e.g., ratios of areas under the curves of raw data.
Hadgraft, Nyssa T; Lynch, Brigid M; Clark, Bronwyn K; Healy, Genevieve N; Owen, Neville; Dunstan, David W
2015-09-15
Recent evidence links sedentary behaviour (or too much sitting) with poorer health outcomes; many adults accumulate the majority of their daily sitting time through occupational sitting and TV viewing. To further the development and targeting of evidence-based strategies there is a need for identification of the factors associated with higher levels of these behaviours. This study examined socio-demographic and health-related correlates of occupational sitting and of combined high levels of occupational sitting/TV viewing time amongst working adults. Participants were attendees of the third wave (2011/12) of the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study who worked full-time (≥35 h/week; n = 1,235; 38 % women; mean ± SD age 53 ± 7 years). Logistic and multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted (separately for women and men) to assess cross-sectional associations of self-reported occupational sitting time (categorised as high/low based on the median) and also the combination of occupational sitting time/TV viewing time (high/low for each outcome), with a number of potential socio-demographic and health-related correlates. Higher levels of occupational sitting (>6 h/day) were associated with higher household income for both genders. Lower levels of occupational sitting were associated with being older (women only); and, for men only, having a blue collar occupation, having a technical/vocational educational attainment, and undertaking more leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). Attributes associated with high levels of both occupational sitting and TV viewing time included white collar occupation (men only), lower levels of LTPA (both genders), higher BMI (men), and higher energy consumption (women). Higher household income (both genders) and professional/managerial occupations (men only) were correlates of high occupational sitting time, relative to low occupational sitting time, while health-related factors (lower LTPA, higher BMI
Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, R.E.; Fragola, J.; Wreathall, J.
1982-11-01
This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations
Post-event human decision errors: operator action tree/time reliability correlation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, R E; Fragola, J; Wreathall, J
1982-11-01
This report documents an interim framework for the quantification of the probability of errors of decision on the part of nuclear power plant operators after the initiation of an accident. The framework can easily be incorporated into an event tree/fault tree analysis. The method presented consists of a structure called the operator action tree and a time reliability correlation which assumes the time available for making a decision to be the dominating factor in situations requiring cognitive human response. This limited approach decreases the magnitude and complexity of the decision modeling task. Specifically, in the past, some human performance models have attempted prediction by trying to emulate sequences of human actions, or by identifying and modeling the information processing approach applicable to the task. The model developed here is directed at describing the statistical performance of a representative group of hypothetical individuals responding to generalized situations.
Springer, P.
1993-01-01
This paper discusses the method in which the Cascade-Correlation algorithm was parallelized in such a way that it could be run using the Time Warp Operating System (TWOS). TWOS is a special purpose operating system designed to run parellel discrete event simulations with maximum efficiency on parallel or distributed computers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiebig, H. Rudolf
2002-01-01
We study various aspects of extracting spectral information from time correlation functions of lattice QCD by means of Bayesian inference with an entropic prior, the maximum entropy method (MEM). Correlator functions of a heavy-light meson-meson system serve as a repository for lattice data with diverse statistical quality. Attention is given to spectral mass density functions, inferred from the data, and their dependence on the parameters of the MEM. We propose to employ simulated annealing, or cooling, to solve the Bayesian inference problem, and discuss the practical issues of the approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, S. H.; Lee, J. S. [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea)
2000-03-01
Object tracking, through Centroide method used in the KAERI-M1 Stereo Robot Vision System developed at Atomic Research Center, is too sensitive to target's light variation and because it has a fragility which can't reflect the surrounding background, the application in the actual condition is very limited. Also the correlation method can constitute a relatively stable object tracker in noise features but the digital calculation amount is too massive in image correlation so real time materialization is limited. So the development of Optical Correlation based on Stereo Object Tracking System using high speed optical information processing technique will put stable the real time stereo object tracking system and substantial atomic industrial stereo robot vision system to practical use. This research is about developing real time stereo object tracking algorithm using optical correlation system through the technique which can be applied to Atomic Research Center's KAERI-M1 Stereo Vision Robot which will be used in atomic facility remote operations. And revise the stereo disparity using real time optical correlation technique, and materializing the application of the stereo object tracking algorithm to KAERI-M1 Stereo Robot. 19 refs., 45 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Fengbin; Qiao, Han; Wang, Shouyang; Lai, Kin Keung; Li, Yuze
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a new time-varying coefficient vector autoregressions (VAR) model, in which the coefficient is a linear function of dynamic lagged correlation. The proposed model allows for flexibility in choices of dynamic correlation models (e.g. dynamic conditional correlation generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) models, Markov-switching GARCH models and multivariate stochastic volatility models), which indicates that it can describe many types of time-varying causal effects. Time-varying causal relations between West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and the US Standard and Poor’s 500 (S&P 500) stock markets are examined by the proposed model. The empirical results show that their causal relations evolve with time and display complex characters. Both positive and negative causal effects of the WTI on the S&P 500 in the subperiods have been found and confirmed by the traditional VAR models. Similar results have been obtained in the causal effects of S&P 500 on WTI. In addition, the proposed model outperforms the traditional VAR model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Fengbin, E-mail: fblu@amss.ac.cn [Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qiao, Han, E-mail: qiaohan@ucas.ac.cn [School of Economics and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Shouyang, E-mail: sywang@amss.ac.cn [School of Economics and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lai, Kin Keung, E-mail: mskklai@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Management Sciences, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Li, Yuze, E-mail: richardyz.li@mail.utoronto.ca [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto (Canada)
2017-01-15
This paper proposes a new time-varying coefficient vector autoregressions (VAR) model, in which the coefficient is a linear function of dynamic lagged correlation. The proposed model allows for flexibility in choices of dynamic correlation models (e.g. dynamic conditional correlation generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) models, Markov-switching GARCH models and multivariate stochastic volatility models), which indicates that it can describe many types of time-varying causal effects. Time-varying causal relations between West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and the US Standard and Poor’s 500 (S&P 500) stock markets are examined by the proposed model. The empirical results show that their causal relations evolve with time and display complex characters. Both positive and negative causal effects of the WTI on the S&P 500 in the subperiods have been found and confirmed by the traditional VAR models. Similar results have been obtained in the causal effects of S&P 500 on WTI. In addition, the proposed model outperforms the traditional VAR model.
Gerlich, Nikolas; Rostek, Stefan
2015-09-01
We derive a heuristic method to estimate the degree of self-similarity and serial correlation in financial time series. Especially, we propagate the use of a tailor-made selection of different estimation techniques that are used in various fields of time series analysis but until now have not consequently found their way into the finance literature. Following the idea of portfolio diversification, we show that considerable improvements with respect to robustness and unbiasedness can be achieved by using a basket of estimation methods. With this methodological toolbox at hand, we investigate real market data to show that noticeable deviations from the assumptions of constant self-similarity and absence of serial correlation occur during certain periods. On the one hand, this may shed a new light on seemingly ambiguous scientific findings concerning serial correlation of financial time series. On the other hand, a proven time-changing degree of self-similarity may help to explain high-volatility clusters of stock price indices.
Zheng, Zhen-Yu; Li, Peng
2018-04-01
We consider the time evolution of two-point correlation function in the transverse-field Ising chain (TFIC) with ring frustration. The time-evolution procedure we investigated is equivalent to a quench process in which the system is initially prepared in a classical kink state and evolves according to the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. Within a framework of perturbative theory (PT) in the strong kink phase, the evolution of the correlation function is disclosed to demonstrate a qualitatively new behavior in contrast to the traditional case without ring frustration.
A new methodology for measuring time correlations and excite states of atoms and nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavalcante, M.A.
1989-01-01
A system for measuring time correlation of physical phenomena events in the range of 10 -7 to 10 5 sec is proposed, and his results presented. This system, is based on a sequential time scale which is controlled by a precision quartz oscillator; the zero time of observation is set by means of a JK Flip-Flop, which is operated by a negative transition of pulse in coincidence with the pulse from a detector which marks the time zero of the event (precedent pulse). This electronic system (named digital chronoanalizer) was used in the measurement of excited states of nuclei as well as for the determination of time fluctuations in physical phenomena, such as the time lag in a halogen Geiger counter and is the measurement of the 60 KeV excited state of N P 237 . (author)
RHIC Data Correlation Methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michnoff, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Hoff, L.; MacKay, W.; Satogata, T.
1999-01-01
A requirement for RHIC data plotting software and physics analysis is the correlation of data from all accelerator data gathering systems. Data correlation provides the capability for a user to request a plot of multiple data channels vs. time, and to make meaningful time-correlated data comparisons. The task of data correlation for RHIC requires careful consideration because data acquisition triggers are generated from various asynchronous sources including events from the RHIC Event Link, events from the two Beam Sync Links, and other unrelated clocks. In order to correlate data from asynchronous acquisition systems a common time reference is required. The RHIC data correlation methodology will allow all RHIC data to be converted to a common wall clock time, while still preserving native acquisition trigger information. A data correlation task force team, composed of the authors of this paper, has been formed to develop data correlation design details and provide guidelines for software developers. The overall data correlation methodology will be presented in this paper
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ju-Chi Liu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI. The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN, and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM and accuracy-recognition mode (AM, were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR. When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.
Liu, Ju-Chi; Chou, Hung-Chyun; Chen, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Tseng; Kuo, Chung-Hsien
2016-01-01
A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN), and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM) and accuracy-recognition mode (AM), were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR). When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.
Record statistics of a strongly correlated time series: random walks and Lévy flights
Godrèche, Claude; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory
2017-08-01
We review recent advances on the record statistics of strongly correlated time series, whose entries denote the positions of a random walk or a Lévy flight on a line. After a brief survey of the theory of records for independent and identically distributed random variables, we focus on random walks. During the last few years, it was indeed realized that random walks are a very useful ‘laboratory’ to test the effects of correlations on the record statistics. We start with the simple one-dimensional random walk with symmetric jumps (both continuous and discrete) and discuss in detail the statistics of the number of records, as well as of the ages of the records, i.e. the lapses of time between two successive record breaking events. Then we review the results that were obtained for a wide variety of random walk models, including random walks with a linear drift, continuous time random walks, constrained random walks (like the random walk bridge) and the case of multiple independent random walkers. Finally, we discuss further observables related to records, like the record increments, as well as some questions raised by physical applications of record statistics, like the effects of measurement error and noise.
Thermal quantum time-correlation functions from classical-like dynamics
Hele, Timothy J. H.
2017-07-01
Thermal quantum time-correlation functions are of fundamental importance in quantum dynamics, allowing experimentally measurable properties such as reaction rates, diffusion constants and vibrational spectra to be computed from first principles. Since the exact quantum solution scales exponentially with system size, there has been considerable effort in formulating reliable linear-scaling methods involving exact quantum statistics and approximate quantum dynamics modelled with classical-like trajectories. Here, we review recent progress in the field with the development of methods including centroid molecular dynamics , ring polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and thermostatted RPMD (TRPMD). We show how these methods have recently been obtained from 'Matsubara dynamics', a form of semiclassical dynamics which conserves the quantum Boltzmann distribution. We also apply the Matsubara formalism to reaction rate theory, rederiving t → 0+ quantum transition-state theory (QTST) and showing that Matsubara-TST, like RPMD-TST, is equivalent to QTST. We end by surveying areas for future progress.
Tsunoda, Kenji; Soma, Yuki; Kitano, Naruki; Tsuji, Taishi; Mitsuishi, Yasuhiro; Yoon, Ji-Yeong; Okura, Tomohiro
2013-10-01
This study aimed to compare relationships of leisure-time, household, and work-related physical activity (PA) with physical performance by age and gender in older Japanese adults. This cross-sectional study included 525 community-dwelling older adults (73.3 ± 5.2 years) recruited in 2009-2011 in Kasama City, rural Japan. We used the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly to assess PA variables. Physical performance was evaluated by 11 performance tests: grip strength, single-leg balance, functional reach, sit-and-reach, standing time from long sitting position, sit-to-stand, timed up and go, habitual walk, hand working, and simple and choice reaction times. After adjusting for potential confounders, leisure-time PA in young-old (≤ 74 years) men correlated significantly with eight performance tests (absolute value of Spearman's partial rank correlation coefficient: r = 0.18-0.39), whereas in old-old (≥ 75 years) men it correlated with three performance tests (r = 0.20-0.23). Although leisure-time PA correlated with six performance tests (r = 0.19-0.22) in young-old women, there were no significant correlations between leisure-time PA and performance tests in old-old women. Household PA of young-old men (r = 0.20-0.23) and old-old women (r = 0.26-0.34) correlated with four performance tests. In old-old men and young-old women, no significant correlation was found between household PA and performance tests. Work-related PA did not relate significantly to any performance tests in any groups. This study showed that leisure-time PA is related to physical performance, especially in young-old men and women, and household PA is especially related in young-old men and old-old women. Our findings suggest that supporting strategies for maintaining physical functions would differ by gender and age. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.
2012-01-01
The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. Additionally, secondborns’ social time declined more slowly than firstborns’, and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. PMID:22925042
8-Channel acquisition system for Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting.
Antonioli, S; Miari, L; Cuccato, A; Crotti, M; Rech, I; Ghioni, M
2013-06-01
Nowadays, an increasing number of applications require high-performance analytical instruments capable to detect the temporal trend of weak and fast light signals with picosecond time resolution. The Time-Correlated Single-Photon Counting (TCSPC) technique is currently one of the preferable solutions when such critical optical signals have to be analyzed and it is fully exploited in biomedical and chemical research fields, as well as in security and space applications. Recent progress in the field of single-photon detector arrays is pushing research towards the development of high performance multichannel TCSPC systems, opening the way to modern time-resolved multi-dimensional optical analysis. In this paper we describe a new 8-channel high-performance TCSPC acquisition system, designed to be compact and versatile, to be used in modern TCSPC measurement setups. We designed a novel integrated circuit including a multichannel Time-to-Amplitude Converter with variable full-scale range, a D∕A converter, and a parallel adder stage. The latter is used to adapt each converter output to the input dynamic range of a commercial 8-channel Analog-to-Digital Converter, while the integrated DAC implements the dithering technique with as small as possible area occupation. The use of this monolithic circuit made the design of a scalable system of very small dimensions (95 × 40 mm) and low power consumption (6 W) possible. Data acquired from the TCSPC measurement are digitally processed and stored inside an FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array), while a USB transceiver allows real-time transmission of up to eight TCSPC histograms to a remote PC. Eventually, the experimental results demonstrate that the acquisition system performs TCSPC measurements with high conversion rate (up to 5 MHz/channel), extremely low differential nonlinearity (<0.04 peak-to-peak of the time bin width), high time resolution (down to 20 ps Full-Width Half-Maximum), and very low crosstalk between channels.
Energy-Efficient Optimization for HARQ Schemes over Time-Correlated Fading Channels
Shi, Zheng
2018-03-19
Energy efficiency of three common hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) schemes including Type I HARQ, HARQ with chase combining (HARQ-CC) and HARQ with incremental redundancy (HARQ-IR), is analyzed and joint power allocation and rate selection to maximize the energy efficiency is investigated in this paper. Unlike prior literature, time-correlated fading channels is considered and two widely concerned quality of service (QoS) constraints, i.e., outage and goodput constraints, are also considered in the optimization, which further differentiates this work from prior ones. Using a unified expression of asymptotic outage probabilities, optimal transmission powers and optimal rate are derived in closed-forms to maximize the energy efficiency while satisfying the QoS constraints. These closed-form solutions then enable a thorough analysis of the maximal energy efficiencies of various HARQ schemes. It is revealed that with low outage constraint, the maximal energy efficiency achieved by Type I HARQ is
25 ns software correlator for photon and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy
Magatti, Davide; Ferri, Fabio
2003-02-01
A 25 ns time resolution, multi-tau software correlator developed in LABVIEW based on the use of a standard photon counting unit, a fast timer/counter board (6602-PCI National Instrument) and a personal computer (PC) (1.5 GHz Pentium 4) is presented and quantitatively discussed. The correlator works by processing the stream of incoming data in parallel according to two different algorithms: For large lag times (τ⩾100 μs), a classical time-mode (TM) scheme, based on the measure of the number of pulses per time interval, is used; differently, for τ⩽100 μs a photon-mode (PM) scheme is adopted and the time sequence of the arrival times of the photon pulses is measured. By combining the two methods, we developed a system capable of working out correlation functions on line, in full real time for the TM correlator and partially in batch processing for the PM correlator. For the latter one, the duty cycle depends on the count rate of the incoming pulses, being ˜100% for count rates ⩽3×104 Hz, ˜15% at 105 Hz, and ˜1% at 106 Hz. For limitations imposed by the fairly small first-in, first-out (FIFO) buffer available on the counter board, the maximum count rate permissible for a proper functioning of the PM correlator is limited to ˜105 Hz. However, this limit can be removed by using a board with a deeper FIFO. Similarly, the 25 ns time resolution is only limited by maximum clock frequency available on the 6602-PCI and can be easily improved by using a faster clock. When tested on dilute solutions of calibrated latex spheres, the overall performances of the correlator appear to be comparable with those of commercial hardware correlators, but with several nontrivial advantages related to its flexibility, low cost, and easy adaptability to future developments of PC and data acquisition technology.
Quantum correlations in Newtonian space and time: arbitrarily fast communication or nonlocality
Gisin, Nicolas
2013-03-01
Experimental violations of Bell inequalities using space-like separated measurements precludes the explanation of quantum correlations through causal influences propagating at subluminal speed. Yet, ``everything looks as if the two parties somehow communicate behind the scene.'' We investigate the assumption that they do so at a speed faster than light, though finite. Such an assumption doesn't respect the spirit of Einstein relativity. However, it is not crystal clear that such ``communication behind the scene'' would contradict relativity. Indeed, one could imagine that this communication remains for ever hidden to humans, i.e. that it could not be controlled by humans, only Nature exploits it to produce correlations that can't be explained by usual common causes. To define faster than light hidden communication requires a universal privileged reference frame in which this faster than light speed is defined. Again, such a universal privileged frame is not in the spirit of relativity, but it is also clearly not in contradiction: for example the reference frame in which the cosmic microwave background radiation is isotropic defines such a privileged frame. Hence, a priori, a hidden communication explanation is not more surprising than nonlocality. We prove that for any finite speed, such models predict correlations that can be exploited for faster-than-light communication. This superluminal communication doesn't require access to any hidden physical quantities, but only the manipulation of measurement devices at the level of our present-day description of quantum experiments. Consequently, all possible explanations of quantum correlations that satisfy the principle of continuity, which states that everything propagates gradually and continuously through space and time, or in other words, all combination of local common causes and direct causes that reproduce quantum correlations, lead to faster than light communication. Accordingly, either there is superluminal
SU-F-R-20: Image Texture Features Correlate with Time to Local Failure in Lung SBRT Patients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andrews, M; Abazeed, M; Woody, N; Stephans, K; Videtic, G; Xia, P; Zhuang, T [The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To explore possible correlation between CT image-based texture and histogram features and time-to-local-failure in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).Methods and Materials: From an IRB-approved lung SBRT registry for patients treated between 2009–2013 we selected 48 (20 male, 28 female) patients with local failure. Median patient age was 72.3±10.3 years. Mean time to local failure was 15 ± 7.1 months. Physician-contoured gross tumor volumes (GTV) on the planning CT images were processed and 3D gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) based texture and histogram features were calculated in Matlab. Data were exported to R and a multiple linear regression model was used to examine the relationship between texture features and time-to-local-failure. Results: Multiple linear regression revealed that entropy (p=0.0233, multiple R2=0.60) from GLCM-based texture analysis and the standard deviation (p=0.0194, multiple R2=0.60) from the histogram-based features were statistically significantly correlated with the time-to-local-failure. Conclusion: Image-based texture analysis can be used to predict certain aspects of treatment outcomes of NSCLC patients treated with SBRT. We found entropy and standard deviation calculated for the GTV on the CT images displayed a statistically significant correlation with and time-to-local-failure in lung SBRT patients.
SU-F-R-20: Image Texture Features Correlate with Time to Local Failure in Lung SBRT Patients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrews, M; Abazeed, M; Woody, N; Stephans, K; Videtic, G; Xia, P; Zhuang, T
2016-01-01
Purpose: To explore possible correlation between CT image-based texture and histogram features and time-to-local-failure in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).Methods and Materials: From an IRB-approved lung SBRT registry for patients treated between 2009–2013 we selected 48 (20 male, 28 female) patients with local failure. Median patient age was 72.3±10.3 years. Mean time to local failure was 15 ± 7.1 months. Physician-contoured gross tumor volumes (GTV) on the planning CT images were processed and 3D gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) based texture and histogram features were calculated in Matlab. Data were exported to R and a multiple linear regression model was used to examine the relationship between texture features and time-to-local-failure. Results: Multiple linear regression revealed that entropy (p=0.0233, multiple R2=0.60) from GLCM-based texture analysis and the standard deviation (p=0.0194, multiple R2=0.60) from the histogram-based features were statistically significantly correlated with the time-to-local-failure. Conclusion: Image-based texture analysis can be used to predict certain aspects of treatment outcomes of NSCLC patients treated with SBRT. We found entropy and standard deviation calculated for the GTV on the CT images displayed a statistically significant correlation with and time-to-local-failure in lung SBRT patients.
Svensson, Kjell; Alricsson, Marie; Eckerman, Mattias; Magounakis, Theofilos; Werner, Suzanne
2016-06-01
Injuries to the hamstring muscles are common in athletes. Track and field, Australian football, American football and soccer are examples of sports where hamstring injuries are the most common. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between a hamstring injury prognosis and its characteristics of imaging parameters. The literature search was performed in the databases PubMed and CINAHL, and eleven articles were included. Seven out of the 11 articles showed a correlation between the size of the hamstring injury and length of time required before returning to sports. Different authors have reported contrasting results about length of time required before returning to sports due to location of injury within specific muscle. Majority of the articles found hamstring strain correlated to an extended amount of time required before returning to sports.
Fauser, Sascha; Muether, Philipp S
2016-11-01
To determine clinical correlations to intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) suppression times (VSTs) on the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) with ranibizumab (Lucentis) or aflibercept (Eylea). Seven of 89 treatment-naïve nAMD eyes showed persistent choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) activity throughout a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)-driven pro re nata (PRN) regimen of intravitreal ranibizumab injections over 28±4 months. The treatment was switched to PRN aflibercept injections and patients were followed for another 15±2 months. A total of 160 aqueous humour specimens were collected before the intravitreal injections, and their VEGF-A concentrations were assayed by Luminex multiplex bead analysis (Luminex, Austin, Texas, USA). Intraocular VEGF-A concentrations were correlated to CNV activity shown by SD-OCT. The mean duration of suppression of VEGF-A concentrations in aqueous humour below the lower limit of quantification of our assay was 34±5 (26-69) days for ranibizumab and 67±14 (49-89) days for aflibercept (p<0.001). The percentual reduction of central retinal volume (CRV) 6 weeks after injection was higher for aflibercept compared with ranibizumab (p=0.009). The time point of clinical re-activity occurred about 50% earlier than the respective VST for each ranibizumab and aflibercept. The VST under aflibercept treatment exceeded that under ranibizumab treatment by a factor of 2. This difference correlated with differential clinical CRV reduction 6 weeks after the respective injection. For both medications, clinical activity was found at a time point as early as 50% of the individual VST. NCT01213667, post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Correlation of financial markets in times of crisis
Sandoval, Leonidas; Franca, Italo De Paula
2012-01-01
Using the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of correlations matrices of some of the main financial market indices in the world, we show that high volatility of markets is directly linked with strong correlations between them. This means that markets tend to behave as one during great crashes. In order to do so, we investigate financial market crises that occurred in the years 1987 (Black Monday), 1998 (Russian crisis), 2001 (Burst of the dot-com bubble and September 11), and 2008 (Subprime Mortgage Crisis), which mark some of the largest downturns of financial markets in the last three decades.
Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Liu; Chen, Yuxia; Zou, Huijing; Su, Yonggang; Fan, Xiuzhen
2016-01-25
Career maturity is an important parameter as nursing undergraduates prepare for their future careers. However, little is known regarding the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity among nursing undergraduates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of career maturity and its relationship with attributions and future time perspective. A cross-sectional survey was designed. This survey was administered to 431 Chinese nursing undergraduates. Independent-sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA were performed to examine the mean differences between categories of binary and categorical demographic characteristics, respectively. Pearson correlations and multiple linear regressions were used to test the relationships between attributions, future time perspective and career maturity. The degree of career maturity was moderate among nursing undergraduates and that internal attributions of academic achievement, future efficacy and future purpose consciousness were positively associated with career maturity (all p time perspective and to facilitate their transition from school to clinical practice.
Lu, Fengbin; Qiao, Han; Wang, Shouyang; Lai, Kin Keung; Li, Yuze
2017-01-01
This paper proposes a new time-varying coefficient vector autoregressions (VAR) model, in which the coefficient is a linear function of dynamic lagged correlation. The proposed model allows for flexibility in choices of dynamic correlation models (e.g. dynamic conditional correlation generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) models, Markov-switching GARCH models and multivariate stochastic volatility models), which indicates that it can describe many types of time-varying causal effects. Time-varying causal relations between West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil and the US Standard and Poor's 500 (S&P 500) stock markets are examined by the proposed model. The empirical results show that their causal relations evolve with time and display complex characters. Both positive and negative causal effects of the WTI on the S&P 500 in the subperiods have been found and confirmed by the traditional VAR models. Similar results have been obtained in the causal effects of S&P 500 on WTI. In addition, the proposed model outperforms the traditional VAR model. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marks, Gary N.
2016-01-01
Multi-domain and longitudinal studies of student achievement routinely find moderate to strong correlations across achievement domains and even stronger within-domain correlations over time. The purpose of this study is to examine the sources of these patterns analysing student achievement in 5 domains across Years 3, 5 and 7. The analysis is of…
Laib, Mohamed; Telesca, Luciano; Kanevski, Mikhail
2018-02-01
In this paper, we study the periodic fluctuations of connectivity density time series of a wind speed-monitoring network in Switzerland. By using the correlogram-based robust periodogram annual periodic oscillations were found in the correlation-based network. The intensity of such annual periodic oscillations is larger for lower correlation thresholds and smaller for higher. The annual periodicity in the connectivity density seems reasonably consistent with the seasonal meteo-climatic cycle.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ono, Junichi [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Takada, Shoji [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); Department of Biophysics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Saito, Shinji, E-mail: shinji@ims.ac.jp [Department of Theoretical and Computational Molecular Science, Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Okazaki 444-8585 (Japan)
2015-06-07
An analytical method based on a three-time correlation function and the corresponding two-dimensional (2D) lifetime spectrum is developed to elucidate the time-dependent couplings between the multi-timescale (i.e., hierarchical) conformational dynamics in heterogeneous systems such as proteins. In analogy with 2D NMR, IR, electronic, and fluorescence spectroscopies, the waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra can provide a quantitative description of the dynamical correlations between the conformational motions with different lifetimes. The present method is applied to intrinsic conformational changes of substrate-free adenylate kinase (AKE) using long-time coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the hierarchical conformational dynamics arise from the intra-domain structural transitions among conformational substates of AKE by analyzing the one-time correlation functions and one-dimensional lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances corresponding to single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer experiments with the use of the principal component analysis. In addition, the complicated waiting-time dependence of the off-diagonal peaks in the 2D lifetime spectra for the donor-acceptor distances is attributed to the fact that the time evolution of the couplings between the conformational dynamics depends upon both the spatial and temporal characters of the system. The present method is expected to shed light on the biological relationship among the structure, dynamics, and function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, Yongxiu; Wang, Bing; Wang, Jianhui; Xiong, Wei; Xia, Tian
2013-01-01
To establish a reasonable system and mechanism for Chinese energy prices, we use the Granger causality test, Hodrick–Prescott (HP) filter and time difference analysis to research the pricing relationship between Chinese and international energy prices. We find that Chinese and international crude oil prices changed synchronously while Chinese refined oil prices follow the changes of international oil prices with the time difference being about 1 month to 2 months. Further, Australian coal prices Granger causes Chinese coal prices, and there is a high correlation between them. The U.S. electricity price is influenced by the WTI crude oil price, the U.S. gasoline price and the HenryHub gas price. Due to the unreasonable price-setting mechanism and regulation from the central government, China′s terminal market prices for both electricity and natural gas do not reflect the real supply–demand situation. This paper provides quantitative results on the correlation between Chinese and international energy prices to better predict the impact of international energy price fluctuations on China′s domestic energy supply and guide the design of more efficient energy pricing policies. Moreover, it provides references for developing countries to improve their energy market systems and trading, and to coordinate domestic and international energy markets. -- Highlights: •The Hodrick-Prescott filter and time difference analysis are used to research the correlation among energy prices. •Our study finds that the U.S. and British refined oil prices Granger cause the Chinese refined oil price. •Both Chinese and the Australian coal prices play an important role in the international coal market. •The Chinese terminal electric power and terminal natural gas prices are not highly correlated. •The results are useful for guiding the design of more efficient energy pricing policies in China
Max-Moerbeck, W.; Richards, J. L.; Hovatta, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.
