WorldWideScience

Sample records for timbre affects perception

  1. Preparation of stimuli for timbre perception studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuschagne, Ilse B; Hanekom, Johan J

    2013-09-01

    Stimuli used in timbre perception studies must be controlled carefully in order to yield meaningful results. During psychoacoustic testing of individual timbre properties, (1) it must be ensured that timbre properties do not co-vary, as timbre properties are often not independent from one another, and (2) the potential influence of loudness, pitch, and perceived duration must be eliminated. A mathematical additive synthesis method is proposed which allows complete control over two spectral parameters, the spectral centroid (corresponding to brightness) and irregularity, and two temporal parameters, log rise-time (LRT) and a parameter characterizing the sustain/decay segment, while controlling for covariation in the spectral centroid and irregularity. Thirteen musical instrument sounds were synthesized. Perceptual data from six listeners indicate that variation in the four timbre properties mainly influences loudness and that perceived duration and pitch are not influenced significantly for the stimuli of longer duration (2 s) used here. Trends across instruments were found to be similar.

  2. It's not what you play, it's how you play it: timbre affects perception of emotion in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailstone, Julia C; Omar, Rohani; Henley, Susie M D; Frost, Chris; Kenward, Michael G; Warren, Jason D

    2009-11-01

    Salient sensory experiences often have a strong emotional tone, but the neuropsychological relations between perceptual characteristics of sensory objects and the affective information they convey remain poorly defined. Here we addressed the relationship between sound identity and emotional information using music. In two experiments, we investigated whether perception of emotions is influenced by altering the musical instrument on which the music is played, independently of other musical features. In the first experiment, 40 novel melodies each representing one of four emotions (happiness, sadness, fear, or anger) were each recorded on four different instruments (an electronic synthesizer, a piano, a violin, and a trumpet), controlling for melody, tempo, and loudness between instruments. Healthy participants (23 young adults aged 18-30 years, 24 older adults aged 58-75 years) were asked to select which emotion they thought each musical stimulus represented in a four-alternative forced-choice task. Using a generalized linear mixed model we found a significant interaction between instrument and emotion judgement with a similar pattern in young and older adults (p effect was not attributable to musical expertise. In the second experiment using the same melodies and experimental design, the interaction between timbre and perceived emotion was replicated (p music after controlling for other acoustic, cognitive, and performance factors.

  3. Impaired perception of temporal fine structure and musical timbre in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Joseph; Cantarero, Gabriela; Elhilali, Mounya; Limb, Charles J

    2011-10-01

    Cochlear implant (CI) users demonstrate severe limitations in perceiving musical timbre, a psychoacoustic feature of sound responsible for 'tone color' and one's ability to identify a musical instrument. The reasons for this limitation remain poorly understood. In this study, we sought to examine the relative contributions of temporal envelope and fine structure for timbre judgments, in light of the fact that speech processing strategies employed by CI systems typically employ envelope extraction algorithms. We synthesized "instrumental chimeras" that systematically combined variable amounts of envelope and fine structure in 25% increments from two different source instruments with either sustained or percussive envelopes. CI users and normal hearing (NH) subjects were presented with 150 chimeras and asked to determine which instrument the chimera more closely resembled in a single-interval two-alternative forced choice task. By combining instruments with similar and dissimilar envelopes, we controlled the valence of envelope for timbre identification and compensated for envelope reconstruction from fine structure information. Our results show that NH subjects utilize envelope and fine structure interchangeably, whereas CI subjects demonstrate overwhelming reliance on temporal envelope. When chimeras were created from dissimilar envelope instrument pairs, NH subjects utilized a combination of envelope (p = 0.008) and fine structure information (p = 0.009) to make timbre judgments. In contrast, CI users utilized envelope information almost exclusively to make timbre judgments (p < 0.001) and ignored fine structure information (p = 0.908). Interestingly, when the value of envelope as a cue was reduced, both NH subjects and CI users utilized fine structure information to make timbre judgments (p < 0.001), although the effect was quite weak in CI users. Our findings confirm that impairments in fine structure processing underlie poor perception of musical timbre in CI

  4. Temporal and Spectral Cues for Musical Timbre Perception in Electric Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Ying-Yee; Mullangi, Ala; Marozeau, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate musical timbre perception in cochlear-implant (CI) listeners using a multidimensional scaling technique to derive a timbre space. Methods: Sixteen stimuli that synthesized western musical instruments were used (McAdams, Winsberg, Donnadieu, De Soete......, & Krimphoff, 1995). Eight CI listeners and 15 normalhearing (NH) listeners participated. Each listener made judgments of dissimilarity between stimulus pairs. Acoustical analyses that characterized the temporal and spectral characteristics of each stimulus were performed to examine the psychophysical nature...... of each perceptual dimension. For NH listeners, the timbre space was best represented in three dimensions, one correlated with the temporal envelope (log-attack time) of the stimuli, one correlated with the spectral envelope (spectral centroid), and one correlated with the spectral fine structure...

  5. Perception of musical timbre in congenital amusia: categorization, discrimination and short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Gingras, Bruno; Stewart, Lauren

    2012-02-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is characterized primarily by difficulties in the pitch domain. The aim of the present study was to investigate the perception of musical timbre in a group of individuals with congenital amusia by probing discrimination and short-term memory for real-world timbral stimuli as well as examining the ability of these individuals to sort instrumental tones according to their timbral similarity. Thirteen amusic individuals were matched with thirteen non-amusic controls on a range of background variables. The discrimination task included stimuli of two different durations and pairings of instrumental tones that reflected varying distances in a perceptual timbre space. Performance in the discrimination task was at ceiling for both groups. In contrast, amusic individuals scored lower than controls on the short-term timbral memory task. Amusic individuals also performed worse than controls on the sorting task, suggesting differences in the higher-order representation of musical timbre. These findings add to the emerging picture of amusia as a disorder that has consequences for the perception and memory of musical timbre, as well as pitch. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tone, rhythm, and timbre perception in school-age children using cochlear implants and hearing aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes-Brown, Hamish; Marozeau, Jeremy P; Storey, Christine M; Blamey, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    Children with hearing impairments, especially those using hearing devices such as the cochlear implant (CI) or hearing aid (HA), are sometimes not encouraged to attend music classes, as they or their parents and teachers may be unsure whether the child can perform basic musical tasks. The objective of the current study was to provide a baseline for the performance of children using CIs and HAs on standardized tests of rhythm and pitch perception as well as an instrument timbre identification task. An additional aim was to determine the effect of structured music training on these measures during the course of a school year. The Intermediate Measures of Music Audiation (IMMA) Tonal and Rhythmic subtests were administered four times, with 6 wk between tests. All children in the study were also enrolled in "Music Club" teaching sessions. Measures were compared between groups and across the four testing sessions. Twenty children from a single school in Melbourne, Australia, were recruited. Eleven (four girls) had impaired hearing, including six with a unilateral CI or CI and HA together (two girls) and five with bilateral HAs (two girls). Nine were normally hearing, selected to match the age and gender of the hearing-impaired children. Ages ranged from 9-13 yr. All children participated in a weekly Music Club--a 45 min session of musical activities based around vocal play and the integration of aural, visual, and kinesthetic modes of learning. Audiological data were collected from clinical files. IMMA scores were converted to percentile ranks using published norms. Between-group differences were tested using repeated-measures analysis of variance, and between-session differences were tested using a linear mixed model. Linear regression was used to model the effect of hearing loss on the test scores. In the first session, normally hearing children had a mean percentile rank of ∼50 in both the Tonal and Rhythmic subtests of the IMMA. Children using CIs showed trends

  7. Music in our ears: the biological bases of musical timbre perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Patil

    Full Text Available Timbre is the attribute of sound that allows humans and other animals to distinguish among different sound sources. Studies based on psychophysical judgments of musical timbre, ecological analyses of sound's physical characteristics as well as machine learning approaches have all suggested that timbre is a multifaceted attribute that invokes both spectral and temporal sound features. Here, we explored the neural underpinnings of musical timbre. We used a neuro-computational framework based on spectro-temporal receptive fields, recorded from over a thousand neurons in the mammalian primary auditory cortex as well as from simulated cortical neurons, augmented with a nonlinear classifier. The model was able to perform robust instrument classification irrespective of pitch and playing style, with an accuracy of 98.7%. Using the same front end, the model was also able to reproduce perceptual distance judgments between timbres as perceived by human listeners. The study demonstrates that joint spectro-temporal features, such as those observed in the mammalian primary auditory cortex, are critical to provide the rich-enough representation necessary to account for perceptual judgments of timbre by human listeners, as well as recognition of musical instruments.

  8. Timbre discrimination in musical patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, J M

    1978-08-01

    Most research on timbre perception has studied isolated tones. This study compares timbre discrimination of isolated tones with discrimination in various musical contexts, both single-voiced and multivoiced. Twelve different contexts were used (four isolated tonal comparisons, four single-voice musical patterns, and four multivoice patterns). Listerners judged whether the timbre remained the same or changed during the trial. Two possible versions of any instrumental timbre differed in the physical information used in their synthesis. Three instrumental timbres were tested in all contexts: clarinet, trumpet, and bassoon. The effects of context upon discrimination varied across instruments. The clarinet and trumpet versions were best discriminated in isolated contexts, with discrimination progressively worse in single-voice and multivoice patterns. The bassoon versions were best discriminated in the single-voice patterns, with equal discrimination in the isolated and multivoice cases. It is suggested that these results were due to pronounced physical differences observed between the spectra of the two versions of the bassoon that were not apparent between the versions of the clarinet or trumpet.

  9. Plaatsafhankelijkheid van timbre bij nagalm (Place dependence of timbre in reverberant sound fields)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, R.; Steeneken, H.J.M.

    1973-01-01

    The sound-pressure level of a simple tone in a diffuse sound field varies from point to point with a theoretical standard deviation of 5.57 dB. This variability affects the timbre of complex tones in reverberant sound fields, Experiments have shown that the timbre dissimilarity at any two positions

  10. Pitch and timbre : definition, meaning and use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtsma, A.J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Pitch and timbre are terms frequently used in studies on sound perception. Despite the existence of formal definitions, these terms are often used ambiguously in the literature. This paper is intended as a review of the ANSI definitions and their shortcomings, of modern ways to define the concepts

  11. Multisensory Perception of Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Gelder

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Multisensory integration must stand out among the fields of research that have witnessed a most impressive explosion of interest this last decade. One of these new areas of multisensory research concerns emotion. Since our first exploration of this phenomenon (de Gelder et al., 1999 a number of studies have appeared and they have used a wide variety of behavioral, neuropsychological and neuroscientifc methods. The goal of this presentation is threefold. First, we review the research on audiovisual perception of emotional signals from the face and the voice followed by a report or more recent studies on integrating emotional information provided by the voice and whole body expressions. We will also include some recent work on multisensory music perception. In the next section we discuss some methodological and theoretical issues. Finally, we will discuss findings about abnormal affective audiovisual integration in schizophrenia and in autism.

  12. Beyond the Score: Timbre Analysis in Avant-garde Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Baroni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines perceptual aspects of timbre within the context of avant-garde XX century music. An excerpt from a work by Luciano Berio was taken into account. We recorded it on 8 separate channels each of them devoted to small groups of homogeneous sounds, in order to obtain a global result that we could modify by subtracting one or more of the recorded groups. We prepared four different excerpts: one with the original version and three with modified versions. 50 participants (25 experts, 25 non-experts were invited to fill in a semantic differential bipolar scale made of 12 adjectives, 6 concerning emotional and 6 sensorial aspects of perception. We interpreted the subjects’ responses with the help of a spectrographic analysis and of studies on timbre verbalization. The main aim of our research was to explore the possibilities of timbre analysis, a field that so far has no solid scientific background. The research obtained promising responses from expert listeners, while non-experts manifested a sort of aesthetic refusal of this genre of music. Positive results were obtained also in the critical observations of possibilities and limits of spectrographic analysis and verbalizations of timbre. We hope that our initial data can be useful for future studies on timbre perception.

  13. Modeling Timbre Similarity of Short Music Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    to timbre as well as higher level categorical features such as musical genre play a major role in the perception of short music clips.

  14. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  15. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Fantoni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fantoni & Gerbino (2014 showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP, they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015 would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions, in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top

  16. Auditory Memory for Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Denis; Wellsted, David

    2009-01-01

    Psychophysical studies are reported examining how the context of recent auditory stimulation may modulate the processing of new sounds. The question posed is how recent tone stimulation may affect ongoing performance in a discrimination task. In the task, two complex sounds occurred in successive intervals. A single target component of one complex…

  17. Cortical encoding of timbre changes in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fawen; Benson, Chelsea; Cahn, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Most cochlear implant (CI) users describe music as a noise-like and unpleasant sound. Using behavioral tests, most prior studies have shown that perception of pitch-based melody and timbre is poor in CI users. This article will focus on cortical encoding of timbre changes in CI users, which may allow us to find solutions to further improve CI benefits. Furthermore, the value of using objective measures to reveal neural encoding of timbre changes may be reflected in this study. A case-control study of the mismatch negativity (MMN) using electrophysiological technique was conducted. To derive MMNs, three randomly arranged oddball paradigms consisting of standard/deviant instrumental pairs: saxophone/piano, cello/trombone, and flute/French horn, respectively, were presented. Ten CI users and ten normal-hearing (NH) listeners participated in this study. After filtering, epoching, and baseline correction, independent component analysis (ICA) was performed to remove artifacts. The averaged waveforms in response to the standard stimuli (STANDARD waveform) and the deviant stimuli (DEVIANT waveform) in each condition were separately derived. The responses from nine electrodes in the fronto-central area were averaged to form one waveform. The STANDARD waveform was subtracted from the DEVIANT waveform to derive the difference waveform, for which the MMN was judged to be present or absent. The measures used to evaluate the MMN included the MMN peak latency and amplitude as well as MMN duration. The MMN, which reflects the ability to automatically detect acoustic changes, was present in all NH listeners but only approximately half of CI users. In CI users with present MMNs, the MMN peak amplitude and duration were significantly smaller and shorter compared to those in NH listeners. Our electrophysiological results were consistent with prior behavioral results that CI users' performance in timbre perception was significantly poorer than that in NH listeners. Our results may

  18. Acoustic and categorical dissimilarity of musical timbre: Evidence from asymmetriesbetween acoustic and chimeric sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eSiedenburg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the role of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity ratings. Using a Gammatone-filterbank-based sound transformation, we created tones that were rated as less familiar than recorded tones from orchestral instruments and that were harder to associate with an unambiguous sound source (Exp. 1. A subset of transformed tones, a set of orchestral recordings, and a mixed set were then rated on pairwise dissimilarity (Exp. 2A. We observed that recorded instrument timbres clustered into subsets that distinguished timbres according to acoustic and categorical properties. For the subset of cross-category comparisons in the mixed set, we observed asymmetries in the distribution of ratings, as well as a stark decay of inter-rater agreement. These effects were replicated in a more robust within-subjects design (Exp. 2B and cannot be explained by acoustic factors alone. We finally introduced a novel model of timbre dissimilarity based on partial least-squares regression that compared the contributions of both acoustic and categorical timbre descriptors. The best model fit (R^2 = .88 was achieved when both types of descriptors were taken into account. These findings are interpreted as evidence for an interplay of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity perception.

  19. Acoustic and Categorical Dissimilarity of Musical Timbre: Evidence from Asymmetries Between Acoustic and Chimeric Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; Jones-Mollerup, Kiray; McAdams, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity ratings. Using a Gammatone-filterbank-based sound transformation, we created tones that were rated as less familiar than recorded tones from orchestral instruments and that were harder to associate with an unambiguous sound source (Experiment 1). A subset of transformed tones, a set of orchestral recordings, and a mixed set were then rated on pairwise dissimilarity (Experiment 2A). We observed that recorded instrument timbres clustered into subsets that distinguished timbres according to acoustic and categorical properties. For the subset of cross-category comparisons in the mixed set, we observed asymmetries in the distribution of ratings, as well as a stark decay of inter-rater agreement. These effects were replicated in a more robust within-subjects design (Experiment 2B) and cannot be explained by acoustic factors alone. We finally introduced a novel model of timbre dissimilarity based on partial least-squares regression that compared the contributions of both acoustic and categorical timbre descriptors. The best model fit (R2 = 0.88) was achieved when both types of descriptors were taken into account. These findings are interpreted as evidence for an interplay of acoustic and categorical information in timbre dissimilarity perception. PMID:26779086

  20. Examination of spectral timbre cues and musical instrument identification in cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Hartmut; Landwehr, Markus; Lang-Roth, Ruth; Streicher, Barbara; Walger, Martin

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the discrimination of two isolated spectral timbre cues, spectral centroid (Fc) and spectral irregularity (spIrr), in cochlear implant (CI) listeners. To examine whether the perception of Fc and spIrr changes is related to the perception of loudness and pitch and the identification of musical instruments. Stimuli were based on French horn recordings which were artificially manipulated with respect to isolated changes in Fc and spIrr. Difference limens for Fc and spIrr were determined and changes in loudness and pitch perception based on these modifications were examined. Identification of musical instruments was additionally assessed. Mean difference limens were 161 Hz for Fc and 0.63 dB for spIrr. Modifications in spectral timbre cues caused changes in loudness and pitch perception. None of the timbre cues examined showed a significant correlation with musical instrument identification. In contrast, instrument identification was significantly related to the frequency of listening to music prior to onset of deafness. CI recipients are able to detect small modifications in spectral timbre cues which are in turn associated with changes in loudness and pitch. Variations of spectral centroid have a larger impact on loudness and pitch perception than variations of spectral irregularity. Music listening behaviour prior to onset of deafness is significantly associated with musical instrument identification.

  1. Discrimination of timbre in early auditory responses of the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeho Seol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issue of how differences in timbre are represented in the neural response still has not been well addressed, particularly with regard to the relevant brain mechanisms. Here we employ phasing and clipping of tones to produce auditory stimuli differing to describe the multidimensional nature of timbre. We investigated the auditory response and sensory gating as well, using by magnetoencephalography (MEG. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty-five healthy subjects without hearing deficit participated in the experiments. Two different or same tones in timbre were presented through conditioning (S1-testing (S2 paradigm as a pair with an interval of 500 ms. As a result, the magnitudes of auditory M50 and M100 responses were different with timbre in both hemispheres. This result might support that timbre, at least by phasing and clipping, is discriminated in the auditory early processing. The second response in a pair affected by S1 in the consecutive stimuli occurred in M100 of the left hemisphere, whereas both M50 and M100 responses to S2 only in the right hemisphere reflected whether two stimuli in a pair were the same or not. Both M50 and M100 magnitudes were different with the presenting order (S1 vs. S2 for both same and different conditions in the both hemispheres. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCES: Our results demonstrate that the auditory response depends on timbre characteristics. Moreover, it was revealed that the auditory sensory gating is determined not by the stimulus that directly evokes the response, but rather by whether or not the two stimuli are identical in timbre.

  2. Dazzle camouflage affects speed perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas E Scott-Samuel

    Full Text Available Movement is the enemy of camouflage: most attempts at concealment are disrupted by motion of the target. Faced with this problem, navies in both World Wars in the twentieth century painted their warships with high contrast geometric patterns: so-called "dazzle camouflage". Rather than attempting to hide individual units, it was claimed that this patterning would disrupt the perception of their range, heading, size, shape and speed, and hence reduce losses from, in particular, torpedo attacks by submarines. Similar arguments had been advanced earlier for biological camouflage. Whilst there are good reasons to believe that most of these perceptual distortions may have occurred, there is no evidence for the last claim: changing perceived speed. Here we show that dazzle patterns can distort speed perception, and that this effect is greatest at high speeds. The effect should obtain in predators launching ballistic attacks against rapidly moving prey, or modern, low-tech battlefields where handheld weapons are fired from short ranges against moving vehicles. In the latter case, we demonstrate that in a typical situation involving an RPG7 attack on a Land Rover the reduction in perceived speed is sufficient to make the grenade miss where it was aimed by about a metre, which could be the difference between survival or not for the occupants of the vehicle.

  3. Dance and Music in "Gangnam Style": How Dance Observation Affects Meter Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Myun; Barrett, Karen Chan; Kim, Yeonhwa; Lim, Yeoeun; Lee, Kyogu

    2015-01-01

    Dance and music often co-occur as evidenced when viewing choreographed dances or singers moving while performing. This study investigated how the viewing of dance motions shapes sound perception. Previous research has shown that dance reflects the temporal structure of its accompanying music, communicating musical meter (i.e. a hierarchical organization of beats) via coordinated movement patterns that indicate where strong and weak beats occur. Experiments here investigated the effects of dance cues on meter perception, hypothesizing that dance could embody the musical meter, thereby shaping participant reaction times (RTs) to sound targets occurring at different metrical positions.In experiment 1, participants viewed a video with dance choreography indicating 4/4 meter (dance condition) or a series of color changes repeated in sequences of four to indicate 4/4 meter (picture condition). A sound track accompanied these videos and participants reacted to timbre targets at different metrical positions. Participants had the slowest RT's at the strongest beats in the dance condition only. In experiment 2, participants viewed the choreography of the horse-riding dance from Psy's "Gangnam Style" in order to examine how a familiar dance might affect meter perception. Moreover, participants in this experiment were divided into a group with experience dancing this choreography and a group without experience. Results again showed slower RTs to stronger metrical positions and the group with experience demonstrated a more refined perception of metrical hierarchy. Results likely stem from the temporally selective division of attention between auditory and visual domains. This study has implications for understanding: 1) the impact of splitting attention among different sensory modalities, and 2) the impact of embodiment, on perception of musical meter. Viewing dance may interfere with sound processing, particularly at critical metrical positions, but embodied familiarity with

  4. Fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on fish farmers' perceptions of constraints affecting aquaculture development in Akwa-Ibom State of Nigeria. Random sampling procedure was used to select 120 respondents from whom primary data was collected. Data analysis was with the aid of descriptive statistics. Results show that fish farming ...

  5. Rubber hand illusion affects joint angle perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Butz

    Full Text Available The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model.

  6. Towards automatic musical instrument timbre recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tae Hong

    This dissertation is comprised of two parts---focus on issues concerning research and development of an artificial system for automatic musical instrument timbre recognition and musical compositions. The technical part of the essay includes a detailed record of developed and implemented algorithms for feature extraction and pattern recognition. A review of existing literature introducing historical aspects surrounding timbre research, problems associated with a number of timbre definitions, and highlights of selected research activities that have had significant impact in this field are also included. The developed timbre recognition system follows a bottom-up, data-driven model that includes a pre-processing module, feature extraction module, and a RBF/EBF (Radial/Elliptical Basis Function) neural network-based pattern recognition module. 829 monophonic samples from 12 instruments have been chosen from the Peter Siedlaczek library (Best Service) and other samples from the Internet and personal collections. Significant emphasis has been put on feature extraction development and testing to achieve robust and consistent feature vectors that are eventually passed to the neural network module. In order to avoid a garbage-in-garbage-out (GIGO) trap and improve generality, extra care was taken in designing and testing the developed algorithms using various dynamics, different playing techniques, and a variety of pitches for each instrument with inclusion of attack and steady-state portions of a signal. Most of the research and development was conducted in Matlab. The compositional part of the essay includes brief introductions to "A d'Ess Are ," "Aboji," "48 13 N, 16 20 O," and "pH-SQ." A general outline pertaining to the ideas and concepts behind the architectural designs of the pieces including formal structures, time structures, orchestration methods, and pitch structures are also presented.

  7. Word selection affects perceptions of synthetic biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonidandel Scott

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the synthetic biology community have discussed the significance of word selection when describing synthetic biology to the general public. In particular, many leaders proposed the word "create" was laden with negative connotations. We found that word choice and framing does affect public perception of synthetic biology. In a controlled experiment, participants perceived synthetic biology more negatively when "create" was used to describe the field compared to "construct" (p = 0.008. Contrary to popular opinion among synthetic biologists, however, low religiosity individuals were more influenced negatively by the framing manipulation than high religiosity people. Our results suggest that synthetic biologists directly influence public perception of their field through avoidance of the word "create".

  8. Affective and motivational influences in person perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovic, Bojana; Jefferson, Anneli; Bente, Gary; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Interpersonal impression formation is highly consequential for social interactions in private and public domains. These perceptions of others rely on different sources of information and processing mechanisms, all of which have been investigated in independent research fields. In social psychology, inferences about states and traits of others as well as activations of semantic categories and corresponding stereotypes have attracted great interest. On the other hand, research on emotion and reward demonstrated affective and motivational influences of social cues on the observer, which in turn modulate attention, categorization, evaluation, and decision processes. While inferential and categorical social processes have been shown to recruit a network of cortical brain regions associated with mentalizing and evaluation, the affective influence of social cues has been linked to subcortical areas that play a central role in detection of salient sensory input and reward processing. In order to extend existing integrative approaches to person perception, both the inferential-categorical processing of information about others, and affective and motivational influences of this information on the beholder should be taken into account.

  9. Affective and motivational influences in person perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana eKuzmanovic

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal impression formation is highly consequential for social interactions in private and public domains. These perceptions of others rely on different sources of information and processing mechanisms, all of which have been investigated in independent research fields. In social psychology, inferences about states and traits of others as well as activations of semantic categories and corresponding stereotypes have attracted great interest. On the other hand, research on emotion and reward demonstrated affective and motivational influences of social cues on the observer, which in turn modulate attention, categorization, evaluation and decision processes. While inferential and categorical social processes have been shown to recruit a network of cortical brain regions associated with mentalizing and evaluation, the affective influence of social cues has been linked to subcortical areas that play a central role in detection of salient sensory input and reward processing. In order to extend existing integrative approaches to person perception, both the inferential-categorical processing of information about others, and affective and motivational influences of this information on the beholder should be taken into account.

  10. Timbre as an Elusive Component of Imagery for Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya Bailes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence of the ability to imagine timbre is either anecdotal, or applies to isolated instrument tones rather than timbre in real music. Experiments were conducted to infer the vividness of timbre in imagery for music. Music students were asked to judge whether the timbre of a sounded target note was the same or different from the original following a heard, imagined, or control musical context. A pilot experiment manipulated instrumentation, while the main experiment manipulated sound filters. The hypothesis that participants are able to internalise timbral aspects of music was supported by an ability to perform the timbre discrimination task, and by facilitated response when imaging the timbre context compared with non-imaging. However, while participants were able to mentally represent timbre, this was not always reported as being a conscious dimension of their musical image. This finding is discussed in relation to previous research suggesting that timbre may be a sound characteristic that is optionally present in imagery for music.

  11. Audiovisual correspondence between musical timbre and visual shapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eAdeli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the cross-modal correspondences between musical timbre and shapes. Previously, such features as pitch, loudness, light intensity, visual size, and color characteristics have mostly been used in studies of audio-visual correspondences. Moreover, in most studies, simple stimuli e.g. simple tones have been utilized. In this experiment, 23 musical sounds varying in fundamental frequency and timbre but fixed in loudness were used. Each sound was presented once against colored shapes and once against grayscale shapes. Subjects had to select the visual equivalent of a given sound i.e. its shape, color (or grayscale and vertical position. This scenario permitted studying the associations between normalized timbre and visual shapes as well as some of the previous findings for more complex stimuli. 119 subjects (31 females and 88 males participated in the online experiment. Subjects included 36 claimed professional musicians, 47 claimed amateur musicians and 36 claimed non-musicians. 31 subjects have also claimed to have synesthesia-like experiences. A strong association between timbre of envelope normalized sounds and visual shapes was observed. Subjects have strongly associated soft timbres with blue, green or light gray rounded shapes, harsh timbres with red, yellow or dark gray sharp angular shapes and timbres having elements of softness and harshness together with a mixture of the two previous shapes. Color or grayscale had no effect on timbre-shape associations. Fundamental frequency was not associated with height, grayscale or color. The significant correspondence between timbre and shape revealed by the present work allows designing substitution systems which might help the blind to perceive shapes through timbre.

  12. Working memory for pitch, timbre, and words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to further our understanding of fundamental mechanisms of auditory working memory (WM), the present study compared performance for three auditory materials (words, tones, timbres). In a forward recognition task (Experiment 1) participants indicated whether the order of the items in the second sequence was the same as in the first sequence. In a backward recognition task (Experiment 2) participants indicated whether the items of the second sequence were played in the correct backward order. In Experiment 3 participants performed an articulatory suppression task during the retention delay of the backward task. To investigate potential length effects the number of items per sequence was manipulated. Overall findings underline the benefit of a cross-material experimental approach and suggest that human auditory WM is not a unitary system. Whereas WM processes for timbres differed from those for tones and words, similarities and differences were observed for words and tones: Both types of stimuli appear to rely on rehearsal mechanisms, but might differ in the involved sensorimotor codes. PMID:23116413

  13. Effects of timbre and tempo change on memory for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Andrea R; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2008-09-01

    We investigated the effects of different encoding tasks and of manipulations of two supposedly surface parameters of music on implicit and explicit memory for tunes. In two experiments, participants were first asked to either categorize instrument or judge familiarity of 40 unfamiliar short tunes. Subsequently, participants were asked to give explicit and implicit memory ratings for a list of 80 tunes, which included 40 previously heard. Half of the 40 previously heard tunes differed in timbre (Experiment 1) or tempo (Experiment 2) in comparison with the first exposure. A third experiment compared similarity ratings of the tunes that varied in timbre or tempo. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results suggest first that the encoding task made no difference for either memory mode. Secondly, timbre and tempo change both impaired explicit memory, whereas tempo change additionally made implicit tune recognition worse. Results are discussed in the context of implicit memory for nonsemantic materials and the possible differences in timbre and tempo in musical representations.

  14. Multiple Scale Music Segmentation Using Rhythm, Timbre, and Harmony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Jensen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The segmentation of music into intro-chorus-verse-outro, and similar segments, is a difficult topic. A method for performing automatic segmentation based on features related to rhythm, timbre, and harmony is presented, and compared, between the features and between the features and manual segmentation of a database of 48 songs. Standard information retrieval performance measures are used in the comparison, and it is shown that the timbre-related feature performs best.

  15. Affective State Influences Perception by Affecting Decision Parameters Underlying Bias and Sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Spencer K.; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-01-01

    Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a person’s affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a “locally focused” style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a “globally focused” style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investiga...

  16. Next-Generation Thermal Infrared Multi-Body Radiometer Experiment (TIMBRE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, M.; Mariani, G.; Johnson, B.; Brageot, E.; Hayne, P.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed an instrument concept called TIMBRE which belongs to the important class of instruments called thermal imaging radiometers (TIRs). TIMBRE is the next-generation TIR with unparalleled performance compared to the state-of-the-art.

  17. Affect, risk perception and future optimism after the tsunami disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vastfjall

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental events such as natural disasters may influence the public's affective reactions and decisions. Shortly after the 2004 Tsunami disaster we assessed how affect elicited by thinking about this disaster influenced risk perceptions and future time perspective in Swedish undergraduates not directly affected by the disaster. An experimental manipulation was used to increase the salience of affect associated with the disaster. In Study 1 we found that participants reminded about the tsunami had a sense that their life was more finite and included fewer opportunities than participants in the control condition (not reminded about the tsunami. In Study 2 we found similar effects for risk perceptions. In addition, we showed that manipulations of ease-of-thought influenced the extent to which affect influenced these risk perceptions, with greater ease of thoughts being associated with greater perceived risks.

  18. Análisis espectral del timbre de la trompa

    OpenAIRE

    Hijosa Martín, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    En este proyecto se estudia el timbre de la trompa mediante el análisis espectral de su señal acústica con el objetivo de poder comparar trompas de diferentes marcas, modelos y materiales de fabricación en función del color de su timbre. Para ello, se ha creado una base datos de 54 grabaciones del registro sonoro correspondiente a nueve trompas dobles, las cuales se han digitalizado para, posteriormente, realizar su análisis espectral utilizando dos técnicas de procesado de señ...

  19. Spatial audio quality perception (part 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conetta, R.; Brookes, T.; Rumsey, F.

    2015-01-01

    location, envelopment, coverage angle, ensemble width, and spaciousness. They can also impact timbre, and changes to timbre can then influence spatial perception. Previously obtained data was used to build a regression model of perceived spatial audio quality in terms of spatial and timbral metrics...

  20. Lip movements affect infants' audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, H Henny; Werker, Janet F

    2013-05-01

    Speech is robustly audiovisual from early in infancy. Here we show that audiovisual speech perception in 4.5-month-old infants is influenced by sensorimotor information related to the lip movements they make while chewing or sucking. Experiment 1 consisted of a classic audiovisual matching procedure, in which two simultaneously displayed talking faces (visual [i] and [u]) were presented with a synchronous vowel sound (audio /i/ or /u/). Infants' looking patterns were selectively biased away from the audiovisual matching face when the infants were producing lip movements similar to those needed to produce the heard vowel. Infants' looking patterns returned to those of a baseline condition (no lip movements, looking longer at the audiovisual matching face) when they were producing lip movements that did not match the heard vowel. Experiment 2 confirmed that these sensorimotor effects interacted with the heard vowel, as looking patterns differed when infants produced these same lip movements while seeing and hearing a talking face producing an unrelated vowel (audio /a/). These findings suggest that the development of speech perception and speech production may be mutually informative.

  1. Perception of Affective Body Movements in HRI Across Age Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Krogsager, Anders; Segato, Nicolaj

    2016-01-01

    robots and the signals they produce. In this paper we focus on affective connotations of body movements and investigate how the perception of body movements of robots is related to age. Inspired by a study from Japan, we introduce culture as a variable in the experiment and discuss the difficulties...... of cross-cultural comparisons. The results show that there are certain age-related differences in the perception of affective body movements, but not as strong as in the original study. A follow up experiment puts the affective body movements into context and shows that recognition rates deteriorate...

  2. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzella, Patrícia; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2010-11-11

    Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP. A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung) voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones) than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices) test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation), which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age. Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  3. Absolute pitch: effects of timbre on note-naming ability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Vanzella

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Absolute pitch (AP is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names, it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP possessors to identify. A musician's first instrument may also affect performance and extend the sensitive period for acquiring accurate AP.A large sample of AP possessors was recruited on-line. Participants were required to identity test tones presented in four different timbres: piano, pure tone, natural (sung voice, and synthesized voice. Note-naming accuracy was better for non-vocal (piano and pure tones than for vocal (natural and synthesized voices test tones. This difference could not be attributed solely to vibrato (pitch variation, which was more pronounced in the natural voice than in the synthesized voice. Although starting music lessons by age 7 was associated with enhanced note-naming accuracy, equivalent abilities were evident among listeners who started music lessons on piano at a later age.Because the human voice is inextricably linked to language and meaning, it may be processed automatically by voice-specific mechanisms that interfere with note naming among AP possessors. Lessons on piano or other fixed-pitch instruments appear to enhance AP abilities and to extend the sensitive period for exposure to music in order to develop accurate AP.

  4. Affective state influences perception by affecting decision parameters underlying bias and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Spencer K; Zhang, Xuan; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2012-08-01

    Studies of the effect of affect on perception often show consistent directional effects of a person's affective state on perception. Unpleasant emotions have been associated with a "locally focused" style of stimulus evaluation, and positive emotions with a "globally focused" style. Typically, however, studies of affect and perception have not been conducted under the conditions of perceptual uncertainty and behavioral risk inherent to perceptual judgments outside the laboratory. We investigated the influence of perceivers' experienced affect (valence and arousal) on the utility of social threat perception by combining signal detection theory and behavioral economics. We compared 3 perceptual decision environments that systematically differed with respect to factors that underlie uncertainty and risk: the base rate of threat, the costs of incorrect identification threat, and the perceptual similarity of threats and nonthreats. We found that no single affective state yielded the best performance on the threat perception task across the 3 environments. Unpleasant valence promoted calibration of response bias to base rate and costs, high arousal promoted calibration of perceptual sensitivity to perceptual similarity, and low arousal was associated with an optimal adjustment of bias to sensitivity. However, the strength of these associations was conditional upon the difficulty of attaining optimal bias and high sensitivity, such that the effect of the perceiver's affective state on perception differed with the cause and/or level of uncertainty and risk.

  5. How Interviewers' Nonverbal Behaviors Can Affect Children's Perceptions and Suggestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerigogna, Jehanne; Ost, James; Akehurst, Lucy; Fluck, Mike

    2008-01-01

    We conducted two studies to examine how interviewers' nonverbal behaviors affect children's perceptions and suggestibility. In the first study, 42 8- to 10-year-olds watched video clips showing an interviewer displaying combinations of supportive and nonsupportive nonverbal behaviors and were asked to rate the interviewer on six attributes (e.g.,…

  6. Teachers' Perception of the Factors Affecting Job Satisfaction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    perception of salary as a factor affecting job satisfaction. Also, there .... Thus workers now have higher purchasing power, are given opportunity to use their .... Z-Cal. Z-Crit Significant. Level decision. Female. 70 12.73 3.23. Teachers. 0.32. 1.96.

  7. Categorical Perception of Affective and Linguistic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Stephen; Emmorey, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated categorical perception (CP) effects for affective facial expressions and linguistic facial expressions from American Sign Language (ASL) for Deaf native signers and hearing non-signers. Facial expressions were presented in isolation (Experiment 1) or in an ASL verb context (Experiment 2). Participants performed ABX…

  8. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Birgitta; Thompson, Marc R; Luck, Geoff; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri

    2013-01-01

    Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants' movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  9. Influences of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features on characteristics of music-induced movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta eBurger

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Music makes us move. Several factors can affect the characteristics of such movements, including individual factors or musical features. For this study, we investigated the effect of rhythm- and timbre-related musical features as well as tempo on movement characteristics. Sixty participants were presented with 30 musical stimuli representing different styles of popular music, and instructed to move along with the music. Optical motion capture was used to record participants’ movements. Subsequently, eight movement features and four rhythm- and timbre-related musical features were computationally extracted from the data, while the tempo was assessed in a perceptual experiment. A subsequent correlational analysis revealed that, for instance, clear pulses seemed to be embodied with the whole body, i.e., by using various movement types of different body parts, whereas spectral flux and percussiveness were found to be more distinctly related to certain body parts, such as head and hand movement. A series of ANOVAs with the stimuli being divided into three groups of five stimuli each based on the tempo revealed no significant differences between the groups, suggesting that the tempo of our stimuli set failed to have an effect on the movement features. In general, the results can be linked to the framework of embodied music cognition, as they show that body movements are used to reflect, imitate, and predict musical characteristics.

  10. Northern Elephant Seals Memorize the Rhythm and Timbre of Their Rivals' Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathevon, Nicolas; Casey, Caroline; Reichmuth, Colleen; Charrier, Isabelle

    2017-08-07

    The evolutionary origin of rhythm perception, a cognitive ability essential to musicality, remains unresolved [1-5]. The ability to perceive and memorize rhythmic sounds is widely shared among humans [6] but seems rare among other mammals [7, 8]. Although the perception of temporal metrical patterns has been found in a few species, this ability has only been demonstrated through behavioral training [9] (but see [10] for an example of spontaneous tempo coordination in a bonobo), and there is no experimental evidence to indicate its biological function. Furthermore, there is no example of a non-human mammal able to remember and recognize auditory rhythmic patterns among a wide range of tempi. In the northern elephant seal Mirounga angustirostris, the calls of mature males comprise a rhythmic series of pulses, with the call of each individual characterized by its tempo and timbre; these individual vocal signatures are stable over years and across contexts [11]. Here, we report that northern elephant seal males routinely memorize and recognize the unique tempo and timbre of their rivals' voices and use this rhythmic information to individually identify competitors, which facilitates navigation within the social network of the rookery. By performing playbacks with natural and modified vocalizations, we show that males are sensitive to call rhythm disruption independently of modification of spectral features and that they use both temporal and spectral cues to identify familiar rivals. While spectral features of calls typically encode individual identity in mammalian vocalizations [12], this is the first example of this phenomenon involving sound rhythm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Wavelets in music analysis and synthesis: timbre analysis and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Faria, Regis R.; Ruschioni, Ruggero A.; Zuffo, Joao A.

    1996-10-01

    Music is a vital element in the process of comprehending the world where we live and interact with. Frequency it exerts a subtle but expressive influence over a society's evolution line. Analysis and synthesis of music and musical instruments has always been associated with forefront technologies available at each period of human history, and there is no surprise in witnessing now the use of digital technologies and sophisticated mathematical tools supporting its development. Fourier techniques have been employed for years as a tool to analyze timbres' spectral characteristics, and re-synthesize them from these extracted parameters. Recently many modern implementations, based on spectral modeling techniques, have been leading to the development of new generations of music synthesizers, capable of reproducing natural sounds with high fidelity, and producing novel timbres as well. Wavelets are a promising tool on the development of new generations of music synthesizers, counting on its advantages over the Fourier techniques in representing non-periodic and transient signals, with complex fine textures, as found in music. In this paper we propose and introduce the use of wavelets addressing its perspectives towards musical applications. The central idea is to investigate the capacities of wavelets in analyzing, extracting features and altering fine timbre components in a multiresolution time- scale, so as to produce high quality synthesized musical sounds.

  12. Reward priming eliminates color-driven affect in perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kesong

    2018-01-03

    Brain and behavior evidence suggests that colors have distinct affective properties. Here, we investigated how reward influences color-driven affect in perception. In Experiment 1, we assessed competition between blue and red patches during a temporal-order judgment (TOJ) across a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs). During the value reinforcement, reward was linked to either blue (version 1) or red (version 2) in the experiment. The same stimuli then served as test ones in the following unrewarded, unspeeded TOJ task. Our analysis showed that blue patches were consistently seen as occurring first, even when objectively appearing 2nd at short SOAs. This accelerated perception of blue over red was disrupted by prior primes related to reward (vs. neutral) but not perceptional (blue vs. red) priming. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 while uncoupling action and stimulus values. These results are consistent with the blue-approach and red-avoidance motivation hypothesis and highlight an active nature of the association of reward priming and color processing. Together, the present study implies a link between reward and color affect and contributes to the understanding of how reward influences color affect in visual processing.

  13. Emotion perception, but not affect perception, is impaired with semantic memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A; Gendron, Maria; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Dickerson, Bradford C

    2014-04-01

    For decades, psychologists and neuroscientists have hypothesized that the ability to perceive emotions on others' faces is inborn, prelinguistic, and universal. Concept knowledge about emotion has been assumed to be epiphenomenal to emotion perception. In this article, we report findings from 3 patients with semantic dementia that cannot be explained by this "basic emotion" view. These patients, who have substantial deficits in semantic processing abilities, spontaneously perceived pleasant and unpleasant expressions on faces, but not discrete emotions such as anger, disgust, fear, or sadness, even in a task that did not require the use of emotion words. Our findings support the hypothesis that discrete emotion concept knowledge helps transform perceptions of affect (positively or negatively valenced facial expressions) into perceptions of discrete emotions such as anger, disgust, fear, and sadness. These findings have important consequences for understanding the processes supporting emotion perception.

  14. Influential sources affecting Bangkok adolescent body image perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thianthai, Chulanee

    2006-01-01

    The study of body image-related problems in non-Western countries is still very limited. Thus, this study aims to identify the main influential sources and show how they affect the body image perceptions of Bangkok adolescents. The researcher recruited 400 Thai male and female adolescents in Bangkok, attending high school to freshmen level, ranging from 16-19 years, to participate in this study. Survey questionnaires were distributed to every student and follow-up interviews conducted with 40 students. The findings showed that there are eight main influential sources respectively ranked from the most influential to the least influential: magazines, television, peer group, familial, fashion trend, the opposite gender, self-realization and health knowledge. Similar to those studies conducted in Western countries, more than half of the total percentage was the influence of mass media and peer groups. Bangkok adolescents also internalized Western ideal beauty through these mass media channels. Alike studies conducted in the West, there was similarities in the process of how these influential sources affect Bangkok adolescent body image perception, with the exception of familial source. In conclusion, taking the approach of identifying the main influential sources and understanding how they affect adolescent body image perceptions can help prevent adolescents from having unhealthy views and taking risky measures toward their bodies. More studies conducted in non-Western countries are needed in order to build a cultural sensitive program, catered to the body image problems occurring in adolescents within that particular society.

  15. Affect perception across cultures: the role of cognitive mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan B Engelmann

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite consistently documented cultural differences in the perception of facial expressions of emotion, the role of culture in shaping cognitive mechanisms that are central to affect perception has received relatively little attention in past research. We review recent developments in cross-cultural psychology that provide particular insights into the modulatory role of culture on cognitive mechanisms involved in interpretations of facial expressions of emotion through two distinct routes: display rules and cognitive styles. Investigations of affect intensity perception have demonstrated that facial expressions with varying levels of intensity of positive affect are perceived and categorized differently across cultures. Recent findings indicating high levels of differentiation between intensity levels of facial expressions among American participants, as well as deviations from clear categorization of high and low intensity expressions in Japanese and Russian participants, suggest that display rules shape mental representations of emotions, such as intensity levels of emotion prototypes. Furthermore, a series of recent studies using eye tracking as a proxy for overt attention during face perception has identified culture-specific cognitive styles, such as the propensity to attend to very specific features of the face. Together, these results suggest a cascade of cultural influences on cognitive mechanisms involved in interpretations of facial expressions of emotion, whereby cultures impart specific behavioral practices that shape the way individuals process information from the environment. These cultural influences lead to differences in cognitive style, such as attentional biases and emotion prototypes, which partially account for the gradient of cultural agreements and disagreements obtained in past investigations.

  16. Sound frequency affects speech emotion perception: Results from congenital amusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sydney eLolli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusics, or tone-deaf individuals, show difficulty in perceiving and producing small pitch differences. While amusia has marked effects on music perception, its impact on speech perception is less clear. Here we test the hypothesis that individual differences in pitch perception affect judgment of emotion in speech, by applying band-pass filters to spoken statements of emotional speech. A norming study was first conducted on Mechanical Turk to ensure that the intended emotions from the Macquarie Battery for Evaluation of Prosody (MBEP were reliably identifiable by US English speakers. The most reliably identified emotional speech samples were used in in Experiment 1, in which subjects performed a psychophysical pitch discrimination task, and an emotion identification task under band-pass and unfiltered speech conditions. Results showed a significant correlation between pitch discrimination threshold and emotion identification accuracy for band-pass filtered speech, with amusics (defined here as those with a pitch discrimination threshold > 16 Hz performing worse than controls. This relationship with pitch discrimination was not seen in unfiltered speech conditions. Given the dissociation between band-pass filtered and unfiltered speech conditions, we inferred that amusics may be compensating for poorer pitch perception by using speech cues that are filtered out in this manipulation.

  17. Effects of Stimulus Octave and Timbre on the Tuning Accuracy of Advanced College Instrumentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byo, James L.; Schlegel, Amanda L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of octave and timbre on advanced college musicians' (N = 63) ability to tune their instruments. We asked: "Are there differences in tuning accuracy due to octave (B-flat 2, B-flat 4) and stimulus timbre (oboe, clarinet, electronic tuner, tuba)?" and "To what extent do participants'…

  18. Sound frequency affects speech emotion perception: results from congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Sydney L; Lewenstein, Ari D; Basurto, Julian; Winnik, Sean; Loui, Psyche

    2015-01-01

    Congenital amusics, or "tone-deaf" individuals, show difficulty in perceiving and producing small pitch differences. While amusia has marked effects on music perception, its impact on speech perception is less clear. Here we test the hypothesis that individual differences in pitch perception affect judgment of emotion in speech, by applying low-pass filters to spoken statements of emotional speech. A norming study was first conducted on Mechanical Turk to ensure that the intended emotions from the Macquarie Battery for Evaluation of Prosody were reliably identifiable by US English speakers. The most reliably identified emotional speech samples were used in Experiment 1, in which subjects performed a psychophysical pitch discrimination task, and an emotion identification task under low-pass and unfiltered speech conditions. Results showed a significant correlation between pitch-discrimination threshold and emotion identification accuracy for low-pass filtered speech, with amusics (defined here as those with a pitch discrimination threshold >16 Hz) performing worse than controls. This relationship with pitch discrimination was not seen in unfiltered speech conditions. Given the dissociation between low-pass filtered and unfiltered speech conditions, we inferred that amusics may be compensating for poorer pitch perception by using speech cues that are filtered out in this manipulation. To assess this potential compensation, Experiment 2 was conducted using high-pass filtered speech samples intended to isolate non-pitch cues. No significant correlation was found between pitch discrimination and emotion identification accuracy for high-pass filtered speech. Results from these experiments suggest an influence of low frequency information in identifying emotional content of speech.

  19. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  20. The Effect of Dynamic Acoustical Features on Musical Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajda, John M.

    Timbre has been an important concept for scientific exploration of music at least since the time of Helmholtz ([1877] 1954). Since Helmholtz's time, a number of studies have defined and investigated acoustical features of musical instrument tones to determine their perceptual importance, or salience (e.g., Grey, 1975, 1977; Kendall, 1986; Kendall et al., 1999; Luce and Clark, 1965; McAdams et al., 1995, 1999; Saldanha and Corso, 1964; Wedin and Goude, 1972). Most of these studies have considered only nonpercussive, or continuant, tones of Western orchestral instruments (or emulations thereof). In the past few years, advances in computing power and programming have made possible and affordable the definition and control of new acoustical variables. This chapter gives an overview of past and current research, with a special emphasis on the time-variant aspects of musical timbre. According to common observation, "music is made of tones in time" (Spaeth, 1933). We will also consider the fact that music is made of "time in tones."

  1. Impaired perception of harmonic complexity in congenital amusia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Catherine L; Cahn, Steven J; Cory, Christopher; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2011-07-01

    This study investigates whether congenital amusia (an inability to perceive music from birth) also impairs the perception of musical qualities that do not rely on fine-grained pitch discrimination. We established that G.G. (64-year-old male, age-typical hearing) met the criteria of congenital amusia and demonstrated music-specific deficits (e.g., language processing, intonation, prosody, fine-grained pitch processing, pitch discrimination, identification of discrepant tones and direction of pitch for tones in a series, pitch discrimination within scale segments, predictability of tone sequences, recognition versus knowing memory for melodies, and short-term memory for melodies). Next, we conducted tests of tonal fusion, harmonic complexity, and affect perception: recognizing timbre, assessing consonance and dissonance, and recognizing musical affect from harmony. G.G. displayed relatively unimpaired perception and production of environmental sounds, prosody, and emotion conveyed by speech compared with impaired fine-grained pitch perception, tonal sequence discrimination, and melody recognition. Importantly, G.G. could not perform tests of tonal fusion that do not rely on pitch discrimination: He could not distinguish concurrent notes, timbre, consonance/dissonance, simultaneous notes, and musical affect. Results indicate at least three distinct problems-one with pitch discrimination, one with harmonic simultaneity, and one with musical affect-and each has distinct consequences for music perception.

  2. "Wer wagt hier Theorie zu fordern": aspects théoriques du timbre chez Arnold Schönberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric de Buzon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Schönberg’s Harmonielehre finishes on the evocation of the melody of timbre (Klangfarbenmelodie. The aim of this article is to analyse the function of timbre in relation to musical theory by establishing a parallel between the positions expressed by Schönberg and preceding classical positions, namely Jean-Jaques Rousseau’s definition of timbre and Leibniz’s concept of “clear and confused” ideas. Operating in this context, what will be shown is that timbre, according to Leibniz’s description, is a distinguishing, yet undistinguished, quality and that, precisely for this reason, timbre has a limited function in composition.

  3. Differentiation of Competence and Affect Self-Perceptions in Elementary School Students: Extending Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to address two underexplored research questions regarding support for the separation between competence and affect self-perceptions due to differential relations to outcome criteria. First, it is tested whether higher relations between affect self-perceptions and effort than between competence self-perceptions and effort can also…

  4. Effects of voice timbre and accompaniment on working memory as measured by sequential monosyllabic digit recall performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Michael J; Schwartzberg, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    Information is often paired with music in an attempt to facilitate recall and enhance learning. However, there is a lack of basic research investigating how music carrying information might facilitate recall and subsequent learning. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effects of voice timbre and accompaniment on working memory as measured by recall performance on a sequential digit recall task. Specific research questions were as follows: (a) How might female and male voice timbres affect serial recall? (b) How might piano, guitar, and no accompaniment affect serial recall? (c) Do music majors have enhanced recall accuracy when compared to nonmusic majors? The recall of information paired with six different melodies was tested on 60 university students. Melodies were composed and recorded using female and male voices with three levels of accompaniment: guitar, piano, and no accompaniment. Participants had more accurate recall during the male voice and piano and no accompaniment conditions and least accurate recall during the female voice and guitar accompaniment conditions. As participants had most accurate recall during the male voice and with piano or no accompaniment, clinicians are encouraged to consider using no accompaniment or piano accompaniment when initially teaching social and academic information paired with music for later recall. When possible, vocal timbre (i.e., the potential benefit of male voicing) should also be considered. Implications for clinical practice, limitations of the study, and suggestions for future research are provided. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Syntactic processing in music and language: Effects of interrupting auditory streams with alternating timbres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiveash, Anna; Thompson, William Forde; Badcock, Nicholas A; McArthur, Genevieve

    2018-07-01

    Music and language both rely on the processing of spectral (pitch, timbre) and temporal (rhythm) information to create structure and meaning from incoming auditory streams. Behavioral results have shown that interrupting a melodic stream with unexpected changes in timbre leads to reduced syntactic processing. Such findings suggest that syntactic processing is conditional on successful streaming of incoming sequential information. The current study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether (1) the effect of alternating timbres on syntactic processing is reflected in a reduced brain response to syntactic violations, and (2) the phenomenon is similar for music and language. Participants listened to melodies and sentences with either one timbre (piano or one voice) or three timbres (piano, guitar, and vibraphone, or three different voices). Half the stimuli contained syntactic violations: an out-of-key note in the melodies, and a phrase-structure violation in the sentences. We found smaller ERPs to syntactic violations in music in the three-timbre compared to the one-timbre condition, reflected in a reduced early right anterior negativity (ERAN). A similar but non-significant pattern was observed for language stimuli in both the early left anterior negativity (ELAN) and the left anterior negativity (LAN) ERPs. The results suggest that disruptions to auditory streaming may interfere with syntactic processing, especially for melodic sequences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Positive Affect on Risk Perceptions in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2011-01-01

    Affective influences may play a key role in adolescent risk taking, but have rarely been studied. Using an audiovisual method of affect induction, two experimental studies examined the effect of positive affect on risk perceptions in adolescence and young adulthood. Outcomes were risk perceptions regarding drinking alcohol, smoking a cigarette,…

  7. Visually suboptimal bananas: How ripeness affects consumer expectation and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    2018-01-01

    One reason for the significant amount of food that is wasted in developed countries is that consumers often expect visually suboptimal food as being less palatable. Using bananas as example, the objective of this study was to determine how appearance affects consumer overall liking, the rating of sensory attributes, purchase intention, and the intended use of bananas. The ripeness degree (RD) of the samples was adjusted to RD 5 (control) and RD 7 (more ripened, visually suboptimal). After preliminary experiments, a total of 233 participants were asked to judge their satisfaction with the intensity of sensory attributes that referred to flavor, taste, and texture using just-about-right scales. Subjects who received peeled samples were asked after tasting, whereas subjects who received unpeeled bananas judged expectation and, after peeling and tasting, perception. Expected overall liking and purchase intention were significantly lower for RD 7 bananas. Purchase intention was still significantly different between RD 5 and RD 7 after tasting, whereas no difference in overall liking was observed. Significant differences between RD 5 and RD 7 were observed when asking participants for their intended use of the bananas. Concerning the sensory attributes, penalty analysis revealed that only the firmness of the RD 7 bananas was still not just-about-right after tasting. The importance that consumers attribute to the shelf-life of food had a pronounced impact on purchase intention of bananas with different ripeness degree. In the case of suboptimal bananas, the results demonstrate a positive relationship between the sensory perception and overall liking and purchase intention. Convincing consumers that visually suboptimal food is still tasty is of high relevance for recommending different ways of communication. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Perceptions of job satisfaction relating to affective organisation commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papinczak, Tracey

    2012-10-01

    Affective organisation commitment, which refers to a psychological attachment to, and involvement with, an employing institution, is regarded as important because of its effects on employee identification with the employer and its causal effects on work effort and staff retention. This paper explores the experiences of casual tutors facilitating problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials and aims to identify aspects of their role that strengthen and detract from employee job satisfaction and affective commitment. Qualitative data were gathered from first- and second-year tutors (N = 13) through 2 focus groups. Both clinicians and non-clinicians were recruited, including highly experienced staff and those with job-related factors; job-involvement characteristics; professional challenges and responsibilities, and mentoring for learning and support. The first 2 themes are congruent with previous literature on organisation commitment; novel findings include the supportive and compensatory nature of the collegial relationships formed between casual tutors. Role attenuation, a job-related factor, was a predominant perception as it related to dysfunctional groups and increasing student disengagement with PBL. Within the unique learning environment of PBL, positive factors relating to job satisfaction may have an important role to play in improving tutors' commitment to their employing organisation. Aspects of the role which are viewed most negatively and relate most significantly to affective commitment need to be addressed promptly. Attention should be directed to supporting tutors to maximise the perceived benefits and providing professional development and improved communication to better address issues associated with difficult or disengaged students as well as isolation from decision-makers. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  9. Categorical Perception of emotional faces is not affected by aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandy Rossignol

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of normal aging on categorical perception (CP of facial emotional expressions were investigated. One-hundred healthy participants (20 to 70 years old; five age groups had to identify morphed expressions ranging from neutrality to happiness, sadness and fear. We analysed percentages and latencies of correct recognition for nonmorphed emotional expressions, percentages and latencies of emotional recognition for morphed-faces, locus of the boundaries along the different continua and the number of intrusions. The results showed that unmorphed happy and fearful faces were better processed than unmorphed sad and neutral faces. For morphed faces, CP was confirmed, as latencies increased as a function of the distance between the displayed morph and the original unmorphed photograph. The locus of categorical boundaries was not affected by age. Aging did not alter the accuracy of recognition for original pictures, no more than the emotional recognition of morphed faces or the rate of intrusions. However, latencies of responses increased with age, for both unmorphed and morphed pictures. In conclusion, CP of facial expressions appears to be spared in aging.

  10. Auditory feedback affects perception of effort when exercising with a Pulley machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordegoni, Monica; Ferrise, Francesco; Grani, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe an experiment that investigates the role of auditory feedback in affecting the perception of effort when using a physical pulley machine. Specifically, we investigated whether variations in the amplitude and frequency content of the pulley sound affect perception of effo...

  11. Trained Musical Performers' and Musically Untrained College Students' Ability to Discriminate Music Instrument Timbre as a Function of Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dennis Alan

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of trained musicians and musically untrained college students to discriminate music instrument timbre as a function of duration. Specific factors investigated were the thresholds for timbre discrimination as a function of duration, musical ensemble participation as training, and the relative discrimination abilities of vocalists and instrumentalists. The subjects (N = 126) were volunteer college students from intact classes from various disciplines separated into musically untrained college students (N = 43) who had not participated in musical ensembles and trained musicians (N = 83) who had. The musicians were further divided into instrumentalists (N = 51) and vocalists (N = 32). The Method of Constant Stimuli, using a same-different response procedure with 120 randomized, counterbalanced timbre pairs comprised of trumpet, clarinet, or violin, presented in durations of 20 to 100 milliseconds in a sequence of pitches, in two blocks was used for data collection. Complete, complex musical timbres were recorded digitally and presented in a sequence of changing pitches to more closely approximate an actual music listening experience. Under the conditions of this study, it can be concluded that the threshold for timbre discrimination as a function of duration is at or below 20 ms. Even though trained musicians tended to discriminate timbre better than musically untrained college students, musicians cannot discriminate timbre significantly better then those subjects who have not participated in musical ensembles. Additionally, instrumentalists tended to discriminate timbre better than vocalists, but the discrimination is not significantly different. Recommendations for further research include suggestions for a timbre discrimination measurement tool that takes into consideration the multidimensionality of timbre and the relationship of timbre discrimination to timbre source, duration, pitch, and loudness.

  12. The phase of prestimulus alpha oscillations affects tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Lei; Ro, Tony

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have shown that neural oscillations in the 8- to 12-Hz range influence sensory perception. In the current study, we examined whether both the power and phase of these mu/alpha oscillations predict successful conscious tactile perception. Near-threshold tactile stimuli were applied to the left hand while electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded over the contralateral right somatosensory cortex. We found a significant inverted U-shaped relationship between prestimulus mu/alpha power and detection rate, suggesting that there is an intermediate level of alpha power that is optimal for tactile perception. We also found a significant difference in phase angle concentration at stimulus onset that predicted whether the upcoming tactile stimulus was perceived or missed. As has been shown in the visual system, these findings suggest that these mu/alpha oscillations measured over somatosensory areas exert a strong inhibitory control on tactile perception and that pulsed inhibition by these oscillations shapes the state of brain activity necessary for conscious perception. They further suggest that these common phasic processing mechanisms across different sensory modalities and brain regions may reflect a common underlying encoding principle in perceptual processing that leads to momentary windows of perceptual awareness.

  13. Factors affecting perceptions of corporate social responsibility implementation: an emphasis on values

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is a broad study of factors affecting perceptions of CSR issues in multiple stakeholder realms, the main purpose being to determine the effects of the values of individuals on their perceptions regarding CSR. It examines perceptions of CSR both at the emic (observing individuals and stakeholders) and etic levels (conducting cross-cultural comparison) through a descriptive-empirical research strategy. The dissertation is based on quantitative interview data among Chinese, Fin...

  14. The Affective Bases of Risk Perception: Negative Feelings and Stress Mediate the Relationship between Mental Imagery and Risk Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobkow, Agata; Traczyk, Jakub; Zaleskiewicz, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has documented that affect plays a crucial role in risk perception. When no information about numerical risk estimates is available (e.g., probability of loss or magnitude of consequences), people may rely on positive and negative affect toward perceived risk. However, determinants of affective reactions to risks are poorly understood. In a series of three experiments, we addressed the question of whether and to what degree mental imagery eliciting negative affect and stress influences risk perception. In each experiment, participants were instructed to visualize consequences of risk taking and to rate riskiness. In Experiment 1, participants who imagined negative risk consequences reported more negative affect and perceived risk as higher compared to the control condition. In Experiment 2, we found that this effect was driven by affect elicited by mental imagery rather than its vividness and intensity. In this study, imagining positive risk consequences led to lower perceived risk than visualizing negative risk consequences. Finally, we tested the hypothesis that negative affect related to higher perceived risk was caused by negative feelings of stress. In Experiment 3, we introduced risk-irrelevant stress to show that participants in the stress condition rated perceived risk as higher in comparison to the control condition. This experiment showed that higher ratings of perceived risk were influenced by psychological stress. Taken together, our results demonstrate that affect-laden mental imagery dramatically changes risk perception through negative affect (i.e., psychological stress).

  15. Biased perception about gene technology: How perceived naturalness and affect distort benefit perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Hartmann, Christina; Sütterlin, Bernadette

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, the participants showed biased responses when asked to evaluate the benefits of gene technology. They evaluated the importance of additional yields in corn fields due to a newly introduced variety, which would increase a farmer's revenues. In one condition, the newly introduced variety was described as a product of traditional breeding; in the other, it was identified as genetically modified (GM). The two experiments' findings showed that the same benefits were perceived as less important for a farmer when these were the result of GM crops compared with traditionally bred crops. Mediation analyses suggest that perceived naturalness and the affect associated with the technology per se influence the interpretation of the new information. The lack of perceived naturalness of gene technology seems to be the reason for the participants' perceived lower benefits of a new corn variety in the gene technology condition compared with the perceptions of the participants assigned to the traditional breeding condition. The strategy to increase the acceptance of gene technology by introducing plant varieties that better address consumer and producer needs may not work because people discount its associated benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Teacher perceptions affect boys’ and girls’ reading motivation differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerma, I.E.; Mol, S.E.; Jolles, J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teacher perceptions and children's reading motivation, with specific attention to gender differences. The reading self-concept, task value, and attitude of 160 fifth and sixth graders were measured. Teachers rated each student's reading

  17. Affect and Acceptability: Exploring Teachers' Technology-Related Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sarah K.

    2011-01-01

    Educational change, such as technology integration, involves risk. Teachers are encouraged to "take risks", but what risks they are asked to take and how do they perceive these risks? Developing an understanding of teachers' technology-related risk perceptions can help explain their choices and behaviours. This paper presents a way to…

  18. Specific Previous Experience Affects Perception of Harmony and Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, Sarah C.

    2011-01-01

    Prior knowledge shapes our experiences, but which prior knowledge shapes which experiences? This question is addressed in the domain of music perception. Three experiments were used to determine whether listeners activate specific musical memories during music listening. Each experiment provided listeners with one of two musical contexts that was…

  19. Negative Affect, Risk Perception, and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Laura A.; Youngblade, Lise M.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence, etiology, and consequences of adolescent risk behavior have stimulated much research. The current study examined relationships among anger and depressive symptomatology (DS), risk perception, self-restraint, and adolescent risk behavior. Telephone surveys were conducted with 290 14- to 20-year-olds (173 females; M = 15.98 years).…

  20. Long-term memory for music: infants remember tempo and timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J; Wu, Luann; Tsang, Christine D

    2004-06-01

    We show that infants' long-term memory representations for melodies are not just reduced to the structural features of relative pitches and durations, but contain surface or performance tempo- and timbre-specific information. Using a head turn preference procedure, we found that after a one week exposure to an old English folk song, infants preferred to listen to a novel folk song, indicating that they remembered the familiarized melody. However, if the tempo (25% faster or slower) or instrument timbre (harp vs. piano) of the familiarized melody was changed at test, infants showed no preference, indicating that they remembered the specific tempo and timbre of the melodies. The results are consistent with an exemplar-based model of memory in infancy rather than one in which structural features are extracted and performance features forgotten.

  1. Perceptions and factors affecting utilization of health services in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was no statistical significant association in the utilization of health services with regard to gender (p=0.889, OR=1.04; 0.55-2.00), educational level (p=0.707, OR=1.16; 0.50-2.79) and age (p=0.839, OR=0.94; 0.51-1.72). Community perceptions of poor quality and inadequacy of available services, however, ...

  2. Spider Silk Violin Strings with a Unique Packing Structure Generate a Soft and Profound Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Shigeyoshi

    2012-04-01

    We overcome the difficulties in pulling long draglines from spiders, twist bundles of dragline filaments, and succeed in preparing violin strings. The twisting is found to change the cross section shapes of filaments from circular to polygonal and to optimize the packing structure with no openings among filaments providing mechanically strong and elastic strings. The spider string signal peaks of overtones for the violin are relatively large at high frequencies, generating a soft and profound timbre. Such a preferable timbre is considered to be due to the unique polygonal packing structure which provides valuable knowledge for developing new types of materials.

  3. Short-term memory affects color perception in context.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Olkkonen

    Full Text Available Color-based object selection - for instance, looking for ripe tomatoes in the market - places demands on both perceptual and memory processes: it is necessary to form a stable perceptual estimate of surface color from a variable visual signal, as well as to retain multiple perceptual estimates in memory while comparing objects. Nevertheless, perceptual and memory processes in the color domain are generally studied in separate research programs with the assumption that they are independent. Here, we demonstrate a strong failure of independence between color perception and memory: the effect of context on color appearance is substantially weakened by a short retention interval between a reference and test stimulus. This somewhat counterintuitive result is consistent with Bayesian estimation: as the precision of the representation of the reference surface and its context decays in memory, prior information gains more weight, causing the retained percepts to be drawn toward prior information about surface and context color. This interaction implies that to fully understand information processing in real-world color tasks, perception and memory need to be considered jointly.

  4. Short-term memory affects color perception in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Maria; Allred, Sarah R

    2014-01-01

    Color-based object selection - for instance, looking for ripe tomatoes in the market - places demands on both perceptual and memory processes: it is necessary to form a stable perceptual estimate of surface color from a variable visual signal, as well as to retain multiple perceptual estimates in memory while comparing objects. Nevertheless, perceptual and memory processes in the color domain are generally studied in separate research programs with the assumption that they are independent. Here, we demonstrate a strong failure of independence between color perception and memory: the effect of context on color appearance is substantially weakened by a short retention interval between a reference and test stimulus. This somewhat counterintuitive result is consistent with Bayesian estimation: as the precision of the representation of the reference surface and its context decays in memory, prior information gains more weight, causing the retained percepts to be drawn toward prior information about surface and context color. This interaction implies that to fully understand information processing in real-world color tasks, perception and memory need to be considered jointly.

  5. Short-Term Memory Affects Color Perception in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Maria; Allred, Sarah R.

    2014-01-01

    Color-based object selection — for instance, looking for ripe tomatoes in the market — places demands on both perceptual and memory processes: it is necessary to form a stable perceptual estimate of surface color from a variable visual signal, as well as to retain multiple perceptual estimates in memory while comparing objects. Nevertheless, perceptual and memory processes in the color domain are generally studied in separate research programs with the assumption that they are independent. Here, we demonstrate a strong failure of independence between color perception and memory: the effect of context on color appearance is substantially weakened by a short retention interval between a reference and test stimulus. This somewhat counterintuitive result is consistent with Bayesian estimation: as the precision of the representation of the reference surface and its context decays in memory, prior information gains more weight, causing the retained percepts to be drawn toward prior information about surface and context color. This interaction implies that to fully understand information processing in real-world color tasks, perception and memory need to be considered jointly. PMID:24475131

  6. Understanding the Cognitive and Affective Mechanisms that Underlie Proxy Risk Perceptions among Caregivers of Asthmatic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A; Lipsey, Nikolette P; Pachur, Thorsten; Waters, Erika A

    2018-07-01

    Medical decisions made on behalf of another person-particularly those made by adult caregivers for their minor children-are often informed by the decision maker's beliefs about the treatment's risks and benefits. However, we know little about the cognitive and affective mechanisms influencing such "proxy" risk perceptions and about how proxy risk perceptions are related to prominent judgment phenomena. Adult caregivers of minor children with asthma ( N = 132) completed an online, cross-sectional survey assessing 1) cognitions and affects that form the basis of the availability, representativeness, and affect heuristics; 2) endorsement of the absent-exempt and the better-than-average effect; and 3) proxy perceived risk and unrealistic comparative optimism of an asthma exacerbation. We used the Pediatric Asthma Control and Communication Instrument (PACCI) to assess asthma severity. Respondents with higher scores on availability, representativeness, and negative affect indicated higher proxy risk perceptions and (for representativeness only) lower unrealistic optimism, irrespective of asthma severity. Conversely, respondents who showed a stronger display of the better-than-average effect indicated lower proxy risk perceptions but did not differ in unrealistic optimism. The absent-exempt effect was unrelated to proxy risk perceptions and unrealistic optimism. Heuristic judgment processes appear to contribute to caregivers' proxy risk perceptions of their child's asthma exacerbation risk. Moreover, the display of other, possibly erroneous, judgment phenomena is associated with lower caregiver risk perceptions. Designing interventions that target these mechanisms may help caregivers work with their children to reduce exacerbation risk.

  7. Perception, Imagination and Affect in Human–Robot Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kerruish

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As they arrive in our homes, nursing facilities and educational institutions, urgent questions are being asked about the ethics of encouraging people to have feelings towards social robots that have roles as companions, carers and teachers. This article suggests that the quality of these debates is enhanced by examining how people perceive robots and, in particular, how robots’ expressive characteristics stimulate feelings through engaging the embodied imagination. I discuss the perception and expression of the zoomorphic therapeutic robot Paro, before considering the directions an understanding of these processes can take discussions about the aesthetics and ethics of social robots.

  8. Factors Affecting Parent's Perception on Air Quality-From the Individual to the Community Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yulin; Liu, Fengfeng; Lu, Yuanan; Mao, Zongfu; Lu, Hanson; Wu, Yanyan; Chu, Yuanyuan; Yu, Lichen; Liu, Yisi; Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Chen, Xi; Xiang, Hao

    2016-05-12

    The perception of air quality significantly affects the acceptance of the public of the government's environmental policies. The aim of this research is to explore the relationship between the perception of the air quality of parents and scientific monitoring data and to analyze the factors that affect parents' perceptions. Scientific data of air quality were obtained from Wuhan's environmental condition reports. One thousand parents were investigated for their knowledge and perception of air quality. Scientific data show that the air quality of Wuhan follows an improving trend in general, while most participants believed that the air quality of Wuhan has deteriorated, which indicates a significant difference between public perception and reality. On the individual level, respondents with an age of 40 or above (40 or above: OR = 3.252; 95% CI: 1.170-9.040), a higher educational level (college and above: OR = 7.598; 95% CI: 2.244-25.732) or children with poor healthy conditions (poor: OR = 6.864; 95% CI: 2.212-21.302) have much more negative perception of air quality. On the community level, industrial facilities, vehicles and city construction have major effects on parents' perception of air quality. Our investigation provides baseline information for environmental policy researchers and makers regarding the public's perception and expectation of air quality and the benefits to the environmental policy completing and enforcing.

  9. Long-Term Memory for Music: Infants Remember Tempo and Timbre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Laurel J.; Wu, Luann; Tsang, Christine D.

    2004-01-01

    We show that infants' long-term memory representations for melodies are not just reduced to the structural features of relative pitches and durations, but contain surface or performance tempo- and timbre-specific information. Using a head turn preference procedure, we found that after a one week exposure to an old English folk song, infants…

  10. See it with feeling: affective predictions during object perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, L.F.; Bar, Moshe

    2009-01-01

    People see with feeling. We ‘gaze’, ‘behold’, ‘stare’, ‘gape’ and ‘glare’. In this paper, we develop the hypothesis that the brain's ability to see in the present incorporates a representation of the affective impact of those visual sensations in the past. This representation makes up part of the brain's prediction of what the visual sensations stand for in the present, including how to act on them in the near future. The affective prediction hypothesis implies that responses signalling an object's salience, relevance or value do not occur as a separate step after the object is identified. Instead, affective responses support vision from the very moment that visual stimulation begins. PMID:19528014

  11. Factors Affecting the Effectiveness and Use of Moodle: Students' Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damnjanovic, Vesna; Jednak, Sandra; Mijatovic, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to identify the factors affecting the effectiveness of Moodle from the students' perspective. The research hypotheses derived from the suggested extended Seddon model have been empirically validated using the responses to a survey on e-learning usage among 255 users. We tested the model across higher education…

  12. Higher Education for Sustainability: Can Education Affect Moral Perceptions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgendreher, Simon; Löfgren, Åsa

    2018-01-01

    A considerable literature looks at universities' approaches to integrating sustainable development into teaching and learning, but less is known about how Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) affects student attitudes, values and norms. To our knowledge, only a few studies have quantified such effects of changes in curricula. This study…

  13. Factors affecting children's oral health: perceptions among Latino parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Dharma E; Réategui-Sharpe, Ludmila; Spiro Iii, Avron; García, Raul I

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand factors that influence the oral health-related behaviors of Latino children, as reported by their parents. Focus groups and in-depth interviews assessed parental perceptions, experiences, attributions, and beliefs regarding their children's oral health. Guiding questions focused on a) the participant's child dental experiences; b) the impact of dental problems on the child's daily activities, emotions, self-esteem; c) parental experiences coping with child's dental problems; and d) hygienic and dietary habits. Participants were purposively sampled from dental clinics and public schools with a high concentration of Latinos; 92 urban low-income Latino Spanish-speaking parents participated. Transcriptions of the audio files were thematically analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Parents' explanations of their children's dental experiences were categorized under the following themes: caries and diet, access to dental care, migration experiences, and routines. Findings revealed fundamental multilevel (i.e., individual/child, family, and community) factors that are important to consider for future interventions to reduce oral health disparities: behaviors leading to caries, parental knowledge about optimal oral health, access to sugary foods within the living environment and to fluoridated water as well as barriers to oral health care such as lack of health insurance or limited health insurance coverage, among others. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  14. The Tripartite Model of Risk Perception (TRIRISK): Distinguishing Deliberative, Affective, and Experiential Components of Perceived Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Rebecca A; Klein, William M P; Persoskie, Alexander; Avishai-Yitshak, Aya; Sheeran, Paschal

    2016-10-01

    Although risk perception is a key predictor in health behavior theories, current conceptions of risk comprise only one (deliberative) or two (deliberative vs. affective/experiential) dimensions. This research tested a tripartite model that distinguishes among deliberative, affective, and experiential components of risk perception. In two studies, and in relation to three common diseases (cancer, heart disease, diabetes), we used confirmatory factor analyses to examine the factor structure of the tripartite risk perception (TRIRISK) model and compared the fit of the TRIRISK model to dual-factor and single-factor models. In a third study, we assessed concurrent validity by examining the impact of cancer diagnosis on (a) levels of deliberative, affective, and experiential risk perception, and (b) the strength of relations among risk components, and tested predictive validity by assessing relations with behavioral intentions to prevent cancer. The tripartite factor structure was supported, producing better model fit across diseases (studies 1 and 2). Inter-correlations among the components were significantly smaller among participants who had been diagnosed with cancer, suggesting that affected populations make finer-grained distinctions among risk perceptions (study 3). Moreover, all three risk perception components predicted unique variance in intentions to engage in preventive behavior (study 3). The TRIRISK model offers both a novel conceptualization of health-related risk perceptions, and new measures that enhance predictive validity beyond that engendered by unidimensional and bidimensional models. The present findings have implications for the ways in which risk perceptions are targeted in health behavior change interventions, health communications, and decision aids.

  15. The Role of Affective and Cognitive Individual Differences in Social Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Antonio; Haddock, Geoffrey; Maio, Gregory R; Wolf, Lukas J; Alparone, Francesca R

    2016-06-01

    Three studies explored the connection between social perception processes and individual differences in the use of affective and cognitive information in relation to attitudes. Study 1 revealed that individuals high in need for affect (NFA) accentuated differences in evaluations of warm and cold traits, whereas individuals high in need for cognition (NFC) accentuated differences in evaluations of competent and incompetent traits. Study 2 revealed that individual differences in NFA predicted liking of warm or cold targets, whereas individual differences in NFC predicted perceptions of competent or incompetent targets. Furthermore, the effects of NFA and NFC were independent of structural bases and meta-bases of attitudes. Study 3 revealed that differences in the evaluation of warm and cold traits mediated the effects of NFA and NFC on liking of targets. The implications for social perception processes and for individual differences in affect-cognition are discussed. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  16. Does the Perception that Stress Affects Health Matter? The Association with Health and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Abiola; Litzelman, Kristin; Wisk, Lauren E.; Maddox, Torsheika; Cheng, Erika Rose; Creswell, Paul D.; Witt, Whitney P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study sought to examine the relationship among the amount of stress, the perception that stress affects health, and health and mortality outcomes in a nationally-representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Data from the 1998 National Health Interview Survey were linked to prospective National Death Index mortality data through 2006. Separate logistic regression models were used to examine the factors associated with current health status and psychological distress. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the impact of perceiving that stress affects health on all-cause mortality. Each model specifically examined the interaction between the amount of stress and the perception that stress affects health, controlling for sociodemographic, health behavior, and access to healthcare factors. Results 33.7% of nearly 186 million (n=28,753) U.S. adults perceived that stress affected their health a lot or to some extent. Both higher levels of reported stress and the perception that stress affects health were independently associated with an increased likelihood of worse health and mental health outcomes. The amount of stress and the perception that stress affects health interacted such that those who reported a lot of stress and that stress impacted their health a lot had a 43% increased risk of premature death (HR = 1.43, 95% CI [1.20, 1.71]). Conclusions High amounts of stress and the perception that stress impacts health are each associated with poor health and mental health. Individuals who perceived that stress affects their health and reported a large amount of stress had an increased risk of premature death. PMID:22201278

  17. The Factors Affecting the Intercultural Sensitivity Perception Level of Psychological Counseling and Guidance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncel, Ibrahim; Aricioglu, Ahu

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the factors affecting the intercultural sensitivity perception levels of Psychological Counseling and Guidance students. This study was conducted in Pamukkale University which is located in the western part of Turkey. Data were gathered from 524 freshmen, sophomore, junior and senior students who are…

  18. Preschool Children's Perceptions of the Value of Affection as Seen in Their Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günindi, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of children in preschool education with regard to the value of affection in the pictures they draw. The study involved 199 children aged 60 months old or above. The descriptive research method was used and data were collected with the draw-and-explain technique. During the collection of the…

  19. Perceptions of Educational Barriers Affecting the Academic Achievement of Latino K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined different factors affecting the perceptions of barriers in academic achievement of Latino K-12 students. The study used data from 1,508 participants who identified themselves as being of Hispanic or Latino heritage in the 2004 National Survey of Latinos: Education, compiled by the Pew Hispanic Center between August 7 and…

  20. Ethical Ideologies: Do They Affect Shopping Behaviors and Perceptions of Morality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyeon; Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Johnson, Kim K. P.

    2005-01-01

    Counterfeiting is a serious problem facing several industries, including the medical, agricultural, and apparel industries (Bloch, Bush, & Campbell, 1993). The authors investigated whether ethical viewpoints affect perceptions of the morality of particular shopping behaviors, attitudes toward counterfeit products, and intentions to purchase such…

  1. Construction Managers’ Perception of the Factors Affecting Sustainability in Construction Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Taheriattar; Morvarid Farzanehrafat

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable construction is a comprehensive concept which requires long-term planning. Moreover, construction managers play a key role in leading, planning and scheduling of a construction project. As a result, sustainability of construction projects can be affected by construction managers’ decisions. In addition, for greater development of sustainable construction, affecting factors should firstly be notified. Therefore, it seems necessary to investigate construction managers’ perception of...

  2. Electrophysiological correlates of the retention of tones differing in timbre in auditory short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolden, Sophie; Bermudez, Patrick; Alunni-Menichini, Kristelle; Lefebvre, Christine; Grimault, Stephan; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2013-11-01

    We examined the electrophysiological correlates of retention in auditory short-term memory (ASTM) for sequences of one, two, or three tones differing in timbre but having the same pitch. We focused on event-related potentials (ERPs) during the retention interval and revealed a sustained fronto-central ERP component (most likely a sustained anterior negativity; SAN) that became more negative as memory load increased. Our results are consistent with recent ERP studies on the retention of pitch and suggest that the SAN reflects brain activity mediating the low-level retention of basic acoustic features in ASTM. The present work shows that the retention of timbre shares common features with the retention of pitch, hence supporting the notion that the retention of basic sensory features is an active process that recruits modality-specific brain areas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sex differences in memory for timbre: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantz, E C; Marvin, E W; Kreilick, K G; Chapman, R M

    1996-10-01

    Although female/male cognitive differences have been studied for some time, little is known about such differences relative to music. Highly-trained musicians (15 females and 15 males) performed a memory task for musical timbre modeled after the missing-displaced visual object test known to favor female performance. Subjects were tested on memory for a timbre missing from a previously presented set of synthesized instrumental timbres, and a control series of white noise bursts at two different intensity levels. Subjects were given the missing-displaced visual object test and ERPs were recorded from three midline sites and two lateral sites. Waveforms were subjected to a principal component analysis and analysis of variance. Females and males performed equally well on both of the auditory series and the visual object test. Both auditory series elicited several ERP components: a strong early peak to the white noise, and both early (P3a) and late (P3b) peaks to the timbre series. PCA factor, maximum at 675 ms (P3b), showed a main effect for sex across both series with males > females. PCA factor, maximum at 336 ms (P3a), showed larger Fz to Pz differential for females than males for both auditory series. Females show a greater differentiation between targets and nontargets in the white noise series, suggesting greater sensitivity to changes in intensity. Interactions involving absolute pitch also appeared in the sensory processing time frames. Although the behavioral measures did not show significant sex differences, the ERP measures did show reliable task-related sex differences.

  4. Auditory evoked potentials to abrupt pitch and timbre change of complex tones: electrophysiological evidence of 'streaming'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S J; Longe, O; Vaz Pato, M

    1998-03-01

    Examination of the cortical auditory evoked potentials to complex tones changing in pitch and timbre suggests a useful new method for investigating higher auditory processes, in particular those concerned with 'streaming' and auditory object formation. The main conclusions were: (i) the N1 evoked by a sudden change in pitch or timbre was more posteriorly distributed than the N1 at the onset of the tone, indicating at least partial segregation of the neuronal populations responsive to sound onset and spectral change; (ii) the T-complex was consistently larger over the right hemisphere, consistent with clinical and PET evidence for particular involvement of the right temporal lobe in the processing of timbral and musical material; (iii) responses to timbral change were relatively unaffected by increasing the rate of interspersed changes in pitch, suggesting a mechanism for detecting the onset of a new voice in a constantly modulated sound stream; (iv) responses to onset, offset and pitch change of complex tones were relatively unaffected by interfering tones when the latter were of a different timbre, suggesting these responses must be generated subsequent to auditory stream segregation.

  5. Factors affecting the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in inpatient units: perception of nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clairton Marcos Citolino Filho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE To identify, in the perception of nurses, the factors that affect the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR in adult inpatient units, and investigate the influence of both work shifts and professional experience length of time in the perception of these factors. METHOD A descriptive, exploratory study conducted at a hospital specialized in cardiology and pneumology with the application of a questionnaire to 49 nurses working in inpatient units. RESULTS The majority of nurses reported that the high number of professionals in the scenario (75.5%, the lack of harmony (77.6% or stress of any member of staff (67.3%, lack of material and/or equipment failure (57.1%, lack of familiarity with the emergency trolleys (98.0% and presence of family members at the beginning of the cardiopulmonary arrest assistance (57.1% are factors that adversely affect the quality of care provided during CPR. Professional experience length of time and the shift of nurses did not influence the perception of these factors. CONCLUSION The identification of factors that affect the quality of CPR in the perception of nurses serves as parameter to implement improvements and training of the staff working in inpatient units.

  6. The influence of a working memory task on affective perception of facial expressions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Lark Lim

    Full Text Available In a dual-task paradigm, participants performed a spatial location working memory task and a forced two-choice perceptual decision task (neutral vs. fearful with gradually morphed emotional faces (neutral ∼ fearful. Task-irrelevant word distractors (negative, neutral, and control were experimentally manipulated during spatial working memory encoding. We hypothesized that, if affective perception is influenced by concurrent cognitive load using a working memory task, task-irrelevant emotional distractors would bias subsequent perceptual decision-making on ambiguous facial expression. We found that when either neutral or negative emotional words were presented as task-irrelevant working-memory distractors, participants more frequently reported fearful face perception - but only at the higher emotional intensity levels of morphed faces. Also, the affective perception bias due to negative emotional distractors correlated with a decrease in working memory performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that concurrent working memory load by task-irrelevant distractors has an impact on affective perception of facial expressions.

  7. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ann eLeow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Slowed gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the beat, which might be difficult for PD patients who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties which may improve motivation to move. As a first step in understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low groove music, high groove music, and metronome cues. High groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1 preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2 faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high groove music, and worst with low groove music. In addition, high groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  8. Individual Differences in Beat Perception Affect Gait Responses to Low- and High-Groove Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the “beat,” which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

  9. Does restriction of pitch variation affect the perception of vocal emotions in Mandarin Chinese?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Lee, Yong-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a finding about vocal expressions of emotion in Mandarin Chinese. Production and perception experiments used the same tone and mixed tone sequences to test whether pitch variation is restricted due to the presence of lexical tones. Results showed that the restriction of pitch variation occurred in all high level tone sequences (tone 1 group) with the expression of happiness but did not happen for other dynamic tone groups. However, perception analysis revealed that all the emotions in every tone group received high identification rates; this indicates that listeners used other cues for encoding happiness in the tone 1 group. This study demonstrates that the restriction of pitch variation does not affect the perception of vocal emotions.

  10. Affective and physiological correlates of the perception of unimodal and bimodal emotional stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Pedro J; Oliveira, Jorge; Alghazzawi, Daniyal; Fardoun, Habib; Gamito, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    Despite the multisensory nature of perception, previous research on emotions has been focused on unimodal emotional cues with visual stimuli. To the best of our knowledge, there is no evidence on the extent to which incongruent emotional cues from visual and auditory sensory channels affect pupil size. To investigate the effects of audiovisual emotional information perception on the physiological and affective response, but also to determine the impact of mismatched cues in emotional perception on these physiological indexes. Pupil size, electrodermal activity and affective subjective responses were recorded while 30 participants were exposed to visual and auditory stimuli with varied emotional content in three different experimental conditions: pictures and sounds presented alone (unimodal), emotionally matched audio-visual stimuli (bimodal congruent) and emotionally mismatched audio-visual stimuli (bimodal incongruent). The data revealed no effect of emotional incongruence on physiological and affective responses. On the other hand, pupil size covaried with skin conductance response (SCR), but the subjective experience was partially dissociated from autonomic responses. Emotional stimuli are able to trigger physiological responses regardless of valence, sensory modality or level of emotional congruence.

  11. Effect of Parkinson Disease on Emotion Perception Using the Persian Affective Voices Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarian, Arezoo; Shavaki, Yunes Amiri; Shahidi, Gholam Ali; Jafari, Zahra

    2018-05-04

    Emotion perception plays a major role in proper communication with people in different social interactions. Nonverbal affect bursts can be used to evaluate vocal emotion perception. The present study was a preliminary step to establishing the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Montreal Affective Voices (MAV) test, as well as to investigate the effect of Parkinson disease (PD) on vocal emotion perception. The short, emotional sound made by pronouncing the vowel "a" in Persian was recorded by 22 actors and actresses to develop the Persian version of the MAV, the Persian Affective Voices (PAV), for emotions of happiness, sadness, pleasure, pain, anger, disgust, fear, surprise, and neutrality. The results of the recordings of five of the actresses and five of the actors who obtained the highest score were used to generate the test. For convergent validity assessment, the correlation between the PAV and a speech prosody comprehension test was examined using a gender- and age-matched control group. To investigate the effect of the PD on emotion perception, the PAV test was performed on 28 patients with mild PD between ages 50 and 70 years. The PAV showed a high internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.80). A significant positive correlation was observed between the PAV and the speech prosody comprehension test. The test-retest reliability also showed the high repeatability of the PAV (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.815, P ≤ 0.001). A significant difference was observed between the patients with PD and the controls in all subtests. The PAV test is a useful psychometric tool for examining vocal emotion perception that can be used in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L. O.; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music. PMID:23882233

  13. Music, Emotion and Time Perception: The influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYLVIE eDROIT-VOLET

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (< 2 s and long (> 2 s stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow (Experiment 1 or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces. The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant versus atonal (unpleasant versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  14. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L O; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music.

  15. Perception and Modeling of Affective Qualities of Musical Instrument Sounds across Pitch Registers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Stephen; Douglas, Chelsea; Vempala, Naresh N

    2017-01-01

    Composers often pick specific instruments to convey a given emotional tone in their music, partly due to their expressive possibilities, but also due to their timbres in specific registers and at given dynamic markings. Of interest to both music psychology and music informatics from a computational point of view is the relation between the acoustic properties that give rise to the timbre at a given pitch and the perceived emotional quality of the tone. Musician and nonmusician listeners were presented with 137 tones produced at a fixed dynamic marking (forte) playing tones at pitch class D# across each instrument's entire pitch range and with different playing techniques for standard orchestral instruments drawn from the brass, woodwind, string, and pitched percussion families. They rated each tone on six analogical-categorical scales in terms of emotional valence (positive/negative and pleasant/unpleasant), energy arousal (awake/tired), tension arousal (excited/calm), preference (like/dislike), and familiarity. Linear mixed models revealed interactive effects of musical training, instrument family, and pitch register, with non-linear relations between pitch register and several dependent variables. Twenty-three audio descriptors from the Timbre Toolbox were computed for each sound and analyzed in two ways: linear partial least squares regression (PLSR) and nonlinear artificial neural net modeling. These two analyses converged in terms of the importance of various spectral, temporal, and spectrotemporal audio descriptors in explaining the emotion ratings, but some differences also emerged. Different combinations of audio descriptors make major contributions to the three emotion dimensions, suggesting that they are carried by distinct acoustic properties. Valence is more positive with lower spectral slopes, a greater emergence of strong partials, and an amplitude envelope with a sharper attack and earlier decay. Higher tension arousal is carried by brighter sounds

  16. Introduction to the special issue: Intuition and affect in risk perception and decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Gisela Boehm; Wibecke Brun

    2008-01-01

    (from the introduction) Intuition and affect have been neglected topics in the literature on human judgment and decision making for a long time. Judgmental processes involved in risk perception and decision making have traditionally been conceptualized as cognitive in nature, being based upon a rational and deliberate evaluation of the alternatives at hand. This picture started to change in the early 1980s when decision researchers looked beyond rational, deliberate, and cognitive processes a...

  17. Factors Affecting Customers’ Satisfaction and Perception: Case Study of Islamic Banks’Service Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayah Cheriyah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the perception and expectation of the Islamic bank customers on the banks’ service quality, and how these factors affect their satisfaction and their intention to buy and to use the Islamic banks products and services.This finding implies that the Islamic banks should have pay more attention to their service quality since it would have a positif influence on customer satisfaction and purchase intention.

  18. Does Organizational Culture Affect the Perception Towards the Barriers of the Glass Ceiling?

    OpenAIRE

    Muruatetu, Ndunge

    2011-01-01

    Purpose : The purpose of this study was to examine the existence of the glass ceilling in Africa; and to investigate whether organizational culture affected the perception towards the barriers of the glass ceiling. Design/Methodology : This research used a quatitative approach, based on a descriptive design. Data was gathered from surveys issued to employees at a Non-Governmental organization; with the participants based in the Sierra Leone and Democratic Republic of Congo offices. Fi...

  19. The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västfjäll, Daniel; Peters, Ellen; Slovic, Paul

    2014-12-01

    We examine how affect and accessible thoughts following a major natural disaster influence everyday risk perception. A survey was conducted in the months following the 2004 south Asian Tsunami in a representative sample of the Swedish population (N = 733). Respondents rated their experienced affect as well as the perceived risk and benefits of various everyday decision domains. Affect influenced risk and benefit perception in a way that could be predicted from both the affect-congruency and affect heuristic literatures (increased risk perception and stronger risk-benefit correlations). However, in some decision domains, self-regulation goals primed by the natural disaster predicted risk and benefit ratings. Together, these results show that affect, accessible thoughts and motivational states influence perceptions of risks and benefits. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cultural differences in affect intensity perception in the context of advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogosyan, Marianna; Engelmann, Jan B

    2011-01-01

    Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese, and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity, or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal (HA) images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal (LA) images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1) perceptual differences in the extent to which HA images were discriminated from LA images, and (2) categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for global advertising are discussed.

  1. Cultural differences in affect intensity perception in the context of advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna ePogosyan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences in the perception of positive affect intensity within an advertising context were investigated among American, Japanese and Russian participants. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of facial expressions of positive emotions, which displayed either subtle, low intensity or salient, high intensity expressions of positive affect. In agreement with previous findings from cross-cultural psychological research, current results demonstrate both cross-cultural agreement and differences in the perception of positive affect intensity across the three cultures. Specifically, American participants perceived high arousal images as significantly less calm than participants from the other two cultures, while the Japanese participants perceived low arousal images as significantly more excited than participants from the other cultures. The underlying mechanisms of these cultural differences were further investigated through difference scores that probed for cultural differences in perception and categorization of positive emotions. Findings indicate that rating differences are due to (1 perceptual differences in the extent to which high arousal images were discriminated from low arousal images, and (2 categorization differences in the extent to which facial expressions were grouped into affect intensity categories. Specifically, American participants revealed significantly higher perceptual differentiation between arousal levels of facial expressions in high and intermediate intensity categories. Japanese participants, on the other hand, did not discriminate between high and low arousal affect categories to the same extent as did the American and Russian participants. These findings indicate the presence of cultural differences in underlying decoding mechanisms of facial expressions of positive affect intensity. Implications of these results for cross-cultural communication and global advertising are discussed.

  2. Perception of attachment security in families with children affected by neurological illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langher Viviana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes inter-family relationships of families with children with neurological problems using Bowlby’s attachment theory as model of reference. The research was conducted in two hospitals in Serbia specialized in neurological diseases: cerebral palsy and epilepsy. It is hypothesized that neurological problems could be associated to a discrepancy of inter-family attachment perceptions. Two groups were selected, a clinical one composed of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with a certified diagnosis of either cerebral palsy or epilepsy; and a control group of 25 nuclear families: mother, father and child with no pathology. Kerns, Klepac and Cole’s Security Scale (1996 was used for the investigation, with the addition of two modified version for administration to the parents. Data analysis demonstrated that the clinical group is substantively higher (p=.076 with respect to the discrepancy of attachment perceived by the children and the attribution of meaning that parents give to their child’s attachment perception towards them. Further analyses carried out on parent-child relationships demonstrated a significant difference (p =.017 between the clinical and control groups, with respect to the perception of father-child attachment. We conclude that in the clinical group, there is a discrepancy of attachment perceptions that particularly affects the father-child relationship. It appears that hospitalization and the consequent separation of the nuclear families may influence the formation of secure attachment relationships, in particular between father and child.

  3. What is a melody? On the relationship between pitch and brightness of timbre

    OpenAIRE

    Cousineau, Marion; Carcagno, Samuele; Demany, Laurent; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the perceptual processing of sound sequences is more efficient when the sounds vary in pitch than when they vary in loudness. We show here that sequences of sounds varying in brightness of timbre are processed with the same efficiency as pitch sequences. The sounds used consisted of two simultaneous pure tones one octave apart, and the listeners’ task was to make same/different judgments on pairs of sequences varying in length (one, two, or four sounds). In one co...

  4. Borderline personality disorder symptoms and affective responding to perceptions of rejection and acceptance from romantic versus nonromantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sophie A; Scott, Lori N; Beeney, Joseph E; Wright, Aidan G C; Stepp, Stephanie D; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2018-05-01

    We examined event-contingent recording of daily interpersonal interactions in a diagnostically diverse sample of 101 psychiatric outpatients who were involved in a romantic relationship. We tested whether the unique effect of borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms on affective responses (i.e., hostility, sadness, guilt, fear, and positive affect) to perceptions of rejection or acceptance differed with one's romantic partner compared with nonromantic partners. BPD symptoms were associated with more frequent perceptions of rejection and less frequent perceptions of acceptance across the study. For all participants, perceptions of rejecting behavior were associated with higher within-person negative affect and lower within-person positive affect. As predicted, in interactions with romantic partners only, those with high BPD symptoms reported heightened hostility and, to a lesser extent, attenuated sadness in response to perceptions of rejection. BPD symptoms did not moderate associations between perceptions of rejection and guilt, fear, or positive affect across romantic and nonromantic partners. For all participants, perceived acceptance was associated with lower within-person negative affect and higher within-person positive affect. However, BPD symptoms were associated with attenuated positive affect in response to perceptions of accepting behavior in interactions with romantic partners only. BPD symptoms did not moderate associations between perceptions of acceptance and any of the negative affects across romantic and nonromantic partners. This study highlights the specificity of affective responses characteristic of BPD when comparisons are made with patients with other personality and psychiatric disorders. Implications for romantic relationship dysfunction are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Are Tourists’ Environmental Behavior Affected by Their Environmental Perceptions and Beliefs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola Anastasia RAMCHURJEE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The key to eliminating environmental problems depends mainly on how much individuals are motivated to change their consumer behaviors and participate in more environmentally responsible practices. The purpose of this research is to examine if tourists’ environmental behaviors are affected by their environmental perceptions and beliefs and how these concepts influence tourists to engage in environmentally responsible behaviors while visiting Hassan, Karnataka India. Random sampling utilizes a structured questionnaire for this investigation. The questionnaire consisted of four sections with 335 participants. The results showed that some tourists engage in positive environmental behaviors. It also revealed that the tourists largely held positive environmental beliefs and perceptions, and are aware of the concerns for the environment, however, they are not ready to transfer their environmental beliefs into their behavioral practices. Their main aim when on vacation is to experience the destination and activities offered, relax and enjoy the cultural atmosphere and to generally “have a good time”.

  6. Peers and teachers as sources of relatedness perceptions, motivation, and affective responses in physical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne; Duncheon, Nicole; McDavid, Lindley

    2009-12-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of relatedness perceptions to self-determined motivation in physical education. Therefore, studies have begun to examine the social factors contributing to feelings of relatedness. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher (perceived emotional support) and peer (acceptance, friendship quality) relationship variables to feelings of relatedness, motivation, and affective responses in junior high physical education students (N = 411). Results revealed that perceived relatedness mediated the relationship between variables and self-determined motivation and related directly to the amount of enjoyment and worry students experienced. These findings demonstrate that relationships with both teachers and peers are important for students' relatedness perceptions, motivation, enjoyment, and worry in physical education.

  7. Musically induced arousal affects pain perception in females but not in males: a psychophysiological examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Gorges, Susanne; Alpers, Georg W; Lehmann, Andreas C; Pauli, Paul

    2007-04-01

    The present study investigated affective and physiological responses to changes of tempo and mode in classical music and their effects on heat pain perception. Thirty-eight healthy non-musicians (17 female) listened to sequences of 24 music stimuli which were variations of 4 pieces of classical music. Tempo (46, 60, and 95 beats/min) and mode (major and minor) were manipulated digitally, all other musical elements were held constant. Participants rated valence, arousal, happiness and sadness of the musical stimuli as well as the intensity and the unpleasantness of heat pain stimuli which were applied during music listening. Heart rate, respiratory rate and end-tidal PCO(2) were recorded. Pain ratings were highest for the fastest tempo. Also, participants' arousal ratings, their respiratory rate and heart rate were accelerated by the fastest tempo. The modulation of pain perception by the tempo of music seems to be mediated by the listener's arousal.

  8. Differences in Perception of Musical Stimuli among Acoustic, Electric, and Combined Modality Listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentiss, Sandra M; Friedland, David R; Nash, John J; Runge, Christina L

    2015-05-01

    Cochlear implants have shown vast improvements in speech understanding for those with severe to profound hearing loss; however, music perception remains a challenge for electric hearing. It is unclear whether the difficulties arise from limitations of sound processing, the nature of a damaged auditory system, or a combination of both. To examine music perception performance with different acoustic and electric hearing configurations. Chord discrimination and timbre perception were tested in subjects representing four daily-use listening configurations: unilateral cochlear implant (CI), contralateral bimodal (CIHA), bilateral hearing aid (HAHA) and normal-hearing (NH) listeners. A same-different task was used for discrimination of two chords played on piano. Timbre perception was assessed using a 10-instrument forced-choice identification task. Fourteen adults were included in each group, none of whom were professional musicians. The number of correct responses was divided by the total number of presentations to calculate scores in percent correct. Data analyses were performed with Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and linear regression. Chord discrimination showed a narrow range of performance across groups, with mean scores ranging between 72.5% (CI) and 88.9% (NH). Significant differences were seen between the NH and all hearing-impaired groups. Both the HAHA and CIHA groups performed significantly better than the CI groups, and no significant differences were observed between the HAHA and CIHA groups. Timbre perception was significantly poorer for the hearing-impaired groups (mean scores ranged from 50.3-73.9%) compared to NH (95.2%). Significantly better performance was observed in the HAHA group as compared to both groups with electric hearing (CI and CIHA). There was no significant difference in performance between the CIHA and CI groups. Timbre perception was a significantly more difficult task than chord discrimination for both the CI and CIHA

  9. Integrative processing of touch and affect in social perception: an fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sjoerd eEbisch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Social perception commonly employs multiple sources of information. The present study aimed at investigating the integrative processing of affective social signals. Task-related and task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 26 healthy adult participants during a social perception task concerning dynamic visual stimuli simultaneously depicting facial expressions of emotion and tactile sensations that could be either congruent or incongruent. Confounding effects due to affective valence, inhibitory top-down influences, cross-modal integration, and conflict processing were minimized. The results showed that the perception of congruent, compared to incongruent stimuli, elicited enhanced neural activity in a set of brain regions including left amygdala, bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, and left superior parietal cortex. These congruency effects did not differ as a function of emotion or sensation. A complementary task-related functional interaction analysis preliminarily suggested that amygdala activity depended on previous processing stages in fusiform gyrus and PCC. The findings provide support for the integrative processing of social information about others' feelings from manifold bodily sources (sensory-affective information in amygdala and PCC. Given that the congruent stimuli were also judged as being more self-related and more familiar in terms of personal experience in an independent sample of participants, we speculate that such integrative processing might be mediated by the linking of external stimuli with self-experience. Finally, the prediction of task-related responses in amygdala by intrinsic functional connectivity between amygdala and PCC during a task-free state implies a neuro-functional basis for an individual predisposition for the integrative processing of social stimulus content.

  10. What is a melody? On the relationship between pitch and brightness of timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Marion; Carcagno, Samuele; Demany, Laurent; Pressnitzer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the perceptual processing of sound sequences is more efficient when the sounds vary in pitch than when they vary in loudness. We show here that sequences of sounds varying in brightness of timbre are processed with the same efficiency as pitch sequences. The sounds used consisted of two simultaneous pure tones one octave apart, and the listeners' task was to make same/different judgments on pairs of sequences varying in length (one, two, or four sounds). In one condition, brightness of timbre was varied within the sequences by changing the relative level of the two pure tones. In other conditions, pitch was varied by changing fundamental frequency, or loudness was varied by changing the overall level. In all conditions, only two possible sounds could be used in a given sequence, and these two sounds were equally discriminable. When sequence length increased from one to four, discrimination performance decreased substantially for loudness sequences, but to a smaller extent for brightness sequences and pitch sequences. In the latter two conditions, sequence length had a similar effect on performance. These results suggest that the processes dedicated to pitch and brightness analysis, when probed with a sequence-discrimination task, share unexpected similarities.

  11. Lower Vocal Tract Morphologic Adjustments Are Relevant for Voice Timbre in Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainka, Alexander; Poznyakovskiy, Anton; Platzek, Ivan; Fleischer, Mario; Sundberg, Johan; Mürbe, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The vocal tract shape is crucial to voice production. Its lower part seems particularly relevant for voice timbre. This study analyzes the detailed morphology of parts of the epilaryngeal tube and the hypopharynx for the sustained German vowels /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/, and /u/ by thirteen male singer subjects who were at the beginning of their academic singing studies. Analysis was based on two different phonatory conditions: a natural, speech-like phonation and a singing phonation, like in classical singing. 3D models of the vocal tract were derived from magnetic resonance imaging and compared with long-term average spectrum analysis of audio recordings from the same subjects. Comparison of singing to the speech-like phonation, which served as reference, showed significant adjustments of the lower vocal tract: an average lowering of the larynx by 8 mm and an increase of the hypopharyngeal cross-sectional area (+ 21:9%) and volume (+ 16:8%). Changes in the analyzed epilaryngeal portion of the vocal tract were not significant. Consequently, lower larynx-to-hypopharynx area and volume ratios were found in singing compared to the speech-like phonation. All evaluated measures of the lower vocal tract varied significantly with vowel quality. Acoustically, an increase of high frequency energy in singing correlated with a wider hypopharyngeal area. The findings offer an explanation how classical male singers might succeed in producing a voice timbre with increased high frequency energy, creating a singer`s formant cluster.

  12. The upper spatial limit for perception of displacement is affected by preceding motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanova, Miroslava; Mateeff, Stefan; Hohnsbein, Joachim

    2009-03-01

    The upper spatial limit D(max) for perception of apparent motion of a random dot pattern may be strongly affected by another, collinear, motion that precedes it [Mateeff, S., Stefanova, M., &. Hohnsbein, J. (2007). Perceived global direction of a compound of real and apparent motion. Vision Research, 47, 1455-1463]. In the present study this phenomenon was studied with two-dimensional motion stimuli. A random dot pattern moved alternately in the vertical and oblique direction (zig-zag motion). The vertical motion was of 1.04 degrees length; it was produced by three discrete spatial steps of the dots. Thereafter the dots were displaced by a single spatial step in oblique direction. Each motion lasted for 57ms. The upper spatial limit for perception of the oblique motion was measured under two conditions: the vertical component of the oblique motion and the vertical motion were either in the same or in opposite directions. It was found that the perception of the oblique motion was strongly influenced by the relative direction of the vertical motion that preceded it; in the "same" condition the upper spatial limit was much shorter than in the "opposite" condition. Decreasing the speed of the vertical motion reversed this effect. Interpretations based on networks of motion detectors and on Gestalt theory are discussed.

  13. Empirical Look at the Factors Affecting Perception of Business Ethics in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Akman

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the influence of gender, age, education, profession and sector choices towards factors affecting business ethics in Turkey. Self-administered questionnaire with scale of 1-5 was used to measure attitudes towards business ethics (1= "strongly agree" to 5="strongly disagree" with reasonable good score on Cronbach's realibility test. With Cronbach alpha of .692 and KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Meaure of Sampling Adequecy .746 (which sould be greater than .5 for a satisfactor analysis we proceeded to our analysis successfully.  Choice job, sector, age and gender were significant determinants to factors affecting perception of business ethics but education level was not a significant determinant.

  14. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline W. ede Borst

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, animations, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the Uncanny Valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

  15. Is it the real deal? Perception of virtual characters versus humans: an affective cognitive neuroscience perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borst, Aline W; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in neuroimaging research support the increased use of naturalistic stimulus material such as film, avatars, or androids. These stimuli allow for a better understanding of how the brain processes information in complex situations while maintaining experimental control. While avatars and androids are well suited to study human cognition, they should not be equated to human stimuli. For example, the uncanny valley hypothesis theorizes that artificial agents with high human-likeness may evoke feelings of eeriness in the human observer. Here we review if, when, and how the perception of human-like avatars and androids differs from the perception of humans and consider how this influences their utilization as stimulus material in social and affective neuroimaging studies. First, we discuss how the appearance of virtual characters affects perception. When stimuli are morphed across categories from non-human to human, the most ambiguous stimuli, rather than the most human-like stimuli, show prolonged classification times and increased eeriness. Human-like to human stimuli show a positive linear relationship with familiarity. Secondly, we show that expressions of emotions in human-like avatars can be perceived similarly to human emotions, with corresponding behavioral, physiological and neuronal activations, with exception of physical dissimilarities. Subsequently, we consider if and when one perceives differences in action representation by artificial agents versus humans. Motor resonance and predictive coding models may account for empirical findings, such as an interference effect on action for observed human-like, natural moving characters. However, the expansion of these models to explain more complex behavior, such as empathy, still needs to be investigated in more detail. Finally, we broaden our outlook to social interaction, where virtual reality stimuli can be utilized to imitate complex social situations.

  16. Does Risk Perception Affect Alcohol Consumption among Secondary School Students in Jamaica?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshi, Sarah N; Abel, Wendel D; Ricketts Roomes, Tana; Meka, Ijeoma A; Harrison, Joy; Weaver, Steve; Agu, Chinwendu F; Smith, Patrice Whitehorne; Omeje, Joachim C; Rae, Tania; Oshi, Daniel C

    2018-04-23

    Background: Alcohol consumption among young people is a major public health problem world-wide and in Jamaica. A number of factors have been reported to affect alcohol use among high school students. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perception of the harmfulness of alcohol on alcohol use among secondary school students in Jamaica. Methods: Data collected from a nationally representative sample of 3,365 students were analyzed. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using SPSS. Results: Students’ perception of risk of drinking alcohol frequently and getting drunk respectively had positive and significant associations with past month alcohol use (AOR= 1.44, 95% CI= 1.09- 1.88 and AOR= 1.38, 95% CI= 1.02- 1.86, respectively) compared to students who felt that drinking alcohol frequently and getting drunk were very harmful. Males, 12 years or younger were significantly less likely to use alcohol in the past month (AOR= 0.77, 95% CI=0.60- 0.97; AOR= 0.68, 95% CI= 0.53-0.97 respectively). Students with good relationship with their mothers were less likely to use alcohol in the past year and past month (AOR= 0.55, 95% CI= 0.35-0.87; AOR= 0.50, 95% CI= 0.32- 0.78). Conclusion: Risk perception of the harmfulness of alcohol significantly affects alcohol use among secondary school students in Jamaica. Males, 12 years or younger, who had good relationship with mothers, were significantly less likely to use alcohol in past month Creative Commons Attribution License

  17. Student perceptions of their biology teacher's interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Wade Clay, Jr.

    The primary goals of this dissertation were to determine the relationships between interpersonal teaching behaviors and student achievement and affective learning outcomes. The instrument used to collect student perceptions of teacher interpersonal teaching behaviors was the Questionnaire on Teacher Interactions (QTI). The instrument used to assess student affective learning outcomes was the Biology Student Affective Instrument (BSAI). The interpersonal teaching behavior data were collected using students as the observers. 111 students in an urban influenced, rural high school answered the QTI and BSAI in September 1997 and again in April 1998. At the same time students were pre and post tested using the Biology End of Course Examination (BECE). The QTI has been used primarily in European and Oceanic areas. The instrument was also primarily used in educational stratified environment. This was the first time the BSAI was used to assess student affective learning outcomes. The BECE is a Texas normed cognitive assessment test and it is used by Texas schools districts as the end of course examination in biology. The interpersonal teaching behaviors model was tested to ascertain if predictive power in the USA and in a non-stratified educational environment. Findings indicate that the QTI is an adequate predictor of student achievement in biology. The results were not congruent with the non-USA data and results, this indicates that the QTI is a society/culturally sensitive instrument and the instrument needs to be normed to a particular society/culture before it is used to affect teachers' and students' educational environments.

  18. Pregnant mothers' perceptions of how intimate partner violence affects their unborn children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhusen, Jeanne L; Wilson, Damali

    2015-01-01

    To explore the perceptions of pregnant women on the experience of intimate partner violence (IPV) as it affects maternal and fetal health. Secondary qualitative content analysis. Individual interviews conducted within three urban obstetric and gynecologic clinics. Our sample included a subset of eight pregnant women experiencing IPV during the current pregnancy. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included qualitative data from 13 women. We analyzed in-depth individual interview transcripts in which participants discussed how they perceived IPV to affect their health as well as the health of their unborn children. Constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology were used in analysis. Three themes emerged to illustrate mothers' perceptions of how IPV influenced maternal and fetal outcomes: protection, fetal awareness, and fetal well-being. This analysis provides important insights into concerns that pregnant women experiencing IPV shared about maternal attachment and fetal well-being. Health care providers can use these findings to better assess the physical and psychological concerns of pregnant women experiencing IPV. Further research is needed to better understand how IPV contributes to adverse neonatal outcomes, particularly from a biological perspective. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  19. Pain-relevant anxiety affects desire for pain relief, but not pain perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Banozic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain context plays a significant role in the perception of pain. Despite recent interest in vicarious learning and anxiety in pain modulation, there have been no attempts to explore pain modulation by specific environmental cues. Aims: Therefore, the present study evaluated pain responses in the condition that was attributed as either anxiety relevant (AR or anxiety irrelevant. Materials and Methods: Participants were exposed to both conditions through social observational learning. Pain perception was assessed by means of a visual analog scale ranging from 0 = no pain to 10 = maximum imaginable pain. State anxiety, empathy, expectancy, and desire for pain relief were also measured at both neutral and emotionally inducing conditions. Results: No effect of relevancy of anxiety for the pain context on any of the pain-related constructs was found. However, participants in the AR condition reported an increased desire for pain relief. Maximizing similarities between observed and experienced pain context did not enhance observational learning effects in the emotionally inducing condition regardless of its relevance, but significant changes were found in comparison to the affectively neutral group. Conclusions: These results could have potentially significant clinical implications suggesting that even though observing painful procedures does not increase pain it could affect medication usage.

  20. Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental Affect: An Investigation of Only Children vs. Firstborns and the Effect of Spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Jeannie S.

    1978-01-01

    Research results revealed only-born adolescents to perceive higher positive perceptions in three measures of parental affect than do first-born adolescents. Perceived parental affect was found to vary by spacing in a consistent pattern for males towards both parents. (Author/MA)

  1. Perceptions of HR practices, person–organisation fit, and affective commitment: The moderating role of career stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, D.T.A.M.; Boon, C.

    In a three-wave survey study among 487 Dutch university employees, we examined how and when employees' perceptions of high-performance work practices (HPWP) affect employee affective commitment. We proposed that perceived person–organisation (PO) fit mediates this relationship and that the

  2. Perceptions of HR practices, person–organization fit, and affective commitment : The moderating role of career stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; Boon, Corine

    2018-01-01

    In a three-wave survey study among 487 Dutch university employees, we examined how and when employees' perceptions of high-performance work practices (HPWP) affect employee affective commitment. We proposed that perceived person–organisation (PO) fit mediates this relationship and that the

  3. Affect-Laden Imagery and Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Stress and Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover, this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process. PMID:25816238

  4. A Neural Parametric Singing Synthesizer Modeling Timbre and Expression from Natural Songs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merlijn Blaauw

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We recently presented a new model for singing synthesis based on a modified version of the WaveNet architecture. Instead of modeling raw waveform, we model features produced by a parametric vocoder that separates the influence of pitch and timbre. This allows conveniently modifying pitch to match any target melody, facilitates training on more modest dataset sizes, and significantly reduces training and generation times. Nonetheless, compared to modeling waveform directly, ways of effectively handling higher-dimensional outputs, multiple feature streams and regularization become more important with our approach. In this work, we extend our proposed system to include additional components for predicting F0 and phonetic timings from a musical score with lyrics. These expression-related features are learned together with timbrical features from a single set of natural songs. We compare our method to existing statistical parametric, concatenative, and neural network-based approaches using quantitative metrics as well as listening tests.

  5. Physical fitness level affects perception of chronic stress in military trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuch, Carolin; Teubel, Thomas; La Marca, Roberto; Roos, Lilian; Annen, Hubert; Wyss, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated whether physical fitness affects the perception of chronic stress in military trainees while controlling for established factors influencing stress perception. The sample consisted of 273 men (20.23 ± 1.12 years, 73.56 ± 10.52 kg, 1.78 ± 0.06 m). Physical fitness was measured by progressive endurance run (maximum oxygen uptake; VO 2 max), standing long jump, seated shot put, trunk muscle strength, and one leg standing test. Perceived stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Questionnaire in Weeks 1 and 11 of basic military training (BMT). VO 2 max and four influencing variables (perceived stress in Week 1, neuroticism, transformational leadership style, and education level) explained 44.44% of the variance of the increase in perceived stress during 10 weeks of BMT (R 2  = 0.444, F = 23.334, p good aerobic fitness on the varied level of perceived stress. We conclude that it is advisable to provide conscripts with a specific endurance training program prior to BMT for stress prevention reasons. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. SARON DEMUNG’S TIMBRE AND SONOGRAM OF GAMELANS GUNTURMADU FROM KERATON NGAYOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kuswanto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari spectrum warna bunyi (timbre dan sonogram dari Saron Demung Gamelan Gunturmadu dari Keraton Ngayogyakarta. Suara setiap wilahan direkam dengan bantuan pengolah suara yang ada pada komputer.  Akurasi frekuensi yang dapat diperoleh dengan pengolah ini adalah 1 Hz. Frekuensi dasar dari saron demung gamelan Gunturmadu untuk setiap wilahan #1 sampai dengan #7 masing-masing adalah 197, 207, 221, 261, 285, 304, 326 Hz. Lokasi frekuensi harmonik  tidak berturutan akan tetapi disisipi dengan frekuensi tak harmonis. Jumlah frekuensi harmonis dan tak harmonis yang membentuk warna bunyi untuk setiap wilahan berbeda. Ketebalan garis frekuensi dasar pada sonogram bertahan lebih lama dibandingkan dengan frekuensi lain pada suatu wilahan.The aim of this research is to study the timbre spectrums of Saron Demung instruments of gamelans Gunturmadu of Keraton Ngayogyakarta. This gamelan, as a set of traditional Javanese ensemble, are a pelog scale, seven scale in one octave. Sound of Saron Demung instruments are recorded by sound software. This software can display waveform in time domain and spectrum in frequency domain. The fundamental frequency is shown directly by software.  Other peak frequencies can be traced by shifting the cursor on top of it. The accuracy of frequency that can be produced is 1 Hz. Fundamentals frequencies of  Saron Demung  keys  #1 to #7 of gamelan Gunturmadu are 197, 207, 221, 261, 285, 304, 326 Hz respectively. The location of the harmonic frequencies are not always consecutive, but sometimes punctuated by another frequency. The numbers of harmonics and inharmonic frequencies of each keys are different. The thick lines of the fundamental frequency in sonogram exist in longer time than the other.

  7. How does disclosing countertransference affect perceptions of the therapist and the session?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yun-Jy; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2011-12-01

    Therapist self-disclosure has been theorized and found to have both positive and negative effects. These effects depend, in part, on the nature of the disclosure. This study sought to examine the differential effects of therapist disclosures of more and less resolved countertransference issues on perceptions of therapists and therapy sessions. Using an analogue method, undergraduate participants (N = 116) were randomly assigned to watch one of two videos in which a therapist disclosed personal issues that were relatively resolved or relatively unresolved. As hypothesized, therapist disclosure of issues that were more resolved caused the therapist to be rated as more attractive and trustworthy and instilled greater hope than therapist disclosure of less resolved issues. The type of therapist disclosure, however, did not affect ratings of the expertness of the therapist, the depth or smoothness of the session, or the perceived universality between client and therapist. Implications of the results for the judicious use of self-disclosure are discussed.

  8. PERCEPTION OF CAPITAL, PROFIT AND DIVIDENDS AFFECT THE STOCK PURCHASE INTENTION IN INDONESIA PUBLIC COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iskandar Muda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the influence perception of Capital Gains and Dividends on Stock Purchase Intention in Indonesian companies. Variables used in this research are the capital, profit and dividends (independent variables and Stock Purchase Intention (dependent variable and to show their relationship, it was used multiple linear regression. This research included Manufacturing Companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange and there were taken into account a number of 38 societies Data of this research are secondary data, obtained from the financial statements of the investigated companies published in the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results showed that simultaneous independent variables have a significant influence on the capital structure, while partially effect on the Capital Shares Purchase Intentions. It was also shown that Profit and Dividends do not affect the Stock Purchase Intention.

  9. Households Perceptions on Factors Affecting Resilience towards Natural Disasters in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viverita Viverita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE Most areas in Indonesia are prone to natural disasters. Learning the lessons from the Aceh Tsunami in 2004, areas with high risks of natural disasters are in the process of preparing themselves for such an unexpected event, by increasing their resilience. The objective of this study is to shed more lights on factors affecting the resilience from two sources namely, existing literatures and the application of disaster management in four disaster-prone areas in Indonesia -Padang, Sleman, Cilacap, and Palu. To enrich our analysis, we collect data from the field to compare the preparedness and to get insights on people’s perceptions towards the factors of resilience in those areas.We employ IDI and FGD to identify the factors of resilience and the preparedness in the areas investigated. Thereafter, a preliminary survey is conducted to identify people’s perceptions towards the aspects of resilience in the areas. Results from the survey conducted to 800 households in Padang and Cilacap indicates that from the social aspect, community’s value cohesiveness is one of important factor affecting their resilience towards natural disaster. In addition, when disaster occurred, they heavily relied on the help of debt or selling some of their assets, as well as used cash in hand as emergency funds. In general, respondents in all sample cities are able to re-start their economic activities as soon as two weeks after the event of disaster. In addition, the survey found that most of respondents were aware that the government has programs to educate people on the disaster mitigation.

  10. Ozone Differentially Affects Perception of Plant Volatiles in Western Honey Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötterl, Stefan; Vater, Marina; Rupp, Thomas; Held, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Floral scents play a key role in mediating plant-pollinator interactions. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by flowers are used by flower visitors as olfactory cues to locate flowers, both from a distance and at close range. More recently it has been demonstrated that reactive molecules such as ozone can modify or degrade VOCs, and this may impair the communication between plants and their pollinators. However, it is not known whether such reactive molecules also may affect the olfactory system of pollinators, and thus not only influence signal transmission but perception of the signal. In this study, we used electroantennographic measurements to determine the effect of increased levels of ozone on antennal responses in western honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). Linalool and 2-phenylethanol, both known to be involved in location of flowers by the bees, and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, a widespread green leaf volatile also detected by bees, were used. The results showed that ozone affected antennal responses to the different substances differently. Ozone decreased antennal responses to (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, whereas responses to linalool and 2-phenylethanol were not influenced by ozone. Overall, the study does not provide evidence that pollination by honey bees is impaired by damage in the olfactory system of the bees caused by increased levels of ozone, at least when linalool and 2-phenylethanol are the attractive signals. However, the results also suggest that ozone can change the overall perception of an odor blend. This might have negative effects in pollination systems and other organismic interactions mediated by specific ratios of compounds.

  11. Distancing from experienced self: how global versus local perception affects estimation of psychological distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberman, N.; Förster, J.

    2009-01-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined the prediction derived from construal level theory (CLT) that higher level of perceptual construal would enhance estimated egocentric psychological distance. The authors primed participants with global perception, local perception, or both (the control condition).

  12. Preschool Children’s Perceptions of the Value of Affection As Seen in Their Drawings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus GÜNİNDİ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the perceptions of children in preschool education with regard to the value of affection in the pictures they draw. The study involved 199 children aged 60 months old or above. The descriptive research method was used and data were collected with the draw-and-explain technique. During the collection of the data, the children were requested to draw a picture related to the value of affection and explain the picture they drew. The children’s explanations were recorded by the researcher. The study is one of the first to be conducted in Turkey with preschoolers in this research area. The results showed that the children generally depicted human figures like family members, other children and friends, animals like butterflies and dogs, trees, flowers and grass, happy images such as hearts, balloons and balls, and abiotic images like clouds and sunshine, as well as other images like houses in their drawings. The children tended especially to feature people and objects in their immediate vicinity.

  13. Exposure of fluid milk to LED light negatively affects consumer perception and alters underlying sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nicole; Carey, Nancy; Murphy, Steven; Kent, David; Bang, Jae; Stubbs, Tim; Wiedmann, Martin; Dando, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Fluid milk consumption per capita in the United States has been steadily declining since the 1940s. Many factors have contributed to this decline, including the increasing consumption of carbonated beverages and bottled water. To meet the challenge of stemming the decline in consumption of fluid milk, the dairy industry must take a systematic approach to identifying and correcting for factors that negatively affect consumers' perception of fluid milk quality. To that end, samples of fluid milk were evaluated to identify factors, with a particular focus on light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure, which negatively affect the perceived sensory quality of milk, and to quantify their relative effect on the consumer's experience. Fluid milk samples were sourced from 3 processing facilities with varying microbial postprocessing contamination patterns based on historical testing. The effect of fat content, light exposure, age, and microbiological content were assayed across 23 samples of fluid milk, via consumer, descriptive sensory, and instrumental analyses. Most notably, light exposure resulted in a broad negative reaction from consumers, more so than samples with microbiological contamination exceeding 20,000 cfu/mL on days approaching code. The predominant implication of the study is that a component of paramount importance in ensuring the success of the dairy industry would be to protect fluid milk from all sources of light exposure, from processing plant to consumer. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Perception of social support in the aspect of a cognitive style of patients with affective disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poradowska-Trzos, Magdalena; Dudek, Dominika; Rogoz, Monika; Zieba, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    According to Aaron Beck, dysfunctional thinking patterns appear also in euthymic patients, after withdrawal of acute diseases symptoms. Patients have a disordered, negative image of themselves, of their future and the surrounding world. It has been shown that a way a man perceives possessed social support has a basic meaning for him. The purpose of the research was to analyze the relationship between perceived social support and the patient's cognitive style. The study group consisted of euthymic outpatients diagnosed with recurrent depressive disorder (UID) or bipolar affective disorder (BID). Assessment of a cognitive style was made according to the Rosenberg Scale, Hopelessness Scale HS-20 and Automatique Thoughts Questionnaire ATQ 30, assessment of the amount of received support - according to Cohen's ISEL. The presented study revealed that, in both groups of patients, a thinking style is disturbed and that there is a link between a cognitive style and the perception of the level of received support. The link was stronger in the group of patients with unipolar affective disorder. In both groups, correlations concerning emotional support were the highest.

  15. Factors Affecting the Perception of Importance and Practice of Patient Safety Management among Hospital Employees in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Sook; Park, MiJeong; Park, Mi-Young; Yoo, Hana; Choi, Jihea

    2013-03-01

    The study was undertaken to identify factors affecting perception of the importance and practice of patient safety management (PSM) among hospital employees in Korea. This study was conducted using a descriptive design and a self-report questionnaire. Two hundred and eighty employees were recruited from three hospitals using a convenience sampling method. Measures were perception of the importance, practice, and characteristics of PSM. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics including t test, one-way analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation analysis, and multiple regression. Factors affecting perception of the importance of PSM were whether hospital employees were in contact with patients while on duty, weekly working hours, education on PSM, and perceived adequacy of PSM system construction. Factors affecting the practice of PSM were perceived adequacy of work load, perceived adequacy of PSM system construction and perception of its importance. The findings of this study indicate a need for developing strategies to improve perception of the importance and practice of PSM among all hospital employees, and provide a reference for future experimental studies. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. [Perception of parental attitudes and the level of female adolescents' self-esteem affected with anorexia nervosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowska, Bogumiła

    2013-01-01

    The article's aim is to look for correlation between a parent - child relationship and the level of self-esteem in the perception of girls affected with anorexia nervosa (who meet the criteria of DSM-IV-TR). The differences in the perception of parental attitudes (of mothers and fathers) and self-esteem of girls suffering from anorexia nervosa and their healthy peers were also analyzed. Two equally numbered groups of girls: the clinical group (30 persons affected with anorexia nervosa) and control group (30 healthy girls) in the 15-20 age range were examined. Two test were applied: Parent-Child Relations Questionnaire (PCR) A. Roe and M. Siegelman in the authorized translation by W. S. Kowalski to investigate characteristic behavior of parents of small children as perceived by youth or adults and a Questionnaire "What are you like?" by P. Sears in adaptation of J. Kostrzewski, which is used to study self-esteem. The results confirmed the expected relationship between perception of parental attitudes and the level of self-esteem of girls affected with anorexia nervosa. Parental attitudes characterized by love and protection promote higher self-esteem of their daughters and the experience of higher demands and rejection by both parents lowers their self-esteem. The comparison of average attitudes of mothers and fathers in perception of their daughters diagnosed with anorexia nervosa did not confirm significant statistical differences. Comparison of maternal attitudes in the perception of their daughters from the group affected by anorexia and the healthy group revealed significant differences in full range of attitudes. The differences in perception of the attitudes of their fathers were statistically substantial regarding the attitudes concerning love and rejection. Self-esteem of persons treated for anorexia is significantly lower than of their healthy peers.

  17. High affective risk perception is associated with more lung cancer-specific distress in CT screening for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunge, Eveline M.; van den Bergh, Karien A. M.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Klaveren, Rob J.; de Koning, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    Screening for cancer can cause distress. People who perceive their risk of cancer as high may be more vulnerable to distress. This study evaluated whether participants of a lung cancer Computed Tomography (CT) screening trial with a high affective risk perception of developing lung cancer had a

  18. Mathematics Teachers' Perceptions of Their Students' Mathematical Competence: Relations to Mathematics Achievement, Affect, and Engagement in Singapore and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Kaur, Berinderjeet

    2013-01-01

    This study, drawing on data from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011, examined whether mathematics teachers' perceptions of their students' mathematical competence were related to mathematics achievement, affect toward mathematics, and engagement in mathematics lessons among Grade 8 students in Singapore and…

  19. Cognitive and Socio-Affective Outcomes of Project-Based Learning: Perceptions of Greek Second Chance School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrouba, Konstantina; Karageorgou, Elissavet

    2013-01-01

    The present questionnaire-based study was conducted in 2010 in order to examine 677 Greek Second Chance School (SCS) students' perceptions about the cognitive and socio-affective outcomes of project-based learning. Data elaboration, statistical and factor analysis showed that the participants found that project-based learning offered a second…

  20. The role of long-term familiarity and attentional maintenance in short-term memory for timbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; McAdams, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    We study short-term recognition of timbre using familiar recorded tones from acoustic instruments and unfamiliar transformed tones that do not readily evoke sound-source categories. Participants indicated whether the timbre of a probe sound matched with one of three previously presented sounds (item recognition). In Exp. 1, musicians better recognised familiar acoustic compared to unfamiliar synthetic sounds, and this advantage was particularly large in the medial serial position. There was a strong correlation between correct rejection rate and the mean perceptual dissimilarity of the probe to the tones from the sequence. Exp. 2 compared musicians' and non-musicians' performance with concurrent articulatory suppression, visual interference, and with a silent control condition. Both suppression tasks disrupted performance by a similar margin, regardless of musical training of participants or type of sounds. Our results suggest that familiarity with sound source categories and attention play important roles in short-term memory for timbre, which rules out accounts solely based on sensory persistence.

  1. STYLE OVER SUBSTANCE? THE EFFECT OF PERCEPTIONS OF THE ECONOMY AND AFFECT TOWARD THE PRESIDENT ON TRUST IN GOVERNMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Adam J

    2005-01-01

    This study examines persons' trust in the federal government using data from the National Election Study for the presidential election years 1980 through 2000. I hypothesize that person's perceptions of the national economy's health and their affect toward the incumbent president are both positively correlated with their trust in the federal government. I also hypothesize that a person's level of affect toward the president is a stronger predictor of their trust in the federal government th...

  2. Self-esteem and perceptions of conveyed impressions: is negative affectivity associated with greater realism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J D; Fehr, B

    1990-01-01

    Two studies examined the notion that negative affectivity (Watson & Clark, 1984) is associated with more accurate perceptions of conveyed impressions in social interactions. In Study 1 (n = 160), low self-esteem (LSE) and high self-esteem (HSE) subjects were paired with either an LSE or an HSE partner. After a 15-min interaction, they rated themselves, their partners, and how they believed their partners would rate them on 20 adjectives related to social competence. Study 2 (n = 40) was identical except that each interaction was observed by 2 observers who rated each participant, and participants also rated how they believed an observer would rate them. LSE subjects exhibited greater accuracy only with respect to the elevation component of observers' ratings; HSE subjects overestimated the positivity of observers' evaluations, whereas LSE subjects were relatively accurate. However, LSE subjects exhibited less overall accuracy with respect to their partners' ratings. We argue that when these results are considered with earlier research, there is no support for the notion of depressive realism in assessing conveyed impressions.

  3. Investigating affective color association of media content in language and perception based on online RGB experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2005-03-01

    As an investigation of color categorization in language and perception, this research intends to study the affective associations between certain colors and different media content (i.e., movie genres). Compared to non-entertainment graphics (medical imaging and engineering graphics), entertainment graphics (video games and movies) are designed to deliver emotionally stimulating content to audiences. Based on an online color survey of 19 subjects, this study investigated whether or not subjects had different color preferences on diverse movie genres. Instead of providing predefined limited number of color chips (or pictures) as stimuli, this study was conducted by asking the subjects to visualize their own images of movie genres and to select their preferred colors through an online RGB color palette. By providing a combined application interface of three color slides (red, green, blue) and 216 digital color cells, the subjects were interactively able to select their preferred colors of different movie genres. To compare the distribution of movie genres, the user selected colors were mapped on CIE chromaticity diagram. This study also investigated preferred color naming of different movie genres as well as three primary color names of the subjects" most favorite genre. The results showed that the subjects had different color associations with specific movie genres as well as certain genres showed higher individual differences. Regardless of genre differences, the subjects selected blue, red or green as their three primary color names that represent their favorite movie genres. Also, the results supports Berlin & Kay"s eleven color terms.

  4. Modelling Perception of Structure and Affect in Music: Spectral Centroid and Wishart's Red Bird

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger T. Dean

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Pearce (2011 provides a positive and interesting response to our article on time series analysis of the influences of acoustic properties on real-time perception of structure and affect in a section of Trevor Wishart’s Red Bird (Dean & Bailes, 2010. We address the following topics raised in the response and our paper. First, we analyse in depth the possible influence of spectral centroid, a timbral feature of the acoustic stream distinct from the high level general parameter we used initially, spectral flatness. We find that spectral centroid, like spectral flatness, is not a powerful predictor of real-time responses, though it does show some features that encourage its continued consideration. Second, we discuss further the issue of studying both individual responses, and as in our paper, group averaged responses. We show that a multivariate Vector Autoregression model handles the grand average series quite similarly to those of individual members of our participant groups, and we analyse this in greater detail with a wide range of approaches in work which is in press and continuing. Lastly, we discuss the nature and intent of computational modelling of cognition using acoustic and music- or information theoretic data streams as predictors, and how the music- or information theoretic approaches may be applied to electroacoustic music, which is ‘sound-based’ rather than note-centred like Western classical music.

  5. Young adults’ perceptions of and affective bonds to a rural tourism community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Möller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many rural areas, in Sweden and worldwide, experience population decline where the young leave for education and work in urban areas. Employment has declined in several rural industries, such as agriculture, forestry, and fishing, while growing in other industries are often located in urban areas. Politicians and organizations have put much hope in tourism as a tool of rural development, but can tourism help reverse the rural out-migration trend among young adults? This paper explores how tourism affects young inhabitants’ perceptions of and affective bonds to a rural area in Sweden, the ski resort of Sälen. Students from the 1993–1995 elementary school graduating classes were interviewed about their migration history, childhood, and view of and ties to Sälen. The respondents experience that tourism contributes to a more vital community incorporating influences from elsewhere, but without eliminating the positive aspects of rural life. The regular flow of people – tourists, seasonal workers, and entrepreneurs – passing through Sälen presents opportunities to extend one’s social network that are widely appreciated by respondents. The high in and out mobility constitutes a key part of Sälen’s character. Contributions from tourism – such as employment, entertainment, leisure, and opportunities to forge new social relationships – are available during the adult transition, the life phase when rural areas are often perceived as least attractive. Even though out-migration occurs in Sälen, and some respondents still find Sälen too small, tourism has clearly increased the available opportunities and contributed significantly to making Sälen more attractive to young adults.

  6. Teenagers' perceptions of factors affecting decision-making competence in the management of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viklund, Gunnel; Wikblad, Karin

    2009-12-01

    Decision-making is an important prerequisite for empowerment. The aim of this study was to explore teenagers' perceptions of factors affecting decision-making competence in diabetes management. A previous study that assessed an empowerment programme for teenagers with diabetes showed no effects on metabolic control or empowerment outcomes, which is not in accordance with results from studies on adult diabetes patients. The definition of empowerment highlights the patient's own responsibility for decision-making. Earlier studies have shown that many teenagers' may not be mature in decision-making competence until late adolescence. To explore the significance of decision-making competence on the effectiveness of empowerment education we wanted to explore teenagers' own view on factors affecting this competence. An explorative, qualitative interview study was conducted with 31 teenagers with type 1 diabetes, aged 12-17 years. The teenagers were interviewed two weeks after completing an empowerment education programme. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Five categories stood out as important for decision-making competence: cognitive maturity, personal qualities, experience, social network and parent involvement. Based on the content in the interviews and the five categories, we made an interpretation and formulated an overall theme: 'Teenagers deserve respect and support for their short-comings during the maturity process'. Our conclusion is that teenagers deserve respect for their immature decision-making competence. Decision-making competence was described as cognitive abilities, personal qualifications and experience. To compensate for the deficiencies the teenagers deserve constructive support from their social network and the essential support is expected to come from their parents. These findings can be useful for diabetes team members in supporting teenagers with diabetes and their parents both in individual meetings and when

  7. Prospective and concurrent correlates of emotion perception in psychotic disorders: a naturalistic, longitudinal study of neurocognition, affective blunting and avolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Johnsen, Erik; Jørgensen, Hugo A; Kroken, Rune A; Løberg, Else-Marie

    2013-06-01

    This naturalistic study investigated longitudinal and cross-sectional symptomatic and neurocognitive correlates of social cognition indexed by emotion perception. Participants were 31 persons admitted to a psychiatric emergency ward due to acute psychosis. Positive and negative (i.e., affective blunting and avolition) symptoms were assessed at baseline and 12-month follow-up using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Participants completed neuropsychological assessments with alternative versions of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status at baseline and at 12-month follow-up. Emotion perception was measured using the Face/Voice Emotion Test at 12-month follow-up. Correlational analyses (Spearman's rho) revealed strong and statistically significant associations between neurocognition and emotion perception (baseline r = 0.58, follow-up r = 0.43). Associations between positive symptoms and emotion perception were weak or non-existent (baseline r = 0.13, follow-up r  =  -0.01). Emotion perception was moderately, but not significantly, associated with affective blunting at follow-up (r = 0.33), but not at baseline (r = 0.21). The association with avolition was non-existent (baseline r  =  -0.05, follow-up r = 0.01). This study supports the notion that emotion perception has neurocognitive correlates. The cross-sectional trend level association with affective blunting suggests that the ability to perceive emotions might be related to, but dissociable from the ability to express emotions. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2013 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  8. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors affecting the self-perception period of lower urinary tract symptoms of international prostate symptom score items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Shim, S R; Lee, W J; Kim, H J; Kwon, S-S; Bae, J H

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on the lower urinary tract symptom (LUTS) self-perception period and International Prostate Symptom Score. This cross-sectional study examined 209 men aged ≥ 40 years with non-treated LUTS who participated in a prostate examination survey. Questions included International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) items with self-perception periods for each item. Sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were also assessed. Participants were divided by mild LUTS (IPSS less than 8) and moderate-to-severe LUTS (IPSS 8 or higher). Self-perception period of the moderate-to-severe LUTS (n = 110) was affected by BMI; the self-perception period of the mild LUTS (n = 90) was affected by age, income, occupation and concomitant disease. Moderate-to-severe LUTS were affected by self-perception period (p = 0.03). Self-perception period was affected by concern for health (p = 0.005) by multivariate analysis, and self-perception period of mild LUTS was affected by BMI (p = 0.012). Moderate-to-severe LUTS were affected by age, number of family members, concern for health and drinking (p self-perception period. In moderate-to-severe LUTS, age, concern for health and drinking were affecting factors of self-perception period. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Color Term Knowledge Does Not Affect Categorical Perception of Color in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, A.; Clifford, A.; Williamson, E.; Davies, I.

    2005-01-01

    Categorical perception of color is shown when colors from the same category are discriminated less easily than equivalently spaced colors that cross a category boundary. The current experiments tested various models of categorical perception. Experiment 1 tested for categorical responding in 2- to 4-year-olds, the age range for the onset…

  10. Face configuration affects speech perception: Evidence from a McGurk mismatch negativity study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; MacDonald, Ewen; Andersen, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    We perceive identity, expression and speech from faces. While perception of identity and expression depends crucially on the configuration of facial features it is less clear whether this holds for visual speech perception. Facial configuration is poorly perceived for upside-down faces as demonst...

  11. How Fear-Arousing News Messages Affect Risk Perceptions and Intention to Talk About Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Oh, Sang-Hwa; Hove, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Building on the theoretical arguments of the impersonal-impact and differential-impact hypotheses, this study has a twofold purpose: first, to demonstrate how fear-arousing media messages about risk are associated with personal-level risk perception, as well as, and perhaps more so than, societal-level risk perception; and second, to examine how the resulting risk perceptions can mediate intention to talk about the risk with family and friends. A news message evaluation study was conducted among the general public in South Korea concerning two major risks, carcinogens and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Two sets of structural equation models reveal three main findings: (a) Fear-arousing news messages are positively related to personal-level risk perception, as well as to societal-level risk perception; (b) fear-arousing news messages result in intention to talk about the risk directly and indirectly through risk perception; and (c) personal-level risk perception appears more strongly related to intention to talk than does societal-level risk perception, although such relationships may vary across risk topics.

  12. Development of the adaptive music perception test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchberger, Martin J; Russo, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    Despite vast amounts of research examining the influence of hearing loss on speech perception, comparatively little is known about its influence on music perception. No standardized test exists to quantify music perception of hearing-impaired (HI) persons in a clinically practical manner. This study presents the Adaptive Music Perception (AMP) test as a tool to assess important aspects of music perception with hearing loss. A computer-driven test was developed to determine the discrimination thresholds of 10 low-level physical dimensions (e.g., duration, level) in the context of perceptual judgments about musical dimensions: meter, harmony, melody, and timbre. In the meter test, the listener is asked to judge whether a tone sequence is duple or triple in meter. The harmony test requires that the listener make judgments about the stability of the chord sequences. In the melody test, the listener must judge whether a comparison melody is the same as a standard melody when presented in transposition and in the context of a chordal accompaniment that serves as a mask. The timbre test requires that the listener determines which of two comparison tones is different in timbre from a standard tone (ABX design). Twenty-one HI participants and 19 normal-hearing (NH) participants were recruited to carry out the music tests. Participants were tested twice on separate occasions to evaluate test-retest reliability. The HI group had significantly higher discrimination thresholds than the NH group in 7 of the 10 low-level physical dimensions: frequency discrimination in the meter test, dissonance and intonation perception in the harmony test, melody-to-chord ratio for both melody types in the melody test, and the perception of brightness and spectral irregularity in the timbre test. Small but significant improvement between test and retest was observed in three dimensions: frequency discrimination (meter test), dissonance (harmony test), and attack length (timbre test). All other

  13. Perceptions, intentions and behavioral norms that affect pre-license driving among Arab youth in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Zemach, Mina; Lotan, Tsippy; Elias, Wafa; Grimberg, Einat

    2018-02-01

    The present study examines reported pre-license driving among youth from the population of Arab citizens of Israel. The purpose of the present study is to examine which sociodemographic variables, attitudes and perceptions about safe driving and individual and societal behavioral norms are associated with pre-license driving. The research distinguished between the factors that actually contribute to pre-license driving (reported behavior, peer norms, gender and parents' messages) and the factors that explain the intention (parental authority, social norms, parents' messages and fear of road crashes). Even though there was a significant partial overlap (84%) between those who intend to drive without a license and those who reported driving without a license, the main factors that distinguish pre-license driving groups are different from the factors that distinguish the intention to drive before receiving a license. What is unique about the findings is the identification of the context in which social norms are influential and that in which parental authority is influential. The study indicated that in the case of pre-license driving, the main motivating factor is subjective norms, whereas in the case of expecting to drive without a license, the main motivating factor is the interaction between parental authority and the messages that parents convey. While actual behavior pertains to the behavioral level, we argue that intended behavior pertains to the cognitive level. At this level, rational considerations arise, such as fear of parental punishment and fear of accidents. These considerations compete with the influence of friends and their norms, and may outweigh them. The findings suggest that it is important to safeguard youth against the influence of peer pressure as early as the stage of behavioral intentions. Follow-up studies can simulate situations of pre-license driving due to social pressure and identify the factors that might affect young people's decision

  14. How does parents' visual perception of their child's weight status affect their feeding style?

    OpenAIRE

    Resul Yilmaz; Ünal Erkorkmaz; Mustafa Ozcetin; Erhan Karaaslan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Eating style is one of the prominent factors that determine energy intake. One of the influencing factors that determine parental feeding style is parental perception of the weight status of the child. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal visual perception of their children's weight status and their feeding style. Method: A cross-sectional survey was completed with only mother's of 380 preschool children with age of 5 to 7 (6.14 years). Vis...

  15. Factors that affect college students' perceptions of rape: what is the role of gender and other situational factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandiver, Donna M; Dupalo, Jessica Rager

    2013-05-01

    Prior research has shown that various situational factors and behaviors can affect one's perception of whether a rape has occurred. Moreover, some hold false beliefs about rape. This can also affect one's perception of ambiguous situations. This study included the administration of a survey to 584 college students; the survey examined the prevalence of rape myths and responses to vignettes of potential rape scenarios. It was found that although the majority of this sample did not support rape myths, male students were significantly more likely than female students to support rape myths. Furthermore, approximately 20% of students did support one subscale of the rape myth scale: He didn't mean to [commit rape]. The results also revealed an interaction effect between the observer's sex and the victim's sex, suggesting a complex gender relationship.

  16. Music and Speech Perception in Children Using Sung Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yingjiu; Galvin, John J; Morikawa, Michael; André, Victoria; Wheeler, Harley; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2018-01-01

    This study examined music and speech perception in normal-hearing children with some or no musical training. Thirty children (mean age = 11.3 years), 15 with and 15 without formal music training participated in the study. Music perception was measured using a melodic contour identification (MCI) task; stimuli were a piano sample or sung speech with a fixed timbre (same word for each note) or a mixed timbre (different words for each note). Speech perception was measured in quiet and in steady noise using a matrix-styled sentence recognition task; stimuli were naturally intonated speech or sung speech with a fixed pitch (same note for each word) or a mixed pitch (different notes for each word). Significant musician advantages were observed for MCI and speech in noise but not for speech in quiet. MCI performance was significantly poorer with the mixed timbre stimuli. Speech performance in noise was significantly poorer with the fixed or mixed pitch stimuli than with spoken speech. Across all subjects, age at testing and MCI performance were significantly correlated with speech performance in noise. MCI and speech performance in quiet was significantly poorer for children than for adults from a related study using the same stimuli and tasks; speech performance in noise was significantly poorer for young than for older children. Long-term music training appeared to benefit melodic pitch perception and speech understanding in noise in these pediatric listeners.

  17. Short-term sleep disturbance-induced stress does not affect basal pain perception, but does delay postsurgical pain recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Po-Kai; Cao, Jing; Wang, Hongzhen; Liang, Lingli; Zhang, Jun; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Chronic sleep disturbance-induced stress is known to increase basal pain sensitivity. However, most surgical patients frequently report short-term sleep disturbance/deprivation during pre- and post-operation periods and have normal pain perception pre-surgery. Whether this short-term sleep disturbance affects postsurgical pain is elusive. We here reported that pre- or post-exposure to rapid eye movement sleep disturbance (REMSD) 6 h daily for 3 consecutive days did not alter basal responses t...

  18. The prevalence of visual hallucinations in non-affective psychosis, and the role of perception and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ommen, M M; van Beilen, M; Cornelissen, F W; Smid, H G O M; Knegtering, H; Aleman, A; van Laar, T

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about visual hallucinations (VH) in psychosis. We investigated the prevalence and the role of bottom-up and top-down processing in VH. The prevailing view is that VH are probably related to altered top-down processing, rather than to distorted bottom-up processing. Conversely, VH in Parkinson's disease are associated with impaired visual perception and attention, as proposed by the Perception and Attention Deficit (PAD) model. Auditory hallucinations (AH) in psychosis, however, are thought to be related to increased attention. Our retrospective database study included 1119 patients with non-affective psychosis and 586 controls. The Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences established the VH rate. Scores on visual perception tests [Degraded Facial Affect Recognition (DFAR), Benton Facial Recognition Task] and attention tests [Response Set-shifting Task, Continuous Performance Test-HQ (CPT-HQ)] were compared between 75 VH patients, 706 non-VH patients and 485 non-VH controls. The lifetime VH rate was 37%. The patient groups performed similarly on cognitive tasks; both groups showed worse perception (DFAR) than controls. Non-VH patients showed worse attention (CPT-HQ) than controls, whereas VH patients did not perform differently. We did not find significant VH-related impairments in bottom-up processing or direct top-down alterations. However, the results suggest a relatively spared attentional performance in VH patients, whereas face perception and processing speed were equally impaired in both patient groups relative to controls. This would match better with the increased attention hypothesis than with the PAD model. Our finding that VH frequently co-occur with AH may support an increased attention-induced 'hallucination proneness'.

  19. Affect, risk perception, and the use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes: a population study of U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Owusu, Daniel; Weaver, Scott R; Kemp, Catherine B; Mertz, C K; Pechacek, Terry F; Slovic, Paul

    2018-03-22

    Tobacco companies argue that the decision to smoke is made by well-informed rational adults who have considered all the risks and benefits of smoking. Yet in promoting their products, the tobacco industry frequently relies on affect, portraying their products as part of a desirable lifestyle. Research examining the roles of affect and perceived risks in smoking has been scant and non-existent for novel tobacco products, such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). We examined the relationship between affect, perceived risk, and current use for cigarettes and e-cigarettes in 2015 in a nationally representative sample of 5398 U.S. adults who were aware of e-cigarettes. Participants held various affective associations with tobacco products, and affect towards cigarettes was more negative than affect towards e-cigarettes. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), affect towards cigarettes and e-cigarettes was associated with cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use respectively, and these associations were both direct and partially mediated by risk perceptions towards smoking and e-cigarette use. More positive affect towards cigarettes or e-cigarettes was associated with lower perceived risks, which in turn was associated with higher odds of being a current cigarette or e-cigarette user. In developing models explaining tobacco use behavior, or in creating public communication campaigns aimed at curbing tobacco use, it is useful to focus not only on the reason based predictors, such as perceptions of risks and benefits, but also on affective predictors. Educational efforts aimed at further smoking reductions should highlight and reinforce negative images and associations with cigarettes.

  20. [SOUND CONTACTS] Aspects of touch and timbre in piano performance. The effects of key velocity, articulation and temporal duration on sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Kojucharov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The concept of touch in piano pedagogy is generally described by using abstract adjectives often linked to imagination, leading to a blurred and controversial definition of the term touch, often confused with timbre. In the last decades, new data-collection technologies and MIDI-based analysis allowed researchers to measure key-control specific features in timbre nuances modeling [Goebl-Bresin-Galembo 2004; Bernays-Traube 2011; 2013]. Within the field of piano performance, the present study attempts to objectively describe piano touch and the means with which it can be controlled, by: (1 providing elements for an adequate scientific understanding of touch; (2 clarifying the relationship between touch and timbre; (3 defining the extent to which the parameters of key-velocity, tempo and articulation vary as a function of different types of touch.

  1. The effect of emotions on risk perception: Experimental evaluation of the affective tendencies framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drače Saša

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the role of specific emotions on risk perception providing a more stringent experimental test of the Appraisal Tendencies Framework (ATF. Consistent with expectations, angry and happy participants made more optimistic risk estimates than participants who were made sad. As hypothesized by ATF, happiness and anger also led people to somewhat higher certainty appraisals than sadness. However, this change in perception did not mediate the impact of emotions on risk estimates. Taken together, our results provide the evidence for causal role of specific emotions in risk perception and contribute to literature showing that the effects of emotion on judgment are not solely due to the valence of the experienced emotion. However, they also suggest that the processes underlying emotion effects remain in need for further specifications.

  2. Speech-specific audiovisual perception affects identification but not detection of speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelund, Kasper; Andersen, Tobias

    Speech perception is audiovisual as evidenced by the McGurk effect in which watching incongruent articulatory mouth movements can change the phonetic auditory speech percept. This type of audiovisual integration may be specific to speech or be applied to all stimuli in general. To investigate...... of audiovisual integration specific to speech perception. However, the results of Tuomainen et al. might have been influenced by another effect. When observers were naïve, they had little motivation to look at the face. When informed, they knew that the face was relevant for the task and this could increase...... visual detection task. In our first experiment, observers presented with congruent and incongruent audiovisual sine-wave speech stimuli did only show a McGurk effect when informed of the speech nature of the stimulus. Performance on the secondary visual task was very good, thus supporting the finding...

  3. How Does Millennials’ Perception on Their Employers Affect Their Work Ethic? A Study in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsun-Lok Kwong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Work ethic of millennial employees has raised considerable attention in Hong Kong. Current article examined how the millennials’ perception on their employers would have an effect on their own work ethic. A survey study of 212 millennial respondents showed that the millennials in general perceived their employers positively and embraced good work ethic. Two variables – perception and work ethic – are significantly related. The study also revealed that millennials in Hong Kong hold peculiar interpretations of work and leisure, and of work and success. It was suggested that parenting, educational system, and modern working environments might have caused these interpretations.

  4. Hearts and Minds: The Priority of Affective versus Cognitive Factors in Person Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kari; Hippel, William von

    1995-01-01

    In two experiments, affect-based and cognition-based attitudes toward a person were induced by varying sequence of affective and cognitive information presented to subjects while holding content constant. Results indicated affect-based attitudes were most effectively changed by affective persuasive appeals, whether these appeals were produced by…

  5. Do Employees' Perceptions on Authentic Leadership Affect the Organizational Citizenship Behavior?: Turkish Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilkaya, Mukaddes; Aydin, Peruzet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between employees' perceptions on authentic leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. In this context, it was carried out a research on four-hundred public employees. The data from this study were analyzed via an appropriate statistical program and evaluated. Based on the findings from…

  6. Does language affect personality perception? A functional approach to testing the Whorfian hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sylvia Xiaohua; Benet-Martínez, Verónica; Ng, Jacky C K

    2014-04-01

    Whether language shapes cognition has long been a controversial issue. The present research adopts a functional approach to examining the effects of language use on personality perception and dialectical thinking. We propose that language use activates corresponding cultural mindsets, which in turn influence social perception, thinking, and behavior. Four studies recruited Chinese-English bilinguals (N = 129 in Study 1, 229 in Study 2, 68 in Study 3, 106 in Study 4) and used within-subjects and between-subjects design, written and behavioral reports, and self- and other perceptions. The four studies converged to show that Chinese-English bilinguals exhibit higher dialectical thinking and more variations in self- and observer ratings of personality when using the Chinese language than when using English. Furthermore, dialectical thinking predicted more self- and other-perceived variations in personality and behavior across bilingual contexts. These results highlight the important role of culture in understanding the relations between language and cognition, and attest to the malleability of personality perception and dialectical thinking within and across individuals in response to culture-related linguistic cues. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Rhythm perception: speeding up or slowing down affects different subcomponents of the ERP P3 complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, M.A.; Meeuwissen, Esther; Vos, Piet G.; Maes, Roald

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, by measuring the event related potential (ERP) P3 complex, whether the perception of small accelerations differs from that of small decelerations. Participants had to decide whether the last beat of a short sequence was presented ‘too early’ or ‘too late’.

  8. Barriers Affecting Physical Activity in Rural Communities: Perceptions of Parents and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhinney, Sharon; McDonald, Andrea; Dawkins-Moultin, Lenna; Outley, Corliss; McKyer, E. Lisako; Thomas, Audrene

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the barriers inhibiting physical activity among children is critical in the fight against childhood obesity. This qualitative interview study examined parents' and children's perceptions of the barriers to physical activity in rural communities of low socioeconomic status. Parents and children concurred that the…

  9. When Time Flies: How Abstract and Concrete Mental Construal Affect the Perception of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jochim; Trope, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    Time is experienced as passing more quickly the more changes happen in a situation. The present research tested the idea that time perception depends on the level of construal of the situation. Building on previous research showing that concrete rather than abstract mental construal causes people to perceive more variations in a given situation,…

  10. Matrix properties affect the sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, G.; Wijk, de R.A.; Velde, van de F.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The breakdown properties and sensory perception of emulsion-filled gels with different matrices were studied at varying emulsion concentrations. The gel matrices used were cold-set whey protein isolate (WPI), gelatin, ¿-carrageenan and a mixture of ¿-carrageenan and ¿-carrageenan. The oil-in-water

  11. How emulsions composition and structure affect sensory perception of low-viscosity model emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.; Zoet, F.D.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The oral residence time of low-viscosity emulsions, like milk, is relatively short. Despite this short residence time, people can easily perceive differences between these emulsions. Our research is dedicated to unravel the oral behaviour of emulsions in relation to sensory perception. The aim of

  12. Is the Receptivity of Substance Abuse Prevention Programming Affected by Students' Perceptions of the Instructor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Peggy C.; Sloboda, Zili; Grey, Scott; Stephens, Richard; Hammond, Augustine; Hawthorne, Richard; Teasdale, Brent; Williams, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on the elaboration likelihood model of persuasive communication, the authors examine the impact of the perceptions of the instructor or source on students' receptivity to a new substance abuse prevention curriculum. Using survey data from a cohort of students participating in the Adolescent Substance Abuse Prevention Study, the authors use…

  13. Distancing from experienced self: how global-versus-local perception affects estimation of psychological distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, Nira; Förster, Jens

    2009-08-01

    In 4 studies, the authors examined the prediction derived from construal level theory (CLT) that higher level of perceptual construal would enhance estimated egocentric psychological distance. The authors primed participants with global perception, local perception, or both (the control condition). Relative to the control condition, global processing made participants estimate larger psychological distances in time (Study 1), space (Study 2), social distance (Study 3), and hypotheticality (Study 4). Local processing had the opposite effect. Consistent with CLT, all studies show that the effect of global-versus-local processing did emerge when participants estimated egocentric distances, which are distances from the experienced self in the here and now, but did not emerge with temporal distances not from now (Study 1), spatial distances not from here (Study 2), social distances not from the self (Study 3), or hypothetical events that did not involve altering an experienced reality (Study 4).

  14. Contrast and Strength of Visual Memory and Imagery Differentially Affect Visual Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Elyana; Silvanto, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and visual imagery have been shown to modulate visual perception. However, how the subjective experience of VSTM/imagery and its contrast modulate this process has not been investigated. We addressed this issue by asking participants to detect brief masked targets while they were engaged either in VSTM or visual imagery. Subjective experience of memory/imagery (strength scale), and the visual contrast of the memory/mental image (contrast scale) were assessed on...

  15. Communicating Conservation Status: How Different Statistical Assessment Criteria Affect Perceptions of Extinction Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hwanseok; Schuldt, Jonathon P

    2017-09-01

    Although alternative forms of statistical and verbal information are routinely used to convey species' extinction risk to policymakers and the public, little is known about their effects on audience information processing and risk perceptions. To address this gap in literature, we report on an experiment that was designed to explore how perceptions of extinction risk differ as a function of five different assessment benchmarks (Criteria A-E) used by scientists to classify species within IUCN Red List risk levels (e.g., Critically Endangered, Vulnerable), as well as the role of key individual differences in these effects (e.g., rational and experiential thinking styles, environmental concern). Despite their normative equivalence within the IUCN classification system, results revealed divergent effects of specific assessment criteria: on average, describing extinction risk in terms of proportional population decline over time (Criterion A) and number of remaining individuals (Criterion D) evoked the highest level of perceived risk, whereas the single-event probability of a species becoming extinct (Criterion E) engendered the least perceived risk. Furthermore, participants scoring high in rationality (analytic thinking) were less prone to exhibit these biases compared to those low in rationality. Our findings suggest that despite their equivalence in the eyes of scientific experts, IUCN criteria are indeed capable of engendering different levels of risk perception among lay audiences, effects that carry direct and important implications for those tasked with communicating about conservation status to diverse publics. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Clear signals or mixed messages: inter-individual emotion congruency modulates brain activity underlying affective body perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gelder, B.

    2016-01-01

    The neural basis of emotion perception has mostly been investigated with single face or body stimuli. However, in daily life one may also encounter affective expressions by groups, e.g. an angry mob or an exhilarated concert crowd. In what way is brain activity modulated when several individuals express similar rather than different emotions? We investigated this question using an experimental design in which we presented two stimuli simultaneously, with same or different emotional expressions. We hypothesized that, in the case of two same-emotion stimuli, brain activity would be enhanced, while in the case of two different emotions, one emotion would interfere with the effect of the other. The results showed that the simultaneous perception of different affective body expressions leads to a deactivation of the amygdala and a reduction of cortical activity. It was revealed that the processing of fearful bodies, compared with different-emotion bodies, relied more strongly on saliency and action triggering regions in inferior parietal lobe and insula, while happy bodies drove the occipito-temporal cortex more strongly. We showed that this design could be used to uncover important differences between brain networks underlying fearful and happy emotions. The enhancement of brain activity for unambiguous affective signals expressed by several people simultaneously supports adaptive behaviour in critical situations. PMID:27025242

  17. Clear signals or mixed messages: inter-individual emotion congruency modulates brain activity underlying affective body perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Borst, A W; de Gelder, B

    2016-08-01

    The neural basis of emotion perception has mostly been investigated with single face or body stimuli. However, in daily life one may also encounter affective expressions by groups, e.g. an angry mob or an exhilarated concert crowd. In what way is brain activity modulated when several individuals express similar rather than different emotions? We investigated this question using an experimental design in which we presented two stimuli simultaneously, with same or different emotional expressions. We hypothesized that, in the case of two same-emotion stimuli, brain activity would be enhanced, while in the case of two different emotions, one emotion would interfere with the effect of the other. The results showed that the simultaneous perception of different affective body expressions leads to a deactivation of the amygdala and a reduction of cortical activity. It was revealed that the processing of fearful bodies, compared with different-emotion bodies, relied more strongly on saliency and action triggering regions in inferior parietal lobe and insula, while happy bodies drove the occipito-temporal cortex more strongly. We showed that this design could be used to uncover important differences between brain networks underlying fearful and happy emotions. The enhancement of brain activity for unambiguous affective signals expressed by several people simultaneously supports adaptive behaviour in critical situations. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Non-conscious visual cues related to affect and action alter perception of effort and endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony William Blanchfield

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The psychobiological model of endurance performance proposes that endurance performance is determined by a decision-making process based on perception of effort and potential motivation. Recent research has reported that effort-based decision-making during cognitive tasks can be altered by non-conscious visual cues relating to affect and action. The effect of these non-conscious visual cues on effort and performance during physical tasks is however unknown. We report two experiments investigating the effect of subliminal priming with visual cues related to affect and action on perception of effort and endurance performance. In Experiment 1 thirteen individuals were subliminally primed with happy or sad faces as they cycled to exhaustion in a counterbalanced and randomized crossover design. A paired t-test (happy vs. sad faces revealed that individuals cycled for significantly longer (178 s, p = .04 when subliminally primed with happy faces. A 2 x 5 (condition x iso-time ANOVA also revealed a significant main effect of condition on rating of perceived exertion (RPE during the time to exhaustion (TTE test with lower RPE when subjects were subliminally primed with happy faces (p = .04. In Experiment 2, a single-subject randomization tests design found that subliminal priming with action words facilitated a significantly longer (399 s, p = .04 TTE in comparison to inaction words (p = .04. Like Experiment 1, this greater TTE was accompanied by a significantly lower RPE (p = .03. These experiments are the first to show that subliminal visual cues relating to affect and action can alter perception of effort and endurance performance. Non-conscious visual cues may therefore influence the effort-based decision-making process that is proposed to determine endurance performance. Accordingly, the findings raise notable implications for individuals who may encounter such visual cues during endurance competitions, training, or health related exercise.

  19. How Health Department Contextual Factors Affect Public Health Preparedness (PHP) and Perceptions of the 15 PHP Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horney, Jennifer A; Carbone, Eric G; Lynch, Molly; Wang, Z Joan; Jones, Terrance; Rose, Dale A

    2017-09-01

    To assess how health department contextual factors influence perceptions of the 15 Public Health Preparedness Capabilities, developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to provide guidance on organizing preparedness activities. We conducted an online survey and focus group between September 2015 and May 2016 with directors of preparedness programs in state, metropolitan, and territorial jurisdictions funded by CDC's Public Health Emergency Preparedness (PHEP) cooperative agreement. The survey collected demographic information and data on contextual factors including leadership, partnerships, organizational structure, resources and structural capacity, and data and evaluation. Seventy-seven percent (48 of 62) of PHEP directors completed the survey and 8 participated in the focus group. Respondents were experienced directors (mean = 10.6 years), and 58% led 7 or more emergency responses. Leadership, partnerships, and access to fiscal and human resources were associated with perception and use of the capabilities. Despite some deficiencies, PHEP awardees believe the capabilities provide useful guidance and a flexible framework for organizing their work. Contextual factors affect perceptions of the capabilities and possibly the effectiveness of their use. Public Health Implications. The capabilities can be used to address challenges in preparedness, including identifying evidence-based practices, developing performance measures, and improving responses.

  20. Does knowledge of coronary artery calcium affect cardiovascular risk perception, likelihood of taking action, and health-promoting behavior change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennie E; Gulanick, Meg; Penckofer, Sue; Kouba, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    Evidence indicates that a healthy lifestyle can reduce cardiovascular disease risk, yet many people engage in unhealthy behaviors. New technologies such as coronary artery calcium (CAC) screening detect atherosclerosis before clinical disease is manifested. Knowledge of an abnormal finding could provide the "teachable moment" to enhance motivation for change. The aim of this study was to examine how knowledge of CAC score affects risk perception, likelihood of taking action, and health-promoting behavior change in persons at high risk for cardiovascular disease. This study used a descriptive prospective design with 174 high-risk adults (≥3 major risk factors) recruited at a radiology center offering CAC scans. Baseline self-report surveys using the Perception of Risk of Heart Disease Scale, the Benefits and Barriers Scale, the Quality of Life Index, and the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II were completed immediately after a screening CAC scan but before results were known. Follow-up occurred 3 months later using mailed packets. Participants' mean age was 58 years; 62% were men, 89% were white, and most were well educated. There was no significant change in risk perception scores over time or between groups, except for a positive interaction in the moderate-risk group (CAC scores of 101-400) (P = .004). Quality of life remained unchanged. Health-promoting behavior changes increased in all groups over time (P behavior change were perceived barriers (β = -.41; P Knowledge of CAC score does impact risk perception for some at-risk groups. This knowledge does enhance motivation for behavior change. Knowledge of CAC score does not impact quality of life. It is hoped that through improved understanding of the effect of CAC scoring on behavior change, nurses can better assist patients to modify behaviors during teachable moments.

  1. Being There in the Midst of the Story: How Immersive Journalism Affects Our Perceptions and Cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, S Shyam; Kang, Jin; Oprean, Danielle

    2017-11-01

    Immersive journalism in the form of virtual reality (VR) headsets and 360°-video is becoming more mainstream and is much touted for inducing greater "presence" than traditional text. But, does this presence influence psychological outcomes of reading news, such as memory for story content, perceptions of credibility, and empathy felt toward story characters? We propose that two key technological affordances of VR (modality and interactivity) are responsible for triggering three presence-related cognitive heuristics (being-there, interaction, and realism), which influence news readers' memory and their perceptions of credibility, empathy, and story-sharing intentions. We report a 3 (storytelling medium: VR vs. 360°-video vs. Text) × 2 (story: "The displaced" and "The click effect") mixed-factorial experiment, in which participants (N = 129) experienced two New York Times stories (that differed in their emotional intensity) using one of the three mediums (VR, 360°-video, Text). Participants who experienced the stories using VR and 360°-video outperformed those who read the same stories using text with pictures, not only on such presence-related outcomes as being-there, interaction, and realism, but also on perceived source credibility, story-sharing intention, and feelings of empathy. Moreover, we found that senses of being-there, interaction, and realism mediated the relationship between storytelling medium and reader perceptions of credibility, story recall, and story-sharing intention. These findings have theoretical implications for the psychology of virtual reality, and practical applications for immersive journalism in particular and interactive media in general.

  2. Factors affecting Latina immigrants' perceptions of maternal health care: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurman, Tilly A; Becker, Davida

    2008-05-01

    Due to the influx of Latino immigration in the United States, health care services are faced with the challenge of meeting the needs of this growing population. In this qualitative study, we explored Latina immigrants' experiences with maternal health care services. We found that despite enduring language barriers and problems, Spanish-speaking women expressed satisfaction with their care. Factors influencing women's perceptions of care included sociocultural norms (respeto, personalismo, and familismo), previous experiences with care in their countries of origin, having healthy babies, and knowledge about entitlement to interpreter services. We offer recommendations for public health practice and research.

  3. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  4. ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE ELEMENTS THAT AFFECT PROPERTY VALUE BASED ON THE PERCEPTION OF HOUSING RESIDENTS IN SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Setiawati Wibisono

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is done to determine landscape elements that affect property value based on housing residents’ perception in Surabaya residential areas. The landscape elements that used in this research are natural elements such as vegetation and soil; and man-made element such as garden statue, road pattern, road width and hierarchy, park and plant, artificial lake, and road equipment. Purposive sampling technique is used to represent respondents in the residential areas that provide landscape elements in East and West Surabaya. Data analysis technique uses validity and reliability test, analysis factor, binary logistic regression, and the average of variable test. The result shows that majority of the residents of East Surabaya and West Surabaya residential areas approved that landscape consist of park and plant, road width and hierarchies, and road pattern affect their residential property values. The residents are also willing to contribute about 7.4% of their house price to improve the appearance of the residential landscape.

  5. Impact of long-term meditation practice on cardiovascular reactivity during perception and reappraisal of affective images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Sergei V; Reva, Natalia V; Loktev, Konstantin V; Korenyok, Vladimir V; Aftanas, Lyubomir I

    2015-03-01

    Meditation has been found to be an efficient strategy for coping with stress in healthy individuals and in patients with psychosomatic disorders. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the psychophysiological mechanisms of beneficial effects of meditation on cardiovascular reactivity. We examined effects of long-term Sahaja Yoga meditation on cardiovascular reactivity during affective image processing under "unregulated" and "emotion regulation" conditions. Twenty two experienced meditators and 20 control subjects participated in the study. Under "unregulated" conditions participants were shown neutral and affective images and were asked to attend to them. Under "emotion regulation" conditions they down-regulated negative affect through reappraisal of negative images or up-regulated positive affect through reappraisal of positive images. Under "unregulated" conditions while anticipating upcoming images meditators vs. controls did not show larger pre-stimulus total peripheral resistance and greater cardiac output for negative images in comparison with neutral and positive ones. Control subjects showed TPR decrease for negative images only when they consciously intended to reappraise them (i.e. in the "emotion regulation" condition). Both meditators and controls showed comparable cardiovascular reactivity during perception of positive stimuli, whereas up-regulating of positive affect was associated with more pronounced cardiac activation in meditators. The findings provide some insight into understanding the beneficial influence of meditation on top-down control of emotion and cardiovascular reactivity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Contrast and strength of visual memory and imagery differentially affect visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyana Saad

    Full Text Available Visual short-term memory (VSTM and visual imagery have been shown to modulate visual perception. However, how the subjective experience of VSTM/imagery and its contrast modulate this process has not been investigated. We addressed this issue by asking participants to detect brief masked targets while they were engaged either in VSTM or visual imagery. Subjective experience of memory/imagery (strength scale, and the visual contrast of the memory/mental image (contrast scale were assessed on a trial-by-trial basis. For both VSTM and imagery, contrast of the memory/mental image was positively associated with reporting target presence. Consequently, at the sensory level, both VSTM and imagery facilitated visual perception. However, subjective strength of VSTM was positively associated with visual detection whereas the opposite pattern was found for imagery. Thus the relationship between subjective strength of memory/imagery and visual detection are qualitatively different for VSTM and visual imagery, although their impact at the sensory level appears similar. Our results furthermore demonstrate that imagery and VSTM are partly dissociable processes.

  7. Action during body perception: processing time affects self-other correspondences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Catherine L; McGoldrick, John E

    2007-01-01

    The accurate perception of other people and their postures is essential for functioning in a social world. Our own bodies organize information from others to help us respond appropriately by creating self-other mappings between bodies. In this study, we investigated mechanisms involved in the processing of self-other correspondences. Reed and Farah (1995) showed that a multimodal, articulated body representation containing the spatial relations among parts of the human body was accessed by both viewing another's body and moving one's own. Use of one part of the body representation facilitated the perception of homologous areas of other people's bodies, suggesting that inputs from both the self and other activated the shared body representation. Here we investigated whether this self-other correspondence produced rapid facilitation or required additional processing time to resolve competing inputs for a shared body representation. Using a modified Reed and Farah dual-task paradigm, we found that processing time influenced body-position memory: an interaction between body-part moved and body-part attended revealed a relative facilitation effect at the 5 s ISI, but interference at the 2 s ISI. Our results suggest that effective visual-motor integration from the self and other requires time to activate shared portions of the spatial body representation.

  8. Maternal Parenting Stress and Child Perception of Family Functioning Among Families Affected by HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Marya T; Armistead, Lisa; Marelich, William D; Payne, Diana L; Goodrum, Nada M; Murphy, Debra A

    Mothers living with HIV (MLWH) experience stressors inherent to parenting, often within a context characterized by poverty, stigma, and/or limited social support. Our study assessed the relationship between parenting stress and child perceptions of family functioning in families with MLWH who have healthy school-age children. MLWH and their children (N = 102 pairs) completed measures addressing parenting stress and perceptions of family functioning (i.e., parent-child communication, family routines, and family cohesion). We used covariance structural modeling to evaluate the relationship between these factors, with results showing greater maternal parenting stress associated with poorer family functioning outcomes (reported by both the child and the mother). Findings offer support for the parenting stress-family functioning relationship by providing the child perspective along with the maternal perspective, and point to the need for interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of maternal parenting stress on family functioning. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Visual perception affected by motivation and alertness controlled by a noninvasive brain-computer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimenko, Vladimir A; Runnova, Anastasia E; Zhuravlev, Maksim O; Makarov, Vladimir V; Nedayvozov, Vladimir; Grubov, Vadim V; Pchelintceva, Svetlana V; Hramov, Alexander E; Pisarchik, Alexander N

    2017-01-01

    The influence of motivation and alertness on brain activity associated with visual perception was studied experimentally using the Necker cube, which ambiguity was controlled by the contrast of its ribs. The wavelet analysis of recorded multichannel electroencephalograms (EEG) allowed us to distinguish two different scenarios while the brain processed the ambiguous stimulus. The first scenario is characterized by a particular destruction of alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz) with a simultaneous increase in beta-wave activity (20-30 Hz), whereas in the second scenario, the beta rhythm is not well pronounced while the alpha-wave energy remains unchanged. The experiments were carried out with a group of financially motivated subjects and another group of unpaid volunteers. It was found that the first scenario occurred mainly in the motivated group. This can be explained by the increased alertness of the motivated subjects. The prevalence of the first scenario was also observed in a group of subjects to whom images with higher ambiguity were presented. We believe that the revealed scenarios can occur not only during the perception of bistable images, but also in other perceptual tasks requiring decision making. The obtained results may have important applications for monitoring and controlling human alertness in situations which need substantial attention. On the base of the obtained results we built a brain-computer interface to estimate and control the degree of alertness in real time.

  10. Contrast and strength of visual memory and imagery differentially affect visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Elyana; Silvanto, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and visual imagery have been shown to modulate visual perception. However, how the subjective experience of VSTM/imagery and its contrast modulate this process has not been investigated. We addressed this issue by asking participants to detect brief masked targets while they were engaged either in VSTM or visual imagery. Subjective experience of memory/imagery (strength scale), and the visual contrast of the memory/mental image (contrast scale) were assessed on a trial-by-trial basis. For both VSTM and imagery, contrast of the memory/mental image was positively associated with reporting target presence. Consequently, at the sensory level, both VSTM and imagery facilitated visual perception. However, subjective strength of VSTM was positively associated with visual detection whereas the opposite pattern was found for imagery. Thus the relationship between subjective strength of memory/imagery and visual detection are qualitatively different for VSTM and visual imagery, although their impact at the sensory level appears similar. Our results furthermore demonstrate that imagery and VSTM are partly dissociable processes.

  11. Visual perception affected by motivation and alertness controlled by a noninvasive brain-computer interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A Maksimenko

    Full Text Available The influence of motivation and alertness on brain activity associated with visual perception was studied experimentally using the Necker cube, which ambiguity was controlled by the contrast of its ribs. The wavelet analysis of recorded multichannel electroencephalograms (EEG allowed us to distinguish two different scenarios while the brain processed the ambiguous stimulus. The first scenario is characterized by a particular destruction of alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz with a simultaneous increase in beta-wave activity (20-30 Hz, whereas in the second scenario, the beta rhythm is not well pronounced while the alpha-wave energy remains unchanged. The experiments were carried out with a group of financially motivated subjects and another group of unpaid volunteers. It was found that the first scenario occurred mainly in the motivated group. This can be explained by the increased alertness of the motivated subjects. The prevalence of the first scenario was also observed in a group of subjects to whom images with higher ambiguity were presented. We believe that the revealed scenarios can occur not only during the perception of bistable images, but also in other perceptual tasks requiring decision making. The obtained results may have important applications for monitoring and controlling human alertness in situations which need substantial attention. On the base of the obtained results we built a brain-computer interface to estimate and control the degree of alertness in real time.

  12. North American Engineering, Procurement, Fabrication and Construction Worker Safety Climate Perception Affected by Job Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint Pinion

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding and implementing the results of Safety Climate surveys can assist in decreasing occupational injuries and illnesses. The following article presents findings of a cross-sectional study that assessed the relationship between safety climate perceptions and job position among engineering, procurement, fabrication and construction (EPFC employees using a 15-item survey. Descriptive statistics (means and frequencies and an ANACOVA (analysis of covariance were performed on a saturated model. The study had a 62% response rate. Results indicate a statistically significant in mean safety climate scores between job position among EPFC employees when controlling for years in industry and location type (i.e., construction versus fabrication [F (9, 603 = 5.28, p < 0.0001, adjusted R-square = 0.07]. Employee perception of safety climate differed based on the employee’s job position (i.e., laborer, foreman, etc.. Project management reported the highest safety climate scores (0.91, followed by supervisors (0.86, technical support employees and foremen (0.84 and laborers (0.81.

  13. Mediating influences of negative affect and risk perception on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Neal; Sanders, Patricia E; Bekman, Nicole M; Worley, Matthew J; Monreal, Teresa K; McGee, Elizabeth; Cummins, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A

    2011-06-01

    A substantial number of adolescents are current and regular cigarette smokers, and there is a need to better understand factors that contribute to smoking behavior during these years. Sensation seeking (SS) is one factor that has consistently been associated with smoking, but less is known about mechanisms that may explain this relationship. The present study tested the hypothesis that high school students high in SS would report heavier cigarette smoking and that this relationship would be mediated by negative affect and by perceptions about the risks of smoking. Students (n = 1,688) participated in an annual survey of substance use and related attitudes and characteristics. As expected, higher SS was associated with greater levels of past 30-day (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, p = .004) and lifetime (OR = 1.37, p = .004) smoking, particularly for males. Multiple mediation models indicated that effect of SS on both 30-day (combined indirect effect z = 5.38, p perception. These findings suggest a need for increasing the sensation value of anti-tobacco messages to increase their efficacy for high SS youth. High SS youth may also benefit from prevention efforts designed to teach healthy ways of coping with negative affect.

  14. Affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cetinic, M.; Diamanti, J.; Szeman, I.; Blacker, S.; Sully, J.

    2017-01-01

    This chapter historicizes four divergent but historically contemporaneous genres of affect theory – romantic, realist, speculative, and materialist. While critics credited with the turn to affect in the 1990s wrote largely in the wake of poststructuralism from the perspective of gender and queer

  15. Sustainable Decisions Signal Sustainable Relationships: How Purchasing Decisions Affect Perceptions and Romantic Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Theresa E; Jakubiak, Brittany K

    2016-01-01

    In the pursuit of love, individuals strategically use luxury products to signal status and other attractive attributes. Might eco-friendly products also signal mate-relevant information? The current research examined inferences from eco-friendly purchases and how they predict perceived suitability for short- and long-term romantic relationships. Participants read descriptions of a stranger's eco-friendly or luxury purchase decisions, reported their perceptions of the purchaser, and indicated their potential romantic interest in the purchaser. The influence of the relative price of the chosen product was also investigated. Compared to luxury purchasers, eco-friendly purchasers were ascribed greater warmth, competence, and good partner traits, but less physical appeal, and they were preferred for long-term but not short-term relationships. The social costs and benefits of "going green" are discussed in light of their implications for environmental sustainability efforts.

  16. Perceptions of stigma among people affected by early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Rosalie

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this research was to explore perceptions of stigma among people with early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease and those who support them, using questionnaires ( n = 44) and semi-structured interviews ( n = 14). Perceived stigma reporting was low in the questionnaires, whereas interviews revealed higher levels of perceived stigma in the form of unpredictable reactions to diagnosis, feeling stupid and ignorance of the condition among the public. Perceived stigma was managed in similar ways across age groups, focusing on 'being the lucky ones'. Results support the need to further tackle stigma and challenge expectations, particularly given the drive to diagnose people and thereby expose them to stigma.

  17. Product information affects perception of sensory, collative properties and elicited emotions of Indonesian tempe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fibri, Dwi Larasatie Nur; Frøst, Michael Bom

    The effects of product information given to consumers were evaluated on sensory and collative properties of tempe, a traditional Indonesian food. A consumer test on 9 different types of tempe (5 traditionally tempe and 4 more modernized version of tempe) was carried out with 175 Indonesian...... methods, where the traditional was most different from partly modernized and fully modernized. However, interaction is not systematic whether on bean or production type. Information changed the perception on sensory and collative properties of the products. The results demonstrate the powerful effect...... of sensory properties, rating of collative properties and elicited emotions. The results show astonishingly large effects of the information (table 1 and 2). The 5 traditional tempes (produced from velvet bean, black soybean, mungbean, jackbean, and local yellow soybean, all inoculated with traditional usar...

  18. Sensation seeking indirectly affects perceptions of risk for co-occurrent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittner, James B; Warner, Margaret A; Swickert, Rhonda J

    2016-02-01

    High sensation seekers engage in more frequent substance use and perceive a host of potentially dangerous activities as less risky than do low sensation seekers. However, despite a plethora of research on these topics, no study has examined the extent to which personal substance use mediates the association between sensation seeking and perceived risk of substance use. To address this question, we recruited a sample of 79 young adults (mean age=19.1 years, standard deviation=1.4). Participants completed questionnaire measures of sensation seeking, substance use, and perceived risk of co-occurrent substance use. Results from path-analytic modeling indicated that both alcohol use and marijuana use mediated the influence of sensation seeking on perceptions of risk for moderately risky, but not highly risky, pairs of substances. Strengths and limitations of the present study were discussed and directions for future research were suggested.

  19. Tobacco industry marketing strategies that affect perception and use of waterpipe in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Diatlenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to Global Adult Tobacco Survey conducted in Ukraine in 2010, only 31% of adults pointed to health hazards of waterpipe smoking while corresponding levels for cigarettes were much higher. Higher prevalence of use was found in young urban adults with university education. Students lifestyle surveys revealed that up to 70% of students had smoked waterpipe at least once in their lifetime. Thus we aimed to clarify possible mechanisms in charge of widespread use and favorable attitude of young adults towards waterpipe smoking by means of a qualitative study.METHODS: Semistructured interviews were conducted with 27 university students in Kiev city. Respondents were 11 males and 16 females aged 17-26 years. Convenience sampling was applied. Questions encompassed personal experience of, attitudes towards, and perception of waterpipe smoking. RESULTS: Waterpipe is perceived by students as a safer alternative of cigarettes. Less irritating smoke is taken as a sign of no adverse health impact. Students are attracted by sweet smell and taste of tobacco smoke produced by waterpipe. Those who had observed the waterpipe tobacco packages reported that they bear pictures of fruit and create perception of a healthy product inside. On some packages, health warnings and the information regarding content are either absent or written in a language customers cannot read. Tobacco and accessories were reported to have been displayed in most attractive places in supermarkets. CONCLUSIONS: The study reveals the necessity to strengthen the awareness campaign depicting the devastating consequences of waterpipe use. To close the existing loopholes, the Ukrainian legislation needs to require health warnings on waterpipe packages which differ from those on cigarette packs, ban of tobacco products display at the points of sales, and ban of fruity additives to tobacco.

  20. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians’ Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Mazzetti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  1. Individual Characteristics Influencing Physicians' Perceptions of Job Demands and Control: The Role of Affectivity, Work Engagement and Workaholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Greta; Biolcati, Roberta; Guglielmi, Dina; Vallesi, Caryn; Schaufeli, Wilmar B

    2016-06-06

    The first purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of individual characteristics, i.e., positive and negative affectivity, in explaining the different perception of job control and job demands in a particularly demanding environment such as the healthcare setting. In addition, we aimed to explore the mediational role of work engagement and workaholism using the Job Demands-Resources Model as a theoretical framework. Data were collected using a sample of 269 Italian head physicians working in nine general hospitals. To test our hypotheses, the collected data were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Moreover, Sobel Test and bootstrapping were employed to assess the mediating hypotheses. Our results indicated that positive affectivity is related to work engagement, which, in its turn, showed a positive association with job control. In addition, workaholism mediated the relationship between negative affectivity and job demands. All in all, this study represents a first attempt to explore the role of trait affectivity as a dispositional characteristic able to foster the level of work engagement and workaholism exhibited by employees and, in turn, to increase the perceived levels of job control and job demands.

  2. Public perception of carbon dioxide storage. The role of trust and affect in attitude formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huijts, N.M.A.

    2003-12-01

    In this study a multidisciplinary description of, and investigation into carbon dioxide storage is given. Carbon dioxide storage is a CO2-emission reduction option that might be implemented to combat climate change. The threat of climate change has led to emission reduction goals for greenhouse gases in the Netherlands for the period 2008-2010 compared to the year 1990, and possibly more stringent goals for the longer term. The technology of carbon dioxide capture, transport and storage is shortly described, and it is expected that it is possible to perform the technology. Possible identified barriers are the costs, the risks and public perception. A wide range for the estimation of the costs has been found. Any price in the range however leads to a significant increase of the electricity price, when applying CO2 capture and storage to power plants. Risks are not quantified yet, but possible risks are described for man, environment, and buildings in literature. So far, little research had been performed on the public perception of carbon dioxide storage. Therefore a field study has been conducted for this study. From personal communication and literature, the current points of view of government, industry, and environmental NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are described for the Netherlands. Government and environmental NGOs believe that carbon dioxide storage can only be a temporary solution, because it is not considered a sustainable solution. Opposition from environmental NGOs might arise when the storage of carbon dioxide diverts effort from the development of sustainable energy sources. Industry that would perform storage expects that it can be done in a safe and acceptable way. The points of view of the actors involved can influence the perception of citizens and have therefore been summarised and added to the information for the participants in the study. From literature in the field of psychology, a conceptual model for the formation of an attitude

  3. Public perception of carbon dioxide storage. The role of trust and affect in attitude formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huijts, N.M.A.

    2003-12-01

    In this study a multidisciplinary description of, and investigation into carbon dioxide storage is given. Carbon dioxide storage is a CO2-emission reduction option that might be implemented to combat climate change. The threat of climate change has led to emission reduction goals for greenhouse gases in the Netherlands for the period 2008-2010 compared to the year 1990, and possibly more stringent goals for the longer term. The technology of carbon dioxide capture, transport and storage is shortly described, and it is expected that it is possible to perform the technology. Possible identified barriers are the costs, the risks and public perception. A wide range for the estimation of the costs has been found. Any price in the range however leads to a significant increase of the electricity price, when applying CO2 capture and storage to power plants. Risks are not quantified yet, but possible risks are described for man, environment, and buildings in literature. So far, little research had been performed on the public perception of carbon dioxide storage. Therefore a field study has been conducted for this study. From personal communication and literature, the current points of view of government, industry, and environmental NGOs (non-governmental organizations) are described for the Netherlands. Government and environmental NGOs believe that carbon dioxide storage can only be a temporary solution, because it is not considered a sustainable solution. Opposition from environmental NGOs might arise when the storage of carbon dioxide diverts effort from the development of sustainable energy sources. Industry that would perform storage expects that it can be done in a safe and acceptable way. The points of view of the actors involved can influence the perception of citizens and have therefore been summarised and added to the information for the participants in the study. From literature in the field of psychology, a conceptual model for the formation of an attitude

  4. Does timbre affect pitch?: Estimations by musicians and non-musicians / Allan Vurma, Marju Raju, Annika Kuuda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vurma, Allan, 1955-

    2011-01-01

    Muusikutel ja mittemuusikutel lasti kuulata lindilt inimhääle, vioola ja trompetihelisid ning hinnata järgmisena kõlanud helikatket võrreldes eelmisega kas "madalaks", "kõrgeks" või "hääles". Leiti, et tämbrist mõjutatud helikõrguse muutused võivad tekitada konflikti subjektiivse tunnetamise ja fundamentaalsel võnkesagedusel põhineva heli hindamise vahel

  5. Hyperglycaemia attenuates the gastrokinetic effect of erythromycin and affects the perception of postprandial hunger in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.L.; Berry, M.; Kong, M.F.; Kwiatek, M.; Samsom, M.; Horowitz, M.; Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Recent studies have demonstrated that acute changes in the blood glucose concentration may affect gastrointestinal motor function and the perception of sensations arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Erythromycin has been shown to accelerate gastric emptying in both normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. The major aims of this study were to determine in normal subjects whether the effects of erythromycin on gastric emptying, and perceptions of hunger and fullness are modified by the blood glucose concentration. 10 normal subjects (aged 20-39 yr) underwent concurrent measurement of gastric emptying, blood glucose, hunger and fullness on four separate occasions: twice during euglycaemia (∼4 mmol/L) and twice during hyperglycaemia (∼15 mmol/L). Either erythromycin (3 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) was administered intravenously immediately before ingestion of a radioisotopically labelled solid meal. Gastric emptying was slower (P<0.0001) during hyperglycaemia when compared to euglycaemia after both erythromycin and saline administration. Erythromycin accelerated the post-lag emptying rate during euglycaemia (P<0.05), but not hyperglycaemia. Hunger decreased (P<0.001) and fullness increased (P<0.001) after the meal Postprandial hunger was less (P<0.05) and fullness greater (P<0.05 during hyperglycaemia after saline infusion, but not after erythromycin. Hunger was greater after erythromycin when compared to saline during both hyperglycaemia and euglycaemia (P<0.05). In conclusion, at a blood glucose concentration of ∼15 mmol/L when compared to euglycaemia: (i) after administration of erythromycin (3 mg/kg IV) gastric emptying of a solid meal is much slower, (ii) the effect of erythromycin on gastric emptying of a solid meal is attenuated and (iii) the perception of postprandial hunger is reduced and that of fullness increased

  6. Hyperglycaemia attenuates the gastrokinetic effect of erythromycin and affects the perception of postprandial hunger in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K.L.; Berry, M.; Kong, M.F.; Kwiatek, M.; Samsom, M.; Horowitz, M. [University of South Australia, SA (Australia). School of Medicine Radiation]|[Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA (Australia). Department of Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Recent studies have demonstrated that acute changes in the blood glucose concentration may affect gastrointestinal motor function and the perception of sensations arising from the gastrointestinal tract. Erythromycin has been shown to accelerate gastric emptying in both normal subjects and patients with diabetes mellitus. The major aims of this study were to determine in normal subjects whether the effects of erythromycin on gastric emptying, and perceptions of hunger and fullness are modified by the blood glucose concentration. 10 normal subjects (aged 20-39 yr) underwent concurrent measurement of gastric emptying, blood glucose, hunger and fullness on four separate occasions: twice during euglycaemia ({approx}4 mmol/L) and twice during hyperglycaemia ({approx}15 mmol/L). Either erythromycin (3 mg/kg) or saline (0.9%) was administered intravenously immediately before ingestion of a radioisotopically labelled solid meal. Gastric emptying was slower (P<0.0001) during hyperglycaemia when compared to euglycaemia after both erythromycin and saline administration. Erythromycin accelerated the post-lag emptying rate during euglycaemia (P<0.05), but not hyperglycaemia. Hunger decreased (P<0.001) and fullness increased (P<0.001) after the meal Postprandial hunger was less (P<0.05) and fullness greater (P<0.05) during hyperglycaemia after saline infusion, but not after erythromycin. Hunger was greater after erythromycin when compared to saline during both hyperglycaemia and euglycaemia (P<0.05). In conclusion, at a blood glucose concentration of {approx}15 mmol/L when compared to euglycaemia: (i) after administration of erythromycin (3 mg/kg IV) gastric emptying of a solid meal is much slower, (ii) the effect of erythromycin on gastric emptying of a solid meal is attenuated and (iii) the perception of postprandial hunger is reduced and that of fullness increased

  7. Sex differences in the perception of affective facial expressions: Do men really lack emotional sensitivity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montagne, B.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Frigerio, E.; Haan, E.H.F. de; Perrett, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that men and women display differences in both cognitive and affective functions. Recent studies have examined the processing of emotions in males and females. However, the findings are inconclusive, possibly the result of methodological differences. The aim of this study was to

  8. Functional Measurement Analysis of Brand Equity: Does Brand Name affect Perceptions of Quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Shanteau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research project used Functional Measurement to examine how the brand name of consumer products impacts intended purchasing decisions. Thirty undergraduate students tested actual products from three different product categories (crayons, tissues, and tortilla chips. Each product category consisted of three different brands; one with high brand value, one with medium, and one with low brand (generic value. For each brand, there were five conditions: 1 the product with the correct brand name; 2 the product with a switched brand name; 3 the product with another switched brand name; 4 the product alone with no brand name; and 5 the brand name alone with no product. Participants were unaware that products had been switched. After trying each product, participants rated their likelihood to purchase on a 9-point Likert scale: 1 being "definitely would not buy" and 9 being "definitely would buy." Results revealed that perceptions of quality were dependent on both perceived product quality and brand name. Unexpectedly, results also showed that the strength of the brand equity effect is dependent on product type, e.g., chips showed the strongest brand effect. For most product categories, main effects and interactions were significant. Functional measurement analyses revealed that brand name effects were independent of product quality. In conclusion, the brand name associated with a product led people to evaluate quality of that product as either higher or lower depending on the strength of the brand name.

  9. Disentangling interoception: insights from focal strokes affecting the perception of external and internal milieus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Blas; Adolfi, Federico; Sedeño, Lucas; Salles, Alejo; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Alvarez-Abut, Pablo; Garcia-Cordero, Indira; Pietto, Marcos; Bekinschtein, Tristan; Sigman, Mariano; Manes, Facundo; Ibanez, Agustin

    2015-01-01

    Interoception is the moment-to-moment sensing of the physiological condition of the body. The multimodal sources of interoception can be classified into two different streams of afferents: an internal pathway of signals arising from core structures (i.e., heart, blood vessels, and bronchi) and an external pathway of body-mapped sensations (i.e., chemosensation and pain) arising from peripersonal space. This study examines differential processing along these streams within the insular cortex (IC) and their subcortical tracts connecting frontotemporal networks. Two rare patients presenting focal lesions of the IC (insular lesion, IL) or its subcortical tracts (subcortical lesion, SL) were tested. Internally generated interoceptive streams were assessed through a heartbeat detection (HBD) task, while those externally triggered were tapped via taste, smell, and pain recognition tasks. A differential pattern was observed. The IC patient showed impaired internal signal processing while the SL patient exhibited external perception deficits. Such selective deficits remained even when comparing each patient with a group of healthy controls and a group of brain-damaged patients. These outcomes suggest the existence of distinguishable interoceptive streams. Results are discussed in relation with neuroanatomical substrates, involving a fronto-insulo-temporal network for interoceptive and cognitive contextual integration. PMID:25983697

  10. Does Tibial Slope Affect Perception of Coronal Alignment on a Standing Anteroposterior Radiograph?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Adam J; Ravi, Bheeshma; Kransdorf, Mark J; Clarke, Henry D

    2017-07-01

    A standing anteroposterior (AP) radiograph is commonly used to evaluate coronal alignment following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The impact of coronal alignment on TKA outcomes is controversial, perhaps due to variability in imaging and/or measurement technique. We sought to quantify the effect of image rotation and tibial slope on coronal alignment. Using a standard extramedullary tibial alignment guide, 3 cadaver legs were cut to accept a tibial tray at 0°, 3°, and 7° of slope. A computed tomography scan of the entire tibia was obtained for each specimen to confirm neutral coronal alignment. Images were then obtained at progressive 10° intervals of internal and external rotation up to 40° maximum in each direction. Images were then randomized and 5 blinded TKA surgeons were asked to determine coronal alignment. Continuous data values were transformed to categorical data (neutral [0], valgus [L], and varus [R]). Each 10° interval of external rotation of a 7° sloped tibial cut (or relative internal rotation of a tibial component viewed in the AP plane) resulted in perception of an additional 0.75° of varus. The slope of the proximal tibia bone cut should be taken into account when measuring coronal alignment on a standing AP radiograph. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ecological concerns following Superstorm Sandy: stressor level and recreational activity levels affect perceptions of ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-06-01

    Coastal habitats are vulnerable to storms, and with increasing urbanization, sea level rise, and storm frequency, some urban populations are at risk. This study examined perceptions of respondents in coastal and central New Jersey to Superstorm Sandy , including: 1) concerns about ecological resources and effects (open-ended question), 2) information sources for ecology of the coast (open-ended), and 3) ratings of a list of ecological services as a function of demographics, location (coastal, central Jersey), stressor level (power outages, high winds, flooding) and recreational rates. "Wildlife" and "fish" were the ecological concerns mentioned most often, while beaches and dunes were most often mentioned for environmental concerns. Television, radio, and web/internet were sources trusted for ecological information. The data indicate 1) stressor level was a better predictor of ratings of ecological services than geographical location, but days engaged in recreation contributed the most to variations in ratings, 2) ecological services were rated the highest by respondents with the highest stressor levels, and by those from the coast, compared to others, 3) Caucasians rated ecological services higher than all others, and 4) recreational rates were highest for coastal respondents, and ratings for ecological services increased with recreational rates. Only 20 % of respondents listed specific ecological services as one of their three most important environmental concerns. These data will be useful for increasing preparedness, enhancing educational strategies for shore protection, and providing managers and public policy makers with data essential to developing resiliency strategies.

  12. A comparison of policy and direct practice stakeholder perceptions of factors affecting evidence-based practice implementation using concept mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Aarons, Gregory A

    2011-09-07

    The goal of this study was to assess potential differences between administrators/policymakers and those involved in direct practice regarding factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation in a large public mental health service system in the United States. Participants included mental health system county officials, agency directors, program managers, clinical staff, administrative staff, and consumers. As part of concept mapping procedures, brainstorming groups were conducted with each target group to identify specific factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to EBP implementation in a large public mental health system. Statements were sorted by similarity and rated by each participant in regard to their perceived importance and changeability. Multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to analyze the data. A total of 105 statements were distilled into 14 clusters using concept-mapping procedures. Perceptions of importance of factors affecting EBP implementation varied between the two groups, with those involved in direct practice assigning significantly higher ratings to the importance of Clinical Perceptions and the impact of EBP implementation on clinical practice. Consistent with previous studies, financial concerns (costs, funding) were rated among the most important and least likely to change by both groups. EBP implementation is a complex process, and different stakeholders may hold different opinions regarding the relative importance of the impact of EBP implementation. Implementation efforts must include input from stakeholders at multiple levels to bring divergent and convergent perspectives to light.

  13. Communicating asset risk: how name recognition and the format of historic volatility information affect risk perception and investment decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elke U; Siebenmorgen, Niklas; Weber, Martin

    2005-06-01

    An experiment examined how the type and presentation format of information about investment options affected investors' expectations about asset risk, returns, and volatility and how these expectations related to asset choice. Respondents were provided with the names of 16 domestic and foreign investment options, with 10-year historical return information for these options, or with both. Historical returns were presented either as a bar graph of returns per year or as a continuous density distribution. Provision of asset names allowed for the investigation of the mechanisms underlying the home bias in investment choice and other asset familiarity effects. Respondents provided their expectations of future returns, volatility, and expected risk, and indicated the options they would choose to invest in. Expected returns closely resembled historical expected values. Risk and volatility perceptions both varied significantly as a function of the type and format of information, but in different ways. Expected returns and perceived risk, not predicted volatility, predicted portfolio decisions.

  14. Abstraction of an Affective-Cognitive Decision Making Model Based on Simulated Behaviour and Perception Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpanskykh, Alexei; Treur, Jan

    Employing rich internal agent models of actors in large-scale socio-technical systems often results in scalability issues. The problem addressed in this paper is how to improve computational properties of a complex internal agent model, while preserving its behavioral properties. The problem is addressed for the case of an existing affective-cognitive decision making model instantiated for an emergency scenario. For this internal decision model an abstracted behavioral agent model is obtained, which ensures a substantial increase of the computational efficiency at the cost of approximately 1% behavioural error. The abstraction technique used can be applied to a wide range of internal agent models with loops, for example, involving mutual affective-cognitive interactions.

  15. Factors affecting the frequency and amount of social networking site use: Motivations, perceptions, and privacy concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Jiyoung

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the factors that affect the use of social networking Web sites. In doing so, this investigation focuses on two dimensions of social networking site use frequency (i.e., how often people use social networking sites) and amount (i.e., how much time people spend on social networks). Integrating the technology acceptance model with uses and gratification and other consumer characteristics, this study found that interpersonal utility, perceived ease of use, ...

  16. Service providers' perception of affective influences on decision-making about treatments for chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cary A

    2004-01-07

    Service providers working with people who have complex health problems like chronic pain are considered at particular risk from the heavy emotional content of these interactions (frustration, guilt, hostility). For the good of service users and in the interests of healthcare workers' own health it is important for them to employ reflective practice acknowledging these issues. Service providers are inculcated to negate the affective domain of their practice despite the growing awareness that wellbeing can no longer be envisioned as a linear (cause and effect) process divorced from socio-cultural influences and attendant values and beliefs. The aim of this report is to examine to what degree service users (SU) and service providers (SP) believe their decisions about treatment importance are influenced by self-image and emotion. These results are extrapolated from a larger study based on a postal questionnaire that went to members of the Pain Society (UK Chapter of IASP) and service users belonging to chronic pain support groups in the North-West of England. The question of interest in this report asked participants to identify their level of agreement with statements about how four themes influence their decision-making about whether a treatment is important. The themes (coherence, purposiveness, self-image and affect) arise from Chapman's model of consciousness and pain. Only 20.5% of service providers rated the influence of self-image (what someone like me would think) as 3 (mostly) or 4 (completely). Service provider rating for the influence of affect (how this treatment makes me feel) were similarly low with only 19.4% of respondents selecting a rating of 3 or 4. In marked contrast, 73.3% of the service users selected self-image and 92.9% selected affect as a strong influence. Service providers felt that affect and self-image had little influence on their decision-making. However, there is growing evidence in the literature to suggest that it is not possible, nor

  17. Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds The Sound of Music

    CERN Document Server

    Beauchamp, James W

    2007-01-01

    Analysis, Synthesis, and Perception of Musical Sounds contains a detailed treatment of basic methods for analysis and synthesis of musical sounds, including the phase vocoder method, the McAulay-Quatieri frequency-tracking method, the constant-Q transform, and methods for pitch tracking with several examples shown. Various aspects of musical sound spectra such as spectral envelope, spectral centroid, spectral flux, and spectral irregularity are defined and discussed. One chapter is devoted to the control and synthesis of spectral envelopes. Two advanced methods of analysis/synthesis are given: "Sines Plus Transients Plus Noise" and "Spectrotemporal Reassignment" are covered. Methods for timbre morphing are given. The last two chapters discuss the perception of musical sounds based on discrimination and multidimensional scaling timbre models.

  18. Selective perception of novel science: how definitions affect information processing about nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoun; Akin, Heather; Brossard, Dominique; Xenos, Michael; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2017-05-01

    This study examines how familiarity with an issue—nanotechnology—moderates the effect of exposure to science information on how people process mediated messages about a complex issue. In an online experiment, we provide a nationally representative sample three definitions of nanotechnology (technical, technical applications, and technical risk/benefit definitions). We then ask them to read an article about the topic. We find significant interactions between perceived nano-familiarity and the definition received in terms of how respondents perceive favorable information conveyed in the stimulus. People less familiar with nanotechnology were more significantly affected by the type of definition they received.

  19. Room air temperature affects occupants' physiology, perceptions and mental alertness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tham, Kwok Wai; Willem, Henry Cahyadi [Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, 4 Architecture Drive, Singapore 117566 (Singapore)

    2010-01-15

    Thermal environment that causes thermal discomfort may affect office work performance. However, the mechanisms through which occupants are affected are not well understood. This study explores the plausible mechanism linking room air temperature and mental alertness through perceptual and physiological responses in the tropics. Ninety-six young adults participated as voluntary subjects in a series of experiment conducted in the simulated office settings. Three room air temperatures, i.e. 20.0, 23.0 and 26.0 C were selected as the experimental conditions. Both thermal comfort and thermal sensation changed significantly with time under all exposures (P < 0.0001). Longer exposure at 20.0 C led to cooling sensations due to lower skin temperatures (P < 0.0001) and was perceived as the least comfortable. Nevertheless, this moderate cold exposure induced nervous system activation as demonstrated by the increase of {alpha}-Amylase level (P < 0.0001) and the Tsai-partington test (P < 0.0001). A mechanism linking thermal environment, occupants' responses and performance is proposed. (author)

  20. Tuning to the significant: neural and genetic processes underlying affective enhancement of visual perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Jelena; Anderson, Adam K; Todd, Rebecca M

    2014-02-01

    Emotionally arousing events reach awareness more easily and evoke greater visual cortex activation than more mundane events. Recent studies have shown that they are also perceived more vividly and that emotionally enhanced perceptual vividness predicts memory vividness. We propose that affect-biased attention (ABA) - selective attention to emotionally salient events - is an endogenous attentional system tuned by an individual's history of reward and punishment. We present the Biased Attention via Norepinephrine (BANE) model, which unifies genetic, neuromodulatory, neural and behavioural evidence to account for ABA. We review evidence supporting BANE's proposal that a key mechanism of ABA is locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) activity, which interacts with activity in hubs of affective salience networks to modulate visual cortex activation and heighten the subjective vividness of emotionally salient stimuli. We further review literature on biased competition and look at initial evidence for its potential as a neural mechanism behind ABA. We also review evidence supporting the role of the LC-NE system as a driving force of ABA. Finally, we review individual differences in ABA and memory including differences in sensitivity to stimulus category and valence. We focus on differences arising from a variant of the ADRA2b gene, which codes for the alpha2b adrenoreceptor as a way of investigating influences of NE availability on ABA in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Factors Affecting Customer’s Perception of Service Quality: Comparing Differences among Countries - Case study: Beauty salons in Bandung and Tokyo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Nakashima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a holistic study of analyzing several factors affecting service quality andtheir correlation with characteristic of customers based on value and life style. Furthermore,customer’s perception of service quality can be drawn from those relationships. Exploratoryfactor analysis and quantitative analysis is employed with case study of beauty salon serviceat Bandung and Tokyo. The results indicate how the quality of services is perceived differentlyby customers who have different value and life style, and also describe significant relationshipbetween value and life style with the affecting factors of service quality.Key words : service quality, value and life style, customer perception, beauty salon.

  2. Military Families’ Perceptions of Neighborhood Characteristics Affecting Reintegration: Development of an Aggregate Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beehler, Sarah; Ahern, Jennifer; Balmer, Brandi; Kuhlman, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the validity and reliability of an Experience of Neighborhood (EON) measure developed to assess neighborhood characteristics that shape reintegration opportunities for returning service members and their families. A total of 91 post-9/11 veterans and spouses completed a survey administered at the Minnesota State Fair. Participants self-reported on their reintegration status (veterans), social functioning (spouses), social support, and mental health. EON factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and validity (discriminant, content, criterion) were analyzed. The EON measure showed adequate reliability, discriminant validity, and content validity. More work is needed to assess criterion validity because EON scores were not correlated with scores on a Census-based index used to measure quality of military neighborhoods. The EON may be useful in assessing broad local factors influencing health among returning veterans and spouses. More research is needed to understand geographic variation in neighborhood conditions and how those affect reintegration and mental health for military families. PMID:28936370

  3. Propagation and perception of bioluminescence: factors affecting counterillumination as a cryptic strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Sönke; Widder, Edith A; Mobley, Curtis D

    2004-08-01

    Many deep-sea species, particularly crustaceans, cephalopods, and fish, use photophores to illuminate their ventral surfaces and thus disguise their silhouettes from predators viewing them from below. This strategy has several potential limitations, two of which are examined here. First, a predator with acute vision may be able to detect the individual photophores on the ventral surface. Second, a predator may be able to detect any mismatch between the spectrum of the bioluminescence and that of the background light. The first limitation was examined by modeling the perceived images of the counterillumination of the squid Abralia veranyi and the myctophid fish Ceratoscopelus maderensis as a function of the distance and visual acuity of the viewer. The second limitation was addressed by measuring downwelling irradiance under moonlight and starlight and then modeling underwater spectra. Four water types were examined: coastal water at a depth of 5 m and oceanic water at 5, 210, and 800 m. The appearance of the counterillumination was more affected by the visual acuity of the viewer than by the clarity of the water, even at relatively large distances. Species with high visual acuity (0.11 degrees resolution) were able to distinguish the individual photophores of some counterilluminating signals at distances of several meters, thus breaking the camouflage. Depth and the presence or absence of moonlight strongly affected the spectrum of the background light, particularly near the surface. The increased variability near the surface was partially offset by the higher contrast attenuation at shallow depths, which reduced the sighting distance of mismatches. This research has implications for the study of spatial resolution, contrast sensitivity, and color discrimination in deep-sea visual systems.

  4. [Self esteem, affectivity perception, aims, and risk behaviors among teenagers of both sexes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, T; Valenzuela, S; Vargas, N A

    1995-05-01

    A self applied and anonymous enquiry was answered by 948 teenagers (600 female), participating in an integral health education plan and coming from a school located in a low income community of Metropolitan Santiago. Twenty nine percent came from single or foster parent families and 18.4% of parents were separated. Nineteen percent of women and 9.8% of men felt that they were not loved by their parents; 30.5% of women and classified as bad or regular their relationship with their fathers and 22.1% of men similarly classified their relationship with their mothers. Eighteen percent of men and 16.5% of women ignored their parent's educational level. Ten to 24% had a negative self image and 50% were unsure about their study goals. Forty eight percent of men and 25.5% of women had get drunk; 24.1 and 12.8% had smoked marihuana. Half of the sample manifested attraction to dangerous situations; 22% had participated in quarrels and 34% had attacked other people. Twenty three percent of men and 35% of women had considered committing suicide. It is concluded that the lack of affection, a deteriorated self image, difficult parental relationships and orientation toward violence appear as the main problems in this sample of teenagers.

  5. Factors affecting Family Medicine residents′ perception of achievement of training objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Radi Abu Zuhairah

    2014-01-01

    Statistical analysis: Cronbach′s alpha, analysis of variance, t-test, and univariate regression model were used. Results: Reliability of the questionnaire was found to be 75.4%. One hundred and seven residents (response rate, 83.6% had completed the questionnaire. The mean age was 29.1 ± 2.5 years, half of the residents were male, most of them (83.2% were married, and more than half (54.2% of the residents had worked in primary health care (PHC before joining the programme. Age and duration of work in PHC before joining the programme were significantly and positively associated with the outcome. In Family Medicine rotations, continuity of care, percentage of patients discussed, and number of trainers were associated with the outcome. On the other hand, percentage of patients discussed in different settings and opportunity for the residents to evaluate patients in an outpatient setting were among the factors affecting the outcome in the hospital rotations. Conclusions: Factors identified (age, duration of work in PHC, discussion, and opportunity to evaluate patients might help residents, trainers, and decision makers in ensuring residents benefit from the different rotations. Further studies to link the effect of the identified factors on resident outcome and patient care are required.

  6. Nursing doctoral faculty perceptions of factors that affect their continued scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Sharts-Hopko, Nancy C; Cantrell, Mary Ann; Heverly, Mary Ann; Wise, Nancy; Jenkinson, Amanda; Nthenge, Serah

    2014-01-01

    This focus group study was undertaken as part of a larger investigation of how the demand for increased production of nurses with doctorates affects doctoral faculty's scholarly productivity. This study provided a basis for development of the national survey questionnaire. Two focus groups that included 29 faculty teaching in doctor of philosophy and/or doctor of nursing practice programs took place at one of two national conferences. The focus group interviews were transcribed and content analyzed for the identification of themes; all members of the research team reached consensus. The three major themes were the demands of teaching, the importance of institutional structure and climate, and the sustainability of one's self, the institution, and the discipline. Participants identified strategies for enhancing scholarly productivity. Findings are limited by the small sample size and the voluntary participation of conference attendees. The strength of emotion that participants revealed underscores the need for nursing leaders to address the increasing academic expectations for faculty. If the profession does not address the needs of its current and future faculty, goals explicated by the Institute of Medicine in The Future of Nursing cannot be achieved, and the health of the nation will suffer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Experiencing Nature through Immersive Virtual Environments: Environmental Perceptions, Physical Engagement, and Affective Responses during a Simulated Nature Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Calogiuri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available By combining physical activity and exposure to nature, green exercise can provide additional health benefits compared to physical activity alone. Immersive Virtual Environments (IVE have emerged as a potentially valuable supplement to environmental and behavioral research, and might also provide new approaches to green exercise promotion. However, it is unknown to what extent green exercise in IVE can provide psychophysiological responses similar to those experienced in real natural environments. In this study, 26 healthy adults underwent three experimental conditions: nature walk, sitting-IVE, and treadmill-IVE. The nature walk took place on a paved trail along a large river. In the IVE conditions, the participants wore a head-mounted display with headphones reproducing a 360° video and audio of the nature walk, either sitting on a chair or walking on a manually driven treadmill. Measurements included environmental perceptions (presence and perceived environmental restorativeness – PER, physical engagement (walking speed, heart rate, and perceived exertion, and affective responses (enjoyment and affect. Additionally, qualitative information was collected through open-ended questions. The participants rated the IVEs with satisfactory levels of ‘being there’ and ‘sense of reality,’ but also reported discomforts such as ‘flatness,’ ‘movement lag’ and ‘cyber sickness.’ With equivalent heart rate and walking speed, participants reported higher perceived exertion in the IVEs than in the nature walk. The nature walk was associated with high enjoyment and enhanced affect. However, despite equivalent ratings of PER in the nature walk and in the IVEs, the latter were perceived as less enjoyable and gave rise to a poorer affect. Presence and PER did not differ between the two IVEs, although in the treadmill-IVE the negative affective responses had slightly smaller magnitude than in the sitting-IVE. In both the IVEs, the negative

  8. Short-Term Sleep Disturbance-Induced Stress Does not Affect Basal Pain Perception, but Does Delay Postsurgical Pain Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Po-Kai; Cao, Jing; Wang, Hongzhen; Liang, Lingli; Zhang, Jun; Lutz, Brianna Marie; Shieh, Kun-Ruey; Bekker, Alex; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    Chronic sleep disturbance-induced stress is known to increase basal pain sensitivity. However, most surgical patients frequently report short-term sleep disturbance/deprivation during the pre- and postoperation periods and have normal pain perception presurgery. Whether this short-term sleep disturbance affects postsurgical pain is elusive. Here, we report that pre- or postexposure to rapid eye movement sleep disturbance (REMSD) for 6 hours daily for 3 consecutive days did not alter basal responses to mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli, but did delay recovery in incision-induced reductions in paw withdrawal threshold to mechanical stimulation and paw withdrawal latencies to heat and cold stimuli on the ipsilateral side of male or female rats. This short-term REMSD led to stress shown by an increase in swim immobility time, a decrease in sucrose consumption, and an increase in the level of corticosterone in serum. Blocking this stress via intrathecal RU38486 or bilateral adrenalectomy abolished REMSD-caused delay in recovery of incision-induced reductions in behavioral responses to mechanical, heat, and cold stimuli. Moreover, this short-term REMSD produced significant reductions in the levels of mu opioid receptor and kappa opioid receptor, but not Kv1.2, in the ipsilateral L4/5 spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia on day 9 after incision (but not after sham surgery). Our findings show that short-term sleep disturbance either pre- or postsurgery does not alter basal pain perception, but does exacerbate postsurgical pain hypersensitivity. The latter may be related to the reductions of mu and kappa opioid receptors in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia caused by REMSD plus incision. Prevention of short-term sleep disturbance may help recovery from postsurgical pain in patients. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk perception and access to environmental information in four areas in Italy affected by natural or anthropogenic pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coi, A; Minichilli, F; Bustaffa, E; Carone, S; Santoro, M; Bianchi, F; Cori, L

    2016-10-01

    A human biomonitoring (HBM) survey in four areas affected by natural or anthropogenic arsenic pollution was conducted in Italy within the framework of the SEpiAs project. A questionnaire, including the exploration of risk perception (RP) regarding environmental hazards and access to and trust in information, was administered to 282 subjects stratified by area, gender and age. The survey was designed to investigate how populations living in polluted areas could adopt prevention-oriented habits, fostered by the awareness of existing risks and, in addition, how increased knowledge of RP and information flows could support researchers in identifying recommendations, and presenting and disseminating HBM results. This study characterizes the four areas in terms of RP and access to and trust in environmental information, and provides insights into the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption. For the data analysis, a combined random forest (RF) and logistic regression approach was carried out. RF was applied to the variables derived from the questionnaire in order to identify the most important in terms of the aims defined. Associations were then tested using Fisher's exact test and assessed with logistic regression in order to adjust for confounders. Results showed that the perception of and personal exposure to atmospheric and water pollution, hazardous industries and waste, hazardous material transportation and waste was higher in geographical areas characterized by anthropogenic pollution. Citizens living in industrial areas appeared to be aware of environmental risks and had more confidence in environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs) than in public authorities. In addition, they reported an insufficient circulation of information. Concerning the influence of RP and environmental information on food consumption, a high perception of personal exposure to atmospheric pollution and hazardous industries was associated with a lower

  10. [Music therapy in adults with cochlear implants : Effects on music perception and subjective sound quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, E; Grapp, M; Argstatter, H

    2016-12-01

    People with severe hearing impairments and deafness can achieve good speech comprehension using a cochlear implant (CI), although music perception often remains impaired. A novel concept of music therapy for adults with CI was developed and evaluated in this study. This study included 30 adults with a unilateral CI following postlingual deafness. The subjective sound quality of the CI was rated using the hearing implant sound quality index (HISQUI) and musical tests for pitch discrimination, melody recognition and timbre identification were applied. As a control 55 normally hearing persons also completed the musical tests. In comparison to normally hearing subjects CI users showed deficits in the perception of pitch, melody and timbre. Specific effects of therapy were observed in the subjective sound quality of the CI, in pitch discrimination into a high and low pitch range and in timbre identification, while general learning effects were found in melody recognition. Music perception shows deficits in CI users compared to normally hearing persons. After individual music therapy in the rehabilitation process, improvements in this delicate area could be achieved.

  11. A Case Study of Peer Educators in a Community-Based Program to Reduce Teen Pregnancy: Selected Characteristics Prior to Training, Perceptions of Training and Work, and Perceptions of How Participation in the Program Has Affected Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshers, Sarah C.

    2007-01-01

    This investigation is a case study of peer educators in a community-based teen pregnancy prevention program. Research questions focused on identifying ways in which peer educators differed from other teens and exploring the perceptions of the peer educators about their experience in the program and the ways in which it has affected them. Data were…

  12. A Qualitative Study of Indian and Indian Immigrant Adolescents' Perceptions of the Factors Affecting Their Engagement and Performance in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Areepattamannil, Shaljan; Freeman, John G.; Klinger, Don A.

    2018-01-01

    Although a growing body of quantitative research has examined the non-cognitive factors affecting the school engagement and performance of adolescents across cultures, there is relatively sparse qualitative research investigating the perceptions of adolescents regarding the factors influencing their engagement and performance in school. This focus…

  13. The ECE Pre-Service Teachers' Perception on Factors Affecting the Integration of Educational Computer Games in Two Conditions: Selecting versus Redesigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancar Tokmak, Hatice; Ozgelen, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    This case study aimed to examine early childhood education (ECE) pre-service teachers' perception on the factors affecting integration of educational computer games to their instruction in two areas: selecting and redesigning. Twenty-six ECE pre-service teachers participated in the study. The data was collected through open-ended questionnaires,…

  14. Community perception of water quality in a mining-affected area: a case study for the Certej catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities' perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples' perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  15. Community Perception of Water Quality in a Mining-Affected Area: A Case Study for the Certej Catchment in the Apuseni Mountains in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana; Zobrist, Jürg; Balteanu, Dan; Popescu, Claudia; Sima, Mihaela; Amini, Manouchehr; Yang, Hong

    2009-06-01

    Mining-contaminated sites and the affected communities at risk are important issues on the agenda of both researchers and policy makers, particularly in the former communist block countries in Eastern Europe. Integrated analyses and expert based assessments concerning mining affected areas are important in providing solid policy guidelines for environmental and social risk management and mitigation. Based on a survey for 103 households conducted in a former mining site in the Certej Catchment of the Apuseni Mountains, western Romania, this study assesses local communities’ perceptions on the quality of water in their living area. Logistic regression was used to examine peoples’ perception on the quality of the main river water and of the drinking water based on several predictors relating to social and economic conditions. The results from the perception analysis were then compared with the measurements of heavy metal contamination of the main river and drinking water undertaken in the same study area. The findings indicate that perception and measurement results for the water quality in the Certej Catchment are convergent, suggesting an obvious risk that mining activities pose on the surface water. However, the perception on drinking water quality was little predicted by the regression model and does not seem to be so much related to mining as to other explanatory factors, such as special mineralogy of rock and soils or improper water treatment infrastructure, facts suggested by the measurements of the contaminants. Discussion about the implications of these joint findings for risk mitigation policies completes this article.

  16. The Monetary Effect of Power: How Perception of Power Affects Monetary Value Judgments in China and US

    OpenAIRE

    Qian Yang; Kaiping Peng; Xueya Zhou; Ruoqiao Zheng; Wanhua Peng

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found a positive correlation between the perception of power and the perception of a number of social attributes (e.g., attractiveness, height, personality traits), but most of the studies were conducted in the US, and none has investigated the relationship between power perception and monetary value judgments. The current study found dramatic differences between Americans and Chinese on value estimations; the Chinese seem to perceive much higher monetary values for all ...

  17. Resident duty hour modification affects perceptions in medical education, general wellness, and ability to provide patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Andrew; Webber, Jordan; Epstein, Ian

    2016-07-13

    Resident duty hours have recently been under criticism, with concerns for resident and patient well-being. Historically, call shifts have been long, and some residency training programs have now restricted shift lengths. Data and opinions about the effects of such restrictions are conflicting. The Internal Medicine Residency Program at Dalhousie University recently moved from a traditional call structure to a day float/night float system. This study evaluated how this change in duty hours affected resident perceptions in several key domains. Senior residents from an internal medicine training program in Canada responded to an anonymous online survey immediately before and 6 months after the implementation of duty hour reform. The survey contained questions relating to three major domains: resident wellness, ability to deliver quality health care, and medical education experience. Mean pre- and post-intervention scores were compared using the t-test for paired samples. Twenty-three of 27 (85 %) senior residents completed both pre- and post-reform surveys. Residents perceived significant changes in many domains with duty hour reform. These included improved general wellness, less exposure to personal harm, fewer feelings of isolation, less potential for error, improvement in clinical skills expertise, increased work efficiency, more successful teaching, increased proficiency in medical skills, more successful learning, and fewer rotation disruptions. Senior residents in a Canadian internal medicine training program perceived significant benefits in medical education experience, ability to deliver healthcare, and resident wellness after implementation of duty hour reform.

  18. The perception of attractiveness and trustworthiness in male faces affects hypothetical voting decisions differently in wartime and peacetime scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Roberts, S Craig; Jones, Benedict C; Debruine, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Facial appearance of candidates has been linked to real election outcomes. Here we extend these findings by examining the contributions of attractiveness and trustworthiness in male faces to perceived votability. We first use real faces to show that attractiveness and trustworthiness are positively and independently related to perceptions of good leadership (rating study). We then show that computer graphic manipulations of attractiveness and trustworthiness influence choice of leader (experiments 1 and 2). Finally, we show that changing context from wartime to peacetime can affect which face receives the most votes. Attractive faces were relatively more valued for wartime and trustworthy faces relatively more valued for peacetime (experiments 1 and 2). This pattern suggests that attractiveness, which may indicate health and fitness, is perceived to be a useful attribute in wartime leaders, whereas trustworthiness, which may indicate prosocial traits, is perceived to be more important during peacetime. Our studies highlight the possible role of facial appearance in voting behaviour and the role of attributions of attractiveness and trust. We also show that there may be no general characteristics of faces that make them perceived as the best choice of leader; leaders may be chosen because of characteristics that are perceived as the best for leaders to possess in particular situations.

  19. Perceptions of Retirement Affect Career Commitment: The Mediating Role of Retirement System Satisfaction for Two Teacher Age Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin L.; Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated a sample of California elementary, intermediate, and high school employed teachers (N = 247) to assess the effects of retirement perceptions on career commitment among teachers who are in different age groupings. Using path analysis, the influence of five retirement perceptions variables was examined: concerns about…

  20. A cognitive-perceptual model of symptom perception in males and females: the roles of negative affect, selective attention, health anxiety and psychological job demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Laura; Fairclough, Stephen H; Poole, Helen M

    2013-06-01

    Kolk et al.'s model of symptom perception underlines the effects of trait negative affect, selective attention and external stressors. The current study tested this model in 263 males and 498 females from an occupational sample. Trait negative affect was associated with symptom reporting in females only, and selective attention and psychological job demands were associated with symptom reporting in both genders. Health anxiety was associated with symptom reporting in males only. Future studies might consider the inclusion of selective attention, which was more strongly associated with symptom reporting than negative affect. Psychological job demands appear to influence symptom reporting in both males and females.

  1. La phonologie parisienne à trente ans d’intervalle – Les voyelles à double timbre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anita Berit; Juillard, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    En français parisien, on parle depuis quelques décennies déjà d'un changement affectant le système des voyelles dites ‘à double timbre’. Ces voyelles comptent quatre paires (/e/-/¿/ comme dans parlé-parlait, /ø/-/œ/ comme dans jeûne-jeune, /o/-/¿/ comme dans saute-sotte et /¿/-/a/ comme dans mâle...

  2. Mutual intercultural perception : how does it affect technical communication? Some data from China, The Netherlands, Germany, France, and Italy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulijn, J.M.; St. Amant, K.

    2000-01-01

    Professional technical communicators increasingly find themselves in a negotiation situation where cultural differences have caused misperceptions or confusion concerning time (pausing, interrupting). This paper overviews an intercultural perception experiment that investigated how individuals from

  3. Factors Affecting the Perception of Importance and Practice of Patient Safety Management among Hospital Employees in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sook Kim, RN, PhD

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate a need for developing strategies to improve perception of the importance and practice of PSM among all hospital employees, and provide a reference for future experimental studies.

  4. Perceptions of employment relations and permanence in the organization: mediating effects of affective commitment in relations of psychological contract and intention to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcover, Carlos-María; Martínez-Iñigo, David; Chambel, Maria José

    2012-06-01

    Working conditions in call/contact centers influence employees' perceptions of their relations with the organization and their attitudes to work. Such perceptions can be analyzed through the psychological contract. The association between the relational/transactional orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit the organization was examined, as well as the mediating role of affective commitment in employment relations. Data were collected from 973 employees in a cross-sectional survey. Analysis confirmed that there was a statistically significant relation between the orientation of the psychological contract and intention to quit, which was positive for transactionally oriented and negative for relationally oriented contracts. A mediating role for affective commitment was also confirmed, and a full mediating effect was reported for both orientations.

  5. Representando o desconhecido : o timbre orquestral na trilha musical de Jerry Goldsmith = Playing the unknown : orchestral tone in Jerry Goldsmith's musical score

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas Regis Berti da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho teve por objetivo demonstrar hábitos definidos de efeitos de orquestração em trilhas sonoras, no âmbito do cinema industrial hollywoodiano, por meio de recursos de instrumentação e organização do timbre orquestral consagrados por Jerry Goldsmith. Sob um panorama cronológico, delineamos através de partituras o desenvolvimento de técnicas e procedimentos formais de orquestração, paralelamente à evolução de grupos instrumentais na história da música ocidental. A expansão do...

  6. Music perception and cognition: development, neural basis, and rehabilitative use of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Tervaniemi, Mari; Huotilainen, Minna

    2013-07-01

    Music is a highly versatile form of art and communication that has been an essential part of human society since its early days. Neuroimaging studies indicate that music is a powerful stimulus also for the human brain, engaging not just the auditory cortex but also a vast, bilateral network of temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and limbic brain areas that govern auditory perception, syntactic and semantic processing, attention and memory, emotion and mood control, and motor skills. Studies of amusia, a severe form of musical impairment, highlight the right temporal and frontal cortices as the core neural substrates for adequate perception and production of music. Many of the basic auditory and musical skills, such as pitch and timbre perception, start developing already in utero, and babies are born with a natural preference for music and singing. Music has many important roles and functions throughout life, ranging from emotional self-regulation, mood enhancement, and identity formation to promoting the development of verbal, motor, cognitive, and social skills and maintaining their healthy functioning in old age. Music is also used clinically as a part of treatment in many illnesses, which involve affective, attention, memory, communication, or motor deficits. Although more research is still needed, current evidence suggests that music-based rehabilitation can be effective in many developmental, psychiatric, and neurological disorders, such as autism, depression, schizophrenia, and stroke, as well as in many chronic somatic illnesses that cause pain and anxiety. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:441-451. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1237 The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A Risk Assessment Comparison of Breast Cancer and Factors Affected to Risk Perception of Women in Turkey: A Cross-sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    YÜKSEL, Serpil; ALTUN UĞRAŞ, Gülay; ÇAVDAR, İkbal; BOZDOĞAN, Atilla; ÖZKAN GÜRDAL, Sibel; AKYOLCU, Neriman; ESENCAN, Ecem; VAROL SARAÇOĞLU, Gamze; ÖZMEN, Vahit

    2017-01-01

    Background: The increase in breast cancer incidence has enhanced attention towards breast cancer risk. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of breast cancer and risk perception of women, factors that affect risk perception, and to determine differences between absolute risk and the perception of risk. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out among 346 women whose score in the Gail Risk Model (GRM) was ≥ 1.67% and/or had a 1st degree relative with breast cancer in Bahçeşehir town in Istanbul, Turkey between Jul 2012 and Dec 2012. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. The level of risk for breast cancer has been calculated using GRM and the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Form (BCRAF). Breast cancer risk perception (BCRP), has been evaluated by visual analogue 100-cm-long scale. Results: Even though 39.6% of the women considered themselves as high-risk carriers, according to the GRM and the BCRAF, only 11.6% and 9.8% of women were in the “high risk” category, respectively. There was a positive significant correlation between the GRM and the BCRAF scores (Prisk perception were age (40–59 yr), post-menopausal phase, high-very high economic income level, existence of breast cancer in the family, having regular breast self-examination and clinical breast examination (Prisk of breast, cancer there is a significant difference between the women’s risk perception and their absolute risk level. PMID:28435816

  8. Perception of Employees of industries in Malaysia on Corporate Sustainability in Affecting Customer Confidence and Loyalty: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johan, Kartina; Turan, Faiz Mohd; Lanang, Wan Nurul Syahirah Wan

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to study the perception of the employees of industries in Malaysia on their companies in applying corporate sustainability as a concept in creating an ethical brand that strengthen consumer confidence and loyalty. A set of eleven questions is developed in a survey based on two themes i.e ‘corporate sustainability as a concept in creating an ethical brand that strengthen consumer confidence and loyalty’ and ‘reasons for businesses to incorporate sustainability concepts in their operations’ to study the employees’ perception on the company’s sustainable business practices in their companies. The targeted respondents are randomly selected employees from 20 manufacturing companies and training services in Malaysia. The data obtained is analyzed and commented using spreadsheet analysis on the frequency and relative importance value. The results show good perception on their company’s sustainable business practices in becoming an ethical brand with the shared values’ of Malaysia being a country which supports Sustainable Development Goal initiatives (SDGs). The study also shows employees’ perception on reasons for businesses to incorporate sustainability concepts in their operations are in line with the concepts in Sustainable Development (SD) of which economic aspects as the strongest perceived reason. The findings indeed support future research in transforming Malaysia’s own domestic economy to a more sustainable direction.

  9. How the Use of Second Life Affects E-Learners' Perceptions of Social Interaction in Online Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Mansour

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Educators, researchers, and online courses designers are increasingly investigating the use of 3-D shared virtual worlds for online education. This paper discusses the importance of social interaction in e-learning. We present the idea of using Second Life, a 3-D shared virtual world, in online courses. The researchers investigated the impact of using Second Life as a learning environment and a communication medium in online courses. We measured the extent to which the completion of a learning task and the communication in Second Life can enhance the elearners' perceptions of social interaction via a self-report questionnaire. A prototype application called The Village of Belknap was developed by the Delphi Center of Teaching and Learning at the University of Louisville. The study compared the perception of social interaction of e-learners who participated in Second Life sessions with the perception of social interaction of e-learners who did not participate in the Second Life sessions. The results indicated that the use of Second Life has a positive impact on experiencing a high perception of social interaction in online courses.

  10. Can closeness, conflict, and dependency be used to characterize students' perceptions of the affective relationship with their teacher? Testing a new child measure in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomen, Helma M Y; Jellesma, Francine C

    2015-12-01

    The constructs of closeness, conflict, and dependency, which are derived from attachment theory, are widely used to qualify teachers' perceptions of relationships with individual children. Our main aim was to reveal whether similar and reliable dimensions could be identified in middle childhood with a newly developed student measure Student Perception of Affective Relationship with Teacher Scale (SPARTS). Additional validity support was sought by examining gender differences and associations with (1) teacher relationship perceptions and (2) problem and prosocial behaviours in children. Factor structure was determined in a sample of 586 children (46.5% boys) from 26 regular elementary Dutch classrooms (grade 4-6). Associations with teacher relationship reports (n = 82) and child behaviours (n = 64) were analysed in random subsamples. Students' relationship perceptions were assessed with the SPARTS; teachers' relationship perceptions with the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS; closeness, conflict, and dependency); and problem and prosocial behaviours in children with the teacher-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 3-factor model of conflict, closeness, and a third factor, unexpectedly reflecting negative expectations of the student instead of dependency. Satisfactory internal consistency was found for all three scales. Additional validity evidence included the following: Substantial student-teacher agreement for conflict and closeness; meaningful associations with problem and prosocial behaviours in children; and expected gender differences showing that, compared to boys, girls share more favourable relationships (more closeness and less conflict) with teachers. The 3-dimensional SPARTS comes close to the attachment-derived teacher STRS, as far as conflict and closeness are concerned. The third dimension, negative expectations, represents a new and relevant attachment

  11. Comparison of bimodal and bilateral cochlear implant users on speech recognition with competing talker, music perception, affective prosody discrimination, and talker identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullington, Helen E; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-02-01

    Despite excellent performance in speech recognition in quiet, most cochlear implant users have great difficulty with speech recognition in noise, music perception, identifying tone of voice, and discriminating different talkers. This may be partly due to the pitch coding in cochlear implant speech processing. Most current speech processing strategies use only the envelope information; the temporal fine structure is discarded. One way to improve electric pitch perception is to use residual acoustic hearing via a hearing aid on the nonimplanted ear (bimodal hearing). This study aimed to test the hypothesis that bimodal users would perform better than bilateral cochlear implant users on tasks requiring good pitch perception. Four pitch-related tasks were used. 1. Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) sentences spoken by a male talker with a competing female, male, or child talker. 2. Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia. This is a music test with six subtests examining pitch, rhythm and timing perception, and musical memory. 3. Aprosodia Battery. This has five subtests evaluating aspects of affective prosody and recognition of sarcasm. 4. Talker identification using vowels spoken by 10 different talkers (three men, three women, two boys, and two girls). Bilateral cochlear implant users were chosen as the comparison group. Thirteen bimodal and 13 bilateral adult cochlear implant users were recruited; all had good speech perception in quiet. There were no significant differences between the mean scores of the bimodal and bilateral groups on any of the tests, although the bimodal group did perform better than the bilateral group on almost all tests. Performance on the different pitch-related tasks was not correlated, meaning that if a subject performed one task well they would not necessarily perform well on another. The correlation between the bimodal users' hearing threshold levels in the aided ear and their performance on these tasks was weak. Although the bimodal cochlear

  12. I Don't Know It but I Like You: The Influence of Nonconscious Affect on Person Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Jennifer L.

    1998-01-01

    Proposes a model of unconscious affect. Tests predictions about the influence of nonconscious affect on evaluations made of undergraduate student conversational interactants. Uses a subliminal priming task to induce a positive nonconscious affective response toward the target persons. Rates primed target as more likable and attractive yet not more…

  13. Perceptions of community, social capital, and how they affect self-reported health: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadkowiec, O; Meissen, G J; Merkle, E C

    2017-11-01

    The link between social capital and self-reported health has been widely explored. On the other hand, we know less about the relationship between social capital, community socioeconomic characteristics, and non-social capital-related individual differences, and about their impact on self-reported health in community settings. Cross-sectional study design with a proportional sample of 7965 individuals from 20 US communities were analyzed using multilevel linear regression models, where individuals were nested within communities. The response rates ranged from 13.5% to 25.4%. Findings suggest that perceptions of the community and individual level socioeconomic characteristics were stronger predictors of self-reported health than were social capital or community socioeconomic characteristics. Policy initiatives aimed at increasing social capital should first assess community member's perceptions of their communities to uncover potential assets to help increase social capital. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Medical student perceptions of factors affecting productivity of problem-based learning tutorial groups: does culture influence the outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Carlo, Mandira; Swadi, Harith; Mpofu, Debbie

    2003-01-01

    The popularization of problem-based learning (PBL) has drawn attention to the motivational and cognitive skills necessary for medical students in group learning. This study identifies the effect of motivational and cognitive factors on group productivity of PBL tutorial groups. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 115 students at the end of PBL tutorials for 4 themes. The questionnaire explored student perceptions about effect of motivation, cohesion, sponging, withdrawal, interaction, and elaboration on group productivity. We further analyzed (a) differences in perceptions between male and female students, (b) effect of "problems," and (c) effect of student progress over time on group productivity. There were linear relations between a tutorial group's success and the factors studied. Significant differences were noted between male and female student groups. Students and tutors need to recognize symptoms of ineffective PBL groups. Our study emphasizes the need to take into account cultural issues in setting ground rules for PBL tutorials.

  15. Gustatory Perception and Fat Body Energy Metabolism Are Jointly Affected by Vitellogenin and Juvenile Hormone in Honey Bees

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S.; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V.

    2012-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and e...

  16. Music perception in dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Jennifer M; Cohen, Miriam H; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Foulkes, Alexander J M; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2017-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in music and dementia, music perception has not been widely studied across dementia syndromes using an information processing approach. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 30 patients representing major dementia syndromes of typical Alzheimer’s disease (AD, n=16), logopenic aphasia (LPA, an Alzheimer variant syndrome; n=5) and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n=9) in relation to 19 healthy age-matched individuals. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery to assess perception of musical patterns in the dimensions of pitch and temporal information (requiring detection of notes that deviated from the established pattern based on local or global sequence features) and musical scene analysis (requiring detection of a familiar tune within polyphonic harmony). Performance on these tests was referenced to generic auditory (timbral) deviance detection and recognition of familiar tunes and adjusted for general auditory working memory performance. Relative to healthy controls, patients with AD and LPA had group-level deficits of global pitch (melody contour) processing while patients with PNFA as a group had deficits of local (interval) as well as global pitch processing. There was substantial individual variation within syndromic groups. No specific deficits of musical temporal processing, timbre processing, musical scene analysis or tune recognition were identified. The findings suggest that particular aspects of music perception such as pitch pattern analysis may open a window on the processing of information streams in major dementia syndromes. The potential selectivity of musical deficits for particular dementia syndromes and particular dimensions of processing warrants further systematic investigation. PMID:27802226

  17. Music Perception in Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Hannah L; Clark, Camilla N; Nicholas, Jennifer M; Cohen, Miriam H; Slattery, Catherine F; Paterson, Ross W; Foulkes, Alexander J M; Schott, Jonathan M; Mummery, Catherine J; Crutch, Sebastian J; Warren, Jason D

    2017-01-01

    Despite much recent interest in music and dementia, music perception has not been widely studied across dementia syndromes using an information processing approach. Here we addressed this issue in a cohort of 30 patients representing major dementia syndromes of typical Alzheimer's disease (AD, n = 16), logopenic aphasia (LPA, an Alzheimer variant syndrome; n = 5), and progressive nonfluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 9) in relation to 19 healthy age-matched individuals. We designed a novel neuropsychological battery to assess perception of musical patterns in the dimensions of pitch and temporal information (requiring detection of notes that deviated from the established pattern based on local or global sequence features) and musical scene analysis (requiring detection of a familiar tune within polyphonic harmony). Performance on these tests was referenced to generic auditory (timbral) deviance detection and recognition of familiar tunes and adjusted for general auditory working memory performance. Relative to healthy controls, patients with AD and LPA had group-level deficits of global pitch (melody contour) processing while patients with PNFA as a group had deficits of local (interval) as well as global pitch processing. There was substantial individual variation within syndromic groups. Taking working memory performance into account, no specific deficits of musical temporal processing, timbre processing, musical scene analysis, or tune recognition were identified. The findings suggest that particular aspects of music perception such as pitch pattern analysis may open a window on the processing of information streams in major dementia syndromes. The potential selectivity of musical deficits for particular dementia syndromes and particular dimensions of processing warrants further systematic investigation.

  18. Teaching Children Musical Perception with MUSIC-AR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Farinazzo Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Unfortunately in Brazil there is a non compulsory musical education in schools that leads to loss of sound/musical perception of Brazilian children. This fact, associated with the lack of software for the teaching of musical perception, inspired the creation of Music-AR, a set of software that uses Augmented Reality technology for the teaching of sound properties, such as timbre, pitch and sound intensity. There were four small applications for that: the first one allows the child to manipulate virtual objects linked to sounds, this way, the child can loosen and stretch virtual objects relating them to the (bass and treble sound pitch; the second focus on the concept of sound intensity, associating it to virtual animals been far or near to the children; the third is related to duration of the sound (short or long, and the last is about timbre – the personality of the sound. Tests were applied and the results are presented in this work.

  19. Factors affecting perception thresholds of vertical whole-body vibration in recumbent subjects: Gender and age of subjects, and vibration duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Maeda, S.; Iwane, Y.; Iwata, Y.

    2011-04-01

    Some factors that may affect human perception thresholds of the vertical whole-body vibrations were investigated in two laboratory experiments with recumbent subjects. In the first experiment, the effects of gender and age of subjects on perception were investigated with three groups of 12 subjects, i.e., young males, young females and old males. For continuous sinusoidal vibrations at 2, 4, 8, 16, 31.5 and 63 Hz, there were no significant differences in the perception thresholds between male and female subjects, while the thresholds of young subjects tended to be significantly lower than the thresholds of old subjects. In the second experiment, the effect of vibration duration was investigated by using sinusoidal vibrations, at the same frequencies as above, modulated by the Hanning windows with different lengths (i.e., 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 s) for 12 subjects. It was found that the peak acceleration at the threshold tended to decrease with increasing duration of vibration. The perception thresholds were also evaluated by the running root-mean-square (rms) acceleration and the fourth power acceleration method defined in the current standards. The differences in the threshold of the transient vibrations for different durations were less with the fourth power acceleration method. Additionally, the effect of the integration time on the threshold was investigated for the running rms acceleration and the fourth power acceleration. It was found that the integration time that yielded less differences in the threshold of vibrations for different durations depended on the frequency of vibration.

  20. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Honey bees (Apis mellifera provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg and juvenile hormone (JH. However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1, the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR, and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor. Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH, and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  1. Gustatory perception and fat body energy metabolism are jointly affected by vitellogenin and juvenile hormone in honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Brent, Colin S; Fennern, Erin; Amdam, Gro V

    2012-06-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) provide a system for studying social and food-related behavior. A caste of workers performs age-related tasks: young bees (nurses) usually feed the brood and other adult bees inside the nest, while older bees (foragers) forage outside for pollen, a protein/lipid source, or nectar, a carbohydrate source. The workers' transition from nursing to foraging and their foraging preferences correlate with differences in gustatory perception, metabolic gene expression, and endocrine physiology including the endocrine factors vitellogenin (Vg) and juvenile hormone (JH). However, the understanding of connections among social behavior, energy metabolism, and endocrine factors is incomplete. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to perturb the gene network of Vg and JH to learn more about these connections through effects on gustation, gene transcripts, and physiology. The RNAi perturbation was achieved by single and double knockdown of the genes ultraspiracle (usp) and vg, which encode a putative JH receptor and Vg, respectively. The double knockdown enhanced gustatory perception and elevated hemolymph glucose, trehalose, and JH. We also observed transcriptional responses in insulin like peptide 1 (ilp1), the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR), and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG, or "foraging gene" Amfor). Our study demonstrates that the Vg-JH regulatory module controls changes in carbohydrate metabolism, but not lipid metabolism, when worker bees shift from nursing to foraging. The module is also placed upstream of ilp1, AKHR, and PKG for the first time. As insulin, adipokinetic hormone (AKH), and PKG pathways influence metabolism and gustation in many animals, we propose that honey bees have conserved pathways in carbohydrate metabolism and conserved connections between energy metabolism and gustatory perception. Thus, perhaps the bee can make general contributions to the understanding of food-related behavior and metabolic disorders.

  2. Does a single session of theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation of inferior temporal cortex affect tinnitus perception?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Tobias

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cortical excitability changes as well as imbalances in excitatory and inhibitory circuits play a distinct pathophysiological role in chronic tinnitus. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the temporoparietal cortex was recently introduced to modulate tinnitus perception. In the current study, the effect of theta-burst stimulation (TBS, a novel rTMS paradigm was investigated in chronic tinnitus. Twenty patients with chronic tinnitus completed the study. Tinnitus severity and loudness were monitored using a tinnitus questionnaire (TQ and a visual analogue scale (VAS before each session. Patients received 600 pulses of continuous TBS (cTBS, intermittent TBS (iTBS and intermediate TBS (imTBS over left inferior temporal cortex with an intensity of 80% of the individual active or resting motor threshold. Changes in subjective tinnitus perception were measured with a numerical rating scale (NRS. Results TBS applied to inferior temporal cortex appeared to be safe. Although half of the patients reported a slight attenuation of tinnitus perception, group analysis resulted in no significant difference when comparing the three specific types of TBS. Converting the NRS into the VAS allowed us to compare the time-course of aftereffects. Only cTBS resulted in a significant short-lasting improvement of the symptoms. In addition there was no significant difference when comparing the responder and non-responder groups regarding their anamnestic and audiological data. The TQ score correlated significantly with the VAS, lower loudness indicating less tinnitus distress. Conclusion TBS does not offer a promising outcome for patients with tinnitus in the presented study.

  3. Affective evaluation of simultaneous tone combinations in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Manuela M; Thompson, William Forde; Gingras, Bruno; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired pitch processing. Although pitch simultaneities are among the fundamental building blocks of Western tonal music, affective responses to simultaneities such as isolated dyads varying in consonance/dissonance or chords varying in major/minor quality have rarely been studied in amusic individuals. Thirteen amusics and thirteen matched controls enculturated to Western tonal music provided pleasantness ratings of sine-tone dyads and complex-tone dyads in piano timbre as well as perceived happiness/sadness ratings of sine-tone triads and complex-tone triads in piano timbre. Acoustical analyses of roughness and harmonicity were conducted to determine whether similar acoustic information contributed to these evaluations in amusics and controls. Amusic individuals' pleasantness ratings indicated sensitivity to consonance and dissonance for complex-tone (piano timbre) dyads and, to a lesser degree, sine-tone dyads, whereas controls showed sensitivity when listening to both tone types. Furthermore, amusic individuals showed some sensitivity to the happiness-major association in the complex-tone condition, but not in the sine-tone condition. Controls rated major chords as happier than minor chords in both tone types. Linear regression analyses revealed that affective ratings of dyads and triads by amusic individuals were predicted by roughness but not harmonicity, whereas affective ratings by controls were predicted by both roughness and harmonicity. We discuss affective sensitivity in congenital amusia in view of theories of affective responses to isolated chords in Western listeners. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Digital Immigrant Teacher Perceptions of Social Media as It Influences the Affective and Cognitive Development of Students: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert Warren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study is to describe how digital immigrant teachers perceive the influence of social media on the affective and cognitive development of students at three high schools in Alabama. As the prevalence of social technologies is increasing, educators must understand how it is affecting students in…

  5. Do Perceptions of Empowerment Affect Glycemic Control and Self-Care Among Adults with Type 2 Diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Souza, Melba Sheila; Karkada, Subrahmanya Nairy; Hanrahan, Nancy P.; Venkatesaperumal, Ramesh; Amirtharaj, Anandhi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Arab adult with T2DM is understudied with less known facts about the perception of empowerment and its relationship with self-care and glycemic control. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which perception of empowerment by Arab adults living with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) was associated with better glycemic control and self-care management. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was led among 300 Arab adults living in Oman with T2DM in an outpatient diabetes clinic. The Diabetes Empowerment Scale (DES), glycosylated haemaglobin (HbA1c) and Body mass index was assessed. The DES was found to be valid and reliable for the population. ANOVA, Regression analysis, and Structural equation modeling was used for analysis. Results: The composite score and three subscales of DES were a significant and strong predictor of good glycemic control among Omani adults with T2DM (pempowerment and tailor interventions to increase empowerment for better glycemic control. Patient empowerment plays an essential role in maintaining self-care behaviours and HbA1c. PMID:26156908

  6. Higuchi’s Method applied to detection of changes in timbre of digital sound synthesis of string instruments with the functional transformation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjanapen, Manorth; Kunsombat, Cherdsak; Chiangga, