WorldWideScience

Sample records for time allocation shifts

  1. Conflict Detection Performance Analysis for Function Allocation Using Time-Shifted Recorded Traffic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Butler, Ricky W.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Hagen, George E.; Lewis, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the conflict detection function in a separation assurance system is dependent on the content and quality of the data available to perform that function. Specifically, data quality and data content available to the conflict detection function have a direct impact on the accuracy of the prediction of an aircraft's future state or trajectory, which, in turn, impacts the ability to successfully anticipate potential losses of separation (detect future conflicts). Consequently, other separation assurance functions that rely on the conflict detection function - namely, conflict resolution - are prone to negative performance impacts. The many possible allocations and implementations of the conflict detection function between centralized and distributed systems drive the need to understand the key relationships that impact conflict detection performance, with respect to differences in data available. This paper presents the preliminary results of an analysis technique developed to investigate the impacts of data quality and data content on conflict detection performance. Flight track data recorded from a day of the National Airspace System is time-shifted to create conflicts not present in the un-shifted data. A methodology is used to smooth and filter the recorded data to eliminate sensor fusion noise, data drop-outs and other anomalies in the data. The metrics used to characterize conflict detection performance are presented and a set of preliminary results is discussed.

  2. Allocation of Internal Medicine Resident Time in a Swiss Hospital: A Time and Motion Study of Day and Evening Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Nathalie; Méan, Marie; Castioni, Julien; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gérard; Garnier, Antoine

    2017-04-18

    Little current evidence documents how internal medicine residents spend their time at work, particularly with regard to the proportions of time spent in direct patient care versus using computers. To describe how residents allocate their time during day and evening hospital shifts. Time and motion study. Internal medicine residency at a university hospital in Switzerland, May to July 2015. 36 internal medicine residents with an average of 29 months of postgraduate training. Trained observers recorded the residents' activities using a tablet-based application. Twenty-two activities were categorized as directly related to patients, indirectly related to patients, communication, academic, nonmedical tasks, and transition. In addition, the presence of a patient or colleague and use of a computer or telephone during each activity was recorded. Residents were observed for a total of 696.7 hours. Day shifts lasted 11.6 hours (1.6 hours more than scheduled). During these shifts, activities indirectly related to patients accounted for 52.4% of the time, and activities directly related to patients accounted for 28.0%. Residents spent an average of 1.7 hours with patients, 5.2 hours using computers, and 13 minutes doing both. Time spent using a computer was scattered throughout the day, with the heaviest use after 6:00 p.m. The study involved a small sample from 1 institution. At this Swiss teaching hospital, internal medicine residents spent more time at work than scheduled. Activities indirectly related to patients predominated, and about half the workday was spent using a computer. Information Technology Department and Department of Internal Medicine of Lausanne University Hospital.

  3. Time allocation shifts and pollutant exposure due to traffic congestion: an analysis using the national human activity pattern survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Batterman, Stuart A

    2009-10-15

    Traffic congestion increases air pollutant exposures of commuters and urban populations due to the increased time spent in traffic and the increased vehicular emissions that occur in congestion, especially "stop-and-go" traffic. Increased time in traffic also decreases time in other microenvironments, a trade-off that has not been considered in previous time activity pattern (TAP) analyses conducted for exposure assessment purposes. This research investigates changes in time allocations and exposures that result from traffic congestion. Time shifts were derived using data from the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS), which was aggregated to nine microenvironments (six indoor locations, two outdoor locations and one transport location). After imputing missing values, handling outliers, and conducting other quality checks, these data were stratified by respondent age, employment status and period (weekday/weekend). Trade-offs or time-shift coefficients between time spent in vehicles and the eight other microenvironments were then estimated using robust regression. For children and retirees, congestion primarily reduced the time spent at home; for older children and working adults, congestion shifted the time spent at home as well as time in schools, public buildings, and other indoor environments. Changes in benzene and PM(2.5) exposure were estimated for the current average travel delay in the U.S. (9 min day(-1)) and other scenarios using the estimated time shifts coefficients, concentrations in key microenvironments derived from the literature, and a probabilistic analysis. Changes in exposures depended on the duration of the congestion and the pollutant. For example, a 30 min day(-1) travel delay was determined to account for 21+/-12% of current exposure to benzene and 14+/-8% of PM(2.5) exposure. The time allocation shifts and the dynamic approach to TAPs improve estimates of exposure impacts from congestion and other recurring events.

  4. Time allocation of disabled individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagán, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    Although some studies have analysed the disability phenomenon and its effect on, for example, labour force participation, wages, job satisfaction, or the use of disability pension, the empirical evidence on how disability steals time (e.g. hours of work) from individuals is very scarce. This article examines how disabled individuals allocate their time to daily activities as compared to their non-disabled counterparts. Using time diary information from the Spanish Time Use Survey (last quarter of 2002 and the first three quarters of 2003), we estimate the determinants of time (minutes per day) spent on four aggregate categories (market work, household production, tertiary activities and leisure) for a sample of 27,687 non-disabled and 5250 disabled individuals and decompose the observed time differential by using the Oaxaca-Blinder methodology. The results show that disabled individuals devote less time to market work (especially females), and more time to household production (e.g. cooking, cleaning, child care), tertiary activities (e.g., sleeping, personal care, medical treatment) and leisure activities. We also find a significant effect of age on the time spent on daily activities and important differences by gender and disability status. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that disability steals time, and reiterate the fact that more public policies are needed to balance working life and health concerns among disabled individuals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure…

  6. Irrational time allocation in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Bastiaan; Krajbich, Ian; Miller, Kevin; Cheong, Jin Hyun; Botvinick, Matthew; Fehr, Ernst

    2016-01-13

    Time is an extremely valuable resource but little is known about the efficiency of time allocation in decision-making. Empirical evidence suggests that in many ecologically relevant situations, decision difficulty and the relative reward from making a correct choice, compared to an incorrect one, are inversely linked, implying that it is optimal to use relatively less time for difficult choice problems. This applies, in particular, to value-based choices, in which the relative reward from choosing the higher valued item shrinks as the values of the other options get closer to the best option and are thus more difficult to discriminate. Here, we experimentally show that people behave sub-optimally in such contexts. They do not respond to incentives that favour the allocation of time to choice problems in which the relative reward for choosing the best option is high; instead they spend too much time on problems in which the reward difference between the options is low. We demonstrate this by showing that it is possible to improve subjects' time allocation with a simple intervention that cuts them off when their decisions take too long. Thus, we provide a novel form of evidence that organisms systematically spend their valuable time in an inefficient way, and simultaneously offer a potential solution to the problem. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. The Role of Intrinsic Motivations in Attention Allocation and Shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario edi Nocera

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of attention and intrinsic motivations are of great interest within adaptive robotic systems, and can be exploited in order to guide, activate, and coordinate multiple concurrent behaviors. Attention allocation strategies represent key capabilities of human beings, which are strictly connected with action selection and execution mechanisms, while intrinsic motivations directly affect the allocation of attentional resources. In this paper we propose a model of Reinforcement Learning (RL, where both these capabilities are involved. RL is deployed to learn how to allocate attentional resources in a behavior-based robotic system, while action selection is obtained as a side effect of the resulting motivated attentional behaviors. Moreover, the influence of intrinsic motivations in attention orientation is obtained by introducing rewards associated with curiosity drives. In this way, the learning process is affected not only by goal-specific rewards, but also by intrinsic motivations.

  8. Climate warming shifts carbon allocation from stemwood to roots in calcium-depleted spruce forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenis, Andrei Gennady; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Heim, Alexander; Zheng, Chengyang; Shortle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Increased greening of northern forests, measured by the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), has been presented as evidence that a warmer climate has increased both net primary productivity (NPP) and the carbon sink in boreal forests. However, higher production and greener canopies may accompany changes in carbon allocation that favor foliage or fine roots over less decomposable woody biomass. Furthermore, tree core data throughout mid- and northern latitudes have revealed a divergence problem (DP), a weakening in tree ring responses to warming over the past half century that is receiving increasing attention, but remains poorly understood. Often, the same sites exhibit trend inconsistency phenomenon (TIP), namely positive, or no trends in growing season NDVI where negative trends in tree ring indexes are observed. Here we studied growth of two Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands in western Russia that exhibited both the DP and TIP but were subject to soil acidification and calcium depletion of differing timing and severity. Our results link the decline in radial growth starting in 1980 to a shift in carbon allocation from wood to roots driven by a combination of two factors: (a) soil acidification that depleted calcium and impaired root function and (b) earlier onset of the growing season that further taxed the root system. The latter change in phenology appears to act as a trigger at both sites to push trees into nutrient limitation as the demand for Ca increased with the longer growing season, thereby causing the shift in carbon allocation.

  9. Examining Police Strategic Resource Allocation in a Time of Austerity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth den Heyer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of proactive policing has highlighted the need to ensure that the police utilise their resources both efficiently and effectively. Traditionally, police agencies have allocated resources in response to their operational demands or requirements, with the majority of resources being distributed in response to political demands and public calls for service. In recent years there has been a greater emphasis by police to deliver services proactively, and to direct resources to specific geographic areas of high crime or to specific crimes, and to apply intelligence led targeted policing initiatives. The changing operating environment to a public service ethos of accountability and ‘do more with less’ means that historical methods of allocating police officers may not meet an agency's strategic goals. This paper examines if an economic approach to allocating police strategic resources is an appropriate and equitable method in a time of austerity. This greater emphasis on proactive, rather than reactive policing, which also represents a shift from centralised control, underlines the need to ensure the efficient and effective use of resources.

  10. Children's self-allocation and use of classroom curricular time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, J; Worrall, N

    1992-02-01

    A class of 9-10 year-olds (N = 12) in a British primary school were observed as it moved over a one-year period through three types of classroom environment, traditional directive, transitional negotiative and established negotiative. Each environment offered the children a differing relationship with curricular time, its control and allocation, moving from teacher-allocated time to child allocation. Pupil self-report and classroom observation indicated differences in the balance of curricular spread and allocated time on curricular subject in relation to the type of classroom organisation and who controlled classroom time. These differences were at both class and individual child level. The established negotiative environment recorded the most equitable curricular balance, traditional directive the least. While individual children responded differently within and across the three classroom environments, the established negotiative where time was under child control recorded preference for longer activity periods compared to where the teacher controlled time allocations.

  11. Part-time and full-time medical specialists, are there differences in allocation of time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groenewegen Peter P

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An increasing number of medical specialists prefer to work part-time. This development can be found worldwide. Problems to be faced in the realization of part-time work in medicine include the division of night and weekend shifts, as well as communication between physicians and continuity of care. People tend to think that physicians working part-time are less devoted to their work, implying that full-time physicians complete a greater number of tasks. The central question in this article is whether part-time medical specialists allocate their time differently to their tasks than full-time medical specialists. Methods A questionnaire was sent by mail to all internists (N = 817, surgeons (N = 693 and radiologists (N = 621 working in general hospitals in the Netherlands. Questions were asked about the actual situation, such as hours worked and night and weekend shifts. The response was 53% (n = 411 for internists, 52% (n = 359 for surgeons, and 36% (n = 213 for radiologists. Due to non-response on specific questions there were 367 internists, 316 surgeons, and 71 radiologists included in the analyses. Multilevel analyses were used to analyze the data. Results Part-time medical specialists do not spend proportionally more time on direct patient care. With respect to night and weekend shifts, part-time medical specialists account for proportionally more or an equal share of these shifts. The number of hours worked per FTE is higher for part-time than for full-time medical specialists, although this difference is only significant for surgeons. Conclusion In general, part-time medical specialists do their share of the job. However, we focussed on input only. Besides input, output like the numbers of services provided deserves attention as well. The trend in medicine towards more part-time work has an important consequence: more medical specialists are needed to get the work done. Therefore, a greater number of medical specialists

  12. Time Zones, Shift Working and International Outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka, Yuji; Fukushima, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    We build a trade model with two identical countries located in different time zones and a monopolistically competitive sector of which production requires differentiated goods produced in two successive stages. We introduce shift working disutility and allow consumers to choose between day and night shifts. Shift working disutility raises the cost of night production and firms can reduce costs by “virtually” outsourcing foreign labor. We found that firms only outsource if relat...

  13. Mother's time allocation, child care and child cognitive development

    OpenAIRE

    BRILLI, Ylenia

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of maternal employment and non-parental child care on child cognitive development, taking into account the mother's time allocation between leisure and child-care time. I estimate a behavioral model, in which maternal labor supply, non-parental child care, goods expenditure and time allocation decisions are considered to be endogenous choices of the mother. The child cognitive development depends on maternal and non-parental child care and on the goods bought f...

  14. Prediction of Commuter’s Daily Time Allocation

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    Fang Zong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model system to predict the time allocation in commuters’ daily activity-travel pattern. The departure time and the arrival time are estimated with Ordered Probit model and Support Vector Regression is introduced for travel time and activity duration prediction. Applied in a real-world time allocation prediction experiment, the model system shows a satisfactory level of prediction accuracy. This study provides useful insights into commuters’ activity-travel time allocation decision by identifying the important influences, and the results are readily applied to a wide range of transportation practice, such as travel information system, by providing reliable forecast for variations in travel demand over time. By introducing the Support Vector Regression, it also makes a methodological contribution in enhancing prediction accuracy of travel time and activity duration prediction.

  15. Faculty Time Allocation: A Study of Change over Twenty Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.; Dey, Eric L.

    2000-01-01

    Examined changes in amounts of time faculty spent in teaching, advising, and research activities over the past 20 years. Found institutions are becoming more similar in their patterns of faculty time allocation, particularly regarding time spend on research. However, time spent advising and interacting informally with students appears to be…

  16. The time allocation to children by parents in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gauthier, A.H.; DeGusti, B.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines cross-national differences in the time parents allocate to their children using aggregate data from 15 countries collected as part of the Harmonized European Time Use Survey (HETUS). The analysis is restricted to married or cohabiting parents with at least one child under the

  17. Portraits of Principal Practice: Time Allocation and School Principal Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, James; Camburn, Eric M.; Spillane, James P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine how school principals in urban settings distributed their time working on critical school functions. We also examined who principals worked with and how their time allocation patterns varied by school contextual characteristics. Research Method/Approach: The study was conducted in an urban school…

  18. Logging disturbance shifts net primary productivity and its allocation in Bornean tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riutta, Terhi; Malhi, Yadvinder; Kho, Lip Khoon; Marthews, Toby R; Huaraca Huasco, Walter; Khoo, MinSheng; Tan, Sylvester; Turner, Edgar; Reynolds, Glen; Both, Sabine; Burslem, David F R P; Teh, Yit Arn; Vairappan, Charles S; Majalap, Noreen; Ewers, Robert M

    2018-01-24

    Tropical forests play a major role in the carbon cycle of the terrestrial biosphere. Recent field studies have provided detailed descriptions of the carbon cycle of mature tropical forests, but logged or secondary forests have received much less attention. Here, we report the first measures of total net primary productivity (NPP) and its allocation along a disturbance gradient from old-growth forests to moderately and heavily logged forests in Malaysian Borneo. We measured the main NPP components (woody, fine root and canopy NPP) in old-growth (n = 6) and logged (n = 5) 1 ha forest plots. Overall, the total NPP did not differ between old-growth and logged forest (13.5 ± 0.5 and 15.7 ± 1.5 Mg C ha -1  year -1 respectively). However, logged forests allocated significantly higher fraction into woody NPP at the expense of the canopy NPP (42% and 48% into woody and canopy NPP, respectively, in old-growth forest vs 66% and 23% in logged forest). When controlling for local stand structure, NPP in logged forest stands was 41% higher, and woody NPP was 150% higher than in old-growth stands with similar basal area, but this was offset by structure effects (higher gap frequency and absence of large trees in logged forest). This pattern was not driven by species turnover: the average woody NPP of all species groups within logged forest (pioneers, nonpioneers, species unique to logged plots and species shared with old-growth plots) was similar. Hence, below a threshold of very heavy disturbance, logged forests can exhibit higher NPP and higher allocation to wood; such shifts in carbon cycling persist for decades after the logging event. Given that the majority of tropical forest biome has experienced some degree of logging, our results demonstrate that logging can cause substantial shifts in carbon production and allocation in tropical forests. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Household time allocation model based on a group utility function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Existing activity-based models typically assume an individual decision-making process. In household decision-making, however, interaction exists among household members and their activities during the allocation of the members' limited time. This paper, therefore, attempts to develop a new household

  20. Infrastructure, Women’s Time Allocation, and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    P R Agénor; M Agénor

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a gender-based OLG model of endogenous growth to analyze the impact of infrastructure on women’s time allocation between market work, raising children, own health care, home production, and leisure. Gender bias occurs as a result of firms discriminating between men and women, and of mothers devoting relatively more time to rearing their sons. Women’s health status in adulthood, which affects productivity and wages, depends on their health status in childhood. A stagnation ...

  1. How a new funding model will shift allocations from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Victoria Y; Glassman, Amanda; Silverman, Rachel L

    2014-12-01

    Policy makers deciding how to fund global health programs in low- and middle-income countries face important but difficult questions about how to allocate resources across countries. In this article we present a typology of three allocation methodologies to align allocations with priorities. We then apply our typology to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. We examined the Global Fund's historical HIV allocations and its predicted allocations under a new funding model that creates an explicit allocation methodology. We found that under the new funding model, substantial shifts in the Global Fund's portfolio are likely to result from concentrating resources in countries with more HIV cases and lower per capita incomes. For example, South Africa, which had 15.8 percent of global HIV cases in 2009, could see its Global Fund HIV funding more than triple, from historic levels that averaged 3.0 percent to 9.7 percent of total Global Fund allocations. The new funding model methodology is expected, but not guaranteed, to improve the efficiency of Global Fund allocations in comparison to historical practice. We conclude with recommendations for the Global Fund and other global health donors to further develop their allocation methodologies and processes to improve efficiency and transparency. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. Patient-care time allocation by nurse practitioners and physician assistants in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David L; Gregg, Sara R; Owens, Daniel S; Buchman, Timothy G; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2012-02-15

    Use of nurse practitioners and physician assistants ("affiliates") is increasing significantly in the intensive care unit (ICU). Despite this, few data exist on how affiliates allocate their time in the ICU. The purpose of this study was to understand the allocation of affiliate time into patient-care and non-patient-care activity, further dividing the time devoted to patient care into billable service and equally important but nonbillable care. We conducted a quasi experimental study in seven ICUs in an academic hospital and a hybrid academic/community hospital. After a period of self-reporting, a one-time monetary incentive of $2,500 was offered to 39 affiliates in each ICU in which every affiliate documented greater than 75% of their time devoted to patient care over a 6-month period in an effort to understand how affiliates allocated their time throughout a shift. Documentation included billable time (critical care, evaluation and management, procedures) and a new category ("zero charge time"), which facilitated record keeping of other patient-care activities. At baseline, no ICUs had documentation of 75% patient-care time by all of its affiliates. In the 6 months in which reporting was tied to a group incentive, six of seven ICUs had every affiliate document greater than 75% of their time. Individual time documentation increased from 53% to 84%. Zero-charge time accounted for an average of 21% of each shift. The most common reason was rounding, which accounted for nearly half of all zero-charge time. Sign out, chart review, and teaching were the next most common zero-charge activities. Documentation of time spent on billable activities also increased from 53% of an affiliate's shift to 63%. Time documentation was similar regardless of during which shift an affiliate worked. Approximately two thirds of an affiliate's shift is spent providing billable services to patients. Greater than 20% of each shift is spent providing equally important but not reimbursable

  3. HIV/AIDS and time allocation in rural Malawi

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    Simona Bignami-Van Assche

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AIDS morbidity and mortality are expected to have a large impact on households' labor supply in rural Malawi since they reduce the time that adults can spend on production for subsistence and on income generating activities. However, the data demands for estimating this impact are high, limiting the amount of empirical evidence. In this paper, we utilize a unique combination of quantitative and qualitative data, including biomarkers for HIV, collected by the Malawi Diffusion and Ideational Change Project, to analyze the impact of AIDS-related morbidity and mortality on time allocation decisions for rural Malawians. We evaluate both the direct effect of HIV/AIDS on the time allocation of affected individuals as well as its indirect effect on the time allocation of surviving household members. We find that the latter is the most important effect of AIDS-related morbidity and mortality, especially on women's time. Specifically, AIDS induces diversification of income sources, with women reallocating their time from work-intensive (typically farming and heavy chores to cash-generating tasks (such as casual labor.

  4. The dynamics of female time allocation upon a first birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belzil, Christian

    1997-01-01

    both home an labor market productivities. Overall, the model is able to explain the relatively large fraction of women who do not experience career interruptions, the rapidly declining re-employment hazards and the weak effect of education on the duration of non-employment (hometime) spells.......I estimate a non-stationary dynamic programming model of time allocation decisions between full-time work, child care and search activities upon a first birth using recursive methods. The model incorporates the following sequence of decisions; whether to stop working or not (for those who work...

  5. Musical Meter Modulates the Allocation of Attention across Time.

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    Fitzroy, Ahren B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic attending theory predicts that attention is allocated hierarchically across time during processing of hierarchical rhythmic structures such as musical meter. ERP research demonstrates that attention to a moment in time modulates early auditory processing as evidenced by the amplitude of the first negative peak (N1) approximately 100 msec after sound onset. ERPs elicited by tones presented at times of high and low metric strength in short melodies were compared to test the hypothesis that hierarchically structured rhythms direct attention in a manner that modulates early perceptual processing. A more negative N1 was observed for metrically strong beats compared with metrically weak beats; this result provides electrophysiological evidence that hierarchical rhythms direct attention to metrically strong times during engaged listening. The N1 effect was observed only on fast tempo trials, suggesting that listeners more consistently invoke selective processing based on hierarchical rhythms when sounds are presented rapidly. The N1 effect was not modulated by musical expertise, indicating that the allocation of attention to metrically strong times is not dependent on extensive training. Additionally, changes in P2 amplitude and a late negativity were associated with metric strength under some conditions, indicating that multiple cognitive processes are associated with metric perception.

  6. Optimal Time Allocation in Backscatter Assisted Wireless Powered Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Bin; Yang, Zhen; Gui, Guan; Sari, Hikmet

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a wireless powered communication network (WPCN) assisted by backscatter communication (BackCom). This model consists of a power station, an information receiver and multiple users that can work in either BackCom mode or harvest-then-transmit (HTT) mode. The time block is mainly divided into two parts corresponding to the data backscattering and transmission periods, respectively. The users first backscatter data to the information receiver in time division multiple access (TDMA) during the data backscattering period. When one user works in the BackCom mode, the other users harvest energy from the power station. During the data transmission period, two schemes, i.e., non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) and TDMA, are considered. To maximize the system throughput, the optimal time allocation policies are obtained. Simulation results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model. PMID:28587171

  7. Gender Systematics in Telescope Time Allocation at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patat, F.

    2016-09-01

    The results of a comprehensive statistical analysis of gender systematics in the time allocation process at ESO are presented. The sample on which the study is based includes more than 13 000 Normal and Short proposals, submitted by about 3000 principal investigators (PI) over eight years. The genders of PIs, and of the panel members of the Observing Programmes Committee (OPC), were used, together with their career level, to analyse the grade distributions and the proposal success rates. Proposals submitted by female PIs show a significantly lower probability of being allocated time. The proposal success rates (defined as number of top ranked runs over requested runs) are 16.0 ± 0.6% and 22.0 ± 0.4% for females and males, respectively. To a significant extent the disparity is related to different input distributions in terms of career level. The seniority of male PIs is significantly higher than that of female PIs, with only 34% of the female PIs being professionally employed astronomers (compared to 53% for male PIs). A small, but statistically significant, gender-dependent behaviour is measured for the OPC referees: both genders show the same systematics, but they are larger for males than females. The PI female/male fraction is very close to 30/70; although far from parity, the fraction is higher than that observed, for instance, among IAU membership.

  8. Part-time and full-time medical specialists, are there differences in allocation of time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J.D. de; Heiligers, P.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Hingstman, L.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An increasing number of medical specialists prefer to work part-time. This development can be found worldwide. Problems to be faced in the realization of part-time work in medicine include the division of night and weekend shifts, as well as communication between physicians and

  9. Part-time and full-time medical specialists, are there differences in allocation of time?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Judith D. de; Heiligers, Phil; Groenewegen, Peter P.; Hingstman, Lammert

    2006-01-01

    Background: An increasing number of medical specialists prefer to work part-time. This development can be found worldwide. Problems to be faced in the realization of part-time work in medicine include the division of night and weekend shifts, as well as communication between physicians and

  10. Machiavellianism, Discussion Time, and Group Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Helmut; Myers, David G.

    1976-01-01

    Social-emotional and rational-cognitive explanations of group risky shift on choice dilemmas (hypothetical life situations) were evaluated by comparing shift in groups of low Mach (emotional) and high Mach (non-emotional) subjects. Effects of Machiavellian beliefs on social functioning are examined. Group composition was not observed to affect…

  11. Allocating time to future tasks: the effect of task segmentation on planning fallacy bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, Darryl K; Burt, Christopher D B

    2008-06-01

    The scheduling component of the time management process was used as a "paradigm" to investigate the allocation of time to future tasks. In three experiments, we compared task time allocation for a single task with the summed time allocations given for each subtask that made up the single task. In all three, we found that allocated time for a single task was significantly smaller than the summed time allocated to the individual subtasks. We refer to this as the segmentation effect. In Experiment 3, we asked participants to give estimates by placing a mark on a time line, and found that giving time allocations in the form of rounded close approximations probably does not account for the segmentation effect. We discuss the results in relation to the basic processes used to allocate time to future tasks and the means by which planning fallacy bias might be reduced.

  12. Participant observation of time allocation, direct patient contact and simultaneous activities in hospital physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zupanc Andrea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital physicians' time is a critical resource in medical care. Two aspects are of interest. First, the time spent in direct patient contact – a key principle of effective medical care. Second, simultaneous task performance ('multitasking' which may contribute to medical error, impaired safety behaviour, and stress. There is a call for instruments to assess these aspects. A preliminary study to gain insight into activity patterns, time allocation and simultaneous activities of hospital physicians was carried out. Therefore an observation instrument for time-motion-studies in hospital settings was developed and tested. Methods 35 participant observations of internists and surgeons of a German municipal 300-bed hospital were conducted. Complete day shifts of hospital physicians on wards, emergency ward, intensive care unit, and operating room were continuously observed. Assessed variables of interest were time allocation, share of direct patient contact, and simultaneous activities. Inter-rater agreement of Kappa = .71 points to good reliability of the instrument. Results Hospital physicians spent 25.5% of their time at work in direct contact with patients. Most time was allocated to documentation and conversation with colleagues and nursing staff. Physicians performed parallel simultaneous activities for 17–20% of their work time. Communication with patients, documentation, and conversation with colleagues and nursing staff were the most frequently observed simultaneous activities. Applying logit-linear analyses, specific primary activities increase the probability of particular simultaneous activities. Conclusion Patient-related working time in hospitals is limited. The potential detrimental effects of frequently observed simultaneous activities on performance outcomes need further consideration.

  13. Forest production responses to irrigation and fertilization are not explained by shifts in allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Coyle; Mark D. Coleman

    2005-01-01

    Production increases in intensively managed forests have been obtained by improving resource availability through water and nutrient amendments. Increased stem production has been attributed to shifts in growth from roots to shoot, and such shifts would have important implications for below ground carbon sequestration. We examined above and below ground growth and...

  14. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Postnova

    Full Text Available Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8 in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  15. Adaptation to shift work: physiologically based modeling of the effects of lighting and shifts' start time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A; Postnov, Dmitry D

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers' sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers' adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21:00 instead of 00:00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters.

  16. Optimal International Asset Allocation with Time-varying Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Flavin, Thomas; Wickens, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the optimal allocation each period of an internationally diversified portfolio from the different points of view of a UK and a US investor. We find that investor location affects optimal asset allocation. The presence of exchange rate risk causes the markets to appear not fully integrated and creates a preference for home assets. Domestic equity is the dominant asset in the optimal portfolio for both investors, but the US investor bears less risk than the UK...

  17. 40 CFR 60.4141 - Timing requirements for Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing requirements for Hg allowance... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Allocations § 60.4141 Timing requirements for Hg allowance allocations. (a) By November 17, 2006, the permitting authority will submit to...

  18. Time-saving innovations, time allocation, and energy use. Evidence from Canadian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise [University of Alberta, 8-14 HM Tory, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to affect both a household's (1) allocation of time across home production and leisure activities; and (2) energy use. For example, with a household's adoption of a microwave or a dishwasher, cooking food and washing dishes will require less time, and therefore in-home meal preparation may increase. Households with microwaves or dishwashers may also opt to spend more time undertaking other production activities, inside or outside the home, or engage in more leisure (watching TV, reading, exercising). To the extent that time is reallocated from less to more energy-intensive activities in the home, residential energy use will increase as households adopt appliances that embody time-saving technology. Furthermore, an adoption of time-saving technologies for basic household chores, such as meal preparation and laundry, can impact energy use due to the fact that many time-saving technologies are more energy intensive than alternative technologies that require larger time commitments. In this paper, we use the Canadian Survey of Household Energy Use data from 2003 to examine the extent to which ownership of products that embody time-saving innovations affects time allocation and energy use at the household level. (author)

  19. Variation in allocation of time, water and energy in Hoopoe Larks from the Arabian Desert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, BI; Williams, JB; Visser, GH

    2003-01-01

    1. Patterns of resource allocation in different times of the year can provide insights into the effects of simultaneous environmental constraints on reproduction and survival of desert birds. Field metabolic rate (FMR), water influx rate (WIR) and patterns of time allocation of Hoopoe Larks (Alaemon

  20. 19 CFR 351.524 - Allocation of benefit to a particular time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation of benefit to a particular time period. 351.524 Section 351.524 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Allocation of benefit to a particular time period. Unless otherwise specified in §§ 351.504-351.523, the...

  1. Work-family conflict and self-discrepant time allocation at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Patricia C; Glomb, Theresa M; Manchester, Colleen Flaherty; Leroy, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    We examine the relationships between work-to-family conflict, time allocation across work activities, and the outcomes of work satisfaction, well-being, and salary in the context of self-regulation and self-discrepancy theories. We posit work-to-family conflict is associated with self-discrepant time allocation such that employees with higher levels of work-to-family conflict are likely to allocate less time than preferred to work activities that require greater self-regulatory resources (e.g., tasks that are complex, or those with longer term goals that delay rewards and closure) and allocate more time than preferred to activities that demand fewer self-regulatory resources or are replenishing (e.g., those that provide closure or are prosocial). We suggest this self-discrepant time allocation (actual vs. preferred time allocation) is one mechanism by which work-to-family conflict leads to negative employee consequences (Allen, Herst, Bruck, & Sutton, 2000; Mesmer-Magnus & Viswesvaran, 2005). Using polynomial regression and response surface methodology, we find that discrepancies between actual and preferred time allocations to work activities negatively relate to work satisfaction, psychological well-being, and physical well-being. Self-discrepant time allocation mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and work satisfaction and well-being, while actual time allocation (rather than the discrepancy) mediates the relationship between work-to-family conflict and salary. We find that women are more likely than men to report self-discrepant time allocations as work-to-family conflict increases. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The net effect of alternative allocation ratios on recruitment time and trial cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozdolska, Ralitza; Sano, Mary; Aisen, Paul; Edland, Steven D

    2009-04-01

    Increasing the proportion of subjects allocated to the experimental treatment in controlled clinical trials is often advocated as a method of increasing recruitment rates and improving the performance of trials. The presumption is that the higher likelihood of randomization to the experimental treatment will be perceived by potential study enrollees as an added benefit of participation and will increase recruitment rates and speed the completion of trials. However, studies with alternative allocation ratios require a larger sample size to maintain statistical power, which may result in a net increase in time required to complete recruitment and a net increase in total trial cost. To describe the potential net effect of alternative allocation ratios on recruitment time and trial cost. Models of recruitment time and trial cost were developed and used to compare trials with 1:1 allocation to trials with alternative allocation ratios under a range of per subject costs, per day costs, and enrollment rates. In regard to time required to complete recruitment, alternative allocation ratios are net beneficial if the recruitment rate improves by more than about 4% for trials with a 1.5:1 allocation ratio and 12% for trials with a 2:1 allocation ratio. More substantial improvements in recruitment rate, 13 and 47% respectively for scenarios we considered, are required for alternative allocation to be net beneficial in terms of tangible monetary cost. The cost models were developed expressly for trials comparing proportions or means across treatment groups. Using alternative allocation ratio designs to improve recruitment may or may not be time and cost-effective. Using alternative allocation for this purpose should only be considered for trial contexts where there is both clear evidence that the alternative design does improve recruitment rates and the attained time or cost efficiency justifies the added study subject burden implied by a larger sample size.

  3. Liver allocation and distribution: time for a change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Ranjit; Hirose, Ryutaro; Mulligan, David

    2017-04-01

    Liver allograft allocation has been a topic of hot debate for over a decade. New redistricting changes have been proposed by the Liver and Intestinal Transplant Committee to the existing United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) liver allocation policy. The basis of this new proposal is similar to the old one with an aim to distribute organs in a fair, efficient and equitable fashion. In this review, we plan to look in depth at the redistribution proposals thus far, their merits and how they may help patients who do not have adequate access to livers. Many authors have criticized the proposed changes to organ distribution to reduce geographic disparity in access to liver transplantation. Our focus in this article is to bring forth the most recent literature and proposed changes in the current distribution system. We will also mention two other possible methods that have been proposed to redesign distribution using concentric circles and neighborhoods. In this article, we also look at the economics of the redistricting proposal and its effects on transplant centers. The UNOS Liver and Intestinal Transplant Committee has recommended a proposal using the eight-district model with proximity circles and three additional Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) points with initial sharing MELD threshold of 25 as a starting point to reduce disparity in patient access to deceased donor livers for transplantation. This proposal has met with significant resistance because of concerns of cost, logistics and impact on existing transplant centers. Other methodologies have also been proposed that have the potential to significantly improve our current disparity of access to life-saving organs. Variation in the supply of donor organs vs. the demand or need for liver transplant by geography and the current defined areas of distribution drive this disparity. Cost benefits to the healthcare system in caring for patients with advanced stages of liver disease may outweigh increased

  4. Real-time resource allocation for tracking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Satsangi, Y.; Whiteson, S.; Oliehoek, F.A.; Bouma, H.

    2017-01-01

    Automated tracking is key to many computer vision applications. However, many tracking systems struggle to perform in real-time due to the high computational cost of detecting people, especially in ultra high resolution images. We propose a new algorithm called PartiMax that greatly reduces this

  5. Remuneration, workload, and allocation of time in general practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.J. van den; Westert, G.P.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Bakker, D.H. de; Zee, J. van der

    2006-01-01

    Background: General Practitioners (GPs) can cope with workload by, among others, spending more hours in patient care or by spending less time per patient. The way GPs are paid might affect the way they cope with workload. From an economical point of view, capitation payment is an incentive to

  6. Influence of relaxation times on the Bloch-Siegert shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Long Van

    1981-01-01

    A new method for calculations of Bloch-Siegert shifts in resonances between excited states with the inclusion of relaxation times is given. It will be shown that in this case the definition of the resonance given by I. Bialynicka-Birula is in agreement with the criterion defining the resonance used by D.A. Andrews and G. Newton. (author)

  7. Simulation-based medical education: time for a pedagogical shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaniti, Kaarthigeyan; Campbell, Douglas M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of medical education at all levels is to prepare physicians with the knowledge and comprehensive skills, required to deliver safe and effective patient care. The traditional 'apprentice' learning model in medical education is undergoing a pedagogical shift to a 'simulation-based' learning model. Experiential learning, deliberate practice and the ability to provide immediate feedback are the primary advantages of simulation-based medical education. It is an effective way to develop new skills, identify knowledge gaps, reduce medical errors, and maintain infrequently used clinical skills even among experienced clinical teams, with the overall goal of improving patient care. Although simulation cannot replace clinical exposure as a form of experiential learning, it promotes learning without compromising patient safety. This new paradigm shift is revolutionizing medical education in the Western world. It is time that the developing countries embrace this new pedagogical shift.

  8. Faculty Time Allocations and Research Productivity: Gender, Race, and Family Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellas, Marcia L.; Toutkoushian, Robert K.

    1999-01-01

    A study using data from 14,614 full-time faculty examined total work hours, research productivity, and allocation of work time among teaching, research, and service. The study found variation in time expenditures and research output influenced by gender, race/ethnicity, and marital/parental status, but findings were also sensitive to definitions…

  9. Optimizing time and resource allocation trade-offs for investment into morphological and behavioral defense

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    pronounced at intermediate environmental conditions. Optimizing single traits generally leads to a more pronounced response of the defense traits, which implies that studying single traits leads to an overestimation of their response to predation. Behavioral defense and morphological defense compensate......Prey organisms are confronted with time and resource allocation trade-offs. Time allocation trade-offs partition time, for example, between foraging effort to acquire resources and behavioral defense. Resource allocation trade-offs partition the acquired resources between multiple traits...... for and augment each other depending on predator densities and the effectiveness of the defense mechanisms. In the presence of time constraints, the model shows peak investment into morphological and behavioral defense at intermediate resource levels....

  10. When time is more than money: the allocation of time between work and leisure in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendi, Pedram; Brouwer, Werner B F; Bucher, Heiner C; Weber, Rainer; Battegay, Manuel

    2007-06-01

    Time is a limited resource and individuals have to decide how many hours they should allocate to work and to leisure activities. Differences in wage rate or availability of non-labour income (financial support from families and savings) may influence how individuals allocate their time between work and leisure. An increase in wage rate may induce income effects (leisure time demanded increases) and substitution effects (leisure time demanded decreases) whereas an increase in non-labour income only induces income effects. We explored the effects of differences in wage rate and non-labour income on the allocation of time in HIV-infected patients. Patients enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) provided information on their time allocation, i.e. number of hours worked in 1998. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to test for income and substitution effects. Our results indicate that (i) the allocation of time in HIV-infected patients does not differ with level of education (i.e., wage rate), and that (ii) availability of non-labour income induces income effects, i.e. individuals demand more leisure time.

  11. Correction to the count-rate detection limit and sample/blank time-allocation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    A common form of count-rate detection limits contains a propagation of uncertainty error. This error originated in methods to minimize uncertainty in the subtraction of the blank counts from the gross sample counts by allocation of blank and sample counting times. Correct uncertainty propagation showed that the time allocation equations have no solution. This publication presents the correct form of count-rate detection limits. -- Highlights: •The paper demonstrated a proper method of propagating uncertainty of count rate differences. •The standard count-rate detection limits were in error. •Count-time allocation methods for minimum uncertainty were in error. •The paper presented the correct form of the count-rate detection limit. •The paper discussed the confusion between count-rate uncertainty and count uncertainty

  12. National Contexts Influencing Principals' Time Use and Allocation: Economic Development, Societal Culture, and Educational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Hallinger, Philip

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of macro-context factors on the behavior of school principals. More specifically, the article illuminates how a nation's level of economic development, societal culture, and educational system influence the amount of time principals devote to their job role and shape their allocation of time to instructional…

  13. Reading Time Allocation Strategies and Working Memory Using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busler, Jessica N.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) is a useful method for controlling the timing of text presentations and studying how readers' characteristics, such as working memory (WM) and reading strategies for time allocation, influence text recall. In the current study, a modified version of RSVP (Moving Window RSVP [MW-RSVP]) was used to induce…

  14. 32 CFR 1900.33 - Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... time. 1900.33 Section 1900.33 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL... Administrative Matters § 1900.33 Allocation of resources; agreed extensions of time. (a) In general. Agency... the component, (2) The business demands imposed on the component by the Director of Central...

  15. Allocation of Playing Time within Team Sports--A Problem for Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    The background of the article is the recurrent discussion about allocation of playing time in team sports involving children and young athletes. The objective is to analyse "why" playing time is a topic for discussion among parents, coaches and athletes. The following question is addressed: Under which condition is it "fair" to…

  16. Perceived Human Resource Management Practices: Their Effect on Employee Absenteeism and Time Allocation at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, C.; Belschak, F.D.; den Hartog, D.N.; Pijnenburg, M.

    2014-01-01

    How employees spend their work time can have important consequences for organizations. Although some research has examined the relationship between human resource management (HRM) and employee absence, we know less about whether HRM also affects employees’ time allocation at work. This study

  17. Allocation and Productivity of Time in New Ventures of Female and Male Entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); M.A. Carree (Martin); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates time allocation decisions in new ventures of female and male entrepreneurs using a model that distinguishes between effects of preferences and productivity on the number of working hours. Using data of 1,158 entrepreneurs we find that the preference for work time

  18. Allocation and productivity of time in new ventures of female and male entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); M.A. Carree (Martin); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates time allocation decisions in new ventures of female and male entrepreneurs using a model that distinguishes between effects of preferences and productivity on the number of working hours. Using data of 1,158 entrepreneurs we find that the preference for work time

  19. The effect of locational factors on task and time allocation in households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Schwanen, T.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of locational factors on task and time allocation on the household level. It is hypothesized that, if time constraints are less binding as a result of living in an urban area or owning more cars, spouses engage more often and longer in out-of-home activities and

  20. Dynamic Subcarrier Allocation for Real-Time Traffic over Multiuser OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li VictorOK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A dynamic resource allocation algorithm to satisfy the packet delay requirements for real-time services, while maximizing the system capacity in multiuser orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems is introduced. Our proposed cross-layer algorithm, called Dynamic Subcarrier Allocation algorithm for Real-time Traffic (DSA-RT, consists of two interactive components. In the medium access control (MAC layer, the users' expected transmission rates in terms of the number of subcarriers per symbol and their corresponding transmission priorities are evaluated. With the above MAC-layer information and the detected subcarriers' channel gains, in the physical (PHY layer, a modified Kuhn-Munkres algorithm is developed to minimize the system power for a certain subcarrier allocation, then a PHY-layer resource allocation scheme is proposed to optimally allocate the subcarriers under the system signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and power constraints. In a system where the number of mobile users changes dynamically, our developed MAC-layer access control and removal schemes can guarantee the quality of service (QoS of the existing users in the system and fully utilize the bandwidth resource. The numerical results show that DSA-RT significantly improves the system performance in terms of the bandwidth efficiency and delay performance for real-time services.

  1. Minimizing the Total Service Time of Discrete Dynamic Berth Allocation Problem by an Iterated Greedy Heuristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP), which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG) algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set. PMID:25295295

  2. Minimizing the Total Service Time of Discrete Dynamic Berth Allocation Problem by an Iterated Greedy Heuristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Wei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berth allocation is the forefront operation performed when ships arrive at a port and is a critical task in container port optimization. Minimizing the time ships spend at berths constitutes an important objective of berth allocation problems. This study focuses on the discrete dynamic berth allocation problem (discrete DBAP, which aims to minimize total service time, and proposes an iterated greedy (IG algorithm to solve it. The proposed IG algorithm is tested on three benchmark problem sets. Experimental results show that the proposed IG algorithm can obtain optimal solutions for all test instances of the first and second problem sets and outperforms the best-known solutions for 35 out of 90 test instances of the third problem set.

  3. Observation of Broadband Time-Dependent Rabi Shifting in Microplasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compton, Ryan; Filin, Alex; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Coherent broadband radiation in the form of Rabi sidebands is observed when a ps probe laser propagates through a weakly ionized, electronically excited microplasma generated in the focus of an intense pump beam. The sidebands arise from the interaction of the probe beam with pairs of excited states of a constituent neutral atom via the probe-induced Rabi oscillation. Sideband shifting of >90 meV from the probe carrier frequency results in an effective bandwidth of 200 meV. The sidebands are controlled by the intensity and temporal profile of the probe pulse; with amplitude and shift in agreement with the predictions of a time-dependent generalized Rabi cycling model.

  4. Fuzzy Determination of Target Shifting Time and Torque Control of Shifting Phase for Dry Dual Clutch Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the independently developed five-speed dry dual clutch transmission (DDCT, the paper proposes the torque coordinating control strategy between engine and two clutches, which obtains engine speed and clutch transferred torque in the shifting process, adequately reflecting the driver intention and improving the shifting quality. Five-degree-of-freedom (DOF shifting dynamics model of DDCT with single intermediate shaft is firstly established according to its physical characteristics. Then the quantitative control objectives of the shifting process are presented. The fuzzy decision of shifting time and the model-based torque coordinating control strategy are proposed and also verified by simulating under different driving intentions in up-/downshifting processes with the DCT model established on the MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results validate that the shifting control algorithm proposed in this paper can not only meet the shifting quality requirements, but also adapt to the various shifting intentions, having a strong robustness.

  5. Resource Allocation and Time Utilization in IGE and Non-IGE Schools. Technical Paper No. 410.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmiller, Richard A.; Geske, Terry G.

    This study addressed two basic questions; (1) Do individually guided education (IGE) schools cost more or exhibit different expenditure patterns than non-IGE schools? (2) Do instructional personnel in IGE schools allocate their time differently than instructional personnel in non-IGE schools? Data were obtained from a random sample of 41 IGE…

  6. WISENT: A fuzzy expert system for the allocation of inspection times in power station blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verweyen-Frank, H.; Schenck, K.

    1993-01-01

    The WISENT expert system does not only work according to the if-then rules typical of expert systems, but uses fuzzy methods in order to optimise the total allocation. This means that, for the first time, weighting factors can also be brought to bear for every optimisation criterion, in addition to a strict yes-no logic. (orig./DG) [de

  7. Work, family, and happiness : essays on interdependencies within families, life events, and time allocation decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate how today’s work and family life influence people’s happiness – or the lack thereof. We contribute to the research agenda by focusing on three underexplored issues in the literature, namely i) interdependencies within families, ii) life events, and iii) time allocation

  8. Allocation of time under different payment systems by GPs in Europe.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, W.; Groenewegen, P.; Spreeuwenberg, P.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Payment of GPs is relevant from two points of view: fair payment and effects on the quality of care. Fair pay is especially important in capitation systems (does the amount correctly reflect the invested work). Secondly, payment affects the allocation of time, and thus indirect the

  9. An empirical analysis of the time allocation of Italian couples: Are they responsive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemen, H.G.; Pasqua, S.; Stancanelli, E.G.F.

    2010-01-01

    The literature suggests that in Italy husbands contribute less to unpaid household work than in any other European country, while women have the lowest market employment rates. Here we examine the time allocation of Italian couples on which there are surprisingly few studies to date. We analyze

  10. Multiresource allocation and scheduling for periodic soft real-time applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Kartik; Chiueh, Tzi-cker

    2001-12-01

    Real-time applications that utilize multiple system resources, such as CPU, disks, and network links, require coordinated scheduling of these resources in order to meet their end-to-end performance requirements. Most state-of-the-art operating systems support independent resource allocation and deadline-driven scheduling but lack coordination among multiple heterogeneous resources. This paper describes the design and implementation of an Integrated Real-time Resource Scheduler (IRS) that performs coordinated allocation and scheduling of multiple heterogeneous resources on the same machine for periodic soft real-time application. The principal feature of IRS is a heuristic multi-resource allocation algorithm that reserves multiple resources for real-time applications in a manner that can maximize the number of applications admitted into the system in the long run. At run-time, a global scheduler dispatches the tasks of the soft real-time application to individual resource schedulers according to the precedence constraints between tasks. The individual resource schedulers, which could be any deadline based schedulers, can make scheduling decisions locally and yet collectively satisfy a real-time application's performance requirements. The tightness of overall timing guarantees is ultimately determined by the properties of individual resource schedulers. However, IRS maximizes overall system resource utilization efficiency by coordinating deadline assignment across multiple tasks in a soft real-time application.

  11. Distributed Channel Allocation and Time Slot Optimization for Green Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiqi Ding

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In sustainable smart cities, power saving is a severe challenge in the energy-constrained Internet of Things (IoT. Efficient utilization of limited multiple non-overlap channels and time resources is a promising solution to reduce the network interference and save energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a joint channel allocation and time slot optimization solution for IoT. First, we propose a channel ranking algorithm which enables each node to rank its available channels based on the channel properties. Then, we propose a distributed channel allocation algorithm so that each node can choose a proper channel based on the channel ranking and its own residual energy. Finally, the sleeping duration and spectrum sensing duration are jointly optimized to maximize the normalized throughput and satisfy energy consumption constraints simultaneously. Different from the former approaches, our proposed solution requires no central coordination or any global information that each node can operate based on its own local information in a total distributed manner. Also, theoretical analysis and extensive simulations have validated that when applying our solution in the network of IoT: (i each node can be allocated to a proper channel based on the residual energy to balance the lifetime; (ii the network can rapidly converge to a collision-free transmission through each node’s learning ability in the process of the distributed channel allocation; and (iii the network throughput is further improved via the dynamic time slot optimization.

  12. Distributed Channel Allocation and Time Slot Optimization for Green Internet of Things.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Kaiqi; Zhao, Haitao; Hu, Xiping; Wei, Jibo

    2017-10-28

    In sustainable smart cities, power saving is a severe challenge in the energy-constrained Internet of Things (IoT). Efficient utilization of limited multiple non-overlap channels and time resources is a promising solution to reduce the network interference and save energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a joint channel allocation and time slot optimization solution for IoT. First, we propose a channel ranking algorithm which enables each node to rank its available channels based on the channel properties. Then, we propose a distributed channel allocation algorithm so that each node can choose a proper channel based on the channel ranking and its own residual energy. Finally, the sleeping duration and spectrum sensing duration are jointly optimized to maximize the normalized throughput and satisfy energy consumption constraints simultaneously. Different from the former approaches, our proposed solution requires no central coordination or any global information that each node can operate based on its own local information in a total distributed manner. Also, theoretical analysis and extensive simulations have validated that when applying our solution in the network of IoT: (i) each node can be allocated to a proper channel based on the residual energy to balance the lifetime; (ii) the network can rapidly converge to a collision-free transmission through each node's learning ability in the process of the distributed channel allocation; and (iii) the network throughput is further improved via the dynamic time slot optimization.

  13. Solving a Location, Allocation, and Capacity Planning Problem with Dynamic Demand and Response Time Service Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Ka Yuk Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Logistic systems with uncertain demand, travel time, and on-site processing time are studied here where sequential trip travel is allowed. The relationship between three levels of decisions: facility location, demand allocation, and resource capacity (number of service units, satisfying the response time requirement, is analysed. The problem is formulated as a stochastic mixed integer program. A simulation-based hybrid heuristic is developed to solve the dynamic problem under different response time service level. An initial solution is obtained from solving static location-allocation models, followed by iterative improvement of the three levels of decisions by ejection, reinsertion procedure with memory of feasible and infeasible service regions. Results indicate that a higher response time service level could be achieved by allocating a given resource under an appropriate decentralized policy. Given a response time requirement, the general trend is that the minimum total capacity initially decreases with more facilities. During this stage, variability in travel time has more impact on capacity than variability in demand arrivals. Thereafter, the total capacity remains stable and then gradually increases. When service level requirement is high, the dynamic dispatch based on first-come-first-serve rule requires smaller capacity than the one by nearest-neighbour rule.

  14. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Pouzols, Federico Montesino; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Kotiaho, Janne S; Strandman, Harri; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-09-15

    Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current standard forest management rules, setting aside of mature stands, or setting aside of clear-cuts. We first estimated how habitat availability for focal indicator species and economic returns from timber harvesting develop through time as a function of forest type and action chosen. We then developed an optimal resource allocation by accounting for budget size and habitat availability of indicator species in different forest types. We also accounted for the perspective adopted towards sustainability, modeled via temporal preference and economic and ecological time discounting. Controversially, we found that in boreal forest set-aside followed by protection of clear-cuts can become a winning cost-effective strategy when accounting for habitat requirements of multiple species, long planning horizon, and limited budget. It is particularly effective when adopting a long-term sustainability perspective, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Work, family, and happiness : essays on interdependencies within families, life events, and time allocation decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Pouwels, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate how today’s work and family life influence people’s happiness – or the lack thereof. We contribute to the research agenda by focusing on three underexplored issues in the literature, namely i) interdependencies within families, ii) life events, and iii) time allocation decisions. Using data of the Dutch Time Competition Survey 2003 and the German Socio-Economic Panel 1984 – 2005 (GSOEP), this thesis shows that the happiness of partners in marital relationships is...

  16. Using Time Clusters for Following Users’ Shifts in Rating Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionisis Margaris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Users that enter ratings for items follow different rating practices, in the sense that, when rating items, some users are more lenient, while others are stricter. This aspect is taken into account by the most widely used similarity metric in user-user collaborative filtering, namely, the Pearson Correlation, which adjusts each individual user rating by the mean value of the ratings entered by the specific user, when computing similarities. However, a user’s rating practices change over time, i.e. a user could start as strict and subsequently become lenient or vice versa. In that sense, the practice of using a single mean value for adjusting users’ ratings is inadequate, since it fails to follow such shifts in users’ rating practices, leading to decreased rating prediction accuracy. In this work, we address this issue by using the concept of dynamic averages introduced earlier and we extend earlier work by (1 introducing the concept of rating time clusters and (2 presenting a novel algorithm for calculating dynamic user averages and exploiting them in user-user collaborative, filtering implementations. The proposed algorithm incorporates the aforementioned concept and is able to follow more successfully shifts in users’ rating practices. It has been evaluated using numerous datasets, and has been found to introduce significant gains in rating prediction accuracy, while outperforming the dynamic average computation approaches that are presented earlier.