2014-11-01
We present a practical implementation of a Monte Carlo method to estimate the significance of cross-correlations in unevenly sampled time series of data, whose statistical properties are modelled with a simple power-law power spectral density. This implementation builds on published methods; we introduce a number of improvements in the normalization of the cross-correlation function estimate and a bootstrap method for estimating the significance of the cross-correlations. A closely related matter is the estimation of a model for the light curves, which is critical for the significance estimates. We present a graphical and quantitative demonstration that uses simulations to show how common it is to get high cross-correlations for unrelated light curves with steep power spectral densities. This demonstration highlights the dangers of interpreting them as signs of a physical connection. We show that by using interpolation and the Hanning sampling window function we are able to reduce the effects of red-noise leakage and to recover steep simple power-law power spectral densities. We also introduce the use of a Neyman construction for the estimation of the errors in the power-law index of the power spectral density. This method provides a consistent way to estimate the significance of cross-correlations in unevenly sampled time series of data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berthier, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-10-01
The purpose of this work is to elaborate a specific computer able to display the real.time correlation function of two variables represented by two electrical signals. The various functions to be done are dealt with the best suited technology: delays from numerical method, hybrid multiplication, analog integration. This method proved very versatile so that it has been possible to modify the circuits with more performing components without changing the general conception of the whole system. In particular, the bandwidth, which was originally 125 kHz (1966) is now 1 MHz and will be 5 MHz, January 1968. Many results are obtained from the correlator such as: - determination of pulse responses of linear systems (1. and 2. order filters, oscillating circuits); - extraction of signals from noise; - measurement of time and space correlation in a turbulent plasma; - treatment of electro-biological signals. (author) [French] Nous nous sommes proposes de concevoir un calculateur specialise pour l'estimation en temps reel de la fonction de correlation de deux phenomenes representes par deux tensions electriques. Il a ete retenu les procedes de calcul s'adaptant le mieux aux diverses fonctions a realiser: retard par une technique numerique, multiplication hybride, integration analogique. Cette methode s'est revelee tres souple d'emploi: en effet les circuits ont pu etre modifies, sans changer la conception de l'appareil, au fur et a mesure de l'evolution des performances des composants electroniques. Ainsi la bande passante de l'appareil qui initialement etait de 125 KHz (1966) est actuellement de 1 MHz et sera 5 MHz en janvier 1968. De nombreux resultats ont ete obtenus avec l'appareil: - determination de reponses impulsionnelles de systemes lineaires (filtres 1er ordre, 2eme ordre, circuit oscillant, etc... ); - detection de signaux dans le bruit; - mesure de correlation spatiale et temporelle dans le plasma - traitement de signaux
In situ detection of warfarin using time-correlated single-photon counting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosengren, Annika M.; Karlsson, Bjoern C.G. [Bioorganic and Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory, School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden); Naeslund, Inga; Andersson, Per Ola [Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, CBRN Defence and Security, SE-901 82 Umea (Sweden); Nicholls, Ian A., E-mail: ian.a.nicholls@bioorg.uu.se [Bioorganic and Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory, School of Natural Sciences, Linnaeus University, SE-391 82 Kalmar (Sweden); Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry Laboratory, Uppsala University, SE-751 23 Uppsala (Sweden)
2011-04-01
Highlights: {yields} Direct in situ measurement of specific isomeric forms of the anticoagulant warfarin. {yields} TCSPC spectroscopy in conjunction with synthetic Sudlow I binding site receptors. {yields} Development of sensor principle for use in clinical and environmental monitoring. -- Abstract: Here we report on a novel method for the direct in situ measurement of specific isomeric forms of the anticoagulant warfarin using time correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) spectroscopy in conjunction with synthetic Sudlow I binding site receptors. The method is highly robust over the clinically significant concentration range, and demonstrates the potential of the binding site mimics in conjunction with the spectroscopic strategy employed here for the determination of this important pharmaceutical in clinical or even environmental samples.
In situ detection of warfarin using time-correlated single-photon counting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosengren, Annika M.; Karlsson, Bjoern C.G.; Naeslund, Inga; Andersson, Per Ola; Nicholls, Ian A.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Direct in situ measurement of specific isomeric forms of the anticoagulant warfarin. → TCSPC spectroscopy in conjunction with synthetic Sudlow I binding site receptors. → Development of sensor principle for use in clinical and environmental monitoring. -- Abstract: Here we report on a novel method for the direct in situ measurement of specific isomeric forms of the anticoagulant warfarin using time correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) spectroscopy in conjunction with synthetic Sudlow I binding site receptors. The method is highly robust over the clinically significant concentration range, and demonstrates the potential of the binding site mimics in conjunction with the spectroscopic strategy employed here for the determination of this important pharmaceutical in clinical or even environmental samples.
Cycling in São Paulo, Brazil (1997–2012: Correlates, time trends and health consequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thiago Hérick Sá
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to describe cyclists and cycling trips, and to explore correlates, time trends and health consequences of cycling in São Paulo, Brazil from 1997 to 2012. Cross-sectional analysis using repeated São Paulo Household Travel Surveys (HTS. At all time periods cycling was a minority travel mode in São Paulo (1174 people with cycling trips out of 214,719 people. Poisson regressions for individual correlates were estimated using the entire 2012 HTS sample. Men were six times more likely to cycle than women. We found rates of bicycle use rising over time among the richest quartile but total cycling rates dropped from 1997 to 2012 due to decreasing rates among the poor. Harms from air pollution would negate benefits from physical activity through cycling only at 1997 air pollution levels and at very high cycling levels (≥9 h of cycling per day. Exposure-based road injury risk decreased between 2007 and 2012, from 0.76 to 0.56 cyclist deaths per 1000 person-hours travelled. Policies to reduce spatial segregation, measures to tackle air pollution, improvements in dedicated cycling infrastructure, and integrating the bicycle with the public transport system in neighborhoods of all income levels could make cycling safer and prevent more individuals from abandoning the cycling mode in São Paulo.
Gu, Huaying; Liu, Zhixue; Weng, Yingliang
2017-04-01
The present study applies the multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) with spatial effects approach for the analysis of the time-varying conditional correlations and contagion effects among global real estate markets. A distinguishing feature of the proposed model is that it can simultaneously capture the spatial interactions and the dynamic conditional correlations compared with the traditional MGARCH models. Results reveal that the estimated dynamic conditional correlations have exhibited significant increases during the global financial crisis from 2007 to 2009, thereby suggesting contagion effects among global real estate markets. The analysis further indicates that the returns of the regional real estate markets that are in close geographic and economic proximities exhibit strong co-movement. In addition, evidence of significantly positive leverage effects in global real estate markets is also determined. The findings have significant implications on global portfolio diversification opportunities and risk management practices.
Molteni, Matteo; Ferri, Fabio
2016-11-01
A 10 ns time resolution, multi-tau software correlator, capable of computing simultaneous autocorrelation (A-A, B-B) and cross (A-B) correlation functions at count rates up to ˜10 MHz, with no data loss, has been developed in LabVIEW and C++ by using the National Instrument timer/counterboard (NI PCIe-6612) and a fast Personal Computer (PC) (Intel Core i7-4790 Processor 3.60 GHz ). The correlator works by using two algorithms: for large lag times (τ ≳ 1 μs), a classical time-mode scheme, based on the measure of the number of pulses per time interval, is used; differently, for τ ≲ 1 μs a photon-mode (PM) scheme is adopted and the correlation function is retrieved from the sequence of the photon arrival times. Single auto- and cross-correlation functions can be processed online in full real time up to count rates of ˜1.8 MHz and ˜1.2 MHz, respectively. Two autocorrelation (A-A, B-B) and a cross correlation (A-B) functions can be simultaneously processed in full real time only up to count rates of ˜750 kHz. At higher count rates, the online processing takes place in a delayed modality, but with no data loss. When tested with simulated correlation data and latex spheres solutions, the overall performances of the correlator appear to be comparable with those of commercial hardware correlators, but with several nontrivial advantages related to its flexibility, low cost, and easy adaptability to future developments of PC and data acquisition technology.
Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M; Crouter, Ann C
2012-11-01
The development and adjustment correlates of parent-child social (parent, child, and others present) and dyadic time (only parent and child present) from age 8 to 18 were examined. Mothers, fathers, and firstborns and secondborns from 188 White families participated in both home and nightly phone interviews. Social time declined across adolescence, but dyadic time with mothers and fathers peaked in early and middle adolescence, respectively. In addition, secondborns' social time declined more slowly than firstborns', and gendered time use patterns were more pronounced in boys and in opposite-sex sibling dyads. Finally, youths who spent more dyadic time with their fathers, on average, had higher general self-worth, and changes in social time with fathers were positively linked to changes in social competence. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
LeBlanc, Allana G; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Barreira, Tiago V; Broyles, Stephanie T; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Church, Timothy S; Fogelholm, Mikael; Harrington, Deirdre M; Hu, Gang; Kuriyan, Rebecca; Kurpad, Anura; Lambert, Estelle V; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Matsudo, Victor; Olds, Timothy; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L; Standage, Martyn; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Zhao, Pei; Tremblay, Mark S
2015-01-01
Previously, studies examining correlates of sedentary behavior have been limited by small sample size, restricted geographic area, and little socio-cultural variability. Further, few studies have examined correlates of total sedentary time (SED) and screen time (ST) in the same population. This study aimed to investigate correlates of SED and ST in children around the world. The sample included 5,844 children (45.6% boys, mean age = 10.4 years) from study sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Child- and parent-reported behavioral, household, and neighborhood characteristics and directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were obtained. Twenty-one potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel models, adjusting for sex, age, and highest parental education, with school and study site as random effects. Variables that were moderately associated with SED and/or ST in univariate analyses (pcomputer in the bedroom. In this global sample many common correlates of SED and ST were identified, some of which are easily modifiable (e.g., removing TV from the bedroom), and others that may require more intense behavioral interventions (e.g., increasing physical activity). Future work should incorporate these findings into the development of culturally meaningful public health messages.
Leider, Jonathon P; Shah, Gulzar H; Castrucci, Brian C; Leep, Carolyn J; Sellers, Katie; Sprague, James B
2014-11-01
State and local public health department infrastructure in the U.S. was impacted by the 2008 economic recession. The nature and impact of these staffing changes have not been well characterized, especially for the part-time public health workforce. To estimate the number of part-time workers in state and local health departments (LHDs) and examine the correlates of change in the part-time LHD workforce between 2008 and 2013. We used workforce data from the 2008 and 2013 National Association of County and City Health Officials (n=1,543) and Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (n=24) profiles. We employed a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the possible and plausible proportion of the workforce that was part-time, over various assumptions. Next, we employed a multinomial regression assessing correlates of the change in staffing composition among LHDs, including jurisdiction and organizational characteristics, as well measures of community involvement. Nationally representative estimates suggest that the local public health workforce decreased from 191,000 to 168,000 between 2008 and 2013. During that period, the part-time workforce decreased from 25% to 20% of those totals. At the state level, part-time workers accounted for less than 10% of the total workforce among responding states in 2013. Smaller and multi-county jurisdictions employed relatively more part-time workers. This is the first study to create national estimates regarding the size of the part-time public health workforce and estimate those changes over time. A relatively small proportion of the public health workforce is part-time and may be decreasing. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harrington, Cuan M; Bresler, Richard; Ryan, Donncha; Dicker, Patrick; Traynor, Oscar; Kavanagh, Dara O
2018-04-01
The ability of characteristics to predict first time performance in laparoscopic tasks is not well described. Videogame experience predicts positive performance in laparoscopic experiences but its mechanism and confounding-association with aptitude remains to be elucidated. This study sought to evaluate for innate predictors of laparoscopic performance in surgically naive individuals with minimal videogame exposure. Participants with no prior laparoscopic exposure and minimal videogaming experience were recruited consecutively from preclinical years at a medical university. Participants completed four visuospatial, one psychomotor aptitude test and an electronic survey, followed by four laparoscopic tasks on a validated Virtual Reality simulator (LAP Mentor™). Twenty eligible individuals participated with a mean age of 20.8 (±3.8) years. Significant intra-aptitude performance correlations were present amongst 75% of the visuospatial tests. These visuospatial aptitudes correlated significantly with multiple laparoscopic task metrics: number of movements of a dominant instrument (r s ≥ -0.46), accuracy rate of clip placement (r s ≥ 0.50) and time taken (r s ≥ -0.47) (p < 0.05). Musical Instrument experience predicted higher average speed of instruments (r s ≥ 0.47) (p < 0.05). Participant's revised competitive index level predicted lower proficiency in laparoscopic metrics including: pathlength, economy and number of movements of dominant instrument (r s ≥ 0.46) (p < 0.05). Multiple visuospatial aptitudes and innate competitive level influenced baseline laparoscopic performances across several tasks in surgically naïve individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
On the linearity of cross-correlation delay times
Mercerat, E. D.; Nolet, G.
2012-12-01
We investigate the question whether a P-wave delay time Δ T estimated by locating the maximum of the cross-correlation function between data d(t) and a predicted test function s(t): γ (t) = ∫ t1t_2 s(τ ) d(τ -t) \\ {d}τ, provides an estimate of the Delta T that is (quasi-)linear with the relative velocity perturbation deltaln V_P}. Such linearity is intuitive if the data d(t) is an undeformed but delayed replica of the test signal, i.e. if d(t)=s(t-Delta T). Then the maximum of gamma (t) is shifted exactly by the delay Delta T, and linearity holds even for Delta T very large. In this case, we say that the body waves are in the ray theoretical regime and their delays, because of Fermat's Principle, depend quasi-linearly on the relative velocity (or slowness) perturbations deltaln V_P in the model. However, even if we correct for dispersion induced by the instrument response and by attenuation, body waves may show frequency dependent delay times that are caused by diffraction effects around lateral heterogeneities. It is not a-priori clear that linearity holds for Delta T, as is assumed in finite-frequency theory, if the waveforms of d(t) and s(t) differ substantially because of such dispersion. To test the linearity, we generate synthetic seismograms between two boreholes, and between the boreholes and the surface, in a 3D box of 200 × 120 × 120 m. The heterogeneity is a checkerboard with cubic anomalies of size 12 × 12 × 12 m. We test two different anomaly amplitudes: ± 2% and ± 5%, and measure Delta T using a test seismogram s(t) computed for an homogeneous medium. We also predict the delays for the 5% model from those in the 2% model by multiplying with 5/2. These predictions are in error by 10-20% of the delay, which is usually acceptable for tomography when compared with actual data errors. A slight bias in the prediction indicates that the Wielandt effect - the fact that negative delays suffer less wavefront healing than positive delays - is a
Time-correlated pulse-height measurements of low-multiplying nuclear materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, E.C., E-mail: ericcm@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Dolan, J.L.; Clarke, S.D.; Pozzi, S.A. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Tomanin, A.; Peerani, P. [European Commission EC-JRC-IPSC, Ispra (Italy); Marleau, P. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States); Mattingly, J.K. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)
2013-11-21
Methods for the determination of the subcritical neutron multiplication of nuclear materials are of interest in the field of nuclear nonproliferation and safeguards. A series of measurements were performed at the Joint Research Center facility in Ispra, Italy to investigate the possibility of using a time-correlated pulse-height (TCPH) analysis to estimate the sub-critical multiplication of nuclear material. The objective of the measurements was to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique, and to benchmark the simulation capabilities of MCNPX-PoliMi/MPPost. In this campaign, two low-multiplication samples were measured: a 1-kg mixed oxide (MOX) powder sample and several low-mass plutonium–gallium (PuGa) disks. The measured results demonstrated that the sensitivity of the TCPH technique could not clearly distinguish samples with very-low levels of multiplication. However, the simulated TCPH distributions agree well with the measured data, within 12% for all cases, validating the simulation capabilities of MCNPX-PoliMi/MPPost. To investigate the potential of the TCPH method for identifying high-multiplication samples, the validated MCNPX-PoliMi/MPPost codes were used to simulate sources of higher multiplications. Lastly, a characterization metric, the cumulative region integral (CRI), was introduced to estimate the level of multiplication in a source. However, this response was shown to be insensitive over the range of multiplications of interest. -- Highlights: •Present results of measurements of MOX fuel and PuGa disks. •Compared measurement results to simulations performed using MCNPX-Polimi and MPPost. •Investigated using correlated γ–n pairs to determine the multiplication of a system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horovitz, Yossi.
1994-01-01
Experimentally and theoretically it was found that there is a correlation between tile pulse rise time and the amount of charge that is collected in the detector contacts. As the rise time becomes longer less charge is collected. In this thesis it has been proven that one can find from this correlation, with the aid of a mathematical function, the theoretical amount of charge that has to be collected in the contacts if no trapping took place. This mathematical function called the correction function, f(t), is dependent on the rise time and the material quality (the trap concentration). In order to find the correction function, a computer, simulation was written. This computer program simulates, based on a phenomenological theoretical model, the charge collection in the detector. This model depends on three parameters (for the holes and for the electrons) that characterized the charge collection quality of the detector. The parameters are: the mean free time to be trapped, the detrapping time and the transit time that depends on the electric field. By a comparison between the simulation output and experimental data, these parameters were found. The correction function was found to be linear with rise time. This conclusion is confirmed experimentally. In this work experiments have been carried out that measured the correlation between two parameters. These experiments measured, for each photon that interacts with the detector, the pulse rise time and the pulse amplitude. A computer program accepts these spectra and substitute each element in the correction function and corrects for the incomplete charge collection. It was found that the correction function does not depend on the energy of the radiation source and source-detector geometry but depends on the material quality. The application of the correction function to the two dimensional spectra gives a correction of tens of percents in charge collection and provides an improvement in the resolution and the peak
Xue, Weilin Lynn; He, Hong-Gu; Chua, Ying Jie; Wang, Wenru; Shorey, Shefaly
2018-03-20
To examine factors influencing first-time fathers' involvement in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth in Singapore. A cross-sectional descriptive correlational study was conducted in a public tertiary hospital in Singapore. A total of 182 first-time fathers whose wives were hospitalized at four obstetric wards were recruited from November 2015 to January 2016. Data were collected by three newly developed and validated instruments, namely Father's Involvement in Pregnancy and Childbirth, Father's Informational and Sources of Support, and Father's Attitude Towards Involvement in Pregnancy and Childbirth, as well as the 16-item Couple Satisfaction Index and Family of Origin Questionnaire. The participants were generally involved in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth, with 35.2% being highly involved. There was no significant difference in fathers' levels of involvement between or among any sociodemographic subgroups. Significant Spearman's correlations were found between fathers' levels of involvement and levels of informational support as well as fathers' attitudes towards involvement. However, the logistic regression showed the level of informational support was the only significant factor that influenced first-time fathers' high levels of involvement in their wives' pregnancy and childbirth. The study revealed the importance of providing sufficient informational support to first-time fathers so that they can be highly involved in their wife's pregnancy and childbirth. Future studies can develop technology-based intervention programmes to improve fathers' involvement in their wife's pregnancy and childbirth. Healthcare professionals should examine and improve the existing informational support for first-time fathers and ensure its relevance and convenient access. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A generic, time-resolved, integrated digital image correlation, identification approach
Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Neggers, J.; Blaysat, Benoît; Hild, François; Geers, M.G.D.; Jin, H.; Sciammarella, C.; Yoshida, S.; Lamberti, L.
2015-01-01
A generic one-step Integrated Digital Image Correlation (I-DIC) inverse parameter identification approach is introduced that enables direct identification of constitutive model parameters by intimately integrating a Finite Elements Method (FEM) with Digital Image Correlation (DIC), directly
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria eHerrojo Ruiz
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Unintentional timing deviations during musical performance can be conceived of as timing errors. However, recent research on humanizing computer-generated music has demonstrated that timing fluctuations that exhibit long-range temporal correlations (LRTC are preferred by human listeners. This preference can be accounted for by the ubiquitous presence of LRTC in human tapping and rhythmic performances. Interestingly, the manifestation of LRTC in tapping behavior seems to be driven in a subject-specific manner by the LRTC properties of resting-state background cortical oscillatory activity. In this framework, the current study aimed to investigate whether propagation of timing deviations during the skilled, memorized piano performance (without metronome of 17 professional pianists exhibits LRTC and whether the structure of the correlations is influenced by the presence or absence of auditory feedback.As an additional goal, we set out to investigate the influence of altering the dynamics along the cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamo-cortical network via deep brain stimulation (DBS on the LRTC properties of musical performance. Specifically, we investigated temporal deviations during the skilled piano performance of a non-professional pianist who was treated with subthalamic-deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS due to severe Parkinson's disease, with predominant tremor affecting his right upper extremity. In the tremor-affected right hand, the timing fluctuations of the performance exhibited random correlations with DBS OFF. By contrast, DBS restored long-range dependency in the temporal fluctuations, corresponding with the general motor improvement on DBS.Overall, the present investigations are the first to demonstrate the presence of LRTC in skilled piano performances, indicating that unintentional temporal deviations are correlated over a wide range of time scales. This phenomenon is stable after removal of the auditory feedback, but is altered by STN
Time-to-digital converter for a time-correlation analyzer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumpf, S.
1979-01-01
An electronic circuit operating as a time-to-digital converter is described. It receives pulses from eight n-detectors on eight input channels which are converted into the first half of a 16-bit word. The work called 'label' is indicating the channel on which an event has arrived. Contemporarily a crystal controlled four stage 4-bit binary counter gives the time when the event arrives expressed in the form of a second 16-bit work called 'time'. These two words are fed via a FIFO-buffer and a DMA-control to a very fast minicomputer Miproc 16 from Plessey-Micro-Systems with a cycle time of 250 ns. The circuit is built in TTL-technique on two double Europa-format cards and is built into the card bay of the Miproc 16 and acts as a peripheral device
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Line Meldgaard; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben
2017-01-01
The application of time-domain induced polarization (TDIP) is increasing with advances in acquisition techniques, data processing and spectral inversion schemes. An inversion of TDIP data for the spectral Cole-Cole parameters is a non-linear problem, but by applying a 1-D Markov Chain Monte Carlo......-shaped probability distributions with a single maximum, show that the Cole-Cole parameters can be resolved from TDIP data if an acquisition range above two decades in time is applied. Linear correlations between the Cole-Cole parameters are observed and by decreasing the acquisitions ranges, the correlations...
Scanless nonlinear optical microscope for image reconstruction and space-time correlation analysis
Ceffa, N. G.; Radaelli, F.; Pozzi, P.; Collini, M.; Sironi, L.; D'alfonso, L.; Chirico, G.
2017-06-01
Optical Microscopy has been applied to life science from its birth and reached widespread application due to its major advantages: limited perturbation of the biological tissue and the easy accessibility of the light sources. However, as the spatial and time resolution requirements and the time stability of the microscopes increase, researchers are struggling against some of its limitations: limited transparency and the refractivity of the living tissue to light and the field perturbations induced by the path in the tissue. We have developed a compact stand-alone, completely scan-less, optical setup that allows to acquire non-linear excitation images and to measure the sample dynamics simultaneously on an ensemble of arbitrary chosen regions of interests. The image is obtained by shining a square array of spots on the sample obtained by a spatial light modulator and by shifting it (10 ms refresh time) on the sample. The final image is computed from the superposition of (100-1000) images. Filtering procedures can be applied to the raw images of the excitation array before building the image. We discuss results that show how this setup can be used for the correction of wave front aberrations induced by turbid samples (such as living tissues) and for the computation of space-time cross-correlations in complex networks.
Curtis, Ashlee; Coomber, Kerri; Hyder, Shannon; Droste, Nic; Pennay, Amy; Jenkinson, Rebecca; Mayshak, Richelle; Miller, Peter G
2016-10-01
Drink driving is a significant public health concern, and contributes to many road fatalities worldwide. The current study is the first to examine the prevalence and correlates of drink driving behavior in a sample of night-time entertainment precinct attendees in Australia. Interviews were conducted with 4214 night-time entertainment precinct attendees in two metropolitan and three regional cities in Australia. Seven correlates of self-reported drink driving were examined: gender, age, occupation, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), alcohol consumed prior to attending a licensed venue, energy drink consumption, and other drug consumption. Fourteen percent of night-time entertainment precinct attendees reported drink driving in the past three months. Bivariate logistic regression models indicated that males were significantly more likely than females to report drink driving in the past three months. Blue-collar workers and sales/clerical/administrative workers were significantly more likely to report drink driving behavior in the past three months than white-collar workers. The likelihood of reporting drink driving during the three months prior to interview significantly increased as BAC on the current night out increased, and when patrons reported engaging in pre-drinking or other drug use. The multivariate model presented a similar pattern of results, however BAC and pre-drinking on the night of the interview were no longer independent significant predictors. Males, blue collar/sales/clerical/administrative workers, and illicit drug consumers were more likely to report engaging in drink driving behavior than their counterparts. Interventions should focus on addressing the considerable proportion night-time entertainment precinct attendees who report engaging in drink driving behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kuperman, Victor; Drieghe, Denis; Keuleers, Emmanuel; Brysbaert, Marc
2013-01-01
We assess the amount of shared variance between three measures of visual word recognition latencies: eye movement latencies, lexical decision times, and naming times. After partialling out the effects of word frequency and word length, two well-documented predictors of word recognition latencies, we see that 7-44% of the variance is uniquely shared between lexical decision times and naming times, depending on the frequency range of the words used. A similar analysis of eye movement latencies shows that the percentage of variance they uniquely share either with lexical decision times or with naming times is much lower. It is 5-17% for gaze durations and lexical decision times in studies with target words presented in neutral sentences, but drops to 0.2% for corpus studies in which eye movements to all words are analysed. Correlations between gaze durations and naming latencies are lower still. These findings suggest that processing times in isolated word processing and continuous text reading are affected by specific task demands and presentation format, and that lexical decision times and naming times are not very informative in predicting eye movement latencies in text reading once the effect of word frequency and word length are taken into account. The difference between controlled experiments and natural reading suggests that reading strategies and stimulus materials may determine the degree to which the immediacy-of-processing assumption and the eye-mind assumption apply. Fixation times are more likely to exclusively reflect the lexical processing of the currently fixated word in controlled studies with unpredictable target words rather than in natural reading of sentences or texts.
Laracuente, Nicholas; Grossman, Carl
2013-03-01
We developed an algorithm and software to calculate autocorrelation functions from real-time photon-counting data using the fast, parallel capabilities of graphical processor units (GPUs). Recent developments in hardware and software have allowed for general purpose computing with inexpensive GPU hardware. These devices are more suited for emulating hardware autocorrelators than traditional CPU-based software applications by emphasizing parallel throughput over sequential speed. Incoming data are binned in a standard multi-tau scheme with configurable points-per-bin size and are mapped into a GPU memory pattern to reduce time-expensive memory access. Applications include dynamic light scattering (DLS) and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) experiments. We ran the software on a 64-core graphics pci card in a 3.2 GHz Intel i5 CPU based computer running Linux. FCS measurements were made on Alexa-546 and Texas Red dyes in a standard buffer (PBS). Software correlations were compared to hardware correlator measurements on the same signals. Supported by HHMI and Swarthmore College
Koyuncu, Hakan; Serefoglu, Ege Can; Karacay, Safak; Ozdemir, Ahmet Tunc; Kalkan, Mehmet; Yencilek, Faruk
2014-01-01
Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most common male sexual dysfunction. Monosymptomatic enuresis (ME) is nocturnal bed wetting, without any daytime symptoms. Recent clinical studies report an association between lifelong PE and ME. The purpose of this study was to compare the intravaginal ejaculatory time (IELT) between lifelong PE in men with and without ME. The goal was to determine if there is an association between the severity of ME and of IELT. A total of 137 men with lifelong PE were included in this study. Subjects were asked if they had childhood ME. The characteristics and mean IELTs of patients with and without ME were compared using the student's t-test, and the correlation between severity of ME and IELT was assessed with trend test. Of the 137 lifelong PE patients, 57 reported ME. There was a strong negative correlation in patients with ME between the severity of enuresis and IELT, with IELT being shorter in patients with severe ME. A strong correlation between IELT and the severity of ME suggests a common underlying mechanism. Further studies are required to confirm these findings and elucidate the exact pathophysiology.
Understanding volatility correlation behavior with a magnitude cross-correlation function
Jun, Woo Cheol; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan
2006-06-01
We propose an approach for analyzing the basic relation between correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations by decomposing the original signal into its positive and negative fluctuation components. We use this relation to understand the following phenomenon found in many naturally occurring time series: the magnitude of the signal exhibits long-range correlation, whereas the original signal is short-range correlated. The applications of our approach to heart rate variability signals and high-frequency foreign exchange rates reveal that the difference between the correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations is induced by the time organization structure of the correlation function between the magnitude fluctuations of positive and negative components. We show that this correlation function can be described well by a stretched-exponential function and is related to the nonlinearity and the multifractal structure of the signals.
Understanding volatility correlation behavior with a magnitude cross-correlation function.
Jun, Woo Cheol; Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan
2006-06-01
We propose an approach for analyzing the basic relation between correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations by decomposing the original signal into its positive and negative fluctuation components. We use this relation to understand the following phenomenon found in many naturally occurring time series: the magnitude of the signal exhibits long-range correlation, whereas the original signal is short-range correlated. The applications of our approach to heart rate variability signals and high-frequency foreign exchange rates reveal that the difference between the correlation properties of the original signal and its magnitude fluctuations is induced by the time organization structure of the correlation function between the magnitude fluctuations of positive and negative components. We show that this correlation function can be described well by a stretched-exponential function and is related to the nonlinearity and the multifractal structure of the signals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tilli, K.J.
1982-01-01
The significance of the correlation in the statistical analysis of reverse Fourier neutron time-of-flight observations has been evaluated by applying different methods of estimation to diffraction patterns containing peaks with Gaussian line shapes. Effects of the correlation between adjacent channels of a spectrum arise both from the incorrect weighting of the experiment's independent variables and from the misinterpretation of the number of independent observations in the data. The incorrect weighting bears the greatest effects on the width parameter of a Gaussian profile, and it leads to an increase in the relative weights of the broadest peaks of the diffraction pattern. If the correlation is ignored in the analysis, the estimates obtained for the parameters of a model will not be exactly the same as those evaluated from the minimum variance estimation, in which the correlation is taken into account. However, the differences will not be statistically significant. Nevertheless, the standard deviations will then be underestimated typically by a factor of two, which will have serious consequences on every aspect of the statistical inference. (orig.)
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gruber, Jan
2011-01-01
Roč. 56, č. 2 (2011), s. 185-205 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : correlation dimension * time-embeddings * chaos Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics
A study of pile-up in integrated time-correlated single photon counting systems.
Arlt, Jochen; Tyndall, David; Rae, Bruce R; Li, David D-U; Richardson, Justin A; Henderson, Robert K
2013-10-01
Recent demonstration of highly integrated, solid-state, time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) systems in CMOS technology is set to provide significant increases in performance over existing bulky, expensive hardware. Arrays of single photon single photon avalanche diode (SPAD) detectors, timing channels, and signal processing can be integrated on a single silicon chip with a degree of parallelism and computational speed that is unattainable by discrete photomultiplier tube and photon counting card solutions. New multi-channel, multi-detector TCSPC sensor architectures with greatly enhanced throughput due to minimal detector transit (dead) time or timing channel dead time are now feasible. In this paper, we study the potential for future integrated, solid-state TCSPC sensors to exceed the photon pile-up limit through analytic formula and simulation. The results are validated using a 10% fill factor SPAD array and an 8-channel, 52 ps resolution time-to-digital conversion architecture with embedded lifetime estimation. It is demonstrated that pile-up insensitive acquisition is attainable at greater than 10 times the pulse repetition rate providing over 60 dB of extended dynamic range to the TCSPC technique. Our results predict future CMOS TCSPC sensors capable of live-cell transient observations in confocal scanning microscopy, improved resolution of near-infrared optical tomography systems, and fluorescence lifetime activated cell sorting.
Harmonic spectral components in time sequences of Markov correlated events
Mazzetti, Piero; Carbone, Anna
2017-07-01
The paper concerns the analysis of the conditions allowing time sequences of Markov correlated events give rise to a line power spectrum having a relevant physical interest. It is found that by specializing the Markov matrix in order to represent closed loop sequences of events with arbitrary distribution, generated in a steady physical condition, a large set of line spectra, covering all possible frequency values, is obtained. The amplitude of the spectral lines is given by a matrix equation based on a generalized Markov matrix involving the Fourier transform of the distribution functions representing the time intervals between successive events of the sequence. The paper is a complement of a previous work where a general expression for the continuous power spectrum was given. In that case the Markov matrix was left in a more general form, thus preventing the possibility of finding line spectra of physical interest. The present extension is also suggested by the interest of explaining the emergence of a broad set of waves found in the electro and magneto-encephalograms, whose frequency ranges from 0.5 to about 40Hz, in terms of the effects produced by chains of firing neurons within the complex neural network of the brain. An original model based on synchronized closed loop sequences of firing neurons is proposed, and a few numerical simulations are reported as an application of the above cited equation.
Improved efficiency of maximum likelihood analysis of time series with temporally correlated errors
Langbein, John
2017-08-01
Most time series of geophysical phenomena have temporally correlated errors. From these measurements, various parameters are estimated. For instance, from geodetic measurements of positions, the rates and changes in rates are often estimated and are used to model tectonic processes. Along with the estimates of the size of the parameters, the error in these parameters needs to be assessed. If temporal correlations are not taken into account, or each observation is assumed to be independent, it is likely that any estimate of the error of these parameters will be too low and the estimated value of the parameter will be biased. Inclusion of better estimates of uncertainties is limited by several factors, including selection of the correct model for the background noise and the computational requirements to estimate the parameters of the selected noise model for cases where there are numerous observations. Here, I address the second problem of computational efficiency using maximum likelihood estimates (MLE). Most geophysical time series have background noise processes that can be represented as a combination of white and power-law noise, 1/f^{α } with frequency, f. With missing data, standard spectral techniques involving FFTs are not appropriate. Instead, time domain techniques involving construction and inversion of large data covariance matrices are employed. Bos et al. (J Geod, 2013. doi: 10.1007/s00190-012-0605-0) demonstrate one technique that substantially increases the efficiency of the MLE methods, yet is only an approximate solution for power-law indices >1.0 since they require the data covariance matrix to be Toeplitz. That restriction can be removed by simply forming a data filter that adds noise processes rather than combining them in quadrature. Consequently, the inversion of the data covariance matrix is simplified yet provides robust results for a wider range of power-law indices.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maedler, P.
1984-01-01
The review describes the application of the time-dependent Hartree--Fock method to the description of heavy-ion interactions at energies of order 10 MeV/nucleon. The fundamentals of the method are presented and qualitative properties of its results are discussed. Realistic calculations of fusion reactions, deep inelastic collisions, and particle emission are presented and compared with the corresponding experimental data. Various approaches that generalize the method by taking into account correlations are considered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambrose, W.P.; Goodwin, P.M.; Martin, J.C.; Keller, R.A.
1994-01-01
Pulsed excitation, time correlated single photon counting and time gated detection are used in near-field optical microscopy to enhance fluorescence images and measure the fluorescence lifetimes of single molecules of Rhodamine 6G on silica surfaces. Time gated detection is used to reject prompt scattered background and to improve the image signal to noise ratio. The excited state lifetime of a single Rhodamine 6G molecule is found to depend on the position of the near-field probe. We attribute the lifetime variations to spontaneous emission rate alterations by the fluorescence reflected from and quenching by the aluminum coated probe
Frassetto, Lynda A; Tan-Tam, Clara C; Barin, Burc; Browne, Matt; Wolfe, Alan R; Stock, Peter G; Roland, Michelle; Benet, Leslie Z
2014-03-27
Interactions between antiretrovirals (ARVs) and transplant immunosuppressant agents (IS) among HIV-infected transplant recipients may lead to lack of efficacy or toxicity. In transplant recipients not infected with HIV, tacrolimus (TAC) trough levels (C0) or cyclosporine (CsA) drawn at C0 or 2 hours after dosing (C2) correlate with drug exposure (area under the curve [AUC]/dose) and outcomes. Because of ARV-IS interactions in HIV-infected individuals, and the high rate of rejection in these subjects, this study investigated the correlations between IS concentrations and exposure to determine the best method to monitor immunosuppressant levels. This study prospectively studied 50 HIV-infected transplant recipients undergoing kidney or liver transplantation evaluating the pharmacokinetics of the IS in 150 studies over time after transplantation (weeks 2 to 4, 12, 28, 52, and 104). IS levels were measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and AUC calculated using WinNonlin 9.0. Correlation analyses were run on SAS 9.2. CsA concentration at C4 correlated better with AUC than C0 or C2, and over time TAC concentration correlated better at C0 or C2. It is suggested that C0 is acceptable for TAC monitoring, but poor predictability will occur at C0 with CsA. The low correlation of C0 with CsA AUC could be responsible for the higher rejection rates on CsA that has been reported in these subjects.
Time correlation in two-photon decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hrasko, P.
1979-11-01
The relative time distribution of the photons emitted in a second order non-cascade process b→a+2γ is investigated under the assumption that only those photon pairs are detected which were emitted a sufficiently long time after the preparation of the decaying state. An anticorrelation between the photons is found and attributed to the propagation of one of the photons backward in time. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirvonen, Liisa M.; Le Marois, Alix; Suhling, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.suhling@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Becker, Wolfgang; Smietana, Stefan [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Milnes, James; Conneely, Thomas [Photek Ltd., 26 Castleham Rd, Saint Leonards-on-Sea TN38 9NS (United Kingdom); Jagutzki, Ottmar [Institut für Kernphysik, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt (Germany)
2016-08-15
We perform wide-field time-correlated single photon counting-based fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) with a crossed delay line anode image intensifier, where the pulse propagation time yields the photon position. This microchannel plate-based detector was read out with conventional fast timing electronics and mounted on a fluorescence microscope with total internal reflection (TIR) illumination. The picosecond time resolution of this detection system combines low illumination intensity of microwatts with wide-field data collection. This is ideal for fluorescence lifetime imaging of cell membranes using TIR. We show that fluorescence lifetime images of living HeLa cells stained with membrane dye di-4-ANEPPDHQ exhibit a reduced lifetime near the coverslip in TIR compared to epifluorescence FLIM.
Martins, Paula; Ferreira, Cid Sergio; Cunha-Melo, José Renan
2018-03-01
The aim of this study was to determine the esophageal transit time in control individuals and in chagasic patients with or without megaesophagus.A total of 148 patients were allocated in 6 groups according to serological diagnostic of Chagas disease and the degree of esophageal dilatation: A, control healthy individuals (n = 34, 22.9%); B, indeterminate form (n = 23, 15.5%); C, megaesophagus I (n = 37, 25.0%); D, megaesophagus II (n = 19, 12.8%); E, megaesophagus III (n = 21, 14.2%); and F, megaesophagus IV (n = 14, 9.5%). After 8-hour fasting, patients were asked to swallow 75 mL of barium sulfate solution. x-Rays were obtained after 8, 30, 60, and 90 seconds, 5, 10, 30, 60, and 90 minutes, 2, 6, 12, 24 hours, and at every 12 hours until no more contrast was seen in the esophagus. This was the transit time.The transit time varied from 8 seconds to 36 hours (median = 90 seconds). A linear correlation was observed between transit time and megaesophagus grade: 8 seconds in groups A and B, 5 minutes in C, 30 minutes in D, 2 hours in E, and 9:15 hours in F. Dysphagia was not reported by 60 of 114 (52.6%) patients with positive serological tests for Chagas disease (37/91-40.7%-of patients with megaesophagus I-IV grades). The esophageal transit time increased with the grade of megaesophagus.The esophageal transit time has a direct correlation with the grade of megaesophagus; dysphagia complaint correlates with the grade of megaesophagus. However, many patients with megaesophagus do not report dysphagia.
Modeling conditional correlations of asset returns
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo
2015-01-01
In this paper we propose a new multivariate GARCH model with time-varying conditional correlation structure. The time-varying conditional correlations change smoothly between two extreme states of constant correlations according to a predetermined or exogenous transition variable. An LM-test is d......In this paper we propose a new multivariate GARCH model with time-varying conditional correlation structure. The time-varying conditional correlations change smoothly between two extreme states of constant correlations according to a predetermined or exogenous transition variable. An LM......-test is derived to test the constancy of correlations and LM- and Wald tests to test the hypothesis of partially constant correlations. Analytical expressions for the test statistics and the required derivatives are provided to make computations feasible. An empirical example based on daily return series of five...
Hood, R.; Woodroffe, J. R.; Morley, S.; Aruliah, A. L.
2017-12-01
Using the CHAMP fluxgate magnetometer to calculate field-aligned current (FAC) densities and magnetic latitudes, with SuperMAG ground magnetometers analogously providing ground geomagnetic disturbances (GMD) magnetic perturbations and latitudes, we probe FAC locations and strengths as predictors of GMD locations and strengths. We also study the relationships between solar wind drivers and global magnetospheric activity, and both FACs and GMDs using IMF Bz and the Sym-H index. We present an event study of the 22-29 July 2004 storm time interval, which had particularly large GMDs given its storm intensity. We find no correlation between FAC and GMD magnitudes, perhaps due to CHAMP orbit limitations or ground magnetometer coverage. There is, however, a correlation between IMF Bz and nightside GMD magnitudes, supportive of their generation via tail reconnection. IMF Bz is also correlated with dayside FAC and GMD magnetic latitudes, indicating solar wind as an initial driver. The ring current influence increases during the final storm, with improved correlations between the Sym-H index and both FAC magnetic latitudes and GMD magnitudes. Sym-H index correlations may only be valid for higher intensity storms; a statistical analysis of many storms is needed to verify this.
Expansion and Compression of Time Correlate with Information Processing in an Enumeration Task.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andreas Wutz
Full Text Available Perception of temporal duration is subjective and is influenced by factors such as attention and context. For example, unexpected or emotional events are often experienced as if time subjectively expands, suggesting that the amount of information processed in a unit of time can be increased. Time dilation effects have been measured with an oddball paradigm in which an infrequent stimulus is perceived to last longer than standard stimuli in the rest of the sequence. Likewise, time compression for the oddball occurs when the duration of the standard items is relatively brief. Here, we investigated whether the amount of information processing changes when time is perceived as distorted. On each trial, an oddball stimulus of varying numerosity (1-14 items and duration was presented along with standard items that were either short (70 ms or long (1050 ms. Observers were instructed to count the number of dots within the oddball stimulus and to judge its relative duration with respect to the standards on that trial. Consistent with previous results, oddballs were reliably perceived as temporally distorted: expanded for longer standard stimuli blocks and compressed for shorter standards. The occurrence of these distortions of time perception correlated with perceptual processing; i.e. enumeration accuracy increased when time was perceived as expanded and decreased with temporal compression. These results suggest that subjective time distortions are not epiphenomenal, but reflect real changes in sensory processing. Such short-term plasticity in information processing rate could be evolutionarily advantageous in optimizing perception and action during critical moments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Faming Zhang
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The prediction of travel times is challenging because of the sparseness of real-time traffic data and the intrinsic uncertainty of travel on congested urban road networks. We propose a new gradient–boosted regression tree method to accurately predict travel times. This model accounts for spatiotemporal correlations extracted from historical and real-time traffic data for adjacent and target links. This method can deliver high prediction accuracy by combining simple regression trees with poor performance. It corrects the error found in existing models for improved prediction accuracy. Our spatiotemporal gradient–boosted regression tree model was verified in experiments. The training data were obtained from big data reflecting historic traffic conditions collected by probe vehicles in Wuhan from January to May 2014. Real-time data were extracted from 11 weeks of GPS records collected in Wuhan from 5 May 2014 to 20 July 2014. Based on these data, we predicted link travel time for the period from 21 July 2014 to 25 July 2014. Experiments showed that our proposed spatiotemporal gradient–boosted regression tree model obtained better results than gradient boosting, random forest, or autoregressive integrated moving average approaches. Furthermore, these results indicate the advantages of our model for urban link travel time prediction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. R. Ilma
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A correlation of the ionospheric electric field and the time derivative of the magnetic field was noticed over thirty years ago and has yet to be explained. Here we report on another set of examples during the superstorm of November 2004. The electric field in the equatorial ionosphere, measured with the Jicamarca incoherent scatter radar, exhibited a 3 mV/m electric field pulse that was not seen in the interplanetary medium. It was, however, accompanied by a correlation with the time derivative of the magnetic field measured at two points in Peru. Our inclination was to assume that the field was inductive. However, the time scale of the pulse was too short for the magnetic field to penetrate the crust of the Earth. This means that the area threaded by ∂B/∂t was too small to create the observed electric field by induction. We suggest that the effect was caused by a modulation of the ring current location relative to the Earth due to the electric field. This electric field is required, as the magnetic field lines are considered frozen into the plasma in the magnetosphere. The closer location of the ring current to the Earth in turn increased the magnetic field at the surface.
Estimation of error on the cross-correlation, phase and time lag between evenly sampled light curves
Misra, R.; Bora, A.; Dewangan, G.
2018-04-01
Temporal analysis of radiation from Astrophysical sources like Active Galactic Nuclei, X-ray Binaries and Gamma-ray bursts provides information on the geometry and sizes of the emitting regions. Establishing that two light-curves in different energy bands are correlated, and measuring the phase and time-lag between them is an important and frequently used temporal diagnostic. Generally the estimates are done by dividing the light-curves into large number of adjacent intervals to find the variance or by using numerically expensive simulations. In this work we have presented alternative expressions for estimate of the errors on the cross-correlation, phase and time-lag between two shorter light-curves when they cannot be divided into segments. Thus the estimates presented here allow for analysis of light-curves with relatively small number of points, as well as to obtain information on the longest time-scales available. The expressions have been tested using 200 light curves simulated from both white and 1 / f stochastic processes with measurement errors. We also present an application to the XMM-Newton light-curves of the Active Galactic Nucleus, Akn 564. The example shows that the estimates presented here allow for analysis of light-curves with relatively small (∼ 1000) number of points.
Pan, Z. H.; Wang, C. B.; Wang, Yuming; Xue, X. H.
2011-06-01
It is generally believed that gradual solar energetic particles (SEPs) are accelerated by shocks associated with coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Using an ice-cream cone model, the radial speed and angular width of 95 CMEs associated with SEP events during 1998 - 2002 are calculated from SOHO/LASCO observations. Then, we investigate the relationships between the kinematic properties of these CMEs and the characteristic times of the intensity-time profile of their accompanied SEP events observed at 1 AU. These characteristic times of SEP are i) the onset time from the accompanying CME eruption at the Sun to the SEP arrival at 1 AU, ii) the rise time from the SEP onset to the time when the SEP intensity is one-half of peak intensity, and iii) the duration over which the SEP intensity is within a factor of two of the peak intensity. It is found that the onset time has neither significant correlation with the radial speed nor with the angular width of the accompanying CME. For events that are poorly connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have no significant correlation with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. However, for events that are magnetically well connected to the Earth, the SEP rise time and duration have significantly positive correlations with the radial speed and angular width of the associated CMEs. This indicates that a CME event with wider angular width and higher speed may more easily drive a strong and wide shock near to the Earth-connected interplanetary magnetic field lines, may trap and accelerate particles for a longer time, and may lead to longer rise time and duration of the ensuing SEP event.
Li, Jia; Tian, Yonghong; Gao, Wen
2008-01-01
In recent years, the amount of streaming video has grown rapidly on the Web. Often, retrieving these streaming videos offers the challenge of indexing and analyzing the media in real time because the streams must be treated as effectively infinite in length, thus precluding offline processing. Generally speaking, captions are important semantic clues for video indexing and retrieval. However, existing caption detection methods often have difficulties to make real-time detection for streaming video, and few of them concern on the differentiation of captions from scene texts and scrolling texts. In general, these texts have different roles in streaming video retrieval. To overcome these difficulties, this paper proposes a novel approach which explores the inter-frame correlation analysis and wavelet-domain modeling for real-time caption detection in streaming video. In our approach, the inter-frame correlation information is used to distinguish caption texts from scene texts and scrolling texts. Moreover, wavelet-domain Generalized Gaussian Models (GGMs) are utilized to automatically remove non-text regions from each frame and only keep caption regions for further processing. Experiment results show that our approach is able to offer real-time caption detection with high recall and low false alarm rate, and also can effectively discern caption texts from the other texts even in low resolutions.
Correlation Functions and Power Spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jan
2006-01-01
The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions...... and spectra for discrete-time and continuous-time (analog) signals are pretty similar. Consequently, we confine the discussion mainly to real discrete-time signals. The Appendix contains detailed definitions and properties of correlation functions and spectra for analog as well as discrete-time signals....... It is possible to define correlation functions and associated spectra for aperiodic, periodic and random signals although the interpretation is different. Moreover, we will discuss correlation functions when mixing these basic signal types. In addition, the note include several examples for the purpose...
Self-calibrated correlation imaging with k-space variant correlation functions.
Li, Yu; Edalati, Masoud; Du, Xingfu; Wang, Hui; Cao, Jie J
2018-03-01
Correlation imaging is a previously developed high-speed MRI framework that converts parallel imaging reconstruction into the estimate of correlation functions. The presented work aims to demonstrate this framework can provide a speed gain over parallel imaging by estimating k-space variant correlation functions. Because of Fourier encoding with gradients, outer k-space data contain higher spatial-frequency image components arising primarily from tissue boundaries. As a result of tissue-boundary sparsity in the human anatomy, neighboring k-space data correlation varies from the central to the outer k-space. By estimating k-space variant correlation functions with an iterative self-calibration method, correlation imaging can benefit from neighboring k-space data correlation associated with both coil sensitivity encoding and tissue-boundary sparsity, thereby providing a speed gain over parallel imaging that relies only on coil sensitivity encoding. This new approach is investigated in brain imaging and free-breathing neonatal cardiac imaging. Correlation imaging performs better than existing parallel imaging techniques in simulated brain imaging acceleration experiments. The higher speed enables real-time data acquisition for neonatal cardiac imaging in which physiological motion is fast and non-periodic. With k-space variant correlation functions, correlation imaging gives a higher speed than parallel imaging and offers the potential to image physiological motion in real-time. Magn Reson Med 79:1483-1494, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Allana G LeBlanc
Full Text Available Previously, studies examining correlates of sedentary behavior have been limited by small sample size, restricted geographic area, and little socio-cultural variability. Further, few studies have examined correlates of total sedentary time (SED and screen time (ST in the same population. This study aimed to investigate correlates of SED and ST in children around the world.The sample included 5,844 children (45.6% boys, mean age = 10.4 years from study sites in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Finland, India, Kenya, Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Child- and parent-reported behavioral, household, and neighborhood characteristics and directly measured anthropometric and accelerometer data were obtained. Twenty-one potential correlates of SED and ST were examined using multilevel models, adjusting for sex, age, and highest parental education, with school and study site as random effects. Variables that were moderately associated with SED and/or ST in univariate analyses (p<0.10 were included in the final models. Variables that remained significant in the final models (p<0.05 were considered correlates of SED and/or ST.Children averaged 8.6 hours of daily SED, and 54.2% of children failed to meet ST guidelines. In all study sites, boys reported higher ST, were less likely to meet ST guidelines, and had higher BMI z-scores than girls. In 9 of 12 sites, girls engaged in significantly more SED than boys. Common correlates of higher SED and ST included poor weight status, not meeting physical activity guidelines, and having a TV or a computer in the bedroom.In this global sample many common correlates of SED and ST were identified, some of which are easily modifiable (e.g., removing TV from the bedroom, and others that may require more intense behavioral interventions (e.g., increasing physical activity. Future work should incorporate these findings into the development of culturally meaningful public health
Liu, P.; Archuleta, R.J.; Hartzell, S.H.
2006-01-01
We present a new method for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion based on a hybrid low-frequency/high-frequency approach with correlated source parameters. Using a finite-difference method we calculate low- frequency synthetics (structure. We also compute broadband synthetics in a 1D velocity model using a frequency-wavenumber method. The low frequencies from the 3D calculation are combined with the high frequencies from the 1D calculation by using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. The source description, common to both the 1D and 3D synthetics, is based on correlated random distributions for the slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time on the fault. This source description allows for the specification of source parameters independent of any a priori inversion results. In our broadband modeling we include correlation between slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time, as suggested by dynamic fault modeling. The method of using correlated random source parameters is flexible and can be easily modified to adjust to our changing understanding of earthquake ruptures. A realistic attenuation model is common to both the 3D and 1D calculations that form the low- and high-frequency components of the broadband synthetics. The value of Q is a function of the local shear-wave velocity. To produce more accurate high-frequency amplitudes and durations, the 1D synthetics are corrected with a randomized, frequency-dependent radiation pattern. The 1D synthetics are further corrected for local site and nonlinear soil effects by using a 1D nonlinear propagation code and generic velocity structure appropriate for the site’s National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The entire procedure is validated by comparison with the 1994 Northridge, California, strong ground motion data set. The bias and error found here for response spectral acceleration are similar to the best results that have been published by
Time Reversibility, Correlation Decay and the Steady State Fluctuation Relation for Dissipation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denis J. Evans
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Steady state fluctuation relations for nonequilibrium systems are under intense investigation because of their important practical implications in nanotechnology and biology. However the precise conditions under which they hold need clarification. Using the dissipation function, which is related to the entropy production of linear irreversible thermodynamics, we show time reversibility, ergodic consistency and a recently introduced form of correlation decay, called T-mixing, are sufficient conditions for steady state fluctuation relations to hold. Our results are not restricted to a particular model and show that the steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation function holds near or far from equilibrium subject to these conditions. The dissipation function thus plays a comparable role in nonequilibrium systems to thermodynamic potentials in equilibrium systems.
Bader, Feras M; Rogers, R Kevin; Kfoury, Abdallah G; Gilbert, Edward M; Horne, Ben D; Stehlik, Josef; Renlund, Dale G
2009-01-01
Endomyocardial biopsy is the gold standard to diagnose cardiac allograft rejection, although a noninvasive modality such as brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is attractive. The authors examined the correlation of BNP levels with rejection patterns and allograft function in cardiac allograft recipients followed up to 8 years. One hundred forty-four consecutive patients underwent endomyocardial biopsy, right heart catheterization, and blood sampling. BNP levels decreased during the first 6 months after transplant but then reached a plateau. Time-dependent correlations were made between BNP levels and allograft rejection, left ventricular ejection fraction, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, right atrial pressure, and serum creatinine. BNP levels were not different between patients with any rejection pattern and no rejection prior to or after 6 months following transplant. BNP levels did not correlate with ejection fraction, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, right atrial pressure, or creatinine in the first 6 months after transplant. Statistically significant correlations existed between BNP and these parameters after 6 months following transplant. In cardiac transplant recipients, BNP levels decrease in the first 6 months following transplant and then reach a plateau regardless of the presence, type, or severity of allograft rejection. BNP levels do predict allograft rejection but correlate with allograft function after 6 months following transplant.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Hamila, R.; Gabbouj, M.
1998-01-01
A new correlation function called the Teager correlation function is introduced in this paper. The connection between this function, the Teager energy operator and the conventional correlation function is established. Two applications are presented. The first is the minimization of the Teager error...... norm and the second one is the use of the instantaneous Teager correlation function for simultaneous estimation of TDOA and FDOA (Time and Frequency Difference of Arrivals)....
Pereverzev, Andrey; Sewell, Tommy
2018-03-01
Lattice heat-current time correlation functions for insulators and semiconductors obtained using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations exhibit features of both pure exponential decay and oscillatory-exponential decay. For some materials the oscillatory terms contribute significantly to the lattice heat conductivity calculated from the correlation functions. However, the origin of the oscillatory terms is not well understood, and their contribution to the heat conductivity is accounted for by fitting them to empirical functions. Here, a translationally invariant expression for the heat current in terms of creation and annihilation operators is derived. By using this full phonon-picture definition of the heat current and applying the relaxation-time approximation we explain, at least in part, the origin of the oscillatory terms in the lattice heat-current correlation function. We discuss the relationship between the crystal Hamiltonian and the magnitude of the oscillatory terms. A solvable one-dimensional model is used to illustrate the potential importance of terms that are omitted in the commonly used phonon-picture expression for the heat current. While the derivations are fully quantum mechanical, classical-limit expressions are provided that enable direct contact with classical quantities obtainable from MD.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goswami, Gurupada; Majee, Pradip; Bag, Bidhan Chandra [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235 (India); Barik, Debashis [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)
2006-09-15
In this paper we have studied upper bound of time derivative of information entropy for colored cross-correlated noise driven open systems. The upper bound is calculated based on the Fokker-Planck equation and the Schwartz inequality principle. Our results consider the effect of the noise correlation strength and correlation time due to the correlation between additive and multiplicative white noises on the upper bound as well as relaxation time. The interplay of deterministic and random forces reveals extremal nature of the upper bound and its deviation from the time derivative of information entropy. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huffman, P.R.; Roberson, N.R.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.
1993-01-01
In 1988, Bunakov proposed a test of parity (P) even time reversal (T) violation in the neighborhood of two interfering p-wave resonances of the same spin. A similar enhancement exists if a d-wave and s-wave resonance interfere. Until now, however, no suitable resonances have been located in nuclei which can be aligned, and the only tests of time reversal violation in neutron transmission have been carried out with MeV-energy neutrons. The authors estimate the deformation effect cross sections for neutron resonances in aligned 165 Ho, and estimate the sensitivity of a five-fold correlation time reversal test carried out on a resonance that exhibits a deformation effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinenghi, E., E-mail: edoardo.martinenghi@polimi.it; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Sanzaro, M. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Pifferi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2016-07-15
We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm{sup 2} together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinenghi, E.; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Dalla Mora, A.; Sanzaro, M.; Pifferi, A.
2016-01-01
We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm"2 together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).
Statistical model of exotic rotational correlations in emergent space-time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hogan, Craig; Kwon, Ohkyung; Richardson, Jonathan
2017-06-06
A statistical model is formulated to compute exotic rotational correlations that arise as inertial frames and causal structure emerge on large scales from entangled Planck scale quantum systems. Noncommutative quantum dynamics are represented by random transverse displacements that respect causal symmetry. Entanglement is represented by covariance of these displacements in Planck scale intervals defined by future null cones of events on an observer's world line. Light that propagates in a nonradial direction inherits a projected component of the exotic rotational correlation that accumulates as a random walk in phase. A calculation of the projection and accumulation leads to exact predictions for statistical properties of exotic Planck scale correlations in an interferometer of any configuration. The cross-covariance for two nearly co-located interferometers is shown to depart only slightly from the autocovariance. Specific examples are computed for configurations that approximate realistic experiments, and show that the model can be rigorously tested.
Barnoud, Anne; Coutant, Olivier; Bouligand, Claire; Massin, Frédérick; Stehly, Laurent
2015-04-01
We image the volcanic island of Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, using both earthquake travel times and noise correlations. (1) A new earthquake catalog was recently compiled for the Lesser Antilles by the CDSA/OVSG/IPGP (Massin et al., EGU General Assembly 2014) and allows us to perform classical travel time tomography to obtain smooth 3D body wave velocity models. The geometrical configuration of the volcanic arc controls the resolution of the model in our zone of interest. (2) Surface wave tomography using noise correlations was successfully applied to volcanoes (Brenguier et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 2007). We use seismic noise recorded at 16 broad-band stations and 9 short-period stations from Basse-Terre over a period of six years (2007-2012). For each station pair, we extract a dispersion curve from the noise correlation to get surface wave velocity models. The inversion of the dispersion curves produces a 3D S-wave velocity model of the island. The spatial distribution of seismic stations accross the island is highly heterogeneous, leading to higher resolution near the dome of the Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano. Resulting velocity models are compared with densities obtained by 3D inversion of gravimetric data (Barnoud et al., AGU Fall Meeting 2013). Further work should include simultaneous inversion of seismic and gravimetric datasets to overcome resolution limitations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nilsson, Andreas; Andersen, Lars Bo; Ommundsen, Yngvar
2009-01-01
-report. Independent associations between self-reported correlates with percent time in MVPA and percent time sedentary were analysed by general linear models, adjusted by age, gender, country, measurement period, monitored days and parental socio-economic status. RESULTS: In 9-year-olds, playing outdoors after school...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.; Cao, L.; Wu, D.J.
2003-01-01
We present an analytic investigation of the mean first passage time in two opposite directions (from the left well to the right well and from right to left) by studying symmetrical bistable systems driven by correlated Gaussian white noises, and prove that the mean first passage time in two opposite directions is not symmetrical any more when noises are correlated. As examples, the mean first passage time in the quartic bistable model and the sawtooth bistable model are calculated, respectively. From the analytic results of the mean first passage time, we testify further the relation T(from x - to x + ,λ)≠T(from x + to x - ,λ) in the same area of the parameter plan. Moreover, it is found that the dependences of T + (i.e., T(from x - to x + ,λ)) and T - (i.e., T(from x + to x - ,λ)) upon the multiplicative noise intensity Q and the additive noise intensity D exhibit entirely different properties. For same areas of the parameter plan: in the quartic bistable system, when the T + vs. Q curve exhibits a maximum, while the T - vs. Q curve is monotonous; when the T + vs. D curve is monotonous, while the T - vs. D curve experiences a phase transition from decreasing monotonously to possessing one minimum. Increasing Q, when the T + vs. D curve experiences a phase transition from decreasing monotonously to possessing one maximum, while the T - vs. D curve only increases monotonously. Similar behaviours also exist in the sawtooth bistable model
Le Borgne, T.; Kang, P. K.; Guihéneuf, N.; Shakas, A.; Bour, O.; Linde, N.; Dentz, M.
2015-12-01
Non-Fickian transport phenomena are observed in a wide range of scales across hydrological systems. They are generally manifested by a broad range of transit time distributions, as measured for instance in tracer breakthrough curves. However, similar transit time distributions may be caused by different origins, including broad velocity distributions, flow channeling or diffusive mass transfer [1,2]. The identification of these processes is critical for defining relevant transport models. How can we distinguish the different origins of non-Fickian transport in the field? In this presentation, we will review recent experimental developments to decipher the different causes of anomalous transport, based on tracer tests performed at different scales in cross borehole and push pull conditions, and time lapse hydrogeophysical imaging of tracer motion [3,4]. References:[1] de Anna-, P., T. Le Borgne, M. Dentz, A. M. Tartakovsky, D. Bolster, P. Davy (2013) Flow Intermittency, Dispersion and Correlated Continuous Time Random Walks in Porous Media, Phys. Rev. Lett., 110, 184502 [2] Le Borgne T., Dentz M., and Carrera J. (2008) Lagrangian Statistical Model for Transport in Highly Heterogeneous Velocity Fields. Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 090601 [3] Kang, P. K., T. Le Borgne, M. Dentz, O. Bour, and R. Juanes (2015), Impact of velocity correlation and distribution on transport in fractured media : Field evidence and theoretical model, Water Resour. Res., 51, 940-959 [4] Dorn C., Linde N., Le Borgne T., O. Bour and L. Baron (2011) Single-hole GPR reflection imaging of solute transport in a granitic aquifer Geophys. Res. Lett. Vol.38, L08401
Guérin, Charles-Antoine; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Moran, Patrick; Grilli, Annette R.; Insua, Tania L.
2018-02-01
The authors recently proposed a new method for detecting tsunamis using high-frequency (HF) radar observations, referred to as "time-correlation algorithm" (TCA; Grilli et al. Pure Appl Geophys 173(12):3895-3934, 2016a, 174(1): 3003-3028, 2017). Unlike standard algorithms that detect surface current patterns, the TCA is based on analyzing space-time correlations of radar signal time series in pairs of radar cells, which does not require inverting radial surface currents. This was done by calculating a contrast function, which quantifies the change in pattern of the mean correlation between pairs of neighboring cells upon tsunami arrival, with respect to a reference correlation computed in the recent past. In earlier work, the TCA was successfully validated based on realistic numerical simulations of both the radar signal and tsunami wave trains. Here, this algorithm is adapted to apply to actual data from a HF radar installed in Tofino, BC, for three test cases: (1) a simulated far-field tsunami generated in the Semidi Subduction Zone in the Aleutian Arc; (2) a simulated near-field tsunami from a submarine mass failure on the continental slope off of Tofino; and (3) an event believed to be a meteotsunami, which occurred on October 14th, 2016, off of the Pacific West Coast and was measured by the radar. In the first two cases, the synthetic tsunami signal is superimposed onto the radar signal by way of a current memory term; in the third case, the tsunami signature is present within the radar data. In light of these test cases, we develop a detection methodology based on the TCA, using a correlation contrast function, and show that in all three cases the algorithm is able to trigger a timely early warning.
Guérin, Charles-Antoine; Grilli, Stéphan T.; Moran, Patrick; Grilli, Annette R.; Insua, Tania L.
2018-05-01
The authors recently proposed a new method for detecting tsunamis using high-frequency (HF) radar observations, referred to as "time-correlation algorithm" (TCA; Grilli et al. Pure Appl Geophys 173(12):3895-3934, 2016a, 174(1): 3003-3028, 2017). Unlike standard algorithms that detect surface current patterns, the TCA is based on analyzing space-time correlations of radar signal time series in pairs of radar cells, which does not require inverting radial surface currents. This was done by calculating a contrast function, which quantifies the change in pattern of the mean correlation between pairs of neighboring cells upon tsunami arrival, with respect to a reference correlation computed in the recent past. In earlier work, the TCA was successfully validated based on realistic numerical simulations of both the radar signal and tsunami wave trains. Here, this algorithm is adapted to apply to actual data from a HF radar installed in Tofino, BC, for three test cases: (1) a simulated far-field tsunami generated in the Semidi Subduction Zone in the Aleutian Arc; (2) a simulated near-field tsunami from a submarine mass failure on the continental slope off of Tofino; and (3) an event believed to be a meteotsunami, which occurred on October 14th, 2016, off of the Pacific West Coast and was measured by the radar. In the first two cases, the synthetic tsunami signal is superimposed onto the radar signal by way of a current memory term; in the third case, the tsunami signature is present within the radar data. In light of these test cases, we develop a detection methodology based on the TCA, using a correlation contrast function, and show that in all three cases the algorithm is able to trigger a timely early warning.
Mackeen, Mukram; Almond, Andrew; Cumpstey, Ian; Enis, Seth C; Kupce, Eriks; Butters, Terry D; Fairbanks, Antony J; Dwek, Raymond A; Wormald, Mark R
2006-06-07
The experimental determination of oligosaccharide conformations has traditionally used cross-linkage 1H-1H NOE/ROEs. As relatively few NOEs are observed, to provide sufficient conformational constraints this method relies on: accurate quantification of NOE intensities (positive constraints); analysis of absent NOEs (negative constraints); and hence calculation of inter-proton distances using the two-spin approximation. We have compared the results obtained by using 1H 2D NOESY, ROESY and T-ROESY experiments at 500 and 700 MHz to determine the conformation of the terminal Glc alpha1-2Glc alpha linkage in a dodecasaccharide and a related tetrasaccharide. For the tetrasaccharide, the NOESY and ROESY spectra produced the same qualitative pattern of linkage cross-peaks but the quantitative pattern, the relative peak intensities, was different. For the dodecasaccharide, the NOESY and ROESY spectra at 500 MHz produced a different qualitative pattern of linkage cross-peaks, with fewer peaks in the NOESY spectrum. At 700 MHz, the NOESY and ROESY spectra of the dodecasaccharide produced the same qualitative pattern of peaks, but again the relative peak intensities were different. These differences are due to very significant differences in the local correlation times for different proton pairs across this glycosidic linkage. The local correlation time for each proton pair was measured using the ratio of the NOESY and T-ROESY cross-relaxation rates, leaving the NOESY and ROESY as independent data sets for calculating the inter-proton distances. The inter-proton distances calculated including the effects of differences in local correlation times give much more consistent results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radziszewska-Zielina Elżbieta
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The present paper uses the developed model of the influence of partnering relations on the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. On its basis, a questionnaire has been created and a preliminary survey has been conducted. The paper presents an analysis of correlations between the level of partnering relations in the context of the partnering measures indicated in the model and their influence on the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. The analysis was conducted based on the data collected in 52 construction projects. The values of the Spearman rank correlation coefficient and the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient have been calculated for the examined relations. The analysis allowed for indicating the measures of partnering whose improvement most often brings benefits with regard to the time, cost, quality and safety of implementation of construction projects. Among the 80 analysed correlations, the ones identified as strong were: 15 relations connected with the time, 8 with the cost, 5 with the quality and 1 with the safety of implementation of construction projects.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grotti, Marco, E-mail: grotti@chimica.unige.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Todoli, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Mermet, Jean Michel [Spectroscopy Forever, 01390 Tramoyes (France)
2010-02-15
The influence of the acquisition and operating parameters on time correlation between emission line intensities was investigated using axially viewed inductively coupled plasma-multichannel-based emission spectrometry and various sample introduction systems. It was found that to obtain flicker-noise limited signals, necessary to compensate for time-correlated signal fluctuations by internal standardization, the flicker-noise magnitude of the sample introduction system, the integration time and the emission line intensity had to be considered. The highest correlation between lines was observed for ultrasonic nebulization with desolvatation, the noisiest system among those considered, for which the contribution of the uncorrelated shot-noise was negligible. In contrast, for sample introduction systems characterized by lower flicker-noise levels, shot-noise led to high, non-correlated RSD values, making the internal standard method to be much less efficient. To minimize shot-noise, time correlation was improved by increasing the emission line intensities and the integration time. Improvement in repeatability did not depend only on time correlation, but also on the ratio between the relative standard deviations of the analytical and reference lines. The best signal compensation was obtained when RSD values of the reference and analytical lines were similar, which is usually obtained when the system is flicker-noise limited, while departure from similarity can lead to a degradation of repeatability when using the internal standard method. Moreover, the use of so-called robust plasma conditions, i.e. a high power (1500 W) along with a low carrier gas flow rate (0.8 L/min) improved also the compensation. Finally, high correlation and consequent improvement in repeatability by internal standardization was observed also in the presence of complex matrices (sediment and soil samples), although a matrix-induced degradation of the correlation between lines was generally
Clark, Bronwyn Kay; Sugiyama, Takemi; Healy, Genevieve N; Salmon, Jo; Dunstan, David W; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Owen, Neville
2010-09-01
Sedentary behaviors, particularly television viewing (TV) time, are associated with adverse health outcomes in adults, independent of physical activity levels. These associations are stronger and more consistent for women than for men. Multivariate regression models examined the sociodemographic correlates of 2 categories of TV time (≥ 2 hours/day and ≥ 4 hours/day); in a large, population-based sample of Australian adults (4950 men, 6001 women; mean age 48.1 years, range 25-91) who participated in the 1999/2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Some 46% of men and 40% of women watched ≥ 2 hours TV/day; 9% and 6% respectively watched ≥ 4 hours/day. For both men and women, ≥ 2 hours TV/day was associated with less than tertiary education, living outside of state capital cities, and having no paid employment. For women, mid and older age (45-64 and 65+) were also significant correlates of ≥ 2 hours TV/day. Similar patterns of association were observed in those viewing ≥ 4 hours/day. Prolonged TV time is associated with indices of social disadvantage and older age. These findings can inform the understanding of potential contextual influences and guide preventive initiatives.
Tsuchiya, Akira; Asai, Daisuke; Kang, Jeong-Hun; Mori, Takeshi; Niidome, Takuro; Katayama, Yoshiki
2012-02-15
To investigate the correlation between the counts per minute (CPM) by radioactivity assay and the phosphorylation ratio by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, we prepared 136 peptide substrates. The correlation coefficient of phosphorylation ratios to CPM was 0.77 for all samples. However, the more the numbers of positively charged amino acids increased, the more the correlation coefficient increased. Although positively charged amino acids can have an effect on the correlation results, MALDI-TOF MS analysis is a useful means for monitoring phosphorylated peptide and protein kinase activity instead of radioactivity assays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Novais, E.; Mucciolo, Eduardo R.; Baranger, Harold U.
2008-07-01
We analyze the long-time behavior of a quantum computer running a quantum error correction (QEC) code in the presence of a correlated environment. Starting from a Hamiltonian formulation of realistic noise models, and assuming that QEC is indeed possible, we find formal expressions for the probability of a given syndrome history and the associated residual decoherence encoded in the reduced density matrix. Systems with nonzero gate times (“long gates”) are included in our analysis by using an upper bound on the noise. In order to introduce the local error probability for a qubit, we assume that propagation of signals through the environment is slower than the QEC period (hypercube assumption). This allows an explicit calculation in the case of a generalized spin-boson model and a quantum frustration model. The key result is a dimensional criterion: If the correlations decay sufficiently fast, the system evolves toward a stochastic error model for which the threshold theorem of fault-tolerant quantum computation has been proven. On the other hand, if the correlations decay slowly, the traditional proof of this threshold theorem does not hold. This dimensional criterion bears many similarities to criteria that occur in the theory of quantum phase transitions.
High accurate volume holographic correlator with 4000 parallel correlation channels
Ni, Kai; Qu, Zongyao; Cao, Liangcai; Su, Ping; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan
2008-03-01
Volume holographic correlator allows simultaneously calculate the two-dimensional inner product between the input image and each stored image. We have recently experimentally implemented in VHC 4000 parallel correlation channels with better than 98% output accuracy in a single location in a crystal. The speckle modulation is used to suppress the sidelobes of the correlation patterns, allowing more correlation spots to be contained in the output plane. A modified exposure schedule is designed to ensure the hologram in each channel with unity diffraction efficiency. In this schedule, a restricted coefficient was introduced into the original exposure schedule to solve the problem that the sensitivity and time constant of the crystal will change as a time function when in high-capacity storage. An interleaving method is proposed to improve the output accuracy. By unifying the distribution of the input and stored image patterns without changing the inner products between them, this method could eliminate the impact of correlation pattern variety on calculated inner product values. Moreover, by using this method, the maximum correlation spot size is reduced, which decreases the required minimum safe clearance between neighboring spots in the output plane, allowing more spots to be parallely detected without crosstalk. The experimental results are given and analyzed.
Optical imaging through turbid media with a degenerate four wave mixing correlation time gate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sappey, A.D.
1994-01-01
A novel method for detection of ballistic light and rejection of unwanted diffusive light to image structures inside highly scattering media is demonstrated. Degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM) of a doubled YAG laser in Rhodamine 6G is used to provide an ultrafast correlation time gate to discriminate against light that has undergone multiple scattering and therefore lost memory of the structures inside the scattering medium. We present preliminary results that determine the nature of the DFWM grating, confirm the coherence time of the laser, prove the phase-conjugate nature of the signal beam, and determine the dependence of the signal (reflectivity) on dye concentration and laser intensity. Finally, we have obtained images of a test cross-hair pattern through highly turbid suspensions of whole milk in water that are opaque to the naked eye. These imaging experiments demonstrate the utility of DFWM for imaging through turbid media. Based on our results, the use of DFWM as an ultrafast time gate for the detection of ballistic light in optical mammography appears to hold great promise for improving the current state of the art
Ren, Zhiyong; Ramasamy, Ramaraja P.; Cloud-Owen, Susan Red; Yan, Hengjing; Mench, Matthew M.; Regan, John M.
2011-01-01
The relationship between anode microbial characteristics and electrochemical parameters in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) was analyzed by time-course sampling of parallel single-bottle MFCs operated under identical conditions. While voltage stabilized within 4. days, anode biofilms continued growing during the six-week operation. Viable cell density increased asymptotically, but membrane-compromised cells accumulated steadily from only 9% of total cells on day 3 to 52% at 6. weeks. Electrochemical performance followed the viable cell trend, with a positive correlation for power density and an inverse correlation for anode charge transfer resistance. The biofilm architecture shifted from rod-shaped, dispersed cells to more filamentous structures, with the continuous detection of Geobacter sulfurreducens-like 16S rRNA fragments throughout operation and the emergence of a community member related to a known phenazine-producing Pseudomonas species. A drop in cathode open circuit potential between weeks two and three suggested that uncontrolled biofilm growth on the cathode deleteriously affects system performance. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Sophie Berghoff
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MRI-based diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI visualizes the local differences in water diffusion in vivo. The prognostic value of DWI signal intensities on the source images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC maps respectively has not yet been studied in brain metastases (BM. METHODS: We included into this retrospective analysis all patients operated for single BM at our institution between 2002 and 2010, in whom presurgical DWI and BM tissue samples were available. We recorded relevant clinical data, assessed DWI signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC values and performed histopathological analysis of BM tissues. Statistical analyses including uni- and multivariate survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: 65 patients (34 female, 31 male with a median overall survival time (OS of 15 months (range 0-99 months were available for this study. 19 (29.2% patients presented with hyper-, 3 (4.6% with iso-, and 43 (66.2% with hypointense DWI. ADCmean values could be determined in 32 (49.2% patients, ranged from 456.4 to 1691.8*10⁻⁶ mm²/s (median 969.5 and showed a highly significant correlation with DWI signal intensity. DWI hyperintensity correlated significantly with high amount of interstitial reticulin deposition. In univariate analysis, patients with hyperintense DWI (5 months and low ADCmean values (7 months had significantly worse OS than patients with iso/hypointense DWI (16 months and high ADCmean values (30 months, respectively. In multivariate survival analysis, high ADCmean values retained independent statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative DWI findings strongly and independently correlate with OS in patients operated for single BM and are related to interstitial fibrosis. Inclusion of DWI parameters into established risk stratification scores for BM patients should be considered.
Delo, Caroline; Leclercq, Pol; Martins, Dimitri; Pirson, Magali
2015-08-01
The objectives of this study are to analyze the variation of the surgical time and of disposable costs per surgical procedure and to analyze the association between disposable costs and the surgical time. The registration of data was done in an operating room of a 419 bed general hospital, over a period of three months (n = 1556 surgical procedures). Disposable material per procedure used was recorded through a barcode scanning method. The average cost (standard deviation) of disposable material is €183.66 (€183.44). The mean surgical time (standard deviation) is 96 min (63). Results have shown that the homogeneity of operating time and DM costs was quite good per surgical procedure. The correlation between the surgical time and DM costs is not high (r = 0.65). In a context of Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) based hospital payment, it is important that costs information systems are able to precisely calculate costs per case. Our results show that the correlation between surgical time and costs of disposable materials is not good. Therefore, empirical data or itemized lists should be used instead of surgical time as a cost driver for the allocation of costs of disposable materials to patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolay M. Bogoliubov
2009-04-01
Full Text Available The basic model of the non-equilibrium low dimensional physics the so-called totally asymmetric exclusion process is related to the 'crystalline limit' (q → ∞ of the SU_q(2 quantum algebra. Using the quantum inverse scattering method we obtain the exact expression for the time-dependent stationary correlation function of the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process on a one dimensional lattice with the periodic boundary conditions.
Pedersen, Mangor; Omidvarnia, Amir; Zalesky, Andrew; Jackson, Graeme D
2018-06-08
Correlation-based sliding window analysis (CSWA) is the most commonly used method to estimate time-resolved functional MRI (fMRI) connectivity. However, instantaneous phase synchrony analysis (IPSA) is gaining popularity mainly because it offers single time-point resolution of time-resolved fMRI connectivity. We aim to provide a systematic comparison between these two approaches, on both temporal and topological levels. For this purpose, we used resting-state fMRI data from two separate cohorts with different temporal resolutions (45 healthy subjects from Human Connectome Project fMRI data with repetition time of 0.72 s and 25 healthy subjects from a separate validation fMRI dataset with a repetition time of 3 s). For time-resolved functional connectivity analysis, we calculated tapered CSWA over a wide range of different window lengths that were temporally and topologically compared to IPSA. We found a strong association in connectivity dynamics between IPSA and CSWA when considering the absolute values of CSWA. The association between CSWA and IPSA was stronger for a window length of ∼20 s (shorter than filtered fMRI wavelength) than ∼100 s (longer than filtered fMRI wavelength), irrespective of the sampling rate of the underlying fMRI data. Narrow-band filtering of fMRI data (0.03-0.07 Hz) yielded a stronger relationship between IPSA and CSWA than wider-band (0.01-0.1 Hz). On a topological level, time-averaged IPSA and CSWA nodes were non-linearly correlated for both short (∼20 s) and long (∼100 s) windows, mainly because nodes with strong negative correlations (CSWA) displayed high phase synchrony (IPSA). IPSA and CSWA were anatomically similar in the default mode network, sensory cortex, insula and cerebellum. Our results suggest that IPSA and CSWA provide comparable characterizations of time-resolved fMRI connectivity for appropriately chosen window lengths. Although IPSA requires narrow-band fMRI filtering, we recommend the use of
Image scale measurement with correlation filters in a volume holographic optical correlator
Zheng, Tianxiang; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan
2013-08-01
A search engine containing various target images or different part of a large scene area is of great use for many applications, including object detection, biometric recognition, and image registration. The input image captured in realtime is compared with all the template images in the search engine. A volume holographic correlator is one type of these search engines. It performs thousands of comparisons among the images at a super high speed, with the correlation task accomplishing mainly in optics. However, the inputted target image always contains scale variation to the filtering template images. At the time, the correlation values cannot properly reflect the similarity of the images. It is essential to estimate and eliminate the scale variation of the inputted target image. There are three domains for performing the scale measurement, as spatial, spectral and time domains. Most methods dealing with the scale factor are based on the spatial or the spectral domains. In this paper, a method with the time domain is proposed to measure the scale factor of the input image. It is called a time-sequential scaled method. The method utilizes the relationship between the scale variation and the correlation value of two images. It sends a few artificially scaled input images to compare with the template images. The correlation value increases and decreases with the increasing of the scale factor at the intervals of 0.8~1 and 1~1.2, respectively. The original scale of the input image can be measured by estimating the largest correlation value through correlating the artificially scaled input image with the template images. The measurement range for the scale can be 0.8~4.8. Scale factor beyond 1.2 is measured by scaling the input image at the factor of 1/2, 1/3 and 1/4, correlating the artificially scaled input image with the template images, and estimating the new corresponding scale factor inside 0.8~1.2.
Bonn, Stephanie E; Alfredsson, Lars; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Schelin, Maria E C
2016-11-01
Effective interventions are needed to increase physical activity in the general population. To target interventions, we need knowledge of insufficiently active groups in society. This study aims to identify demographic and health-related correlates of leisure-time physical inactivity in a general Scandinavian population. Study participants comprised 5734 control subjects, age 18 to 70 years, from 2 ongoing Swedish case-control studies. Participants self-reported their leisure-time physical activity level. The odds of being physically inactive were calculated using logistic regression. A total of 42% of participants were classified as physically inactive during leisure time. A lower prevalence of inactivity was associated with middle age, higher education, having previous experience of sports participation, following a low glycemic index/Mediterranean diet and having a light physical workload. A high prevalence of inactivity was associated with greater age, high body mass index, smoking, never drinking alcohol, having children, having a weak social network or lower levels of emotional support, and a low vegetable intake. Several factors were associated with leisure-time physical inactivity. Directing interventions to target groups defined by specific factors associated with physical inactivity could be an efficient way to increase activity and improve health in the general population.
A variational determination of multi-time correlation functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balian, R.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this course is to present the general features of a work recently achieved with Marcel Veneroni. Part of the methods and results were already published in previous articles, but a synthesis has now been made, and a coherent though flexible scheme for evaluating correlations has emerged. We shall illustrate the approach by an example which leads to an elaborate extension of the mean-field theory for interacting fermions. Application to finite temperatures field theories may also be considered. (author)
Correlates of prolonged television viewing time in older Japanese men and women.
Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville; Oka, Koichiro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi
2013-03-09
(OR = 1.79, 95% CI 1.21-2.65), overweight (OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.00-2.24), and low MVPA (OR = 1.51. 95% CI: 1.05-2.17) were associated with prolonged TV time. These findings identify particular socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics related to TV time among Japanese older adults. It should be noted that correlates of prolonged TV time differed by gender. Women in living situations with limited transportation options tended to spend prolonged time watching TV. Health promotion initiatives for older adults, particularly for older women, may be more effective if they take these attributes into account.
Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M
2016-10-26
Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA). The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST) in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day). The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4-11 years), 1131 adolescents (12-17 years), 8003 adults (18-64 years) and 1569 elderly (65 years and older) who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey 'Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands' between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly), male gender (adults), overweight (children), higher education (adults ≥ 30 years), urban environment (adults), chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years), sedentary work (adults), not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years) and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA) guideline (4-to-17-year-olds). Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of the relationship between identified correlates and ST.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claire M. Bernaards
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence shows that prolonged sitting is associated with an increased risk of mortality, independent of physical activity (PA. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of sedentary time (ST in different age groups and day types (i.e. school-/work day versus non-school-/non-work day. Methods The study sample consisted of 1895 Dutch children (4–11 years, 1131 adolescents (12–17 years, 8003 adults (18–64 years and 1569 elderly (65 years and older who enrolled in the Dutch continuous national survey ‘Injuries and Physical Activity in the Netherlands’ between 2006 and 2011. Respondents estimated the number of sitting hours during a regular school-/workday and a regular non-school/non-work day. Multiple linear regression analyses on cross-sectional data were used to identify correlates of ST. Results Significant positive associations with ST were observed for: higher age (4-to-17-year-olds and elderly, male gender (adults, overweight (children, higher education (adults ≥ 30 years, urban environment (adults, chronic disease (adults ≥ 30 years, sedentary work (adults, not meeting the moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA guideline (children and adults ≥ 30 years and not meeting the vigorous PA (VPA guideline (4-to-17-year-olds. Correlates of ST that significantly differed between day types were working hours and meeting the VPA guideline. More working hours were associated with more ST on school-/work days. In children and adolescents, meeting the VPA guideline was associated with less ST on non-school/non-working days only. Conclusions This study provides new insights in the correlates of ST in different age groups and thus possibilities for interventions in these groups. Correlates of ST appear to differ between age groups and to a lesser degree between day types. This implies that interventions to reduce ST should be age specific. Longitudinal studies are needed to draw conclusions on causality of
Measurement system of correlation functions of microwave single photon source in real time
Korenkov, A.; Dmitriev, A.; Astafiev, O.
2018-02-01
Several quantum setups, such as quantum key distribution networks[1] and quantum simulators (e.g. boson sampling), by their design rely on single photon sources (SPSs). These quantum setups were demonstrated to operate in optical frequency domain. However, following the steady advances in circuit quantum electrodynamics, a proposal has been made recently[2] to demonstrate boson sampling with microwave photons. This in turn requires the development of reliable microwave SPS. It's one of the most important characteristics are the first-order and the second-order correlation functions g1 and g2. The measurement technique of g1 and g2 is significantly different from that in the optical domain [3],[4] because of the current unavailability of microwave single-photon detectors. In particular, due to high levels of noise present in the system a substantial amount of statistics in needed to be acquired. This work presents a platform for measurement of g1 and g2 that processes the incoming data in real time, maximizing the efficiency of data acquisition. The use of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) electronics, common in similar experiments[3] but complex in programming, is avoided; instead, the calculations are performed on a standard desktop computer. The platform is used to perform the measurements of the first-order and the second-order correlation functions of the microwave SPS.
Mapping hyperfine fields with Hf in EuTiO3 by time differential perturbed angular correlation
Rano, Borak Ur Rahman
2017-01-01
Using time differential perturbed angular correlation of γ rays, we investigated the electric field gradient for different annealing of defects and local oxygen configuration with Hf as a probe in EuTiO3. The measurements were performed at ISOLDE-CERN. The results, combined with ab-initio calculations, support the assumption that the electric field gradient for this system is determined by the trapping of defects for different charge states of Eu.
Folgosi-Correa, M. S.; Nogueira, G. E. C.
2012-06-01
The laser Doppler flowmetry allows the non-invasive assessment of the skin perfusion in real-time, being an attractive technique to study the human microcirculation in clinical settings. Low-frequency oscillations in the laser Doppler blood flow signal from the skin have been related to the endothelial, endothelial-metabolic, neurogenic and myogenic mechanisms of microvascular flow control, in the range 0.005-0.0095 Hz, 0.0095-0.021 Hz, 0.021-0.052 Hz and 0.052- 0.145 Hz respectively. The mean Amplitude (A) of the periodic fluctuations in the laser Doppler blood flow signal, in each frequency range, derived from the respective wavelet-transformed coefficients, has been used to assess the function and dysfunctions of each mechanism of flow control. Known sources of flow signal variances include spatial and temporal variability, diminishing the discriminatory capability of the technique. Here a new time domain method of analysis is proposed, based on the Time of Correlation (TC) of flow fluctuations between two adjacent sites. Registers of blood flow from two adjacent regions, for skin temperature at 32 0C (basal) and thermally stimulated (42 0C) of volar forearms from 20 healthy volunteers were collected and analyzed. The results obtained revealed high time of correlation between two adjacent regions when thermally stimulated, for signals in the endothelial, endothelial-metabolic, neurogenic and myogenic frequency ranges. Experimental data also indicate lower variability for TC when compared to A, when thermally stimulated, suggesting a new promising parameter for assessment of the microvascular flow control.
Particle correlations at ALICE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erazmus, B.; Lednicky, R.; Lyuboshitz, V.; Martin, L.; Mikhailov, K.; Pluta, J.; Sinyukov, Yu.; Stavinsky, A.; Werner, K
1998-12-31
The ability of the ALICE detector for determination of the space-time characteristics of particle production in heavy-ion collisions at LHC from measurements of the correlation functions of identical and non-identical particles at small relative velocities is discussed. The possibility to use the correlations of non-identical particles for a direct determination of the delays in emission of various particle species at time scales as small as 10{sup -23} s is demonstrated. The influence of the multi-boson effects on pion multiplicities, single-pion spectra and two-pion correlation functions is discussed. (author) 63 refs.
Relating Out-of-Time-Order Correlations to Entanglement via Multiple-Quantum Coherences.
Gärttner, Martin; Hauke, Philipp; Rey, Ana Maria
2018-01-26
Out-of-time-order correlations (OTOCs) characterize the scrambling, or delocalization, of quantum information over all the degrees of freedom of a system and thus have been proposed as a proxy for chaos in quantum systems. Recent experimental progress in measuring OTOCs calls for a more thorough understanding of how these quantities characterize complex quantum systems, most importantly in terms of the buildup of entanglement. Although a connection between OTOCs and entanglement entropy has been derived, the latter only quantifies entanglement in pure systems and is hard to access experimentally. In this work, we formally demonstrate that the multiple-quantum coherence spectra, a specific family of OTOCs well known in NMR, can be used as an entanglement witness and as a direct probe of multiparticle entanglement. Our results open a path to experimentally testing the fascinating idea that entanglement is the underlying glue that links thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and quantum gravity.
Relating Out-of-Time-Order Correlations to Entanglement via Multiple-Quantum Coherences
Gärttner, Martin; Hauke, Philipp; Rey, Ana Maria
2018-01-01
Out-of-time-order correlations (OTOCs) characterize the scrambling, or delocalization, of quantum information over all the degrees of freedom of a system and thus have been proposed as a proxy for chaos in quantum systems. Recent experimental progress in measuring OTOCs calls for a more thorough understanding of how these quantities characterize complex quantum systems, most importantly in terms of the buildup of entanglement. Although a connection between OTOCs and entanglement entropy has been derived, the latter only quantifies entanglement in pure systems and is hard to access experimentally. In this work, we formally demonstrate that the multiple-quantum coherence spectra, a specific family of OTOCs well known in NMR, can be used as an entanglement witness and as a direct probe of multiparticle entanglement. Our results open a path to experimentally testing the fascinating idea that entanglement is the underlying glue that links thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and quantum gravity.
Zhang, Linlin; Guindani, Michele; Versace, Francesco; Vannucci, Marina
2014-07-15
In this paper we present a novel wavelet-based Bayesian nonparametric regression model for the analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Our goal is to provide a joint analytical framework that allows to detect regions of the brain which exhibit neuronal activity in response to a stimulus and, simultaneously, infer the association, or clustering, of spatially remote voxels that exhibit fMRI time series with similar characteristics. We start by modeling the data with a hemodynamic response function (HRF) with a voxel-dependent shape parameter. We detect regions of the brain activated in response to a given stimulus by using mixture priors with a spike at zero on the coefficients of the regression model. We account for the complex spatial correlation structure of the brain by using a Markov random field (MRF) prior on the parameters guiding the selection of the activated voxels, therefore capturing correlation among nearby voxels. In order to infer association of the voxel time courses, we assume correlated errors, in particular long memory, and exploit the whitening properties of discrete wavelet transforms. Furthermore, we achieve clustering of the voxels by imposing a Dirichlet process (DP) prior on the parameters of the long memory process. For inference, we use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling techniques that combine Metropolis-Hastings schemes employed in Bayesian variable selection with sampling algorithms for nonparametric DP models. We explore the performance of the proposed model on simulated data, with both block- and event-related design, and on real fMRI data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Uijtdewilligen, Léonie; Yin, Jason Dean-Chen; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk
2017-12-13
Evidence on the health risks of sitting is accumulating. However, research identifying factors influencing sitting time in adults is limited, especially in Asian populations. This study aimed to identify socio-demographic and lifestyle correlates of occupational, leisure and total sitting time in a sample of Singapore working adults. Data were collected between 2004 and 2010 from participants of the Singapore Multi Ethnic Cohort (MEC). Medical exclusion criteria for cohort participation were cancer, heart disease, stroke, renal failure and serious mental illness. Participants who were not working over the past 12 months and without data on sitting time were excluded from the analyses. Multivariable regression analyses were used to examine cross-sectional associations of self-reported age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, smoking, caloric intake and moderate-to-vigorous leisure time physical activity (LTPA) with self-reported occupational, leisure and total sitting time. Correlates were also studied separately for Chinese, Malays and Indians. The final sample comprised 9384 participants (54.8% male): 50.5% were Chinese, 24.0% Malay, and 25.5% Indian. For the total sample, mean occupational sitting time was 2.71 h/day, mean leisure sitting time was 2.77 h/day and mean total sitting time was 5.48 h/day. Sitting time in all domains was highest among Chinese. Age, gender, education, and caloric intake were associated with higher occupational sitting time, while ethnicity, marital status and smoking were associated with lower occupational sitting time. Marital status, smoking, caloric intake and LTPA were associated with higher leisure sitting time, while age, gender and ethnicity were associated with lower leisure sitting time. Gender, marital status, education, caloric intake and LTPA were associated with higher total sitting time, while ethnicity was associated with lower total sitting time. Stratified analyses revealed different associations within
Modeling correlated bursts by the bursty-get-burstier mechanism
Jo, Hang-Hyun
2017-12-01
Temporal correlations of time series or event sequences in natural and social phenomena have been characterized by power-law decaying autocorrelation functions with decaying exponent γ . Such temporal correlations can be understood in terms of power-law distributed interevent times with exponent α and/or correlations between interevent times. The latter, often called correlated bursts, has recently been studied by measuring power-law distributed bursty trains with exponent β . A scaling relation between α and γ has been established for the uncorrelated interevent times, while little is known about the effects of correlated interevent times on temporal correlations. In order to study these effects, we devise the bursty-get-burstier model for correlated bursts, by which one can tune the degree of correlations between interevent times, while keeping the same interevent time distribution. We numerically find that sufficiently strong correlations between interevent times could violate the scaling relation between α and γ for the uncorrelated case. A nontrivial dependence of γ on β is also found for some range of α . The implication of our results is discussed in terms of the hierarchical organization of bursty trains at various time scales.
Acconcia, Giulia; Cominelli, Alessandro; Peronio, Pietro; Rech, Ivan; Ghioni, Massimo
2017-05-01
The analysis of optical signals by means of Single Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) has been subject to a widespread interest in recent years. The development of multichannel high-performance Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) acquisition systems has undergone a fast trend. Concerning the detector performance, best in class results have been obtained resorting to custom technologies leading also to a strong dependence of the detector timing jitter from the threshold used to determine the onset of the photogenerated current flow. In this scenario, the avalanche current pick-up circuit plays a key role in determining the timing performance of the TCSPC acquisition system, especially with a large array of SPAD detectors because of electrical crosstalk issues. We developed a new current pick-up circuit based on a transimpedance amplifier structure able to extract the timing information from a 50-μm-diameter custom technology SPAD with a state-of-art timing jitter as low as 32ps and suitable to be exploited with SPAD arrays. In this paper we discuss the key features of this structure and we present a new version of the pick-up circuit that also provides quenching capabilities in order to minimize the number of interconnections required, an aspect that becomes more and more crucial in densely integrated systems.
Efe, Ipek
2017-01-01
Time differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) technique is one of the most sensitive techniques to study about the electric and magnetic fields at the individual lattice points. It benefits from the hyperfine interactions between the probe atom and its neighborhood. Multiferroic materials have been intensively studied to promote and understand the possibility of controlling magnetic properties by electric fields instead of magnetic fields which opens the path to faster, smaller, and more energy-efficient spintronic devices, such as memory elements, high-frequency magnetic devices, and micro-electro-mechanical systems, for data-storage technologies. BiFeO3 is one of the famous and important multiferroic materials since it shows both antiferromagnetic and ferroelectric behavior at room temperature. In this study, we report on the first time-differential perturbed angular correlation (TDPAC) measurements carried out on polycrystalline BiFeO3 samples using the nuclear probe 181Hf(181Ta) after implantati...
Kim, Mock Ryeon; Park, Hye Won; Son, Jae Sung; Lee, Ran
2016-01-01
Purpose To evaluate the correlation between colon transit time (CTT) test value and initial maintenance dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 or lactulose. Methods Of 415 children with chronic functional constipation, 190 were enrolled based on exclusion criteria using the CTT test, defecation diary, and clinical chart. The CTT test was performed with prior disimpaction. The laxative dose for maintenance was determined on the basis of the defecation diary and clinical chart. The Shapiro-Wilk test and Pearson's and Spearman's correlations were used for statistical analysis. Results The overall group median value and interquartile range of the CTT test was 43.8 (31.8) hours. The average PEG 4000 dose for maintenance in the overall group was 0.68±0.18 g/kg/d; according to age, the dose was 0.73±0.16 g/kg/d (encopresis, abnormal CTT test subtype) for either laxative. Even in the largest group (overall, n=109, younger than 8 years and on PEG 4000), the correlation was weak (Pearson's correlation coefficient [R]=0.268, p=0.005). Within the abnormal transit group, subgroup (n=73, younger than 8 years and on PEG 4000) correlation was weak (R=0.267, p=0.022). Conclusion CTT test value cannot predict the initial maintenance dose of PEG 4000 or lactulose with linear correlation. PMID:27738600
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamare, D., E-mail: d.diamare@ee.ucl.ac.uk [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Wojdak, M. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom); Lettieri, S. [Institute for Superconductors and Innovative Materials, National Council of Research (CNR-SPIN), Via Cintia 80126, Naples (Italy); Department of Physical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Cintia 80126, Naples (Italy); Kenyon, A.J. [Department of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University College London, Torrington Place, London, WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)
2013-04-15
We report time-resolved photoluminescence measurements of thin films of silica containing silicon nanoclusters (Si NCs), produced by PECVD and annealed at temperatures between 700 °C and 1150 °C. While the near infrared emission of Si NCs has long been studied, visible light emission has only recently attracted interest due to its very short decay times and its recently-reported redshift with decreasing NCs size. We analyse the PL decay dynamics in the range 450–700 nm with picosecond time resolution using Time Correlated Single Photon Counting. In the resultant multi-exponential decays two dominant components can clearly be distinguished: a very short component, in the range of hundreds of picoseconds, and a nanosecond component. In this wavelength range we do not detect the microsecond component generally associated with excitonic recombination. We associate the nanosecond component to defect relaxation: it decreases in intensity in the sample annealed at higher temperature, suggesting that the contribution from defects decreases with increasing temperature. The origin of the very fast PL component (ps time region) is also discussed. We show that it is consistent with the Auger recombination times of multiple excitons. Further work needs to be done in order to assess the contribution of the Auger-controlled recombinations to the defect-assisted mechanism of photoluminescence. -- Highlights: ► We report time-resolved PL measurements of Si-Ncs embedded in SiO{sub 2} matrix. ► Net decrease of PL with increasing the annealing temperature has been observed. ► Lifetime distribution analysis revealed a multiexponential decay with ns and ps components. ► Ps components are consistent with the lifetime range of the Auger recombination times. ► No evidence for a fast direct transition at the Brillouin zone centre.
Particle correlation based measurement of the mean time between the deuteron and proton emissions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghisalberti, C.; Lebrun, C.; Sezac, L.; Ardouin, D.; Erazmus, B.; Eudes, P.; Ghuilbault, F.; Lautridou, P.; Rahmani, J.A.; Reposeur, T.; Chbihi, A.; Galin, J.; Guerreau, D.; Morjean, M.; Peghaire, A.; Lednicky, R.; Pluta, J.; Quebert, J.; Siemssen, R.
1997-01-01
Proton-deuteron correlations at small relative momenta have been measured with the reaction 208 Pb + 93 Nb at 29 MeV per nucleon at GANIL using the ORION neutron calorimeter. By selecting the proton-deuteron pairs according to the angle between their relative velocity and the pair center of mass velocity of the emitting source one can determine the average value of the time delay between the emission of these particles. The results reported in this paper for the first time at GANIL energies agree with the values published before in the literature i.e. 600 and 1500 fm/c for deuteron and proton emission times, respectively, as obtained in the reactions Ar + Ag at E/A = 17 MeV. At higher energies measurements with a B.U.U. calorimeter recording the collisions 14 N + 27 Al at E/A = 75 MeV show that in this case the proton emission begins at 15 fm/c and decreases slowly in time, while the deuterons are emitted at 50 fm/c and present a steep falling. This result agrees with a negative average value of d - t p >. Thus, the method presented in this report for determining the order of emission is of great interest for checking the theoretical description of the particle emission all the way in the collision dynamical process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ari Pujiatmoko
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study were: 1 to determine whether there is a correlation between students' interest in learning and the learning achievement of automotive electrical, 2 to determine whether there is a correlation between the use of time studying the learning achievement of automotive electrical, 3 to determine whether there is a correlation between student interest and use the time to learn and the learning achievement of students of class XII automotive electrical TKR SMK PIRI 1 Yogyakarta academic year 2013/2014. This research was conducted in class XII TKR SMK PIRI 1 Yogyakarta academic year 2013/2014. This study is an ex-post facto. This study used two independent variables and the interest in learning the use of learning time, while the dependent variable is the electrical automotive learning achievement. This study is a population study by the respondent amounted to 100 students. Techniques of data collection using questionnaire techniques and engineering documentation. Research instrument in this study is a questionnaire interest in learning, inquiry learning time management and documentation of student achievement. Trials using the instrument validity and reliability test. The analysis technique used is the prerequisite test for normality, linearity, and multicollinearity. Then test hypotheses using partial correlation analysis techniques and correlation. The results showed that: 1 students' interest to have a strong positive correlation with school performance automotive electrical ρ value of 0.737; 2 the use of learning time have a low positive correlation with school performance automotive electrical ρ value of 0.275; 3 interest student learning and the use of study time has a very strong positive correlation with learning achievement of students of class XII automotive electrical TKR SMK PIRI I Yogyakarta academic year 2013/2014 as evidenced by the value of R = 0.811.
Measured time-correlated neutron-induced radiations in a sandstone formation. Final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peters, C.; Karaoglan, E.; Ertel, J.; Brotzman, J.; Kennedy, C. Jr.
1981-07-01
The Grand Junction Operations Office, Department of Energy, via its contractor, The Bendix Field Engineering Corporation, is developing technologies to explore for uranium as a part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. This report is addressed to measurements of the inelastic- and capture-gamma rays induced by 14 MeV neutrons in uranium ore in a simulated sandstone formation. The associated-particle technique and timing correlation was used to measure the production of inelastic-gamma rays versus time and to separate the inelastic-gamma-ray energy spectrum from the capture-gamma-ray energy spectrum. The measurements of the fission-coincidence signal demonstrate that this technique appears to be very sensitive to the presence of uranium. These measurements indicate that the fission-coincidence signal would be improved for uranium assay by using a low-energy neutron source rather than 14-MeV neutrons. The results of these measurements demonstrate that the concept of the Borehole Neutron Diagnostic Probe is a promising new logging tool. Measurements for a wide variety of controlled borehole and formation parameters are needed to determine the optimum design and to calibrate the responses. These measurements should be performed with a prototype logging tool in formations that have densities closer to those found in the field than the simulated formation used in these measurements
Variance in population firing rate as a measure of slow time-scale correlation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adam C. Snyder
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Correlated variability in the spiking responses of pairs of neurons, also known as spike count correlation, is a key indicator of functional connectivity and a critical factor in population coding. Underscoring the importance of correlation as a measure for cognitive neuroscience research is the observation that spike count correlations are not fixed, but are rather modulated by perceptual and cognitive context. Yet while this context fluctuates from moment to moment, correlation must be calculated over multiple trials. This property undermines its utility as a dependent measure for investigations of cognitive processes which fluctuate on a trial-to-trial basis, such as selective attention. A measure of functional connectivity that can be assayed on a moment-to-moment basis is needed to investigate the single-trial dynamics of populations of spiking neurons. Here, we introduce the measure of population variance in normalized firing rate for this goal. We show using mathematical analysis, computer simulations and in vivo data how population variance in normalized firing rate is inversely related to the latent correlation in the population, and how this measure can be used to reliably classify trials from different typical correlation conditions, even when firing rate is held constant. We discuss the potential advantages for using population variance in normalized firing rate as a dependent measure for both basic and applied neuroscience research.
Oczeretko, Edward; Swiatecka, Jolanta; Kitlas, Agnieszka; Laudanski, Tadeusz; Pierzynski, Piotr
2006-01-01
In physiological research, we often study multivariate data sets, containing two or more simultaneously recorded time series. The aim of this paper is to present the cross-correlation and the wavelet cross-correlation methods to assess synchronization between contractions in different topographic regions of the uterus. From a medical point of view, it is important to identify time delays between contractions, which may be of potential diagnostic significance in various pathologies. The cross-correlation was computed in a moving window with a width corresponding to approximately two or three contractions. As a result, the running cross-correlation function was obtained. The propagation% parameter assessed from this function allows quantitative description of synchronization in bivariate time series. In general, the uterine contraction signals are very complicated. Wavelet transforms provide insight into the structure of the time series at various frequencies (scales). To show the changes of the propagation% parameter along scales, a wavelet running cross-correlation was used. At first, the continuous wavelet transforms as the uterine contraction signals were received and afterwards, a running cross-correlation analysis was conducted for each pair of transformed time series. The findings show that running functions are very useful in the analysis of uterine contractions.
Gallagher, Patrick; Yancy, William S; Denissen, Jaap J A; Kühnel, Anja; Voils, Corrine I
2013-12-01
Previous studies examining correlates of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) have identified personality factors that are correlated with LTPA and practical factors that impede LTPA. The purpose of the present study was to test how several narrow traits predict daily reports of LTPA and to test whether traits that predict LTPA moderate the effects of practical barriers. 1192 participants completed baseline measures of personality, then reported their LTPA and several situational and environmental factors daily for 25 days. We used generalized estimating equations to measure how personality traits, practical barriers, and interactions between these factors affected (1) the odds of engaging in LTPA and (2) the duration of daily LTPA. Higher standing on Activity and Discipline and lower standing on Assertiveness predicted greater odds of engaging in LTPA and longer duration of LTPA, and higher standing on Aesthetics predicted shorter duration of LTPA. Poor weather conditions and less leisure time were associated with less LTPA, and effects of these barriers were generally greater among participants 30 and older. In participants older than 30, poor weather was associated with less LTPA among those with lower standing on Activity but was not associated with LTPA among those high in Activity. Despite Discipline's overall positive association with LTPA, less leisure time and less routineness were greater barriers for those high in Discipline. Assessing narrow personality traits could help target LTPA interventions to individual patients' needs and could help identify important new personality dynamics that affect LTPA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Munoz-Diosdado, A
2005-01-01
We analyzed databases with gait time series of adults and persons with Parkinson, Huntington and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diseases. We obtained the staircase graphs of accumulated events that can be bounded by a straight line whose slope can be used to distinguish between gait time series from healthy and ill persons. The global Hurst exponent of these series do not show tendencies, we intend that this is because some gait time series have monofractal behavior and others have multifractal behavior so they cannot be characterized with a single Hurst exponent. We calculated the multifractal spectra, obtained the spectra width and found that the spectra of the healthy young persons are almost monofractal. The spectra of ill persons are wider than the spectra of healthy persons. In opposition to the interbeat time series where the pathology implies loss of multifractality, in the gait time series the multifractal behavior emerges with the pathology. Data were collected from healthy and ill subjects as they walked in a roughly circular path and they have sensors in both feet, so we have one time series for the left foot and other for the right foot. First, we analyzed these time series separately, and then we compared both results, with direct comparison and with a cross correlation analysis. We tried to find differences in both time series that can be used as indicators of equilibrium problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munoz-Diosdado, A [Department of Mathematics, Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria de Biotecnologia, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Acueducto s/n, 07340, Mexico City (Mexico)
2005-01-01
We analyzed databases with gait time series of adults and persons with Parkinson, Huntington and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) diseases. We obtained the staircase graphs of accumulated events that can be bounded by a straight line whose slope can be used to distinguish between gait time series from healthy and ill persons. The global Hurst exponent of these series do not show tendencies, we intend that this is because some gait time series have monofractal behavior and others have multifractal behavior so they cannot be characterized with a single Hurst exponent. We calculated the multifractal spectra, obtained the spectra width and found that the spectra of the healthy young persons are almost monofractal. The spectra of ill persons are wider than the spectra of healthy persons. In opposition to the interbeat time series where the pathology implies loss of multifractality, in the gait time series the multifractal behavior emerges with the pathology. Data were collected from healthy and ill subjects as they walked in a roughly circular path and they have sensors in both feet, so we have one time series for the left foot and other for the right foot. First, we analyzed these time series separately, and then we compared both results, with direct comparison and with a cross correlation analysis. We tried to find differences in both time series that can be used as indicators of equilibrium problems.
TIME SERIES ANALYSIS ON STOCK MARKET FOR TEXT MINING CORRELATION OF ECONOMY NEWS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sadi Evren SEKER
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes an information retrieval methodfor the economy news. Theeffect of economy news, are researched in the wordlevel and stock market valuesare considered as the ground proof.The correlation between stock market prices and economy news is an already ad-dressed problem for most of the countries. The mostwell-known approach is ap-plying the text mining approaches to the news and some time series analysis tech-niques over stock market closing values in order toapply classification or cluster-ing algorithms over the features extracted. This study goes further and tries to askthe question what are the available time series analysis techniques for the stockmarket closing values and which one is the most suitable? In this study, the newsand their dates are collected into a database and text mining is applied over thenews, the text mining part has been kept simple with only term frequency – in-verse document frequency method. For the time series analysis part, we havestudied 10 different methods such as random walk, moving average, acceleration,Bollinger band, price rate of change, periodic average, difference, momentum orrelative strength index and their variation. In this study we have also explainedthese techniques in a comparative way and we have applied the methods overTurkish Stock Market closing values for more than a2 year period. On the otherhand, we have applied the term frequency – inversedocument frequency methodon the economy news of one of the high-circulatingnewspapers in Turkey.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakaya, Yasuhiro, E-mail: y-nakaya@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kim, Tonsok; Hori, Masatoshi; Onishi, Hiromitsu; Nakamoto, Atsushi; Tsuboyama, Takahiro; Maeda, Noboru; Higashihara, Hiroki; Tomoda, Kaname; Nakamura, Hironobu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita City, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)
2011-08-15
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate correlations between the aorto-popliteal bolus transit speed and aortic and popliteal bolus transit time in order to evaluate the possibility for prediction of bolus transit speed by single test injection technique. Materials and methods: Approval was obtained from our institutional review board for this study, which included 42 patients, from all of whom written informed consent was obtained. Low-dose serial CT scanning after injection of 12 ml contrast material (300 mg/ml) at a rate of 3 ml/s followed by saline flush was performed twice, first at the level of the upper abdomen and second at the level of the knee joint. The times needed to reach peak enhancement of the upper abdominal aorta (T-aorta) and bilateral popliteal arteries (T-popliteal) were obtained, and aorto-popliteal bolus transit speeds between the abdominal aorta and popliteal arteries were calculated. ABI was recorded for the bilateral feet. The Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient was used to investigate the correlation between the bolus transit speed and T-aorta, T-popliteal, ABI, and patient age. Result: The respective correlation coefficients for bolus transit speed on the one hand and T-aorta, T-popliteal, ABI, patient age on the other were -0.50, -0.84, 0.36, and -0.52. Conclusion: The time to peak enhancement for popliteal arteries showed the strongest correlation with aorto-popliteal bolus transit speeds, and was considered to be the most accurate predictor for aorto-popliteal bolus transit speeds.
Nonidentical particle correlations in STAR
Erazmus, B; Renault, G; Retière, F; Szarwas, P; 10.1556/APH.21.2004.2-4.33
2004-01-01
The correlation function of nonidentical particles is sensitive to the relative space-time asymmetries in particle emission. Analysing pion-kaon, pion-proton and kaon-proton correlation functions, measured in the Au+Au collisions by the STAR experiment at RHIC, we show that pions, kaons and protons are not emitted at the same average space-time coordinates. The shifts between pion, kaon and proton sources are consistent with the picture of a transverse collective flow. Results of the first measurement of proton-lambda correlations at STAR are in agreement with recent CERN and AGS data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andrews, R.W.; LaVenue, A.M.; McNeish, J.A.
1989-01-01
Ground-water travel time predictions at potential high-level waste repositories are subject to a degree of uncertainty due to the scale of averaging incorporated in conceptual models of the ground-water flow regime as well as the lack of data on the spatial variability of the hydrogeologic parameters. The present study describes the effect of limited observations of a spatially correlated permeability field on the predicted ground-water travel time uncertainty. Varying permeability correlation lengths have been used to investigate the importance of this geostatistical property on the tails of the travel time distribution. This study uses both geostatistical and differential analysis techniques. Following the generation of a spatially correlated permeability field which is considered reality, semivariogram analyses are performed upon small random subsets of the generated field to determine the geostatistical properties of the field represented by the observations. Kriging is then employed to generate a kriged permeability field and the corresponding standard deviation of the estimated field conditioned by the limited observations. Using both the real and kriged fields, the ground-water flow regime is simulated and ground-water travel paths and travel times are determined for various starting points. These results are used to define the ground-water travel time uncertainty due to path variability. The variance of the ground-water travel time along particular paths due to the variance of the permeability field estimated using kriging is then calculated using the first order, second moment method. The uncertainties in predicted travel time due to path and parameter uncertainties are then combined into a single distribution
Correlation between real-time qPCR and development of strongyle eggs from cattle
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Drag, Markus; Nejsum, Peter; Höglund, Johan
2014-01-01
Differentiation of veterinary important parasitic strongyle eggs is time-consuming, because morphologically distinct third-stage larvae (L3) must be cultured for species/genus identification. A recently published qPCR technique provides a non-labour intensive method for detection and quantification...... of the two most important nematode eggs in cattle faeces. However, as quantification correlates with DNA content, quantification of copy numbers of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region is problematic as DNA content increases during egg development. The aim of this study was to assess...... the impact of oxygen availability and temperature on the multiplication of ITS2 copy numbers in O. ostertagi eggs. Fresh eggs were recovered from cattle faeces by sieving, flotation and entrapment in nylon-mesh filters and subsequently deposited in aliquots (n=18) of 5 ml distilled water with air circulation...
Software Correlator for Radioastron Mission
Likhachev, Sergey F.; Kostenko, Vladimir I.; Girin, Igor A.; Andrianov, Andrey S.; Rudnitskiy, Alexey G.; Zharov, Vladimir E.
In this paper, we discuss the characteristics and operation of Astro Space Center (ASC) software FX correlator that is an important component of space-ground interferometer for Radioastron project. This project performs joint observations of compact radio sources using 10m space radio telescope (SRT) together with ground radio telescopes at 92, 18, 6 and 1.3 cm wavelengths. In this paper, we describe the main features of space-ground VLBI data processing of Radioastron project using ASC correlator. Quality of implemented fringe search procedure provides positive results without significant losses in correlated amplitude. ASC Correlator has a computational power close to real time operation. The correlator has a number of processing modes: “Continuum”, “Spectral Line”, “Pulsars”, “Giant Pulses”,“Coherent”. Special attention is paid to peculiarities of Radioastron space-ground VLBI data processing. The algorithms of time delay and delay rate calculation are also discussed, which is a matter of principle for data correlation of space-ground interferometers. During five years of Radioastron SRT successful operation, ASC correlator showed high potential of satisfying steady growing needs of current and future ground and space VLBI science. Results of ASC software correlator operation are demonstrated.
Zhou, Yunyi; Tao, Chenyang; Lu, Wenlian; Feng, Jianfeng
2018-04-20
Functional connectivity is among the most important tools to study brain. The correlation coefficient, between time series of different brain areas, is the most popular method to quantify functional connectivity. Correlation coefficient in practical use assumes the data to be temporally independent. However, the time series data of brain can manifest significant temporal auto-correlation. A widely applicable method is proposed for correcting temporal auto-correlation. We considered two types of time series models: (1) auto-regressive-moving-average model, (2) nonlinear dynamical system model with noisy fluctuations, and derived their respective asymptotic distributions of correlation coefficient. These two types of models are most commonly used in neuroscience studies. We show the respective asymptotic distributions share a unified expression. We have verified the validity of our method, and shown our method exhibited sufficient statistical power for detecting true correlation on numerical experiments. Employing our method on real dataset yields more robust functional network and higher classification accuracy than conventional methods. Our method robustly controls the type I error while maintaining sufficient statistical power for detecting true correlation in numerical experiments, where existing methods measuring association (linear and nonlinear) fail. In this work, we proposed a widely applicable approach for correcting the effect of temporal auto-correlation on functional connectivity. Empirical results favor the use of our method in functional network analysis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chin-Teng Lin
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG signals are usually contaminated with various artifacts, such as signal associated with muscle activity, eye movement, and body motion, which have a noncerebral origin. The amplitude of such artifacts is larger than that of the electrical activity of the brain, so they mask the cortical signals of interest, resulting in biased analysis and interpretation. Several blind source separation methods have been developed to remove artifacts from the EEG recordings. However, the iterative process for measuring separation within multichannel recordings is computationally intractable. Moreover, manually excluding the artifact components requires a time-consuming offline process. This work proposes a real-time artifact removal algorithm that is based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA, feature extraction, and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM to improve the quality of EEG signals. The CCA was used to decompose EEG signals into components followed by feature extraction to extract representative features and GMM to cluster these features into groups to recognize and remove artifacts. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated by effectively removing artifacts caused by blinks, head/body movement, and chewing from EEG recordings while preserving the temporal and spectral characteristics of the signals that are important to cognitive research.
Quantifying meta-correlations in financial markets
Kenett, Dror Y.; Preis, Tobias; Gur-Gershgoren, Gitit; Ben-Jacob, Eshel
2012-08-01
Financial markets are modular multi-level systems, in which the relationships between the individual components are not constant in time. Sudden changes in these relationships significantly affect the stability of the entire system, and vice versa. Our analysis is based on historical daily closing prices of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) from March 15th, 1939 until December 31st, 2010. We quantify the correlation among these components by determining Pearson correlation coefficients, to investigate whether mean correlation of the entire portfolio can be used as a precursor for changes in the index return. To this end, we quantify the meta-correlation - the correlation of mean correlation and index return. We find that changes in index returns are significantly correlated with changes in mean correlation. Furthermore, we study the relationship between the index return and correlation volatility - the standard deviation of correlations for a given time interval. This parameter provides further evidence of the effect of the index on market correlations and their fluctuations. Our empirical findings provide new information and quantification of the index leverage effect, and have implications to risk management, portfolio optimization, and to the increased stability of financial markets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joshi, Jay Prakash [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-05-01
The objectives of this project are to calibrate the Advanced Experimental Fuel Counter (AEFC), benchmark MCNP simulations using experimental results, investigate the effects of change in fuel assembly geometry, and finally to show the boost in doubles count rates with 252Cf active soruces due to the time correlated induced fission (TCIF) effect.
Abbate, G M; Borghi, D; Passi, A; Levrini, L
2014-03-01
Evaluate the correlations between unstimulated salivary flow, pH and level of S. mutans, analysed through real time PCR, in caries-free and caries-active children. Thirty healthy children were divided into 2 groups: test group (DMFT/dmft ≥ 3 and at least 1 active caries lesion) and control group (DMFT/dmft=0). Un-stimulated saliva was collected, pH was measured and S. mutans and total bacterial amount were evaluated with real-time PCR analysis. Unstimulated salivary flow in the test group was significantly lower (p = 0.0269) compared to group control. The level of S. mutans was higher in the test group (p = 0.176), and an inverse correlation was recorded between total bacterial amount and un-stimulated salivary flow (p = 0.063). In the control group a positive relationship was found between total bacterial amount and S. mutans (p = 0.045) and an inverse correlation between pH and S. mutans (p = 0.088). A t-test and a linear regression analysis were performed. A higher salivary flow and an increased salivary pH seem to represent protective factors against caries in children, while high levels of S. mutans are correlated with caries active lesions. Caries risk assessment should be performed considering all parameters involved in the development of the disease.
Detection of C',Cα correlations in proteins using a new time- and sensitivity-optimal experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Donghan; Voegeli, Beat; Pervushin, Konstantin
2005-01-01
Sensitivity- and time-optimal experiment, called COCAINE (CO-CA In- and aNtiphase spectra with sensitivity Enhancement), is proposed to correlate chemical shifts of 13 C' and 13 C α spins in proteins. A comparison of the sensitivity and duration of the experiment with the corresponding theoretical unitary bounds shows that the COCAINE experiment achieves maximum possible transfer efficiency in the shortest possible time, and in this sense the sequence is optimal. Compared to the standard HSQC, the COCAINE experiment delivers a 2.7-fold gain in sensitivity. This newly proposed experiment can be used for assignment of backbone resonances in large deuterated proteins effectively bridging 13 C' and 13 C α resonances in adjacent amino acids. Due to the spin-state selection employed, the COCAINE experiment can also be used for efficient measurements of one-bond couplings (e.g. scalar and residual dipolar couplings) in any two-spin system (e.g. the N/H in the backbone of protein)
Two pion correlation from SPACER
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csoergoe, T.; Zimanyi, J.; Pratt, S.
1989-12-01
The correlation function for neutral and negative pions produced in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions was calculated without free parameters based on a space-time version of the LUND model, called SPACER: Simulation of Phase space distribution of Atomic nuclear Collisions in Energetic Reactions. This method includes the effect of Bose correlations for the emitted pion pair. Effects arising from correlations between space-time and momentum space distributions are investigated. The results are compared to the data of two different experiments. The role and interpretation of the chaocity parameter are discussed. (D.G.) 14 refs.; 4 figs
García-de-la-Asunción, José; García-Del-Olmo, Eva; Galan, Genaro; Guijarro, Ricardo; Martí, Francisco; Badenes, Rafael; Perez-Griera, Jaume; Duca, Alejandro; Delgado, Carlos; Carbonell, Jose; Belda, Javier
2016-09-01
During lung lobectomy, the operated lung completely collapses with simultaneous hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, followed by expansion and reperfusion. Here, we investigated glutathione oxidation and lipoperoxidation in patients undergoing lung lobectomy, during one-lung ventilation (OLV) and after resuming two-lung ventilation (TLV), and examined the relationship with OLV duration. We performed a single-centre, observational, prospective study in 32 patients undergoing lung lobectomy. Blood samples were collected at five time-points: T0, pre-operatively; T1, during OLV, 5 minutes before resuming TLV; and T2, T3, and T4, respectively, 5, 60, and 180 minutes after resuming TLV. Samples were tested for reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glutathione redox potential, and malondialdehyde (MDA). GSSG and MDA blood levels increased at T1, and increased further at T2. OLV duration directly correlated with marker levels at T1 and T2. Blood levels of GSH and glutathione redox potential decreased at T1-T3. GSSG, oxidized glutathione/total glutathione ratio, and MDA levels were inversely correlated with arterial blood PO2/FiO2 at T1 and T2. During lung lobectomy and OLV, glutathione oxidation, and lipoperoxidation marker blood levels increase, with further increases after resuming TLV. Oxidative stress degree was directly correlated with OLV duration, and inversely correlated with arterial blood PO2/FiO2.
Statistical tests for power-law cross-correlated processes
Podobnik, Boris; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene
2011-12-01
For stationary time series, the cross-covariance and the cross-correlation as functions of time lag n serve to quantify the similarity of two time series. The latter measure is also used to assess whether the cross-correlations are statistically significant. For nonstationary time series, the analogous measures are detrended cross-correlations analysis (DCCA) and the recently proposed detrended cross-correlation coefficient, ρDCCA(T,n), where T is the total length of the time series and n the window size. For ρDCCA(T,n), we numerically calculated the Cauchy inequality -1≤ρDCCA(T,n)≤1. Here we derive -1≤ρDCCA(T,n)≤1 for a standard variance-covariance approach and for a detrending approach. For overlapping windows, we find the range of ρDCCA within which the cross-correlations become statistically significant. For overlapping windows we numerically determine—and for nonoverlapping windows we derive—that the standard deviation of ρDCCA(T,n) tends with increasing T to 1/T. Using ρDCCA(T,n) we show that the Chinese financial market's tendency to follow the U.S. market is extremely weak. We also propose an additional statistical test that can be used to quantify the existence of cross-correlations between two power-law correlated time series.
Dynamics of electricity market correlations
Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Escarela-Perez, R.; Espinosa-Perez, G.; Urrea, R.
2009-06-01
Electricity market participants rely on demand and price forecasts to decide their bidding strategies, allocate assets, negotiate bilateral contracts, hedge risks, and plan facility investments. However, forecasting is hampered by the non-linear and stochastic nature of price time series. Diverse modeling strategies, from neural networks to traditional transfer functions, have been explored. These approaches are based on the assumption that price series contain correlations that can be exploited for model-based prediction purposes. While many works have been devoted to the demand and price modeling, a limited number of reports on the nature and dynamics of electricity market correlations are available. This paper uses detrended fluctuation analysis to study correlations in the demand and price time series and takes the Australian market as a case study. The results show the existence of correlations in both demand and prices over three orders of magnitude in time ranging from hours to months. However, the Hurst exponent is not constant over time, and its time evolution was computed over a subsample moving window of 250 observations. The computations, also made for two Canadian markets, show that the correlations present important fluctuations over a seasonal one-year cycle. Interestingly, non-linearities (measured in terms of a multifractality index) and reduced price predictability are found for the June-July periods, while the converse behavior is displayed during the December-January period. In terms of forecasting models, our results suggest that non-linear recursive models should be considered for accurate day-ahead price estimation. On the other hand, linear models seem to suffice for demand forecasting purposes.
Anomalous dispersion in correlated porous media: a coupled continuous time random walk approach
Comolli, Alessandro; Dentz, Marco
2017-09-01
We study the causes of anomalous dispersion in Darcy-scale porous media characterized by spatially heterogeneous hydraulic properties. Spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity leads to spatial variability in the flow properties through Darcy's law and thus impacts on solute and particle transport. We consider purely advective transport in heterogeneity scenarios characterized by broad distributions of heterogeneity length scales and point values. Particle transport is characterized in terms of the stochastic properties of equidistantly sampled Lagrangian velocities, which are determined by the flow and conductivity statistics. The persistence length scales of flow and transport velocities are imprinted in the spatial disorder and reflect the distribution of heterogeneity length scales. Particle transitions over the velocity length scales are kinematically coupled with the transition time through velocity. We show that the average particle motion follows a coupled continuous time random walk (CTRW), which is fully parameterized by the distribution of flow velocities and the medium geometry in terms of the heterogeneity length scales. The coupled CTRW provides a systematic framework for the investigation of the origins of anomalous dispersion in terms of heterogeneity correlation and the distribution of conductivity point values. We derive analytical expressions for the asymptotic scaling of the moments of the spatial particle distribution and first arrival time distribution (FATD), and perform numerical particle tracking simulations of the coupled CTRW to capture the full average transport behavior. Broad distributions of heterogeneity point values and lengths scales may lead to very similar dispersion behaviors in terms of the spatial variance. Their mechanisms, however are very different, which manifests in the distributions of particle positions and arrival times, which plays a central role for the prediction of the fate of dissolved substances in
Correlates of time to microvascular complications among diabetes ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Socio-demographic and clinical factors have been known to affect the time to microvascular complications and survival probabilities of diabetes mellitus patients. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors and estimate average survival times for the time to the development of microvascular complications of ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Femke van Nassau
Full Text Available As the detrimental health effects of sedentary behaviour are well established, insight into the individual and environmental factors that influence adults' sedentary behaviour is needed. Most studies to date rely on self-reported measures of sedentary time. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine individual and environmental correlates of objectively measured sedentary time in Dutch and Belgian adults. Between March and August 2014, Belgian (n = 133 and Dutch (n = 223 adults, recruited as sub-sample of the SPOTLIGHT survey, wore an ActiGraph accelerometer to provide objectively measured sedentary and moderate to vigorous physical activity time. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing sociodemographic (country of residence, age, gender and educational level, lifestyle (sleep, smoking, sugar-containing beverage consumption, alcohol intake, health (body mass index, self-rated health, work (employment status and type of work, happiness, physical environmental (owning a car, number of screens, socioeconomic status and residential density and social environmental factors (social network, social cohesion. Univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that Belgian participants had a lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to Dutch participants. Women, older participants and those meeting the WHO recommendation for physical activity were also less likely to sit for 9 hours or more per day. Participants doing (heavy manual work or being in education, homemaker, unemployed had lower odds of being sedentary for at least 9 hours per day compared to participants with a sitting job. Those with a higher self-reported social network also had lower odds for sedentary time. No associations between physical and other social environmental characteristics and sedentary time were found. Our findings add to the growing evidence of factors associated with prolonged sedentary time in adults. These findings may
Self-rating of daily time management in children: psychometric properties of the Time-S.
Sköld, Annika; Janeslätt, Gunnel Kristina
2017-05-01
Impaired ability to manage time has been shown in several diagnoses common in childhood. Impaired ability involves activities and participation domain (daily time management, DTM) and body function and structure domain (time-processing ability, TPA). DTM needs to be evaluated from an individual's own perspective. To date, there has been a lack of self-rating instruments for children that focus on DTM. The aim of this study is to describe psychometric properties of Time-S when used in children aged 10-17 years with a diagnosis of ADHD, Autism, CP or mild ID. Further, to test whether TPA correlates with self-rated DTM. Eighty-three children aged 10-17 years participated in the study. Rasch analysis was used to assess psychometric properties. Correlation analysis was performed between Time-S and a measure of TPA. The 21 items of the Time-S questionnaire fit into a unitary construct measuring self-perceived daily management of an individual's time. A non-significant, small correlation was found between TPA and DTM. The results indicate good psychometric properties for the questionnaire. The questionnaire is potentially useful in intervention planning and evaluation.
Williams, Benjamin R; Agel, Julie A; Van Heest, Ann E
2017-07-05
The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) requires orthopaedic residency programs to promote scholarship and research, which manifest differently among programs. We assess the impact of protected research time during orthopaedic residency on the number of resident publications. Rotation schedules and resident names were collected from 125 ACGME-accredited U.S. orthopaedic residency programs. Protected research time was classified as 1 of 3 types: (1) block time, (2) longitudinal time, or (3) no dedicated time. In April 2016, we searched residents in postgraduate year (PGY)-3 to PGY-5 on pubmed.gov to generate all orthopaedic publications with a PubMed identifier published during residency. Each publication's 2015 Thomson Reuters Journal Citation Reports 5-Year Journal Impact Factor and resident first authorship were noted. The number of PubMed identifiers for each program was summed and was divided by the number of residents in PGY-3 to PGY-5, giving a mean number of publications per resident. The relationship between output and program research time was compared using t tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA). A total of 1,690 residents were included, with an overall mean number (and standard deviation) of 1.2 ± 2.4 publications per resident. Eighty-seven programs reported block time, 14 programs reported longitudinal time, and 24 programs reported no time. There was a significant difference (p = 0.02) in the mean number of publications per resident when compared between programs with protected time (1.1 ± 1.2 publications) and programs with no protected time (0.6 ± 0.5 publication). One-way ANOVA demonstrated a significant mean difference across the 3 groups (p publications than block time at 1.0 ± 1.0 publication or no time at 0.6 ± 0.5 publication, a difference that persisted when adjusted to include only impact factors of >0 and exclude case reports (p = 0.0015). Both the presence of and the type of dedicated research time correlate
Peng, Sijia; Wang, Wenjuan; Chen, Chunlai
2018-05-10
Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy is a powerful single-molecule tool that is able to capture kinetic processes occurring at the nanosecond time scale. However, the upper limit of its time window is restricted by the dwell time of the molecule of interest in the confocal detection volume, which is usually around submilliseconds for a freely diffusing biomolecule. Here, we present a simple and easy-to-implement method, named surface transient binding-based fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (STB-FCS), which extends the upper limit of the time window to seconds. We further demonstrated that STB-FCS enables capture of both intramolecular and intermolecular kinetic processes whose time scales cross several orders of magnitude.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Then, G.M.
1987-01-01
The binding of the transition metal hafnium to transferrin was studied under various chemical conditions using time differential perturbed γγ angular correlation spectroscopy (TDPAC). Observing the electric quadrupole interaction of the 181 Hf probe nuclei size and symmetry of the electric field gradient induced by the ligands of the metal ions can be determined. The experimental data suggest how homogeneous the binding conditions are and to which extend relaxation phenomena are involved. Due to the excellent time resolution obtained with new BaF 2 detectors the quadrupole coupling parameters of 181 Hf-transferrin could be determined very accurately. Under nearly physiological conditions different binding configurations were quantitatively characterized by spectroscopic means and distinguished with high specificity. (orig./PW) [de
Sun, Xiao-Dong; Ge, Zhong-Hui; Li, Zhen-Chun
2017-09-01
Although conventional reverse time migration can be perfectly applied to structural imaging it lacks the capability of enabling detailed delineation of a lithological reservoir due to irregular illumination. To obtain reliable reflectivity of the subsurface it is necessary to solve the imaging problem using inversion. The least-square reverse time migration (LSRTM) (also known as linearized reflectivity inversion) aims to obtain relatively high-resolution amplitude preserving imaging by including the inverse of the Hessian matrix. In practice, the conjugate gradient algorithm is proven to be an efficient iterative method for enabling use of LSRTM. The velocity gradient can be derived from a cross-correlation between observed data and simulated data, making LSRTM independent of wavelet signature and thus more robust in practice. Tests on synthetic and marine data show that LSRTM has good potential for use in reservoir description and four-dimensional (4D) seismic images compared to traditional RTM and Fourier finite difference (FFD) migration. This paper investigates the first order approximation of LSRTM, which is also known as the linear Born approximation. However, for more complex geological structures a higher order approximation should be considered to improve imaging quality.
Evaluation of time correlation functions from a generalized Enskog equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yip, S.; Alley, W.E.; Alder, B.J.
1982-01-01
Numerical results for the density and current correlation functions in dense hard-shape fluids are obtained from a kinetic equation which is the extension of the linearized Enskog equation to finite wavelengths in order to demonstrate the convergence of the method of solution. Comparison is made to a previously proposed approximate solution.
Evaluation of time correlation functions from a generalized Enskog equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yip, S.; Alley, W.E.; Alder, B.J.
1982-01-01
Numerical results for the density and current correlation functions in dense hard-shape fluids are obtained from a kinetic equation which is the extension of the linearized Enskog equation to finite wavelengths in order to demonstrate the convergence of the method of solution. Comparison is made to a previously proposed approximate solution
Dean, Roger T; Dunsmuir, William T M
2016-06-01
Many articles on perception, performance, psychophysiology, and neuroscience seek to relate pairs of time series through assessments of their cross-correlations. Most such series are individually autocorrelated: they do not comprise independent values. Given this situation, an unfounded reliance is often placed on cross-correlation as an indicator of relationships (e.g., referent vs. response, leading vs. following). Such cross-correlations can indicate spurious relationships, because of autocorrelation. Given these dangers, we here simulated how and why such spurious conclusions can arise, to provide an approach to resolving them. We show that when multiple pairs of series are aggregated in several different ways for a cross-correlation analysis, problems remain. Finally, even a genuine cross-correlation function does not answer key motivating questions, such as whether there are likely causal relationships between the series. Thus, we illustrate how to obtain a transfer function describing such relationships, informed by any genuine cross-correlations. We illustrate the confounds and the meaningful transfer functions by two concrete examples, one each in perception and performance, together with key elements of the R software code needed. The approach involves autocorrelation functions, the establishment of stationarity, prewhitening, the determination of cross-correlation functions, the assessment of Granger causality, and autoregressive model development. Autocorrelation also limits the interpretability of other measures of possible relationships between pairs of time series, such as mutual information. We emphasize that further complexity may be required as the appropriate analysis is pursued fully, and that causal intervention experiments will likely also be needed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rebolini, Elisa, E-mail: elisa.rebolini@kjemi.uio.no; Toulouse, Julien, E-mail: julien.toulouse@upmc.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)
2016-03-07
We present a range-separated linear-response time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT) which combines a density-functional approximation for the short-range response kernel and a frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter approximation for the long-range response kernel. This approach goes beyond the adiabatic approximation usually used in linear-response TDDFT and aims at improving the accuracy of calculations of electronic excitation energies of molecular systems. A detailed derivation of the frequency-dependent second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel is given using many-body Green-function theory. Preliminary tests of this range-separated TDDFT method are presented for the calculation of excitation energies of the He and Be atoms and small molecules (H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}CO, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}). The results suggest that the addition of the long-range second-order Bethe-Salpeter correlation kernel overall slightly improves the excitation energies.
Wei, Yun-Lan; Yu, Zu-Guo; Zou, Hai-Long; Anh, Vo
2017-06-01
A new method—multifractal temporally weighted detrended cross-correlation analysis (MF-TWXDFA)—is proposed to investigate multifractal cross-correlations in this paper. This new method is based on multifractal temporally weighted detrended fluctuation analysis and multifractal cross-correlation analysis (MFCCA). An innovation of the method is applying geographically weighted regression to estimate local trends in the nonstationary time series. We also take into consideration the sign of the fluctuations in computing the corresponding detrended cross-covariance function. To test the performance of the MF-TWXDFA algorithm, we apply it and the MFCCA method on simulated and actual series. Numerical tests on artificially simulated series demonstrate that our method can accurately detect long-range cross-correlations for two simultaneously recorded series. To further show the utility of MF-TWXDFA, we apply it on time series from stock markets and find that power-law cross-correlation between stock returns is significantly multifractal. A new coefficient, MF-TWXDFA cross-correlation coefficient, is also defined to quantify the levels of cross-correlation between two time series.
Anand, Vivek
2007-08-01
This study analyzes the correlation between video game usage and academic performance. Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) and grade-point average (GPA) scores were used to gauge academic performance. The amount of time a student spends playing video games has a negative correlation with students' GPA and SAT scores. As video game usage increases, GPA and SAT scores decrease. A chi-squared analysis found a p value for video game usage and GPA was greater than a 95% confidence level (0.005 video game usage also returned a p value that was significant (0.01 video games may have a detrimental effect on an individual's GPA and possibly on SAT scores. Although these results show statistical dependence, proving cause and effect remains difficult, since SAT scores represent a single test on a given day. The effects of video games maybe be cumulative; however, drawing a conclusion is difficult because SAT scores represent a measure of general knowledge. GPA versus video games is more reliable because both involve a continuous measurement of engaged activity and performance. The connection remains difficult because of the complex nature of student life and academic performance. Also, video game usage may simply be a function of specific personality types and characteristics.
Comparison of Solar and Wind Power Output and Correlation with Real-Time Pricing
Hoepfl, Kathryn E.; Compaan, Alvin D.; Solocha, Andrew
2011-03-01
This study presents a method that can be used to determine the least volatile power output of a wind and solar hybrid energy system in which wind and solar systems have the same peak power. Hourly data for wind and PV systems in Northwest Ohio are used to show that a combination of both types of sustainable energy sources produces a more stable power output and would be more valuable to the grid than either individually. This method could be used to determine the ideal ratio in any part of the country and should help convince electric utility companies to bring more renewable generation online. This study also looks at real-time market pricing and how each system (solar, wind, and hybrid) correlates with 2009 hourly pricing from the Midwest Interconnect. KEH acknowledges support from the NSF-REU grant PHY-1004649 to the Univ. of Toledo and Garland Energy Systems/Ohio Department of Development.
Interferometric constraints on quantum geometrical shear noise correlations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Aaron; Glass, Henry; Richard Gustafson, H.; Hogan, Craig J.; Kamai, Brittany L.; Kwon, Ohkyung; Lanza, Robert; McCuller, Lee; Meyer, Stephan S.; Richardson, Jonathan W.; Stoughton, Chris; Tomlin, Ray; Weiss, Rainer
2017-07-20
Final measurements and analysis are reported from the first-generation Holometer, the first instrument capable of measuring correlated variations in space-time position at strain noise power spectral densities smaller than a Planck time. The apparatus consists of two co-located, but independent and isolated, 40 m power-recycled Michelson interferometers, whose outputs are cross-correlated to 25 MHz. The data are sensitive to correlations of differential position across the apparatus over a broad band of frequencies up to and exceeding the inverse light crossing time, 7.6 MHz. By measuring with Planck precision the correlation of position variations at spacelike separations, the Holometer searches for faint, irreducible correlated position noise backgrounds predicted by some models of quantum space-time geometry. The first-generation optical layout is sensitive to quantum geometrical noise correlations with shear symmetry---those that can be interpreted as a fundamental noncommutativity of space-time position in orthogonal directions. General experimental constraints are placed on parameters of a set of models of spatial shear noise correlations, with a sensitivity that exceeds the Planck-scale holographic information bound on position states by a large factor. This result significantly extends the upper limits placed on models of directional noncommutativity by currently operating gravitational wave observatories.
Modelling conditional correlations of asset returns: A smooth transition approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo
In this paper we propose a new multivariate GARCH model with time-varying conditional correlation structure. The time-varying conditional correlations change smoothly between two extreme states of constant correlations according to a predetermined or exogenous transition variable. An LM-test is d......In this paper we propose a new multivariate GARCH model with time-varying conditional correlation structure. The time-varying conditional correlations change smoothly between two extreme states of constant correlations according to a predetermined or exogenous transition variable. An LM......-test is derived to test the constancy of correlations and LM- and Wald tests to test the hypothesis of partially constant correlations. Analytical expressions for the test statistics and the required derivatives are provided to make computations feasible. An empirical example based on daily return series of ve...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joshi, Jay Prakash [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2017-03-30
The effective application of international safeguards to research reactors requires verification of spent fuel as well as fresh fuel. To accomplish this goal various nondestructive and destructive assay techniques have been developed in the US and around the world. The Advanced Experimental Fuel Counter (AEFC) is a nondestructive assay (NDA) system developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) combining both neutron and gamma measurement capabilities. Since spent fuel assemblies are stored in water, the system was designed to be watertight to facilitate underwater measurements by inspectors. The AEFC is comprised of six ^{3}He detectors as well as a shielded and collimated ion chamber. The ^{3}He detectors are used for active and passive neutron coincidence counting while the ion chamber is used for gross gamma counting. Active coincidence measurement data is used to measure residual fissile mass, whereas the passive coincidence measurement data along with passive gamma measurement can provide information about burnup, cooling time, and initial enrichment. In the past, most of the active interrogation systems along with the AEFC used an AmLi neutron interrogation source. Owing to the difficulty in obtaining an AmLi source, a ^{252}Cf spontaneous fission (SF) source was used during a 2014 field trail in Uzbekistan as an alternative. In this study, experiments were performed to calibrate the AEFC instrument and compare use of the ^{252}Cf spontaneous fission source and the AmLi (α,n) neutron emission source. The ^{252}Cf source spontaneously emits bursts of time-correlated prompt fission neutrons that thermalize in the water and induce fission in the fuel assembly. The induced fission (IF) neutrons are also time correlated resulting in more correlated neutron detections inside the ^{3}He detector, which helps reduce the statistical errors in doubles when using the ^{252}Cf interrogation source instead of
Correlation coefficients in neutron β-decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byrne, J.
1978-01-01
The various angular and polarisation coefficients in neutron decay are the principal sources of information on the β-interaction. Measurements of the electron-neutrino angular correlation coefficient (a), the neutron-spin-electron-momentum correlation coefficient (A), the neutron-spin-neutrino-momentum correlation coefficient (B), and the triple correlation coefficient D and time-reversal invariance are reviewed and the results discussed. (U.K.)
Correlation function behavior in quantum systems which are classically chaotic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berman, G.P.; Kolovsky, A.R.
1983-01-01
The time behavior of a phase correlation function for dynamical quantum systems which are classically chaotic is considered. It is shown that under certain conditions there are three time regions of the quantum correlations behavior; the region of classical stochasticity (exponential decay of quantum correlations); the region of the correlations decay with a power law; the region of the constant level of the quantum correlations. The boundaries of these time regions are presented. The estimation of a remaining level of the quantum correlations is given. (orig.)
Non-identical particle correlations in STAR
Erazmus, B; Renault, G; Retière, F; Szarwas, P
2004-01-01
The correlation function of non-identical particles is sensitive to the relative space-time asymmetries in particle emission. Analysing pion kaon, pion-proton and kaon-proton correlation functions, measured in the Au+Au collisions by the STAR experiment at RHIC, we show that pions, kaons and protons are not emitted at the same average space-time coordinates. The shifts between pion, kaon and proton sources are consistent with the picture of a transverse collective flow. Results of the first measurement of proton-lambda correlations at STAR are in agreement with recent CERN and AGS data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Jian, Chung-Chin; Chen, Po-Wen
2010-01-01
We evaluate the non-Markovian finite-temperature two-time correlation functions (CF's) of system operators of a pure-dephasing spin-boson model in two different ways, one by the direct exact operator technique and the other by the recently derived evolution equations, valid to second order in the system-environment interaction Hamiltonian. This pure-dephasing spin-boson model that is exactly solvable has been extensively studied as a simple decoherence model. However, its exact non-Markovian finite-temperature two-time system operator CF's, to our knowledge, have not been presented in the literature. This may be mainly due to the fact, illustrated in this article, that in contrast to the Markovian case, the time evolution of the reduced density matrix of the system (or the reduced quantum master equation) alone is not sufficient to calculate the two-time system operator CF's of non-Markovian open systems. The two-time CF's obtained using the recently derived evolution equations in the weak system-environment coupling case for this non-Markovian pure-dephasing model happen to be the same as those obtained from the exact evaluation. However, these results significantly differ from the non-Markovian two-time CF's obtained by wrongly directly applying the quantum regression theorem (QRT), a useful procedure to calculate the two-time CF's for weak-coupling Markovian open systems. This demonstrates clearly that the recently derived evolution equations generalize correctly the QRT to non-Markovian finite-temperature cases. It is believed that these evolution equations will have applications in many different branches of physics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nada Verdel
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The time-dependent role of cations was investigated by ageing four different aqueous solutions of cation chlorides. A linear correlation was found between the cations’ Setchenov coefficient for the salting-out of benzene and the increase in the conductivity with time. The conductivity of the structure-breaking cations or the chaotropes increased more significantly with time than the conductivity of the kosmotropes. Since larger water clusters accelerate the proton or hydroxyl hopping mechanism, we propose that the structuring of the hydration shells of the chaotropes might be spontaneously enhanced over time.
ANTI-CORRELATED TIME LAGS IN THE Z SOURCE GX 5-1: POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR A TRUNCATED ACCRETION DISK
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sriram, K.; Choi, C. S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Rao, A. R., E-mail: astrosriram@yahoo.co.in [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)
2012-06-01
We investigate the nature of the inner accretion disk in the neutron star source GX 5-1 by making a detailed study of time lags between X-rays of different energies. Using the cross-correlation analysis, we found anti-correlated hard and soft time lags of the order of a few tens to a few hundred seconds and the corresponding intensity states were mostly the horizontal branch (HB) and upper normal branch. The model independent and dependent spectral analysis showed that during these time lags the structure of the accretion disk significantly varied. Both eastern and western approaches were used to unfold the X-ray continuum and systematic changes were observed in soft and hard spectral components. These changes along with a systematic shift in the frequency of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) made it substantially evident that the geometry of the accretion disk is truncated. Simultaneous energy spectral and power density spectral study shows that the production of the horizontal branch oscillations (HBOs) is closely related to the Comptonizing region rather than the disk component in the accretion disk. We found that as the HBO frequency decreases from the hard apex to upper HB, the disk temperature increases along with an increase in the coronal temperature, which is in sharp contrast with the changes found in black hole binaries where the decrease in the QPO frequency is accompanied by a decrease in the disk temperature and a simultaneous increase in the coronal temperature. We discuss the results in the context of re-condensation of coronal material in the inner region of the disk.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leena Merdad
Full Text Available Millennium Development Goal 5 has not been universally achieved, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Understanding whether maternal deaths occur during pregnancy, childbirth, or puerperium is important to effectively plan maternal health programs and allocate resources. Our main research objectives are to (1 describe the proportions and rates of mortality for the antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum periods; (2 document how these trends vary by sub-region; and (3 investigate ecological correlations between these rates and maternal care interventions. We used data from the Demographic and Health Survey program, which comprises 84 surveys from 34 sub-Saharan African countries conducted between 1990 and 2014. We calculated age-standardized maternal mortality rates and time-specific maternal mortality rates and proportions, and we assessed correlations with maternal care coverage. We found high levels of maternal mortality in all three periods. Time-specific maternal mortality rates varied by country and region, with some showing an orderly decline in all three periods and others exhibiting alarming increases in antepartum and postpartum mortality. Ecological analysis showed that antenatal care coverage was significantly associated with low antepartum mortality, whereas the presence of a skilled attendant at childbirth was significantly associated with low postpartum mortality. In sub-Saharan Africa, maternal deaths occur at high rates in all three risk periods, and vary substantially by country and region. The provision of maternal care is a predictor of time-specific maternal mortality. These results confirm the need for country-specific interventions during the continuum of care to achieve the global commitment to eliminating preventable maternal mortality.
Pichette, Charles; Giudice, Andrea; Thibault, Simon; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves
2016-11-20
Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) achieving high timing resolution (≈20-50 ps) developed for time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) generally have very small photosensitive areas (25-100 μm in diameter). This limits the achievable photon counting rate and signal-to-noise ratio and may lead to long counting times. This is detrimental in applications requiring several measurements, such as fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscopy, which requires scanning, and time-domain diffuse optical tomography (TD-DOT). We show in this work that the use of an immersion lens directly affixed onto the photosensitive area of the SPAD helps alleviate this problem by allowing more light to be concentrated onto the detector. Following careful optical design and simulations, our experimental results show that it is actually possible to achieve the predicted theoretical increase in the photon counting rate (we achieve a factor of ≈4 here). This work is of high relevance in high timing resolution TCSPC with small photosensitive area detectors and should find widespread interest in FLIM and TD-DOT with SPADs.
Correlated initial condition for an embedded process by time partitioning
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Velický, Bedřich; Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav
2010-01-01
Roč. 81, č. 23 (2010), 235116/1-235116/12 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : non-equilibrium * Initial conditions * decay of correlations * Green's functions * quantum transport equations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.772, year: 2010
SU-E-T-45: Antibody Mean Residence Time in Blood and Its Correlation with Protein Molecular Weight
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwok, C; Williams, L [Retired from City of Hope Medical Center, Arcadia, CA (United States)
2014-06-01
Purpose: Animal biodistribution data are required prior to introducing a new radiopharmaceutical into clinical trials. Protein engineering, using recombinant DNA techniques can produce a large number of related (cognate) antibodies to a given molecular target. Thus, it is important that these constructs be numerically related to one another via a single criterion. In the following, we use the mean residence time (MRT) in murine blood as this criterion. Methods: Five cognate anti-CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) antibodies were compared with regard to their MRT in whole blood of CEA-positive tumor-bearing (LS174T) mice. MRT was defined by blood AUC (area under the curve) divided by the initial blood uptake value; all in units of percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g). Cognates included single chain scFv (25 kDa), diabody (50 kDa), minibody (80 kDa), F(ab')2 (120 kDa), and intact (155 kDa) forms of the murine cT84.66 antibody against CEA. All were labeled with radioactive iodine. Results: The agents, in the sequence listed, exhibited MRT values of 1.16 +/- 0.01 h, 0.99 h, 5.06 +/- 0.70 h, 6.61 +/- 0.36 h, and 59.3 +/- 2.4 h respectively. Because of the monotonic nature of the sequence, a linear correlation analysis was performed between molecular weight (MW) and MRT or ln(MRT) of the 5 proteins. Probability of random correlation was 0.10 for MRT and 0.01 for ln(MRT). Conclusion: MRT values of cognate anti-CEA antibodies were found to be a monotonically increasing sequence with respect to MW. Cognate MW values correlated best to ln(MRT) of the protein species. Thus MRT was proportional to an exponential function of molecular weight. The extended intact antibody circulation time presumably reflected its relatively maximal MW. Presence of an intact FC segment on this native antibody may also have influenced these results.
SU-E-T-45: Antibody Mean Residence Time in Blood and Its Correlation with Protein Molecular Weight
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwok, C; Williams, L
2014-01-01
Purpose: Animal biodistribution data are required prior to introducing a new radiopharmaceutical into clinical trials. Protein engineering, using recombinant DNA techniques can produce a large number of related (cognate) antibodies to a given molecular target. Thus, it is important that these constructs be numerically related to one another via a single criterion. In the following, we use the mean residence time (MRT) in murine blood as this criterion. Methods: Five cognate anti-CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) antibodies were compared with regard to their MRT in whole blood of CEA-positive tumor-bearing (LS174T) mice. MRT was defined by blood AUC (area under the curve) divided by the initial blood uptake value; all in units of percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g). Cognates included single chain scFv (25 kDa), diabody (50 kDa), minibody (80 kDa), F(ab')2 (120 kDa), and intact (155 kDa) forms of the murine cT84.66 antibody against CEA. All were labeled with radioactive iodine. Results: The agents, in the sequence listed, exhibited MRT values of 1.16 +/- 0.01 h, 0.99 h, 5.06 +/- 0.70 h, 6.61 +/- 0.36 h, and 59.3 +/- 2.4 h respectively. Because of the monotonic nature of the sequence, a linear correlation analysis was performed between molecular weight (MW) and MRT or ln(MRT) of the 5 proteins. Probability of random correlation was 0.10 for MRT and 0.01 for ln(MRT). Conclusion: MRT values of cognate anti-CEA antibodies were found to be a monotonically increasing sequence with respect to MW. Cognate MW values correlated best to ln(MRT) of the protein species. Thus MRT was proportional to an exponential function of molecular weight. The extended intact antibody circulation time presumably reflected its relatively maximal MW. Presence of an intact FC segment on this native antibody may also have influenced these results
Cross-correlations and influence in world gold markets
Lin, Min; Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; Stanley, H. Eugene
2018-01-01
Using the detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) coefficient and the detrended partial cross-correlation analysis (DPCCA) coefficient, we investigate cross-correlations and net cross-correlations among five major world gold markets (London, New York, Shanghai, Tokyo, and Mumbai) at different time scales. We propose multiscale influence measures for examining the influence of individual markets on other markets and on the entire system. We find (i) that the cross-correlations, net cross-correlations, and net influences among the five gold markets vary across time scales, (ii) that the cross-market correlation between London and New York at each time scale is intense and inherent, meaning that the influence of other gold markets on the London-New York market is negligible, (iii) that the remaining cross-market correlations (i.e., those other than London-New York) are greatly affected by other gold markets, and (iv) that the London gold market significantly affects the other four gold markets and dominates the world-wide gold market. Our multiscale findings give market participants and market regulators new information on cross-market linkages in the world-wide gold market.
Mean first-passage time of an asymmetric bistable system driven by colour-correlated noise
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Xiao-Yan; Xu Wei
2007-01-01
In this paper, the effect of every parameter (including p, q,r, λ,τ) on the mean first-passage time (MFPT) is investigated in an asymmetric bistable system driven by colour-correlated noise. The expression of MFPT has been obtained by applying the steepest-descent approximation. Numerical results show that (1) the intensity of multiplicative noise p and the intensity of additive noise q play different roles in the MFPT of the system, (2) suppression appears on the curve of the MFPT with small λ (e.g. λ＜ 0.5) but there is a peak on the curve of the MFPT when λ is big (e.g.λ＞ 0.5), and (3) with different values of r (e.g. r = 0.1, 0.5, 1.5), the effort of τ on the MFPT is diverse.
Trajectories of Brownian particles with space-correlated noise
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Spatial correlations of the noise are usually ruled out, and the paths traced by the random walkers are statistically independent. In this study, I consider instead noise which is white in time and has a Gaussian correlation in space, and by means of numerical simulation, I show how the spatial correlation determines the time ...
Dynamics of Correlation Structure in Stock Market
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maman Abdurachman Djauhari
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper a correction factor for Jennrich’s statistic is introduced in order to be able not only to test the stability of correlation structure, but also to identify the time windows where the instability occurs. If Jennrich’s statistic is only to test the stability of correlation structure along predetermined non-overlapping time windows, the corrected statistic provides us with the history of correlation structure dynamics from time window to time window. A graphical representation will be provided to visualize that history. This information is necessary to make further analysis about, for example, the change of topological properties of minimal spanning tree. An example using NYSE data will illustrate its advantages.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, J. Rasmus; Kristensen, Kasper; Lewy, Peter
2014-01-01
Trawl survey data with high spatial and seasonal coverage were analysed using a variant of the Log Gaussian Cox Process (LGCP) statistical model to estimate unbiased relative fish densities. The model estimates correlations between observations according to time, space, and fish size and includes...
Fractal approach towards power-law coherency to measure cross-correlations between time series
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krištoufek, Ladislav
2017-01-01
Roč. 50, č. 1 (2017), s. 193-200 ISSN 1007-5704 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-11402P Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : power- law coherency * power- law cross-correlations * correlations Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.784, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/E/kristoufek-0473066.pdf
Response of spiking neurons to correlated inputs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moreno, Ruben; Rocha, Jaime de la; Renart, Alfonso; Parga, Nestor
2002-01-01
The effect of a temporally correlated afferent current on the firing rate of a leaky integrate-and-fire neuron is studied. This current is characterized in terms of rates, autocorrelations, and cross correlations, and correlation time scale τ c of excitatory and inhibitory inputs. The output rate ν out is calculated in the Fokker-Planck formalism in the limit of both small and large τ c compared to the membrane time constant τ of the neuron. By simulations we check the analytical results, provide an interpolation valid for all τ c , and study the neuron's response to rapid changes in the correlation magnitude
Lin, Ai-Ling; Fox, Peter T; Yang, Yihong; Lu, Hanzhang; Tan, Li-Hai; Gao, Jia-Hong
2009-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between relative cerebral blood flow (delta CBF) and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (delta CMRO(2)) during continuous visual stimulation (21 min at 8 Hz) with fMRI biophysical models by simultaneously measuring of BOLD, CBF and CBV fMRI signals. The delta CMRO(2) was determined by both a newly calibrated single-compartment model (SCM) and a multi-compartment model (MCM) and was in agreement between these two models (P>0.5). The duration-varying delta CBF and delta CMRO(2) showed a negative correlation with time (r=-0.97, PSCM, an incorrect and even an opposite appearance of the flow-metabolism relationship during prolonged visual stimulation (positively linear coupling) can result. The time-dependent negative correlation between flow and metabolism demonstrated in this fMRI study is consistent with a previous PET observation and further supports the view that the increase in CBF is driven by factors other than oxygen demand and the energy demands will eventually require increased aerobic metabolism as stimulation continues.
Madsen, Line Meldgaard; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Auken, Esben; Christiansen, Anders Vest
2017-12-01
The application of time-domain induced polarization (TDIP) is increasing with advances in acquisition techniques, data processing and spectral inversion schemes. An inversion of TDIP data for the spectral Cole-Cole parameters is a non-linear problem, but by applying a 1-D Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inversion algorithm, a full non-linear uncertainty analysis of the parameters and the parameter correlations can be accessed. This is essential to understand to what degree the spectral Cole-Cole parameters can be resolved from TDIP data. MCMC inversions of synthetic TDIP data, which show bell-shaped probability distributions with a single maximum, show that the Cole-Cole parameters can be resolved from TDIP data if an acquisition range above two decades in time is applied. Linear correlations between the Cole-Cole parameters are observed and by decreasing the acquisitions ranges, the correlations increase and become non-linear. It is further investigated how waveform and parameter values influence the resolution of the Cole-Cole parameters. A limiting factor is the value of the frequency exponent, C. As C decreases, the resolution of all the Cole-Cole parameters decreases and the results become increasingly non-linear. While the values of the time constant, τ, must be in the acquisition range to resolve the parameters well, the choice between a 50 per cent and a 100 per cent duty cycle for the current injection does not have an influence on the parameter resolution. The limits of resolution and linearity are also studied in a comparison between the MCMC and a linearized gradient-based inversion approach. The two methods are consistent for resolved models, but the linearized approach tends to underestimate the uncertainties for poorly resolved parameters due to the corresponding non-linear features. Finally, an MCMC inversion of 1-D field data verifies that spectral Cole-Cole parameters can also be resolved from TD field measurements.
Thermocouple correlation transit time flowmeter tests at WCL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lassahn, G.D.
1976-11-01
Scoping tests indicate the feasibility for using transit time flowmeters with thermocouple sensors in steam-water steady state flow. Conclusive results were not obtained. More conclusive results are expected from tests to be conducted in the semiscale facility with a redesigned transit time thermocouple sensor
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bahman Navidshad
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The applications of conventional culture-dependent assays to quantify bacteria populations are limited by their dependence on the inconsistent success of the different culture-steps involved. In addition, some bacteria can be pathogenic or a source of endotoxins and pose a health risk to the researchers. Bacterial quantification based on the real-time PCR method can overcome the above-mentioned problems. However, the quantification of bacteria using this approach is commonly expressed as absolute quantities even though the composition of samples (like those of digesta can vary widely; thus, the final results may be affected if the samples are not properly homogenized, especially when multiple samples are to be pooled together before DNA extraction. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation coefficients between four different methods of expressing the output data of real-time PCR-based bacterial quantification. The four methods were: (i the common absolute method expressed as the cell number of specific bacteria per gram of digesta; (ii the Livak and Schmittgen, ΔΔCt method; (iii the Pfaffl equation; and (iv a simple relative method based on the ratio of cell number of specific bacteria to the total bacterial cells. Because of the effect on total bacteria population in the results obtained using ΔCt-based methods (ΔΔCt and Pfaffl, these methods lack the acceptable consistency to be used as valid and reliable methods in real-time PCR-based bacterial quantification studies. On the other hand, because of the variable compositions of digesta samples, a simple ratio of cell number of specific bacteria to the corresponding total bacterial cells of the same sample can be a more accurate method to quantify the population.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Chang Ho; Kim, Hee Kyung; Shiraj, Sahar; Anton, Christopher; Kim, Dong Hoon; Horn, Paul S.
2016-01-01
Patellofemoral instability is one of the most common causes of cartilage damage in teenagers. To quantitatively evaluate the patellar cartilage in patients with patellofemoral instability using T2 relaxation time maps (T2 maps), compare the values to those in patients without patellofemoral instability and correlate them with morphological grades in patients with patellofemoral instability. Fifty-three patients with patellofemoral instability (mean age: 15.9 ± 2.4 years) and 53 age- and gender-matched patients without patellofemoral instability were included. Knee MR with axial T2 map was performed. Mean T2 relaxation times were obtained at the medial, central and lateral zones of the patellar cartilage and compared between the two groups. In the patellofemoral instability group, morphological grading of the patellar cartilage (0-4) was performed and correlated with T2 relaxation times. Mean T2 relaxation times were significantly longer in the group with patellofemoral instability as compared to those of the control group across the patellar cartilage (Student's t-test, P<0.05) with the longest time at the central area. Positive correlation was seen between mean T2 relaxation time and morphological grading (Pearson correlation coefficiency, P<0.001). T2 increased with severity of morphological grading from 0 to 3 (mixed model, P<0.001), but no statistical difference was seen between grades 3 and 4. In patellofemoral instability, patellar cartilage damage occurs across the entire cartilage with the highest T2 values at the apex. T2 relaxation times directly reflect the severity in low-grade cartilage damage, which implies an important role for T2 maps in differentiating between normal and low-grade cartilage damage. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, Zhijie; Shi, Yu.
2012-01-01
We present a general model-independent formalism of measuring CP and CPT violating parameters through time-ordered integrated rates of correlated decays of C=±1 entangled states of neutral pseudoscalar mesons. We give the general formulae of CP and CPT violating parameters in terms of four measurable asymmetries defined for the time-ordered integrated rates, applicable to all kinds of decay product. Two special cases which are often realized in experiments are discussed specifically. (orig.)
Correlation measurement of squeezed light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krivitsky, Leonid; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Dong, R.
2009-01-01
We study the implementation of a correlation measurement technique for the characterization of squeezed light which is nearly free of electronic noise. With two different sources of squeezed light, we show that the sign of the covariance coefficient, revealed from the time-resolved correlation data......, is witnessing the presence of squeezing in the system. Furthermore, we estimate the degree of squeezing using the correlation method and compare it to the standard homodyne measurement scheme. We show that the role of electronic detector noise is minimized using the correlation approach as opposed to homodyning...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Hyun Seok; Kim, Dong-Seok; Shim, Kyu-Won; Kim, Jinna; Kim, Eun Soo; Lee, Seung-Koo
2011-01-01
Background: Moyamoya disease is a chronic progressive steno-occlusion of the distal internal carotid arteries with unknown etiology. As the classical presentation of childhood Moyamoya disease is ischemic stroke, cerebral hemodynamic evaluation is important for patient selection for surgery to prevent recurrent ischemic attacks. Perfusion MR imaging has been applied to evaluate cerebral hemodynamics. Purpose: To correlate the 'basal time-to-peak preservation sign', 'auto-synangiosis sign', and 'posterior involvement sign' on time-to-peak map of perfusion MRI with catheter angiography. Material and Methods: Thirty-four children (6.91 ± 3.08 years) with Moyamoya disease who underwent both perfusion-weighted MRI and catheter angiography were enrolled in this study. Given catheter angiography as a reference standard, basal time-to-peak preservation sign, auto-synangiosis sign, and posterior involvement sign were evaluated on time-to-peak maps. Results: The basal time-to-peak preservation sign was accurate for the diagnosis of childhood Moyamoya disease; both sensitivity and specificity were 100%. The auto-synangiosis sign showed lower sensitivity (65%), however, with an acceptable specificity (98%). The posterior involvement sign showed lower sensitivity (61%) but had an acceptable specificity (96%). Conclusion: The basal time-to-peak preservation sign may be a universal finding in childhood Moyamoya disease. The auto-synangiosis and posterior involvement sign may be useful in determining transdural collateral status and posterior circulation involvement in childhood Moyamoya disease
Noise-Driven Phenotypic Heterogeneity with Finite Correlation Time in Clonal Populations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
UnJin Lee
Full Text Available There has been increasing awareness in the wider biological community of the role of clonal phenotypic heterogeneity in playing key roles in phenomena such as cellular bet-hedging and decision making, as in the case of the phage-λ lysis/lysogeny and B. Subtilis competence/vegetative pathways. Here, we report on the effect of stochasticity in growth rate, cellular memory/intermittency, and its relation to phenotypic heterogeneity. We first present a linear stochastic differential model with finite auto-correlation time, where a randomly fluctuating growth rate with a negative average is shown to result in exponential growth for sufficiently large fluctuations in growth rate. We then present a non-linear stochastic self-regulation model where the loss of coherent self-regulation and an increase in noise can induce a shift from bounded to unbounded growth. An important consequence of these models is that while the average change in phenotype may not differ for various parameter sets, the variance of the resulting distributions may considerably change. This demonstrates the necessity of understanding the influence of variance and heterogeneity within seemingly identical clonal populations, while providing a mechanism for varying functional consequences of such heterogeneity. Our results highlight the importance of a paradigm shift from a deterministic to a probabilistic view of clonality in understanding selection as an optimization problem on noise-driven processes, resulting in a wide range of biological implications, from robustness to environmental stress to the development of drug resistance.
Biswas, Swarup; Dutta, Bula; Bhattacharya, Subhratanu
2014-02-01
The electrical conductivity relaxation in moderately doped polypyrrole and its nanocomposites reinforced with different proportion of silver nanoparticles was investigated in both frequency and time domain. An analytical distribution function of relaxation times is constructed from the results obtained in the frequency domain formalism and is used to evaluate the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) type decay function in the time domain. The thermal evolution of different relaxation parameters was analyzed. The temperature-dependent dc electrical conductivity, estimated from the average conductivity relaxation time is observed to depend strongly on the nanoparticle loading and follows Mott three-dimensional variable range hopping (VRH) conduction mechanism. The extent of charge carrier localization calculated from the VRH mechanism is well correlated to the evidences obtained from the structural characterizations of different nanostructured samples.
Lagrangian velocity correlations in homogeneous isotropic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gotoh, T.; Rogallo, R.S.; Herring, J.R.; Kraichnan, R.H.
1993-01-01
The Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation and the time correlations for individual wave-number bands are computed by direct numerical simulation (DNS) using the passive vector method (PVM), and the accuracy of the method is studied. It is found that the PVM is accurate when K max /k d ≥2 where K max is the maximum wave number carried in the simulation and k d is the Kolmogorov wave number. The Eulerian and Lagrangian time correlations for various wave-number bands are compared. At moderate to high wave number the Eulerian time correlation decays faster than the Lagrangian, and the effect of sweep on the former is observed. The time scale of the Eulerian correlation is found to be (kU 0 ) -1 while that of the Lagrangian is [∫ 0 k p 2 E(p)dp] -1/2 . The Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation in a frozen turbulent field is computed using the DIA, ALHDIA, and LRA theories and is compared with DNS measurements. The Markovianized Lagrangian renormalized approximation (MLRA) is compared with the DNS, and good agreement is found for one-time quantities in decaying turbulence at low Reynolds numbers and for the Lagrangian velocity autocorrelation in stationary turbulence at moderate Reynolds number. The effect of non-Gaussianity on the Lagrangian correlation predicted by the theories is also discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /Lick Observ.; Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Carter, Joshua A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fressin, Francois; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Holman, Matthew J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Lissauer, Jack J.; /NASA, Ames; Moorhead, Althea V.; /Florida U.; Morehead, Robert C.; /Florida U.; Ragozzine, Darin; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Rowe, Jason F.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View /San Diego State U., Astron. Dept.
2012-01-01
We present a new method for confirming transiting planets based on the combination of transit timing variations (TTVs) and dynamical stability. Correlated TTVs provide evidence that the pair of bodies are in the same physical system. Orbital stability provides upper limits for the masses of the transiting companions that are in the planetary regime. This paper describes a non-parametric technique for quantifying the statistical significance of TTVs based on the correlation of two TTV data sets. We apply this method to an analysis of the transit timing variations of two stars with multiple transiting planet candidates identified by Kepler. We confirm four transiting planets in two multiple planet systems based on their TTVs and the constraints imposed by dynamical stability. An additional three candidates in these same systems are not confirmed as planets, but are likely to be validated as real planets once further observations and analyses are possible. If all were confirmed, these systems would be near 4:6:9 and 2:4:6:9 period commensurabilities. Our results demonstrate that TTVs provide a powerful tool for confirming transiting planets, including low-mass planets and planets around faint stars for which Doppler follow-up is not practical with existing facilities. Continued Kepler observations will dramatically improve the constraints on the planet masses and orbits and provide sensitivity for detecting additional non-transiting planets. If Kepler observations were extended to eight years, then a similar analysis could likely confirm systems with multiple closely spaced, small transiting planets in or near the habitable zone of solar-type stars.
Principles of correlation counting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, J.W.
1975-01-01
A review is given of the various applications which have been made of correlation techniques in the field of nuclear physics, in particular for absolute counting. Whereas in most cases the usual coincidence method will be preferable for its simplicity, correlation counting may be the only possible approach in such cases where the two radiations of the cascade cannot be well separated or when there is a longliving intermediate state. The measurement of half-lives and of count rates of spurious pulses is also briefly discussed. The various experimental situations lead to different ways the correlation method is best applied (covariance technique with one or with two detectors, application of correlation functions, etc.). Formulae are given for some simple model cases, neglecting dead-time corrections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirvonen, Liisa M. [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Petrášek, Zdeněk [Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Department of Cellular and Molecular Biophysics, Am Klopferspitz 18, D-82152 Martinsried (Germany); Suhling, Klaus, E-mail: klaus.suhling@kcl.ac.uk [Department of Physics, King' s College London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)
2015-07-01
Fast frame rate CMOS cameras in combination with photon counting intensifiers can be used for fluorescence imaging with single photon sensitivity at kHz frame rates. We show here how the phosphor decay of the image intensifier can be exploited for accurate timing of photon arrival well below the camera exposure time. This is achieved by taking ratios of the intensity of the photon events in two subsequent frames, and effectively allows wide-field TCSPC. This technique was used for measuring decays of ruthenium compound Ru(dpp) with lifetimes as low as 1 μs with 18.5 μs frame exposure time, including in living HeLa cells, using around 0.1 μW excitation power. We speculate that by using an image intensifier with a faster phosphor decay to match a higher camera frame rate, photon arrival time measurements on the nanosecond time scale could well be possible.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dadykin, V.L.; Khalchukov, F.F.; Korchagin, P.V.; Korolkova, E.V.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Mal'gin, A.S.; Ryasny, V.G.; Ryazhskaya, O.G.; Yakushev, V.F.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Aglietta, M.; Badino, G.; Bologna, G.; Castagnoli, C.; Castellina, A.; Fulgione, W.; Galeotti, P.; Saavedra, O.; Trinchero, G.; Vernetto, S.; Turin Univ.
1989-01-01
We have analysed the data of LSD from February 10, 1987, to March 7, 1987, in order to search for autocorrelations between all pulses detected by LSD with energy higher than 5 MeV like those occurred at ∼ 3:00 UT on February 23, 1987, between the pulses detected by 3 neutrino telescopes and 2 gravitational wave antennae. We have found 9 pairs of correlated pulses (muon + low energy pulse) from 5:42 UT to 10:13 UT on February 23, 1987. The time differences of pulses in the pairs are less than 2 s, the first pulse in the pair being either muon or low energy pulse. The frequency of such random poissonian fluctuations is ∼1/(10 years). There are no correlations outside statistics between low energy, low energy pulses and muon, muon pulses detected by LSD during the whole time period
Ignition delay time correlation of fuel blends based on Livengood-Wu description
Khaled, Fathi; Badra, Jihad; Farooq, Aamir
2017-01-01
observed for combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) predictions between simulations performed with detailed chemistry and calculations using the developed ignition delay correlation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deb, Prasenjit; Banik, Manik
2015-01-01
Quantum correlation lies at the very heart of almost all of the non-classical phenomena exhibited by quantum systems composed of two or more subsystems. In recent times it has been pointed out that there is a kind of quantum correlation, namely discord, which is more general than entanglement. Some authors have investigated the phenomenon that for certain initial states the quantum correlations as well as the classical correlations exhibit sudden change under simple Markovian noise. We show that this dynamical behavior of the correlations of both types can be explained using the idea of complementary correlations. We also show that though a certain class of mixed entangled states can resist the monotonic decay of quantum correlations, this is not true for all mixed states. Moreover, pure entangled states of two qubits will never exhibit such sudden change. (paper)
Djupegot, Ingrid Laukeland; Nenseth, Camilla Bengtson; Bere, Elling; Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit Torgeirsdotter; Helland, Sissel Heidi; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stea, Tonje Holte
2017-05-15
Use of ultra-processed foods has expanded rapidly over the last decades and high consumption has been positively associated with risk of e.g. overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ultra-processed foods offer convenience as they require minimal time for preparation. It is therefore reasonable to assume that such foods are consumed more often among people who experience time scarcity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between time scarcity and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents of 2-year olds in Norway. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between sociodemographic correlates, weight status and consumption of ultra-processed foods. This cross-sectional study included 497 participants. Chi-square and cross tabulations were used to calculate proportions of high vs. low consumption of ultra-processed foods in relation to time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and weight status. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to test the relationship between independent variables and consumption of ultra-processed foods. Participants reporting medium and high time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of ultra-processed dinner products (OR = 3. 68, 95% CI = 2. 32-5.84 and OR = 3.10, 1.80-5.35, respectively) and fast foods (OR = 2.60, 1.62-4.18 and OR = 1.90, 1.08-3.32, respectively) compared to those with low time scarcity. Further, participants with medium time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of snacks and soft drinks compared to participants with low time scarcity (OR = 1.63, 1.06-2.49). Finally, gender, ethnicity, educational level, number of children in the household and weight status were identified as important factors associated with the consumption of certain types of ultra-processed foods. Results from the present study showed that time scarcity, various sociodemographic factors and weight status was associated with consumption of processed foods
Correlation between intake and ingestive behavior of pasture-grazed heifers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hermógenes Almeida Santana Junior
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intake and ingestive behavior of crossbred heifers in grazing tropical. The experiment was conducted on the Princesa do Mateiro Farm, in the city of Ribeirão do Largo, Bahia. A total of 20 heifers with genetic makeup 5/8 dairy Guzerá and 3/8 Holstein, average age of 18 months and body weight of 187 ± 13.1 kg have been used. The experiment lasted 224 days and involved animals raised in a rotational grazing system with Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandú. Grazing time was not correlated with any of the variables associated with intake. Rumination time showed positive correlations with the intake of forage dry matter (DMIF and neutral detergent fiber (NDFI. Variables associated with the time spent on feeding at the trough, overall feeding and total chewing were not correlated with intake (P>0.05. There have been positive correlations between the number of grazing periods (NGP and rumination periods (NRP and total DM intake (TDMI, organic matter (OMI, forage (DMIF, neutral detergent fiber (NDFI, total carbohydrates (TCHI and ether extract (EEI. Crude protein intake (CPI was positively correlated with NGP and NRP. The mouthful rate was positively correlated with TDMI, OMI, DMIF, NDFI, TCHI, EEI and CPI. Average time per swallow was negatively correlated with TDMI, OMI, NDFI, TCHI and EEI. Positive correlations have been observed between the number of mouthfuls per day and TDMI, OMI, DMIF, NDFI, TCHI, EEI. The number of chews per bolus showed negative correlations with DMIS and CPI. The time per cake ruminated has correlated negatively with the intake of crude protein. The number of chews per bolus showed positive correlations with the intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber. The number of boli per day showed positive correlations with DMIF and TCHI. The time spent on chewing showed no significant correlation with intake. In conflict with the national and international
Temporal evolution of financial-market correlations
Fenn, Daniel J.; Porter, Mason A.; Williams, Stacy; McDonald, Mark; Johnson, Neil F.; Jones, Nick S.
2011-08-01
We investigate financial market correlations using random matrix theory and principal component analysis. We use random matrix theory to demonstrate that correlation matrices of asset price changes contain structure that is incompatible with uncorrelated random price changes. We then identify the principal components of these correlation matrices and demonstrate that a small number of components accounts for a large proportion of the variability of the markets that we consider. We characterize the time-evolving relationships between the different assets by investigating the correlations between the asset price time series and principal components. Using this approach, we uncover notable changes that occurred in financial markets and identify the assets that were significantly affected by these changes. We show in particular that there was an increase in the strength of the relationships between several different markets following the 2007-2008 credit and liquidity crisis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki, Kazufumi; Hosokawa, Yoichiro; Kaneko, Masanori; Ohmori, Keiichi; Minowa, Kazuyuki; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Yamasaki, Michio (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Dentistry)
1992-04-01
Salivary gland scintigraphy with {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} is a simple method to evaluate salivary gland function and has been available as a technique using a time/activity curve for a number of years. But, there were few reports on the relationship between the various patterns of the time/activity curves and the salivary flow rate from the gland. This presents correlation between the time/activity curve pattern and the salivary flow rate from the parotid gland. Sixty-five patients complaining of xerostomia were examined. Sixty-two were female and 3 male (average age 45.6 years, range 17-69 years). Their diagnosis were 26 Sjoegren Syndrome, 28 suspicion of Sjoegren Syndrome and 11 parotiditis. The salivary flow rate from parotid gland was measured by stimulation with 10% citric acid using modified Carlson crittenden cup every 10 seconds for 5 min. 185 MBq {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}{sup -} was injected intravenously and sequential scintigraphy was performed. Time/activity curves were recorded on film. Six kinds of basic patterns were as follows: normal pattern, median pattern, flat pattern and sloped pattern (Mita et al 1981), reaccumulation flat pattern and poor secretion (Stimulant secretory ratio: less than 70%) pattern by us. The amount of saliva was as follows: normal pattern (n=31), 5.4+0.4 ml; reaccumulation flat pattern (n=3), 4.2+0.6 ml; poor secretion pattern (n=18), 4.1+0.5 ml; median pattern (n=20), 3.5+0.5 ml; flat pattern (n=11), 2.6+0.5 ml and sloped pattern (n=1), 1.5 ml. Normal pattern versus poor secretion pattern, median pattern and flat pattern in the salivary flow rate were statistically significant as determined by Students' t-test. We assessed the correlation between the pattern of time/activity curve in the salivary gland scintigraphy and the amount of saliva. (author).
Correlations and clustering in wholesale electricity markets
Cui, Tianyu; Caravelli, Francesco; Ududec, Cozmin
2018-02-01
We study the structure of locational marginal prices in day-ahead and real-time wholesale electricity markets. In particular, we consider the case of two North American markets and show that the price correlations contain information on the locational structure of the grid. We study various clustering methods and introduce a type of correlation function based on event synchronization for spiky time series, and another based on string correlations of location names provided by the markets. This allows us to reconstruct aspects of the locational structure of the grid.
Correlations and clustering in wholesale electricity markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cui, Tianyu; Caravelli, Francesco; Ududec, Cozmin
2017-01-01
We study the structure of locational marginal prices in day-ahead and real-time wholesale electricity markets. In particular, we consider the case of two North American markets and show that the price correlations contain information on the locational structure of the grid. We study various clustering methods and introduce a type of correlation function based on event synchronization for spiky time series, and another based on string correlations of location names provided by the markets. As a result, this allows us to reconstruct aspects of the locational structure of the grid.
Chen, XiaFang; Du, XueLiang; Zhu, JianXing; Xie, LiJuan; Zhang, YongJun; He, ZhenJuan
2012-07-01
The objective was to elucidate the relationships between serum concentrations of the gut hormone peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin and growth development in infants for potential application to the clinical observation index. Serum concentrations of PYY and ghrelin were measured using radioimmunoassay from samples collected at the clinic. For each patient, gestational age, birth weight, time required to return to birth weight, rate of weight gain, time required to achieve recommended daily intake (RDI) standards, time required for full-gastric feeding, duration of hospitalization, and time of administration of total parenteral nutrition were recorded. Serum PYY and ghrelin concentrations were significantly higher in the preterm group (N = 20) than in the full-term group (N = 20; P weight, and the degree of correlation varied with age. Serum ghrelin concentration correlated negatively with birth weight and positively with the time required to achieve RDI (P newborns and to determine the usefulness of measuring these hormones in clinical practice.
Correlation and Stacking of Relative Paleointensity and Oxygen Isotope Data
Lurcock, P. C.; Channell, J. E.; Lee, D.
2012-12-01
The transformation of a depth-series into a time-series is routinely implemented in the geological sciences. This transformation often involves correlation of a depth-series to an astronomically calibrated time-series. Eyeball tie-points with linear interpolation are still regularly used, although these have the disadvantages of being non-repeatable and not based on firm correlation criteria. Two automated correlation methods are compared: the simulated annealing algorithm (Huybers and Wunsch, 2004) and the Match protocol (Lisiecki and Lisiecki, 2002). Simulated annealing seeks to minimize energy (cross-correlation) as "temperature" is slowly decreased. The Match protocol divides records into intervals, applies penalty functions that constrain accumulation rates, and minimizes the sum of the squares of the differences between two series while maintaining the data sequence in each series. Paired relative paleointensity (RPI) and oxygen isotope records, such as those from IODP Site U1308 and/or reference stacks such as LR04 and PISO, are warped using known warping functions, and then the un-warped and warped time-series are correlated to evaluate the efficiency of the correlation methods. Correlations are performed in tandem to simultaneously optimize RPI and oxygen isotope data. Noise spectra are introduced at differing levels to determine correlation efficiency as noise levels change. A third potential method, known as dynamic time warping, involves minimizing the sum of distances between correlated point pairs across the whole series. A "cost matrix" between the two series is analyzed to find a least-cost path through the matrix. This least-cost path is used to nonlinearly map the time/depth of one record onto the depth/time of another. Dynamic time warping can be expanded to more than two dimensions and used to stack multiple time-series. This procedure can improve on arithmetic stacks, which often lose coherent high-frequency content during the stacking process.
Understanding the amplitudes of noise correlation measurements
Tsai, Victor C.
2011-01-01
Cross correlation of ambient seismic noise is known to result in time series from which station-station travel-time measurements can be made. Part of the reason that these cross-correlation travel-time measurements are reliable is that there exists a theoretical framework that quantifies how these travel times depend on the features of the ambient noise. However, corresponding theoretical results do not currently exist to describe how the amplitudes of the cross correlation depend on such features. For example, currently it is not possible to take a given distribution of noise sources and calculate the cross correlation amplitudes one would expect from such a distribution. Here, we provide a ray-theoretical framework for calculating cross correlations. This framework differs from previous work in that it explicitly accounts for attenuation as well as the spatial distribution of sources and therefore can address the issue of quantifying amplitudes in noise correlation measurements. After introducing the general framework, we apply it to two specific problems. First, we show that we can quantify the amplitudes of coherency measurements, and find that the decay of coherency with station-station spacing depends crucially on the distribution of noise sources. We suggest that researchers interested in performing attenuation measurements from noise coherency should first determine how the dominant sources of noise are distributed. Second, we show that we can quantify the signal-to-noise ratio of noise correlations more precisely than previous work, and that these signal-to-noise ratios can be estimated for given situations prior to the deployment of seismometers. It is expected that there are applications of the theoretical framework beyond the two specific cases considered, but these applications await future work.
Altamore, Ilaria; Lanzano, Luca; Gratton, Enrico
2013-06-01
We describe a novel method to detect very low concentrations of bacteria in water. Our device consists of a portable horizontal geometry small confocal microscope with large pinhole and a holder for cylindrical cuvettes containing the sample. Two motors provide fast rotational and slow vertical motion of the cuvette so the device looks like a simplified flow cytometer without flow. To achieve high sensitivity, the design has two detection channels. Bacteria are stained by two different nucleic acid dyes and excited with two different lasers. Data are analyzed with a correlation filter based on particle passage pattern recognition. The passage of a particle through the illumination volume is compared with a Gaussian pattern in both channels. The width of the Gaussian correlates with the time of passage of the particle so one particle is counted when the algorithm finds a match with a Gaussian in both channels. The concentration of particles in the sample is deduced from the total number of coincident hits and the total volume scanned. This portable setup provides higher sensitivity, low-cost advantage, and it can have a wide use ranging from clinical applications to pollution monitors and water and air quality control.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Altamore, Ilaria; Lanzano, Luca; Gratton, Enrico
2013-01-01
We describe a novel method to detect very low concentrations of bacteria in water. Our device consists of a portable horizontal geometry small confocal microscope with large pinhole and a holder for cylindrical cuvettes containing the sample. Two motors provide fast rotational and slow vertical motion of the cuvette so the device looks like a simplified flow cytometer without flow. To achieve high sensitivity, the design has two detection channels. Bacteria are stained by two different nucleic acid dyes and excited with two different lasers. Data are analyzed with a correlation filter based on particle passage pattern recognition. The passage of a particle through the illumination volume is compared with a Gaussian pattern in both channels. The width of the Gaussian correlates with the time of passage of the particle so one particle is counted when the algorithm finds a match with a Gaussian in both channels. The concentration of particles in the sample is deduced from the total number of coincident hits and the total volume scanned. This portable setup provides higher sensitivity, low-cost advantage, and it can have a wide use ranging from clinical applications to pollution monitors and water and air quality control. (paper)
Spatial correlations in compressible granular flows
Van Noije, T. P. C.; Ernst, M. H.; Brito López, Ricardo
1998-01-01
The clustering instability in freely evolving granular fluids manifests itself in the density-density correlation function and structure factor. These functions are calculated from fluctuating hydrodynamics. As time increases, the structure factor of density fluctuations develops a maximum, which shifts to smaller wave numbers (growing correlation length). Furthermore, the inclusion of longitudinal velocity fluctuations changes long-range correlations in the flow field qualitatively and exten...
Neural correlates of time versus money in product evaluation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastian eLehmann
2012-10-01
Full Text Available The common saying time is money reflects the widespread belief in many people’s everyday life that time is valuable like money. Psychologically and neurophysiologically, however, these concepts seem to be quite different. This research replicates prior behavioral investigations by showing that merely mentioning time (compared to merely mentioning money leads participants to evaluate a product more positively. Beyond this finding, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI experiment provides novel insight into the neurophysiological underpinnings of this behavioral effect by showing that more positive product evaluations in the time primes (compared to money primes are preceded by increased activation in the insula. Our data, therefore, support the idea of a time mindset that is different from a money mindset. Studies on the functional neuroanatomy of the insula have implicated this brain area in distinct but related psychological phenomena such as urging, addiction, loss aversion, and love. These functions imply greater personal connection between the consumer and a target subject or object and, thus, help explain why time-primed consumers rate products more positively.
Correlation Functions in Open Quantum-Classical Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang-Yu Hsieh
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Quantum time correlation functions are often the principal objects of interest in experimental investigations of the dynamics of quantum systems. For instance, transport properties, such as diffusion and reaction rate coefficients, can be obtained by integrating these functions. The evaluation of such correlation functions entails sampling from quantum equilibrium density operators and quantum time evolution of operators. For condensed phase and complex systems, where quantum dynamics is difficult to carry out, approximations must often be made to compute these functions. We present a general scheme for the computation of correlation functions, which preserves the full quantum equilibrium structure of the system and approximates the time evolution with quantum-classical Liouville dynamics. Several aspects of the scheme are discussed, including a practical and general approach to sample the quantum equilibrium density, the properties of the quantum-classical Liouville equation in the context of correlation function computations, simulation schemes for the approximate dynamics and their interpretation and connections to other approximate quantum dynamical methods.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raptis, A.C.; Popper, G.F.
1977-08-01
On April 14, 1976, EG and G performed the Semiscale Blowdown 29-1 experiment to try to establish the feasibility of using a transit time flowmeter (TTF) to measure transient blowdown two-phase flow rates. The recorded signals from that experiment were made available to and analyzed by the Argonne National Laboratory using the transfer function cross-correlation technique. The theoretical background for the transfer function method of analysis and the results of the data analysis are presented. Histograms of transit time during the blowdown are shown and topics for further investigation are identified
Pinto, Luciano Moreira; Costa, Elaine Fiod; Melo, Luiz Alberto S; Gross, Paula Blasco; Sato, Eduardo Toshio; Almeida, Andrea Pereira; Maia, Andre; Paranhos, Augusto
2014-04-10
We examined the structure-function relationship between two perimetric tests, the frequency doubling technology (FDT) matrix and standard automated perimetry (SAP), and two optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices (time-domain and spectral-domain). This cross-sectional study included 97 eyes from 29 healthy individuals, and 68 individuals with early, moderate, or advanced primary open-angle glaucoma. The correlations between overall and sectorial parameters of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) measured with Stratus and Spectralis OCT, and the visual field sensitivity obtained with FDT matrix and SAP were assessed. The relationship also was evaluated using a previously described linear model. The correlation coefficients for the threshold sensitivity measured with SAP and Stratus OCT ranged from 0.44 to 0.79, and those for Spectralis OCT ranged from 0.30 to 0.75. Regarding FDT matrix, the correlation ranged from 0.40 to 0.79 with Stratus OCT and from 0.39 to 0.79 with Spectralis OCT. Stronger correlations were found in the overall measurements and the arcuate sectors for both visual fields and OCT devices. A linear relationship was observed between FDT matrix sensitivity and the OCT devices. The previously described linear model fit the data from SAP and the OCT devices well, particularly in the inferotemporal sector. The FDT matrix and SAP visual sensitivities were related strongly to the RNFL thickness measured with the Stratus and Spectralis OCT devices, particularly in the overall and arcuate sectors. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.
Zaripov, D. I.; Renfu, Li
2018-05-01
The implementation of high-efficiency digital image correlation methods based on a zero-normalized cross-correlation (ZNCC) procedure for high-speed, time-resolved measurements using a high-resolution digital camera is associated with big data processing and is often time consuming. In order to speed-up ZNCC computation, a high-speed technique based on a parallel projection correlation procedure is proposed. The proposed technique involves the use of interrogation window projections instead of its two-dimensional field of luminous intensity. This simplification allows acceleration of ZNCC computation up to 28.8 times compared to ZNCC calculated directly, depending on the size of interrogation window and region of interest. The results of three synthetic test cases, such as a one-dimensional uniform flow, a linear shear flow and a turbulent boundary-layer flow, are discussed in terms of accuracy. In the latter case, the proposed technique is implemented together with an iterative window-deformation technique. On the basis of the results of the present work, the proposed technique is recommended to be used for initial velocity field calculation, with further correction using more accurate techniques.
Verloigne, Maïté; Van Lippevelde, Wendy; Bere, Elling; Manios, Yannis; Kovács, Éva; Grillenberger, Monika; Maes, Lea; Brug, Johannes; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse
2015-09-18
The aim was to investigate which individual and family environmental factors are related to television and computer time separately in 10- to-12-year-old children within and across five European countries (Belgium, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Norway). Data were used from the ENERGY-project. Children and one of their parents completed a questionnaire, including questions on screen time behaviours and related individual and family environmental factors. Family environmental factors included social, political, economic and physical environmental factors. Complete data were obtained from 2022 child-parent dyads (53.8 % girls, mean child age 11.2 ± 0.8 years; mean parental age 40.5 ± 5.1 years). To examine the association between individual and family environmental factors (i.e. independent variables) and television/computer time (i.e. dependent variables) in each country, multilevel regression analyses were performed using MLwiN 2.22, adjusting for children's sex and age. In all countries, children reported more television and/or computer time, if children and their parents thought that the maximum recommended level for watching television and/or using the computer was higher and if children had a higher preference for television watching and/or computer use and a lower self-efficacy to control television watching and/or computer use. Most physical and economic environmental variables were not significantly associated with television or computer time. Slightly more individual factors were related to children's computer time and more parental social environmental factors to children's television time. We also found different correlates across countries: parental co-participation in television watching was significantly positively associated with children's television time in all countries, except for Greece. A higher level of parental television and computer time was only associated with a higher level of children's television and computer time in Hungary. Having rules
WenJun Zhang; Xin Li
2015-01-01
Between-taxon interactions can be detected by calculating the sampling data of taxon sample type. In present study, Spearman rank correlation and proportion correlation are chosen as the general correlation measures, and their partial correlations are calculated and compared. The results show that for Spearman rank correlation measure, in all predicted candidate direct interactions by partial correlation, about 16.77% (x, 0-45.4%) of them are not successfully detected by Spearman rank correla...
The analysis of nonstationary time series using regression, correlation and cointegration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Johansen, Søren
2012-01-01
There are simple well-known conditions for the validity of regression and correlation as statistical tools. We analyse by examples the effect of nonstationarity on inference using these methods and compare them to model based inference using the cointegrated vector autoregressive model. Finally we...... analyse some monthly data from US on interest rates as an illustration of the methods...
Vasterling, Margarete; Wegler, Ulrich; Bruestle, Andrea; Becker, Jan
2016-04-01
Real time information on the locations and magnitudes of induced earthquakes is essential for response plans based on the magnitude frequency distribution. We developed and tested a real time cross-correlation detector focusing on induced microseismicity in deep geothermal reservoirs. The incoming seismological data are cross-correlated in real time with a set of known master events. We use the envelopes of the seismograms rather than the seismograms themselves to account for small changes in the source locations or in the focal mechanisms. Two different detection conditions are implemented: After first passing a single trace correlation condition, secondly a network correlation is calculated taking the amplitude information of the seismic network into account. The magnitude is estimated by using the respective ratio of the maximum amplitudes of the master event and the detected event. The detector is implemented as a real time tool and put into practice as a SeisComp3 module, an established open source software for seismological real time data handling and analysis. We validated the reliability and robustness of the detector by an offline playback test using four month of data from monitoring the power plant in Insheim (Upper Rhine Graben, SW Germany). Subsequently, in October 2013 the detector was installed as real time monitoring system within the project "MAGS2 - Microseismic Activity of Geothermal Systems". Master events from the two neighboring geothermal power plants in Insheim and Landau and two nearby quarries are defined. After detection, manual phase determination and event location are performed at the local seismological survey of the Geological Survey and Mining Authority of Rhineland-Palatinate. Until November 2015 the detector identified 454 events out of which 95% were assigned correctly to the respective source. 5% were misdetections caused by local tectonic events. To evaluate the completeness of the automatically obtained catalogue, it is
Doubling time of thymic epithelial tumours on CT: correlation with histological subtype
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choe, Jooae; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Namkug; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Seo, Joon Beom [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Songpa-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Soyeoun [Ulsan University Hospital, Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Se Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-10-15
We retrospectively evaluated the doubling time (DT) of thymic epithelial tumours (TET) according to the histological subtype on CT. From January 2005 to June 2016, we enrolled 53 patients who had pathologically confirmed TET and at least two CT scans. Tumour size was measured using a two-dimensional method, and the DT was calculated. DTs were compared among histological subtypes, and factors associated with rapid tumour growth (DT <180 days) were assessed. In 42 of the 53 patients (79.2%) the tumours showed interval growth (>2 mm) during follow-up. The median DT for all tumours was 400 days (range 48-1,964 days). There were no significant differences in DT in relation to histological subtype (p = 0.177). When TETs were recategorized into three groups, i.e. low-risk thymomas (types A, AB, B1), high-risk thymomas (types B2, B3), and thymic carcinoma, DT was significantly different among the groups (median DT 436, 381 and 189 days, respectively; p = 0.031). Histological subtype (type B3 and thymic carcinoma) was the single independent predictor of rapid tumour growth. The majority of TETs grew during follow-up with variable and relatively slow growth rates. Histological features of aggressive behaviour significantly correlated with a decreased DT and rapid growth. circle The majority of thymic epithelial tumours grew during follow-up (79.2%, 42/53). (orig.)
Rui, Wei; Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiaojun
2017-09-18
Acoustic scattering medium is a fundamental challenge for photoacoustic imaging. In this study, we reveal the different coherent properties of the scattering photoacoustic waves and the direct photoacoustic waves in a matrix form. Direct waves show a particular coherence on the antidiagonals of the matrix, whereas scattering waves do not. Based on this property, a correlation matrix filter combining with a time reversal operator is proposed to preserve the direct waves and recover the image behind a scattering layer. Both numerical simulations and photoacoustic imaging experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach effectively increases the image contrast and decreases the background speckles in a scattering medium. This study might improve the quality of photoacoustic imaging in an acoustic scattering environment and extend its applications.
Estimation of Correlation Functions by Random Decrement
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asmussen, J. C.; Brincker, Rune
This paper illustrates how correlation functions can be estimated by the random decrement technique. Several different formulations of the random decrement technique, estimating the correlation functions are considered. The speed and accuracy of the different formulations of the random decrement...... and the length of the correlation functions. The accuracy of the estimates with respect to the theoretical correlation functions and the modal parameters are both investigated. The modal parameters are extracted from the correlation functions using the polyreference time domain technique....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seo, Mirinae; Sohn, Yu Mee [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jung Kyu; Jahng, Geon Ho; Rhee, Sun Jung; Oh, Jang Hoon; Won, Kyu Yeoun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, College of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2017-01-15
The purpose of this study was to estimate the T2* relaxation time in breast cancer, and to evaluate the association between the T2* value with clinical-imaging-pathological features of breast cancer. Between January 2011 and July 2013, 107 consecutive women with 107 breast cancers underwent multi-echo T2*-weighted imaging on a 3T clinical magnetic resonance imaging system. The Student's t test and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare the T2* values of cancer for different groups, based on the clinical-imaging-pathological features. In addition, multiple linear regression analysis was performed to find independent predictive factors associated with the T2* values. Of the 107 breast cancers, 92 were invasive and 15 were ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). The mean T2* value of invasive cancers was significantly longer than that of DCIS (p = 0.029). Signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and histologic grade of invasive breast cancers showed significant correlation with T2* relaxation time in univariate and multivariate analysis. Breast cancer groups with higher signal intensity on T2WI showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.005). Cancer groups with higher histologic grade showed longer T2* relaxation time (p = 0.017). The T2* value is significantly longer in invasive cancer than in DCIS. In invasive cancers, T2* relaxation time is significantly longer in higher histologic grades and high signal intensity on T2WI. Based on these preliminary data, quantitative T2* mapping has the potential to be useful in the characterization of breast cancer.
Local correlation detection with linearity enhancement in streaming data
Xie, Qing
2013-01-01
This paper addresses the challenges in detecting the potential correlation between numerical data streams, which facilitates the research of data stream mining and pattern discovery. We focus on local correlation with delay, which may occur in burst at different time in different streams, and last for a limited period. The uncertainty on the correlation occurrence and the time delay make it diff cult to monitor the correlation online. Furthermore, the conventional correlation measure lacks the ability of ref ecting visual linearity, which is more desirable in reality. This paper proposes effective methods to continuously detect the correlation between data streams. Our approach is based on the Discrete Fourier Transform to make rapid cross-correlation calculation with time delay allowed. In addition, we introduce a shape-based similarity measure into the framework, which ref nes the results by representative trend patterns to enhance the signif cance of linearity. The similarity of proposed linear representations can quickly estimate the correlation, and the window sliding strategy in segment level improves the eff ciency for online detection. The empirical study demonstrates the accuracy of our detection approach, as well as more than 30% improvement of eff ciency. Copyright 2013 ACM.
Correlation dynamics and international diversification benefits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christoffersen, Peter; Errunza, Vihang; Jacobs, Kris
2014-01-01
that it is possible to model co-movements for many countries simultaneously using BEKK, DCC, and DECO models. Empirically, we find that correlations have trended upward significantly for both DMs and EMs. Based on a time-varying measure of diversification benefits, we find that it is not possible to circumvent...... the increasing correlations in a long-only portfolio by adjusting the portfolio weights over time. However, we do find some evidence that adding EMs to a DM-only portfolio increases diversification benefits....