  17. Children’s Allocation of Study Time during the Solution of Raven’s Progressive Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Perret

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The acuity of reasoning on Raven’s Progressive Matrices is strongly influenced by strategic determinants. Building on metamemory studies that highlight the influence of study-time allocation on memory development, we investigated children’s allocation of study time while solving these matrices. A total of 170 children aged 6–12 years completed a computerized short-form version of the standard matrices featuring items selected to represent a broad range of difficulties. Beyond analyzing changes in mean latencies and performances with age, we used generalized additive mixed models to explore within-participant variability in response times as a function of both item complexity and overall individual efficiency. Results revealed that individual differences in performances were significantly associated with children’s adaptive modulation of response times. Mediation analysis further indicated that response-time modulation contributed to age-related changes in performance. Taking account of study-time allocation in reasoning tasks may open up new avenues for the study of reasoning development and the assessment of intellectual functioning.

  18. Effect of individual thinking styles on item selection during study time allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoyu; Li, Weijian; Cao, Liren; Li, Ping; Shi, Meiling; Wang, Jingjing; Cao, Wei; Li, Xinyu

    2018-04-01

    The influence of individual differences on learners' study time allocation has been emphasised in recent studies; however, little is known about the role of individual thinking styles (analytical versus intuitive). In the present study, we explored the influence of individual thinking styles on learners' application of agenda-based and habitual processes when selecting the first item during a study-time allocation task. A 3-item cognitive reflection test (CRT) was used to determine individuals' degree of cognitive reliance on intuitive versus analytical cognitive processing. Significant correlations between CRT scores and the choices of first item selection were observed in both Experiment 1a (study time was 5 seconds per triplet) and Experiment 1b (study time was 20 seconds per triplet). Furthermore, analytical decision makers constructed a value-based agenda (prioritised high-reward items), whereas intuitive decision makers relied more upon habitual responding (selected items from the leftmost of the array). The findings of Experiment 1a were replicated in Experiment 2 notwithstanding ruling out the possible effects from individual intelligence and working memory capacity. Overall, the individual thinking style plays an important role on learners' study time allocation and the predictive ability of CRT is reliable in learners' item selection strategy. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  19. Time allocation between feeding and incubation in uniparental arctic-breeding shorebirds: energy reserves provide leeway in a tight schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tulp, I.Y.M.; Schekkerman, H.

    2006-01-01

    Birds with uniparental incubation may face a time allocation problem between incubation and feeding. Eggs need regular warming to hatch successfully, but the parent must leave the nest to feed and safeguard its own survival. Time allocation during incubation is likely to depend on factors

  20. Power Allocation Strategies for Distributed Space-Time Codes in Amplify-and-Forward Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are Hjørungnes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a wireless relay network with Rayleigh fading channels and apply distributed space-time coding (DSTC in amplify-and-forward (AF mode. It is assumed that the relays have statistical channel state information (CSI of the local source-relay channels, while the destination has full instantaneous CSI of the channels. It turns out that, combined with the minimum SNR based power allocation in the relays, AF DSTC results in a new opportunistic relaying scheme, in which the best relay is selected to retransmit the source's signal. Furthermore, we have derived the optimum power allocation between two cooperative transmission phases by maximizing the average received SNR at the destination. Next, assuming M-PSK and M-QAM modulations, we analyze the performance of cooperative diversity wireless networks using AF opportunistic relaying. We also derive an approximate formula for the symbol error rate (SER of AF DSTC. Assuming the use of full-diversity space-time codes, we derive two power allocation strategies minimizing the approximate SER expressions, for constrained transmit power. Our analytical results have been confirmed by simulation results, using full-rate, full-diversity distributed space-time codes.

  1. Holding-time-aware asymmetric spectrum allocation in virtual optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Chunjian; Li, Hui; Liu, Yuze; Ji, Yuefeng

    2017-10-01

    Virtual optical networks (VONs) have been considered as a promising solution to support current high-capacity dynamic traffic and achieve rapid applications deployment. Since most of the network services (e.g., high-definition video service, cloud computing, distributed storage) in VONs are provisioned by dedicated data centers, needing different amount of bandwidth resources in both directions, the network traffic is mostly asymmetric. The common strategy, symmetric provisioning of traffic in optical networks, leads to a waste of spectrum resources in such traffic patterns. In this paper, we design a holding-time-aware asymmetric spectrum allocation module based on SDON architecture and an asymmetric spectrum allocation algorithm based on the module is proposed. For the purpose of reducing spectrum resources' waste, the algorithm attempts to reallocate the idle unidirectional spectrum slots in VONs, which are generated due to the asymmetry of services' bidirectional bandwidth. This part of resources can be exploited by other requests, such as short-time non-VON requests. We also introduce a two-dimensional asymmetric resource model for maintaining idle spectrum resources information of VON in spectrum and time domains. Moreover, a simulation is designed to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm, and results show that our proposed asymmetric spectrum allocation algorithm can improve the resource waste and reduce blocking probability.

  2. Optimization of NANOGrav's time allocation for maximum sensitivity to single sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christy, Brian; Anella, Ryan; Lommen, Andrea; Camuccio, Richard; Handzo, Emma; Finn, Lee Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are a collection of precisely timed millisecond pulsars (MSPs) that can search for gravitational waves (GWs) in the nanohertz frequency range by observing characteristic signatures in the timing residuals. The sensitivity of a PTA depends on the direction of the propagating GW source, the timing accuracy of the pulsars, and the allocation of the available observing time. The goal of this paper is to determine the optimal time allocation strategy among the MSPs in the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) for a single source of GW under a particular set of assumptions. We consider both an isotropic distribution of sources across the sky and a specific source in the Virgo cluster. This work improves on previous efforts by modeling the effect of intrinsic spin noise for each pulsar. We find that, in general, the array is optimized by maximizing time spent on the best-timed pulsars, with sensitivity improvements typically ranging from a factor of 1.5 to 4.

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on the allocation of adolescent leisure time activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberstick, Brett C; Zeiger, Joanna S; Corley, Robin P

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of the out-of-school activities in which adolescents choose to participate. Youth activities vary widely in terms of specific activities and in time devoted to them but can generally be grouped by the type and total duration spent per type. We collected leisure time information using a 17-item leisure time questionnaire in a large sample of same- and opposite-sex adolescent twin pairs (N = 2847). Using both univariate and multivariate genetic models, we sought to determine the type and magnitude of genetic and environmental influences on the allocation of time toward different leisure times. Results indicated that both genetic and shared and nonshared environmental influences were important contributors to individual differences in physical, social, intellectual, family, and passive activities such as watching television. The magnitude of these influences differed between males and females. Environmental influences were the primary factors contributing to the covariation of different leisure time activities. Our results suggest the importance of heritable influences on the allocation of leisure time activity by adolescents and highlight the importance of environmental experiences in these choices.

  4. Abrupt category shifts during real-time person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have suggested that real-time person perception relies on continuous competition, in which partially active categories smoothly compete over time. Here, two studies demonstrated the involvement of a different kind of competition. In Study 1, before participants selected the correct sex category for morphed faces, their mouse trajectories often exhibited a continuous attraction toward the incorrect category that increased with sex-category ambiguity, indicating continuous competition. On other trials, however, trajectories initially pursued the incorrect category and then abruptly redirected toward the correct category, suggesting early incorrect category activation that was rapidly reversed later in processing. These abrupt category reversals also increased with ambiguity. In Study 2, participants were presented with faces containing a sex-typical or sex-atypical hair cue, in a context in which the norm was either sex-typical targets (normative context) or sex-atypical targets (counternormative context). Sex-atypical targets induced greater competition in the normative context, but sex-typical targets induced greater competition in the counternormative context. Together, these results demonstrate that categorizing others involves both smooth competition and abrupt category shifts, and that these flexibly adapt to the social context.

  5. The PRISM (Pliocene Palaeoclimate) reconstruction: Time for a paradigm shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Robinson, Marci M.; Stoll, Danielle K.; Foley, Kevin M.; Johnson, Andrew L. A.; Williams, Mark; Riesselman, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Global palaeoclimate reconstructions have been invaluable to our understanding of the causes and effects of climate change, but single-temperature representations of the oceanic mixed layer for data–model comparisons are outdated, and the time for a paradigm shift in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction is overdue. The new paradigm in marine palaeoclimate reconstruction stems the loss of valuable climate information and instead presents a holistic and nuanced interpretation of multi-dimensional oceanographic processes and responses. A wealth of environmental information is hidden within the US Geological Survey's Pliocene Research,Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) marine palaeoclimate reconstruction, and we introduce here a plan to incorporate all valuable climate data into the next generation of PRISM products. Beyond the global approach and focus, we plan to incorporate regional climate dynamics with emphasis on processes, integrating multiple environmental proxies wherever available in order to better characterize the mixed layer, and developing a finer time slice within the Mid-Piacenzian Age of the Pliocene, complemented by underused proxies that offer snapshots into environmental conditions. The result will be a proxy-rich, temporally nested, process-oriented approach in a digital format - a relational database with geographic information system capabilities comprising a three-dimensional grid representing the surface layer, with a plethora of data in each cell.

  6. Cortisol, reaction time test and health among offshore shift workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Anette; Waage, Siri; Ursin, Holger

    2010-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol shows a pronounced endogenous diurnal rhythm, which is affected by the sleep/wake cycle, meals and activity. Shift work and especially night work disrupts the sleep/wake cycle and causes a desynchronization of the natural biological rhythms. Therefore, different shift...

  7. Status, Caste, and the Time Allocation of Women in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Eswaran; Bharat Ramaswami; Wilima Wadhwa

    2013-01-01

    We argue that women may be disinclined to participate in market work in the rural areas of India because of family status concerns in a culture that stigmatizes market work by married women. We set out a theoretical framework that offers predictions regarding the effects of caste-based status concerns on the time allocation of women. We then use the all-India National Sample Survey data for the year 2004-5 and the Time Use Survey for six states of India for the year 1998-99 to empirically tes...

  8. Dynamic Allocation of SPM Based on Time-Slotted Cache Conflict Graph for System Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianping; Ling, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Mei, Chen; Wang, Huan

    This paper proposes a novel dynamic Scratch-pad Memory allocation strategy to optimize the energy consumption of the memory sub-system. Firstly, the whole program execution process is sliced into several time slots according to the temporal dimension; thereafter, a Time-Slotted Cache Conflict Graph (TSCCG) is introduced to model the behavior of Data Cache (D-Cache) conflicts within each time slot. Then, Integer Nonlinear Programming (INP) is implemented, which can avoid time-consuming linearization process, to select the most profitable data pages. Virtual Memory System (VMS) is adopted to remap those data pages, which will cause severe Cache conflicts within a time slot, to SPM. In order to minimize the swapping overhead of dynamic SPM allocation, a novel SPM controller with a tightly coupled DMA is introduced to issue the swapping operations without CPU's intervention. Last but not the least, this paper discusses the fluctuation of system energy profit based on different MMU page size as well as the Time Slot duration quantitatively. According to our design space exploration, the proposed method can optimize all of the data segments, including global data, heap and stack data in general, and reduce the total energy consumption by 27.28% on average, up to 55.22% with a marginal performance promotion. And comparing to the conventional static CCG (Cache Conflicts Graph), our approach can obtain 24.7% energy profit on average, up to 30.5% with a sight boost in performance.

  9. Emergency material allocation with time-varying supply-demand based on dynamic optimization method for river chemical spills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Liang; Jiang, Jiping; Jiang, Dexun; Wang, Peng

    2018-04-13

    Aiming to minimize the damage caused by river chemical spills, efficient emergency material allocation is critical for an actual emergency rescue decision-making in a quick response. In this study, an emergency material allocation framework based on time-varying supply-demand constraint is developed to allocate emergency material, minimize the emergency response time, and satisfy the dynamic emergency material requirements in post-accident phases dealing with river chemical spills. In this study, the theoretically critical emergency response time is firstly obtained for the emergency material allocation system to select a series of appropriate emergency material warehouses as potential supportive centers. Then, an enumeration method is applied to identify the practically critical emergency response time, the optimum emergency material allocation and replenishment scheme. Finally, the developed framework is applied to a computational experiment based on south-to-north water transfer project in China. The results illustrate that the proposed methodology is a simple and flexible tool for appropriately allocating emergency material to satisfy time-dynamic demands during emergency decision-making. Therefore, the decision-makers can identify an appropriate emergency material allocation scheme in a balance between time-effective and cost-effective objectives under the different emergency pollution conditions.

  10. Allocation of Parental Time and the Long Term Effect on Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    seem to be an increasingly important part of their children's daily life, this study, opposite to most other studies within the child care literature, explicitly takes both parents' time spent on child care into account as well as child care bought in the market. It is shown that the quality of market...... provided child care vs. the quality of parental child care is crucial for the parents' time use decisions but the availability of paternal child care does not seem to affect the mother's child care decision. The effect of parental child care time on children's educational outcome is tested using Danish......This paper develops a structural model which links parental time use decisions to a child's development in a household with two parents and one child. Since the allocation of home time and market work has become more equally distributed within households during the latest decades and since fathers...

  11. Time allocated to mathematics in post-primary schools in Ireland: are we in double trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Niamh; Prendergast, Mark

    2018-05-01

    Mathematics educators and legislators worldwide have begun placing a greater emphasis on teaching mathematics for understanding and through the use of real-life applications. Revised curricula have led to the time allocated to mathematics in effected countries being scrutinised. This has resulted in policy-makers and educationalists worldwide calling for the inclusion of double class periods on the mathematics timetable. Research from the United States suggests that the introduction of double or block periods allow for the objectives of revised curricula to be realized. The aim of this study, which is set in the school context, is first to ascertain if schools in Ireland are scheduling double periods for mathematics at both lower post-primary level (Junior Cycle) and upper post-primary level (Senior Cycle). It also seeks to determine if there is a link between teachers' levels of satisfaction with the time allocated to mathematics and the provision of double periods and to get insights from teachers in relation to their opinions on what can be achieved through the introduction of such classes. Questionnaires were sent to 400 post-primary schools (approximately 1600 teachers) which were selected using stratified sampling techniques. It was found that 8.7% of mathematics teachers reported the provision of double periods at Junior Cycle while 55% reported that double periods were included on their timetable at Senior Cycle. The study also identified a link between teachers' levels of satisfaction with the time allocated to mathematics and the provision of double periods. Finally, teachers felt that double periods allowed for new teaching methodologies, which were promoted by the revised curricula, to be implemented and teaching for understanding was also more feasible. In essence, it was found that double periods have an influence on the mathematical experience of post-primary students as well as the teaching approaches employed.

  12. Shifts happened…time to optimize your practice!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Greg

    2010-11-01

    The 21st century opened with economic shifts the likes of which were not experienced for over half a century. The effects of these shifts require facial surgery specialists to conduct an objective audit of their business to not only survive but thrive in the new economic environment. This article discusses specific steps and provides checklists for practitioners in cosmetic surgery related to strategy, auditing, budgeting, marketing, and innovating to grow a successful practice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A combined AHP-GP model to allocate internal auditing time to projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HA Kruger

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimal allocation of internal auditing time among competing projects is a multi-criteria problem that includes both qualitative and quantitative factors. This paper discusses an integrated approach where the analytic hierarchy process (AHP is used to deal with qualitative risk assessments and a goal programming (GP model to distribute available hours in such a way that risk is minimised. Additional considerations, such as maximum and minimum allowable project hours, risk reducing factors and risk levels, are also taken into account. Following a description of the models and framework, a brief case study is presented in which the framework was empirically evaluated.

  14. Efficient coding schemes with power allocation using space-time-frequency spreading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Haining; Luo Hanwen; Tian Jifeng; Song Wentao; Liu Xingzhao

    2006-01-01

    An efficient space-time-frequency (STF) coding strategy for multi-input multi-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) systems is presented for high bit rate data transmission over frequency selective fading channels. The proposed scheme is a new approach to space-time-frequency coded OFDM (COFDM) that combines OFDM with space-time coding, linear precoding and adaptive power allocation to provide higher quality of transmission in terms of the bit error rate performance and power efficiency. In addition to exploiting the maximum diversity gain in frequency, time and space, the proposed scheme enjoys high coding advantages and low-complexity decoding. The significant performance improvement of our design is confirmed by corroborating numerical simulations.

  15. Time-Saving Innovations, Time Allocation, and Energy Use: Evidence from Canadian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. The introduction of time-saving innovations allows households to change their activity patterns and to reallocate their time across competing activities. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to have a two-fold impact on energy use in the residential sector. Firstly, increased use of time-saving technologies for basic household chores (cooking, ...

  16. Optimizing Real-Time Vaccine Allocation in a Stochastic SIR Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Nguyen

    Full Text Available Real-time vaccination following an outbreak can effectively mitigate the damage caused by an infectious disease. However, in many cases, available resources are insufficient to vaccinate the entire at-risk population, logistics result in delayed vaccine deployment, and the interaction between members of different cities facilitates a wide spatial spread of infection. Limited vaccine, time delays, and interaction (or coupling of cities lead to tradeoffs that impact the overall magnitude of the epidemic. These tradeoffs mandate investigation of optimal strategies that minimize the severity of the epidemic by prioritizing allocation of vaccine to specific subpopulations. We use an SIR model to describe the disease dynamics of an epidemic which breaks out in one city and spreads to another. We solve a master equation to determine the resulting probability distribution of the final epidemic size. We then identify tradeoffs between vaccine, time delay, and coupling, and we determine the optimal vaccination protocols resulting from these tradeoffs.

  17. Allocation of Parental Time and the Long Term Effect on Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wurtz, Astrid

    to the child's development, and it is shown that the quality of market provided childcare vs. the quality of parental childcare is crucial for the parents' decisions. The availability of paternal childcare does not seem to affect the mother's labor supply decision, though. Several different policy scenarios......This paper develops a structural model which links parental time use to a child's development in a household with two parents and one child. Since the allocation of home time and market work has become more equally distributed within households during the latest decades and since fathers seem...... to be an increasingly important part of their children's daily life, this study, opposite of most other studies within the childcare literature, explicitly takes both parents' time spent on childcare into account as well as childcare bought in the market. The parents' optimal labor supply decisions are linked...

  18. Time pressure and attention allocation effect on upper limb motion steadiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sicong; Eklund, Robert C; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Following ironic process theory (IPT), the authors aimed at investigating how attentional allocation affects participants' upper limb motion steadiness under low and high levels of mental load. A secondary purpose was to examine the validity of skin conductance level in measuring perception of pressure. The study consisted of 1 within-participant factor (i.e., phase: baseline, test) and 4 between-participant factors (i.e., gender: male, female; mental load: fake time constraints, no time constraints; attention: positive, suppressive; order: baseline → → → test, test → → baseline). Eighty college students (40 men and 40 women, Mage = 20.20 years, SD(age) = 1.52 years) participated in the study. Gender-stratified random assignment was employed in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 mixed experimental design. The findings generally support IPT but its predictions on motor performance under mental load may not be entirely accurate. Unlike men, women's performance was not susceptible to manipulations of mental load and attention allocation. The validity of skin conductance readings as an index of pressure perception was called into question.

  19. A Hierarchical Auction-Based Mechanism for Real-Time Resource Allocation in Cloud Robotic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lujia; Liu, Ming; Meng, Max Q-H

    2017-02-01

    Cloud computing enables users to share computing resources on-demand. The cloud computing framework cannot be directly mapped to cloud robotic systems with ad hoc networks since cloud robotic systems have additional constraints such as limited bandwidth and dynamic structure. However, most multirobotic applications with cooperative control adopt this decentralized approach to avoid a single point of failure. Robots need to continuously update intensive data to execute tasks in a coordinated manner, which implies real-time requirements. Thus, a resource allocation strategy is required, especially in such resource-constrained environments. This paper proposes a hierarchical auction-based mechanism, namely link quality matrix (LQM) auction, which is suitable for ad hoc networks by introducing a link quality indicator. The proposed algorithm produces a fast and robust method that is accurate and scalable. It reduces both global communication and unnecessary repeated computation. The proposed method is designed for firm real-time resource retrieval for physical multirobot systems. A joint surveillance scenario empirically validates the proposed mechanism by assessing several practical metrics. The results show that the proposed LQM auction outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for resource allocation.

  20. Background experiences, time allocation, time on teaching and perceived support of early-career college science faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagendorf, Kenneth S.

    The purposes of this research were to create an inventory of the research, teaching and service background experiences of and to document the time allocation and time spent on teaching by early-career college science faculty members. This project is presented as three distinct papers. Thirty early-career faculty in the science disciplines from sixteen different institutions in their first year of employment participated in this study. For the first two papers, a new survey was developed asking participants to choose which experiences they had acquired prior to taking their current faculty position and asking them to document their time allocation and time spent on teaching activities in an average work week. In addition, a third component documents the support early-career college faculty in the sciences are receiving from the perspective of faculty members and their respective department chairpersons and identifies areas of disagreement between these two different groups. Twenty early-career college science faculty and their respective department chairpersons completed a newly-designed survey regarding the support offered to new faculty. The survey addressed the areas of feedback on performance, clarity of tenure requirements, mentoring, support for teaching and scholarship and balancing faculty life. This dissertation presents the results from these surveys, accounting for different demographic variables such as science discipline, gender and institutional category.

  1. NOTE ON TRAVEL TIME SHIFTS DUE TO AMPLITUDE MODULATION IN TIME-DISTANCE HELIOSEISMOLOGY MEASUREMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigam, R.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2010-01-01

    Correct interpretation of acoustic travel times measured by time-distance helioseismology is essential to get an accurate understanding of the solar properties that are inferred from them. It has long been observed that sunspots suppress p-mode amplitude, but its implications on travel times have not been fully investigated so far. It has been found in test measurements using a 'masking' procedure, in which the solar Doppler signal in a localized quiet region of the Sun is artificially suppressed by a spatial function, and using numerical simulations that the amplitude modulations in combination with the phase-speed filtering may cause systematic shifts of acoustic travel times. To understand the properties of this procedure, we derive an analytical expression for the cross-covariance of a signal that has been modulated locally by a spatial function that has azimuthal symmetry and then filtered by a phase-speed filter typically used in time-distance helioseismology. Comparing this expression to the Gabor wavelet fitting formula without this effect, we find that there is a shift in the travel times that is introduced by the amplitude modulation. The analytical model presented in this paper can be useful also for interpretation of travel time measurements for the non-uniform distribution of oscillation amplitude due to observational effects.

  2. Optimal conservation resource allocation under variable economic and ecological time discounting rates in boreal forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazziotta, Adriano; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2016-01-01

    Resource allocation to multiple alternative conservation actions is a complex task. A common trade-off occurs between protection of smaller, expensive, high-quality areas versus larger, cheaper, partially degraded areas. We investigate optimal allocation into three actions in boreal forest: current......, and accounting for present revenues from timber harvesting. The present analysis assesses the cost-effective conditions to allocate resources into an inexpensive conservation strategy that nevertheless has potential to produce high ecological values in the future....

  3. Study on the Control Strategy of Shifting Time Involving Multigroup Clutches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the control strategy of shifting time involving multigroup clutches for a hydromechanical continuously variable transmission (HMCVT. The dynamic analyses of mathematical models are presented in this paper, and the simulation models are used to study the control strategy of HMCVT. Simulations are performed in Simulation X platform to investigate the shifting time of clutches under different operating conditions. On this basis, simulation analysis and test verification of two typical conditions, which play the decisive roles for the shifting quality, are carried out. The results show that there are differences in the shifting time of the two typical conditions. In the shifting process from the negative transmission of hydromechanical ranges to the positive transmission of hydromechanical ranges, the control strategy based on the shifting time is switching the clutches of shifting mechanism firstly and then disengaging a group of clutches of planetary gear mechanism and engaging another group of the clutches of planetary gear mechanism lastly. In the shifting process from the hydraulic range to the hydromechanical range, the control strategy based on the shifting time is switching the clutches of hydraulic shifting mechanism and planetary gear mechanism at first and then engaging the clutch of shifting mechanism.

  4. Moonlight avoidance in gerbils reveals a sophisticated interplay among time allocation, vigilance and state-dependent foraging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Burt P; Brown, Joel; Mukherjee, Shomen; Berger-Tal, Oded; Bouskila, Amos

    2010-05-22

    Foraging animals have several tools for managing the risk of predation, and the foraging games between them and their predators. Among these, time allocation is foremost, followed by vigilance and apprehension. Together, their use influences a forager's time allocation and giving-up density (GUD) in depletable resource patches. We examined Allenby's gerbils (Gerbilus andersoni allenbyi) exploiting seed resource patches in a large vivarium under varying moon phases in the presence of a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). We measured time allocated to foraging patches electronically and GUDs from seeds left behind in resource patches. From these, we estimated handling times, attack rates and quitting harvest rates (QHRs). Gerbils displayed greater vigilance (lower attack rates) at brighter moon phases (full full > new > wane). Finally, gerbils displayed higher QHRs at new and waxing moon phases. Differences across moon phases not only reflect changing time allocation and vigilance, but changes in the state of the foragers and their marginal value of energy. Early in the lunar cycle, gerbils rely on vigilance and sacrifice state to avoid risk; later they defend state at the cost of increased time allocation; finally their state can recover as safe opportunities expand. In the predator-prey foraging game, foxes may contribute to these patterns of behaviours by modulating their own activity in response to the opportunities presented in each moon phase.

  5. Western scrub-jays allocate longer observation time to more valuable information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Arii; Grodzinski, Uri; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-07-01

    When humans mentally reconstruct past events and imagine future scenarios, their subjective experience of mentally time travelling is accompanied by the awareness of doing so. Despite recent popularity of studying episodic memory in animals, such phenomenological consciousness has been extremely difficult to demonstrate without agreed behavioural markers of consciousness in non-linguistic subjects. We presented western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) with a task requiring them to allocate observing time between two peepholes to see food being hidden in either of two compartments, one where observing the hiding location was necessary to later relocate the food, and another where food could easily be found without watching. Jays first separately experienced these consequences of possessing information in each compartment and subsequently, once given a choice, made more looks and spent more time looking into the compartment where information was necessary than into the compartment where it was unnecessary. Thus, the jays can collect information to solve a future problem. Moreover, they can differentiate sources of information according to their potential value and modify behaviour to efficiently collect important, usable information. This is the first evidence of metacognition in a species that passes the behavioural criteria for both retrospective and prospective mental time travel.

  6. Adaptation to Shift Work: Physiologically Based Modeling of the Effects of Lighting and Shifts’ Start Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnova, Svetlana; Robinson, Peter A.; Postnov, Dmitry D.

    2013-01-01

    Shift work has become an integral part of our life with almost 20% of the population being involved in different shift schedules in developed countries. However, the atypical work times, especially the night shifts, are associated with reduced quality and quantity of sleep that leads to increase of sleepiness often culminating in accidents. It has been demonstrated that shift workers’ sleepiness can be improved by a proper scheduling of light exposure and optimizing shifts timing. Here, an integrated physiologically-based model of sleep-wake cycles is used to predict adaptation to shift work in different light conditions and for different shift start times for a schedule of four consecutive days of work. The integrated model combines a model of the ascending arousal system in the brain that controls the sleep-wake switch and a human circadian pacemaker model. To validate the application of the integrated model and demonstrate its utility, its dynamics are adjusted to achieve a fit to published experimental results showing adaptation of night shift workers (n = 8) in conditions of either bright or regular lighting. Further, the model is used to predict the shift workers’ adaptation to the same shift schedule, but for conditions not considered in the experiment. The model demonstrates that the intensity of shift light can be reduced fourfold from that used in the experiment and still produce good adaptation to night work. The model predicts that sleepiness of the workers during night shifts on a protocol with either bright or regular lighting can be significantly improved by starting the shift earlier in the night, e.g.; at 21∶00 instead of 00∶00. Finally, the study predicts that people of the same chronotype, i.e. with identical sleep times in normal conditions, can have drastically different responses to shift work depending on their intrinsic circadian and homeostatic parameters. PMID:23308206

  7. Development of a personal obligation to shift electricity use: Initial determinants and maintenance over time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linz, D.; Heberlein, T.

    1984-03-01

    The present study is an attempt to determine if the beliefs which underly the formation of an obligation to shift electricity use among household consumers also contribute to maintenance of the obligation over time. Utility customer beliefs about and obligation toward shifting electricity use in their households from on-peak to off-peak times were examined in 1977, when the customers had no behavioral experience with electricity shifting. In 1979, after two years of experience with shifting appliance use from on-peak to off-peak times, customers were again surveyed and the same variables measured. The results indicated that the formation of a feeling of obligation to shift electricity in 1977 use was marginally dependent on other beliefs. By 1979, these variables were completely supplanted by the subjects' self-perception of their shifting behavior. While cognitive variables are important in the initial formation of a personal obligation to engage in shifting electricity use, the perpetuation of a feeling of obligation to shift over a period of years depends on perception of how often electricity shifting was undertaken and how much electricity had been shifted from on- to off-peak times.

  8. The impact of short night-time naps on performance, sleepiness and mood during a simulated night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofanti, Stephanie A; Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    Short naps on night shift are recommended in some industries. There is a paucity of evidence to verify the sustained recovery benefits of short naps in the last few hours of the night shift. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the sustained recovery benefits of 30 and 10-min nap opportunities during a simulated night shift. Thirty-one healthy participants (18F, 21-35 y) completed a 3-day, between-groups laboratory study with one baseline night (22:00-07:00 h time in bed), followed by one night awake (time awake from 07:00 h on day two through 10:00 h day three) with random allocation to: a 10-min nap opportunity ending at 04:00 h, a 30-min nap opportunity ending at 04:00 h or no nap (control). A neurobehavioral test bout was administered approximately every 2 h during wake periods. There were no significant differences between nap conditions for post-nap psychomotor vigilance performance after controlling for pre-nap scores (p > 0.05). The 30-min nap significantly improved subjective sleepiness compared to the 10-min nap and no-nap control (p effect.

  9. The effect of location, mobility and socio-demographic factors on task and time allocation of households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ettema, D.F.; Schwanen, T.; Timmermans, Harry

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of location factors in task and time allocation at the household level. It is hypothesized that, if time constraints are less binding as a result of living in an urban area or owning more cars, spouses engage more often and longer in out-of-home activities and

  10. Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Nicole E; Ives, Anthony R

    2012-04-01

    The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches.

  11. Choice Overload, Satisficing Behavior, and Price Distribution in a Time Allocation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent psychological research indicates that consumers that search exhaustively for the best option of a market product—known as maximizers—eventually feel worse than consumers who just look for something good enough—called satisficers. We formulate a time allocation model to explore the relationship between different distributions of prices of the product and the satisficing behavior and the related welfare of the consumer. We show numerically that, as the number of options becomes large, the maximizing behavior produces less and less welfare and eventually leads to choice paralysis—these are effects of choice overload—whereas satisficing conducts entail higher levels of satisfaction and do not end up in paralysis. For different price distributions, we provide consistent evidence that maximizers are better off for a low number of options, whereas satisficers are better off for a sufficiently large number of options. We also show how the optimal satisficing behavior is affected when the underlying price distribution varies. We provide evidence that the mean and the dispersion of a symmetric distribution of prices—but not the shape of the distribution—condition the satisficing behavior of consumers. We also show that this need not be the case for asymmetric distributions.

  12. Ecological consequences of shifting the timing of burning tallgrass prairie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Gene Towne

    Full Text Available In the Kansas Flint Hills, grassland burning is conducted during a relatively narrow window because management recommendations for the past 40 years have been to burn only in late spring. Widespread prescribed burning within this restricted time frame frequently creates smoke management issues downwind. A potential remedy for the concentrated smoke production in late spring is to expand burning to times earlier in the year. Yet, previous research suggested that burning in winter or early spring reduces plant productivity and cattle weight gain while increasing the proportion of undesirable plant species. In order to better understand the ecological consequences of burning at different times of the year, plant production and species abundance were measured for 20 years on ungrazed watersheds burned annually in autumn, winter, or spring. We found that there were no significant differences in total grass production among the burns on either upland or lowland topographic positions, although spring burned watersheds had higher grass culm production and lower forb biomass than autumn and winter burned watersheds. Burning in autumn or winter broadened the window of grass productivity response to precipitation, which reduces susceptibility to mid-season drought. Burning in autumn or winter also increased the phenological range of species by promoting cool-season graminoids without a concomitant decrease in warm-season grasses, potentially widening the seasonal window of high-quality forage. Incorporating autumn and winter burns into the overall portfolio of tallgrass prairie management should increase the flexibility in managing grasslands, promote biodiversity, and minimize air quality issues caused by en masse late-spring burning with little negative consequences for cattle production.

  13. When Mothers' Work Matters for Youths' Daily Time Use: Implications of Evening and Weekend Shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soomi; Davis, Kelly D; McHale, Susan M; Kelly, Erin L; Kossek, Ellen Ernst; Crouter, Ann C

    2017-08-01

    Drawing upon the work-home resources model, this study examined the implications of mothers' evening and weekend shifts for youths' time with mother, alone, and hanging out with peers unsupervised, with attention to both the amount and day-to-day consistency of time use. Data came from 173 mothers who worked in the long-term care industry and their youths who provided daily diaries. Multilevel modeling revealed that youths whose mothers worked more evening shifts on average spent less time with their mothers compared to youths whose mothers worked fewer evening shifts. Youths whose mothers worked more weekend shifts, however, spent more time with their mothers and exhibited less consistency in their time in all three activity domains compared to youths whose mothers worked fewer weekend shifts. Girls, not boys, spent less time alone on days when mothers worked weekend shifts than on days with standard shifts. Older but not younger adolescents spent more time hanging out with friends on evening and weekend shift days, and their unsupervised peer time was less consistent across days when mothers worked more evening shifts. These effects adjusted for sociodemographic and day characteristics, including school day, number of children in the household, mothers' marital status and work hours, and time with fathers. Our results illuminate the importance of the timing and day of mothers' work for youths' daily activities. Future interventions should consider how to increase mothers' resources to deal with constraints on parenting due to their work during nonstandard hours, with attention to child gender and age.

  14. Maintainability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1980-06-01

    The author gives the general lines of a method for the allocation and for the evaluation of maintainability of complex systems which is to be developed during the conference. The maintainability objective is supposed to be formulated under the form of a mean time to repair (M.T.T.R.) [fr

  15. The decadal state of the terrestrial carbon cycle : Global retrievals of terrestrial carbon allocation, pools, and residence times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloom, A Anthony; Exbrayat, Jean-François; van der Velde, Ivar R; Feng, Liang; Williams, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    The terrestrial carbon cycle is currently the least constrained component of the global carbon budget. Large uncertainties stem from a poor understanding of plant carbon allocation, stocks, residence times, and carbon use efficiency. Imposing observational constraints on the terrestrial carbon cycle

  16. Money Allocation to Out-of-Home Leisure Activities and the Organization of These Activities in Time and Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dane, Gamze; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J P; Ettema, Dick

    2015-01-01

    Monetary budgets influence activity participation and related travel as they demarcate limits on how people organize their activities in time and space. In this paper, we are interested in money allocation to out-of-home leisure activities and how this is affected by duration, sociodemographics, and

  17. The effects of shift work and time of day on fine motor control during handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzle, Patricia; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Vetter, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Handwriting is an elaborate and highly automatised skill relying on fine motor control. In laboratory conditions handwriting kinematics are modulated by the time of day. This study investigated handwriting kinematics in a rotational shift system and assessed whether similar time of day fluctuations at the work place can be observed. Handwriting performance was measured in two tasks of different levels of complexity in 34 shift workers across morning (6:00-14:00), evening (14:00-22:00) and night shifts (22:00-6:00). Participants were tested during all three shifts in 2-h intervals with mobile testing devices. We calculated average velocity, script size and writing frequency to quantify handwriting kinematics and fluency. Average velocity and script size were significantly affected by the shift work schedule with the worst performance during morning shifts and the best performance during evening shifts. Our data are of high economic relevance as fine motor skills are indispensable for accurate and effective production at the work place. Handwriting is one of the most complex fine motor skills in humans, which is frequently performed in daily life. In this study, we tested handwriting repeatedly at the work place in a rotational shift system. We found slower handwriting velocity and reduced script size during morning shifts.

  18. Importance of whole-plant biomass allocation and reproductive timing to habitat differentiation across the North American sunflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Chase M; Goolsby, Eric W; Davis, Kaleigh E; Bullock, Devon V; Donovan, Lisa A

    2017-05-01

    Trait-based plant ecology attempts to use small numbers of functional traits to predict plant ecological strategies. However, a major gap exists between our understanding of organ-level ecophysiological traits and our understanding of whole-plant fitness and environmental adaptation. In this gap lie whole-plant organizational traits, including those that describe how plant biomass is allocated among organs and the timing of plant reproduction. This study explores the role of whole-plant organizational traits in adaptation to diverse environments in the context of life history, growth form and leaf economic strategy in a well-studied herbaceous system. A phylogenetic comparative approach was used in conjunction with common garden phenotyping to assess the evolution of biomass allocation and reproductive timing across 83 populations of 27 species of the diverse genus Helianthus (the sunflowers). Broad diversity exists among species in both relative biomass allocation and reproductive timing. Early reproduction is strongly associated with resource-acquisitive leaf economic strategy, while biomass allocation is less integrated with either reproductive timing or leaf economics. Both biomass allocation and reproductive timing are strongly related to source site environmental characteristics, including length of the growing season, temperature, precipitation and soil fertility. Herbaceous taxa can adapt to diverse environments in many ways, including modulation of phenology, plant architecture and organ-level ecophysiology. Although leaf economic strategy captures one key aspect of plant physiology, on their own leaf traits are not particularly predictive of ecological strategies in Helianthus outside of the context of growth form, life history and whole-plant organization. These results highlight the importance of including data on whole-plant organization alongside organ-level ecophysiological traits when attempting to bridge the gap between functional traits and plant

  19. NNSA?s Computing Strategy, Acquisition Plan, and Basis for Computing Time Allocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkel, D J

    2009-07-21

    This report is in response to the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009 (H.R. 1105; Public Law 111-8) in its funding of the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program. This bill called for a report on ASC's plans for computing and platform acquisition strategy in support of stockpile stewardship. Computer simulation is essential to the stewardship of the nation's nuclear stockpile. Annual certification of the country's stockpile systems, Significant Finding Investigations (SFIs), and execution of Life Extension Programs (LEPs) are dependent on simulations employing the advanced ASC tools developed over the past decade plus; indeed, without these tools, certification would not be possible without a return to nuclear testing. ASC is an integrated program involving investments in computer hardware (platforms and computing centers), software environments, integrated design codes and physical models for these codes, and validation methodologies. The significant progress ASC has made in the past derives from its focus on mission and from its strategy of balancing support across the key investment areas necessary for success. All these investment areas must be sustained for ASC to adequately support current stockpile stewardship mission needs and to meet ever more difficult challenges as the weapons continue to age or undergo refurbishment. The appropriations bill called for this report to address three specific issues, which are responded to briefly here but are expanded upon in the subsequent document: (1) Identify how computing capability at each of the labs will specifically contribute to stockpile stewardship goals, and on what basis computing time will be allocated to achieve the goal of a balanced program among the labs. (2) Explain the NNSA's acquisition strategy for capacity and capability of machines at each of the labs and how it will fit within the existing budget constraints. (3

  20. Parental self-feeding effects on parental care levels and time allocation in Palestine sunbirds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Markman

    Full Text Available The trade-off between parents feeding themselves and their young is an important life history problem that can be considered in terms of optimal behavioral strategies. Recent studies on birds have tested how parents allocate the food between themselves and their young. Until now the effect of food consumption by parent birds on their food delivery to their young as well as other parental activities has rarely been studied. I have previously shown that parent Palestine sunbirds (Nectarinia osea will consume nectar and liquidized arthropods from artificial feeders. However, they will only feed their young with whole arthropods. This provided a unique opportunity to experimentally manipulate the food eaten by parents independent of that fed to their offspring. Here, I hypothesized that parents invest in their current young according to the quality of food that they themselves consume. Breeding pairs with two or three nestlings were provided with feeders containing water (control, sucrose solution (0.75 mol or liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution (0.75 mol. As food quality in feeders increased (from water up to liquidized mealworms mixed with sucrose solution: 1 Parents (especially females increased their food delivery of whole arthropod prey to their young. 2 Only males increased their nest guarding effort. Nestling food intake and growth rate increased with increasing food quality of parents and decreasing brood size. These results imply that increasing the nutrient content of foods consumed by parent sunbirds allow them to increase the rate at which other foods are delivered to their young and to increase the time spent on other parental care activities.

  1. The Impact of a Rigorous Multiple Work Shift Schedule and Day Versus Night Shift Work on Reaction Time and Balance Performance in Female Nurses: A Repeated Measures Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Stock, Matt S; Banuelas, Victoria K; Akalonu, Chibuzo C

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a demanding work schedule involving long, cumulative work shifts on response time and balance-related performance outcomes and to evaluate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders between day and night shift working nurses. A questionnaire was used to identify the prevalence of past (12-month) and current (7-day) musculoskeletal disorders. Nurses worked three 12-hour work shifts in a 4-day period. Reaction time and balance tests were conducted before and after the work period. The work period induced impairments for reaction time, errors on reaction time tasks, and balance performance, independent of shift type. Musculoskeletal symptom prevalence was high in workers of both work shifts. Compressed work shifts caused performance-based fatigue in nurses. Reaction time and balance tests may be sensitive fatigue identification markers in nurses.

  2. Third degree waiting time discrimination: optimal allocation of a public sector healthcare treatment under rationing by waiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Hugh; Siciliani, Luigi

    2009-08-01

    In many public healthcare systems treatments are rationed by waiting time. We examine the optimal allocation of a fixed supply of a given treatment between different groups of patients. Even in the absence of any distributional aims, welfare is increased by third degree waiting time discrimination: setting different waiting times for different groups waiting for the same treatment. Because waiting time imposes dead weight losses on patients, lower waiting times should be offered to groups with higher marginal waiting time costs and with less elastic demand for the treatment.

  3. Expanding the scale of forest management: allocating timber harvests in time and space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric J. Gustafson

    1996-01-01

    This study examined the effect of clustering timber harvest zones and of changing the land use categories of zones (dynamic zoning) over varying temporal and spatial scales. Focusing on the Hoosier National Forest (HNF) in Indiana, USA as a study area, I used a timber harvest allocation model to simulate four management alternatives. In the static zoning alternative,...

  4. Optimal Allocation of Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Depends on Age, Risk and Timing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylius, S.D.; Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Lugner, A.K.; Wallinga, J.

    2008-01-01

    The limited production capacity for vaccines raises the question what the best strategy is for allocating the vaccine to mitigate an influenza pandemic. We developed an age-structured model for spread of an influenza pandemic and validated it against observations from the Asian flu pandemic. Two

  5. Time evolution, Lamb shift, and emission spectra of spontaneous emission of two identical atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dawei; Li Zhenghong; Zheng Hang; Zhu Shiyao

    2010-01-01

    A unitary transformation method is used to investigate the dynamic evolution of two multilevel atoms, in the basis of symmetric and antisymmetric states, with one atom being initially prepared in the first excited state and the other in the ground state. The unitary transformation guarantees that our calculations are based on the ground state of the atom-field system and the self-energy is subtracted at the beginning. The total Lamb shifts of the symmetric and antisymmetric states are divided into transformed shift and dynamic shift. The transformed shift is due to emitting and reabsorbing of virtual photons, by a single atom (nondynamic single atomic shift) and between the two atoms (quasi-static shift). The dynamic shift is due to the emitting and reabsorbing of real photons, by a single atom (dynamic single atomic shift) and between the two atoms (dynamic interatomic shift). The emitting and reabsorbing of virtual and real photons between the two atoms result in the interatomic shift, which does not exist for the one-atom case. The spectra at the long-time limit are calculated. If the distance between the two atoms is shorter than or comparable to the wavelength, the strong coupling between the two atoms splits the spectrum into two peaks, one from the symmetric state and the other from the antisymmetric state. The origin of the red or blue shifts for the symmetric and antisymmetric states mainly lies in the negative or positive interaction energy between the two atoms. In the investigation of the short time evolution, we find the modification of the effective density of states by the interaction between two atoms can modulate the quantum Zeno and quantum anti-Zeno effects in the decays of the symmetric and antisymmetric states.

  6. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  7. Critical-path-first based allocation of real-time streaming applications on 2D mesh-type multi-cores.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Hazem; Pinho, Luis Miguel; Akesson, K.B.

    2013-01-01

    Designing cost-efficient multi-core real-time systems requires efficient techniques to allocate applications to cores while satisfying their timing constraints. However, existing approaches typically allocate using a First-Fit algorithm, which does not consider the execution time and potential

  8. Study of Allocation Guaranteed Time Slot Wireless Body Area Networks Based on IEEE 802.15.4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yundra, E.; Harsono, G. D.

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to determine the size of the Guaranteed Time Slot (GTS) on the super frame structure required for each sensor as well as to know the performance of the GTS resized system compared to the GTS standard on IEEE 802.15.4. This article proposes a scheme to improve IEEE 802.15.4 medium access control, called allocation Guaranteed Time Slot (ALGATIS). ALGATIS is expected to effectively allocate guaranteed time slot to the requested sensors, it adjusts the length of the slot in super frame duration based on the length of the packet data. This article presents a simulation experiment of IEEE 802.15.4, especially for star network, to predict the throughput of networks and average energy consumption. The simulation experiments show that the performance of ALGATIS is better than that of IEEE 802.15.4 standard in term of the throughput of networks and average energy consumption

  9. Reconceptualizing perceptual load as a rate problem: The role of time in the allocation of selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Xin, Keyun; Li, Wei; Li, Yanzhe

    2018-04-30

    In the literature about allocation of selective attention, a widely studied question is when will attention be allocated to information that is clearly irrelevant to the task at hand. The present study, by using convergent evidence, demonstrated that there is a trade-off between quantity of information present in a display and the time allowed to process it. Specifically, whether or not there is interference from irrelevant distractors depends not only on the amount of information present, but also on the amount of time allowed to process that information. When processing time is calibrated to the amount of information present, irrelevant distractors can be selectively ignored successfully. These results suggest that the perceptual load in the load theory of selective attention (i.e., Lavie, 2005) should be thought about as a dynamic rate problem rather than a static capacity limitation. The authors thus propose that rather than conceiving of perceptual load as a quantity of information, they should consider it as a quantity of information per unit of time. In other words, it is the relationship between the quantity of information in the task and the time for processing the information that determines the allocation of selective attention. Thus, the present findings extended load theory, allowing it to explain findings that were previously considered as counter evidence of load theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Real Time Monitoring and Supervisory Control of Distribution Load Based on Generic Load Allocation: A Smart Grid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwer Ahmed Memon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Our work is the small part of the smart grid system. This is regarding the check and balance of power consumption at the consumer level. It is a well known fact that the consumers are allocated a fixed load according to their requirement at the time of application for the electricity connection. When the consumer increases its load and does not inform the power company, the result is the overloading of the system. This paper presents a solution regarding distribution and load allocation to each customer. If the customer uses power greater than the load allocated, further power is not provided and consequently that appliance is not turned on unless the total load must not be decreased than the allocated load. This is achieved by designing a processor controlled system that measures the power on main line and also the power taken by each device. Now when a device is turned on, its power is measured by the controller and compares it with the main line power, and when the device consumes some power consequently main line power will also be increased thus this main line power is monitored and if it exceeds particular limit that device is turned off through its relay

  11. Real time monitoring and supervisory control of distribution load based on generic load allocation: a smart grid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, A.W.; Memon, Z.A.; Aamir, R.R.

    2014-01-01

    Our work is the small part of the smart grid system. This is regarding the check and balance of power consumption at the consumer level. It is a well known fact that the consumers are allocated a fixed load according to their requirement at the time of application for the electricity connection. When the consumer increases its load and does not inform the power company, the result is the overloading of the system. This paper presents a solution regarding distribution and load allocation to each customer. If the customer uses power greater than the load allocated, further power is not provided and consequently that appliance is not turned on unless the total load must not be decreased than the allocated load. This is achieved by designing a processor controlled system that measures the power on main line and also the power taken by each device. Now when a device is turned on, its power is measured by the controller and compares it with the main line power, and when the device consumes some power consequently main line power will also be increased thus this main line power is monitored and if it exceeds particular limit that device is turned off through its relay. (author)

  12. The Impact of Balanced Skills, Working Time Allocation and Peer Effects on the Entrepreneurial Intentions of Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Moog; Arndt Werner; Stefan Houweling; Uschi Backes-Gellner

    2012-01-01

    To date, little is known about the effects of the composition of skills on academic entrepreneurship. Therefore, in this paper, following Lazear’s (2005) jack-of-all-trades approach, we study how his or her composition of skills affects a scientist’s intention of becoming an entrepreneur. Extending Lazear, we examine how the effect of balanced entrepreneurial skills is moderated by a balanced working time allocations and peer effects. Using unique data collected from 480 life sciences researc...

  13. Distributed Task Rescheduling With Time Constraints for the Optimization of Total Task Allocations in a Multirobot System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Joanna; Meng, Qinggang; Schaefer, Gerald; Whitbrook, Amanda; Soltoggio, Andrea

    2017-09-28

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing the number of task allocations in a distributed multirobot system under strict time constraints, where other optimization objectives need also be considered. It builds upon existing distributed task allocation algorithms, extending them with a novel method for maximizing the number of task assignments. The fundamental idea is that a task assignment to a robot has a high cost if its reassignment to another robot creates a feasible time slot for unallocated tasks. Multiple reassignments among networked robots may be required to create a feasible time slot and an upper limit to this number of reassignments can be adjusted according to performance requirements. A simulated rescue scenario with task deadlines and fuel limits is used to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method compared with existing methods, the consensus-based bundle algorithm and the performance impact (PI) algorithm. Starting from existing (PI-generated) solutions, results show up to a 20% increase in task allocations using the proposed method.

  14. Computational derivation of quantum relativist electromagnetic systems with forward-backward space-time shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubois, Daniel M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is a continuation of our preceding paper dealing with computational derivation of the Klein-Gordon quantum relativist equation and the Schroedinger quantum equation with forward and backward space-time shifts. The first part introduces forward and backward derivatives for discrete and continuous systems. Generalized complex discrete and continuous derivatives are deduced. The second part deduces the Klein-Gordon equation from the space-time complex continuous derivatives. These derivatives take into account forward-backward space-time shifts related to an internal phase velocity u. The internal group velocity v is related to the speed of light u.v=c 2 and to the external group and phase velocities u.v=v g .v p . Without time shift, the Schroedinger equation is deduced, with a supplementary term, which could represent a reference potential. The third part deduces the Quantum Relativist Klein-Gordon equation for a particle in an electromagnetic field

  15. Comparisons of lesion detectability in ultrasound images acquired using time-shift compensation and spatial compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacefield, James C; Pilkington, Wayne C; Waag, Robert C

    2004-12-01

    The effects of aberration, time-shift compensation, and spatial compounding on the discrimination of positive-contrast lesions in ultrasound b-scan images are investigated using a two-dimensional (2-D) array system and tissue-mimicking phantoms. Images were acquired within an 8.8 x 12-mm2 field of view centered on one of four statistically similar 4-mm diameter spherical lesions. Each lesion was imaged in four planes offset by successive 45 degree rotations about the central scan line. Images of the lesions were acquired using conventional geometric focusing through a water path, geometric focusing through a 35-mm thick distributed aberration phantom, and time-shift compensated transmit and receive focusing through the aberration phantom. The views of each lesion were averaged to form sets of water path, aberrated, and time-shift compensated 4:1 compound images and 16:1 compound images. The contrast ratio and detectability index of each image were computed to assess lesion differentiation. In the presence of aberration representative of breast or abdominal wall tissue, time-shift compensation provided statistically significant improvements of contrast ratio but did not consistently affect the detectability index, and spatial compounding significantly increased the detectability index but did not alter the contrast ratio. Time-shift compensation and spatial compounding thus provide complementary benefits to lesion detection.

  16. Limited and time-delayed internal resource allocation generates oscillations and chaos in the dynamics of citrus crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Xujun; Sakai, Kenshi

    2013-01-01

    Alternate bearing or masting is a yield variability phenomenon in perennial crops. The complex dynamics in this phenomenon have stimulated much ecological research. Motivated by data from an eight-year experiment with forty-eight individual trees, we explored the mechanism inherent to these dynamics in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.). By integrating high-resolution imaging technology, we found that the canopy structure and reproduction output of individual citrus crops are mutually dependent on each other. Furthermore, it was revealed that the mature leaves in early season contribute their energy to the fruiting of the current growing season, whereas the younger leaves show a delayed contribution to the next growing season. We thus hypothesized that the annual yield variability might be caused by the limited and time-delayed resource allocation in individual plants. A novel lattice model based on this hypothesis demonstrates that this pattern of resource allocation will generate oscillations and chaos in citrus yield

  17. Limited and time-delayed internal resource allocation generates oscillations and chaos in the dynamics of citrus crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Xujun, E-mail: yexujun@cc.hirosaki-u.ac.jp [College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Hirosaki University, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan); Sakai, Kenshi, E-mail: ken@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Environmental and Agricultural Engineering Department, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Alternate bearing or masting is a yield variability phenomenon in perennial crops. The complex dynamics in this phenomenon have stimulated much ecological research. Motivated by data from an eight-year experiment with forty-eight individual trees, we explored the mechanism inherent to these dynamics in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.). By integrating high-resolution imaging technology, we found that the canopy structure and reproduction output of individual citrus crops are mutually dependent on each other. Furthermore, it was revealed that the mature leaves in early season contribute their energy to the fruiting of the current growing season, whereas the younger leaves show a delayed contribution to the next growing season. We thus hypothesized that the annual yield variability might be caused by the limited and time-delayed resource allocation in individual plants. A novel lattice model based on this hypothesis demonstrates that this pattern of resource allocation will generate oscillations and chaos in citrus yield.

  18. Suppression and Narrative Time Shifts in Adults with Right-Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharp, Victoria L.; Tompkins, Connie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the functioning of a central comprehension mechanism, suppression, in adults with right-hemisphere damage (RHD) while they processed narratives that cued a shift in time frame. In normal language comprehension, mental activation of concepts from a prior time frame is suppressed. The (re)activation of information…

  19. Dedicated Shift Wrap-up Time Does Not Improve Resident Sign-out Volume or Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanmonod, Rebecca K; Brook, Christopher; Winther, Mark; Pathak, Soma; Boyd, Molly

    2010-02-01

    Sign-out (SO) is a challenge to the emergency physician. Some training programs have instituted overlapping 9-hour shifts. The residents see patients for eight hours, and have one hour of wrap-up time. This hour helps them complete patient care, leaving fewer patients to sign-out. We examined whether this strategy impacts SO burden. This is a retrospective review of patients evaluated by emergency medicine (EM) residents working 9-hour (eight hours of patient care, one hour wrap-up time) and 12-hour shifts (12 hours patient care, no reserved time for wrap-up). Data were collected by reviewing the clinical tracker. A patient was assigned to the resident who initiated care and dictated the chart. SO was defined as any patient in the ED without disposition at change of shift. Patient turn-around-time (TAT) was also recorded. One-hundred sixty-one postgraduate-year-one resident (PGY1), 264 postgraduate-year-two resident (PGY2), and 193 postgraduate-year-three resident (PGY3) shifts were included. PGY1s signed out 1.9 patients per 12-hour shift. PGY2s signed out 2.3 patients on 12-hour shifts and 1.8 patients on 9-hour shifts. PGY3s signed out 2.1 patients on 12-hour shifts and 2.0 patients on 9-hour shifts. When we controlled for patients seen per hour, SO burden was constant by class regardless of shift length, with PGY2s signing out 18% of patients seen compared to 15% for PGY3s. PGY1s signed out 18% of patients seen. TAT for patients seen by PGY1s and PGY2s was similar, at 189 and 187 minutes, respectively. TAT for patients seen by PGY3s was significantly less at 175 minutes. The additional hour devoted to wrapping up patients in the ED had no affect on SO burden. The SO burden represented a fixed percentage of the total number of patients seen by the residents. PGY3s sign-out a smaller percentage of patients seen compared to other classes, and have faster TATs.

  20. Dedicated Shift Wrap-up Time Does Not Improve Resident Sign-out Volume or Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanmonod, Rebecca K

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sign-out (SO is a challenge to the emergency physician. Some training programs have instituted overlapping 9-hour shifts. The residents see patients for eight hours, and have one hour of wrap-up time. This hour helps them complete patient care, leaving fewer patients to sign-out. We examined whether this strategy impacts SO burden.Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients evaluated by emergency medicine (EM residents working 9-hour (eight hours of patient care, one hour wrap-up time and 12-hour shifts (12 hours patient care, no reserved time for wrap-up. Data were collected by reviewing the clinical tracker. A patient was assigned to the resident who initiated care and dictated the chart. SO was defined as any patient in the ED without disposition at change of shift. Patient turn-around-time (TAT was also recorded.Results: One-hundred sixty-one postgraduate-year-one resident (PGY1, 264 postgraduate-year-two resident (PGY2, and 193 postgraduate-year-three resident (PGY3 shifts were included. PGY1s signed out 1.9 patients per 12-hour shift. PGY2s signed out 2.3 patients on 12-hour shifts and 1.8 patients on 9-hour shifts. PGY3s signed out 2.1 patients on 12-hour shifts and 2.0 patients on 9-hour shifts. When we controlled for patients seen per hour, SO burden was constant by class regardless of shift length, with PGY2s signing out 18% of patients seen compared to 15% for PGY3s. PGY1s signed out 18% of patients seen. TAT for patients seen by PGY1s and PGY2s was similar, at 189 and 187 minutes, respectively. TAT for patients seen by PGY3s was significantly less at 175 minutes.Conclusion: The additional hour devoted to wrapping up patients in the ED had no affect on SO burden. The SO burden represented a fixed percentage of the total number of patients seen by the residents. PGY3s sign-out a smaller percentage of patients seen compared to other classes, and have faster TATs. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:35-39].

  1. Life quality time allocation index-an equilibrium economy consistent version of the current life quality index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The definition the Life Quality Index for a country as originally suggested by Nathwani, Lind and Pandey is based on the gross domestic product (GDP), the expected life in good health at birth, and the fraction of life time the anonymous citizen of the country is occupied with money making work...... a further development casting the definition into dimensionless quantities that make the index get a pure unit of time and not the somewhat obscure unit as a power product of a money unit and a time unit. To avoid confusion, this new variant of the LQI is called the Life Quality Time Allocation Index (LQTAI...... of the variables themselves, the relative increment of the LQI becomes defined as a convex combination of the two relative increments. The combination parameter is obtained by an optimality argument about the anonymous citizen’s distribution of his or her time between free time and work time. In the original...

  2. Moving attention - Evidence for time-invariant shifts of visual selective attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, R.; Pierce, L.

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments measured the time to shift spatial selective attention across the visual field to targets 2 or 10 deg from central fixation. A central arrow cued the most likely target location. The direction of attention was inferred from reaction times to expected, unexpected, and neutral locations. The development of a spatial attentional set with time was examined by presenting target probes at varying times after the cue. There were no effects of distance on the time course of the attentional set. Reaction times for far locations were slower than for near, but the effects of attention were evident by 150 msec in both cases. Spatial attention does not shift with a characteristic, fixed velocity. Rather, velocity is proportional to distance, resulting in a movement time that is invariant over the distances tested.

  3. Time Use and Physical Activity: A Shift Away from Movement across the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Technology linked with reduced physical activity (PA) in occupational work, home/domestic work, and travel and increased sedentary activities, especially television viewing, dominates the globe. Using detailed historical data on time allocation, occupational distributions, energy expenditures data by activity, and time-varying measures of metabolic equivalents of task (MET) for activities when available, we measure historical and current MET by four major PA domains (occupation, home production, travel, and active leisure) and sedentary time among adults (> 18 years). Trends by domain for the United States (1965–2009), the United Kingdom (1961–2005), Brazil (2002–2007), China (1991–2009), and India (2000–2005) are presented. We also project changes in energy expenditure by domain and sedentary time (excluding sleep and personal care) to 2020 and 2030 for each of these countries. The use of previously unexplored detailed time allocation and energy expenditures and other datasets represents a useful addition to our ability to document activity and inactivity globally. Given the potential impact on weight gain and other cardiometabolic health risks, the differential declines in MET of activity and increases in sedentary time across the globe represents a major threat to global health. PMID:22694051

  4. Chromatographic peak resolution using Microsoft Excel Solver. The merit of time shifting input arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2008-12-05

    Resolution of overlapped chromatographic peaks is generally accomplished by modeling the peaks as Gaussian or modified Gaussian functions. It is possible, even preferable, to use actual single analyte input responses for this purpose and a nonlinear least squares minimization routine such as that provided by Microsoft Excel Solver can then provide the resolution. In practice, the quality of the results obtained varies greatly due to small shifts in retention time. I show here that such deconvolution can be considerably improved if one or more of the response arrays are iteratively shifted in time.

  5. Estimation of time delay and wavelength shift for highly nonlinear multilayer waveguide by using time transformation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Roshmi; Basu, Mousumi

    2018-02-01

    The well known time transformation method is used here to derive the temporal and spectral electric field distribution at the output end of a multilayer waveguide which consists of different layers of Kerr nonlinear media. A highly nonlinear CS 3-68 glass is considered as one of the materials of the waveguide which mainly comprises of different chalcogenide glass layers. The results indicate that there is sufficient time delay as well as frequency shift between the input and output pulses which is associated with the phenomenon of adiabatic wavelength conversion (AWC). Depending on different arrangements of materials, the time delay and frequency shift can be changed. As a result an input pulse in visible green region can be blue-shifted or red-shifted according to the choices of refractive index of the non-dispersive Kerr nonlinear media. The results show that under certain conditions the input pulse is broadened or compressed for different combinations of materials. This process of AWC also includes the variation of temporal and spectral phase, time delay, temporal peak power etc. For different input pulse shapes the change in time delay is also presented. The study may be useful to find applications of AWC in optical resonators or optical signal processing to be applicable to different photonic devices.

  6. [Delivery during time of shift change is not a risk factor for obstetric complication: a historical cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Orna; Samueloff, Arnon; Gdansky, Efraim; Yekel, Yael; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit

    2015-03-01

    The time of shift change is a unique time because the continuity of routine care is interrupted. The association between delivery during time of shift change and obstetric complications has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that delivery during time of shift change is at risk for obstetric complications. A historical cohort study was performed of all women with a singleton pregnancy undergoing a trial of labor at term during 2006-2010. Data was extracted from a computerized database that is continuously updated during Labor. The hour of delivery was divided into two categories: "morning shift" (09:30-15:00) and "time of shift change" which was defined 30 minutes prior to and 90 minutes past the official time of shift change, which occurs twice daily at 07:30 and 15:30. Multivariate logistic regression models were implemented to estimate the association between deliveries during "time of shift change" compared to "morning weekdays", with instrumental delivery (primary outcome) and prolonged second stage, unplanned cesarean section, postpartum hemorrhage, 5 minutes Apgar score deliveries were included in the cohort. No statistical difference in instrumental vaginal delivery was documented for women delivering during "time of shift change compared to morning shift weekdays (OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.83- 1.11, p = 0.605). None of the secondary outcomes were found at risk for women delivering during "time of shift change". Delivery during "time of shift change" does not pose additional risk for obstetric complications.

  7. The effects of prior knowledge on study-time allocation and free recall: investigating the discrepancy reduction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Rikers, Remy M J P; Schmidt, Henk G

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the influence of prior knowledge activation on information processing by means of a prior knowledge activation procedure adopted from the read-generate paradigm. On the basis of cue-target pairs, participants in the experimental groups generated two different sets of items before studying a relevant list. Subsequently, participants were informed that they had to study the items in the list and that they should try to remember as many items as possible. The authors assessed the processing time allocated to the items in the list and free recall of those items. The results revealed that the experimental groups spent less time on items that had already been activated. In addition, the experimental groups outperformed the control group in overall free recall and in free recall of the activated items. Between-group comparisons did not demonstrate significant effects with respect to the processing time and free recall of nonactivated items. The authors interpreted these results in terms of the discrepancy reduction model of regulating the amount of processing time allocated to different parts of the list.

  8. Efficient forward propagation of time-sequences in convolutional neural networks using Deep Shifting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.L. Groenland (Koen); S.M. Bohte (Sander)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWhen a Convolutional Neural Network is used for on-the-fly evaluation of continuously updating time-sequences, many redundant convolution operations are performed. We propose the method of Deep Shifting, which remembers previously calculated results of convolution operations in order

  9. Parents' Family Time and Work Schedules: The Split-Shift Schedule in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, P.; Kalmijn, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study used data on couples from the 2003 Spanish Time Use Survey (N = 1,416) to analyze how work schedules are associated with family, couple, parent–child, and non-family leisure activities. Spain is clearly an interesting case for the institutionalized split-shift schedule, a long lunch break

  10. Behavioral performance follows the time course of neural facilitation and suppression during cued shifts of feature-selective attention

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, S. K.; Müller, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    A central question in the field of attention is whether visual processing is a strictly limited resource, which must be allocated by selective attention. If this were the case, attentional enhancement of one stimulus should invariably lead to suppression of unattended distracter stimuli. Here we examine voluntary cued shifts of feature-selective attention to either one of two superimposed red or blue random dot kinematograms (RDKs) to test whether such a reciprocal relationship between enhanc...

  11. How does warming affect carbon allocation, respiration and residence time in trees? An isotope tracer approach in a eucalypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendall, E.; Drake, J. E.; Furze, M.; Barton, C. V.; Carillo, Y.; Richter, A.; Tjoelker, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    Climate warming has the potential to alter the balance between photosynthetic carbon assimilation and respiratory losses in forest trees, leading to uncertainty in predicting their future physiological functioning. In a previous experiment, warming decreased canopy CO2 assimilation (A) rates of Eucalyptus tereticornis trees, but respiration (R) rates were usually not significantly affected, due to physiological acclimation to temperature. This led to a slight increase in (R/A) and thus decrease in plant carbon use efficiency with climate warming. In contrast to carbon fluxes, the effect of warming on carbon allocation and residence time in trees has received less attention. We conducted a study to test the hypothesis that warming would decrease the allocation of C belowground owing to reduced cost of nutrient uptake. E. parramattensis trees were grown in the field in unique whole-tree chambers operated at ambient and ambient +3 °C temperature treatments (n=3 per treatment). We applied a 13CO2 pulse and followed the label in CO2 respired from leaves, roots, canopy and soil, in plant sugars, and in rhizosphere microbes over a 3-week period in conjunction with measurements of tree growth. The 9-m tall, 57 m3 whole-tree chambers were monitored for CO2 concentrations in independent canopy and below ground (root and soil) compartments; periodic monitoring of δ13C values in air in the compartments allowed us to quantify the amount of 13CO2 assimilated and respired by each tree. Warmed trees grew faster and assimilated more of the label than control trees, but the 13C allocation to canopy, root and soil respiration was not altered. However, warming appeared to reduce the residence time of carbon respired from leaves, and especially from roots and soil, indicating that autotrophic respiration has the potential to feedback to climate change. This experiment provides insights into how warming may affect the fate of assimilated carbon from the leaf to the ecosystem scale.

  12. Progressive Red Shifts in the Late-Time Spectra of Type Ia Supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christine; Fesen, Robert; Parrent, Jerod

    2017-01-01

    We examine the evolution of late-time, optical nebular features of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using a sample consisting of 160 spectra of 27 normal SNe Ia taken from the literature as well as unpublished spectra of SN 2008Q and ASASSN-14lp. Particular attention is given to nebular features between 4000-6000 Ang in terms of temporal changes in width and central wavelength. Analysis of the prominent late-time 4700 Ang feature shows a progressive central wavelength shift from ˜4600 Ang to longer wavelengths out to at least day +300 for our entire sample. We find no evidence for the feature’s red-ward shift slowing or halting at an [Fe III] blend centroid ˜4700 Ang as has been proposed. Two weaker adjacent features at around 4850 and 5000 Ang exhibit similar red shifts to that of the 4700 Ang feature. We conclude that the ubiquitous red shift of these common late-time SN Ia spectral features is not mainly due to a decrease in line velocities of forbidden Fe emissions, but the result of decreasing line velocities and opacity of permitted Fe absorption lines.

  13. Choice of foods: Allocation of time and money, household production and market services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1992-01-01

    of meals as a case of household production with four kinds of input: the food products bought, the time used for shopping, cooking, and washing up, ho capital like kitchen appliances, and human capital like cooking skills. Maximum welfare will result when these inputs are optimised given the household...... somewhat in the same period, the overall disposable time for households has been going down. At the same time, incomes have been rising. Rational economic behaviour would imply that households react to these changed constraints by employing time-saving and time-buying strategies in meal preparation. 4......'s constraints of disposable income and disposable time. 3. In recent decades, women's participation in the labour market has increased significantly, with non-employed women becoming employed part-time, and part-time employed women becoming employed full-time. Even though men's working time has decreased...

  14. Implementing the IA stage and developing an instrument to assess the fidelity of critical time interventional: task shifting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Fernandes Carpinteiro Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One strategy that has been used for treat patients with mental health disorder is the implementation of psychosocial interventions. Like the development of a new drug, which requires safety studies before efficacy assessment, the psychosocial interventions should be implemented following defined stages, with the objective of increase the validity and reliability of such interventions. These stages are IA (pre-pilot, IB (pilot study, II (randomized clinical trial and III (additional studies. This study proposes a description of all activities carried out in implementation of the pre-pilot (IA Critical Time Intervention – Task Shifting (CTI-TS, including the development of manuals and the development of an instrument to assess fidelity to the original protocol. As a result, were performed the adaptation of instruments to be used in the pilot study, the adaptation of CTI-TS manual to Brazilian context, the adaptation of the agents CTI-TS training manual, as well the development of the CTI-TS assessment scale fidelity and its instruction manual. This allows multicentric studies conducted in different contexts could be performed avoiding biases. Considering that Brazil is a country that lacks resources allocated to mental care, it is expected that more psychosocial interventions can be implemented, since it was possible to develop the implementation process according to the methods recommended by the international scientific literature.

  15. Behavioral performance follows the time course of neural facilitation and suppression during cued shifts of feature-selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S K; Müller, M M

    2010-08-03

    A central question in the field of attention is whether visual processing is a strictly limited resource, which must be allocated by selective attention. If this were the case, attentional enhancement of one stimulus should invariably lead to suppression of unattended distracter stimuli. Here we examine voluntary cued shifts of feature-selective attention to either one of two superimposed red or blue random dot kinematograms (RDKs) to test whether such a reciprocal relationship between enhancement of an attended and suppression of an unattended stimulus can be observed. The steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), an oscillatory brain response elicited by the flickering RDKs, was measured in human EEG. Supporting limited resources, we observed both an enhancement of the attended and a suppression of the unattended RDK, but this observed reciprocity did not occur concurrently: enhancement of the attended RDK started at 220 ms after cue onset and preceded suppression of the unattended RDK by about 130 ms. Furthermore, we found that behavior was significantly correlated with the SSVEP time course of a measure of selectivity (attended minus unattended) but not with a measure of total activity (attended plus unattended). The significant deviations from a temporally synchronized reciprocity between enhancement and suppression suggest that the enhancement of the attended stimulus may cause the suppression of the unattended stimulus in the present experiment.

  16. Real-Time Optimization for use in a Control Allocation System to Recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Integration of the Control Allocation technique to recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations (CAPIO) System into the control system of a Short Takeoff and Landing Mobility Concept Vehicle simulation presents a challenge because the CAPIO formulation requires that constrained optimization problems be solved at the controller operating frequency. We present a solution that utilizes a modified version of the well-known L-BFGS-B solver. Despite the iterative nature of the solver, the method is seen to converge in real time with sufficient reliability to support three weeks of piloted runs at the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) facility. The results of the optimization are seen to be excellent in the vast majority of real-time frames. Deficiencies in the quality of the results in some frames are shown to be improvable with simple termination criteria adjustments, though more real-time optimization iterations would be required.

  17. Allocation of Parental Time and the Long-Term Effect on Children´s Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    of market-provided childcare vs. the quality of parental childcare is crucial for parents´ time use decisions but availability of paternal childcare does not directly affect the mother´s childcare decision. The effect of parental childcare time on children´s educational outcome is tested using Danish time......This paper empirically and theoretically links parental time use decisions to child development in a household with two full-time employed parents. Both parents. time spent on childcare is explicitly taken into account as well as childcare bought in the market. It is shown that the quality...... use data combined with administrative register data. I find a statistically signi.cant positive association between mothers´ childcare time on weekdays and children´s outcomes as well as a positive association between fathers´ childcare time on weekends and children´s outcomes. Parents.time spent...

  18. Current neurosurgical trainees' perception of the European Working Time Directive and shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, M J; Fellows, G A; Pushpananthan, S; Sergides, Y; Papadopoulos, M C; Bell, B A

    2008-02-01

    The introduction of the shift system in response to the European Working Time Directive has had an enormous impact on the running of neurosurgical units in the UK. This study seeks to establish what provisions are currently in place for out of hours cover and what has been the effect of the introduction of shifts in three main areas: patient safety, training and 'work/life balance'. The on-call registrar at each UK neurosurgical unit was contacted by telephone. Data regarding current emergency provision were sought. Registrars who had worked both on-calls and the shift system during their career as a neurosurgical registrar were asked to make a comparison. Data were collected from all 33 UK units. Twenty-two still use a traditional 24-h on-call system. Twenty-one on-call rotas were classed as non-resident although 12/21 of those officially on non-resident rotas were in fact resident whilst on call. Twenty-two registrars had worked both systems as a neurosurgical registrar. Twenty-one (95.45%) felt that traditional on-calls gave better clinical exposure. Twenty-one (95.45%) felt that on-calls allowed the provision of better patient care. Nineteen (86.36%) felt that on-calls were safer. Thirteen (59.09%) reported that they were more tired when doing shift work than on-calls. Fourteen (63.63%) found that the on-call system gives more useful spare time and more time to deal with family commitments. Current neurosurgery registrars feel the shift system is less safe, harmful to training and worse in terms of work/life balance. More than one-third of units are claiming to have non-resident on-call systems in order to appear compliant with EWTD when registrars are in fact resident.

  19. General anesthesia alters time perception by phase shifting the circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeseman, James F; Winnebeck, Eva C; Millar, Craig D; Kirkland, Lisa S; Sleigh, James; Goodwin, Mark; Pawley, Matt D M; Bloch, Guy; Lehmann, Konstantin; Menzel, Randolf; Warman, Guy R

    2012-05-01

    Following general anesthesia, people are often confused about the time of day and experience sleep disruption and fatigue. It has been hypothesized that these symptoms may be caused by general anesthesia affecting the circadian clock. The circadian clock is fundamental to our well-being because it regulates almost all aspects of our daily biochemistry, physiology, and behavior. Here, we investigated the effects of the most common general anesthetic, isoflurane, on time perception and the circadian clock using the honeybee (Apis mellifera) as a model. A 6-h daytime anesthetic systematically altered the time-compensated sun compass orientation of the bees, with a mean anticlockwise shift in vanishing bearing of 87° in the Southern Hemisphere and a clockwise shift in flight direction of 58° in the Northern Hemisphere. Using the same 6-h anesthetic treatment, time-trained bees showed a delay in the start of foraging of 3.3 h, and whole-hive locomotor-activity rhythms were delayed by an average of 4.3 h. We show that these effects are all attributable to a phase delay in the core molecular clockwork. mRNA oscillations of the central clock genes cryptochrome-m and period were delayed by 4.9 and 4.3 h, respectively. However, this effect is dependent on the time of day of administration, as is common for clock effects, and nighttime anesthesia did not shift the clock. Taken together, our results suggest that general anesthesia during the day causes a persistent and marked shift of the clock effectively inducing "jet lag" and causing impaired time perception. Managing this effect in humans is likely to help expedite postoperative recovery.

  20. The Manpower Allocation Problem with Time Windows and Job-Teaming Constraints: A Branch-and-Price Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Kolind, Esben; Clausen, Jens

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the Manpower Allocation Problem with Time Windows, Job-Teaming Constraints and a limited number of teams (m-MAPTWTC). Given a set of teams and a set of tasks, the problem is to assign to each team a sequential order of tasks to maximize the total number of assigned tasks....... Both teams and tasks may be restricted by time windows outside which operation is not possible. Some tasks require cooperation between teams, and all teams cooperating must initiate execution simultaneously. We present an IP-model for the problem, which is decomposed using Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition....... The problem is solved by column generation in a Branch-and-Price framework. Simultaneous execution of tasks is enforced by the branching scheme. To test the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, 12 realistic test instances are introduced. The algorithm is able to find the optimal solution in 11 of the test...

  1. The Manpower Allocation Problem with Time Windows and Job-Teaming Constraints: A Branch-and-Price Approach - Technical Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Kolind, Esben; Clausen, Jens

    In this paper, we consider the Manpower Allocation Problem with Time Windows, Job-Teaming Constraints and a limited number of teams (m-MAPTWTC). Given a set of teams and a set of tasks, the problem is to assign to each team a sequential order of tasks to maximize the total number of assigned tasks....... Both teams and tasks may be restricted by time windows outside which operation is not possible. Some tasks require cooperation between teams, and all teams cooperating must initiate execution simultaneously. We present an IP-model for the problem, which is decomposed using Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition....... The problem is solved by column generation in a Branch-and-Price framework. Simultaneous execution of tasks is enforced by the branching scheme. To test the efficiency of the proposed algorithm, 12 realistic test instances are introduced. The algorithm is able to find the optimal solution in 11 of the test...

  2. Gender and time allocation of cohabiting and married women and men in France, Italy, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne; Lesnard, Laurent; Nazio, Tiziana; Raley, Sara

    2014-07-11

    Women, who generally do more unpaid and less paid work than men, have greater incentives to stay in marriages than cohabiting unions, which generally carry fewer legal protections for individuals that wish to dissolve their relationship. The extent to which cohabitation is institutionalized, however, is a matter of policy and varies substantially by country. The gender gap in paid and unpaid work between married and cohabiting individuals should be larger in countries where cohabitation is less institutionalized and where those in cohabiting relationships have relatively fewer legal protections should the relationship dissolve, yet few studies have explored this variation. Using time diary data from France, Italy, and the United States, we assess the time men and women devote to paid and unpaid work in cohabiting and married couples. These three countries provide a useful diversity in marital regimes for examining these expectations: France, where cohabitation is most "marriage like" and where partnerships can be registered and carry legal rights; the United States, where cohabitation is common but is short-lived and unstable and where legal protections vary across states; and Italy, where cohabitation is not common and where such unions are not legally acknowledged and less socially approved than in either France or the United States. Cohabitating men's and women's time allocated to market and nonmarket work is generally more similar than married men and women. Our expectations about country differences are only partially borne out by the findings. Greater gender differences in the time allocated to market and nonmarket work are found in Italy relative to either France or the U.S.

  3. Allocation and Productivity of Time in New Ventures of Female and Male Entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); M.A. Carree (Martin); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2005-01-01

    textabstract[Please note that there exists an updated version of this publication at http://hdl.handle.net/1765/8989] This study investigates the factors explaining the number of hours invested in new ventures, making a distinction between the effect of preference for work time versus leisure time

  4. Suitability of the echo-time-shift method as laboratory standard for thermal ultrasound dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Tina; Georg, Olga; Haller, Julian; Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound therapy is a promising, non-invasive application with potential to significantly improve cancer therapies like surgery, viro- or immunotherapy. This therapy needs faster, cheaper and more easy-to-handle quality assurance tools for therapy devices as well as possibilities to verify treatment plans and for dosimetry. This limits comparability and safety of treatments. Accurate spatial and temporal temperature maps could be used to overcome these shortcomings. In this contribution first results of suitability and accuracy investigations of the echo-time-shift method for two-dimensional temperature mapping during and after sonication are presented. The analysis methods used to calculate time-shifts were a discrete frame-to-frame and a discrete frame-to-base-frame algorithm as well as a sigmoid fit for temperature calculation. In the future accuracy could be significantly enhanced by using continuous methods for time-shift calculation. Further improvements can be achieved by improving filtering algorithms and interpolation of sampled diagnostic ultrasound data. It might be a comparatively accurate, fast and affordable method for laboratory and clinical quality control.

  5. Real-Time Structural Overload Control via Control Allocation Optimization Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This control methodology utilizes real-time vehicle structural load and shape measurements to actively respond to and protect against vehicle damage due to...

  6. Task Mapping and Partition Allocation for Mixed-Criticality Real-Time Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamas-Selicean, Domitian; Pop, Paul

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we address the mapping of mixedcriticality hard real-time applications on distributed embedded architectures. We assume that the architecture provides both spatial and temporal partitioning, thus enforcing enough separation between applications. With temporal partitioning, each...

  7. Ocular Measures of Sleepiness Are Increased in Night Shift Workers Undergoing a Simulated Night Shift Near the Peak Time of the 6-Sulfatoxymelatonin Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ftouni, Suzanne; Sletten, Tracey L.; Nicholas, Christian L.; Kennaway, David J.; Lockley, Steven W.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: The study examined the relationship between the circadian rhythm of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) and ocular measures of sleepiness and neurobehavioral performance in shift workers undergoing a simulated night shift. Methods: Twenty-two shift workers (mean age 33.4, SD 11.8 years) were tested at approximately the beginning (20:00) and the end (05:55) of a simulated night shift in the laboratory. At the time point corresponding to the end of the simulated shift, 14 participants were classified as being within range of 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) acrophase— defined as 3 hours before or after aMT6s peak—and 8 were classified as outside aMT6s acrophase range. Participants completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the auditory psychomotor vigilance task (aPVT). Waking electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and infrared reflectance oculography was used to collect ocular measures of sleepiness: positive and negative amplitude/velocity ratio (PosAVR, NegAVR), mean blink total duration (BTD), the percentage of eye closure (%TEC), and a composite score of sleepiness levels (Johns Drowsiness Scale; JDS). Results: Participants who were tested within aMT6s acrophase range displayed higher levels of sleepiness on ocular measures (%TEC, BTD, PosAVR, JDS), objective sleepiness (EEG delta power frequency band), subjective ratings of sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance, compared to those who were outside aMT6s acrophase range. Conclusions: The study demonstrated that objective ocular measures of sleepiness are sensitive to circadian rhythm misalignment in shift workers. Citation: Ftouni S, Sletten TL, Nicholas CL, Kennaway DJ, Lockley SW, Rajaratnam SM. Ocular measures of sleepiness are increased in night shift workers undergoing a simulated night shift near the peak time of the 6-sulfatoxymelatonin rhythm. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1131–1141. PMID:26094925

  8. Meal time shift disturbs circadian rhythmicity along with metabolic and behavioral alterations in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Ae Yoon

    Full Text Available In modern society, growing numbers of people are engaged in various forms of shift works or trans-meridian travels. Such circadian misalignment is known to disturb endogenous diurnal rhythms, which may lead to harmful physiological consequences including metabolic syndrome, obesity, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, and gastric disorders as well as other physical and mental disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s underlying these changes are yet unclear. The present work, therefore examined the effects of 6 h advance or delay of usual meal time on diurnal rhythmicities in home cage activity (HCA, body temperature (BT, blood metabolic markers, glucose homeostasis, and expression of genes that are involved in cholesterol homeostasis by feeding young adult male mice in a time-restrictive manner. Delay of meal time caused locomotive hyperactivity in a significant portion (42% of subjects, while 6 h advance caused a torpor-like symptom during the late scotophase. Accordingly, daily rhythms of blood glucose and triglyceride were differentially affected by time-restrictive feeding regimen with concurrent metabolic alterations. Along with these physiological changes, time-restrictive feeding also influenced the circadian expression patterns of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR as well as most LDLR regulatory factors. Strikingly, chronic advance of meal time induced insulin resistance, while chronic delay significantly elevated blood glucose levels. Taken together, our findings indicate that persistent shifts in usual meal time impact the diurnal rhythms of carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms in addition to HCA and BT, thereby posing critical implications for the health and diseases of shift workers.

  9. Local time distribution of the SSC-associated HF-Doppler frequency shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.; Sugiuchi, H.; Ishimine, T.

    1985-01-01

    The HF-Doppler frequency shift observed at the storm's sudden commencement is composed of a frequency increase (+) and decrease (-), and classified into four types, SCF(+ -), SCF(- +), SCF(+) and SCF(-). Since the latter two types are special cases of the former two types, two different kinds of electrical field exist in the F region and cause the ExB drift motion of plasma. HUANG (1976) interpreted the frequency increase of SCF(+ -) as due to the westward induction electric field proportional to delta H/ delta t and the succeeding frequency decrease due to the eastward conduction electric field which produces ionospheric currents responsible for the magnetic increase on the ground. In spite of his success in interpreting the SCF(+ -), some other interpretations are needed for the explanation of the whole set of SCF's, particularly SCF(- +). Local time distributions of the SCF's are derived from 41 SCF's which are observed on the HF standard signal (JJY) as received in Okinawa (path length =1600 km) and Kokubunji (60 km). It is shown that the SCF(+ -) appears mainly during the day, whereas the SCF(- +) is observed during the night. The results indicate that the preliminary frequency shift (+) of SCF(+ -) and (-) of SCF(- +) is caused by a westward electric field in the dayside hemisphere, while by an eastward electric field in the nightside hemisphere. The main frequency shift (-) of SCF(+ -) and (+) of SCF(- +) is caused by the reversed electric field. Consequently, the preliminary frequency shift is caused by the dusk-to-dawn electric field, while the main frequency shift by the dawn-to-dusk electric field

  10. Local time distribution of the SSC-associated HF-Doppler frequency shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, T.; Sugiuchi, H.; Ishimine, T.

    1985-01-01

    The HF-Doppler frequency shift observed at the storm's sudden commencement is composed of a frequency increase (+) and decrease (-), and classified into four types, SCF(+ -), SCF(- +), SCF(+) and SCF(-). Since the latter two types are special cases of the former two types, two different kinds of electrical field exist in the F region and cause the ExB drift motion of plasma. HUANG (1976) interpreted the frequency increase of SCF(+ -) as due to the westward induction electric field proportional to delta H/ delta t and the succeeding frequency decrease due to the eastward conduction electric field which produces ionospheric currents responsible for the magnetic increase on the ground. In spite of his success in interpreting the SCF(+ -), some other interpretations are needed for the explanation of the whole set of SCF's, particularly SCF(- +). Local time distributions of the SCF's are derived from 41 SCF's which are observed on the HF standard signal (JJY) as received in Okinawa (path length =1600 km) and Kokubunji (60 km). It is shown that the SCF(+ -) appears mainly during the day, whereas the SCF(- +) is observed during the night. The results indicate that the preliminary frequency shift (+) of SCF(+ -) and (-) of SCF(- +) is caused by a westward electric field in the dayside hemisphere, while by an eastward electric field in the nightside hemisphere. The main frequency shift (-) of SCF(+ -) and (+) of SCF(- +) is caused by the reversed electric field. Consequently, the preliminary frequency shift is caused by the dusk-to-dawn electric field, while the main frequency shift by the dawn-to-dusk electric field.

  11. The association of state law to physical education time allocation in US public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Frank M; Oh, April; Chriqui, Jamie F; Mâsse, Louise C; Atienza, Audie A; Nebeling, Linda; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Moser, Richard P; Dodd, Kevin W

    2012-08-01

    We examined whether public schools in states with specific and stringent physical education (PE) laws, as assessed by the Physical Education-Related State Policy Classification System (PERSPCS), available on the Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (C.L.A.S.S.) Web site, reported more weekly PE time in the most recent School Health Policies and Programs Survey (SHPPS). Schools (n=410) were grouped by their state's PERSPCS time requirement scores (none, nonspecific requirement, or specific requirement). Average weekly school-level PE was calculated using the SHPPS-reported PE minutes. Weighted analyses determined if PE minutes/week differed by PERSPCS group. Schools in states with specific requirement laws averaged over 27 and 60 more PE minutes/week at the elementary and middle school levels, respectively, compared with schools within states with nonspecific laws and over 40 and 60 more PE minutes per week, respectively, compared with elementary and middle schools in states with no laws. High school results were nonsignificant. Public health guidelines recommend at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity for children, and PE may further this goal. Strong codified law with specific time requirements for PE may be an important tool contributing toward adequate PE time and daily physical activity recommendations.

  12. Spin-lattice relaxation times and knight shift in InSb and InAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, P.; Grande, S.

    1976-01-01

    For a dominant contact interaction between nuclei and conduction electrons the relaxation rate is deduced. The extreme cases of degenerate and non-degenerate semiconductors are separately discussed. At strong degeneracy the product of the Knight shift and relaxation time gives the Korringa relation for metals. Measurements of the NMR spin-lattice relaxation times of 115 InSb and 115 InAs were made between 4.2 and 300 K for strongly degenerated samples. The different relaxation mechanisms are discussed and the experimental and theoretical results are compared. (author)

  13. Choice of foods: Allocation of time and money, household production and market services ­ Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1993-01-01

    Executive summary: 1. This is the second report on a study investigating how demand for food products with varying degrees of convenience depends on disposable income and disposable time. 2. Both absolute and relative expenditures on convenient food decrease with disposable time and increase...... in Denmark. This contrasts with Sweden, where higher education leads to more expenditure on fast food. This may indicate a slower pace of modernisation of eating habits in Denmark than in Sweden. 6. Ownership of microwave ovens and dishwashers means more expenditure on fast meals. Ownership of a freezer...... means reduced expenses on most kinds of foodstuffs, possibly due to obtaining quantity discounts. 7. Ownership of household appliances and hiring domestic help decreases the probability of eating out. 8. Singles spend money on meals away from home more frequently than couples, whereas the spending...

  14. Electronic Media Use and Sleep Among Preschoolers: Evidence for Time-Shifted and Less Consolidated Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyens, Ine; Nathanson, Amy I

    2018-01-11

    This study examined the association between electronic media use and sleep among preschoolers, using a national sample of 402 mothers of 3- to 5-year-olds. Participants completed an online survey assessing preschoolers' electronic media use, bedtime and wake time, sleep time, napping behaviors, and sleep consolidation. Results showed that heavier television use and tablet use, both overall and in the evening, were associated with later bedtimes and later wake times, but not with fewer hours of sleep, providing evidence for a time-shifting process. In addition, heavier daily television use and evening smartphone use were associated with increased daytime napping. Moreover, heavier daily television use, daily and evening smartphone use, and evening tablet use were associated with poorer sleep consolidation, suggesting less mature sleep patterns. These findings indicate that media effects on the timing of sleep and the proportion of sleep that occurs at night are important to consider when assessing the health risks of electronic media on children.

  15. The shift to and from daylight savings time and motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, M; Cummings, P

    2000-07-01

    The objective of the study was to examine whether the shifts to and from daylight savings time in Sweden have short-term effects on the incidence of traffic crashes. A database maintained by the Swedish National Road Administration was used to examine crashes from 1984 through 1995, that occurred on state roads the Monday preceding, the Monday immediately after (index Monday), and the Monday 1 week after the change to daylight savings time in the spring and for the corresponding three Mondays in the autumn. The Mondays 1 week before and after the time changes were taken as representing the expected incidence of crashes. Crash incidence was calculated per 1000 person-years using population estimates for each year of the study. The association between 1 h of possible sleep loss and crash incidence was estimated by the incidence rate ratio from negative binomial regression. The incidence rate ratio was 1.04 (95% CI, 0.92-1.16) for a Monday on which drivers were expected to have had 1 h less sleep, compared with other Mondays. In the spring, the incidence rate ratio for crashes was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.93-1.31) for Mondays after the time change compared to other spring Mondays. The corresponding rate ratio for the fall was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.84-1.15) It was concluded that the shift to and from daylight savings time did not have measurable important immediate effects on crash incidence in Sweden.

  16. Distributed Space-Time Block Coded Transmission with Imperfect Channel Estimation: Achievable Rate and Power Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Aïssa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of channel estimation error at the receiver on the achievable rate of distributed space-time block coded transmission. We consider that multiple transmitters cooperate to send the signal to the receiver and derive lower and upper bounds on the mutual information of distributed space-time block codes (D-STBCs when the channel gains and channel estimation error variances pertaining to different transmitter-receiver links are unequal. Then, assessing the gap between these two bounds, we provide a limiting value that upper bounds the latter at any input transmit powers, and also show that the gap is minimum if the receiver can estimate the channels of different transmitters with the same accuracy. We further investigate positioning the receiving node such that the mutual information bounds of D-STBCs and their robustness to the variations of the subchannel gains are maximum, as long as the summation of these gains is constant. Furthermore, we derive the optimum power transmission strategy to achieve the outage capacity lower bound of D-STBCs under arbitrary numbers of transmit and receive antennas, and provide closed-form expressions for this capacity metric. Numerical simulations are conducted to corroborate our analysis and quantify the effects of imperfect channel estimation.

  17. The moderating effect of work-time influence on the effect of shift work: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether work-time influence moderated the effect of shift work on psychological well-being measured as vitality, mental health, somatic stress symptoms, and disturbed sleep.......To investigate whether work-time influence moderated the effect of shift work on psychological well-being measured as vitality, mental health, somatic stress symptoms, and disturbed sleep....

  18. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Chi Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI. The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN, and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM and accuracy-recognition mode (AM, were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR. When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  19. Time-Shift Correlation Algorithm for P300 Event Related Potential Brain-Computer Interface Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ju-Chi; Chou, Hung-Chyun; Chen, Chien-Hsiu; Lin, Yi-Tseng; Kuo, Chung-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    A high efficient time-shift correlation algorithm was proposed to deal with the peak time uncertainty of P300 evoked potential for a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI). The time-shift correlation series data were collected as the input nodes of an artificial neural network (ANN), and the classification of four LED visual stimuli was selected as the output node. Two operating modes, including fast-recognition mode (FM) and accuracy-recognition mode (AM), were realized. The proposed BCI system was implemented on an embedded system for commanding an adult-size humanoid robot to evaluate the performance from investigating the ground truth trajectories of the humanoid robot. When the humanoid robot walked in a spacious area, the FM was used to control the robot with a higher information transfer rate (ITR). When the robot walked in a crowded area, the AM was used for high accuracy of recognition to reduce the risk of collision. The experimental results showed that, in 100 trials, the accuracy rate of FM was 87.8% and the average ITR was 52.73 bits/min. In addition, the accuracy rate was improved to 92% for the AM, and the average ITR decreased to 31.27 bits/min. due to strict recognition constraints.

  20. Estimating the Dieaway Time and its Precision from Shift Register Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croft, S.; Evans, L. G.; Henzlova, D.; Miller, K. A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Nuclear Nonproliferation Division, Safeguards Science and Technology Group, Los Alamos (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Neutron coincidence counting is widely used throughout the nuclear fuel cycle to quantify special nuclear materials that fission, for example Pu. Before calibration and setting to work, instruments undergo a range of performance and characterization tests that typically include measurement of the neutron dieaway characteristic. The neutron dieaway characteristic is a general measure of the likelihood that a neutron will be detected following another neutron, and describes time behavior of detected neutrons in the assay system. This paper shows how the effective 1/ecapture dieaway time of the observable coincidence (doubles) rate may be extracted simply and quickly from two coincidence counting rates recorded with different shift register time gate settings. In particular we address how to assign the precision to such estimates including when the rates are correlated.

  1. Phase-shifting Real-time Holographic Microscopy applied in micro-structures surface analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, I V; Gesualdi, M R R; Muramatsu, M; Ricardo, J

    2011-01-01

    The microscopic real-time analysis of micro structured materials is of great importance in various domains of science and technology. For other hand, the holographic interferometry comprises a group of powerful optical methods for non-destructive testing in surface analysis. The holographic microscopy uses the holographic interferometric techniques to obtain quantitative intensity and phase information of the optical waves by microscopic systems. With the development of CCD cameras, computers (hardware and software), and new materials for holographic recording, these techniques can be used to replace the classical form of registration and became promising tools in surface analysis. In this work, we developed a prototype of Photorefractive and Digital Holographic Microscope for real-time analysis of micro-structured systems based on the phase-shifting real-time holographic interferometry techniques. Using this apparatus, we are made analysis of shapes and surfaces to obtain the phase maps and the 3D profiles of some samples.

  2. Incidence of myocardial infarction with shifts to and from daylight savings time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiddou, Monica R; Pica, Mark; Boura, Judy; Qu, Lihua; Franklin, Barry A

    2013-03-01

    Modulators of normal bodily functions such as the duration and quality of sleep might transiently influence cardiovascular risk. The transition to daylight savings time (DST) has been associated with a short-term increased incidence ratio (IR) of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The present retrospective study examined the IR of AMIs that presented to our hospitals the week after DST and after the autumn switch to standard time, October 2006 to April 2012, with specific reference to the AMI type. Our study population (n = 935 patients; 59% men, 41% women) was obtained from the electronic medical records of the Royal Oak and Troy campuses of the Beaumont Hospitals in Michigan. Overall, the frequency of AMI was similar in the spring and autumn, 463 (49.5%) and 472 (50.5%), respectively. The IR for the first week after the spring shift was 1.17 (95% confidence interval 1.00 to 1.36). After the transition from DST in the autumn, the IR for the same period was lower, but not significantly different, 0.99 (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.16). Nevertheless, the greatest increase in AMI occurred on the first day (Sunday) after the spring shift to DST (1.71, 95% confidence interval 1.09 to 2.02; p <0.05). Also, a significantly greater incidence was found of non-ST-segment myocardial infarction after the transition to DST in the study group compared with that in the control group (p = 0.022). In conclusion, these data suggest that shifts to and from DST might transiently affect the incidence and type of acute cardiac events, albeit modestly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Time and frequency characteristics of temporary threshold shifts caused by pure tone exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    The time-frequency characteristics of Temporary Threshold Shifts (TTS) caused by pure tones were determined using the Békésy audiometric method with narrow-band noise of short duration as the probe stimuli. Two experiments were done using exposures of 3 min at 100 dB above threshold. In the first....... In the second experiment, the TTS recovery curve produced by a 1 kHz pure tone exposure was assessed at 1.5 kHz, at approximately 15 s intervals for the first 5 min and at regularly increasing intervals up to 45 min after the exposure. The results showed a maximum in the recovery around 2 min after the exposure....... The data gathered in these experiments were used to construct a mathematical model of TTS recovery. The model describes both the 1/2-octave shift and the 2 min bounce and it can be used in the comparison of temporary changes in auditory function, assessed at different times and frequencies....

  4. Real - time Optimization of Distributed Energy Storage System Operation Strategy Based on Peak Load Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Lu, Guangqi; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yichi; Yun, Zejian; Bian, Di

    2018-01-01

    To take advantage of the energy storage system (ESS) sufficiently, the factors that the service life of the distributed energy storage system (DESS) and the load should be considered when establishing optimization model. To reduce the complexity of the load shifting of DESS in the solution procedure, the loss coefficient and the equal capacity ratio distribution principle were adopted in this paper. Firstly, the model was established considering the constraint conditions of the cycles, depth, power of the charge-discharge of the ESS, the typical daily load curves, as well. Then, dynamic programming method was used to real-time solve the model in which the difference of power Δs, the real-time revised energy storage capacity Sk and the permission error of depth of charge-discharge were introduced to optimize the solution process. The simulation results show that the optimized results was achieved when the load shifting in the load variance was not considered which means the charge-discharge of the energy storage system was not executed. In the meantime, the service life of the ESS would increase.

  5. Influence of Shift Work on Manual Dexterity and Reaction Time in Tunisian Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchaoui, Irtyah; Chaari, Neila; Bouhlel, Mohamed; Bouzgarrou, Lamia; Malchaire, Jacques; Akrout, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Major effects of shift schedule are related to sleep alertness and performance, but also to long term health outcomes. For nurses, these negative effects have consequences not only on the individual, but also on the workplace, as decreased alertness and reduced job performance could endanger human lives. The specific aim of our study is to assess the influence of shift schedule on nurses´ cognitive ability and rapidity of execution. Our survey is a cross sectional study which had been conducted for 15 months; it involved a sample of 293 participants representative of 1118 nurses working in two Tunisian university hospitals. It included an evaluation of the rapidity of execution performance through the manual dexterity test and the reaction time test. The study was completed by an assessment of the workability Index through a 7- item survey. No association was found between the groups of work schedules and the cognitive ability of execution speed. However, we found a significant decrease in cognitive performance in the nurses exceeding 10 years of job seniority for both schedules. We concluded to an impaired cognitive performance speed in the over 10-year seniority groups in both schedules. Recommendations should be focused on implementing periodic assessment of cognitive performance based on O'Connor finger dexterity test and time reaction test and on implementing effective preventive measures in hospitals after ten years of seniority at work. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  6. Working the night shift: a necessary time for training or a risk to health and safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, I; Flower, D; Hurley, J; McFadyen, R J

    2013-01-01

    The European Working Time Directive (EWTD) limits excessive night shifts and restricts the working week to no more than 48 hours. The underlying rationale is to minimise the health risks to all workers. Here we debate the impact of night rotas for doctors-in-training on patient safety and medical education; when the EWTD was agreed these topics may not have been considered, either systematically or objectively. The impacts of diurnal rhythms on human functions affect all night workers, but the nature of rostered medical and surgical work has little precedent in other industries or even in the contracts of other healthcare staff. For example, rostered night duties need to be distinguished from permanent night shift work. On-call medical night work from training doctors is generally required for short periods and usually involves fewer patients. It is an important time in training, where clinical responsibility and decision-making can be matured in a supervised setting. To comply with the EWTD most hospitals have adopted rota patterns that aim to cover the clinical needs, while ensuring no doctor works for more than 48 hours in an average working week. To monitor this process longterm studies are necessary to evaluate effects on a doctor's health and on patient care generally. The EWTD has also led to a loss of continuity of patient care; does this really matter?

  7. Shift workers have similar leisure-time physical activity levels as day workers but are more sedentary at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsegge, Gerben; Gupta, Nidhi; Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Physical inactivity has been hypothesized as an underlying factor for the association between shift work and adverse health outcomes. We compared leisure-time and occupational physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Methods We identified 612 day workers, 139 night shift workers and 61 non-night shift workers aged 18-65 years (54% men) in two Danish studies: the New method for Objective Measurements of physical Activity in Daily living (NOMAD) and the Danish Physical ACTivity cohort with Objective measurements (DPhacto) between 2011-2013. Sedentary behavior, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. Physical activity was expressed as percentage of leisure and work time spent in each activity. Linear regression analyses were used to test differences in physical activity and sedentary behavior between day, night, and non-night shift workers. Results No differences in leisure-time sedentary behavior and physical activity were observed between day and shift workers (P>0.05). Non-night shift workers spent 7.2% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.3-12.1) more time in occupational sedentary behavior than day workers and 5.9% (95% CI -10.1- -1.7) and 1.9% (95% CI -3.7- -0.2) less time in occupational light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, respectively. Compared to day workers, night shift workers spent 4.3% (95% CI 2.4-6.1) more time at work in uninterrupted sedentary periods of ≥30 minutes. Conclusions Shift workers had similar leisure-time physical activity patterns as day workers, but were more sedentary at work. Future research should elucidate whether occupational physical inactivity and sedentary behavior contributes to shift work-related adverse health effects.

  8. Absolute continuity under time shift of trajectories and related stochastic calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Löbus, Jörg-Uwe

    2017-01-01

    The text is concerned with a class of two-sided stochastic processes of the form X=W+A. Here W is a two-sided Brownian motion with random initial data at time zero and A\\equiv A(W) is a function of W. Elements of the related stochastic calculus are introduced. In particular, the calculus is adjusted to the case when A is a jump process. Absolute continuity of (X,P) under time shift of trajectories is investigated. For example under various conditions on the initial density with respect to the Lebesgue measure, m, and on A with A_0=0 we verify \\frac{P(dX_{\\cdot -t})}{P(dX_\\cdot)}=\\frac{m(X_{-t})}{m(X_0)}\\cdot \\prod_i\\left|\

  9. ESG Allocations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the Emergency Solutions Grants (ESG), formerly Emergency Shelter Grants, allocation by jurisdiction. The website allows users to look at...

  10. Detection of cerebral hemorrhage in rabbits by time-difference magnetic inductive phase shift spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wencai Pan

    Full Text Available Cerebral hemorrhage, a difficult issue in clinical practice, is often detected and studied with computed tomography (CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, and positron emission tomography (PET. However, these expensive devices are not readily available in economically underdeveloped regions, and hence are unable to provide bedside and emergency on-site monitoring. The magnetic inductive phase shift (MIPS is an emerging technology that may become a new tool to detect cerebral hemorrhage and to serve as an inexpensive partial substitute to medical imaging. In order to study a wider band of cerebral hemorrhage MIPS and to provide more useful information for measuring cerebral hemorrhage, we established a cerebral hemorrhage magnetic induction phase shift spectroscopy (MIPSS detection system. Thirteen rabbits with five cerebral hemorrhage states were studied using a single coil-coil within a 1 MHz-200 MHz frequency range in linear sweep. A feature band (FB with the highest detection sensitivity and the greatest stability was selected for further analysis and processing. In addition, a maximum conductivity cerebrospinal fluid (CSF MRI was performed to verify and interpret the MIPSS result. The average phase shift change induced by a 3 ml injection of autologous blood under FB was -7.7503° ± 1.4204°, which was considerably larger than our previous work. Data analysis with a non-parametric statistical Friedman M test showed that in the FB, MIPSS could distinguish the five states of cerebral hemorrhage in rabbits, with a statistical significance of p<0.05. A B-F distribution profile was designed according to the MIPSS under FB that can provide instantaneous diagnostic information about the cerebral hemorrhage severity from a single set of measurements. The results illustrate that the MIPSS detection method is able to provide a new possibility for real-time monitoring and diagnosis of the severity of cerebral hemorrhage.

  11. Detection of Cerebral Hemorrhage in Rabbits by Time-Difference Magnetic Inductive Phase Shift Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wencai; Yan, Qingguang; Qin, Mingxin; Jin, Gui; Sun, Jian; Ning, Xu; Zhuang, Wei; Peng, Bin; Li, Gen

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage, a difficult issue in clinical practice, is often detected and studied with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET). However, these expensive devices are not readily available in economically underdeveloped regions, and hence are unable to provide bedside and emergency on-site monitoring. The magnetic inductive phase shift (MIPS) is an emerging technology that may become a new tool to detect cerebral hemorrhage and to serve as an inexpensive partial substitute to medical imaging. In order to study a wider band of cerebral hemorrhage MIPS and to provide more useful information for measuring cerebral hemorrhage, we established a cerebral hemorrhage magnetic induction phase shift spectroscopy (MIPSS) detection system. Thirteen rabbits with five cerebral hemorrhage states were studied using a single coil-coil within a 1 MHz-200 MHz frequency range in linear sweep. A feature band (FB) with the highest detection sensitivity and the greatest stability was selected for further analysis and processing. In addition, a maximum conductivity cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) MRI was performed to verify and interpret the MIPSS result. The average phase shift change induced by a 3 ml injection of autologous blood under FB was -7.7503° ± 1.4204°, which was considerably larger than our previous work. Data analysis with a non-parametric statistical Friedman M test showed that in the FB, MIPSS could distinguish the five states of cerebral hemorrhage in rabbits, with a statistical significance of phemorrhage severity from a single set of measurements. The results illustrate that the MIPSS detection method is able to provide a new possibility for real-time monitoring and diagnosis of the severity of cerebral hemorrhage. PMID:26001112

  12. Trapezius Muscle Load, Heart Rate and Time Pressure during Day and Night Shift in Swiss and Japanese Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    NICOLETTI, Corinne; MÜLLER, Christian; TOBITA, Itoko; NAKASEKO, Masaru; LÄUBLI, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the activity of the trapezius muscle, the heart rate and the time pressure of Swiss and Japanese nurses during day and night shifts. The parameters were measured during a day and a night shift of 17 Swiss and 22 Japanese nurses. The observed rest time of the trapezius muscle was longer for Swiss than for Japanese nurses during both shifts. The 10th and the 50th percentile of the trapezius muscle activity showed a different effect for Swiss than for Japanese nurses. It was higher during the day shift of Swiss nurses and higher during the night shift of Japanese nurses. Heart rate was higher for both Swiss and Japanese nurses during the day. The time pressure was significantly higher for Japanese than for Swiss nurses. Over the duration of the shifts, time pressure increased for Japanese nurses and slightly decreased for those from Switzerland. Considering trapezius muscle activity and time pressure, the nursing profession was more burdening for the examined Japanese nurses than for Swiss nurses. In particular, the night shift for Japanese nurses was characterized by a high trapezius muscle activity and only few rest times for the trapezius muscle. PMID:24633074

  13. Dynamic resource allocation engine for cloud-based real-time video transcoding in mobile cloud computing environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedayo, Bada; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz Calero, Jose M.; Grecos, Christos

    2015-02-01

    The recent explosion in video-related Internet traffic has been driven by the widespread use of smart mobile devices, particularly smartphones with advanced cameras that are able to record high-quality videos. Although many of these devices offer the facility to record videos at different spatial and temporal resolutions, primarily with local storage considerations in mind, most users only ever use the highest quality settings. The vast majority of these devices are optimised for compressing the acquired video using a single built-in codec and have neither the computational resources nor battery reserves to transcode the video to alternative formats. This paper proposes a new low-complexity dynamic resource allocation engine for cloud-based video transcoding services that are both scalable and capable of being delivered in real-time. Firstly, through extensive experimentation, we establish resource requirement benchmarks for a wide range of transcoding tasks. The set of tasks investigated covers the most widely used input formats (encoder type, resolution, amount of motion and frame rate) associated with mobile devices and the most popular output formats derived from a comprehensive set of use cases, e.g. a mobile news reporter directly transmitting videos to the TV audience of various video format requirements, with minimal usage of resources both at the reporter's end and at the cloud infrastructure end for transcoding services.

  14. Interactive Online Real-time Groundwater Model for Irrigation Water Allocation in the Heihe Mid-reaches, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzini, G.; Kinzelbach, W.

    2016-12-01

    In the Heihe Basin and many other semi-arid regions in the world the ongoing introduction of smart meter IC-card systems on farmers' pumping wells will soon allow monitoring and control of abstractions with the goal of preventing further depletion of the resource. In this regard, a major interest of policy makers concerns the development of new and the improvement of existing legislation on pricing schemes and groundwater/surface water quotas. Predictive knowledge on the development of groundwater levels for different allocation schemes or climatic change scenarios is required to support decision-makers in this task. In the past groundwater models have been a static component of investigations and their results delivered in the form of reports. We set up and integrated a groundwater model into a user-friendly web-based environment, allowing direct and easy access to the novice user. Through operating sliders the user can select an irrigation district, change irrigation patterns such as partitioning of surface- and groundwater, size of irrigation area, irrigation efficiency, as well as a number of climate related parameters. Reactive handles allow to display the results in real-time. The implemented software is all license free. The tool is currently being introduced to irrigation district managers in the project area. Findings will be available after some practical experience to be expected in a given time. The accessibility via a web-interface is a novelty in the context of groundwater models. It allows delivering a product accessible from everywhere and from any device. The maintenance and if necessary updating of model or software can occur remotely. Feedback mechanisms between reality and prediction will be introduced and the model periodically updated through data assimilation as new data becomes available. This will render the model a dynamic tool steadily available and evolving over time.

  15. Method and allocation device for allocating pending requests for data packet transmission at a number of inputs to a number of outputs of a packet switching device in successive time slots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Francois [Rueschlikon, CH; Iliadis, Ilias [Rueschlikon, CH; Minkenberg, Cyriel J. A. [Adliswil, CH

    2009-02-03

    A method for allocating pending requests for data packet transmission at a number of inputs to a number of outputs of a switching system in successive time slots, including a matching method including the steps of providing a first request information in a first time slot indicating data packets at the inputs requesting transmission to the outputs of the switching system, performing a first step in the first time slot depending on the first request information to obtain a first matching information, providing a last request information in a last time slot successive to the first time slot, performing a last step in the last time slot depending on the last request information and depending on the first matching information to obtain a final matching information, and assigning the pending data packets at the number of inputs to the number of outputs based on the final matching information.

  16. Quantum reflection times and space shifts for Casimir-van der Waals potential tails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurisch, Alexander; Friedrich, Harald

    2004-01-01

    When cold atoms approach a surface, they can be quantum reflected by quantal regions in the tail of the atom-surface potential. We study the phase of the reflection amplitude for Casimir-van der Waals potential tails, depending on the critical parameter ρ=ρ(C 3 ,C 4 ), which describes the relative importance of the -C 3 /r 3 and -C 4 /r 4 parts of the potential. The phase is related to observable kinematic quantities, the space and time shifts, the reflected atom experiences. We study three different models for the shape of the potential between the asymptotic limits and observe that the phases are more sensitive to the potential shape than the quantum reflection probabilities. At threshold, there are always time delays in comparison to the free movement. This is in contrast to the classical movement, which shows time gains. Further above threshold, the quantum reflected atom experiences a time gain relative to free motion, but this time gain is generally smaller than that of the classical particle

  17. Time of day variation in polyp detection rate for colonoscopies performed on a 3-hour shift schedule.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Munson, Gregory W

    2011-03-01

    Recent research suggests that the colonoscopy polyp detection rate (PDR) varies by time of day, possibly because of endoscopist fatigue. Mayo Clinic Rochester (MCR) schedules colonoscopies on 3-hour shifts, which should minimize fatigue.

  18. Pre-"peak water" time in the southwest Yukon: when cryospheric changes trigger hydrological regime shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraer, M.; Chesnokova, A.; Huh, K. I.; Laperriere-Robillard, T.

    2017-12-01

    Saint-Elias Mountains host numerous cryospheric systems such as glaciers, seasonal and perennial snow cover, permafrost, aufeis, and different forms of buried ice. Those systems are very sensitive to climate changes and exhibit ongoing reduction in extent and/or changes in formation/ablation times. Because they highly influence the hydrological regimes of rivers, cryospheric changes raise concerns about consequences for regional water resources and ecosystems. The present study combines historical data analysis and hydrological modeling in order to estimate how cryospheric changes impact hydrological regimes at eight watersheds of different glacier cover (0- 30%) in the southwest Yukon. Methods combine traditional hydrograph analysis techniques and more advance techniques such as Fast Fourier Transform filters used to isolate significant trends in discharge properties from noise or climatic oscillations. Measured trends in discharge variables are connected to cryospheric changes by using a water balance / peak water model (Baraer et al., 2012), here adapted to the main cryospheric systems that characterize the southwest Yukon.Results show three distinct hydrological regimes for (1) non glacierized, (2) glacierized, and (3) major lakes hosting catchments. The studied glacierized catchments have not passed the "peak water" yet and still exhibit increases in yearly and late summer discharges and a decrease in runoff variability. All watersheds show an increase in winter discharge and a snowmelt-driven shift of yearly peak discharge toward earlier in the season. The study suggests that, in a couple of decades, water resources and dependent ecosystems will face the combined effects of (A) a shift in the contribution trend from declining perennial cryospheric systems and (B) continuing alteration of the contribution from the seasonal cryospheric systems.

  19. Dynamic Maternal Gradients Control Timing and Shift-Rates for Drosophila Gap Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verd, Berta; Crombach, Anton

    2017-01-01

    Pattern formation during development is a highly dynamic process. In spite of this, few experimental and modelling approaches take into account the explicit time-dependence of the rules governing regulatory systems. We address this problem by studying dynamic morphogen interpretation by the gap gene network in Drosophila melanogaster. Gap genes are involved in segment determination during early embryogenesis. They are activated by maternal morphogen gradients encoded by bicoid (bcd) and caudal (cad). These gradients decay at the same time-scale as the establishment of the antero-posterior gap gene pattern. We use a reverse-engineering approach, based on data-driven regulatory models called gene circuits, to isolate and characterise the explicitly time-dependent effects of changing morphogen concentrations on gap gene regulation. To achieve this, we simulate the system in the presence and absence of dynamic gradient decay. Comparison between these simulations reveals that maternal morphogen decay controls the timing and limits the rate of gap gene expression. In the anterior of the embyro, it affects peak expression and leads to the establishment of smooth spatial boundaries between gap domains. In the posterior of the embryo, it causes a progressive slow-down in the rate of gap domain shifts, which is necessary to correctly position domain boundaries and to stabilise the spatial gap gene expression pattern. We use a newly developed method for the analysis of transient dynamics in non-autonomous (time-variable) systems to understand the regulatory causes of these effects. By providing a rigorous mechanistic explanation for the role of maternal gradient decay in gap gene regulation, our study demonstrates that such analyses are feasible and reveal important aspects of dynamic gene regulation which would have been missed by a traditional steady-state approach. More generally, it highlights the importance of transient dynamics for understanding complex regulatory

  20. Maximizing the Impact of e-Therapy and Serious Gaming: Time for a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Theresa M; de Beurs, Derek; Khazaal, Yasser; Gaggioli, Andrea; Riva, Giuseppe; Botella, Cristina; Baños, Rosa M; Aschieri, Filippo; Bavin, Lynda M; Kleiboer, Annet; Merry, Sally; Lau, Ho Ming; Riper, Heleen

    2016-01-01

    Internet interventions for mental health, including serious games, online programs, and apps, hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and prevention. Many such interventions have been shown to be effective and acceptable in trials; however, uptake and adherence outside of trials is seldom reported, and where it is, adherence at least, generally appears to be underwhelming. In response, an international Collaboration On Maximizing the impact of E-Therapy and Serious Gaming (COMETS) was formed. In this perspectives' paper, we call for a paradigm shift to increase the impact of internet interventions toward the ultimate goal of improved population mental health. We propose four pillars for change: (1) increased focus on user-centered approaches, including both user-centered design of programs and greater individualization within programs, with the latter perhaps utilizing increased modularization; (2) Increased emphasis on engagement utilizing processes such as gaming, gamification, telepresence, and persuasive technology; (3) Increased collaboration in program development, testing, and data sharing, across both sectors and regions, in order to achieve higher quality, more sustainable outcomes with greater reach; and (4) Rapid testing and implementation, including the measurement of reach, engagement, and effectiveness, and timely implementation. We suggest it is time for researchers, clinicians, developers, and end-users to collaborate on these aspects in order to maximize the impact of e-therapies and serious gaming.

  1. Maximizing the impact of e-therapy and serious gaming: Time for a paradigm shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa M Fleming

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Internet interventions for mental health, including serious games, online programs and apps, hold promise for increasing access to evidence-based treatments and prevention. Many such interventions have been shown to be effective and acceptable in trials; however, uptake and adherence outside of trials is seldom reported, and where it is, adherence at least, generally appears to be underwhelming. In response, an international Collaboration On Maximizing the impact of E-Therapy and Serious Gaming (COMETS was formed. In this perspectives paper, we call for a paradigm shift to increase the impact of internet interventions towards the ultimate goal of improved population mental health. We propose four pillars for change: 1. Increased focus on user-centered approaches, including both user-centered design of programs and greater individualization within programs, with the latter perhaps utilizing increased modulariziation. 2. Increased emphasis on engagement; utilizing processes such as gaming, gamification, telepresence, and persuasive technology. 3. Increased collaboration in program development, testing and data sharing, across both sectors and regions, in order to achieve higher quality, more sustainable outcomes with greater reach. 4. Rapid testing and implementation, including the measurement of reach, engagement and effectiveness, and timely implementation. We suggest it is time for researchers, clinicians, developers and end-users to collaborate on these aspects in order to maximize the impact of e-therapies and serious gaming.

  2. Static and dynamic micro deformable mirror characterization by phase-shifting and time-averaged interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotard, Arnaud; Zamkotsian, Frédéric

    2017-11-01

    The micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS), based on mature technologies of micro-electronics, are essential in the design of future astronomical instruments. One of these key-components is the microdeformable mirror for wave-front correction. Very challenging topics like search of exo-planets could greatly benefit from this technology. Design, realization and characterization of micro-Deformable Mirrors are under way at Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM) in collaboration with Laboratoire d'Analyse et d'Architecture des Systèmes (LAAS). In order to measure the surface shape and the deformation parameters during operation of these devices, a high-resolution Twyman-Green interferometer has been developed. Measurements have been done on a tiltable micro-mirror (170*100μm2) designed by LAM-LAAS and realized by an American foundry, and also on an OKO deformable mirror (15mm diameter). Static characterization is made by phase shifting interferometry and dynamic measurements have been made by quantitative time-averaged interferometry. The OKO mirror has an actuator stroke of 370+/-10nm for 150V applied and its resonant frequency is 1170+/-50 Hz, and the tiltable mirror has a rotation cut-off frequency of 31+/-3 kHz.

  3. Self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Time for a paradigm shift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nici, Linda; Bontly, Thomas D; Zuwallack, Richard; Gross, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, centering on an action plan for the exacerbation and enhanced communication between the patient and health care providers, makes good clinical sense. However, five relatively large trials of self-management in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have had inconsistent results: only two demonstrated reductions in health care utilization and one had to be discontinued prematurely because of increased mortality. Do these discordant findings require a paradigm shift in our concept of self-management? Probably not-but an analysis of the negative studies can give us valuable insights. There are data to support the idea that patients in the trial that showed increased mortality did not self-manage appropriately. Only 4.5% of these patients called in before starting treatment for their exacerbation, the time to initiation of antibiotics or steroids was unsatisfactorily long, and the intervention arm used minimally more prednisone and antibiotics than the control arm. The reasons for a higher mortality will likely never be known, but it is possible that these high-risk patients may have needed earlier assessment by a trained professional, or that self-management led to overconfidence and treatment delays. We clearly need more effective ways to implement self-management and better define which groups of patients stand to benefit (or be harmed) by this intervention. This will require an investment in well-thought-out clinical trials.

  4. Effectiveness of a simple and real-time baseline shift monitoring system during stereotactic body radiation therapy of lung tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yukihiro; Tachibana, Hidenobu; Kamei, Yoshiyuki; Kashihara, Kenichi

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to clinically validate a simple real-time baseline shift monitoring system in a prospective study of consecutive patients undergoing stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung tumors, and to investigate baseline shift due to intrafraction motion of the patient's body during lung SBRT. Ten consecutive patients with peripheral lung tumors were treated by SBRT consisting of four fractions of 12 Gy each, with a total dose of 48 Gy. During treatment, each patient's geometric displacement in the anterior-posterior and left-right directions (the baseline shift) was measured using a real-time monitoring webcam system. Displacement between the start and end of treatment was measured using an X-ray fluoroscopic imaging system. The displacement measurements of the two systems were compared, and the measurements of baseline shift acquired by the monitoring system during treatment were analyzed for all patients. There was no significant deviation between the monitoring system and the X-ray imaging system, with the accuracy of measurement being within 1 mm. Measurements using the monitoring system showed that 7 min of treatment generated displacements of more than 1 mm in 50% of the patients. Baseline shift of a patient's body may be measured accurately in real time, using a monitoring system without X-ray exposure. The manubrium of the sternum is a good location for measuring the baseline shift of a patient's body at all times. The real-time monitoring system may be useful for measuring the baseline shift of a patient's body independently of a gating system. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimum community energy storage system for PV energy time-shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, David; Gillott, Mark; Norman, Stuart A.; Walker, Gavin S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The performance and economic benefits of Pb-acid and Li-ion batteries are compared. • The business case during the decarbonisation pathway is assessed. • The aggregation from a community approach reduced the levelised cost by 37% by 2020. • For a forecast price of 16.3 p/kW h Li-ion battery cost must be less than 275 £/kW h. • A 10% subsidy will be needed for Li-ion batteries to achieve the 2020 forecast. - Abstract: A novel method has been designed to obtain the optimum community energy storage (CES) systems for end user applications. The method evaluates the optimum performance (including the round trip efficiency and annual discharge), levelised cost (LCOES), the internal rate of return and the levelised value of suitable energy storage technologies. A complimentary methodology was developed including three reference years (2012, 2020 and zero carbon year) to show the evolution of the business case during the low carbon transition. The method follows a community approach and the optimum CES system was calculated as a function of the size of the community. In this work, this method was put in practice with lead-acid (PbA) and lithium-ion battery (Li-ion) technologies when performing PV energy time-shift using real demand data from a single home to a 100-home community. The community approach reduced the LCOES down to 0.30 £/kW h and 0.11 £/kW h in 2020 and the zero carbon year respectively. These values meant a cost reduction by 37% and 66% regarding a single home. Results demonstrated that PbA batteries needs from 1.5 to 2.5 times more capacity than Li-ion chemistry to reduce the LCOES, the worst case scenario being for the smallest communities, because the more spiky demand profile required proportionately larger PbA battery capacities

  6. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijian Li

    Full Text Available Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks.

  7. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengying; Li, Xinyu; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding) or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive) during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates) than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals) than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks. PMID:26121131

  8. Out of Lust or Jealousy: The Effects of Mate-Related Motives on Study-Time Allocation to Faces Varying in Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijian; Zhang, Yuchi; Li, Fengying; Li, Xinyu; Li, Ping; Jia, Xiaoyu; Chen, Haide; Ji, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    Although a growing number of empirical studies have revealed that activating mate-related motives might exert a specific set of consequences for human cognition and behaviors, such as attention and memory, little is known about whether mate-related motives affect self-regulated learning. The present study examined the effects of mate-related motives (mate-search and mate-guarding) on study-time allocation to faces varying in attractiveness. In two experiments, participants in mate-related priming conditions (Experiment 1: mate-search; Experiment 2: mate-guarding) or control conditions studied 20 female faces (10 highly attractive, 10 less attractive) during a self-paced study task, and then were given a yes/no face recognition task. The finding of Experiment 1 showed that activating a mate-search motive led the male participants to allocate more time to highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential mates) than to less attractive ones. In Experiment 2, female participants in the mate-guarding priming condition spent more time studying highly attractive female faces (i.e., perceived potential rivals) than less attractive ones, compared to participants in the control condition. These findings illustrate the highly specific consequences of mate-related motives on study-time allocation, and highlight the value of exploring human cognition and motivation within evolutionary and self-regulated learning frameworks.

  9. Effect of working consecutive night shifts on sleep time, prior wakefulness, perceived levels of fatigue and performance on a psychometric test in emergency registrars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire, Julia Christine Lydia; Ferguson, Sally Anne; Tilleard, James D; Negus, Paul; Dorrian, Jillian; Thomas, Matthew Jw

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of working consecutive night shifts on sleep time, prior wakefulness, perceived levels of fatigue and psychomotor performance in a group of Australian emergency registrars. A prospective observational study with a repeated within-subjects component was conducted. Sleep time was determined using sleep diaries and activity monitors. Subjective fatigue levels and reciprocal reaction times were evaluated before and after day and night shifts. A total of 11 registrars participated in the study with 120 shifts analysed. Sleep time was found to be similar during consecutive night and day shifts. The mean number of hours spent awake before the end of a night shift was 14.33. Subjective fatigue scores were worst at the end of a night shift. There was no difference in reciprocal reaction time between the end of night shift and the start of day shift. Registrars sleep a similar amount of time surrounding night and day shifts. Despite reporting the highest levels of fatigue at the end of a night shift, there is no significant difference in reaction times at the end of night shift compared with the beginning of day shift. This correlates with the finding that at the end of night shift the registrars have been awake for less than 16 h, which is the point at which psychomotor performance is expected to decline. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  10. The impact of meal timing on performance, sleepiness, gastric upset, and hunger during simulated night shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Crystal Leigh; Dorrian, Jillian; Coates, Alison Maree; Pajcin, Maja; Kennaway, David John; Wittert, Gary Allen; Heilbronn, Leonie Kaye; Vedova, Chris Della; Gupta, Charlotte Cecilia; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-10-07

    This study examined the impact of eating during simulated night shift on performance and subjective complaints. Subjects were randomized to eating at night (n=5; 23.2 ± 5.5 y) or not eating at night (n=5; 26.2 ± 6.4 y). All participants were given one sleep opportunity of 8 h (22:00 h-06:00 h) before transitioning to the night shift protocol. During the four days of simulated night shift participants were awake from 16:00 h-10:00 h with a daytime sleep of 6 h (10:00 h-16:00 h). In the simulated night shift protocol, meals were provided at ≈0700 h, 1900 h and 0130 h (eating at night); or ≈0700 h, 0930 h, 1410 h and 1900 h (not eating at night). Subjects completed sleepiness, hunger and gastric complaint scales, a Digit Symbol Substitution Task and a 10-min Psychomotor Vigilance Task. Increased sleepiness and performance impairment was evident in both conditions at 0400 h (phunger and a small but significant elevation in stomach upset across the night (p<0.026). Eating at night was associated with elevated bloating on night one, which decreased across the protocol. Restricting food intake may limit performance impairments at night. Dietary recommendations to improve night-shift performance must also consider worker comfort.

  11. Male Snakes Allocate Time and Energy according to Individual Energetic Status: Body Condition, Steroid Hormones, and Reproductive Behavior in Timber Rattlesnakes, Crotalus horridus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Craig M; Beaupre, Steven J

    2015-01-01

    Life-history theory predicts that organisms will hedge current reproductive investment against potential costs in terms of survivorship and future fecundity. However, little is known regarding the endocrine mechanisms underlying bet-hedging strategies in free-ranging male vertebrates. We examined the relationships among individual energetic status, steroid hormones, mate search, and reproductive behavior in free-ranging male timber rattlesnakes. Snakes were monitored over four active seasons in order to test two hypotheses: (1) males adjust the amount of time and energy allocated toward reproduction according to the level of individual energy stores, and (2) observed condition-dependent reproductive allocation is associated with circulating concentrations of steroid hormones (testosterone and corticosterone) thought to regulate reproductive behaviors in vertebrates. A positive relationship between body condition and testosterone was observed in both the field and the laboratory. Male mate search effort was positively correlated with both body condition and testosterone. Body condition and testosterone concentrations were negatively related to time allocated toward foraging during the breeding season. A strong effect of year was observed in the analysis of testosterone and search effort, suggesting that multiple environmental factors impact hormone production and reproductive investment. Corticosterone was not related to any measured variable. Therefore, our results did not indicate a clear role of corticosterone in mediating observed relationships between energetic status and behavior. Observed relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that males allocate time and energy toward reproduction according to individual energetic status and that testosterone plays a role in mediating the trade-off between current reproductive investment and residual reproductive value.

  12. Reduction of client waiting time using task shifting in an antiretroviral clinic at Specialist Hospital Bauchi, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisser A. Umar

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to assess the impact of the intervention in reducing the patients’ waiting time in the clinic, two surveys were conducted before and after task shifting intervention in an anti-retroviral (ARV clinic at the Specialist Hospital, Bauchi, Nigeria in November 2008 and April 2009, respectively. Before the task shifting, six nurses from the clinic were trained on integrated management of adolescent and adult illness, as well as on the principle and guidelines for the anti-retroviral therapy, after which their schedule in the clinic was broadened to include seeing HIV patients presenting for routine refill and follow-up visits. In this study, fifty-six and sixty patients, respectively out of 186 and 202 who attended the clinic on the days of the pre- and post-intervention surveys, were randomly sampled. Data on patients’ sex, age and marital status, whether patient a first timer or follow up visitor and the time spent in the clinic on that day as well as the number and composition of staff and equipment in the clinic was collected. The difference in waiting time spent between the first group before task shifting and second group after task shifting was statistically analyzed and significance tested using unpaired t- test. There was a reduction in the average waiting time for patients attending the clinic from 6.48 h before task shifting to 4.35 h after task shifting. The difference of mean was -2.13 h, with 95% CI: -2.44:-1.82 hours and the test of significance by unpaired t-test P

  13. Reducing emergency department waiting times by adjusting work shifts considering patient visits to multiple care providers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinreich, D.; Jabali, O.; Dellaert, N.P.

    2012-01-01

    Reducing Emergency Department (ED) overcrowding in the hope of improving the ED's operational efficiency and health care delivery ranks high on every health care decision maker's wish list. The current study concentrates on developing efficient work shift schedules that make the best use of current

  14. Timing of food intake during simulated night shift impacts glucose metabolism: A controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Crystal L; Coates, Alison M; Dorrian, Jillian; Kennaway, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Heilbronn, Leonie K; Pajcin, Maja; Della Vedova, Chris; Gupta, Charlotte C; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-01-01

    Eating during the night may increase the risk for obesity and type 2 diabetes in shift workers. This study examined the impact of either eating or not eating a meal at night on glucose metabolism. Participants underwent four nights of simulated night work (SW1-4, 16:00-10:00 h, night (NE; n = 4, meals; 07:00, 19:00 and 01:30 h) or not eating at night (NEN; n = 7, meals; 07:00 h, 09:30, 16:10 and 19:00 h) condition. Meal tolerance tests were conducted post breakfast on pre-night shift (PRE), SW4 and following return to day shift (RTDS), and glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) were calculated. Mixed-effects ANOVAs were used with fixed effects of condition and day, and their interactions, and a random effect of subject identifier on the intercept. Fasting glucose and insulin were not altered by day or condition. There were significant effects of day and condition × day (both p night (p = 0.040) and not eating at night (p = 0.006) conditions. Results in this small, healthy sample suggest that not eating at night may limit the metabolic consequences of simulated night work. Further study is needed to explore whether matching food intake to the biological clock could reduce the burden of type 2 diabetes in shift workers.

  15. Time for a shift in crop production: embracing complexity through diversity at all levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Hanne; Finckh, M.R.; Fontaine, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    A radical shift in our approach to crop production is needed to ensure food security and to address the problems of soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, polluted and restricted water supplies, coupled with a future of fossil fuel limitations and increasingly variable climatic conditions...

  16. Time for a shift in crop production: embracing complexity through diversity at all levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostergard, H.; Finckh, M.R.; Fontaine, L.; Goldringer, I.; Hoad, S.; Kristensen, K.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Mascher, F.; Munk, L.; Wolfe, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    A radical shift in our approach to crop production is needed to ensure food security and to address the problems of soil degradation, loss of biodiversity, polluted and restricted water supplies, coupled with a future of fossil fuel limitations and increasingly variable climatic conditions. An

  17. Development and investigation of aggregate models for nuclear objects with time shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharakhanlou, J.; Kazachkov, I.V.

    2012-01-01

    The development and investigation of aggregate models for nuclear objects with shift arguments are discussed.The nonlinear differential equations of the model are described and the Cauchy problem is stated. The specific feature of the mathematical model for potentially hazardous nuclear objects are analyzed and computer simulation is presented

  18. Effects of Phonological and Orthographic Shifts on Children's Processing of Written Morphology: A Time-Course Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quémart, Pauline; Casalis, Séverine

    2014-01-01

    We report two experiments that investigated whether phonological and/or orthographic shifts in a base word interfere with morphological processing by French 3rd, 4th, and 5th graders and adults (as a control group) along the time course of visual word recognition. In both experiments, prime-target pairs shared four possible relationships:…

  19. Development of a minimization instrument for allocation of a hospital-level performance improvement intervention to reduce waiting times in Ontario emergency departments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Geoff

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rigorous evaluation of an intervention requires that its allocation be unbiased with respect to confounders; this is especially difficult in complex, system-wide healthcare interventions. We developed a short survey instrument to identify factors for a minimization algorithm for the allocation of a hospital-level intervention to reduce emergency department (ED waiting times in Ontario, Canada. Methods Potential confounders influencing the intervention's success were identified by literature review, and grouped by healthcare setting specific change stages. An international multi-disciplinary (clinical, administrative, decision maker, management panel evaluated these factors in a two-stage modified-delphi and nominal group process based on four domains: change readiness, evidence base, face validity, and clarity of definition. Results An original set of 33 factors were identified from the literature. The panel reduced the list to 12 in the first round survey. In the second survey, experts scored each factor according to the four domains; summary scores and consensus discussion resulted in the final selection and measurement of four hospital-level factors to be used in the minimization algorithm: improved patient flow as a hospital's leadership priority; physicians' receptiveness to organizational change; efficiency of bed management; and physician incentives supporting the change goal. Conclusion We developed a simple tool designed to gather data from senior hospital administrators on factors likely to affect the success of a hospital patient flow improvement intervention. A minimization algorithm will ensure balanced allocation of the intervention with respect to these factors in study hospitals.

  20. Development of a minimization instrument for allocation of a hospital-level performance improvement intervention to reduce waiting times in Ontario emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaver, Chad Andrew; Guttmann, Astrid; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Rowe, Brian H; Anderson, Geoff; Stukel, Therese; Golden, Brian; Bell, Robert; Morra, Dante; Abrams, Howard; Schull, Michael J

    2009-06-08

    Rigorous evaluation of an intervention requires that its allocation be unbiased with respect to confounders; this is especially difficult in complex, system-wide healthcare interventions. We developed a short survey instrument to identify factors for a minimization algorithm for the allocation of a hospital-level intervention to reduce emergency department (ED) waiting times in Ontario, Canada. Potential confounders influencing the intervention's success were identified by literature review, and grouped by healthcare setting specific change stages. An international multi-disciplinary (clinical, administrative, decision maker, management) panel evaluated these factors in a two-stage modified-delphi and nominal group process based on four domains: change readiness, evidence base, face validity, and clarity of definition. An original set of 33 factors were identified from the literature. The panel reduced the list to 12 in the first round survey. In the second survey, experts scored each factor according to the four domains; summary scores and consensus discussion resulted in the final selection and measurement of four hospital-level factors to be used in the minimization algorithm: improved patient flow as a hospital's leadership priority; physicians' receptiveness to organizational change; efficiency of bed management; and physician incentives supporting the change goal. We developed a simple tool designed to gather data from senior hospital administrators on factors likely to affect the success of a hospital patient flow improvement intervention. A minimization algorithm will ensure balanced allocation of the intervention with respect to these factors in study hospitals.

  1. Differences in cortisol profiles and circadian adjustment time between nurses working night shifts and regular day shifts: A prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shu-Fen; Chung, Min-Huey; Chu, Hsin; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Liao, Yuan-Mei; Ou, Keng-Liang; O'Brien, Anthony Paul; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2015-07-01

    This study explored the differences in the circadian salivary cortisol profiles between nurses working night shifts and regular day shifts following a slow rotating shift schedule to assess the number of days required for adjusting the circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol levels in nurses working consecutive night shifts and the number of days off required to restore the diurnal circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol levels. This was a prospective, longitudinal, parallel-group comparative study. The participants were randomly assigned to night and day-shift groups, and saliva samples were collected to measure their cortisol levels and circadian secretion patterns. Significant differences were observed in the overall salivary cortisol pattern parameters (cortisol awakening response, changes in cortisol profiles between 6 and 12h after awakening, and changes in cortisol profiles between 30 min and 12 h after awakening) from Days 2 to 4 of the workdays between both groups. However, on Day 2 of the days off, both groups exhibited similar cortisol profiles and the cortisol profiles in the night-shift group were restored. Nurses working night shifts require at least 4 days to adjust their circadian rhythms of cortisol secretions. Moreover, on changing from night shift to other shifts, nurses must be allowed more than 2 days off work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of excited state solvent fluctuations on time-dependent fluorescence Stokes shift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tanping, E-mail: tanping@lsu.edu, E-mail: revatik@lsu.edu; Kumar, Revati, E-mail: tanping@lsu.edu, E-mail: revatik@lsu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)

    2015-11-07

    We explore the connection between the solvation dynamics of a chromophore upon photon excitation and equilibrium fluctuations of the solvent. Using molecular dynamics simulations, fluorescence Stokes shift for the tryptophan in Staphylococcus nuclease was examined using both nonequilibrium calculations and linear response theory. When the perturbed and unperturbed surfaces exhibit different solvent equilibrium fluctuations, the linear response approach on the former surface shows agreement with the nonequilibrium process. This agreement is excellent when the perturbed surface exhibits Gaussian statistics and qualitative in the case of an isomerization induced non-Gaussian statistics. However, the linear response theory on the unperturbed surface breaks down even in the presence of Gaussian fluctuations. Experiments also provide evidence of the connection between the excited state solvent fluctuations and the total fluorescence shift. These observations indicate that the equilibrium statistics on the excited state surface characterize the relaxation dynamics of the fluorescence Stokes shift. Our studies specifically analyze the Gaussian fluctuations of the solvent in the complex protein environment and further confirm the role of solvent fluctuations on the excited state surface. The results are consistent with previous investigations, found in the literature, of solutes dissolved in liquids.

  3. Evaluation of Real-Time Hand Motion Tracking Using a Range Camera and the Mean-Shift Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, H.; Lichti, D.

    2011-09-01

    Several sensors have been tested for improving the interaction between humans and machines including traditional web cameras, special gloves, haptic devices, cameras providing stereo pairs of images and range cameras. Meanwhile, several methods are described in the literature for tracking hand motion: the Kalman filter, the mean-shift algorithm and the condensation algorithm. In this research, the combination of a range camera and the simple version of the mean-shift algorithm has been evaluated for its capability for hand motion tracking. The evaluation was assessed in terms of position accuracy of the tracking trajectory in x, y and z directions in the camera space and the time difference between image acquisition and image display. Three parameters have been analyzed regarding their influence on the tracking process: the speed of the hand movement, the distance between the camera and the hand and finally the integration time of the camera. Prior to the evaluation, the required warm-up time of the camera has been measured. This study has demonstrated the suitability of the range camera used in combination with the mean-shift algorithm for real-time hand motion tracking but for very high speed hand movement in the traverse plane with respect to the camera, the tracking accuracy is low and requires improvement.

  4. Assessing age stereotypes in the German population in 1996 and 2011: socio-demographic correlates and shift over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Lena; Zenger, Markus; Glaesmer, Heide; Brähler, Elmar; Strauss, Bernhard

    2018-03-01

    The present study aimed to extend the knowledge regarding dimensionality, socio-demographic correlates and shifts in age stereotypes over the past 15 years using a time-sequential design. In 1996 and 2011, we assessed age stereotypes in two independent samples of the German population aged ≥ 45 years ( N  = 970 in sample 1, N  = 1545 in sample 2). Three scales with six items each were assessed. Two scales cover negative (i.e., rigidity/isolation, burden), and one scale covers positive age stereotypes (wisdom/experience). Dimensionality of the scale, associations with socio-demographic variables and whether the stereotypes have shifted were tested using confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modeling and analyses of variances. Three dimensions were identified and replicated following an exploratory as well as a confirmatory approach. Age stereotypes did shift between 1996 and 2011 in the dimension burden (i.e., becoming more negative). Our results further underpin the finding that age stereotypes are multifaceted and suggest that dimensions do not change over time. Additionally, our data provide some evidence that societal age stereotypes partly change over time.

  5. Resource allocation in public health practice: a national survey of local public health officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nancy M; DesRoches, Catherine; Campbell, Eric G; Goold, Susan Dorr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain an empirical understanding of the types of allocation decisions local health officials (LHOs) make and the factors that influence those allocation decisions. We conducted a national survey of LHOs in the United States in 2008 to 2009. The sample was stratified by the size of the population served by the department. We merged our data with data from the 2008 National Association of County and City Health Officials Profile survey. Descriptive statistics were generated using weighted data. Our final sample size was 608 respondents, with an average of 10 years experience. The LHOs reported little shifting of resources among population groups but greater capacity to redirect staffing time. Less than half of LHOs reported using economic analyses or conducting needs assessments when setting priorities. Having sole provider status in a community strongly influenced LHOs' allocation decisions. In addition, the effectiveness of activities, previous budget allocations, and input from boards of health were influential factors in allocation decisions. Public expectations were moderately to very influential, but direct public input had a low impact on allocation decisions. Survey findings provide a clearer understanding of how LHOs fulfill their obligations as stewards of public health resources and ensure effective activities and access to needed services. It may be useful to assess the value of more structured allocation methods (eg, decision frameworks) in the allocation process. Expanding opportunities for public engagement in priority setting may also be valuable for difficult allocation decisions.

  6. Shift level analysis of cable yarder availability, utilization, and productive time

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Sherar; Chris B. LeDoux

    1989-01-01

    Decision makers, loggers, managers, and planners need to understand and have methods for estimating utilization and productive time of cable logging systems. In making an accurate prediction of how much area and volume a machine will log per unit time and the associated cable yarding costs, a reliable estimate of the availability, utilization, and productive time of...

  7. Changes in Time-Related Academic Behaviour Are Associated with Contextual Motivational Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Kamden K.; Lane, Forrest C.; Mwavita, Mwarumba

    2018-01-01

    Research in the field of time-related academic behaviour (i.e., procrastination and timely engagement) has traditionally been focused on more stable factors, such as personality. Recent research suggests there may be a motivational component to these behaviours. The present study examines whether time-related academic behaviour is stable across…

  8. Baxter v. Montana, libertarianism, and end-of-life: the ripe time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, James H

    2010-09-01

    Baxter v. Montana (2009 WL 5155363 [Mont. 2009]) is a recent decision from the Montana Supreme Court that provides new legal insight into the societal issue of aid in dying. This case involves interests of persons with terminal illness, medical practitioners, law enforcement, legislative and judicial bodies, as well as the citizens of Montana. A summary judgment ruling at the Montana district court level was based almost entirely on a constitutional fundamental rights analysis. In contrast, the Montana Supreme Court affirming decision was based almost entirely on a statutory rights analysis. Both rulings from the Montana courts support the position that licensed prescribers in Montana who provide aid in dying assistance to terminally ill patients have some immunity from criminal prosecution. Each side in the case argued what they believed to be the intents and purposes of the people of Montana. Baxter v. Montana illustrates different methods to determine the will of the people concerning aid in dying and public policy. This case very subtly suggests a paradigm shift may be occurring in aid in dying policy.

  9. PUS in turbulent times II - A shifting vocabulary that brokers inter-disciplinary knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suerdem, Ahmet; Bauer, Martin W; Howard, Susan; Ruby, Luke

    2013-01-01

    To reflect further on 20 years of the journal, we present a lexicographic and bibliometric study of all papers published in Public Understanding of Science (PUS). Lexicographical analysis of the vocabulary of 465 abstracts shows five classes of associated concepts in two periods, 1992-2001 and 2002-2010. The concern for public attitudes and mass media coverage remains on the card; while language has shifted from 'public understanding' to 'public engagement' and environmental concerns have waned then waxed. The bibliometric analysis traces the position of PUS in the inter-citation network of 165 related journals (ISI Web of Science citation database), grouped into 10 disciplines for the purpose of this analysis. Indicators derived from network logic show that the established position of PUS has been stable since 1997. PUS serves a varied brokerage role as gatekeeper into and liaison maker between disciplines. Its inter-citation network position allows PUS to perform inter-disciplinary boundary spanning work that offers a safe space for experimentation with ideas.

  10. Frequency Dependence of Helioseismic Measurements of the Center-to-Limb Effect and Flow-induced Travel-time Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruizhu; Zhao, Junwei

    2018-02-01

    Time–distance helioseismology measures acoustic travel times to infer the structure and flow field of the solar interior; however, both the mean travel times and the travel-time shifts suffer systematic center-to-limb variations, which complicate the interpretation and inversions of the time–distance measurements. In particular, the center-to-limb variation in travel-time shifts (CtoL effect) has a significant impact on the inference of the Sun’s meridional circulation, and needs to be removed from the helioseismic measurements, although the observational properties and the physical cause of the CtoL effect have yet to be investigated. In this study, we measure the CtoL effect in the frequency domain using Doppler-velocity data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager, and study its properties as a function of disk-centric distance, travel distance, and frequency of acoustic waves. It is found that the CtoL effect has a significant frequency dependence—it reverses sign at a frequency around 5.4 mHz and reaches maximum at around 4.0 mHz before the sign reversal. The tendency of frequency dependence varies with disk-centric distance in a way that both the sign-reversal frequency and the maximum-value frequency decrease closer to the limb. The variation tendency does not change with travel distance, but the variation magnitude is approximately proportional to travel distance. For comparison, the flow-induced travel-time shifts show little frequency dependence. These observational properties provide more clues on the nature of the CtoL effect, and also possibly lead to new ways of effect-removal for a more robust determination of the deep meridional flow.

  11. Sex differences in cerebral venous thrombosis: A systematic analysis of a shift over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Susanna M.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Stam, Jan; Coutinho, Jonathan M.

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary studies, cerebral venous thrombosis is three times more common in adult women than in men. To study the change in sex ratio over time in cerebral venous thrombosis. We systematically reviewed the literature. Any type of study with at least 40 patients with cerebral venous thrombosis

  12. Residency Allocation Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Residency Allocation Database is used to determine allocation of funds for residency programs offered by Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). Information...

  13. A Paradigm Shift From Brick and Mortar: Full-Time Nursing Faculty Off Campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Marlene; Bradley, Holly B; Cook, Linda L; Leasca, Joslin B; Lampley, Tammy; Gatti-Petito, JoAnne

    The organizational structure for the Master of Science in Nursing's online program at Sacred Heart University offers a remarkably different innovative faculty model. Full-time, doctorally prepared faculty reside in several different states and teach online but are fully integrated and immersed in all aspects of the college of nursing. This untraditional model, which has proven to be successful over time using best practices for online education, is replicable and offers an innovative option for online learning.

  14. Phylogenetic rate shifts in feeding time during the evolution of Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organ, Chris; Nunn, Charles L; Machanda, Zarin; Wrangham, Richard W

    2011-08-30

    Unique among animals, humans eat a diet rich in cooked and nonthermally processed food. The ancestors of modern humans who invented food processing (including cooking) gained critical advantages in survival and fitness through increased caloric intake. However, the time and manner in which food processing became biologically significant are uncertain. Here, we assess the inferred evolutionary consequences of food processing in the human lineage by applying a Bayesian phylogenetic outlier test to a comparative dataset of feeding time in humans and nonhuman primates. We find that modern humans spend an order of magnitude less time feeding than predicted by phylogeny and body mass (4.7% vs. predicted 48% of daily activity). This result suggests that a substantial evolutionary rate change in feeding time occurred along the human branch after the human-chimpanzee split. Along this same branch, Homo erectus shows a marked reduction in molar size that is followed by a gradual, although erratic, decline in H. sapiens. We show that reduction in molar size in early Homo (H. habilis and H. rudolfensis) is explicable by phylogeny and body size alone. By contrast, the change in molar size to H. erectus, H. neanderthalensis, and H. sapiens cannot be explained by the rate of craniodental and body size evolution. Together, our results indicate that the behaviorally driven adaptations of food processing (reduced feeding time and molar size) originated after the evolution of Homo but before or concurrent with the evolution of H. erectus, which was around 1.9 Mya.

  15. Optimum allocation of imaging time and minimum detectable activity in dual isotope blood pool subtraction indium-111 platelet imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machac, J.; Horowitz, S.F.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.

    1984-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled platelet imaging is a tool for detection of thrombus formation in vascular spaces. Dual isotope blood pool subtraction may help differentiate focal platelet accumulation from blood pool activity. This study used a computer model to calculate the minimum excess-to-blood pool platelet ratio (EX/BP) and the optimum dual isotope imaging times under varied conditions of lesion size. The model simulated usual human imaging doses of 500 μCi of In-111 platelets and 5mCi of Tc-99m labeled RBCs giving a reference cardiac blood pool region (100cc) of 10000 cpm for Tc-99m and 500 cpm for In-111. The total imaging time was fixed at 20 minutes, while the two isotope imaging times (TIn/TTc) were varied, as were the simulated lesion size (cc) and EX/BP. The relative error of the excess counts was calculated using propagation of error theory. At the critical level of detection, where the excess lesion counts equal 3 times the standard deviation, the optimum TIn/TTc and minimum Ex/BP were determined for each lesion size. For the smallest lesion size (0.1cc), the minimum detectable EX/BP ratio was 1.6, with the best TIn/TTC ratio of 18/2 minutes, and for large lesions, an EX/BP of 0.1, with a TIn/TTc of 16/4. This model provides an estimate of the sensitivity and optimizes imaging times in dual isotope subtraction platelet imaging. The model is adaptable to varying isotope doses, total imaging times and lesion size. This information will be helpful in future in- vivo imaging studies of intravascular thrombi in humans

  16. Feedback-Based Admission Control for Firm Real-Time Task Allocation with Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Dziurzanski

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Feedback-based mechanisms can be employed to monitor the performance of Multiprocessor Systems-on-Chips (MPSoCs and steer the task execution even if the exact knowledge of the workload is unknown a priori. In particular, traditional proportional-integral controllers can be used with firm real-time tasks to either admit them to the processing cores or reject in order not to violate the timeliness of the already admitted tasks. During periods with a lower computational power demand, dynamic voltage and frequency scaling (DVFS can be used to reduce the dissipation of energy in the cores while still not violating the tasks’ time constraints. Depending on the workload pattern and weight, platform size and the granularity of DVFS, energy savings can reach even 60% at the cost of a slight performance degradation.

  17. Charting shifts and moving forward in abnormal times: An interview with Nancy Fraser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sichieri Moura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2016v15n1p1 In this interview Nancy Fraser elucidates important conceptual topics of her theory, she also shares her analysis of the global financial crisis and how it has changed the setting for theorists of justice. Her account reminds us of critical theory’s important role in helping us think - and act – differently in difficult times.

  18. Probabilistic inference under time pressure leads to a cortical-to-subcortical shift in decision evidence integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh-Descher, Hanna; Beck, Jeffrey M; Ferrari, Silvia; Sommer, Marc A; Egner, Tobias

    2017-11-15

    Real-life decision-making often involves combining multiple probabilistic sources of information under finite time and cognitive resources. To mitigate these pressures, people "satisfice", foregoing a full evaluation of all available evidence to focus on a subset of cues that allow for fast and "good-enough" decisions. Although this form of decision-making likely mediates many of our everyday choices, very little is known about the way in which the neural encoding of cue information changes when we satisfice under time pressure. Here, we combined human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a probabilistic classification task to characterize neural substrates of multi-cue decision-making under low (1500 ms) and high (500 ms) time pressure. Using variational Bayesian inference, we analyzed participants' choices to track and quantify cue usage under each experimental condition, which was then applied to model the fMRI data. Under low time pressure, participants performed near-optimally, appropriately integrating all available cues to guide choices. Both cortical (prefrontal and parietal cortex) and subcortical (hippocampal and striatal) regions encoded individual cue weights, and activity linearly tracked trial-by-trial variations in the amount of evidence and decision uncertainty. Under increased time pressure, participants adaptively shifted to using a satisficing strategy by discounting the least informative cue in their decision process. This strategic change in decision-making was associated with an increased involvement of the dopaminergic midbrain, striatum, thalamus, and cerebellum in representing and integrating cue values. We conclude that satisficing the probabilistic inference process under time pressure leads to a cortical-to-subcortical shift in the neural drivers of decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bacterial diversity and community structure in lettuce soil are shifted by cultivation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqian; Chang, Qing; Guo, Xu; Yi, Xinxin

    2017-08-01

    Compared with cereal production, vegetable production usually requires a greater degree of management and larger input of nutrients and irrigation, but these systems are not sustainable in the long term. This study aimed to what extent lettuce determine the bacterial community composition in the soil, during lettuce cultivation, pesticides and fertilizers were not apply to soil. Soil samples were collected from depths of 0-20cm and 20-40cm. A highthroughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial communities in lettuce-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. The dominant bacteria in the lettuce soil samples were mainly Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Nitrospirae, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Planctomycetes, Gemmatimo nadetes, Cyanobacteria. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in the 6 soil samples. The relative abundance of Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria decreased through time of lettuce cultivation, but the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Nitrospirae increased over time. In the 0-20cm depth group and the 20-40cm depth soil, a similar pattern was observed that the percentage number of only shared OTUs between the early and late stage was lower than that between the early and middle stage soil, the result showed that lettuce growth can affect structure of soil bacterial communities.

  20. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  1. Milk production and composition, nitrogen utilization, and grazing behavior of late-lactation dairy cows as affected by time of allocation of a fresh strip of pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vibart, R E; Tavendale, M; Otter, D; Schwendel, B H; Lowe, K; Gregorini, P; Pacheco, D

    2017-07-01

    Eighty late-lactation dairy cows were used to examine the effects of allocating a new pasture strip of a sward based on ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the morning (a.m.; ∼0730 h) or in the afternoon (p.m.; ∼1530 h) on milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) utilization, and grazing behavior. Cows grazed the same pasture strips for 24 h and were offered the same daily herbage allowance. Herbage composition differed among treatments; p.m. herbage had greater dry matter (DM; 22.7 vs. 19.9%), organic matter (OM; 89.5 vs. 88.9%), and water-soluble carbohydrate (10.9 vs. 7.6%) concentrations and lesser crude protein (20.5 vs. 22.2%) and neutral detergent fiber (48.8 vs. 50.4%) concentrations compared with a.m. herbage. Total fatty acids (FA), α-linolenic acid, and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were greater in a.m. herbage, whereas monounsaturated FA were greater in p.m. herbage. Estimates of herbage DM intake did not differ among treatments. Daily milk yields and milk fat and milk protein concentrations were similar among treatments, whereas milk fat (684 vs. 627 g/cow), milk protein (545 vs. 505 g/cow), and milk solids (milk fat + milk protein) yields (1,228 vs. 1,132 g/cow) tended to be greater for cows on p.m. herbage. Rumenic acid and total PUFA in milk were greater for cows on a.m. herbage, whereas oleic acid was greater for cows on p.m. herbage. Estimates of urinary N excretion (g/d) did not differ among treatments, but urinary N concentrations were greater for cows on a.m. herbage (5.85 vs. 5.36 g/L). Initial herbage mass (HM) available (kg of DM/ha) and instantaneous HM disappearance rates (kg of DM/ha and kg of DM/h) did not differ, but fractional disappearance rates (0.56 vs. 0.74 per hour for a.m. vs. p.m., respectively) differed. Under the current conditions, timing of pasture strip allocation altered the herbage nutrient supply to cows; allocating a fresh strip of pasture later in the day resulted in moderate increases in milk and milk solids yields

  2. Health status, food insecurity, and time allocation patterns of patients with AIDS receiving antiretroviral treatment in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Alok; Booysen, Frederik Le Roux; Walsh, Corinna M

    2018-03-01

    For patients with AIDS receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in South Africa via public clinics, improvements in nutritional status and economic productivity are likely to depend on adherence to drug regimen and quality of diet reflected in protein and micronutrient intakes. This study randomized 643 patients receiving ART from public clinics in the Free State Province into a Control group, a treatment group receiving adherence support, and a treatment group receiving adherence support and a nutritious food supplement. The data on food insecurity levels and time spent on various activities were analyzed for assessing the impact of the intervention programs. The main results were, first, changes between survey rounds 1 and 3 were significant at the 5% level for outcomes such as food insecurity levels and CD4 cell counts. Moreover, there was a significant reduction in food insecurity levels of patients with BMI less than 25 who received the nutritious food supplement. Second, the estimated parameters from models for patients' food insecurity levels showed that household incomes were significantly associated with lower food insecurity levels. Third, patients' BMI was a significant predictor of time spent on sedentary, moderate and overall activity levels, and it was important to separately evaluate the effects of BMI for under-weight and over-weight patients. Overall, the results indicated the need for reducing food insecurity levels, and for designing different interventions for under-weight and over-weight patients with AIDS for enhancing their labor productivity.

  3. Bacterial Diversity and Community Structure in Korean Ginseng Field Soil Are Shifted by Cultivation Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ngoc-Lan; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Hoang, Van-An; Subramaniyam, Sathiyamoorthy; Kang, Jong-Pyo; Kang, Chang Ho; Yang, Deok-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Traditional molecular methods have been used to examine bacterial communities in ginseng-cultivated soil samples in a time-dependent manner. Despite these efforts, our understanding of the bacterial community is still inadequate. Therefore, in this study, a high-throughput sequencing approach was employed to investigate bacterial diversity in various ginseng field soil samples over cultivation times of 2, 4, and 6 years in the first and second rounds of cultivation. We used non-cultivated soil samples to perform a comparative study. Moreover, this study assessed changes in the bacterial community associated with soil depth and the health state of the ginseng. Bacterial richness decreased through years of cultivation. This study detected differences in relative abundance of bacterial populations between the first and second rounds of cultivation, years of cultivation, and health states of ginseng. These bacterial populations were mainly distributed in the classes Acidobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Sphingobacteria. In addition, we found that pH, available phosphorus, and exchangeable Ca+ seemed to have high correlations with bacterial class in ginseng cultivated soil.

  4. Power generation efficiency of an SOFC-PEFC combined system with time shift utilization of SOFC exhaust heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obara, Shin' ya [Power Engineering Lab., Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Kouen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 0908507 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    A microgrid, with little environmental impact, is developed by introducing a combined SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) and PEFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system. Although the SOFC requires a higher operation temperature compared to the PEFC, the power generation efficiency of the SOFC is higher. However, if high temperature exhaust heat may be used effectively, a system with higher total power generation efficiency can be built. Therefore, this paper investigates the operation of a SOFC-PEFC combined system, with time shift operation of reformed gas, into a microgrid with 30 houses in Sapporo, Japan. The SOFC is designed to correspond to base load operation, and the exhaust heat of the SOFC is used for production of reformed gas. This reformed gas is used for the production of electricity for the PEFC, corresponding to fluctuation load of the next day. Accordingly, the reformed gas is used with a time shift operation. In this paper, the relation between operation method, power generation efficiency, and amount of heat storage of the SOFC-PEFC combined system to the difference in power load pattern was investigated. The average power generation efficiency of the system can be maintained at nearly 48% on a representative day in February (winter season) and August (summer season). (author)

  5. Dissociation of the role of the prelimbic cortex in interval timing and resource allocation: beneficial effect of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor nomifensine on anxiety-inducing distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander R Matthews

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotional distracters impair cognitive function. Emotional processing is dysregulated in affective disorders such as depression, phobias, schizophrenia, and PTSD. Among the processes impaired by emotional distracters, and whose dysregulation is documented in affective disorders, is the ability to time in the seconds-to-minutes range, i.e. interval timing. Presentation of task-irrelevant distracters during a timing task results in a delay in responding suggesting a failure to maintain subjective time in working memory, possibly due to attentional and working memory resources being diverted away from timing, as proposed by the Relative Time-Sharing model. We investigated the role of the prelimbic cortex in the detrimental effect of anxiety-inducing task-irrelevant distracters on the cognitive ability to keep track of time, using local infusions of norepinephrine and dopamine reuptake inhibitor nomifensine in a modified peak-interval procedure with neutral and anxiety-inducing distracters. Given that some antidepressants have beneficial effects on attention and working memory, e.g., decreasing emotional response to negative events, we hypothesized that nomifensine would improve maintenance of information in working memory in trials with distracters, resulting in a decrease of the disruptive effect of emotional events on the timekeeping abilities. Our results revealed a dissociation of the effects of nomifensine infusion in prelimbic cortex between interval timing and resource allocation, and between neutral and anxiety-inducing distraction. Nomifensine was effective only during trials with distracters, but not during trials without distracters. Nomifensine reduced the detrimental effect of the distracters only when the distracters were anxiety-inducing, but not when they were neutral. Results are discussed in relation to the brain circuits involved in Relative Time-Sharing of resources, and the pharmacological management of affective disorders.

  6. Allocating limited resources in a time of fiscal constraints: a priority setting case study from Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Craig; Levy, Adrian; Gorsky, Diane; MacNeil, Christina; Dionne, Francois; Marrie, Tom

    2013-07-01

    Facing a projected $1.4M deficit on a $35M operating budget for fiscal year 2011/2012, members of the Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine developed and implemented an explicit, transparent, criteria-based priority setting process for resource reallocation. A task group that included representatives from across the Faculty of Medicine used a program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) framework, which provided an alternative to the typical public-sector approaches to addressing a budget deficit of across-the-board spending cuts and political negotiation. Key steps to the PBMA process included training staff members and department heads on priority setting and resource reallocation, establishing process guidelines to meet immediate and longer-term fiscal needs, developing a reporting structure and forming key working groups, creating assessment criteria to guide resource reallocation decisions, assessing disinvestment proposals from all departments, and providing proposal implementation recommendations to the dean. All departments were required to submit proposals for consideration. The task group approved 27 service reduction proposals and 28 efficiency gains proposals, totaling approximately $2.7M in savings across two years. During this process, the task group faced a number of challenges, including a tight timeline for development and implementation (January to April 2011), a culture that historically supported decentralized planning, at times competing interests (e.g., research versus teaching objectives), and reductions in overall health care and postsecondary education government funding. Overall, faculty and staff preferred the PBMA approach to previous practices. Other institutions should use this example to set priorities in times of fiscal constraints.

  7. The times are changing: temporal shifts in patterns of fish invasions in central European fresh waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabitsch, W; Milasowszky, N; Nehring, S; Wiesner, C; Wolter, C; Essl, F

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the invasion history of alien fish species based on exhaustive national data sets on fish invasions of two contiguous central European countries (Germany and Austria). Fifteen alien fish species are currently established in both countries, constituting 14 and 17% of the total freshwater fish fauna of Germany and Austria, respectively. In both countries, six alien species are present, but not established. The status of five alien species in Germany and three species in Austria remains unknown. Accumulation rates of alien fish species have increased in recent decades with >50% of them reported after 1971. North America and Asia were the primary sources of alien fish species in Germany and Austria up to the 1980s, whereas European species of Ponto-Caspian origin dominate now. Fisheries (including aquaculture) and the animal trade were responsible for most earlier introductions, whereas waterways were the main pathway for recent invaders. The extent of the spatial distribution of alien species was positively correlated with residence time, i.e. the time elapsed since the first national record. Different thermal preferences of early invaders (mostly coldwater species) and new invaders (typically warmwater adapted) may benefit the latter in the face of climate change. It is concluded that new challenges for alien fish management arise and that ecosystem-based approaches as endorsed by the E.U. Water Framework Directive (maintaining or restoring good ecological status of rivers and streams) should become the centrepiece of river management in Europe. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Surgical Treatment of Recurrent Endometrial Cancer: Time for a Paradigm Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadia, Andrea; Bellati, Filippo; Ditto, Antonino; Bogani, Giorgio; Gasparri, Maria Luisa; Di Donato, Violante; Martinelli, Fabio; Lorusso, Domenica; Benedetti-Panici, Pierluigi; Raspagliesi, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Although surgery represents the cornerstone treatment of endometrial cancer at initial diagnosis, scarce data are available in recurrent setting. The purpose of this study was to review the outcome of surgery in these patients. Medical records of all patients undergoing surgery for recurrent endometrial cancer at NCI Milano between January 2003 and January 2014 were reviewed. Survival was determined from the time of surgery for recurrence to last follow-up. Survival was estimated using Kaplan-Meier methods. Differences in survival were analyzed using the log-rank test. The Fisher's exact test was used to compare optimal versus suboptimal cytoreduction against possible predictive factors. Sixty-four patients were identified. Median age was 66 years. Recurrences were multiple in 38 % of the cases. Optimal cytoreduction was achieved in 65.6 %. Median OR time was 165 min, median postoperative hemoglobin drop was 2.4 g/dl, and median length hospital stay was 5.5 days. Eleven patients developed postoperative complications, but only four required surgical management. Estimated 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 42 and 19 % in optimally and suboptimally cytoreduced patients, respectively. At multivariate analysis, only residual disease was associated with PFS. Estimated 5-year overall survival (OS) was 60 and 30 % in optimally and suboptimally cytoreduced patients, respectively. At multivariate analysis, residual disease and histotype were associated with OS. At multivariate analysis, only performance status was associated with optimal cytoreduction. Secondary cytoreduction in endometrial cancer is associated with long PFS and OS. The only factors associated with improved long-term outcome are the absence of residual disease at the end of surgical resection and histotype.

  9. A Time Difference Method for Measurement of Phase Shift between Distributed Feedback Laser Diode (DFB-LD Output Wavelength and Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongning Liu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A time difference method to conveniently measure the phase shift between output wavelength and intensity of distributed feedback laser diodes (DFB-LDs was proposed. This approach takes advantage of asymmetric absorption positions at the same wavelength during wavelength increase and decrease tuning processes in the intensity-time curve by current modulation. For its practical implementation, a measurement example of phase shift was demonstrated by measuring a time difference between the first time and the second time attendances of the same gas absorption line in the intensity-time curve during one sine or triangle modulation circle. The phase shifts at modulation frequencies ranging from 50 Hz to 50 kHz were measured with a resolution of 0.001π. As the modulation frequency increased the shift value increased with a slowed growth rate.

  10. Time shift in slope failure prediction between unimodal and bimodal modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciervo, Fabio; Casini, Francesca; Nicolina Papa, Maria; Medina, Vicente

    2016-04-01

    Together with the need to use more appropriate mathematical expressions for describing hydro-mechanical soil processes, a challenge issue relates to the need of considering the effects induced by terrain heterogeneities on the physical mechanisms, taking into account the implications of the heterogeneities in affecting time-dependent hydro-mechanical variables, would improve the prediction capacities of models, such as the ones used in early warning systems. The presence of the heterogeneities in partially-saturated slopes results in irregular propagation of the moisture and suction front. To mathematically represent the "dual-implication" generally induced by the heterogeneities in describing the hydraulic terrain behavior, several bimodal hydraulic models have been presented in literature and replaced the conventional sigmoidal/unimodal functions; this presupposes that the scale of the macrostructure is comparable with the local scale (Darcy scale), thus the Richards' model can be assumed adequate to mathematically reproduce the processes. The purpose of this work is to focus on the differences in simulating flow infiltration processes and slope stability conditions originated from preliminary choices of hydraulic models and contextually between different approaches to evaluate the factor of safety (FoS). In particular, the results of two approaches are compared. The first one includes the conventional expression of the FoS under saturated conditions and the widespread used hydraulic model of van Genuchten-Mualem. The second approach includes a generalized FoS equation for infinite-slope model under variably saturated soil conditions (Lu and Godt, 2008) and the bimodal Romano et al.'s (2011) functions to describe the hydraulic response. The extension of the above mentioned approach to the bimodal context is based on an analytical method to assess the effects of the hydraulic properties on soil shear developed integrating a bimodal lognormal hydraulic function

  11. Time- and depth-wise trophic niche shifts in Antarctic benthos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Calizza

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to affect resource-consumer interactions underlying stability in polar food webs. Polar benthic organisms have adapted to the marked seasonality characterising their habitats by concentrating foraging and reproductive activity in summer months, when inputs from sympagic and pelagic producers increase. While this enables the persistence of biodiverse food webs, the mechanisms underlying changes in resource use and nutrient transfer are poorly understood. Thus, our understanding of how temporal and spatial variations in the supply of resources may affect food web structure and functioning is limited. By means of C and N isotopic analyses of two key Antarctic benthic consumers (Adamussium colbecki, Bivalvia, and Sterechinus neumayeri, Echinoidea and Bayesian mixing models, we describe changes in trophic niche and nutrient transfer across trophic levels associated with the long- and short-term diet and body size of specimens sampled in midsummer in both shallow and deep waters. Samplings occurred soon after the sea-ice broke up at Tethys Bay, an area characterised by extreme seasonality in sea-ice coverage and productivity in the Ross Sea. In the long term, the trophic niche was broader and variation between specimens was greater, with intermediate-size specimens generally consuming a higher number of resources than small and large specimens. The coupling of energy channels in the food web was consequently more direct than in the short term. Sediment and benthic algae were more frequently consumed in the long term, before the sea-ice broke up, while consumers specialised on sympagic algae and plankton in the short term. Regardless of the time scale, sympagic algae were more frequently consumed in shallow waters, while plankton was more frequently consumed in deep waters. Our results suggest a strong temporal relationship between resource availability and the trophic niche of benthic consumers in Antarctica. Potential

  12. Time- and depth-wise trophic niche shifts in Antarctic benthos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calizza, Edoardo; Careddu, Giulio; Sporta Caputi, Simona; Rossi, Loreto; Costantini, Maria Letizia

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is expected to affect resource-consumer interactions underlying stability in polar food webs. Polar benthic organisms have adapted to the marked seasonality characterising their habitats by concentrating foraging and reproductive activity in summer months, when inputs from sympagic and pelagic producers increase. While this enables the persistence of biodiverse food webs, the mechanisms underlying changes in resource use and nutrient transfer are poorly understood. Thus, our understanding of how temporal and spatial variations in the supply of resources may affect food web structure and functioning is limited. By means of C and N isotopic analyses of two key Antarctic benthic consumers (Adamussium colbecki, Bivalvia, and Sterechinus neumayeri, Echinoidea) and Bayesian mixing models, we describe changes in trophic niche and nutrient transfer across trophic levels associated with the long- and short-term diet and body size of specimens sampled in midsummer in both shallow and deep waters. Samplings occurred soon after the sea-ice broke up at Tethys Bay, an area characterised by extreme seasonality in sea-ice coverage and productivity in the Ross Sea. In the long term, the trophic niche was broader and variation between specimens was greater, with intermediate-size specimens generally consuming a higher number of resources than small and large specimens. The coupling of energy channels in the food web was consequently more direct than in the short term. Sediment and benthic algae were more frequently consumed in the long term, before the sea-ice broke up, while consumers specialised on sympagic algae and plankton in the short term. Regardless of the time scale, sympagic algae were more frequently consumed in shallow waters, while plankton was more frequently consumed in deep waters. Our results suggest a strong temporal relationship between resource availability and the trophic niche of benthic consumers in Antarctica. Potential climate-driven changes

  13. Novel Robust Optimization and Power Allocation of Time Reversal-MIMO-UWB Systems in an Imperfect CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Alizadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Time Reversal (TR technique is an attractive solution for a scenario where the transmission system employs low complexity receivers with multiple antennas at both transmitter and receiver sides. The TR technique can be combined with a high data rate MIMO-UWB system as TR-MIMO-UWB system. In spite of TR's good performance in MIMO-UWB systems, it suffers from performance degradation in an imperfect Channel State Information (CSI case. In this paper, at first a robust TR pre-filter is designed together with a MMSE equalizer in TR-MIMO-UWB system where is robust against channel imperfection conditions. We show that the robust pre-filter optimization technique, considerably improves the BER performance of TR-MIMO-UWB system in imperfect CSI, where temporal focusing of the TR technique is kept, especially for high SNR values. Then, in order to improve the system performance more than ever, a power loading scheme is developed by minimizing the average symbol error rate in an imperfect CSI. Numerical and simulation results are presented to confirm the performance advantage attained by the proposed robust optimization and power loading in an imperfect CSI scenario.

  14. Is it time for a paradigm shift in understanding embryo selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleicher, Norbert; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H

    2015-01-11

    Embryo selection has been an integral feature of in vitro fertilization (IVF) almost since its inception. Since the advent of extended blastocyst stage embryo culture, and especially with increasing popularity of elective single embryo transfer (eSET), the concept of embryo selection has increasingly become a mainstay of routine IVF. We here, however, argue that embryo selection via blastocyst stage embryo transfer (BSET), as currently practiced, at best improves IVF outcomes only for a small minority of patients undergoing IVF cycles. For a large majority BSET is either ineffective or, indeed, may actually be harmful by decreasing IVF pregnancy chances. Overall, only a small minority of patients, thus, benefit from prolonged embryo culture, while BSET, as a tool to enhance IVF outcomes, is increasingly utilized as routine care in IVF for all patients. Since newer methods of embryo selection, like preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) and closed system embryo incubation with time-lapse photography are practically dependent on BSET, these concepts of embryo selection, currently increasingly adopted in mainstream IVF, require reconsideration. They, automatically, transfer the downsides of BSET, including decreases in IVF pregnancy chances in some patients, to these new procedures, and in addition raise serious questions about cost-effectiveness.

  15. The Specific Features of the Contemporary Russian Foreign Energy Policy Shift in Modern Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor S. Leonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been brewing up a necessity in Russia to change direction of its external energy policy radically as a result of unconstructive and hugely politically charged approach of the EU - main and traditional partner of Russia - to settlement of fundamental issues in bilateral cooperation. First of all this refers to failed efforts to create regional energy security system, based on respective institutions and legal framework, by reason of unwillingness of the EU to respect the Russian standpoint as an exporter of energy resources. As a result, there is a legal vacuum today in energy cooperation between Russia and the EU, which they failed to fill. The current political crisis in Europe, which is caused by accession of the Republic of Crimea to the Russian Federation and events in Ukraine, has aggravated long-standing problems of energy partnership EU-Russia. At the same time active EU policy on diversification of energy sources and supply routes discredits peculiar role of Russia as EU key energy supplier. These factors have triggered a significant revision of Russian interests in favor of eastern direction. A new promising contract with China on 21 May 2014 and memorandum with Turkey on 1 December 2014 are the milestones of the present Russian eastern policy. Both contracts can disrupt power balance on the global energy market. The article deals with background and causes for the present Russian eastern activity.

  16. Sleep length and quality, sleepiness and urinary melatonin among healthy Danish nurses with shift work during work and leisure time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hansen, Johnni

    2009-01-01

    Sleep problems are common effects of shift work. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how different types of shift affect sleep and sleepiness, and to relate sleepiness to urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin....

  17. [Working time and sleep in nursing staff employed in "3 x 8" and "2 x 12" fast rotating shift schedules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellini, G; Anelli, M M; Punzi, S; Boari, P; Camerino, D; Costa, G

    2011-01-01

    The study is aimed at assessing, in 200 nurses shift workers, the impact on sleep of two different working areas ("emergency" and "hospitalization") having the same "3 x 8" shift system, and of two different shift schedules at quick rotation ("2 x 12" and "3 x 8") in the same working area ("emergency"). Night and morning shifts prove to interfere to a greater extent with sleep in relation to both "2 x 12" and "3 x 8" shift systems as well as to the two operative areas. Hence the importance to consider in shift work planning, the direction of shift rotation and the length of the duty period according to the type of activity.

  18. Real-time pure shift {sup 15}N HSQC of proteins: a real improvement in resolution and sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiraly, Peter; Adams, Ralph W.; Paudel, Liladhar; Foroozandeh, Mohammadali [University of Manchester, School of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Aguilar, Juan A. [Durham University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Timári, István [University of Debrecen, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry (Hungary); Cliff, Matthew J. [University of Manchester, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology (United Kingdom); Nilsson, Mathias [University of Manchester, School of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Sándor, Péter [Agilent Technologies R& D and Marketing GmbH & Co. KG (Germany); Batta, Gyula [University of Debrecen, Department of Organic Chemistry (Hungary); Waltho, Jonathan P. [University of Manchester, Manchester Institute of Biotechnology (United Kingdom); Kövér, Katalin E. [University of Debrecen, Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry (Hungary); Morris, Gareth A., E-mail: g.a.morris@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, School of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    Spectral resolution in proton NMR spectroscopy is reduced by the splitting of resonances into multiplets due to the effect of homonuclear scalar couplings. Although these effects are often hidden in protein NMR spectroscopy by low digital resolution and routine apodization, behind the scenes homonuclear scalar couplings increase spectral overcrowding. The possibilities for biomolecular NMR offered by new pure shift NMR methods are illustrated here. Both resolution and sensitivity are improved, without any increase in experiment time. In these experiments, free induction decays are collected in short bursts of data acquisition, with durations short on the timescale of J-evolution, interspersed with suitable refocusing elements. The net effect is real-time (t{sub 2}) broadband homodecoupling, suppressing the multiplet structure caused by proton–proton interactions. The key feature of the refocusing elements is that they discriminate between the resonances of active (observed) and passive (coupling partner) spins. This can be achieved either by using band-selective refocusing or by the BIRD element, in both cases accompanied by a nonselective 180° proton pulse. The latter method selects the active spins based on their one-bond heteronuclear J-coupling to {sup 15}N, while the former selects a region of the {sup 1}H spectrum. Several novel pure shift experiments are presented, and the improvements in resolution and sensitivity they provide are evaluated for representative samples: the N-terminal domain of PGK; ubiquitin; and two mutants of the small antifungal protein PAF. These new experiments, delivering improved sensitivity and resolution, have the potential to replace the current standard HSQC experiments.

  19. Analysis of positron annihilation lifetime data by numerical Laplace inversion: Corrections for source terms and zero-time shift errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    We have recently described modifications to the program CONTIN for the solution of Fredholm integral equations with convoluted kernels of the type that occur in the analysis of positron annihilation lifetime data. In this article, modifications to the program to correct for source terms in the sample and reference decay curves and for shifts in the position of the zero-time channel of the sample and reference data are described. Unwanted source components, expressed as a discrete sum of exponentials, may be removed from both the sample and reference data by modification of the sample data alone, without the need for direct knowledge of the instrument resolution function. Shifts in the position of the zero-time channel of up to half the channel width of the multichannel analyzer can be corrected. Analyses of computer-simulated test data indicate that the quality of the reconstructed annihilation rate probability density functions is improved by employing a refernce material with a short lifetime and indicate that reference materials which generate free positrons by quenching positronium formation (i.e. strong oxidizing agents) have lifetimes that are too long (400-450 ps) to provide reliable estimates of the lifetime parameters for the shortlived components with the methods described here. Well-annealed single crystals of metals with lifetimes less than 200 ps, such as molybdenum (123 ps) and aluminium (166 ps) do not introduce significant errors in estimates of the lifetime parameters and are to be preferred as reference materials. The performance of our modified version of CONTIN is illustrated by application to positron annihilation in polytetrafluoroethylene. (orig.)

  20. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomph, Tjeerd Jan; Jiang, Wen; Van Der Putten, Peter E. L.; Struik, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation and re-allocation in rice. Methods: Two solution culture experiments using 70Zn applications at different times during crop development and an experiment on within-grain distribution of Zn are reported. In addition, results from two earlier published experiments are re-analyzed and re-interpreted. Results: A budget analysis showed that plant zinc accumulation during grain filling was larger than zinc allocation to the grains. Isotope data showed that zinc taken up during grain filling was only partly transported directly to the grains and partly allocated to the leaves. Zinc taken up during grain filling and allocated to the leaves replaced zinc re-allocated from leaves to grains. Within the grains, no major transport barrier was observed between vascular tissue and endosperm. At low tissue Zn concentrations, rice plants maintained concentrations of about 20 mg Zn kg−1 dry matter in leaf blades and reproductive tissues, but let Zn concentrations in stems, sheath, and roots drop below this level. When plant zinc concentrations increased, Zn levels in leaf blades and reproductive tissues only showed a moderate increase while Zn levels in stems, roots, and sheaths increased much more and in that order. Conclusions: In rice, the major barrier to enhanced zinc allocation towards grains is between stem and reproductive tissues. Enhancing root to shoot transfer will not contribute proportionally to grain zinc enhancement. PMID:24478788

  1. Decadal shifts in autumn migration timing by Pacific Arctic beluga whales are related to delayed annual sea ice formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Donna D W; Laidre, Kristin L; Stafford, Kathleen M; Stern, Harry L; Suydam, Robert S; Richard, Pierre R

    2017-06-01

    Migrations are often influenced by seasonal environmental gradients that are increasingly being altered by climate change. The consequences of rapid changes in Arctic sea ice have the potential to affect migrations of a number of marine species whose timing is temporally matched to seasonal sea ice cover. This topic has not been investigated for Pacific Arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) that follow matrilineally maintained autumn migrations in the waters around Alaska and Russia. For the sympatric Eastern Chukchi Sea ('Chukchi') and Eastern Beaufort Sea ('Beaufort') beluga populations, we examined changes in autumn migration timing as related to delayed regional sea ice freeze-up since the 1990s, using two independent data sources (satellite telemetry data and passive acoustics) for both populations. We compared dates of migration between 'early' (1993-2002) and 'late' (2004-2012) tagging periods. During the late tagging period, Chukchi belugas had significantly delayed migrations (by 2 to >4 weeks, depending on location) from the Beaufort and Chukchi seas. Spatial analyses also revealed that departure from Beaufort Sea foraging regions by Chukchi whales was postponed in the late period. Chukchi beluga autumn migration timing occurred significantly later as regional sea ice freeze-up timing became later in the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering seas. In contrast, Beaufort belugas did not shift migration timing between periods, nor was migration timing related to freeze-up timing, other than for southward migration at the Bering Strait. Passive acoustic data from 2008 to 2014 provided independent and supplementary support for delayed migration from the Beaufort Sea (4 day yr -1 ) by Chukchi belugas. Here, we report the first phenological study examining beluga whale migrations within the context of their rapidly transforming Pacific Arctic ecosystem, suggesting flexible responses that may enable their persistence yet also complicate predictions of how

  2. Shift Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publications & News Shift Colors Pages default Sign In NPC Logo Banner : Shift Colors Search Navy Personnel Command > Reference Library > Publications & News > Shift Colors Top Link Bar Navy Personnel Library Expand Reference Library Quick Launch Shift Colors Shift Colors Archives Mailing Address How to

  3. Cost allocation review : staff discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This report addressed the need for updated cost allocation studies filed by local electricity distribution companies because they ensure that distribution rates for each customer class remain just and reasonable. According to the 2001 Electricity Distribution Rate Handbook, the Ontario Energy Board requires new cost allocation studies before implementing any future incentive regulation plans. A review of cost allocations allows the Board to consider the need for adjustments to the current share of distribution costs paid by different classes of ratepayers. This report included 14 sections to facilitate consultations with stakeholders on financial information requirements for cost allocation; directly assignable costs; functionalization; categorization; allocation methods; allocation of other costs; load data requirements; cost allocation implementation issues; addition of new rate class and rate design for scattered unmetered loads; addition of new rate class for larger users; rates to charge embedded distributors; treatment of the rate sub-classification identified as time-of-use; and, rate design implementation issues. 1 fig., 7 appendices

  4. Shifts in Arctic phenology in response to climate and anthropogenic factors as detected from multiple satellite time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Heqing; Jia, Gensuo; Forbes, Bruce C

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce the uncertainties in remotely sensed detection of phenological shifts of high latitude ecosystems in response to climate changes in past decades. In this study, vegetation phenology in western Arctic Russia (the Yamal Peninsula) was investigated by analyzing and comparing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) during the decade 2000–2010. The spatial patterns of key phenological parameters were highly heterogeneous along the latitudinal gradients based on multi-satellite data. There was earlier SOS (start of the growing season), later EOS (end of the growing season), longer LOS (length of the growing season), and greater MaxNDVI from north to south in the region. The results based on MODIS and VGT data showed similar trends in phenological changes from 2000 to 2010, while quite a different trend was found based on AVHRR data from 2000 to 2008. A significantly delayed EOS (p < 0.01), thus increasing the LOS, was found from AVHRR data, while no similar trends were detected from MODIS and VGT data. There were no obvious shifts in MaxNDVI during the last decade. MODIS and VGT data were considered to be preferred data for monitoring vegetation phenology in northern high latitudes. Temperature is still a key factor controlling spatial phenological gradients and variability, while anthropogenic factors (reindeer husbandry and resource exploitation) might explain the delayed SOS in southern Yamal. Continuous environmental damage could trigger a positive feedback to the delayed SOS. (letter)

  5. Rotavirus genotype shifts among Swedish children and adults-Application of a real-time PCR genotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Maria; Lindh, Magnus

    2017-11-01

    It is well known that human rotavirus group A is the most important cause of severe diarrhoea in infants and young children. Less is known about rotavirus infections in other age groups, and about how rotavirus genotypes change over time in different age groups. Develop a real-time PCR to easily genotype rotavirus strains in order to monitor the pattern of circulating genotypes. In this study, rotavirus strains in clinical samples from children and adults in Western Sweden during 2010-2014 were retrospectively genotyped by using specific amplification of VP 4 and VP 7 genes with a new developed real-rime PCR. A genotype was identified in 97% of 775 rotavirus strains. G1P[8] was the most common genotype representing 34.9%, followed by G2P[4] (28.3%), G9P[8] (11.5%), G3P[8] (8.1%), and G4P[8] (7.9%) The genotype distribution changed over time, from predominance of G1P[8] in 2010-2012 to predominance of G2P[4] in 2013-2014. There were also age-related differences, with G1P[8] being the most common genotype in children under 2 years (47.6%), and G2P[4] the most common in those over 70 years of age (46.1%.). The shift to G2P[4] in 2013-2014 was associated with a change in the age distribution, with a greater number of rotavirus positive cases in elderly than in children. By using a new real-time PCR method for genotyping we found that genotype distribution was age related and changed over time with a decreasing proportion of G1P[8]. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The dissimilar time course of temporary threshold shifts and reduction of inhibition in the inferior colliculus following intense sound exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeringa, A. N.; van Dijk, P.

    Excessive noise exposure is known to produce an auditory threshold shift, which can be permanent or transient in nature. Recent studies showed that noise-induced temporary threshold shifts are associated with loss of synaptic connections to the inner hair cells and with cochlear nerve degeneration,

  7. A Receiver for Differential Space-Time -Shifted BPSK Modulation Based on Scalar-MSDD and the EM Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jae H

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the issue of blind detection of Alamouti-type differential space-time (ST modulation in static Rayleigh fading channels. We focus our attention on a -shifted BPSK constellation, introducing a novel transformation to the received signal such that this binary ST modulation, which has a second-order transmit diversity, is equivalent to QPSK modulation with second-order receive diversity. This equivalent representation allows us to apply a low-complexity detection technique specifically designed for receive diversity, namely, scalar multiple-symbol differential detection (MSDD. To further increase receiver performance, we apply an iterative expectation-maximization (EM algorithm which performs joint channel estimation and sequence detection. This algorithm uses minimum mean square estimation to obtain channel estimates and the maximum-likelihood principle to detect the transmitted sequence, followed by differential decoding. With receiver complexity proportional to the observation window length, our receiver can achieve the performance of a coherent maximal ratio combining receiver (with differential decoding in as few as a single EM receiver iteration, provided that the window size of the initial MSDD is sufficiently long. To further demonstrate that the MSDD is a vital part of this receiver setup, we show that an initial ST conventional differential detector would lead to strange convergence behavior in the EM algorithm.

  8. Regime-Based Versus Static Asset Allocation: Letting the Data Speak

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrup, Peter; Hansen, Bo William; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Regime shifts present a big challenge to traditional strategic asset allocation. This article investigates whether regimebased asset allocation can effectively respond to changes in financial regimes at the portfolio level, in an effort to provide better long-term results than more static...... approaches can offer. The authors center their regime-based approach around a regime-switching model with time-varying parameters that can match financial markets’ tendency to change behavior abruptly and the fact that the new behavior often persists for several periods after a change. In an asset universe...

  9. Allocation Problems and Market Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    The thesis contains six independent papers with a common theme: Allocation problems and market design. The first paper is concerned with fair allocation of risk capital where independent autonomous subunits have risky activities and together constitute the entity's total risk, whose associated risk...... at a certain point in time involves countries that have excess demand and countries that have surplus of green energy. The problem addressed here is how the gains from trade ought to influence the way that members of the grid share common costs. The fifth paper extends the classical two-sided one...

  10. A Model-Based Approach to Infer Shifts in Regional Fire Regimes Over Time Using Sediment Charcoal Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itter, M.; Finley, A. O.; Hooten, M.; Higuera, P. E.; Marlon, J. R.; McLachlan, J. S.; Kelly, R.

    2016-12-01

    deposition rate exhibits changes over time coincident with major climatic and vegetation shifts over the past 10,000 years. Ongoing work will use the regional charcoal deposition rate to estimate changes in biomass burned as a function of climate variability and regional vegetation pattern.

  11. Two mechanisms of rephasal of circadian rhythms in response to a 180 deg phase shift /simulated 12-hr time zone change/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroshia, C. W.; Winget, C. M.; Bond, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    A model developed by Wever (1966) is considered. The model describes the behavior of circadian rhythms in response to photoperiod phase shifts simulating time zone changes, as a function of endogenous periodicity, light intensity, and direction of phase shift. A description is given of an investigation conducted to test the model upon the deep body temperature rhythm in unrestrained subhuman primates. An evaluation is conducted regarding the applicability of the model in predicting the type and duration of desynchronization induced by simulated time zone changes as a function of endogenous periodicity.

  12. A molecular genetic time scale demonstrates Cretaceous origins and multiple diversification rate shifts within the order Galliformes (Aves).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R Will; Brown, Joseph W; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2015-11-01

    The phylogeny of Galliformes (landfowl) has been studied extensively; however, the associated chronologies have been criticized recently due to misplaced or misidentified fossil calibrations. As a consequence, it is unclear whether any crown-group lineages arose in the Cretaceous and survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg; 65.5 Ma) mass extinction. Using Bayesian phylogenetic inference on an alignment spanning 14,539 bp of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequence data, four fossil calibrations, and a combination of uncorrelated lognormally distributed relaxed-clock and strict-clock models, we inferred a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny for 225 of the 291 extant Galliform taxa. These analyses suggest that crown Galliformes diversified in the Cretaceous and that three-stem lineages survived the K-Pg mass extinction. Ideally, characterizing the tempo and mode of diversification involves a taxonomically complete phylogenetic hypothesis. We used simple constraint structures to incorporate 66 data-deficient taxa and inferred the first taxon-complete phylogenetic hypothesis for the Galliformes. Diversification analyses conducted on 10,000 timetrees sampled from the posterior distribution of candidate trees show that the evolutionary history of the Galliformes is best explained by a rate-shift model including 1-3 clade-specific increases in diversification rate. We further show that the tempo and mode of diversification in the Galliformes conforms to a three-pulse model, with three-stem lineages arising in the Cretaceous and inter and intrafamilial diversification occurring after the K-Pg mass extinction, in the Paleocene-Eocene (65.5-33.9 Ma) or in association with the Eocene-Oligocene transition (33.9 Ma). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Climate regime shifts in paleoclimate time series from the Yucatán Peninsula: from the Preclassic to Classic period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanco Martínez, Josue M.; Medina-Elizalde, Martin; Burns, Stephen J.; Jiang, Xiuyang; Shen, Chuan-Chou

    2015-04-01

    It has been widely accepted by the paleoclimate and archaeology communities that extreme climate events (especially droughts) and past climate change played an important role in the cultural changes that occurred in at least some parts of the Maya Lowlands, from the Pre-Classic (2000 BC to 250 AD) to Post-Classic periods (1000 to 1521 AD) [1, 2]. In particular, a large number of studies suggest that the decline of the Maya civilization in the Terminal Classic Period was greatly influenced by prolonged severe drought events that probably triggered significant societal disruptions [1, 3, 4, 5]. Going further on these issues, the aim of this work is to detect climate regime shifts in several paleoclimate time series from the Yucatán Peninsula (México) that have been used as rainfall proxies [3, 5, 6, 7]. In order to extract information from the paleoclimate data studied, we have used a change point method [8] as implemented in the R package strucchange, as well as the RAMFIT method [9]. The preliminary results show for all the records analysed a prominent regime shift between 400 to 200 BCE (from a noticeable increase to a remarkable fall in precipitation), which is strongest in the recently obtained stalagmite (Itzamna) delta18-O precipitation record [7]. References [1] Gunn, J. D., Matheny, R. T., Folan, W. J., 2002. Climate-change studies in the Maya area. Ancient Mesoamerica, 13(01), 79-84. [2] Yaeger, J., Hodell, D. A., 2008. The collapse of Maya civilization: assessing the interaction of culture, climate, and environment. El Niño, Catastrophism, and Culture Change in Ancient America, 197-251. [3] Hodell, D. A., Curtis, J. H., Brenner, M., 1995. Possible role of climate in the collapse of Classic Maya civilization. Nature, 375(6530), 391-394. [4] Aimers, J., Hodell, D., 2011. Societal collapse: Drought and the Maya. Nature 479(7371), 44-45 (2011). [5] Medina-Elizalde, M., Rohling, E. J., 2012. Collapse of Classic Maya civilization related to modest reduction

  14. Worst-case analysis of heap allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Huber, Benedikt; Schoeberl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    the worst-case heap allocations of tasks. The analysis builds upon techniques that are well established for worst-case execution time analysis. The difference is that the cost function is not the execution time of instructions in clock cycles, but the allocation in bytes. In contrast to worst-case execution...... time analysis, worst-case heap allocation analysis is not processor dependent. However, the cost function depends on the object layout of the runtime system. The analysis is evaluated with several real-time benchmarks to establish the usefulness of the analysis, and to compare the memory consumption...

  15. No Escaping the Rat Race: Simulated Night Shift Work Alters the Time-of-Day Variation in BMAL1 Translational Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Andrea R; Patil, Sudarshan; Mrdalj, Jelena; Meerlo, Peter; Skrede, Silje; Pallesen, Ståle; Pedersen, Torhild T; Bramham, Clive R; Grønli, Janne

    2017-01-01

    Millions of people worldwide work during the night, resulting in disturbed circadian rhythms and sleep loss. This may cause deficits in cognitive functions, impaired alertness and increased risk of errors and accidents. Disturbed circadian rhythmicity resulting from night shift work could impair brain function and cognition through disrupted synthesis of proteins involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal function. Recently, the circadian transcription factor brain-and-muscle arnt-like protein 1 (BMAL1) has been identified as a promoter of mRNA translation initiation, the most highly regulated step in protein synthesis, through binding to the mRNA "cap". In this study we investigated the effects of simulated shift work on protein synthesis markers. Male rats ( n = 40) were exposed to forced activity, either in their rest phase (simulated night shift work) or in their active phase (simulated day shift work) for 3 days. Following the third work shift, experimental animals and time-matched undisturbed controls were euthanized (rest work at ZT12; active work at ZT0). Tissue lysates from two brain regions (prefrontal cortex, PFC and hippocampus) implicated in cognition and sleep loss, were analyzed with m 7 GTP (cap) pull-down to examine time-of-day variation and effects of simulated shift work on cap-bound protein translation. The results show time-of-day variation of protein synthesis markers in PFC, with increased protein synthesis at ZT12. In the hippocampus there was little difference between ZT0 and ZT12. Active phase work did not induce statistically significant changes in protein synthesis markers at ZT0 compared to time-matched undisturbed controls. Rest work, however, resulted in distinct brain-region specific changes of protein synthesis markers compared to time-matched controls at ZT12. While no changes were observed in the hippocampus, phosphorylation of cap-bound BMAL1 and its regulator S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1) was significantly reduced in the PFC

  16. No Escaping the Rat Race: Simulated Night Shift Work Alters the Time-of-Day Variation in BMAL1 Translational Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R. Marti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people worldwide work during the night, resulting in disturbed circadian rhythms and sleep loss. This may cause deficits in cognitive functions, impaired alertness and increased risk of errors and accidents. Disturbed circadian rhythmicity resulting from night shift work could impair brain function and cognition through disrupted synthesis of proteins involved in synaptic plasticity and neuronal function. Recently, the circadian transcription factor brain-and-muscle arnt-like protein 1 (BMAL1 has been identified as a promoter of mRNA translation initiation, the most highly regulated step in protein synthesis, through binding to the mRNA “cap”. In this study we investigated the effects of simulated shift work on protein synthesis markers. Male rats (n = 40 were exposed to forced activity, either in their rest phase (simulated night shift work or in their active phase (simulated day shift work for 3 days. Following the third work shift, experimental animals and time-matched undisturbed controls were euthanized (rest work at ZT12; active work at ZT0. Tissue lysates from two brain regions (prefrontal cortex, PFC and hippocampus implicated in cognition and sleep loss, were analyzed with m7GTP (cap pull-down to examine time-of-day variation and effects of simulated shift work on cap-bound protein translation. The results show time-of-day variation of protein synthesis markers in PFC, with increased protein synthesis at ZT12. In the hippocampus there was little difference between ZT0 and ZT12. Active phase work did not induce statistically significant changes in protein synthesis markers at ZT0 compared to time-matched undisturbed controls. Rest work, however, resulted in distinct brain-region specific changes of protein synthesis markers compared to time-matched controls at ZT12. While no changes were observed in the hippocampus, phosphorylation of cap-bound BMAL1 and its regulator S6 kinase beta-1 (S6K1 was significantly reduced in

  17. Fluxing as a new tool for bitumen rheological characterization and the use of time-concentration shift factor (ac)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zoorob, SE

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available he concept of temperature shift factor (aT) as defined by Doolittle, relating the free volume of a viscoelastic material at the current and reference states is briefly examined together with the resultant William-Landel-Ferry equation. This paper...

  18. Intrafractional Baseline Shift or Drift of Lung Tumor Motion During Gated Radiation Therapy With a Real-Time Tumor-Tracking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Seishin; Miyamoto, Naoki; Matsuura, Taeko; Onimaru, Rikiya; Katoh, Norio; Inoue, Tetsuya; Sutherland, Kenneth Lee; Suzuki, Ryusuke; Shirato, Hiroki; Shimizu, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the frequency and amplitude of baseline shift or drift (shift/drift) of lung tumors in stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), using a real-time tumor-tracking radiation therapy (RTRT) system. Methods and Materials: Sixty-eight patients with peripheral lung tumors were treated with SBRT using the RTRT system. One of the fiducial markers implanted near the tumor was used for the real-time monitoring of the intrafractional tumor motion every 0.033 seconds by the RTRT system. When baseline shift/drift is determined by the system, the position of the treatment couch is adjusted to compensate for the shift/drift. Therefore, the changes in the couch position correspond to the baseline shift/drift in the tumor motion. The frequency and amount of adjustment to the couch positions in the left-right (LR), cranio-caudal (CC), and antero-posterior (AP) directions have been analyzed for 335 fractions administered to 68 patients. Results: The average change in position of the treatment couch during the treatment time was 0.45 ± 2.23 mm (mean ± standard deviation), −1.65 ± 5.95 mm, and 1.50 ± 2.54 mm in the LR, CC, and AP directions, respectively. Overall the baseline shift/drift occurs toward the cranial and posterior directions. The incidence of baseline shift/drift exceeding 3 mm was 6.0%, 15.5%, 14.0%, and 42.1% for the LR, CC, AP, and for the square-root of sum of 3 directions, respectively, within 10 minutes of the start of treatment, and 23.0%, 37.6%, 32.5%, and 71.6% within 30 minutes. Conclusions: Real-time monitoring and frequent adjustments of the couch position and/or adding appropriate margins are suggested to be essential to compensate for possible underdosages due to baseline shift/drift in SBRT for lung cancers.

  19. Building on transformative learning and response shift theory to investigate health-related quality of life changes over time in individuals with chronic health conditions and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay-Goddard, Ruth; King, Judy; Dubouloz, Claire-Jehanne; Schwartz, Carolyn E

    2012-02-01

    A major goal of treatment for people living with chronic illness or disability is self-management leading to optimized health-related quality of life. This change process has been described in the adult education literature as transformative learning, while in health-related quality of life research, response shift has emerged as a key concept. Response shift and transformative learning literature were reviewed, and the theoretical frameworks of the 2 concepts were compared and contrasted. Response shift is described as a change in internal standards, values, or definition of a construct (eg, health-related quality of life) over time, commonly seen in individuals with chronic illness. In the context of chronic illness, transformative learning is described as a complex process of personal change including beliefs, feelings, knowledge, and values. Transformative learning is often triggered by the diagnosis of a chronic illness. This results in a critical reflection of taken-for-granted assumptions and leads to new ways of thinking, influencing personal changes in daily living. Comparing the models of response shift and transformative learning in chronic illness, the catalyst in response shift appears comparable with the trigger in transformational learning; mechanisms to process of changing; and perceived quality of life to outcomes. Both transformative learning and response shift have much to offer health care providers in understanding the learning process for the person living with chronic illness or disability to optimize their quality of life. Suggestions for future research in response shift and transformative learning in individuals with chronic health conditions and disability are proposed. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The dissimilar time course of temporary threshold shifts and reduction of inhibition in the inferior colliculus following intense sound exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeringa, A N; van Dijk, P

    2014-06-01

    Excessive noise exposure is known to produce an auditory threshold shift, which can be permanent or transient in nature. Recent studies showed that noise-induced temporary threshold shifts are associated with loss of synaptic connections to the inner hair cells and with cochlear nerve degeneration, which is reflected in a decreased amplitude of wave I of the auditory brainstem response (ABR). This suggests that, despite normal auditory thresholds, central auditory processing may be abnormal. We recorded changes in central auditory processing following a sound-induced temporary threshold shift. Anesthetized guinea pigs were exposed for 1 h to a pure tone of 11 kHz (124 dB sound pressure level). Hearing thresholds, amplitudes of ABR waves I and IV, and spontaneous and tone-evoked firing rates in the inferior colliculus (IC) were assessed immediately, one week, two weeks, and four weeks post exposure. Hearing thresholds were elevated immediately following overexposure, but recovered within one week. The amplitude of the ABR wave I was decreased in all sound-exposed animals for all test periods. In contrast, the ABR wave IV amplitude was only decreased immediately after overexposure and recovered within a week. The proportion of IC units that show inhibitory responses to pure tones decreased substantially up to two weeks after overexposure, especially when stimulated with high frequencies. The proportion of excitatory responses to low frequencies was increased. Spontaneous activity was unaffected by the overexposure. Despite rapid normalization of auditory thresholds, our results suggest an increased central gain following sound exposure and an abnormal balance between excitatory and inhibitory responses in the midbrain up to two weeks after overexposure. These findings may be associated with hyperacusis after a sound-induced temporary threshold shift. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk capital allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    Risk capital allocation problems have been widely discussed in the academic literature. We consider a company with multiple subunits having individual portfolios. Hence, when portfolios of subunits are merged, a diversification benefit arises: the risk of the company as a whole is smaller than...... the sum of the risks of the individual sub-units. The question is how to allocate the risk capital of the company among the subunits in a fair way. In this paper we propose to use the Lorenz set as an allocation method. We show that the Lorenz set is operational and coherent. Moreover, we propose a set...... of new axioms related directly to the problem of risk capital allocation and show that the Lorenz set satisfies these new axioms in contrast to other well-known coherent methods. Finally, we discuss how to deal with non-uniqueness of the Lorenz set....

  2. CPD Allocations and Awards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The CPD Allocation and Award database provides filterable on-screen and exportable reports on select programs, such as the Community Development Block Grant Program,...

  3. Does modifying the timing of meal intake improve cardiovascular risk factors? Protocol of an Australian pilot intervention in night shift workers with abdominal obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Maxine P; Leung, Gloria K W; Davis, Rochelle; Sletten, Tracey L; Murgia, Chiara; Young, Morag J; Eikelis, Nina; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Huggins, Catherine E

    2018-03-14

    Shift work is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Shift workers who are awake overnight and sleep during the day are misaligned with their body's endogenous circadian rhythm. Eating at night contributes to this increased risk of CVD by forcing the body to actively break down and process nutrients at night. This pilot study aims to determine whether altering meal timing overnight, in a shift working population, will impact favourably on modifiable risk factors for CVD (postprandial bplasma lipids and glucose concentration). A randomised cross-over study with two 4-week test periods, separated by a minimum of a 2-week washout will be undertaken. The effectiveness of redistributing energy intake overnight versus ad libitum eating patterns on CVD risk factors will be examined in night shift workers (n=20), using a standard acute test meal challenge protocol. Primary outcomes (postprandial lipids and glucose) will be compared between the two conditions: post-intervention and post-control period using analysis of variance. Potential effect size estimates to inform sample size calculations for a main trial will also be generated. Ethics approval has been granted by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (2017-8619-10329). Outcomes from this study will determine whether eliminating food intake for a defined period at night (1-6 am) impacts favourably on metabolic risk factors for CVD in night shift workers. Collective results from this novel trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, and national and international presentations. The results are essential to inform health promotion policies and guidelines for shift workers, especially those who aim to improve their metabolic health. ACTRN12617000791336; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Efficient Metropolitan Resource Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Arnott

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years Calgary has doubled in size, from a population of 640,645 in 1985 to 1,230,915 in 2015. During that time the City has had five different mayors, hosted the Winter Olympics, and expanded the C-Train from 25 platforms to 45. Calgary’s Metropolitan Area has grown too, with Airdrie, Chestermere, Okotoks and Cochrane growing into full-fledged cities, ripe with inter-urban commuters.* And with changes to provincial legislation in the mid-’90s, rural Rocky View County and the Municipal District of Foothills are now real competitors for residential, commercial and industrial development that in the past would have been considered urban. In this metropolitan system, where people live, their household structure, and their place of work informs the services they need to conduct their daily lives, and directly impacts the spatial character of the City and the broader region. In sum, Metropolitan Calgary is increasingly complex. Calgary and the broader metropolitan area will continue to grow, even with the current economic slowdown. Frictions within Calgary, between the various municipalities in the metropolitan area, and the priorities of other local authorities (such as the School Boards and Alberta Health Services will continue to impact the agendas of local politicians and their ability to answer to the needs of their residents. How resources – whether it is hard infrastructure, affordable housing, classrooms, or hospital beds – are allocated over space and how these resources are funded, directly impacts these relationships. This technical paper provides my perspective as an urban economist on the efficient allocation of resources within a metropolitan system in general, with reference to Calgary where appropriate, and serves as a companion to the previously released “Reflections on Calgary’s Spatial Structure: An Urban Economists Critique of Municipal Planning in Calgary.” It is hoped that the concepts reviewed

  5. Shifting Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  6. Nineteenth century French rose (Rosa sp.) germplasm shows a shift over time from a European to an Asian genetic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liorzou, Mathilde; Pernet, Alix; Li, Shubin; Chastellier, Annie; Thouroude, Tatiana; Michel, Gilles; Malécot, Valéry; Gaillard, Sylvain; Briée, Céline; Foucher, Fabrice; Oghina-Pavie, Cristiana; Clotault, Jérémy; Grapin, Agnès

    2016-08-01

    Hybridization with introduced genetic resources is commonly practiced in ornamental plant breeding to introgress desired traits. The 19th century was a golden age for rose breeding in France. The objective here was to study the evolution of rose genetic diversity over this period, which included the introduction of Asian genotypes into Europe. A large sample of 1228 garden roses encompassing the conserved diversity cultivated during the 18th and 19th centuries was genotyped with 32 microsatellite primer pairs. Its genetic diversity and structure were clarified. Wide diversity structured in 16 genetic groups was observed. Genetic differentiation was detected between ancient European and Asian accessions, and a temporal shift from a European to an Asian genetic background was observed in cultivated European hybrids during the 19th century. Frequent crosses with Asian roses throughout the 19th century and/or selection for Asiatic traits may have induced this shift. In addition, the consistency of the results with respect to a horticultural classification is discussed. Some horticultural groups, defined according to phenotype and/or knowledge of their pedigree, seem to be genetically more consistent than others, highlighting the difficulty of classifying cultivated plants. Therefore, the horticultural classification is probably more appropriate for commercial purposes rather than genetic relatedness, especially to define preservation and breeding strategies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Constrained control allocation for systems with redundant control effectors

    OpenAIRE

    Bordignon, Kenneth A

    1996-01-01

    Control allocation is examined for linear time-invariant problems that have more controls than degrees of freedom. The controls are part of a physical system and are subject to limits on their maximum positions. A control allocation scheme commands control deflections in response to some desired output. The ability of a control allocation scheme to produce the desired output without violating the physical position constraints is used to compare allocation schemes. Methods are develop...

  8. Identifying Memory Allocation Patterns in HEP Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kama, S.; Rauschmayr, N.

    2017-10-01

    HEP applications perform an excessive amount of allocations/deallocations within short time intervals which results in memory churn, poor locality and performance degradation. These issues are already known for a decade, but due to the complexity of software frameworks and billions of allocations for a single job, up until recently no efficient mechanism has been available to correlate these issues with source code lines. However, with the advent of the Big Data era, many tools and platforms are now available to do large scale memory profiling. This paper presents, a prototype program developed to track and identify each single (de-)allocation. The CERN IT Hadoop cluster is used to compute memory key metrics, like locality, variation, lifetime and density of allocations. The prototype further provides a web based visualization back-end that allows the user to explore the results generated on the Hadoop cluster. Plotting these metrics for every single allocation over time gives a new insight into application’s memory handling. For instance, it shows which algorithms cause which kind of memory allocation patterns, which function flow causes how many short-lived objects, what are the most commonly allocated sizes etc. The paper will give an insight into the prototype and will show profiling examples for the LHC reconstruction, digitization and simulation jobs.

  9. A Timely shift from shotgun to targeted proteomics and how it can be groundbreaking for cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faria, Sara S.; Morris, Carlos F.M.; Silva, Adriano R.

    2017-01-01

    shifting potential of modern targeted proteomics applied to cancer research can be demonstrated by the large number of advancements and increasing examples of new and more useful biomarkers found during the course of this review in different aspects of cancer research. Out of the many studies dedicated...... to cancer biomarker discovery, we were able to devise some clear trends, such as the fact that breast cancer is the most common type of tumor studied and that most of the research for any given type of cancer is focused on the discovery diagnostic biomarkers, with the exception of those that rely on samples...... applicable results have called for the implementation of more direct, hypothesis-based studies such as those made available through targeted approaches, that might be able to streamline biomarker discovery and validation as a means to increase survivability of affected patients. In fact, the paradigm...

  10. The effect of real-time pricing on load shifting in a highly renewable power system dominated by generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Brown, Tom; Schlachtberger, David; Schramm, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The supply-demand imbalance is a major concern in the presence of large shares of highly variable renewable generation from sources like wind and photovoltaics (PV) in power systems. Other than the measures on the generation side, such as flexible backup generation or energy storage, sector coupling or demand side management are the most likely option to counter imbalances, therefore to ease the integration of renewable generation. Demand side management usually refers to load shifting, which comprises the reaction of electricity consumers to price fluctuations. In this work, we derive a novel methodology to model the interplay of load shifting and provided incentives via real-time pricing in highly renewable power systems. We use weather data to simulate generation from the renewable sources of wind and photovoltaics, as well as historical load data, split into different consumption categories, such as, heating, cooling, domestic, etc., to model a simplified power system. Together with renewable power forecast data, a simple market model and approaches to incorporate sector coupling [1] and load shifting [2,3], we model the interplay of incentives and load shifting for different scenarios (e.g., in dependency of the risk-aversion of consumers or the forecast horizon) and demonstrate the practical benefits of load shifting. First, we introduce the novel methodology and compare it with existing approaches. Secondly, we show results of numerical simulations on the effects of load shifting: It supports the integration of PV power by providing a storage, which characteristics can be described as "daily" and provides a significant amount of balancing potential. Lastly, we propose an experimental setup to obtain empirical data on end-consumer load-shifting behaviour in response to price incentives. References [1] Brown, T., Schlachtberger, D., Kies. A., Greiner, M., Sector coupling in a highly renewable European energy system, Proc. of the 15th International Workshop on

  11. Multimedia transmission in MC-CDMA using adaptive subcarrier power allocation and CFO compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, S.; Kumaratharan, N.

    2018-02-01

    Multicarrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) system is one of the most effective techniques in fourth-generation (4G) wireless technology, due to its high data rate, high spectral efficiency and resistance to multipath fading. However, MC-CDMA systems are greatly deteriorated by carrier frequency offset (CFO) which is due to Doppler shift and oscillator instabilities. It leads to loss of orthogonality among the subcarriers and causes intercarrier interference (ICI). Water filling algorithm (WFA) is an efficient resource allocation algorithm to solve the power utilisation problems among the subcarriers in time-dispersive channels. The conventional WFA fails to consider the effect of CFO. To perform subcarrier power allocation with reduced CFO and to improve the capacity of MC-CDMA system, residual CFO compensated adaptive subcarrier power allocation algorithm is proposed in this paper. The proposed technique allocates power only to subcarriers with high channel to noise power ratio. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated using random binary data and image as source inputs. Simulation results depict that the bit error rate performance and ICI reduction capability of the proposed modified WFA offered superior performance in both power allocation and image compression for high-quality multimedia transmission in the presence of CFO and imperfect channel state information conditions.

  12. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... auction, which is the multi unit analogue of a second-price auction. Furthermore, we characterize these equilibria when valuations take a number of different forms: diminishing marginal valuations, increasing average valuations, and marginal valuations with single turning points...

  13. Macroeconomic influences on optimal asset allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Flavin, Thomas; Wickens, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a tactical asset allocation strategy that incorporates the effects of macroeconomic variables. The joint distribution of financial asset returns and the macroeconomic variables is modelled using a VAR with a multivariate GARCH (M-GARCH) error structure. As a result, the portfolio frontier is time varying and subject to contagion from the macroeconomic variable. Optimal asset allocation requires that this be taken into account. We illustrate how to do this using three ri...

  14. Comparison of systems for memory allocation in the C programming language

    OpenAIRE

    Zavrtanik, Matej

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor thesis describes memory allocation. Work begins with description of mechanism, system calls and data structures used in memory allocators. Goals of memory allocation ares listed along with problems which must be avoided. Afterwards construction and allocating of popular memory allocators is described. Work ends with comparison of memory allocators based on time of execution of programs and memory usage, on which conclusion is based.

  15. Insomnia in shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallières, Annie; Azaiez, Aïda; Moreau, Vincent; LeBlanc, Mélanie; Morin, Charles M

    2014-12-01

    Shift work disorder involves insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness associated with the work schedule. The present study examined the impact of insomnia on the perceived physical and psychological health of adults working on night and rotating shift schedules compared to day workers. A total of 418 adults (51% women, mean age 41.4 years), including 51 night workers, 158 rotating shift workers, and 209 day workers were selected from an epidemiological study. An algorithm was used to classify each participant of the two groups (working night or rotating shifts) according to the presence or absence of insomnia symptoms. Each of these individuals was paired with a day worker according to gender, age, and income. Participants completed several questionnaires measuring sleep, health, and psychological variables. Night and rotating shift workers with insomnia presented a sleep profile similar to that of day workers with insomnia. Sleep time was more strongly related to insomnia than to shift work per se. Participants with insomnia in the three groups complained of anxiety, depression, and fatigue, and reported consuming equal amounts of sleep-aid medication. Insomnia also contributed to chronic pain and otorhinolaryngology problems, especially among rotating shift workers. Work productivity and absenteeism were more strongly related to insomnia. The present study highlights insomnia as an important component of the sleep difficulties experienced by shift workers. Insomnia may exacerbate certain physical and mental health problems of shift workers, and impair their quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of changes in saturation and pressure from 4D seismic AVO and time-shift analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trani, M.; Arts, R.; Leeuwenburgh, O.; Brouwer, J.

    2011-01-01

    A reliable estimate of reservoir pressure and fluid saturation changes from time-lapse seismic data is difficult to obtain. Existing methods generally suffer from leakage between the estimated parameters. We propose a new method using different combinations of time-lapse seismic attributes based on

  17. Energy shift and conduction-to-valence band transition mediated by a time-dependent potential barrier in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Andrey; da Costa, D. R.; de Sousa, G. O.; Pereira, J. M.; Farias, G. A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the scattering of a wave packet describing low-energy electrons in graphene by a time-dependent finite-step potential barrier. Our results demonstrate that, after Klein tunneling through the barrier, the electron acquires an extra energy which depends on the rate of change of the barrier height with time. If this rate is negative, the electron loses energy and ends up as a valence band state after leaving the barrier, which effectively behaves as a positively charged quasiparticle.

  18. Fund allocation using capacitated vehicle routing problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, Nur Jumaadzan Zaleha; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ahmad, Rokiah Rozita; Darus, Maslina

    2014-09-01

    In investment fund allocation, it is unwise for an investor to distribute his fund into several assets simultaneously due to economic reasons. One solution is to allocate the fund into a particular asset at a time in a sequence that will either maximize returns or minimize risks depending on the investor's objective. The vehicle routing problem (VRP) provides an avenue to this issue. VRP answers the question on how to efficiently use the available fleet of vehicles to meet a given service demand, subjected to a set of operational requirements. This paper proposes an idea of using capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) to optimize investment fund allocation by employing data of selected stocks in the FTSE Bursa Malaysia. Results suggest that CRVP can be applied to solve the issue of investment fund allocation and increase the investor's profit.

  19. Stacked search for time shifted high energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursts with the Antares neutrino telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M.; Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C.; Andre, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Eberl, T.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Fehn, K.; Folger, F.; Geisselsoeder, S.; Geyer, K.; Gleixner, A.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Tselengidou, M.; Wagner, S.; Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Mathieu, A.; Vallee, C.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J.; Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E.; Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A.; Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Michael, T.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Visser, E.; Bruijn, R.; Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Perrina, C.; Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Van Elewyck, V.; Dekeyser, I.; Lefevre, D.; Tamburini, C.; Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y.; Donzaud, C.; Dumas, A.; Gay, P.; Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M.; Mueller, C.; Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M.; Giordano, V.; Haren, H. van; Hugon, C.; Taiuti, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Marinelli, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Pradier, T.; Sanguineti, M.; Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Vallage, B.; Vivolo, D.

    2017-01-01

    A search for high-energy neutrino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts outside the electromagnetic prompt-emission time window is presented. Using a stacking approach of the time delays between reported gamma-ray burst alerts and spatially coincident muon-neutrino signatures, data from the Antares neutrino telescope recorded between 2007 and 2012 are analysed. One year of public data from the IceCube detector between 2008 and 2009 have been also investigated. The respective timing profiles are scanned for statistically significant accumulations within 40 days of the Gamma Ray Burst, as expected from Lorentz Invariance Violation effects and some astrophysical models. No significant excess over the expected accidental coincidence rate could be found in either of the two data sets. The average strength of the neutrino signal is found to be fainter than one detectable neutrino signal per hundred gamma-ray bursts in the Antares data at 90% confidence level. (orig.)

  20. Stacked search for time shifted high energy neutrinos from gamma ray bursts with the Antares neutrino telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ardid, M.; Felis, I.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Saldana, M. [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Gandia (Spain); Albert, A.; Drouhin, D.; Racca, C. [GRPHE-Institut Universitaire de Technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Anton, G.; Eberl, T.; Enzenhoefer, A.; Fehn, K.; Folger, F.; Geisselsoeder, S.; Geyer, K.; Gleixner, A.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; Hoessl, J.; Hofestaedt, J.; James, C.W.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kiessling, D.; Lahmann, R.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Tselengidou, M.; Wagner, S. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Aubert, J.J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Carr, J.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Dornic, D.; Mathieu, A.; Vallee, C. [CPPM, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, Marseille (France); Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Sanchez-Losa, A.; Toennis, C.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zuniga, J. [CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Basa, S.; Marcelin, M.; Nezri, E. [Pole de l' Etoile Site de Chateau-Gombert, LAM-Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Biagi, S.; Coniglione, R.; Distefano, C.; Piattelli, P.; Riccobene, G.; Sapienza, P.; Trovato, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Bormuth, R.; Jong, M. de; Samtleben, D.F.E. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Leiden, Leids Instituut voor Onderzoek in Natuurkunde, Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwhuis, M.C.; Heijboer, A.J.; Michael, T.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Visser, E. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bruijn, R. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Capone, A.; De Bonis, G.; Fermani, P.; Perrina, C. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita La Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Caramete, L.; Pavalas, G.E.; Popa, V. [Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Magurele (Romania); Chiarusi, T. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Circella, M. [INFN-Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Creusot, A.; Galata, S.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Van Elewyck, V. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Dekeyser, I.; Lefevre, D.; Tamburini, C. [Aix-Marseille University, Mediterranean Institute of Oceanography (MIO), Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Universite du Sud Toulon-Var, CNRS-INSU/IRD UM 110, La Garde Cedex (France); Deschamps, A.; Hello, Y. [Geoazur, Universite Nice Sophia-Antipolis, CNRS/INSU, IRD, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Sophia Antipolis (France); Donzaud, C. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Sud, Orsay Cedex (France); Dumas, A.; Gay, P. [Clermont Universite, Universite Blaise Pascal, CNRS/IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Corpusculaire, BP 10448, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Elsaesser, D.; Kadler, M.; Kreter, M.; Mueller, C. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Wuerzburg (Germany); Fusco, L.A.; Margiotta, A.; Pellegrino, C.; Spurio, M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Bologna (Italy); Giordano, V. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Haren, H. van [Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), ' t Horntje, Texel (Netherlands); Hugon, C.; Taiuti, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genoa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (Italy); Kooijman, P. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Universiteit Utrecht, Faculteit Betawetenschappen, Utrecht (Netherlands); Universiteit van Amsterdam, Instituut voor Hoge-Energie Fysica, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kouchner, A. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Institut Universitaire de France, Paris (France); Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J. [Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Dr. Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Bamberg (Germany); Kulikovskiy, V. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS), Catania (Italy); Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Leonora, E. [INFN-Sezione di Catania, Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita, Catania (Italy); Loucatos, S. [APC, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Marinelli, A. [INFN-Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Pisa (Italy); Migliozzi, P. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Moussa, A. [University Mohammed I, Laboratory of Physics of Matter and Radiations, Oujda (MA); Pradier, T. [Universite de Strasbourg et CNRS/IN2P3, IPHC-Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, Strasbourg Cedex 2 (FR); Sanguineti, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita, Genoa (IT); Schuessler, F.; Stolarczyk, T.; Vallage, B. [CEA Saclay, Direction des Sciences de la Matiere, Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers, Service de Physique des Particules, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (FR); Vivolo, D. [INFN-Sezione di Napoli, Naples (IT); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (IT)

    2017-01-15

    A search for high-energy neutrino emission correlated with gamma-ray bursts outside the electromagnetic prompt-emission time window is presented. Using a stacking approach of the time delays between reported gamma-ray burst alerts and spatially coincident muon-neutrino signatures, data from the Antares neutrino telescope recorded between 2007 and 2012 are analysed. One year of public data from the IceCube detector between 2008 and 2009 have been also investigated. The respective timing profiles are scanned for statistically significant accumulations within 40 days of the Gamma Ray Burst, as expected from Lorentz Invariance Violation effects and some astrophysical models. No significant excess over the expected accidental coincidence rate could be found in either of the two data sets. The average strength of the neutrino signal is found to be fainter than one detectable neutrino signal per hundred gamma-ray bursts in the Antares data at 90% confidence level. (orig.)

  1. Josephson shift registers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybysz, J.X.

    1989-01-01

    This paper gives a review of Josephson shift register circuits that were designed, fabricated, or tested, with emphasis on work in the 1980s. Operating speed is most important, since it often limits system performance. Older designs used square-wave clocks, but most modern designs use offset sine waves, with either two or three phases. Operating margins and gate bias uniformity are key concerns. The fastest measured Josephson shift register operated at 2.3 GHz, which compares well with a GaAs shift register that consumes 250 times more power. The difficulties of high-speed testing have prevented many Josephson shift registers from being operated at their highest speeds. Computer simulations suggest that 30-GHz operation is possible with current Nb/Al 2 O 3 /Nb technology. Junctions with critical current densities near 10 kA/cm 2 would make 100-GHz shift registers feasible

  2. Real-time vibration measurement by a spatial phase-shifting technique with a tilted holographic interferogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadate, S; Isshiki, M

    1997-01-01

    Real-time vibration measurement by a tilted holographic interferogram is presented that utilizes the real-time digital fringe processor of a video signal. Three intensity data sampled at every one-third of the fringe spacing of the tilted fringes are used to calculate the modulation term of the fringe that is a function of a vibration amplitude. A three-dimensional lookup table performs the calculation in a TV repetition rate to give a new fringe profile that contours the vibration amplitude. Vibration modes at the resonant frequencies of a flat speaker were displayed on a monitor as changing the exciting frequency of vibration.

  3. Time-varying volatility in Malaysian stock exchange: An empirical study using multiple-volatility-shift fractionally integrated model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Chin Wen

    2008-02-01

    This article investigated the influences of structural breaks on the fractionally integrated time-varying volatility model in the Malaysian stock markets which included the Kuala Lumpur composite index and four major sectoral indices. A fractionally integrated time-varying volatility model combined with sudden changes is developed to study the possibility of structural change in the empirical data sets. Our empirical results showed substantial reduction in fractional differencing parameters after the inclusion of structural change during the Asian financial and currency crises. Moreover, the fractionally integrated model with sudden change in volatility performed better in the estimation and specification evaluations.

  4. Plant diversity induces a shift of DOC concentration over time - results from long term and large scale experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Markus; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Plant diversity has been demonstrated as a crucial factor for soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. The horizontal SOC formation in turn is strongly impacted by the relative small but consistent flow of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soils. In this process, pore water leaches plant material and already stored SOC while simultaneously these leachates are transported downwards. However, there is a big uncertainty about the drivers of DOC flux; in particular about the importance of biological processes. We investigated the impact of plant diversity and other biotic drivers on DOC concentrations and total DOC fluxes (concentration × sampled water amount). In addition, we considered abiotic factors such as weather and soil conditions to assess the relative importance of biotic and abiotic drivers and how their importance changes over time. We used a comprehensive data set, gathered in the frame of the long-term biodiversity experiment "The Jena Experiment". Permanent monitoring started directly after establishment of the field site in 2002 and is still running. This enabled us to trace the impact of plant communities with their increasing establishment over the time on DOC concentration. We found the amount of sampled pore water best explained by rainfall, while it was not related to plant associated variables. Directly after establishing the experimental site, DOC concentrations were highest and then decreasing with time. In the first period of the experiment plant diversity had no or even a slightly negative impact on DOC concentrations. The direction of the plant diversity effect on DOC concentrations changed over time; namely in later phases we observed highest DOC concentrations on plots with high plant diversity. Moreover, DOC concentrations were negatively affected by increased amounts of sampled pore water indicating a dilution effect. Even though this impact was highly significant; its effect size was even less pronounced at later time points. In summary

  5. Market shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forst, Michael

    2013-11-01

    After years of oversupply and artificially low module pricing, market analysts believe that the solar industry will begin to stabilize by 2017. While the market activities are shifting from Europe to the Asia Pacific region and the United States, the solar shakeout continues to be in full swing including solar cell and module manufacturing. (orig.)

  6. Tough Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Holst, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    people to change their behavior at home. Leveraging prior research on encouraging reductions in residential energy use through game play, we introduce ShareBuddy: a casual mobile game intended to encourage players not only to reduce, but also to shift their electricity use. We conducted two field studies...... real-world resource use into a game....

  7. Impact of thermal time shift on wheat phenology and yield under warming climate in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dengpan; Qi, Yongqing; Li, Zhiqiang; Wang, Rende; Moiwo, Juana P.; Liu, Fengshan

    2017-03-01

    Given climate change can potentially influence crop phenology and subsequent yield, an investigation of relevant adaptation measures could increase the understanding and mitigation of these responses in the future. In this study, field observations at 10 stations in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China (HHHP) are used in combination with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Wheat model to determine the effect of thermal time shift on the phenology and potential yield of wheat from 1981-2009. Warming climate speeds up winter wheat development and thereby decreases the duration of the wheat growth period. However, APSIM-Wheat model simulation suggests prolongation of the period from flowering to maturity (Gr) of winter wheat by 0.2-0.8 d•10yr-1 as the number of days by which maturity advances, which is less than that by which flowering advances. Based on computed thermal time of the two critical growth phases of wheat, total thermal time from floral initiation to flowering (TT_floral_initiation) increasesd in seven out of the 10 investigated stations. Alternatively, total thermal time from the start of grainfilling to maturity (TT_start_ grain_fill) increased in all investigated stations, except Laiyang. It is thus concluded that thermal time shift during the past three decades (1981-2009) prolongs Gr by 0.2-3.0 d•10yr-1 in the study area. This suggests that an increase in thermal time (TT) of the wheat growth period is critical for mitigating the effect of growth period reduction due to warming climatic condition. Furthermore, climate change reduces potential yield of winter wheat in 80% of the stations by 2.3-58.8 kg•yr-1. However, thermal time shift (TTS) increases potential yield of winter wheat in most of the stations by 3.0-51.0 kg•yr-1. It is concluded that wheat cultivars with longer growth periods and higher thermal requirements could mitigate the negative effects of warming climate on crop production in the study area.

  8. Time to shift from contemporary to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin in diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshed J. Dalal

    2016-11-01

    Training and displaying the clinical algorithm depicting the role of hs-TnI assay in acute cardiac care units and in EDs are an efficient way to deliver the new standard of care to patients. Compared with contemporary troponin assays, the hs-cTn assay accelerates the diagnostic pathway to 0–1 h, thus reducing the time for diagnosis of NSTEMI and hence, its management.

  9. Explaining the Cross-National Time Series Variation in Life Expectancy: Income, Women’s Education, Shifts, and What Else?

    OpenAIRE

    Lant Pritchett; Martina Viarengo

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the variation across countries and evolution over time of life expectancy. Using historical data going back to the beginning of the 20th century several basic facts about the relationship between national income and life expectancy are established. The paper shows that even by examining the augmented Preston curve there is no indication that the Preston curve is “breaking down” and no indication from over 100 years of data that a very strong relationship between national i...

  10. Applied cost allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Hougaard, Jens Leth; Smilgins, Aleksandrs

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with empirical computation of Aumann–Shapley cost shares for joint production. We show that if one uses a mathematical programing approach with its non-parametric estimation of the cost function there may be observations in the data set for which we have multiple Aumann–Shapley p...... of assumptions concerning firm behavior. These assumptions enable us to connect inefficient with efficient production and thereby provide consistent ways of allocating the costs arising from inefficiency....

  11. Integration and Task Allocation: Evidence from Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Guy; Rawley, Evan; Polsky, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Using the universe of patient transitions from inpatient hospital care to skilled nursing facilities and home health care in 2005, we show how integration eliminates task misallocation problems between organizations. We find that vertical integration allows hospitals to shift patient recovery tasks downstream to lower-cost organizations by discharging patients earlier (and in poorer health) and increasing post-hospitalization service intensity. While integration facilitates a shift in the allocation of tasks and resources, health outcomes either improved or were unaffected by integration on average. The evidence suggests that integration solves coordination problems that arise in market exchange through improvements in the allocation of tasks across care settings.

  12. Integration and Task Allocation: Evidence from Patient Care*

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Guy; Rawley, Evan; Polsky, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Using the universe of patient transitions from inpatient hospital care to skilled nursing facilities and home health care in 2005, we show how integration eliminates task misallocation problems between organizations. We find that vertical integration allows hospitals to shift patient recovery tasks downstream to lower-cost organizations by discharging patients earlier (and in poorer health) and increasing post-hospitalization service intensity. While integration facilitates a shift in the allocation of tasks and resources, health outcomes either improved or were unaffected by integration on average. The evidence suggests that integration solves coordination problems that arise in market exchange through improvements in the allocation of tasks across care settings. PMID:24415893

  13. Accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns: the effects of shifting the timing of sleep on training effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nita Lewis; Tvaryanas, Anthony P; Shattuck, Lawrence G

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of accommodating adolescent sleep-wake patterns by altering the timing of the major sleep period of US Army recruits. The quasi-experimental study compared recruits assigned to one of two training companies: one with a customary sleep regimen (20:30 to 04:30) while the other employed a phase-delayed sleep regimen (23:00 to 07:00), the latter aligning better with biologically driven sleep-wake patterns of adolescents. The study was conducted during Basic Combat Training (BCT) at Fort Leonard Wood, Missouri. TRAINEES: The study included 392 trainees: 209 received the intervention, while 183 composed the Comparison group. Demographic and psychophysiological measures were collected on all trainees. Weekly assessments of subjective fatigue and mood, periodic physical fitness, marksmanship scores, and attrition rates from BCT were studied. Actigraphy was collected on approximately 24% of trainees. Based on actigraphy, trainees on the phase-delayed sleep schedule obtained 31 m more sleep/night than trainees on the customary sleep schedule. The Intervention group reported less total mood disturbance relative to baseline. Improvements in marksmanship correlated positively with average nightly sleep during the preceding week when basic marksmanship skills were taught. No differences were seen in physical fitness or attrition rates. In contrast to the Intervention group, the Comparison group was 2.3 times more likely to experience occupationally significant fatigue and 5.5 times more likely to report poor sleep quality. Accommodating adolescent sleep patterns significantly improves mental health and performance in the training environment.

  14. Shifts of visuospatial attention to invisible (metacontrast-masked) singletons: Clues from reaction times and event-related potential

    OpenAIRE

    Manfred Heumann; Ulrich Ansorge

    2006-01-01

    In the current study, we tested whether a masked and, thus, invisible singleton-cue captures atten-tion in a stimulus-driven manner or in a top-down contingent manner. The manual RT (Reaction Time) capture effect with the invisible singleton--cue decreased substantially when a match between the singleton-cue and the top-down controlled set of searched-for target features was also decreased. By contrast, with the PCN (Posterior Contralateral Negativity), an electrophysiological measure of the ...

  15. A Perceptual Pathway to Bias: Interracial Exposure Reduces Abrupt Shifts in Real-Time Race Perception That Predict Mixed-Race Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jonathan B; Pauker, Kristin; Sanchez, Diana T

    2016-04-01

    In two national samples, we examined the influence of interracial exposure in one's local environment on the dynamic process underlying race perception and its evaluative consequences. Using a mouse-tracking paradigm, we found in Study 1 that White individuals with low interracial exposure exhibited a unique effect of abrupt, unstable White-Black category shifting during real-time perception of mixed-race faces, consistent with predictions from a neural-dynamic model of social categorization and computational simulations. In Study 2, this shifting effect was replicated and shown to predict a trust bias against mixed-race individuals and to mediate the effect of low interracial exposure on that trust bias. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that interracial exposure shapes the dynamics through which racial categories activate and resolve during real-time perceptions, and these initial perceptual dynamics, in turn, may help drive evaluative biases against mixed-race individuals. Thus, lower-level perceptual aspects of encounters with racial ambiguity may serve as a foundation for mixed-race prejudice. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Allocation of authority in European health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Christopher; Greer, Scott L; Massard da Fonseca, Elize

    2012-11-01

    Although many study the effects of different allocations of health policy authority, few ask why countries assign responsibility over different policies as they do. We test two broad theories: fiscal federalism, which predicts rational governments will concentrate information-intensive operations at lower levels, and redistributive and regulatory functions at higher levels; and "politicized federalism", which suggests a combination of systematic and historically idiosyncratic political variables interfere with efficient allocation of authority. Drawing on the WHO Health in Transition country profiles, we present new data on the allocation of responsibility for key health care policy tasks (implementation, provision, finance, regulation, and framework legislation) and policy areas (primary, secondary and tertiary care, public health and pharmaceuticals) in the 27 EU member states and Switzerland. We use a Bayesian multinomial mixed logit model to analyze how different countries arrive at different allocations of authority over each task and area of health policy, and find the allocation of powers broadly follows fiscal federalism. Responsibility for pharmaceuticals, framework legislation, and most finance lodges at the highest levels of government, acute and primary care in the regions, and provision at the local and regional levels. Where allocation does not follow fiscal federalism, it appears to reflect ethnic divisions, the population of states and regions, the presence of mountainous terrain, and the timing of region creation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Shifting nitrous oxide source/sink behaviour in a subtropical estuary revealed by automated time series observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, Michael J.; Santos, Isaac R.; Maher, Damien T.; Jeffrey, Luke C.; Tait, Douglas R.

    2017-07-01

    The oceans are a major source of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) to the atmosphere. However, little information is available on how estuaries and the coastal ocean may contribute to N2O budgets, and on the drivers of N2O in aquatic environments. This study utilised five time series stations along the freshwater to marine continuum in a sub-tropical estuary in Australia (Coffs Creek, Australia). Each time series station captured N2O, radon (222Rn, a natural submarine groundwater discharge tracer), dissolved nitrogen, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations for a minimum of 25 h. The use of automated time series observations enabled spatial and tidal-scale variability of N2O to be captured. Groundwater was highly enriched in N2O (up to 306 nM) compared to the receiving surface water. Dissolved N2O supersaturation as high as 386% (27.4 nM) was observed in the upstream freshwater and brackish water areas which represented only a small (∼13%) proportion of the total estuary area. A large area of N2O undersaturation (as low as 53% or 3.9 nM) was observed in the mangrove-dominated lower estuary. This undersaturated area likely resulted from N2O consumption due to nitrate/nitrite (NOx) limitation in mangrove sediments subject to shallow porewater exchange. Overall, the estuary was a minor source of N2O to the atmosphere as the lower mangrove-dominated estuary sink of N2O counteracted groundwater-dominated source of N2O in the upper estuary. Average area-weighted N2O fluxes at the water-air interface approached zero (0.2-0.7 μmol m-2 d-1, depending on piston velocity model used), and were much lower than nitrogen-rich Northern Hemisphere estuaries that are considered large sources of N2O to the atmosphere. This study revealed a temporally and spatially diverse estuary, with areas of N2O production and consumption related to oxygen and total dissolved nitrogen availability, submarine groundwater discharge, and uptake within mangroves.

  18. Risk Balancing of Cold Ischemic Time against Night Shift Surgery Possibly Reduces Rates of Reoperation and Perioperative Graft Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Emmanouilidis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This retrospective cohort study evaluates the advantages of risk balancing between prolonged cold ischemic time (CIT and late night surgery. Methods. 1262 deceased donor kidney transplantations were analyzed. Multivariable regression was used to determine odds ratios (ORs for reoperation, graft loss, delayed graft function (DGF, and discharge on dialysis. CIT was categorized according to a forward stepwise pattern ≤1h/>1h, ≤2h/>2h, ≤3h/>3h,…, ≤nh/>nh. ORs for DGF were plotted against CIT and a nonlinear regression function with best R2 was identified. First and second derivative were then implemented into the curvature formula k(x=f′′(x/(1+f′x23/2 to determine the point of highest CIT-mediated risk acceleration. Results. Surgery between 3 AM and 6 AM is an independent risk factor for reoperation and graft loss, whereas prolonged CIT is only relevant for DGF. CIT-mediated risk for DGF follows an exponential pattern fx=A·(1+k·eI·x with a cut-off for the highest risk increment at 23.5 hours. Conclusions. The risk of surgery at 3 AM–6 AM outweighs prolonged CIT when confined within 23.5 hours as determined by a new mathematical approach to calculate turning points of nonlinear time related risks. CIT is only relevant for the endpoint of DGF but had no impact on discharge on dialysis, reoperation, or graft loss.

  19. Emissions allocation in transportation routes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenders, B.P.J.; Velázquez Martínez, J.; Fransoo, J.C.

    2017-01-01

    This article studies the allocation of CO2 emissions to a specific shipment in routing transportation. The authors show that this problem differs from a cost allocation problem specifically because the concavity condition does not hold necessarily in the CO2 allocation problem. This implies that a

  20. Shifts of visuospatial attention to invisible (metacontrast-masked singletons: Clues from reaction times and event-related potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Heumann

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, we tested whether a masked and, thus, invisible singleton-cue captures atten-tion in a stimulus-driven manner or in a top-down contingent manner. The manual RT (Reaction Time capture effect with the invisible singleton--cue decreased substantially when a match between the singleton-cue and the top-down controlled set of searched-for target features was also decreased. By contrast, with the PCN (Posterior Contralateral Negativity, an electrophysiological measure of the capture of visuospatial attention by the invisible singleton-cue, no significant decrement was observed. Taken together, the results support the assumption that an invisible singleton-cue can capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner, and that different delays in the deallocation of attention (i.e., attention is deallocated more efficiently from acue that does not match the top-down controlled set than from a cue that does match the same set account for the weaker manual RT capture effect with a set- -nonmatching invisible singleton-cue.

  1. Cost allocation with limited information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    This article investigates progressive development of Aumann-Shapley cost allocation in a multilevel organizational or production structure. In particular, we study a linear parametric programming setup utilizing the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition procedure. Typically cost allocation takes place after...... all activities have been performed, for example by finishing all outputs. Here the allocation is made progressively with suggestions for activities. I other words cost allocation is performed in parallel for example with a production planning process. This development does not require detailed...... information about some technical constraints in order to make the cost allocation....

  2. Comparing methodologies for the allocation of overhead and capital costs to hospital services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Siok Swan; van Ineveld, Bastianus Martinus; Redekop, William Ken; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona

    2009-06-01

    Typically, little consideration is given to the allocation of indirect costs (overheads and capital) to hospital services, compared to the allocation of direct costs. Weighted service allocation is believed to provide the most accurate indirect cost estimation, but the method is time consuming. To determine whether hourly rate, inpatient day, and marginal mark-up allocation are reliable alternatives for weighted service allocation. The cost approaches were compared independently for appendectomy, hip replacement, cataract, and stroke in representative general hospitals in The Netherlands for 2005. Hourly rate allocation and inpatient day allocation produce estimates that are not significantly different from weighted service allocation. Hourly rate allocation may be a strong alternative to weighted service allocation for hospital services with a relatively short inpatient stay. The use of inpatient day allocation would likely most closely reflect the indirect cost estimates obtained by the weighted service method.

  3. Trends and structural shifts in health tourism: evidence from seasonal time-series data on health-related travel spending by Canada during 1970-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Chung-Ping A

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in better understanding the trends and determinants of health tourism activities. While much of the expanding literature on health tourism offers theoretical or qualitative discussion, empirical evidences has been lacking. This study employs Canada's outbound health tourism activities as an example to examine the trends in health tourism and its association with changing domestic health care market characteristics. A time-series model that accounts for potential structural changes in the trend is employed to analyze the quarterly health-related travel spending series reported in the Balance of Payments Statistics (BOPS) during 1970-2010 (n = 156). We identified a structural shift point which marks the start of an accelerated growth of health tourism and a flattened seasonality in such activities. We found that the health tourism activities of Canadian consumers increase when the private investment in medical facilities declines or when the private MPI increases during the years following the structural-change. We discussed the possible linkage of the structural shift to the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS), which went into effect in January, 1995. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Novel Choice Procedure of Magnetic Component Values for Phase Shifted Full Bridge Converters with a Variable Dead-Time Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic components are important parts of the phase shifted full bridge (PSFB converter. During the dead-time of switches located in the same leg, the converter can achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS by using the energies stored in magnetic components to discharge or charge the output capacitances of switches. Dead-time is usually calculated under a given set of pre-defined load condition which results in that the available energies are insufficient and ZVS capability is lost at light loads. In this paper, the PSFB converter is controlled by variable dead-time method and thus full advantage can be taken of the energies stored in magnetic components. Considering that dead-time has a great effect on ZVS, the relationship between available energies and magnetic component values is formulated by analyzing the equivalent circuits during dead-time intervals. Magnetic component values are chosen based on such relationship. The proposed choice procedure can make the available energies greater than the required energies for ZVS operation over a wide range of load conditions. Moreover, the burst mode control is adopted in order to reduce the standby power loss. Experimental results coincide with the theoretical analysis. The proposed method is a simple and practical solution to extend the ZVS range.

  5. A shift in emission time profiles of fossil fuel combustion due to energy transitions impacts source receptor matrices for air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Carlijn; Kuenen, Jeroen; Kranenburg, Richard; Scholz, Yvonne; Schaap, Martijn

    2015-03-01

    Effective air pollution and short-lived climate forcer mitigation strategies can only be designed when the effect of emission reductions on pollutant concentrations and health and ecosystem impacts are quantified. Within integrated assessment modeling source-receptor relationships (SRRs) based on chemistry transport modeling are used to this end. Currently, these SRRs are made using invariant emission time profiles. The LOTOS-EUROS model equipped with a source attribution module was used to test this assumption for renewable energy scenarios. Renewable energy availability and thereby fossil fuel back up are strongly dependent on meteorological conditions. We have used the spatially and temporally explicit energy model REMix to derive time profiles for backup power generation. These time profiles were used in LOTOS-EUROS to investigate the effect of emission timing on air pollutant concentrations and SRRs. It is found that the effectiveness of emission reduction in the power sector is significantly lower when accounting for the shift in the way emissions are divided over the year and the correlation of emissions with synoptic situations. The source receptor relationships also changed significantly. This effect was found for both primary and secondary pollutants. Our results indicate that emission timing deserves explicit attention when assessing the impacts of system changes on air quality and climate forcing from short lived substances.

  6. Fluid Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  7. Task mapping for non-contiguous allocations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Vitus Joseph; Bunde, David P.; Ebbers, Johnathan; Price, Nicholas W.; Swank, Matthew.; Feer, Stefan P.; Rhodes, Zachary D.

    2013-02-01

    This paper examines task mapping algorithms for non-contiguously allocated parallel jobs. Several studies have shown that task placement affects job running time for both contiguously and non-contiguously allocated jobs. Traditionally, work on task mapping either uses a very general model where the job has an arbitrary communication pattern or assumes that jobs are allocated contiguously, making them completely isolated from each other. A middle ground between these two cases is the mapping problem for non-contiguous jobs having a specific communication pattern. We propose several task mapping algorithms for jobs with a stencil communication pattern and evaluate them using experiments and simulations. Our strategies improve the running time of a MiniApp by as much as 30% over a baseline strategy. Furthermore, this improvement increases markedly with the job size, demonstrating the importance of task mapping as systems grow toward exascale.

  8. Null geodesics and red-blue shifts of photons emitted from geodesic particles around a noncommutative black hole space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyal, Ravi Shankar; Uniyal, Rashmi; Biswas, Anindya; Nandan, Hemwati; Purohit, K. D.

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the geodesic motion of massless test particles in the background of a noncommutative geometry-inspired Schwarzschild black hole. The behavior of effective potential is analyzed in the equatorial plane and the possible motions of massless particles (i.e. photons) for different values of impact parameter are discussed accordingly. We have also calculated the frequency shift of photons in this space-time. Further, the mass parameter of a noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black hole is computed in terms of the measurable redshift of photons emitted by massive particles moving along circular geodesics in equatorial plane. The strength of gravitational fields of noncommutative geometry-inspired Schwarzschild black hole and usual Schwarzschild black hole in General Relativity is also compared.

  9. Climate change and Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris: shifts in distribution and advancement in spring departure times at Wexford versus elsewhere in the winter range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Merne, Oscar J; Walsh, Alyn J.

    2012-01-01

    Count data have shown that numbers of Greenland White-fronted Geese Anser albifrons flavirostris wintering at their numerically most important site (Wexford Slobs in south east Ireland) have remained more or less constant over 30 years, in contrast to recent declines at their second most important...... site (Islay further north in south west Scotland), and declines in the population as a whole. There was no evidence to suggest a northwards shift in wintering geese as might be predicted under global climate change. Although Greenland White-fronted Geese now depart from Wexford in spring on average 22...... in migration timing. The more rapid advancement of spring migration at Wexford compared to elsewhere in the range and the retention of wintering geese there in contrast to declining trends amongst the population as a whole suggest that local management of the food resource at Wexford may be responsible...

  10. Scan time reduction in {sup 23}Na-Magnetic Resonance Imaging using the chemical shift imaging sequence. Evaluation of an iterative reconstruction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weingaertner, Sebastian; Konstandin, Simon; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Wetterling, Friedrich [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Dublin Univ. (Ireland) Trinity Inst. of Neuroscience; Fatar, Marc [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neurology; Neumaier-Probst, Eva [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate potential scan time reduction in {sup 23}Na-Magnetic Resonance Imaging with the chemical shift imaging sequence (CSI) using undersampled data of high-quality datasets, reconstructed with an iterative constrained reconstruction, compared to reduced resolution or reduced signal-to-noise ratio. CSI {sup 23}Na-images were retrospectively undersampled and reconstructed with a constrained reconstruction scheme. The results were compared to conventional methods of scan time reduction. The constrained reconstruction scheme used a phase constraint and a finite object support, which was extracted from a spatially registered {sup 1}H-image acquired with a double-tuned coil. The methods were evaluated using numerical simulations, phantom images and in-vivo images of a healthy volunteer and a patient who suffered from cerebral ischemic stroke. The constrained reconstruction scheme showed improved image quality compared to a decreased number of averages, images with decreased resolution or circular undersampling with weighted averaging for any undersampling factor. Brain images of a stroke patient, which were reconstructed from three-fold undersampled k-space data, resulted in only minor differences from the original image (normalized root means square error < 12%) and an almost identical delineation of the stroke region (mismatch < 6%). The acquisition of undersampled {sup 23}Na-CSI images enables up to three-fold scan time reduction with improved image quality compared to conventional methods of scan time saving.

  11. Mapping the Information Trace in Local Field Potentials by a Computational Method of Two-Dimensional Time-Shifting Synchronization Likelihood Based on Graphic Processing Unit Acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Fang; Li, Xue-Zhu; Wan, You

    2017-12-01

    The local field potential (LFP) is a signal reflecting the electrical activity of neurons surrounding the electrode tip. Synchronization between LFP signals provides important details about how neural networks are organized. Synchronization between two distant brain regions is hard to detect using linear synchronization algorithms like correlation and coherence. Synchronization likelihood (SL) is a non-linear synchronization-detecting algorithm widely used in studies of neural signals from two distant brain areas. One drawback of non-linear algorithms is the heavy computational burden. In the present study, we proposed a graphic processing unit (GPU)-accelerated implementation of an SL algorithm with optional 2-dimensional time-shifting. We tested the algorithm with both artificial data and raw LFP data. The results showed that this method revealed detailed information from original data with the synchronization values of two temporal axes, delay time and onset time, and thus can be used to reconstruct the temporal structure of a neural network. Our results suggest that this GPU-accelerated method can be extended to other algorithms for processing time-series signals (like EEG and fMRI) using similar recording techniques.

  12. Success in Investing: Integrating Spending Policy into Asset Allocation Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    1996-01-01

    Successful college and university investments hinge on an asset allocation strategy capable of meeting the institution's needs for income and growth in principal at the lowest possible risk. Periodic adjustments must be made when there is a shift in the institution's risk tolerance, modification in need for income distribution, and changes in…

  13. Patch time allocation and oviposition behavior in response to patch quality and the presence of a generalist predator in Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Sheng; Ling, Meng; Fu-An, Wu; Baoping, Li

    2015-01-01

    Foraging parasitoids often must estimate local risk of predation just as they must estimate local patch value. Here, we investigate the effects a generalist predator Chlaenius bioculatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae), has on the oviposition behavior and the patch residence decisions of a solitary parasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in response to the varying host quality of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae (L2 and L4). M. pulchricornis attacked more L4 than on L2 hosts, with the difference in attack rate varying depending on predation treatments, greater in the presence (either actively feeding or not) of the predator than in the absence of it. The parasitoid attacked fewer L2 and L4 hosts when the predator was actively feeding than when it was not feeding or not present in the patch. M. pulchricornis decreased the patch leaving tendency with increasing rejections of hosts, but increased the tendency in response to the presence of the predator as compared with the absence of it, and furthermore, increased the patch leaving tendency when the predator was actively feeding as compared with when it was not. Our study suggests that M. pulchricornis can exploit high quality patches while minimizing predation risk, by attacking more hosts in high quality patches while reducing total patch time in response to risk of predation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  14. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  15. SSC accelerator availability allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.T.; Franciscovich, J.

    1991-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) operational availability is an area of major concern, judged by the Central Design Group to present such risk that use of modern engineering tools would be essential to program success. Experience has shown that as accelerator beam availability falls below about 80%, efficiency of physics experiments degrades rapidly due to inability to maintain adequate coincident accelerator and detector operation. For this reason, the SSC availability goal has been set at 80%, even though the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory accelerator, with a fraction of the SSC's complexity, has only recently approached that level. This paper describes the allocation of the top-level goal to part-level reliability and maintainability requirements, and it gives the results of parameter sensitivity studies designed to help identify the best approach to achieve the needed system availability within funding and schedule constraints. 1 ref., 12 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Increasing Completion Rate of an M4 Emergency Medicine Student End-of-Shift Evaluation Using a Mobile Electronic Platform and Real-Time Completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Tews

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Medical students on an emergency medicine rotation are traditionally evaluated at the end of each shift with paper-based forms, and data are often missing due to forms not being turned in or completed. Because students’ grades depend on these evaluations, change was needed to increase form rate of return. We analyzed a new electronic evaluation form and modified completion process to determine if it would increase the completion rate without altering how faculty scored student performance. Methods: During fall 2013, 29 faculty completed paper N=339 evaluations consisting of seven competencies for 33 students. In fall 2014, an electronic evaluation form with the same competencies was designed using an electronic platform and completed N=319 times by 27 faculty using 25 students’ electronic devices. Feedback checkboxes were added to facilitate collection of common comments. Data was analyzed with IBM® SPSS® 21.0 using multi-factor analysis of variance with the students’ global rating (GR as an outcome. Inter-item reliability was determined with Cronbach alpha. Results: There was a significantly higher completion rate (p=0.001 of 98% electronic vs. 69% paper forms, lower (p=0.001 missed GR rate (1% electronic. vs 12% paper, and higher mean scores (p=0.001 for the GR with the electronic (7.0±1.1 vs. paper (6.8±1.2 form. Feedback checkboxes were completed on every form. The inter-item reliability for electronic and paper forms was each alpha=0.95. Conclusion: The use of a new electronic form and modified completion process for evaluating students at the end of shift demonstrated a higher faculty completion rate, a lower missed data rate, a higher global rating and consistent collection of common feedback. The use of the electronic form and the process for obtaining the information made our end-of-shift evaluation process for students more reliable and provided more accurate, up-to-date information for student feedback and when

  17. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in finding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a conflict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  18. Railway Track Allocation: Models and Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Eciently coordinating the movement of trains on a railway network is a central part of the planning process for a railway company. This paper reviews models and methods that have been proposed in the literature to assist planners in nding train routes. Since the problem of routing trains......, and train routing problems, group them by railway network type, and discuss track allocation from a strategic, tactical, and operational level....... on a railway network entails allocating the track capacity of the network (or part thereof) over time in a con ict-free manner, all studies that model railway track allocation in some capacity are considered relevant. We hence survey work on the train timetabling, train dispatching, train platforming...

  19. Optimal allocation of reviewers for peer feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, David Kofoed; Jensen, Ulf Aslak; Jørgensen, Rasmus Malthe

    2017-01-01

    feedback to be effective students should give and receive useful feedback. A key challenge in peer feedback is allocating the feedback givers in a good way. It is important that reviewers are allocated to submissions such that the feedback distribution is fair - meaning that all students receive good......Peer feedback is the act of letting students give feedback to each other on submitted work. There are multiple reasons to use peer feedback, including students getting more feedback, time saving for teachers and increased learning by letting students reflect on work by others. In order for peer...... indicated the quality of the feedback. Using this model together with historical data we calculate the feedback-giving skill of each student and uses that as input to an allocation algorithm that assigns submissions to reviewers, in order to optimize the feedback quality for all students. We test...

  20. Importance measures and resource allocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guey, C.N.; Morgan, T.; Hughes, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses various importance measures and their practical relevance to allocating resources. The characteristics of importance measures are illustrated through simple examples. Important factors associated with effectively allocating resources to improve plant system performance or to prevent system degradation are discussed. It is concluded that importance measures are only indicative of and not equal to the risk significance of a component, system, or event. A decision framework is suggested to provide a comprehensive basis for resource allocation

  1. IPO Allocations: Discriminatory or Discretionary?

    OpenAIRE

    William Wilhelm; Alexander Ljungqvist

    2001-01-01

    We estimate the structural links between IPO allocations, pre-market information production, and initial underpricing returns, within the context of theories of bookbuilding. Using a sample of both US and international IPOs we find evidence of the following: ? IPO allocation policies favour institutional investors, both in the US and worldwide. ? Increasing institutional allocations results in offer prices that deviate more from the indicative price range established prior to bankers’ efforts...

  2. Resource Allocation in a Repetitive Project Scheduling Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Biju; Mathew, Jeeno

    2018-03-01

    Resource Allocation is procedure of doling out or allocating the accessible assets in a monetary way and productive way. Resource allocation is the scheduling of the accessible assets and accessible exercises or activities required while thinking about both the asset accessibility and the total project completion time. Asset provisioning and allocation takes care of that issue by permitting the specialist co-ops to deal with the assets for every individual demand of asset. A probabilistic selection procedure has been developed in order to ensure various selections of chromosomes

  3. Zinc allocation and re-allocation in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Agronomy and breeding actively search for options to enhance cereal grain Zn density. Quantifying internal (re-)allocation of Zn as affected by soil and crop management or genotype is crucial. We present experiments supporting the development of a conceptual model of whole plant Zn allocation

  4. Research on allocation efficiency of the daisy chain allocation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingping; Zhang, Weiguo

    2013-03-01

    With the improvement of the aircraft performance in reliability, maneuverability and survivability, the number of the control effectors increases a lot. How to distribute the three-axis moments into the control surfaces reasonably becomes an important problem. Daisy chain method is simple and easy to be carried out in the design of the allocation system. But it can not solve the allocation problem for entire attainable moment subset. For the lateral-directional allocation problem, the allocation efficiency of the daisy chain can be directly measured by the area of its subset of attainable moments. Because of the non-linear allocation characteristic, the subset of attainable moments of daisy-chain method is a complex non-convex polygon, and it is difficult to solve directly. By analyzing the two-dimensional allocation problems with a "micro-element" idea, a numerical calculation algorithm is proposed to compute the area of the non-convex polygon. In order to improve the allocation efficiency of the algorithm, a genetic algorithm with the allocation efficiency chosen as the fitness function is proposed to find the best pseudo-inverse matrix.

  5. Shifting Sugars and Shifting Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face. PMID:25688600

  6. Shifting sugars and shifting paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L Siegal

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available No organism lives in a constant environment. Based on classical studies in molecular biology, many have viewed microbes as following strict rules for shifting their metabolic activities when prevailing conditions change. For example, students learn that the bacterium Escherichia coli makes proteins for digesting lactose only when lactose is available and glucose, a better sugar, is not. However, recent studies, including three PLOS Biology papers examining sugar utilization in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, show that considerable heterogeneity in response to complex environments exists within and between populations. These results join similar recent results in other organisms that suggest that microbial populations anticipate predictable environmental changes and hedge their bets against unpredictable ones. The classical view therefore represents but one special case in a range of evolutionary adaptations to environmental changes that all organisms face.

  7. Perceived state of self during motion can differentially modulate numerical magnitude allocation.

    OpenAIRE

    Arshad, Q; Nigmatullina, Y; Roberts, RE; Goga, U; Pikovsky, M; Khan, S; Lobo, R; Flury, AS; Pettorossi, VE; Cohen-Kadosh, R; Malhotra, PA; Bronstein, AM

    2016-01-01

    Although a direct relationship between numerical-allocation and spatial-attention has been proposed, recent research suggests these processes are not directly coupled. In keeping with this, spatial attention shifts induced either via visual or vestibular motion can modulate numerical allocation in some circumstances but not in others. In addition to shifting spatial attention, visual or vestibular motion-paradigms also (i) elicit compensatory eye-movements which themselves can influence numer...

  8. Shifting paradigm of maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh: A real time approach to address sustainable developmental goal 3 by 2030 [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Biswas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in reducing maternal and neonatal morality, even though the millennium developmental goal to reduce maternal and neonatal mortality was not achieved. Sustainable Developmental Goal (SDG 3 has already been set for a new target to reduce maternal and neonatal deaths by 2030. The country takes this timely initiative to introduce a maternal and perinatal death review system. This review will discuss the shifting paradigm of the maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh and its challenges in reaching the SDG on time. This review uses existing literature on the maternal and perinatal death review system in Bangladesh, and other systems in similar settings, as well as reports, case studies, news, government letters and meeting minutes. Bangladesh introduced the maternal and perinatal death review system in 2010. Prior to this there was no such comprehensive death review system practiced in Bangladesh. The system was established within the government health system and has brought about positive effects and outcomes. Therefore, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of Bangladesh gradually scaled up the maternal and perinatal death review system nationwide in 2016 within the government health system. The present death review system highlighted real-time data use, using the district health information software(DHIS-2. Health mangers are able to take remedial action plans and implement strategies based on findings in DHIS-2. Therefore, effective utilization of data can play a pivotal role in the reduction of maternal and perinatal deaths in Bangladesh. Overall, the maternal and perinatal death review system provides a great opportunity to achieve the SDG 3 on time. However, the system needs continuous monitoring at different levels to ensure its quality and validity of information, as well as effective utilization of findings for planning and implementation under a measureable

  9. Fast Allocation and Deallocation with an Improved Buddy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Demaine, Erik D.; Munro, J. Ian

    2005-01-01

    We propose several modifications to the binary buddy system for managing dynamic allocation of memory blocks whose sizes are powers of two. The standard buddy system allocates and deallocates blocks in Theta(lg n) time in the worst case (and on an amortized basis), where n is the size of the memo...

  10. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  11. On capital allocation for stochastic arrangement increasing actuarial risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the increasing convex ordering of the optimal discounted capital allocations for stochastic arrangement increasing risks with stochastic arrangement decreasing occurrence times. The application to optimal allocation of policy limits is presented as an illustration as well.

  12. 40 CFR 60.4153 - Recordation of Hg allowance allocations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recordation of Hg allowance allocations... Times for Coal-Fired Electric Steam Generating Units Hg Allowance Tracking System § 60.4153 Recordation of Hg allowance allocations. (a) By December 1, 2006, the Administrator will record in the Hg Budget...

  13. Allocating nuclear power plant costs over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellis, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear generating plants coming into service in the 1980s have book values amounting to several billion dollars, doubling the rate bases of the owner utilities in some instances. The impact that this is producing on electric rates is of concern to consumers, regulators, and utilities alike. A review of the basic nature of a productive asset, the purpose of depreciation accounting, and the composition of interest rates leads to a method of constructing capital-recovery schedules which has come to be termed economic depreciation. This methodology departs from conventional methodology only in that it accepts inflation as a fact of life. This article indicates that application of the procedure to an actual nuclear reactor provides benefits for all classes of ratepayers in that initial capital-recovery costs to ratepayers are substantially lower and, in terms of dollars of constant purchasing power, the total amount paid by customers for return on investment is substantially the same. For the utility, whereas initial capital recovery is lower, total capital recovery is somewhat greater, and the utility is no worse off if it must raise some working capital in the capital markets. 6 references, 4 figures, 2 tables

  14. Endogeneously arising network allocation rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study endogenously arising network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some balanced

  15. Carbon allocation in forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton M. Litton; James W. Raich; Michael G. Ryan

    2007-01-01

    Carbon allocation plays a critical role in forest ecosystem carbon cycling. We reviewed existing literature and compiled annual carbon budgets for forest ecosystems to test a series of hypotheses addressing the patterns, plasticity, and limits of three components of allocation: biomass, the amount of material present; flux, the flow of carbon to a component per unit...

  16. Risk allocation under liquidity constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Csóka, P.; Herings, P.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Risk allocation games are cooperative games that are used to attribute the risk of a financial entity to its divisions. In this paper, we extend the literature on risk allocation games by incorporating liquidity considerations. A liquidity policy specifies state-dependent liquidity requirements that

  17. Chemical shift imaging: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brateman, L.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical shift is the phenomenon that is seen when an isotope possessing a nuclear magnetic dipole moment resonates at a spectrum of resonance frequencies in a given magnetic field. These resonance frequencies, or chemical shifts, depend on the chemical environments of particular nuclei. Mapping the spatial distribution of nuclei associated with a particular chemical shift (e.g., hydrogen nuclei associated with water molecules or with lipid groups) is called chemical shift imaging. Several techniques of proton chemical shift imaging that have been applied in vivo are presented, and their clinical findings are reported and summarized. Acquiring high-resolution spectra for large numbers of volume elements in two or three dimensions may be prohibitive because of time constraints, but other methods of imaging lipid of water distributions (i.e., selective excitation, selective saturation, or variations in conventional magnetic resonance imaging pulse sequences) can provide chemical shift information. These techniques require less time, but they lack spectral information. Since fat deposition seen by chemical shift imaging may not be demonstrated by conventional magnetic resonance imaging, certain applications of chemical shift imaging, such as in the determination of fatty liver disease, have greater diagnostic utility than conventional magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, edge artifacts caused by chemical shift effects can be eliminated by certain selective methods of data acquisition employed in chemical shift imaging

  18. Pre-coding method and apparatus for multiple source or time-shifted single source data and corresponding inverse post-decoding method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pen-Shu (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A pre-coding method and device for improving data compression performance by removing correlation between a first original data set and a second original data set, each having M members, respectively. The pre-coding method produces a compression-efficiency-enhancing double-difference data set. The method and device produce a double-difference data set, i.e., an adjacent-delta calculation performed on a cross-delta data set or a cross-delta calculation performed on two adjacent-delta data sets, from either one of (1) two adjacent spectral bands coming from two discrete sources, respectively, or (2) two time-shifted data sets coming from a single source. The resulting double-difference data set is then coded using either a distortionless data encoding scheme (entropy encoding) or a lossy data compression scheme. Also, a post-decoding method and device for recovering a second original data set having been represented by such a double-difference data set.

  19. Comparison of diffusion-weighted images using short inversion time inversion recovery or chemical shift selective pulse as fat suppression in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazama, Toshiki; Nasu, Katsuhiro; Kuroki, Yoshifumi; Nawano, Shigeru; Ito, Hisao

    2009-01-01

    Fat suppression is essential for diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the body. However, the chemical shift selective (CHESS) pulse often fails to suppress fat signals in the breast. The purpose of this study was to compare DWI using CHESS and DWI using short inversion time inversion recovery (STIR) in terms of fat suppression and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value. DWI using STIR, DWI using CHESS, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained in 32 patients with breast carcinoma. Uniformity of fat suppression, ADC, signal intensity, and visualization of the breast tumors were evaluated. In 44% (14/32) of patients there was insufficient fat suppression in the breasts on DWI using CHESS, whereas 0% was observed on DWI using STIR (P<0.0001). The ADCs obtained for DWI using STIR were 4.3% lower than those obtained for DWI using CHESS (P<0.02); there was a strong correlation of the ADC measurement (r=0.93, P<0.001). DWI using STIR may be excellent for fat suppression; and the ADC obtained in this sequence was well correlated with that obtained with DWI using CHESS. DWI using STIR may be useful when the fat suppression technique in DWI using CHESS does not work well. (author)

  20. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry: a Fundamental Shift in the Routine Practice of Clinical Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew E.; Kaleta, Erin J.; Arora, Amit

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the “nuts and bolts” of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care. PMID:23824373

  1. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: a fundamental shift in the routine practice of clinical microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Andrew E; Kaleta, Erin J; Arora, Amit; Wolk, Donna M

    2013-07-01

    Within the past decade, clinical microbiology laboratories experienced revolutionary changes in the way in which microorganisms are identified, moving away from slow, traditional microbial identification algorithms toward rapid molecular methods and mass spectrometry (MS). Historically, MS was clinically utilized as a high-complexity method adapted for protein-centered analysis of samples in chemistry and hematology laboratories. Today, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) MS is adapted for use in microbiology laboratories, where it serves as a paradigm-shifting, rapid, and robust method for accurate microbial identification. Multiple instrument platforms, marketed by well-established manufacturers, are beginning to displace automated phenotypic identification instruments and in some cases genetic sequence-based identification practices. This review summarizes the current position of MALDI-TOF MS in clinical research and in diagnostic clinical microbiology laboratories and serves as a primer to examine the "nuts and bolts" of MALDI-TOF MS, highlighting research associated with sample preparation, spectral analysis, and accuracy. Currently available MALDI-TOF MS hardware and software platforms that support the use of MALDI-TOF with direct and precultured specimens and integration of the technology into the laboratory workflow are also discussed. Finally, this review closes with a prospective view of the future of MALDI-TOF MS in the clinical microbiology laboratory to accelerate diagnosis and microbial identification to improve patient care.

  2. The effect of work shift configurations on emergency medical dispatch center response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montassier, Emmanuel; Labady, Julien; Andre, Antoine; Potel, Gilles; Berthier, Frederic; Jenvrin, Joel; Penverne, Yann

    2015-01-01

    It has been proved that emergency medical dispatch centers (EMDC) save lives by promoting an appropriate allocation of emergency medical service resources. Indeed, optimal dispatcher call duration is pivotal to reduce the time gap between the time a call is placed and the delivery of medical care. However, little is known about the impact of work shift configurations (i.e., work shift duration and work shift rotation throughout the day) and dispatcher call duration. Thus, the objective of our study was to assess the effect of work shift configurations on dispatcher call duration. During a 1-year study period, we analyzed the dispatcher call durations for medical and trauma calls during the 4 different work shift rotations (day, morning, evening, and night) and during the 10-hour work shift of each dispatcher in the EMDC of Nantes. We extracted dispatcher call durations from our advanced telephone system, configured with CC Pulse + (Genesys, Alcatel Lucent), and collected them in a custom designed database (Excel, Microsoft). Afterward, we analyzed these data using linear mixed effects models. During the study period, our EMDC received 408,077 calls. Globally, the mean dispatcher call duration was 107 ± 45 seconds. Based on multivariate linear mixed effects models, the dispatcher call duration was affected by night work shift and work shift duration greater than 8 hours, increasing it by about 10 ± 1 seconds and 4 ± 1 seconds, respectively (both p work shift rotation and duration, with longer durations seen over night shifts and shifts over 8 hours. While these differences are small and may not have clinical significance, they may have implications for EMDC efficiency.

  3. Growth-Mortality Relationships in Piñon Pine (Pinus edulis) during Severe Droughts of the Past Century: Shifting Processes in Space and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Alison K.; Bugmann, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The processes leading to drought-associated tree mortality are poorly understood, particularly long-term predisposing factors, memory effects, and variability in mortality processes and thresholds in space and time. We use tree rings from four sites to investigate Pinus edulis mortality during two drought periods in the southwestern USA. We draw on recent sampling and archived collections to (1) analyze P. edulis growth patterns and mortality during the 1950s and 2000s droughts; (2) determine the influence of climate and competition on growth in trees that died and survived; and (3) derive regression models of growth-mortality risk and evaluate their performance across space and time. Recent growth was 53% higher in surviving vs. dying trees, with some sites exhibiting decades-long growth divergences associated with previous drought. Differential growth response to climate partly explained growth differences between live and dead trees, with responses wet/cool conditions most influencing eventual tree status. Competition constrained tree growth, and reduced trees’ ability to respond to favorable climate. The best predictors in growth-mortality models included long-term (15–30 year) average growth rate combined with a metric of growth variability and the number of abrupt growth increases over 15 and 10 years, respectively. The most parsimonious models had high discriminatory power (ROC>0.84) and correctly classified ∼70% of trees, suggesting that aspects of tree growth, especially over decades, can be powerful predictors of widespread drought-associated die-off. However, model discrimination varied across sites and drought events. Weaker growth-mortality relationships and higher growth at lower survival probabilities for some sites during the 2000s event suggest a shift in mortality processes from longer-term growth-related constraints to shorter-term processes, such as rapid metabolic decline even in vigorous trees due to acute drought stress, and

  4. Growth-mortality relationships in piñon pine (Pinus edulis) during severe droughts of the past century: shifting processes in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalady, Alison K; Bugmann, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The processes leading to drought-associated tree mortality are poorly understood, particularly long-term predisposing factors, memory effects, and variability in mortality processes and thresholds in space and time. We use tree rings from four sites to investigate Pinus edulis mortality during two drought periods in the southwestern USA. We draw on recent sampling and archived collections to (1) analyze P. edulis growth patterns and mortality during the 1950s and 2000s droughts; (2) determine the influence of climate and competition on growth in trees that died and survived; and (3) derive regression models of growth-mortality risk and evaluate their performance across space and time. Recent growth was 53% higher in surviving vs. dying trees, with some sites exhibiting decades-long growth divergences associated with previous drought. Differential growth response to climate partly explained growth differences between live and dead trees, with responses wet/cool conditions most influencing eventual tree status. Competition constrained tree growth, and reduced trees' ability to respond to favorable climate. The best predictors in growth-mortality models included long-term (15-30 year) average growth rate combined with a metric of growth variability and the number of abrupt growth increases over 15 and 10 years, respectively. The most parsimonious models had high discriminatory power (ROC>0.84) and correctly classified ∼ 70% of trees, suggesting that aspects of tree growth, especially over decades, can be powerful predictors of widespread drought-associated die-off. However, model discrimination varied across sites and drought events. Weaker growth-mortality relationships and higher growth at lower survival probabilities for some sites during the 2000s event suggest a shift in mortality processes from longer-term growth-related constraints to shorter-term processes, such as rapid metabolic decline even in vigorous trees due to acute drought stress, and/or increases

  5. Growth-mortality relationships in piñon pine (Pinus edulis during severe droughts of the past century: shifting processes in space and time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison K Macalady

    Full Text Available The processes leading to drought-associated tree mortality are poorly understood, particularly long-term predisposing factors, memory effects, and variability in mortality processes and thresholds in space and time. We use tree rings from four sites to investigate Pinus edulis mortality during two drought periods in the southwestern USA. We draw on recent sampling and archived collections to (1 analyze P. edulis growth patterns and mortality during the 1950s and 2000s droughts; (2 determine the influence of climate and competition on growth in trees that died and survived; and (3 derive regression models of growth-mortality risk and evaluate their performance across space and time. Recent growth was 53% higher in surviving vs. dying trees, with some sites exhibiting decades-long growth divergences associated with previous drought. Differential growth response to climate partly explained growth differences between live and dead trees, with responses wet/cool conditions most influencing eventual tree status. Competition constrained tree growth, and reduced trees' ability to respond to favorable climate. The best predictors in growth-mortality models included long-term (15-30 year average growth rate combined with a metric of growth variability and the number of abrupt growth increases over 15 and 10 years, respectively. The most parsimonious models had high discriminatory power (ROC>0.84 and correctly classified ∼ 70% of trees, suggesting that aspects of tree growth, especially over decades, can be powerful predictors of widespread drought-associated die-off. However, model discrimination varied across sites and drought events. Weaker growth-mortality relationships and higher growth at lower survival probabilities for some sites during the 2000s event suggest a shift in mortality processes from longer-term growth-related constraints to shorter-term processes, such as rapid metabolic decline even in vigorous trees due to acute drought stress, and

  6. Flexible Schedules and Shift Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Thomas M.

    2000-01-01

    Flexible work hours have gained prominence, as more than 25 million workers (27.6% of all full-time workers) can now vary their schedules. However, there has been little change since the mid-1980s in the proportion who work a shift other than a regular daytime shift. (JOW)

  7. Impact of the occurrence of a response shift on the determination of the minimal important difference in a health-related quality of life score over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ousmen, Ahmad; Conroy, Thierry; Guillemin, Francis; Velten, Michel; Jolly, Damien; Mercier, Mariette; Causeret, Sylvain; Cuisenier, Jean; Graesslin, Olivier; Hamidou, Zeinab; Bonnetain, Franck; Anota, Amélie

    2016-12-03

    An important challenge of the longitudinal analysis of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is the potential occurrence of a Response Shift (RS) effect. While the impact of RS effect on the longitudinal analysis of HRQOL has already been studied, few studies have been conducted on its impact on the determination of the Minimal Important Difference (MID). This study aims to investigate the impact of the RS effect on the determination of the MID over time for each scale of both EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 questionnaires in breast cancer patients. Patients with breast cancer completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and the EORTC QLQ-BR23 questionnaires at baseline (time of diagnosis; T0), three months (T1) and six months after surgery (T2). Four hospitals and care centers participated in this study: cancer centers of Dijon and Nancy, the university hospitals of Reims and Strasbourg At T1 and T2, patients were asked to evaluate their HRQOL change during the last 3 months using the Jaeschke transition question. They were also asked to assess retrospectively their HRQOL level of three months ago. The occurrence of the RS effect was explored using the then-test method and its impact on the determination of the MID by using the Anchor-based method. Between February 2006 and February 2008, 381 patients were included of mean age 58 years old (SD = 11). For patients who reported a deterioration of their HRQOL level at each follow-up, an increase of RS effect has been detected between T1 and T2 in 13/15 dimensions of QLQ-C30 questionnaire, and 4/7 dimensions of QLQ-BR23 questionnaire. In contrast, a decrease of the RS effect was observed in 8/15 dimensions of QLQ-C30 questionnaire and in 5/7 dimensions of QLQ-BR23 questionnaire in case of improvement. At T2, the MID became ≥ 5 points when taking into account the RS effect in 10/15 dimensions of QLQ-C30 questionnaire and in 5/7 dimensions of QLQ-BR23 questionnaire. This study highlights that the RS effect increases over time in

  8. Post-Keplerian perturbations of the orbital time shift in binary pulsars: an analytical formulation with applications to the galactic center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Lorenzo [Ministero dell' Istruzione, Univ. Ricerca (M.I.U.R.)-Istruzione, Bari (Italy)

    2017-07-15

    We develop a general approach to analytically calculate the perturbations Δδτ p of the orbital component of the change δτ{sub p} of the times of arrival of the pulses emitted by a binary pulsar p induced by the post-Keplerian accelerations due to the mass quadrupole Q{sub 2}, and the post-Newtonian gravitoelectric (GE) and Lense-Thirring (LT) fields. We apply our results to the so-far still hypothetical scenario involving a pulsar orbiting the supermassive black hole in the galactic center at Sgr A*. We also evaluate the gravitomagnetic and quadrupolar Shapiro-like propagation delays δτ{sub prop}. By assuming the orbit of the existing main sequence star S2 and a time span as long as its orbital period P{sub b}, we obtain vertical stroke Δδτ{sub p}{sup GE} vertical stroke shifts per revolution as large as vertical stroke left angle Δδτ{sub p}{sup GE} right angle vertical stroke timing in Sgr A* is of the order of 100 μs, or, perhaps, even 1-10 μs. Our method is, in principle, neither limited just to some particular orbital configuration nor

  9. Downlink resource allocation for multichannel TDMA visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz

    2017-05-12

    Optical wireless communications (OWC) in general and resource allocation in OWC networks particularly have gained lots of attention recently. In this work, we consider the resource allocation problem of a visible light communication downlink transmission system based on time division multiple access with the objective of maximizing spectral efficiency (SE). As for the operational conditions, we impose constraints on the average optical intensity, the energy consumption and the quality-of-service. To solve the non-convex problem, we transform the objective function into a difference of concave functions by solving a second order differential inequality. Then, we propose a low-complexity algorithm to solve the resource allocation problem. Finally, we show by simulations the SE performance gains achieved by optimizing the power allocation over equal power allocation in the considered system. Numerical results show the SE gains achieved by using this solution.

  10. Downlink resource allocation for multichannel TDMA visible light communications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelhady, Amr Mohamed Abdelaziz; Amin, Osama; Chaaban, Anas; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    Optical wireless communications (OWC) in general and resource allocation in OWC networks particularly have gained lots of attention recently. In this work, we consider the resource allocation problem of a visible light communication downlink transmission system based on time division multiple access with the objective of maximizing spectral efficiency (SE). As for the operational conditions, we impose constraints on the average optical intensity, the energy consumption and the quality-of-service. To solve the non-convex problem, we transform the objective function into a difference of concave functions by solving a second order differential inequality. Then, we propose a low-complexity algorithm to solve the resource allocation problem. Finally, we show by simulations the SE performance gains achieved by optimizing the power allocation over equal power allocation in the considered system. Numerical results show the SE gains achieved by using this solution.

  11. International Development Aid Allocation Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Tapas Mishra; Bazoumana Ouattara; Mamata Parhi

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors explaining aid allocation by bilateral and multilateral donors. We use data for 146 aid recipient countries over the period 1990-2007 and employ Bayesian Averaging of Classical Estimates Approach (BACE) approach and find that both the recipient need and donor interest motives are `significant' determinants of bilateral and multilateral aid allocation process. Our results also indicate that the measures for recipient need and donor interests vary from bilate...

  12. Application of an allocation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrate performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design

  13. How should INGOs allocate resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wisor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available International Non-governmental Organizations (INGOs face difficult choices when choosing to allocate resources. Given that the resources made available to INGOs fall far short of what is needed to reduce massive human rights deficits, any chosen scheme of resource allocation requires failing to reach other individuals in great need. Facing these moral opportunity costs, what moral reasons should guide INGO resource allocation? Two reasons that clearly matter, and are recognized by philosophers and development practitioners, are the consequences (or benefit or harm reduction of any given resource allocation and the need (or priority of individual beneficiaries. If accepted, these reasons should lead INGOs to allocate resources to a limited number of countries where the most prioritarian weighted harm reduction will be achieved. I make three critiques against this view. First, on grounds the consequentialist accepts, I argue that INGOs ought to maintain a reasonably wide distribution of resources. Second, I argue that even if one is a consequentialist, consequentialism ought not act as an action guiding principle for INGOs. Third, I argue that additional moral reasons should influence decision making about INGO resource allocation. Namely, INGO decision making should attend to relational reasons, desert, respect for agency, concern for equity, and the importance of expressing a view of moral wrongs.

  14. Nonparametric correlation models for portfolio allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Casas, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes time-varying nonparametric and semiparametric estimators of the conditional cross-correlation matrix in the context of portfolio allocation. Simulations results show that the nonparametric and semiparametric models are best in DGPs with substantial variability or structural ...... currencies. Results show the nonparametric model generally dominates the others when evaluating in-sample. However, the semiparametric model is best for out-of-sample analysis....

  15. [Burden and health effects of shift work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmann, Jörg

    2010-10-01

    In Germany aprox. 15% of all employees have irregular or flexible working hours. Disturbed sleep and/or hypersomnia are direct consequences of shift work and therefore described as shift work disorder. Beyond this, shift work can also be associated with specific pathological disorders. There are individual differences in tolerance to shift work. Optimization of both shift schedules and sleep to "non-physiological" times of the day are measures to counteract the negative effects of shift work. There is still not enough evidence to recommend drugs for routine use in shift workers. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  16. A Channel Allocation Mechanism for Cellular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hua Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In cellular networks, call blocking causes lower customer satisfaction and economic loss. Therefore, the channel allocation for call block avoidance is an important issue. This study proposes a mechanism that considers the real-time traffic information (e.g., traffic flow and vehicle speed and the user behavior (e.g., call inter-arrival time and call holding time to analyze the adaptable number of communication calls in the specific cell for channel allocation. In experiments about call block probabilities (CBP, this study simulated two cases that are the situations of the whole day and traffic accident. The simulation results show that all CBPs in the scenario of whole day are less than 21.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the static channel allocation (SCA mechanism. Moreover, all CBPs in the scenario of traffic accidents are less than 16.5% by using the proposed mechanism, which is better than using the SCA mechanism. Therefore, the proposed mechanism can decrease the number of CBPs effectively.

  17. Resource allocation models of auditory working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sabine; Teki, Sundeep; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Husain, Masud; Griffiths, Timothy D

    2016-06-01

    Auditory working memory (WM) is the cognitive faculty that allows us to actively hold and manipulate sounds in mind over short periods of time. We develop here a particular perspective on WM for non-verbal, auditory objects as well as for time based on the consideration of possible parallels to visual WM. In vision, there has been a vigorous debate on whether WM capacity is limited to a fixed number of items or whether it represents a limited resource that can be allocated flexibly across items. Resource allocation models predict that the precision with which an item is represented decreases as a function of total number of items maintained in WM because a limited resource is shared among stored objects. We consider here auditory work on sequentially presented objects of different pitch as well as time intervals from the perspective of dynamic resource allocation. We consider whether the working memory resource might be determined by perceptual features such as pitch or timbre, or bound objects comprising multiple features, and we speculate on brain substrates for these behavioural models. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A global resource allocation strategy governs growth transition kinetics of Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, David W; Schink, Severin J; Patsalo, Vadim; Williamson, James R; Gerland, Ulrich; Hwa, Terence

    2017-11-02

    A grand challenge of systems biology is to predict the kinetic responses of living systems to perturbations starting from the underlying molecular interactions. Changes in the nutrient environment have long been used to study regulation and adaptation phenomena in microorganisms and they remain a topic of active investigation. Although much is known about the molecular interactions that govern the regulation of key metabolic processes in response to applied perturbations, they are insufficiently quantified for predictive bottom-up modelling. Here we develop a top-down approach, expanding the recently established coarse-grained proteome allocation models from steady-state growth into the kinetic regime. Using only qualitative knowledge of the underlying regulatory processes and imposing the condition of flux balance, we derive a quantitative model of bacterial growth transitions that is independent of inaccessible kinetic parameters. The resulting flux-controlled regulation model accurately predicts the time course of gene expression and biomass accumulation in response to carbon upshifts and downshifts (for example, diauxic shifts) without adjustable parameters. As predicted by the model and validated by quantitative proteomics, cells exhibit suboptimal recovery kinetics in response to nutrient shifts owing to a rigid strategy of protein synthesis allocation, which is not directed towards alleviating specific metabolic bottlenecks. Our approach does not rely on kinetic parameters, and therefore points to a theoretical framework for describing a broad range of such kinetic processes without detailed knowledge of the underlying biochemical reactions.

  19. Regional differences in recipient waitlist time and pre- and post-transplant mortality after the 2006 United Network for Organ Sharing policy changes in the donor heart allocation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, P Christian; Kitada, Shuichi; Clerkin, Kevin; Jin, Zhezhen; Mancini, Donna M

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the impact of the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) policy changes for regional differences in waitlist time and mortality before and after heart transplantation. The 2006 UNOS thoracic organ allocation policy change was implemented to allow for greater regional sharing of organs for heart transplantation. We analyzed 36,789 patients who were listed for heart transplantation from January 1999 through April 2012. These patients were separated into 2 eras centered on the July 12, 2006 UNOS policy change. Pre- and post-transplantation characteristics were compared by UNOS regions. Waitlist mortality decreased nationally (up to 180 days: 13.3% vs. 7.9% after the UNOS policy change, p < 0.001) and within each region. Similarly, 2-year post-transplant mortality decreased nationally (2-year mortality: 17.3% vs. 14.6%; p < 0.001) as well as regionally. Waitlist time for UNOS status 1A and 1B candidates increased nationally 17.8 days on average (p < 0.001) with variability between the regions. The greatest increases were in Region 9 (59.2-day increase, p < 0.001) and Region 4 (41.2-day increase, p < 0.001). Although the use of mechanical circulatory support increased nearly 2.3-fold nationally in Era 2, significant differences were present on a regional basis. In Regions 6, 7, and 10, nearly 40% of those transplanted required left ventricular assist device bridging, whereas only 19.6%, 22.3%, and 15.5% required a left ventricular assist device in regions 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The 2006 UNOS policy change has resulted in significant regional heterogeneity with respect to waitlist time and reliance on mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation, although overall both waitlist mortality and post-transplant survival are improved. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Are Time-Dependent Fluorescence Shifts at the Tunnel Mouth of Haloalkane Dehalogenase Enzymes Dependent on the Choice of the Chromophore?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amaro, Mariana; Brezovský, J.; Kováčová, S.; Maier, L.; Chaloupková, R.; Sýkora, Jan; Paruch, K.; Damborský, J.; Hof, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 26 (2013), s. 7898-7906 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : DYNAMIC STOKES SHIFT * WATER-PROTEIN FLUCTUATIONS * POLAR SOLVATION DYNAMICS Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.377, year: 2013

  1. Dynamic Resource Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Braak, T.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Holzenspies, P.K.F.

    2016-01-01

    Computer systems are subject to continuously increasing performance demands. However, energy consumption has become a critical issue, both for high-end large-scale parallel systems [12], as well as for portable devices [34]. In other words, more work needs to be done in less time, preferably with

  2. The dynamics of farm land allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnberg, Søren; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    This study develops a dynamic multi-output model of farmers’ crop allocation decisions that allows estimation of both short-run and long-run adjustments to a wide array of economic incentives. The method can be used to inform decision-makers about a number of issues including agricultural policy...... reform and environmental regulation. The model allows estimation of dynamic effects relating to price expectations adjustment, investment lags and crop rotation constraints. Estimation is based on micro-panel data from Danish farmers that includes acreage, output and variable input utilisation...... at the crop level. Results indicate that there are substantial differences between the shortrun and long-run land allocation behaviour of Danish farmers and that there are substantial differences in the time lags associated with different crops. Since similar farming conditions are found in northern Europe...

  3. Mechanical spectral shift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, P.K.; George, R.A.; Dollard, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanical spectral shift arrangement for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a plurality of reactor coolant displacer members which are inserted into a reactor core at the beginning of the core life to reduce the volume of reactor coolant-moderator in the core at start-up. However, as the reactivity of the core declines with fuel depletion, selected displacer members are withdrawn from the core at selected time intervals to increase core moderation at a time when fuel reactivity is declining. (author)

  4. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S

    1997-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  5. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-12-31

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the {tau}-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m{sup 3} can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  6. Cost allocation in distribution planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engevall, S.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis concerns cost allocation problems in distribution planning. The cost allocation problems we study are illustrated using the distribution planning situation at the Logistics department of Norsk Hydro Olje AB. The planning situation is modeled as a Traveling Salesman Problem and a Vehicle Routing Problem with an inhomogeneous fleet. The cost allocation problems are the problems of how to divide the transportation costs among the customers served in each problem. The cost allocation problems are formulated as cooperative games, in characteristic function form, where the customers are defined to be the players. The games contain five and 21 players respectively. Game theoretical solution concepts such as the core, the nucleolus, the Shapley value and the τ-value are discussed. From the empirical results we can, among other things, conclude that the core of the Traveling Salesman Game is large, and that the core of the Vehicle Routing Game is empty. In the accounting of Norsk Hydro the cost per m 3 can be found for each tour. We conclude that for a certain definition of the characteristic function, a cost allocation according to this principle will not be included in the core of the Traveling Salesman Game. The models and methods presented in this thesis can be applied to transportation problems similar to that of Norsk Hydro, independent of the type of products that are delivered. 96 refs, 11 figs, 26 tabs

  7. Efficient Power Allocation for Video over Superposition Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Lau, Chun Pong

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we consider a wireless multimedia system by mapping scalable video coded (SVC) bit stream upon superposition coded (SPC) signals, referred to as (SVC-SPC) architecture. Empirical experiments using a software-defined radio(SDR) emulator are conducted to gain a better understanding of its efficiency, specifically, the impact of the received signal due to different power allocation ratios. Our experimental results show that to maintain high video quality, the power allocated to the base layer should be approximately four times higher than the power allocated to the enhancement layer.

  8. Application of an allocation methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, R.; de Oliveira, L.F.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for allocating resources to elements of a system for the purpose of achieving prescribed levels of defense-in-depth at minimal cost. The method makes extensive use of logic modelling. An analysis of a simplified high-level waste repository is used as an illustrative application of the method. It is shown that it is possible to allocate quality control costs (or demonstrated performance) in an optimal way over elements of a conceptual design. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Continuous integration congestion cost allocation based on sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Z.Q.; Wang, Y.N.

    2004-01-01

    Congestion cost allocation is a very important topic in congestion management. Allocation methods based on the Aumann-Shapley value use the discrete numerical integration method, which needs to solve the incremented OPF solution many times, and as such it is not suitable for practical application to large-scale systems. The optimal solution and its sensitivity change tendency during congestion removal using a DC optimal power flow (OPF) process is analysed. A simple continuous integration method based on the sensitivity is proposed for the congestion cost allocation. The proposed sensitivity analysis method needs a smaller computation time than the method based on using the quadratic method and inner point iteration. The proposed congestion cost allocation method uses a continuous integration method rather than discrete numerical integration. The method does not need to solve the incremented OPF solutions; which allows it use in large-scale systems. The method can also be used for AC OPF congestion management. (author)

  10. Running Title: C and N Allocation in Pine; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J. Timothy

    1996-01-01

    A long standing challenge has been understanding how plants and ecosystems respond to shifts in the balance of resource availabilities. The continuing rise in atmospheric CO(sub 2) will induce changes in the availability and use of several terrestrial ecosystem resources. We report on the acquisition and allocation of carbon and nitrogen in Pinus ponderosa Laws. seedlings grown at three levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (370, 525, and 700(micro)mol mol(sup -1)) and three levels of soil nitrogen supply in a controlled environment experiment. Nitrogen was applied (0, 100, and 200(micro)g N g soil(sup -1)) at planting and again at week 26 of a 58-week, 4-harvest experiment. At the final harvest, plants grown with variety low available soil nitrogen showed no significant response to atmospheric CO(sub 2). Plants at higher N levels responded positively to CO(sub 2) with the highest biomass at the middle CO(sub 2) level. Plants growing at the lowest N levels immediately allocated a relatively large portion of their nitrogen and biomass to roots. Plants growing at near present ambient CO(sub 2) levels allocated relatively little material to roots when N was abundant but moved both carbon and nitrogen below-ground when N was withheld. Plants growing at higher CO(sub 2) levels, allocated more C and N to roots even when N was abundant, and made only small shifts in allocation patterns when N was no longer supplied. In general, allocation of C and N to roots tended to increase when N supply was restricted and also with increasing atmospheric CO(sub 2) level. These allocation responses were consistent with patterns suggesting a functional balance in the acquisition of above-ground versus below-ground resources. In particular, variation in whole tree average nitrogen concentration can explain 68% of the variation ratio of root biomass to shoot biomass across the harvests. The capability to respond to temporal variation in nutrient conditions, the dynamics of nutrient uptake

  11. Optimal static allocation decisions in the presence of portfolio insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Goltz, Felix; Martellini, Lionel; Şimşek, Koray Deniz; Simsek, Koray Deniz

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to determine what fraction a myopic risk-averse investor should allocate to investment strategies with convex exposure to stock market returns in a general economy with stochastically time-varying interest rates and equity risk premium. Our conclusion is that typical investors should optimally allocate a sizable fraction of their portfolio to such portfolio insurance strategies, and the associated utility gains are significant. While the fact that static investors w...

  12. Dynamic asset allocation for bank under stochastic interest rates.

    OpenAIRE

    Chakroun, Fatma; Abid, Fathi

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal asset allocation strategy for bank with stochastic interest rates when there are three types of asset: Bank account, loans and securities. The asset allocation problem is to maximize the expected utility from terminal wealth of a bank's shareholders over a finite time horizon. As a consequence, we apply a dynamic programming principle to solve the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation explicitly in the case of the CRRA utility function. A case study is given ...

  13. A tactical asset allocation strategy that exploits variations in VIX

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Cloutier; Arsen Djatej; Dean Kiefer

    2017-01-01

    Buy and hold strategies make staying disciplined difficult for investors, especially given the variability of returns for different asset classes/strategies during divergent market conditions. Market timing strategies, on the other hand, present significant theoretical benefits, but in reality these benefits are difficult to obtain. Tactical asset allocation, where limited deviations from the strategic allocation are allowed permits the portfolio manager to take advantage of market conditions...

  14. Robust time-shifted spoke pulse design in the presence of large B0 variations with simultaneous reduction of through-plane dephasing, B1+ effects, and the specific absorption rate using parallel transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, Bastien; Stockmann, Jason P; Baboli, Mehran; Torrado-Carvajal, Angel; Stenger, Andrew V; Wald, Lawrence L

    2016-08-01

    To design parallel transmission spokes pulses with time-shifted profiles for joint mitigation of intensity variations due to B1+ effects, signal loss due to through-plane dephasing, and the specific absorption rate (SAR) at 7T. We derived a slice-averaged small tip angle (SA-STA) approximation of the magnetization signal at echo time that depends on the B1+ transmit profiles, the through-slice B0 gradient and the amplitude and time-shifts of the spoke waveforms. We minimize a magnitude least-squares objective based on this signal equation using a fast interior-point approach with analytical expressions of the Jacobian and Hessian. Our algorithm runs in less than three minutes for the design of two-spoke pulses subject to hundreds of local SAR constraints. On a B0/B1+ head phantom, joint optimization of the channel-dependent time-shifts and spoke amplitudes allowed signal recovery in high-B0 regions at no increase of SAR. Although the method creates uniform magnetization profiles (ie, uniform intensity), the flip angle varies across the image, which makes it ill-suited to T1-weighted applications. The SA-STA approach presented in this study is best suited to T2*-weighted applications with long echo times that require signal recovery around high B0 regions. Magn Reson Med 76:540-554, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Regulating nutrient allocation in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udvardi, Michael; Yang, Jiading; Worley, Eric

    2014-12-09

    The invention provides coding and promoter sequences for a VS-1 and AP-2 gene, which affects the developmental process of senescence in plants. Vectors, transgenic plants, seeds, and host cells comprising heterologous VS-1 and AP-2 genes are also provided. Additionally provided are methods of altering nutrient allocation and composition in a plant using the VS-1 and AP-2 genes.

  16. Centralized Allocation in Multiple Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monte, Daniel; Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    The problem of allocating indivisible objects to different agents, where each indi vidual is assigned at most one object, has been widely studied. Pápai (2000) shows that the set of strategy-proof, nonbossy, Pareto optimal and reallocation-proof rules are hierarchical exchange rules | generalizat...... and nonbossy rules are sequential dictatorships, a special case of Pápai's hierarchical exchange rules....

  17. Designing for dynamic task allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, van K.; Maanen, van P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Future platforms are envisioned in which human-machine teams are able to share and trade tasks as demands in situations change. It seems that human-machine coordination has not received the attention it deserves by past and present approaches to task allocation. In this paper a simple way to make

  18. Planning and Resource Allocation Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jack W.

    1986-01-01

    Modern scientific management techniques provide college administrators with valuable planning and resource allocation insights and enhances the decision process. The planning model should incorporate assessment, strategic planning, dynamic and long-term budgeting, operational planning, and feedback and control for actual operations. (MSE)

  19. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Bakker, Marije F; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure–response relationships for frequency of night shifts and years of shift work regarding non-occupational PA levels were studied. Methods Data of 5980 non-shift workers and 532 shift workers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) were used in these cross-sectional analyses. Time spent (hours/week) in different PA types (walking/cycling/exercise/chores) and intensities (moderate/vigorous) were calculated based on self-reported PA. Furthermore, sports were operationalised as: playing sports (no/yes), individual versus non-individual sports, and non-vigorous-intensity versus vigorous-intensity sports. PA levels were compared between shift workers and non-shift workers using Generalized Estimating Equations and logistic regression. Results Shift workers reported spending more time walking than non-shift workers (B=2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4)), but shift work was not associated with other PA types and any of the sports activities. Shift workers who worked 1–4 night shifts/month (B=2.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.3)) and ≥5 night shifts/month (B=3.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.6)) spent more time walking than non-shift workers. No exposure–response relationships were found between years of shift work and PA levels. Conclusions Shift workers spent more time walking than non-shift workers, but we observed no differences in other non-occupational PA levels. To better understand if and how PA plays a role in the negative health consequences of shift work, our findings need to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:27872151

  1. Shifts in the Antibiotic Susceptibility, Serogroups, and Clonal Complexes of Neisseria meningitidis in Shanghai, China: A Time Trend Analysis of the Pre-Quinolone and Quinolone Eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingliang; Guo, Qinglan; Wang, Ye; Zou, Ying; Wang, Gangyi; Zhang, Xi; Xu, Xiaogang; Zhao, Miao; Hu, Fupin; Qu, Di; Chen, Min; Wang, Minggui

    2015-06-01

    Fluoroquinolones have been used broadly since the end of the 1980s and have been recommended for Neisseria meningitidis prophylaxis since 2005 in China. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how N. meningitidis antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroup prevalence, and clonal complex (CC) prevalence shifted in association with the introduction and expanding use of quinolones in Shanghai, a region with a traditionally high incidence of invasive disease due to N. meningitidis. A total of 374 N. meningitidis isolates collected by the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention between 1965 and 2013 were studied. Shifts in the serogroups and CCs were observed, from predominantly serogroup A CC5 (84%) in 1965-1973 to serogroup A CC1 (58%) in 1974-1985, then to serogroup C or B CC4821 (62%) in 2005-2013. The rates of ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility in N. meningitidis disease isolates increased from 0% in 1965-1985 to 84% (31/37) in 2005-2013 (p convenience isolates from 1965-1985 were available. The increasing prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance since 2005 in Shanghai was associated with the spread of hypervirulent lineages CC4821 and CC5. Two resistant meningococcal clones ChinaCC4821-R1-C/B and ChinaCC5-R14-A have emerged in Shanghai during the quinolone era. Ciprofloxacin should be utilized with caution for the chemoprophylaxis of N. meningitidis in China.

  2. Ct shift: A novel and accurate real-time PCR quantification model for direct comparison of different nucleic acid sequences and its application for transposon quantifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacsek, Orsolya; Pergel, Enikő; Varga, Nóra; Apáti, Ágota; Orbán, Tamás I

    2017-01-20

    There are numerous applications of quantitative PCR for both diagnostic and basic research. As in many other techniques the basis of quantification is that comparisons are made between different (unknown and known or reference) specimens of the same entity. When the aim is to compare real quantities of different species in samples, one cannot escape their separate precise absolute quantification. We have established a simple and reliable method for this purpose (Ct shift method) which combines the absolute and the relative approach. It requires a plasmid standard containing both sequences of amplicons to be compared (e.g. the target of interest and the endogenous control). It can serve as a reference sample with equal copies of templates for both targets. Using the ΔΔCt formula we can quantify the exact ratio of the two templates in each unknown sample. The Ct shift method has been successfully applied for transposon gene copy measurements, as well as for comparison of different mRNAs in cDNA samples. This study provides the proof of concept and introduces some potential applications of the method; the absolute nature of results even without the need for real reference samples can contribute to the universality of the method and comparability of different studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tactical Asset Allocation mit Genetischen Algorithmen

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Ammann; Christian Zenkner

    2003-01-01

    In this study of tactical asset allocation, we use a genetic algorithm to implement a market timing strategy. The algorithm makes a daily decision whether to invest in the market index or in a riskless asset. The market index is represented by the S&P500 Composite Index, the riskless asset by a 3-month T-Bill. The decision of the genetic algorithm is based on fundamental macroeconomic variables. The association of fundamental variables with a set of operators creates a space of possible strat...

  4. A northward colonisation of the Andes by the potato cyst nematode during geological times suggests multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Damien; Sempere, Thierry; Plantard, Olivier

    2007-02-01

    The cyst nematode Globodera pallida is a major pest of potato in South America where this specialist parasite is native. To investigate its phylogeography, we have genotyped individuals from 42 Peruvian populations using mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers. A clear south-to-north phylogeographical pattern was revealed with five well-supported clades. The clade containing the southern populations is genetically more diverse and forms the most basal branch. The large divergence among cytochrome b haplotypes suggests that they diverged before human domestication of potato. As the nematodes studied have been sampled on cultivated potato, multiple host-shifts from wild to cultivated potatoes must have occurred independently in each clade. We hypothesise that this south-to-north pattern took place during the uplift of the Andes beginning 20 My ago and following the same direction. To our knowledge, this is the first study of a plant parasite sampled on cultivated plants revealing an ancient phylogeographical pattern.

  5. The implications of free allocation versus auctioning of EU ETS allowances for the power sector in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Hers, J.S.; Lise, W.

    2008-12-01

    The main objective of the present study is to analyse the implications of shifting from free allocation to auctioning of EU ETS allowances (EUAs) for the power sector in the Netherlands. In order to achieve this objective, this study has used three methodological approaches, including theoretical, empirical and model analyses of the impact of free allocations versus auctioning of EUAs on the power sector, notably in the Netherlands. In addition, as Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plays a major role in the electricity sector of the Netherlands, the present study also pays some particular attention to the implications of shifting from free allocation to EUA auctioning for the CHP sector in the Netherlands

  6. Learning and strategic asset allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Kearns, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This thesis investigates whether or not models that portray the relationship between what an investor learns and how he allocates his portfolio can explain phenomena related to household behaviour in the stock market. Endogenous modelling of household learning is utilised, which builds on a growing literature called bounded rationality with increasing explanatory power, offering an alternative to the classical rational expectations theory. Such phenomena include firstly why households often h...

  7. Fuzzy containers allocation problem in maritime terminal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Mohammad Seyed-Hosseini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal.dotm 0 0 1 140 799 UPC 6 1 981 12.0 0 false 18 pt 18 pt 0 0 false false false /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:??; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Containers allocation in terminals has attracted lots of research works due to practical & theoretical importance in transportation literature. In this paper, we developed a fuzzy mathematical programming model for solving problem of allocating the containers in terminal area. The objective is minimizing the total distance traversed by the containers from the ship to the terminal area they are assigned. Fuzzy set concepts are used to treat imprecision regarding the distances between berth and terminals area, number of containers in an arrived ship and estimation of available area in each terminal at a port. We proposed two types of models for optimistic and pessimistic situations. The proposed models have been coded in LINGO8.0 solver and a numerical example has been solved for illustration purpose. The full analysis of the proposed models can cause an optimum allocation of containers of several ships to different terminals of berths in fuzzy environment.

  8. The shifting beverage landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Maureen

    2010-04-26

    STOREY, M.L. The shifting beverage landscape. PHYSIOL BEHAV, 2010. - Simultaneous lifestyle changes have occurred in the last few decades, creating an imbalance in energy intake and energy expenditure that has led to overweight and obesity. Trends in the food supply show that total daily calories available per capita increased 28% since 1970. Total energy intake among men and women has also increased dramatically since that time. Some have suggested that intake of beverages has had a disproportional impact on obesity. Data collected by the Beverage Marketing Corporation between 1988-2008 demonstrate that, in reality, fewer calories per ounce are being produced by the beverage industry. Moreover, data from the National Cancer Institute show that soft drink intake represents 5.5% of daily calories. Data from NHANES 1999-2003 vs. 2003-06 may demonstrate a shift in beverage consumption for age/gender groups, ages 6 to>60years. The beverages provided in schools have significantly changed since 2006 when the beverage industry implemented School Beverage Guidelines. This voluntary action has removed full-calorie soft drinks from participating schools across the country. This shift to lower-calorie and smaller-portion beverages in school has led to a significant decrease in total beverage calories in schools. These data support the concept that to prevent and treat obesity, public health efforts should focus on energy balance and that a narrow focus on sweetened beverages is unlikely to have any meaningful impact on this complex problem. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Resource allocation in networks via coalitional games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shams, F.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this dissertation is to manage resource allocation in network engineering problems and to introduce efficient cooperative algorithms to obtain high performance, ensuring fairness and stability. Specifically, this dissertation introduces new approaches for resource allocation in

  10. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    2000-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element with the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  11. Micropatch Antenna Phase Shifting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thursby, Michael

    1999-01-01

    .... We have been looking at the ability of embedded element to adjust the phase shift seen by the element wit the goal of being able to remove the phase shifting devices from the antenna and replace...

  12. Research advances on thereasonable water resources allocation in irrigation district

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuebin, Qi; Zhongdong, Huang; Dongmei, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area. The prog......The rational allocation of water resources for irrigation is important to improve the efficiency in utilization of water resources and ensuring food security, but also effective control measures need to be in place for the sustainable utilization of water resources in an irrigation area...... mechanism of water resources is not perfect, the model for optimal water resources allocation is not practical, and the basic conditions for optimal allocation of water resources is relatively weak. In order to solve those problems in water resources allocation practice, six important as?pects must...... in irrigation districts, studying the water resources control technology in irrigation districts by hydrology ecological system, studying the technologies of real?time risk dispatching and intelligent management in irrigation districts, and finally studying the technology of cou?pling optimal allocation...

  13. Asset Allocation of Mutual Fund Investors

    OpenAIRE

    Dengpan Luo

    2003-01-01

    This paper studies mutual fund investors' asset allocation decisions using monthly flow data of U.S mutual fund industry from 1984 to 1998. We find that mutual fund investors change their asset allocations between stocks and bonds in reaction to business conditions tracked by changes in expected stock market returns. They tend to allocate less into stock funds during the trough of a business cycle when expected stock market returns are higher and to allocate more into stock funds during the p...

  14. Optimal resource allocation for distributed video communication

    CERN Document Server

    He, Yifeng

    2013-01-01

    While most books on the subject focus on resource allocation in just one type of network, this book is the first to examine the common characteristics of multiple distributed video communication systems. Comprehensive and systematic, Optimal Resource Allocation for Distributed Video Communication presents a unified optimization framework for resource allocation across these systems. The book examines the techniques required for optimal resource allocation over Internet, wireless cellular networks, wireless ad hoc networks, and wireless sensor networks. It provides you with the required foundat

  15. The effectiveness of healthy meals at work on reaction time, mood and dietary intake: a randomised cross-over study in daytime and shift workers at an university hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leedo, Eva; Beck, Anne Marie; Astrup, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Our dietary habits affect both cognitive performance and mood. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of increased availability of healthy meals and water at work on healthcare staff. The study used an 8-week randomised cross-over design. A total of sixty physicians, nurses and nursing...... assistants, including sixteen working on shifts, were recruited. The participants received a self-selected keyhole-labelled (Nordic nutrition label) lunch, snack and bottled water during each shift throughout the intervention period. Reaction time (Go/No-Go test), mood-related scores (POMS) and dietary....... The intervention had no effect on reaction time or any of the mood-related scores in the group as a whole. In shift-working participants, the intervention period resulted in a 31·1 % lower Fatigue-Inertia Score (P=0·003), a 15·3 % higher Vigour-Activity Score (P=0·041) and a 42·7 % lower Total Mood Disturbance...

  16. Shifts in the Antibiotic Susceptibility, Serogroups, and Clonal Complexes of Neisseria meningitidis in Shanghai, China: A Time Trend Analysis of the Pre-Quinolone and Quinolone Eras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroquinolones have been used broadly since the end of the 1980s and have been recommended for Neisseria meningitidis prophylaxis since 2005 in China. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how N. meningitidis antimicrobial susceptibility, serogroup prevalence, and clonal complex (CC prevalence shifted in association with the introduction and expanding use of quinolones in Shanghai, a region with a traditionally high incidence of invasive disease due to N. meningitidis.A total of 374 N. meningitidis isolates collected by the Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention between 1965 and 2013 were studied. Shifts in the serogroups and CCs were observed, from predominantly serogroup A CC5 (84% in 1965-1973 to serogroup A CC1 (58% in 1974-1985, then to serogroup C or B CC4821 (62% in 2005-2013. The rates of ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility in N. meningitidis disease isolates increased from 0% in 1965-1985 to 84% (31/37 in 2005-2013 (p < 0.001. Among the ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible isolates, 87% (27/31 were assigned to either CC4821 (n = 20 or CC5 (n = 7. The two predominant ciprofloxacin-resistant clones were designated ChinaCC4821-R1-C/B and ChinaCC5-R14-A. The ChinaCC4821-R1-C/B clone acquired ciprofloxacin resistance by a point mutation, and was present in 52% (16/31 of the ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible disease isolates. The ChinaCC5-R14-A clone acquired ciprofloxacin resistance by horizontal gene transfer, and was found in 23% (7/31 of the ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible disease isolates. The ciprofloxacin nonsusceptibility rate was 47% (7/15 among isolates from asymptomatic carriers, and nonsusceptibility was associated with diverse multi-locus sequence typing profiles and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. As detected after 2005, ciprofloxacin-nonsusceptible strains were shared between some of the patients and their close contacts. A limitation of this study is that isolates from 1986-2004 were not available

  17. OpenShift Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Rodriguez Peon, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Workshop to introduce developers to the OpenShift platform available at CERN. Several use cases will be shown, including deploying an existing application into OpenShift. We expect attendees to realize about OpenShift features and general architecture of the service.

  18. Intelligent tactical asset allocation support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes

  19. Are larks future-oriented and owls present-oriented? Age- and sex-related shifts in chronotype-time perspective associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowack, Kati; van der Meer, Elke

    2013-12-01

    The chronotype (morningness/eveningness) relates to individual differences in circadian preferences. Time perspective (past, present, future) refers to the preference to rely on a particular temporal frame for decision-making processes and behavior. First evidence suggests that future time perspective is associated with greater morningness and present time perspective with greater eveningness. However, little is known about how chronotype-time perspective relationships may alter over the life span. This present study investigated links between chronotype and time perspective more thoroughly by taking age and sex into account as well. Seven hundred six participants aged between 17 and 74 completed German adaptations of the Morningness--Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI). Controlling for age and sex, relationships between morningness and future time perspective as well as between eveningness and present time perspective were replicated. These findings were supported by significant associations between time perspective and midpoint of sleep. Future time perspective was linked to earlier midpoints of sleep, indicating an early chronotype. Present time perspective was associated with later midpoints of sleep, indicating a late chronotype. However, age and sex had an impact on the chronotype-time perspective relationships. In all age groups, male larks were more future-oriented and less present-oriented, male owls more present-oriented and less future-oriented. The same conclusion could be drawn for female adolescents and young adults. For female adults above 30, there was no interrelationship between morningness and future time perspective but between eveningness and past time perspective. Female adult owls were more present-oriented as well as more past-oriented. Female adult larks were less present-oriented and less past-oriented. Findings are discussed in the light of neuroendocrine and serotonergic functioning.

  20. ALLOCATING VENDOR RISKS IN THE HANFORD WASTE CLEANUP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keisler, Jeff M.; Buehring, William A.; McLaughlin, Peter D.; Robershotte, Mark A.; Whitfield, Ronald G.

    2004-01-01

    Organizations may view outsourcing as a way to eliminate risk. This application uses a decision analytic approach to determine which risks can be shared or shifted to vendors and which ones should be borne by the buyer. In this case, we found that allocating risks incorrectly could increase costs dramatically. This approach was used to develop the Request for Proposals (RFP) for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) privatization initiative for the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). We describe this application and/SUMmarize technical and organizational lessons learned in the years following. The model used an assessment protocol to predict how vendors would react to proposed risk allocations in terms of their actions and their pricing

  1. Allocating Resources to Enhance Resilience, with Application to Superstorm Sandy and an Electric Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Cameron A; Zobel, Christopher W

    2016-04-01

    This article constructs a framework to help a decisionmaker allocate resources to increase his or her organization's resilience to a system disruption, where resilience is measured as a function of the average loss per unit time and the time needed to recover full functionality. Enhancing resilience prior to a disruption involves allocating resources from a fixed budget to reduce the value of one or both of these characteristics. We first look at characterizing the optimal resource allocations associated with several standard allocation functions. Because the resources are being allocated before the disruption, however, the initial loss and recovery time may not be known with certainty. We thus also apply the optimal resource allocation model for resilience to three models of uncertain disruptions: (1) independent probabilities, (2) dependent probabilities, and (3) unknown probabilities. The optimization model is applied to an example of increasing the resilience of an electric power network following Superstorm Sandy. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Tradable permit allocations and sequential choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKenzie, Ian A. [Centre for Economic Research, ETH Zuerich, Zurichbergstrasse 18, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-01-15

    This paper investigates initial allocation choices in an international tradable pollution permit market. For two sovereign governments, we compare allocation choices that are either simultaneously or sequentially announced. We show sequential allocation announcements result in higher (lower) aggregate emissions when announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). Whether allocation announcements are strategic substitutes or complements depends on the relationship between the follower's damage function and governments' abatement costs. When the marginal damage function is relatively steep (flat), allocation announcements are strategic substitutes (complements). For quadratic abatement costs and damages, sequential announcements provide a higher level of aggregate emissions. (author)

  3. KANBAN allocation in a serial suply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Andrés Sánchez C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this project is to simulate a Kanban system using N stages with the objective of maintaining an acceptable throughput and mean system time. The document shows the production systems where Kanban is applicable and what the potential benefits are. A serial of simulations will be done using a demand given by a poison distribution with rate λ ^ ext. The simulation aimed to find the best number of withdrawal Kanban on all stages when the values of μ (for exponential distribution of the process and λ ^ ext increase and decrease. At the end of this simulation, the best way to allocate the withdrawal Kanban over N stages with the objective of maintaining acceptable throughput and mean system time will be clearer thus the conclusions of this work will be done.

  4. Allocation decisions in network industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolle, Friedel [Europa-Universitaet Viadrina Frankfurt, Lehrstuhl Volkswirtschaftslehre, insbesondere Wirtschaftstheorie (Mikrooekonomie), Postfach 1786 15207 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    In this paper, I want to propagate a new analytical tool: The usage of Menu Auctions for modelling complicated auctions, negotiations, rent seeking, etc. is advocated, because, contrary to 'normal' auctions and bargaining models, an arbitrary number of additional aspects can be taken into account. After concentrating on 'Truthful Equilibria' [Bernheim, B.D., Whinston, M.D., 1986. Menu auctions, resource allocation, and economic influence, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1-31.] a certain broad class of Menu Auctions show unique and efficient allocations. Under an additional concavity condition even the equilibrium bids are unique. Two examples are discussed: the privatisation of a state-owned industry and the buying of wholesale electricity (concluding contracts with a number of producers) by a utility. These examples also serve to trace the sources of 'non-concavities' which can prevent the uniqueness of bids and can provide the auctioneer with incentives to exclude bidders from the competition. (author)

  5. Allocation - the Howe measurement challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, Jim; Moksnes, Paul Ove

    2005-07-01

    The Howe Field is located in the Central North Sea Block 22/12a approximately 160 km east of Aberdeen in a water depth of 85 m. The reservoir lies some 12 km east of the Shell operated Nelson Platform, which is situated in adjacent Block 22/11. The Howe project was initiated by Shell Exploration and Production to augment the operating life and production capacity of the Nelson platform, involving the development of an additional subset infrastructure and the installation of topside facilities. The owners of the Howe Field are Enterprise Oil PLC , Intrepid Energy and OMV. The Howe well fluids are commingled with Nelson fluids. Therefore, it is required to measure the Howe well fluids to differentiate between the fields and to determine how much money each partner is allocated. The commercial agreements have stipulated that the measurements of Howe fluids are required to be measured within an accuracy of +- 5% of reading. In addition to accuracy constraints, it was important to minimise capex to ensure the development was economically viable. Given this, multiphase metering was considered to be a solution for allocation between the different ownerships, as opposed to traditional separator metering. This paper will present the journey of the project activity through the selection criteria, flow loop test, installation, commissioning and the first 3 months of operation of the MPFM including verification with the Nelson test separator. Detailing with careful management and engineering support how to succeed with this type of application. (author) (tk)

  6. A game-theoretical pricing mechanism for multiuser rate allocation for video over WiMAX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao-An; Lo, Chi-Wen; Lin, Chia-Wen; Chen, Yung-Chang

    2010-07-01

    In multiuser rate allocation in a wireless network, strategic users can bias the rate allocation by misrepresenting their bandwidth demands to a base station, leading to an unfair allocation. Game-theoretical approaches have been proposed to address the unfair allocation problems caused by the strategic users. However, existing approaches rely on a timeconsuming iterative negotiation process. Besides, they cannot completely prevent unfair allocations caused by inconsistent strategic behaviors. To address these problems, we propose a Search Based Pricing Mechanism to reduce the communication time and to capture a user's strategic behavior. Our simulation results show that the proposed method significantly reduce the communication time as well as converges stably to an optimal allocation.

  7. Impact of New Shift Models for Doctors Working at a German University Hospital for Gynaecology and Obstetrics Four Years After Implementation. Can They Meet the European Working Time Directive Without Increasing Costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmann, J; Holderried, M; Blumenstock, G; Bamberg, M; Rieger, M A; Wallwiener, D; Brucker, S

    2013-07-01

    Background: The impact of the European Working Time Directive and subsequent collective wage agreements for doctors from 2006 onwards were substantial. So far, no systematic evaluation of their application in Germany has been performed. We evaluated the impact four years after implementation of new shift models in a University Hospital for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (UHGO). Methods: A new shift model was created together with doctors of Tübingen UHOG in 2007 and implemented in 2008. Documentation of working hours has hence been done electronically. Adherence to the average weekly working time limit (AWTL) and the maximum of 10 h daily working time (10 h-dwt) was evaluated, as well as staffing costs in relation to case-weight points gathered within the German DRG (diagnosis related groups) System. Results: Staff increased from a mean of 44.7 full time equivalent (FTE) doctors in 2007 to 52.5 FTE in 2009, 50.8 in 2010, and 54.5 in 2011. There was no statistically significant difference of the monthly staff expenditures per case-weight between the years 2009 or 2010 vs. 2007. 2011, however, was significantly more expensive than 2007 (p = 0.02). The internal control group (five other departments of the university hospital) did not show an increase during the same period. AWTL were respected by 90, 96, and 98 % in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Of all shifts 10 h-dwt was exceeded by 7.4 % in 2009, 1.3 % in 2010, and 2.6 % in 2011, with significant differences between 2009 and both, 2010 and 2011 (p < 0.001), and between 2010 and 2011 (p = 0.02). Discussion: AWTL and 10 h-dwt could be continuously respected quite well after implementation of the new shift model without increasing the cost/earnings ratio for the first two years. However, in 2011 the ratio increased significantly (p = 0.02).

  8. Real life working shift assignment problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, San-Nah; Kwek, Yeek-Ling; Tiong, Wei-King; Chiew, Kang-Leng

    2017-07-01

    This study concerns about the working shift assignment in an outlet of Supermarket X in Eastern Mall, Kuching. The working shift assignment needs to be solved at least once in every month. Current approval process of working shifts is too troublesome and time-consuming. Furthermore, the management staff cannot have an overview of manpower and working shift schedule. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop working shift assignment simulation and propose a working shift assignment solution. The main objective for this study is to fulfill manpower demand at minimum operation cost. Besides, the day off and meal break policy should be fulfilled accordingly. Demand based heuristic is proposed to assign working shift and the quality of the solution is evaluated by using the real data.

  9. Real-Time Ultrasound/MRI Fusion for Suprasacral Parallel Shift Approach to Lumbosacral Plexus Blockade and Analysis of Injectate Spread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strid, Jennie Maria Christin; Pedersen, Erik Morre; Al-Karradi, Sinan Naseer Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Fused real-time ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to improve the accuracy of advanced image guided procedures. However, its use in regional anesthesia is practically nonexistent. In this randomized controlled crossover trial, we aim to explore effectiveness, procedure-re...

  10. Explaining (Missing) Regulator Paradigm Shifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigger, Angela; Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    The global financial and economic crisis has prompted some scholars to suggest that a fundamental regulatory shift away from neoliberalism will take place – both in general and in the field of EU competition regulation. This paper shows that so far no radical break with the neoliberal type...... regulation after the crisis in the 1970s, the paper argues that the preconditions for a fundamental shift in this issue area are not present this time around. Several reasons account for this: the current crisis has been construed by economic and political elites as a crisis within and not of neoliberal...

  11. Choice Shifts in Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Kfir Eliaz; Debraj Ray

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of "choice shifts" in group decision-making is fairly ubiquitous in the social psychology literature. Faced with a choice between a ``safe" and ``risky" decision, group members appear to move to one extreme or the other, relative to the choices each member might have made on her own. Both risky and cautious shifts have been identified in different situations. This paper demonstrates that from an individual decision-making perspective, choice shifts may be viewed as a systematic...

  12. Two-stage unified stretched-exponential model for time-dependence of threshold voltage shift under positive-bias-stresses in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chan-Yong; Kim, Hee-Joong; Hong, Sae-Young; Song, Sang-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we show that the two-stage unified stretched-exponential model can more exactly describe the time-dependence of threshold voltage shift (ΔV TH) under long-term positive-bias-stresses compared to the traditional stretched-exponential model in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). ΔV TH is mainly dominated by electron trapping at short stress times, and the contribution of trap state generation becomes significant with an increase in the stress time. The two-stage unified stretched-exponential model can provide useful information not only for evaluating the long-term electrical stability and lifetime of the a-IGZO TFT but also for understanding the stress-induced degradation mechanism in a-IGZO TFTs.

  13. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  14. Distributed Services with Foreseen and Unforeseen Tasks: The Mobile Re-allocation Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Larco Martinelli (Jose); R. Dekker (Rommert); U. Kaymak (Uzay)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we deal with a common problem found in the operations of security and preventive/corrective maintenance services: that of routing a number of mobile resources to serve foreseen and unforeseen tasks during a shift. We define the (Mobile Re-Allocation Problem) MRAP as the

  15. Is the burden of overweight shifting to the poor across the globe? Time trends among women in 39 low- and middle-income countries (1991–2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Smith, Jessica C.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-01-01

    Background Overweight prevalence has increased globally; however, current time trends of overweight by social class in lower income countries are unknown. Methods We used repeated cross-sectional, nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys on women aged 18–49 with young children (n=421,689) in 39 lower income countries. We present overweight (body mass index ≥25) prevalence at each survey wave, prevalence difference and prevalence growth rate for each country over time is presented separately by wealth quintile and educational attainment. We present the correlation between nation wealth and differential overweight prevalence growth by wealth and education was estimated. Results In the majority of countries the highest wealth and education groups still have the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity. However, in a substantial number of countries (31% when wealth is used as the indicator of SES and 54% for education) the estimated increases in overweight prevalence over time have been greater in the lowest compared to the highest wealth and education groups. Gross Domestic Product per capita was associated with a higher overweight prevalence growth rate for the lowest wealth group compared to the highest (Pearson’s correlation coefficient: 0.45). Conclusions Higher (versus lower) wealth and education groups had higher overweight prevalence across most developing countries. However, some countries show a faster growth rates in overweight in the lowest (versus highest) wealth and education groups, indicative of an increasing burden of overweight among lower wealth and education groups in lower income countries. PMID:21912397

  16. Nanosecond dynamics of influenza A/M2TM and an amantadine resistant mutant probed by time-dependent red shifts of a native tryptophan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, Vikas [Center for Advanced Biotechnology and Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School – UMDNJ, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Department of Biochemistry, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School – UMDNJ, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cristian, Lidia [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6059 (United States); Toptygin, Dmitri; Brand, Ludwig [Department of Biology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); DeGrado, William F., E-mail: William.Degrado@ucsf.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94158 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► Examined nanosecond dynamics of essential tryptophan residue of M2 proton channel. ► Channel blocking drugs restrict the ability of M2 to stabilize charge. ► Dielectric relaxation of M2 consistent with molecular dynamics simulation studies. - Abstract: Proteins involved in functions such as electron transfer or ion transport must be capable of stabilizing transient charged species on time scales ranging from picoseconds to microseconds. We study the influenza A M2 proton channel, containing a tryptophan residue that serves as an essential part of the proton conduction pathway. We induce a transition dipole in tryptophan by photoexcitation, and then probe the dielectric stabilization of its excited state. The magnitude of the stabilization over this time regime was larger than that generally found for tryptophan in membrane or protein environments. M2 achieves a water-like stabilization over a 25 ns time scale, slower than that of bulk water, but sufficiently rapid to contribute to stabilization of charge as protons diffuse through the channel. These measurements should stimulate future MD studies to clarify the role of sidechain versus non-bulk water in defining the process of relaxation.

  17. Speaking truth to power: the effect of candid feedback on how individuals with power allocate resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oc, Burak; Bashshur, Michael R; Moore, Celia

    2015-03-01

    Subordinates are often seen as impotent, able to react to but not affect how powerholders treat them. Instead, we conceptualize subordinate feedback as an important trigger of powerholders' behavioral self-regulation and explore subordinates' reciprocal influence on how powerholders allocate resources to them over time. In 2 experiments using a multiparty, multiround dictator game paradigm, we found that when subordinates provided candid feedback about whether they found prior allocations to be fair or unfair, powerholders regulated how self-interested their allocations were over time. However, when subordinates provided compliant feedback about powerholders' prior allocation decisions (offered consistently positive feedback, regardless of the powerholders' prior allocation), those powerholders made increasingly self-interested allocations over time. In addition, we showed that guilt partially mediates this relationship: powerholders feel more guilty after receiving negative feedback about an allocation, subsequently leading to a less self-interested allocation, whereas they feel less guilty after receiving positive feedback about an allocation, subsequently taking more for themselves. Our findings integrate the literature on upward feedback with theory about moral self-regulation to support the idea that subordinates are an important source of influence over those who hold power over them. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Reduced Tolerance to Night Shift in Chronic Shift Workers: Insight From Fractal Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Morris, Christopher J; Patxot, Melissa; Yugay, Tatiana; Mistretta, Joseph; Purvis, Taylor E; Scheer, Frank A J L; Hu, Kun

    2017-07-01

    Healthy physiology is characterized by fractal regulation (FR) that generates similar structures in the fluctuations of physiological outputs at different time scales. Perturbed FR is associated with aging and age-related pathological conditions. Shift work, involving repeated and chronic exposure to misaligned environmental and behavioral cycles, disrupts circadian coordination. We tested whether night shifts perturb FR in motor activity and whether night shifts affect FR in chronic shift workers and non-shift workers differently. We studied 13 chronic shift workers and 14 non-shift workers as controls using both field and in-laboratory experiments. In the in-laboratory study, simulated night shifts were used to induce a misalignment between the endogenous circadian pacemaker and the sleep-wake cycles (ie, circadian misalignment) while environmental conditions and food intake were controlled. In the field study, we found that FR was robust in controls but broke down in shift workers during night shifts, leading to more random activity fluctuations as observed in patients with dementia. The night shift effect was present even 2 days after ending night shifts. The in-laboratory study confirmed that night shifts perturbed FR in chronic shift workers and showed that FR in controls was more resilience to the circadian misalignment. Moreover, FR during real and simulated night shifts was more perturbed in those who started shift work at older ages. Chronic shift work causes night shift intolerance, which is probably linked to the degraded plasticity of the circadian control system. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Development of sample size allocation program using hypergeometric distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Tae; Kwack, Eun Ho; Park, Wan Soo; Min, Kyung Soo; Park, Chan Sik

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is the development of sample allocation program using hypergeometric distribution with objected-oriented method. When IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) performs inspection, it simply applies a standard binomial distribution which describes sampling with replacement instead of a hypergeometric distribution which describes sampling without replacement in sample allocation to up to three verification methods. The objective of the IAEA inspection is the timely detection of diversion of significant quantities of nuclear material, therefore game theory is applied to its sampling plan. It is necessary to use hypergeometric distribution directly or approximate distribution to secure statistical accuracy. Improved binomial approximation developed by Mr. J. L. Jaech and correctly applied binomial approximation are more closer to hypergeometric distribution in sample size calculation than the simply applied binomial approximation of the IAEA. Object-oriented programs of 1. sample approximate-allocation with correctly applied standard binomial approximation, 2. sample approximate-allocation with improved binomial approximation, and 3. sample approximate-allocation with hypergeometric distribution were developed with Visual C ++ and corresponding programs were developed with EXCEL(using Visual Basic for Application). 8 tabs., 15 refs. (Author)

  20. Transmission usage cost allocation schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou El Ela, A.A.; El-Sehiemy, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents different suggested transmission usage cost allocation (TCA) schemes to the system individuals. Different independent system operator (ISO) visions are presented using the proportional rata and flow-based TCA methods. There are two proposed flow-based TCA schemes (FTCA). The first FTCA scheme generalizes the equivalent bilateral exchanges (EBE) concepts for lossy networks through two-stage procedure. The second FTCA scheme is based on the modified sensitivity factors (MSF). These factors are developed from the actual measurements of power flows in transmission lines and the power injections at different buses. The proposed schemes exhibit desirable apportioning properties and are easy to implement and understand. Case studies for different loading conditions are carried out to show the capability of the proposed schemes for solving the TCA problem. (author)

  1. Is the burden of overweight shifting to the poor across the globe? Time trends among women in 39 low- and middle-income countries (1991-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Smith, J C; Gordon-Larsen, P; Siddiqi, A; Popkin, B M

    2012-08-01

    Overweight prevalence has increased globally; however, current time trends of overweight prevalence by social class in lower income countries have not been fully explored. We used repeated cross-sectional, nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys on women aged 18-49 years with young children (n=421,689) in 39 lower-income countries. We present overweight (body mass index ≥ 25 kg m⁻²) prevalence at each survey wave, prevalence difference and prevalence growth rate for each country over time, separately by wealth quintile and educational attainment. We present the correlation between nation wealth and differential overweight prevalence growth by wealth and education. In the majority of countries, the highest wealth and education groups still have the highest prevalence of overweight and obesity. However, in a substantial number of countries (14% when wealth is used as the indicator of socioeconomic status and 28% for education) the estimated increases in overweight prevalence over time have been greater in the lowest- compared with the highest-wealth and -education groups. Gross domestic product per capita was associated with a higher overweight prevalence growth rate for the lowest-wealth group compared with the highest (Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.45). Higher (vs lower) wealth and education groups had higher overweight prevalence across most developing countries. However, some countries show a faster growth rate in overweight in the lowest- (vs highest-) wealth and -education groups, which is indicative of an increasing burden of overweight among lower wealth and education groups in the lower-income countries.

  2. A Review of Function Allocation and En Route Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Timothy A.; Aweiss, Arwa S.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Daiker, Ronald J.

    2016-01-01

    Today's air traffic control system has reached a limit to the number of aircraft that can be safely managed at the same time. This air traffic capacity bottleneck is a critical problem along the path to modernization for air transportation. The design of the next separation assurance system to address this problem is a cornerstone of air traffic management research today. This report reviews recent work by NASA and others in the areas of function allocation and en route separation assurance. This includes: separation assurance algorithms and technology prototypes; concepts of operations and designs for advanced separation assurance systems; and specific investigations into air-ground and human-automation function allocation.

  3. Fat suppression with short inversion time inversion-recovery and chemical-shift selective saturation: a dual STIR-CHESS combination prepulse for turbo spin echo pulse sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Koji; Nishikawa, Keiichi; Sano, Tsukasa; Sakai, Osamu; Jara, Hernán

    2010-05-01

    To test a newly developed fat suppression magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prepulse that synergistically uses the principles of fat suppression via inversion recovery (STIR) and spectral fat saturation (CHESS), relative to pure CHESS and STIR. This new technique is termed dual fat suppression (Dual-FS). To determine if Dual-FS could be chemically specific for fat, the phantom consisted of the fat-mimicking NiCl(2) aqueous solution, porcine fat, porcine muscle, and water was imaged with the three fat-suppression techniques. For Dual-FS and STIR, several inversion times were used. Signal intensities of each image obtained with each technique were compared. To determine if Dual-FS could be robust to magnetic field inhomogeneities, the phantom consisting of different NiCl(2) aqueous solutions, porcine fat, porcine muscle, and water was imaged with Dual-FS and CHESS at the several off-resonance frequencies. To compare fat suppression efficiency in vivo, 10 volunteer subjects were also imaged with the three fat-suppression techniques. Dual-FS could suppress fat sufficiently within the inversion time of 110-140 msec, thus enabling differentiation between fat and fat-mimicking aqueous structures. Dual-FS was as robust to magnetic field inhomogeneities as STIR and less vulnerable than CHESS. The same results for fat suppression were obtained in volunteers. The Dual-FS-STIR-CHESS is an alternative and promising fat suppression technique for turbo spin echo MRI. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. A Theoretical Assessment on Optimal Asset Allocations in Insurance Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilel Jarraya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the financial markets known a rapid development and become more and more complex. So, many regulatory requirements, focused on banks as well as insurance sector, have been developed. These regulatory are concentrated essentially on business risk control and required capital to cover risks. These requirements have influenced the asset allocation issue in insurance industry. These requirements have influenced the asset allocation issue in insurance industry. This section is interested by this issue. In first time it highlights some research works in this issue. Then we will investigate the relation between Solvency and optimal asset allocation. Finally we will explore the principal used methods in modeling asset and in choosing the optimal portfolio composition.

  5. The Role of Research and Analysis in Resource Allocation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Dennis; Polster, Patty Poppe

    2011-01-01

    In a time of diminishing resources and increased accountability, it is important for school leaders to make the most of every dollar they spend. One approach to ensuring responsible resource allocation is to closely examine the organizational culture surrounding decision making and provide a structure and process to incorporate research and data…

  6. Momentum and mean-reversion in strategic asset allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Rodriguez, J.C.; Sbuelz, A.

    2009-01-01

    We study a dynamic asset allocation problem in which stock returns exhibit short-run momentum and long-run mean reversion. We develop a tractable continuous-time model that captures these two predictability features and derive the optimal investment strategy in closed form. The model predicts

  7. Simple mathematical models for housing allocation to a homeless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present simple mathematical models for modelling a homeless population and housing allocation. We look at a situation whereby the local authority makes temporary accommodation available for some of the homeless for a while and we examine how this affects the number of families homeless at any given time.

  8. Funding the Plan: Integration of Strategic Planning and Resource Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagel, Richard T.

    2011-01-01

    California Community Colleges are facing increased accountability while at the same time experiencing reduced and uncertain state funding. When resources are not properly allocated there is waste, public criticism, and ultimately increased oversight. A review of the Accrediting Commission for Community and Junior Colleges (ACCJC) sanction letters…

  9. Hierarchical resource allocation for robust in-home video streaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stok, van der P.D.V.; Jarnikov, D.; Kozlov, S.; Hartskamp, van M.A.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    High quality video streaming puts high demands on network and processor resources. The bandwidth of the communication medium and the timely arrival of the frames necessitate a tight resource allocation. Given the dynamic environment where videos are started and stopped and electro-magnetic

  10. Intelligent tactical asset allocation support system

    OpenAIRE

    Hiemstra, Y.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an advanced support system for Tactical Asset Allocation. Asset allocation explains over 90% of portfolio performance (Brinson, Hood and Beebower, 1988). Tactical asset allocation adjusts a strategic portfolio on the basis of short term market outlooks. The system includes aprediction model that forecasts quarterly excess returns on the S and PSOO, an optimization model that adjusts a user-specified strategic portfolio on thebasis of the excess return forecast, and a compo...

  11. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carried...

  12. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  13. OpenShift cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gulati, Shekhar

    2014-01-01

    If you are a web application developer who wants to use the OpenShift platform to host your next big idea but are looking for guidance on how to achieve this, then this book is the first step you need to take. This is a very accessible cookbook where no previous knowledge of OpenShift is needed.

  14. Performance of a haloalkaliphilic bioreactor and bacterial community shifts under different COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ratios and hydraulic retention times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jie-Min [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Song, Zi-Yu [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); Yan, Dao-Jiang; Liu, Yi-Lan [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang, Mao-Hua [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); Cao, Hong-Bin [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China); Xing, Jian-Min, E-mail: jmxing@home.ipe.ac.cn [National Key Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 353, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Haloalkaliphilic microorganisms were used to reduce sulfate. • Sulfide concentration reached up to 1603 mg/L. • There was no sulfide inhibition to haloalkaliphilic microorganisms. • Bacterial community of haloalkaliphilic bioreactor was studied. - Abstract: Sulfur dioxide from flue gas was converted into sulfate after the absorption of alkaline solutions. Haloalkaliphilic microorganisms have been used in reducing sulfate to decrease expenses and avoid sulfide inhibition. The effects of different COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ratios and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) on the sulfate removal efficiency and bacterial community were investigated in model experiments. Ethanol showed better performance as an electron donor than lactate. The optimum COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ratio and HRT were 4.0 and 18 h, respectively, with respective sulfate removal efficiency and rate of 97.8 ± 1.11% and 6.26 ± 0.0710 g/L d. Sulfide concentrations reached 1603 ± 3.38 mg/L. Based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rDNA, the major sulfate-reducing bacterium (SRB) was Desulfonatronovibrio sp., which was only detected at a COD/SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ratio of 4.0 using ethanol as an electron donor. Different HRTs had no significant effect on the band corresponding to this species. PCR results show that methane-producing archaea (MPA) were from the acetoclastic methanogenic family Methanosarcinaceae. Quantitative real-time PCR did not demonstrate any significant competition between SRB and MPA. The findings of this study indicate that sulfate reduction, nitrate reduction, and sulfide oxidization may occur in the same bioreactor.

  15. Objectively measured physical activity of hospital shift workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loef, Bette; van der Beek, Allard J; Holtermann, Andreas; Hulsegge, Gerben; van Baarle, Debbie; Proper, Karin I

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Shift work may alter workers' leisure-time and occupational physical activity (PA) levels, which might be one of the potential underlying mechanisms of the negative health effects of shift work. Therefore, we compared objectively measured PA levels between hospital shift and non-shift

  16. An intelligent allocation algorithm for parallel processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Chester C.; Homaifar, Abdollah; Ananthram, Kishan G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of allocating nodes of a program graph to processors in a parallel processing architecture is considered. The algorithm is based on critical path analysis, some allocation heuristics, and the execution granularity of nodes in a program graph. These factors, and the structure of interprocessor communication network, influence the allocation. To achieve realistic estimations of the executive durations of allocations, the algorithm considers the fact that nodes in a program graph have to communicate through varying numbers of tokens. Coarse and fine granularities have been implemented, with interprocessor token-communication duration, varying from zero up to values comparable to the execution durations of individual nodes. The effect on allocation of communication network structures is demonstrated by performing allocations for crossbar (non-blocking) and star (blocking) networks. The algorithm assumes the availability of as many processors as it needs for the optimal allocation of any program graph. Hence, the focus of allocation has been on varying token-communication durations rather than varying the number of processors. The algorithm always utilizes as many processors as necessary for the optimal allocation of any program graph, depending upon granularity and characteristics of the interprocessor communication network.

  17. Cognitive radio networks dynamic resource allocation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief presents a survey of dynamic resource allocation schemes in Cognitive Radio (CR) Systems, focusing on the spectral-efficiency and energy-efficiency in wireless networks. It also introduces a variety of dynamic resource allocation schemes for CR networks and provides a concise introduction of the landscape of CR technology. The author covers in detail the dynamic resource allocation problem for the motivations and challenges in CR systems. The Spectral- and Energy-Efficient resource allocation schemes are comprehensively investigated, including new insights into the trade-off

  18. This time it's different. An inevitable decline in world petroleum production will keep oil product prices high, causing military conflicts and shifting wealth and power from democracies to authoritarian regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leder, Frederic [2742 Sturges Highway, Westport, CT 06880 (United States); Shapiro, Judith N. [796 Sport Hill Road, Easton, CT 06612 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    There is virtual agreement among geologists that world production of conventional oil will peak at some point in the future. Oil, after all, is a finite resource, while demand will only grow over time. Geologists disagree, however, exactly when the peak will occur. Using data from the International Energy Agency, the US Department of Energy, the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas, and petroleum industry sources, we argue that conventional oil production will reach a worldwide maximum within the next 5-10 years, earlier than generally estimated, thus leaving a very short time frame within which to plan for conversion to alternative sources of energy. Unless planning is initiated immediately, the United States and other Western democracies will see their positions in the global economy undercut as military conflicts over limited energy resources increase, and wealth and power are shifted to authoritarian regimes in Russia, Venezuela, Africa and the Middle East. (author)

  19. Updating the premotor theory: the allocation of attention is not always accompanied by saccade preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belopolsky, Artem V; Theeuwes, Jan

    2012-08-01

    There is an ongoing controversy regarding the relationship between covert attention and saccadic eye movements. While there is quite some evidence that the preparation of a saccade is obligatory preceded by a shift of covert attention, the reverse is not clear: Is allocation of attention always accompanied by saccade preparation? Recently, a shifting and maintenance account was proposed suggesting that shifting and maintenance components of covert attention differ in their relation to the oculomotor system. Specifically, it was argued that a shift of covert attention is always accompanied by activation of the oculomotor program, while maintaining covert attention at a location can be accompanied either by activation or suppression of oculomotor program, depending on the probability of executing an eye movement to the attended location. In the present study we tested whether there is such an obligatory coupling between shifting of attention and saccade preparation and how quickly saccade preparation gets suppressed. The results showed that attention shifting was always accompanied by saccade preparation whenever covert attention had to be shifted during visual search, as well as in response to exogenous or endogenous cues. However, for the endogenous cues the saccade program to the attended location was suppressed very soon after the attention shift was completed. The current findings support the shifting and maintenance account and indicate that the premotor theory needs to be updated to include a shifting and maintenance component for the cases in which covert shifts of attention are made without the intention to execute a saccade. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. The timing hypothesis and hormone replacement therapy: a paradigm shift in the primary prevention of coronary heart disease in women. Part 2: comparative risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J

    2013-06-01

    A major misperception concerning postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is that the associated risks are large in magnitude and unique to HRT, but over the past 10 years, sufficient data have accumulated so that the magnitude and perspective of risks associated with the primary coronary heart disease prevention therapies of statins, aspirin, and postmenopausal HRT have become more fully defined. Review of randomized controlled trials indicates that the risks of primary prevention therapies and other medications commonly used in women's health are of similar type and magnitude, with the majority of these risks categorized as rare to infrequent (risks of postmenopausal HRT are predominantly rare (risks, including breast cancer, stroke, and venous thromboembolism are common across medications and are rare, and even rarer when HRT is initiated in women younger than 60 or who are less than 10 years since menopause. In Part 1 of this series, the sex-specificity of statins and aspirin and timing of initiation of HRT as modifiers of efficacy in women were reviewed. Herein, the comparative risks of primary prevention therapies in women are discussed. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Hard time to be parents? Sea urchin fishery shifts potential reproductive contribution of population onto the shoulders of the young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Loi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background In Sardinia, as in other regions of the Mediterranean Sea, sustainable fisheries of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus have become a necessity. At harvesting sites, the systematic removal of large individuals (diameter ≥ 50 mm seriously compromises the biological and ecological functions of sea urchin populations. Specifically, in this study, we compared the reproductive potential of the populations from Mediterranean coastal areas which have different levels of sea urchin fishing pressure. The areas were located at Su Pallosu Bay, where pressure is high and Tavolara-Punta Coda Cavallo, a marine protected area where sea urchin harvesting is low. Methods Reproductive potential was estimated by calculating the gonadosomatic index (GSI from June 2013 to May 2014 both for individuals of commercial size (diameter without spines, TD ≥ 50 mm and the undersized ones with gonads (30 ≤ TD < 40 mm and 40 ≤ TD < 50 mm. Gamete output was calculated for the commercial-size class and the undersized individuals with fertile gonads (40 ≤ TD < 50 mm in relation to their natural density (gamete output per m2. Results The reproductive potential of populations was slightly different at the beginning of the sampling period but it progressed at different rates with an early spring spawning event in the high-pressure zone and two gamete depositions in early and late spring in the low-pressure zone. For each fertile size class, GSI values changed significantly during the year of our study and between the two zones. Although the multiple spawning events determined a two-fold higher total gamete output of population (popTGO in the low-pressure zone, the population mean gamete output (popMGO was similar in the two zones. In the high-pressure zone, the commercial-sized individuals represented approximatively 5% of the population, with almost all the individuals smaller than 60 mm producing an amount of gametes nearly three times lower than the

  2. Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computional allocation of peer tutors in learning communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, Wim

    2009-01-01

    Westera, W. (2007). Peer-Allocated Instant Response (PAIR): Computational allocation of peer tutors in learning communities. Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, http://jasss.soc.surrey.ac.uk/10/2/5.html

  3. Who should do what in environmental management? Twelve principles for allocating responsibilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, E.

    2015-01-01

    In environmental management there is often discussion on the allocation of responsibilities. Such discussions can continue for a long time and can form an obstacle for effective action. In this article twelve normative principles for the allocation of responsibilities are identified, coming from

  4. Global Tactical Cross-Asset Allocation: Applying Value and Momentum Across Asset Classes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Blitz (David); P. van Vliet (Pim)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we examine global tactical asset allocation (GTAA) strategies across a broad range of asset classes. Contrary to market timing for single asset classes and tactical allocation across similar assets, this topic has received little attention in the existing literature. Our

  5. Nonradioactive RNA mobility shift with chemiluminescent detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hesham

    RNA mobility shift is one among many procedures used to study RNA-protein interaction. Yet, there are some limitations for the radioactive RNA mobility shift including; 1) the risk of using radiolabeled nucleotides, 2) the long time to get the results; this could range from days to weeks, and 3) its high cost as compared to ...

  6. Gain Shift Corrections at Chi-Nu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Tristan Brooks [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Applied Physics; Devlin, Matthew James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Ambient conditions have the potential to cause changes in liquid scintillator detector gain that vary with time and temperature. These gain shifts can lead to poor resolution in both energy as well as pulse shape discrimination. In order to correct for these shifts in the Chi-Nu high energy array, a laser system has been developed for calibration of the pulse height signals.

  7. Hippocampal theta frequency shifts and operant behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kamp, A.

    1. 1. A shift of hippocampal dominant theta frequency to 6 c/sec has been demonstrated in the post-reward period in two dogs, which occurs consistently related in time to a well defined behavioural pattern in the course of an operant conditioning paradigm. 2. 2. The frequency shift was detected and

  8. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Bakker, Marije F; van der Beek, Allard J; Proper, Karin I

    2017-05-01

    Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure-response relationships for frequency of night shifts and years of shift work regarding non-occupational PA levels were studied. Data of 5980 non-shift workers and 532 shift workers from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPIC-NL) were used in these cross-sectional analyses. Time spent (hours/week) in different PA types (walking/cycling/exercise/chores) and intensities (moderate/vigorous) were calculated based on self-reported PA. Furthermore, sports were operationalised as: playing sports (no/yes), individual versus non-individual sports, and non-vigorous-intensity versus vigorous-intensity sports. PA levels were compared between shift workers and non-shift workers using Generalized Estimating Equations and logistic regression. Shift workers reported spending more time walking than non-shift workers (B=2.3 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.4)), but shift work was not associated with other PA types and any of the sports activities. Shift workers who worked 1-4 night shifts/month (B=2.4 (95% CI 0.6 to 4.3)) and ≥5 night shifts/month (B=3.7 (95% CI 1.8 to 5.6)) spent more time walking than non-shift workers. No exposure-response relationships were found between years of shift work and PA levels. Shift workers spent more time walking than non-shift workers, but we observed no differences in other non-occupational PA levels. To better understand if and how PA plays a role in the negative health consequences of shift work, our findings need to be confirmed in future studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Dynamically allocated virtual clustering management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Kelvin; Cannata, Jess

    2013-05-01

    The U.S Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has built a "Wireless Emulation Lab" to support research in wireless mobile networks. In our current experimentation environment, our researchers need the capability to run clusters of heterogeneous nodes to model emulated wireless tactical networks where each node could contain a different operating system, application set, and physical hardware. To complicate matters, most experiments require the researcher to have root privileges. Our previous solution of using a single shared cluster of statically deployed virtual machines did not sufficiently separate each user's experiment due to undesirable network crosstalk, thus only one experiment could be run at a time. In addition, the cluster did not make efficient use of our servers and physical networks. To address these concerns, we created the Dynamically Allocated Virtual Clustering management system (DAVC). This system leverages existing open-source software to create private clusters of nodes that are either virtual or physical machines. These clusters can be utilized for software development, experimentation, and integration with existing hardware and software. The system uses the Grid Engine job scheduler to efficiently allocate virtual machines to idle systems and networks. The system deploys stateless nodes via network booting. The system uses 802.1Q Virtual LANs (VLANs) to prevent experimentation crosstalk and to allow for complex, private networks eliminating the need to map each virtual machine to a specific switch port. The system monitors the health of the clusters and the underlying physical servers and it maintains cluster usage statistics for historical trends. Users can start private clusters of heterogeneous nodes with root privileges for the duration of the experiment. Users also control when to shutdown their clusters.

  10. How emission certificate allocations distort fossil investments: The German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahle, Michael; Fan Lin; Schill, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Despite political activities to foster a low-carbon energy transition, Germany currently sees a considerable number of new coal power plants being added to its power mix. There are several possible drivers for this 'dash for coal', but it is widely accepted that windfall profits gained through free allocation of ETS certificates play an important role. Yet the quantification of allocation-related investment distortions has been limited to back-of-the envelope calculations and stylized models so far. We close this gap with a numerical model integrating both Germany's particular allocation rules and its specific power generation structure. We find that technology specific new entrant provisions have substantially increased incentives to invest in hard coal plants red to natural gas at the time of the ETS onset. More precisely, disproportionate windfall profits compared more than half the total capital costs of a hard coal plant. Moreover, shorter periods of free allocations would not have turned investors' favours towards the cleaner natural gas technology because of pre-existing economic advantages for coal. In contrast, full auctioning of permits or a single best available technology benchmark would have made natural gas the predominant technology of choice. - Research highlights: → We study how early emission certificate allocations in Germany distort fossil investments. → We examine the role of windfall profits in the overall profitabilities of a new hard coal compared to a natural gas plant. → We find that technology specific grandfathering over any period does not induce a change in preferences away from hard coal. → Natural gas would have been preferred under auctioning or a technology neutral allocation though.

  11. Multiobjective optimal allocation problem with probabilistic non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    In multivariate stratified sampling where more than one characteristic are to be estimated, an allocation which is optimum for one characteristic may not be optimum for other characteristics also. In such situations a compromise criterion is needed to work out a usable allocation which is optimum for all characteristics in some ...

  12. Bounds in the location-allocation problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Henrik

    1981-01-01

    Develops a family of stronger lower bounds on the objective function value of the location-allocation problem. Solution methods proposed to solve problems in location-allocation; Efforts to develop a more efficient bound solution procedure; Determination of the locations of the sources....

  13. Obtaining a Proportional Allocation by Deleting Items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorn, B.; de Haan, R.; Schlotter, I.; Röthe, J.

    2017-01-01

    We consider the following control problem on fair allocation of indivisible goods. Given a set I of items and a set of agents, each having strict linear preference over the items, we ask for a minimum subset of the items whose deletion guarantees the existence of a proportional allocation in the

  14. Directed networks, allocation properties and hierarchy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.; Gilles, R.P.; Norde, H.W.; Tijs, S.H.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate properties for allocation rules on directed communication networks and the formation of such networks under these payoff properties. We study allocation rules satisfying two appealing properties, Component Efficiency (CE) and the Hierarchical Payoff Property (HPP). We show that such

  15. Nash social welfare in multiagent resource allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezani, S.; Endriss, U.; David, E.; Gerding, E.; Sarne, D.; Shehory, O.

    2010-01-01

    We study different aspects of the multiagent resource allocation problem when the objective is to find an allocation that maximizes Nash social welfare, the product of the utilities of the individual agents. The Nash solution is an important welfare criterion that combines efficiency and fairness

  16. Risk and reliability allocation to risk control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, D.; Kozuh, M.

    1992-01-01

    The risk allocation procedure is used as an analytical model to support the optimal decision making for reliability/availability improvement planning. Both levels of decision criteria, the plant risk measures and plant performance indices, are used in risk allocation procedure. Decision support system uses the multi objective decision making concept. (author) [sl

  17. Bidding for surplus in network allocation problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikker, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we study non-cooperative foundations of network allocation rules. We focus on three allocation rules: the Myerson value, the position value and the component-wise egalitarian solution. For any of these three rules we provide a characterization based on component efficiency and some

  18. Cost Allocation and Convex Data Envelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tind, Jørgen

    such as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The convexity constraint of the BCC model introduces a non-zero slack in the objective function of the multiplier problem and we show that the cost allocation rules discussed in this paper can be used as candidates to allocate this slack value on to the input (or output...

  19. Optimal allocation of resources in systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derman, C.; Lieberman, G.J.; Ross, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    In the design of a new system, or the maintenance of an old system, allocation of resources is of prime consideration. In allocating resources it is often beneficial to develop a solution that yields an optimal value of the system measure of desirability. In the context of the problems considered in this paper the resources to be allocated are components already produced (assembly problems) and money (allocation in the construction or repair of systems). The measure of desirability for system assembly will usually be maximizing the expected number of systems that perform satisfactorily and the measure in the allocation context will be maximizing the system reliability. Results are presented for these two types of general problems in both a sequential (when appropriate) and non-sequential context

  20. Nurses' shift reports

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Hoeck, Bente; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify reporting practices that feature in studies of nurses' shift reports across diverse nursing specialities. The objectives were to perform an exhaustive systematic literature search and to critically review the quality and findings of qualitative field studies...... of nurses' shift reports. BACKGROUND: Nurses' shift reports are routine occurrences in healthcare organisations that are viewed as crucial for patient outcomes, patient safety and continuity of care. Studies of communication between nurses attend primarily to 1:1 communication and analyse the adequacy...... and accuracy of patient information and feature handovers at the bedside. Still, verbal reports between groups of nurses about patients are commonplace. Shift reports are obvious sites for studying the situated accomplishment of professional nursing at the group level. This review is focused exclusively...

  1. Shift Verification and Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandya, Tara M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Evans, Thomas M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Davidson, Gregory G [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Godfrey, Andrew T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-07

    This documentation outlines the verification and validation of Shift for the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). Five main types of problems were used for validation: small criticality benchmark problems; full-core reactor benchmarks for light water reactors; fixed-source coupled neutron-photon dosimetry benchmarks; depletion/burnup benchmarks; and full-core reactor performance benchmarks. We compared Shift results to measured data and other simulated Monte Carlo radiation transport code results, and found very good agreement in a variety of comparison measures. These include prediction of critical eigenvalue, radial and axial pin power distributions, rod worth, leakage spectra, and nuclide inventories over a burn cycle. Based on this validation of Shift, we are confident in Shift to provide reference results for CASL benchmarking.

  2. Anthropometric changes and fluid shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.; Rummel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    Several observations of body size, shape, posture, and configuration were made to document changes resulting from direct effects of weightlessness during the Skylab 4 mission. After the crewmen were placed in orbit, a number of anatomical and anthropometric changes occurred including a straightening of the thoracolumbar spine, a general decrease in truncal girth, and an increase in height. By the time of the earliest in-flight measurement on mission day 3, all crewmen had lost more than two liters of extravascular fluid from the calf and thigh. The puffy facies, the bird legs effect, the engorgement of upper body veins, and the reduced volume of lower body veins were all documented with photographs. Center-of-mass measurements confirmed a fluid shift cephalad. This shift remained throughout the mission until recovery, when a sharp reversal occurred; a major portion of the reversal was completed in a few hours. The anatomical changes are of considerable scientific interest and of import to the human factors design engineer, but the shifts of blood and extravascular fluid are of more consequence. It is hypothesized that the driving force for the fluid shift is the intrinsic and unopposed lower limb elasticity that forces venous blood and then other fluid cephalad.

  3. Molecular Electronic Shift Registers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beratan, David N.; Onuchic, Jose N.

    1990-01-01

    Molecular-scale shift registers eventually constructed as parts of high-density integrated memory circuits. In principle, variety of organic molecules makes possible large number of different configurations and modes of operation for such shift-register devices. Several classes of devices and implementations in some specific types of molecules proposed. All based on transfer of electrons or holes along chains of repeating molecular units.

  4. Research and Implementation of Tractor Power Shift Clutch Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Li Chengjun; Ke Meicong; Wu Youyu

    2018-01-01

    Applying power shift control technology on tractor can improve the power, economy and driving comfort of tractor. The separation and engagement control of clutch in tractor power shift transmission system is the key factor to optimize the quality of shift. Through many experiments and tests, an electronic control unit based on MC9S12 was developed, and an effective clutch control strategy was put forward, which improved the jerk of power shift and shortened the gear shift time.

  5. Inverse Statistics and Asset Allocation Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolgorian, Meysam

    In this paper using inverse statistics analysis, the effect of investment horizon on the efficiency of portfolio selection is examined. Inverse statistics analysis is a general tool also known as probability distribution of exit time that is used for detecting the distribution of the time in which a stochastic process exits from a zone. This analysis was used in Refs. 1 and 2 for studying the financial returns time series. This distribution provides an optimal investment horizon which determines the most likely horizon for gaining a specific return. Using samples of stocks from Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) as an emerging market and S&P 500 as a developed market, effect of optimal investment horizon in asset allocation is assessed. It is found that taking into account the optimal investment horizon in TSE leads to more efficiency for large size portfolios while for stocks selected from S&P 500, regardless of portfolio size, this strategy does not only not produce more efficient portfolios, but also longer investment horizons provides more efficiency.

  6. Allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning: Meta-analytical perspectives in phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audet, Patrick [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)], E-mail: paude086@uottawa.ca; Charest, Christiane [Ottawa-Carleton Institute of Biology, Department of Biology, University of Ottawa, 30 Marie-Curie Street, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)], E-mail: ccharest@uottawa.ca

    2008-11-15

    In this meta-analysis of plant growth and metal uptake parameters, we selected 19 studies of heavy metal (HM) phytoremediation to evaluate trends of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning in roots relative to shoots. We calculated indexes of biomass allocation and metal distribution for numerous metals and plant species among four families of interest for phytoremediation purposes (e.g. Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Solanaceae). We determined that plants shift their biomass and distribute metals more to roots than shoots possibly to circumvent the challenges of increasing soil-HM conditions. Although this shift is viewed as a stress-avoidance strategy complementing intrinsic stress-tolerance, our findings indicate that plants express different levels of allocation plasticity and metal partitioning depending on their overall growth strategy and status as 'fast-grower' or 'slow-grower' species. Accordingly, we propose a conceptual model of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning comparing 'fast-grower' and 'slow-grower' strategies and outlining applications for remediation practices. - This meta-analysis has revealed a shift in plant biomass and metal distribution from shoots to roots possibly to protect vital functions when subjected to metal stress.

  7. Allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning: Meta-analytical perspectives in phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audet, Patrick; Charest, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    In this meta-analysis of plant growth and metal uptake parameters, we selected 19 studies of heavy metal (HM) phytoremediation to evaluate trends of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning in roots relative to shoots. We calculated indexes of biomass allocation and metal distribution for numerous metals and plant species among four families of interest for phytoremediation purposes (e.g. Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, and Solanaceae). We determined that plants shift their biomass and distribute metals more to roots than shoots possibly to circumvent the challenges of increasing soil-HM conditions. Although this shift is viewed as a stress-avoidance strategy complementing intrinsic stress-tolerance, our findings indicate that plants express different levels of allocation plasticity and metal partitioning depending on their overall growth strategy and status as 'fast-grower' or 'slow-grower' species. Accordingly, we propose a conceptual model of allocation plasticity and plant-metal partitioning comparing 'fast-grower' and 'slow-grower' strategies and outlining applications for remediation practices. - This meta-analysis has revealed a shift in plant biomass and metal distribution from shoots to roots possibly to protect vital functions when subjected to metal stress

  8. Proteome-based bacterial identification using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): A revolutionary shift in clinical diagnostic microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Fumio

    2015-06-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms, a prerequisite for appropriate patient care and infection control, is a critical function of any clinical microbiology laboratory. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a quick and reliable method for identification of microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast, molds, and mycobacteria. Indeed, there has been a revolutionary shift in clinical diagnostic microbiology. In the present review, the state of the art and advantages of MALDI-TOF MS-based bacterial identification are described. The potential of this innovative technology for use in strain typing and detection of antibiotic resistance is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Medical Proteomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepłońska, Beata; Burdelak, Weronika; Krysicka, Jolanta; Bukowska, Agnieszka; Marcinkiewicz, Andrzej; Sobala, Wojciech; Klimecka-Muszyńska, Dorota; Rybacki, Marcin

    2014-10-01

    Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more) - 434 individuals currently working night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity) was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22) among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029). This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  10. Night shift work and modifiable lifestyle factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Pepłońska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Night shift work has been linked to some chronic diseases. Modification of lifestyle by night work may partially contribute to the development of these diseases, nevertheless, so far epidemiological evidence is limited. The aim of the study was to explore association between night shift work and lifestyle factors using data from a cross-sectional study among blue-collar workers employed in industrial plants in Łódź, Poland. Material and Methods: The anonymous questionnaire was self-administered among 605 employees (236 women and 369 men, aged 35 or more - 434 individuals currently wor­king night shifts. Distribution of the selected lifestyle related factors such as smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, body mass index (BMI, number of main meals and the hour of the last meal was compared between current, former, and never night shift workers. Adjusted ORs or predicted means were calculated, as a measure of the associations between night shift work and lifestyle factors, with age, marital status and education included in the models as covariates. Results: Recreational inactivity (defined here as less than one hour per week of recreational physical activity was associated with current night shift work when compared to never night shift workers (OR = 2.43, 95% CI: 1.13-5.22 among men. Alcohol abstinence and later time of the last meal was associated with night shift work among women. Statistically significant positive relationship between night shift work duration and BMI was observed among men (p = 0.029. Conclusions: This study confirms previous studies reporting lower exercising among night shift workers and tendency to increase body weight. This finding provides important public health implication for the prevention of chronic diseases among night shift workers. Initiatives promoting physical activity addressed in particular to the night shift workers are recommended.

  11. Examining paid sickness absence by shift workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catano, V M; Bissonnette, A B

    2014-06-01

    Shift workers are at greater risk than day workers with respect to psychological and physical health, yet little research has linked shift work to increased sickness absence. To investigate the relationship between shift work and sickness absence while controlling for organizational and individual characteristics and shift work attributes that have confounded previous research. The study used archive data collected from three national surveys in Canada, each involving over 20000 employees and 6000 private-sector firms in 14 different occupational groups. The employees reported the number of paid sickness absence days in the past 12 months. Data were analysed using both chi-squared statistics and hierarchical regressions. Contrary to previous research, shift workers took less paid sickness absence than day workers. There were no differences in the length of the sickness absence between both groups or in sickness absence taken by female and male workers whether working days or shifts. Only job tenure, the presence of a union in the workplace and working rotating shifts predicted sickness absence in shift workers. The results were consistent across all three samples. In general, shift work does not seem to be linked to increased sickness absence. However, such associations may be true for specific industries. Male and female workers did not differ in the amount of sickness absence taken. Rotating shifts, regardless of industry, predicted sickness absence among shift workers. Consideration should be given to implementing scheduled time off between shift changes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Stochastic Resource Allocation for Energy-Constrained Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachs DanielGrobe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Battery-powered wireless systems running media applications have tight constraints on energy, CPU, and network capacity, and therefore require the careful allocation of these limited resources to maximize the system's performance while avoiding resource overruns. Usually, resource-allocation problems are solved using standard knapsack-solving techniques. However, when allocating conservable resources like energy (which unlike CPU and network remain available for later use if they are not used immediately knapsack solutions suffer from excessive computational complexity, leading to the use of suboptimal heuristics. We show that use of Lagrangian optimization provides a fast, elegant, and, for convex problems, optimal solution to the allocation of energy across applications as they enter and leave the system, even if the exact sequence and timing of their entrances and exits is not known. This permits significant increases in achieved utility compared to heuristics in common use. As our framework requires only a stochastic description of future workloads, and not a full schedule, we also significantly expand the scope of systems that can be optimized.

  13. Econophysics of a ranked demand and supply resource allocation problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priel, Avner; Tamir, Boaz

    2018-01-01

    We present a two sided resource allocation problem, between demands and supplies, where both parties are ranked. For example, in Big Data problems where a set of different computational tasks is divided between a set of computers each with its own resources, or between employees and employers where both parties are ranked, the employees by their fitness and the employers by their package benefits. The allocation process can be viewed as a repeated game where in each iteration the strategy is decided by a meta-rule, based on the ranks of both parties and the results of the previous games. We show the existence of a phase transition between an absorbing state, where all demands are satisfied, and an active one where part of the demands are always left unsatisfied. The phase transition is governed by the ratio between supplies and demand. In a job allocation problem we find positive correlation between the rank of the workers and the rank of the factories; higher rank workers are usually allocated to higher ranked factories. These all suggest global emergent properties stemming from local variables. To demonstrate the global versus local relations, we introduce a local inertial force that increases the rank of employees in proportion to their persistence time in the same factory. We show that such a local force induces non trivial global effects, mostly to benefit the lower ranked employees.

  14. Forecasting interest rates with shifting endpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der

    2014-01-01

    We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....

  15. Dynamic Allocation of Sugars in Barley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberbatch, L. C.; Crowell, A. S.; Fallin, B. A.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Lee, S. J.; McKisson, J. E.

    2014-03-01

    Allocation of carbon and nitrogen is a key factor for plant productivity. Measurements are carried out by tracing 11C-tagged sugars using positron emission tomography and coincidence counting. We study the mechanisms of carbon allocation and transport from carbohydrate sources (leaves) to sinks (stem, shoot, roots) under various environmental conditions such as soil nutrient levels and atmospheric CO2 concentration. The data are analyzed using a transfer function analysis technique to model transport and allocation in barley plants. The experimental technique will be described and preliminary results presented. This work was supported in part by USDOE Grant No. DE-FG02-97-ER41033 and DE-SC0005057.

  16. Change from an 8-hour shift to a 12-hour shift, attitudes, sleep, sleepiness and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowden, A; Kecklund, G; Axelsson, J; Akerstedt, T

    1998-01-01

    The present study sought to evaluate the effect of a change from a rotating 3-shift (8-hour) to a 2-shift shift (12 hour) schedule on sleep, sleepiness, performance, perceived health, and well-being. Thirty-two shift workers at a chemical plant (control room operators) responded to a questionnaire a few months before a change was made in their shift schedule and 10 months after the change. Fourteen workers also filled out a diary, carried activity loggers, and carried out reaction-time tests (beginning and end of shift). Fourteen day workers served as a reference group for the questionnaires and 9 were intensively studied during a week with workdays and a free weekend. The questionnaire data showed that the shift change increased satisfaction with workhours, sleep, and time for social activities. Health, perceived accident risk, and reaction-time performance were not negatively affected. Alertness improved and subjective recovery time after night work decreased. The quick changes in the 8-hour schedule greatly increased sleep problems and fatigue. Sleepiness integrated across the entire shift cycle showed that the shift workers were less alert than the day workers, across workdays and days off (although alertness increased with the 12-hour shift). The change from 8-hour to 12-hour shifts was positive in most respects, possibly due to the shorter sequences of the workdays, the longer sequences of consecutive days off, the fewer types of shifts (easier planning), and the elimination of quick changes. The results may differ in groups with a higher work load.

  17. ALLOCATION OF FINANCIAL RESOURCE TO ENHANCE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    This study examines the allocation of financial resource to the education industry and ..... This should check all books of account at least once a month to reconcile ... All cash advance request must be supported with relevant documents vii.

  18. U.S. Army Recruiter Allocation Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brence, John

    2004-01-01

    .... Our methodology will build on both the new and old schools of recruiting by conducting stakeholder interviews that will lead us to a model that is an efficient starting point for the Recruiter Mission Allocation (RMA...

  19. Optimal Resource Allocation in Library Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouse, William B.

    1975-01-01

    Queueing theory is used to model processes as either waiting or balking processes. The optimal allocation of resources to these processes is defined as that which maximizes the expected value of the decision-maker's utility function. (Author)

  20. Resource allocation based on cost efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehnokhalaji, Akram; Ghiyasi, Mojtaba; Korhonen, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    -objective linear programming problem using two different strategies. First, we propose an RA model which keeps the cost efficiencies of units unchanged. This is done assuming fixed technical and allocative efficiencies. The approach is based on the assumption that the decision maker (DM) may not have big changes......In this paper, we consider a resource allocation (RA) problem and develop an approach based on cost (overall) efficiency. The aim is to allocate some inputs among decision making units (DMUs) in such way that their cost efficiencies improve or stay unchanged after RA. We formulate a multi...... in the structure of DMUs within a short term. The second strategy does not impose any restrictions on technical and allocative efficiencies. It guarantees that none of the cost efficiencies of DMUs get worse after RA, and the improvement for units is possible if it is feasible and beneficial. Two numerical...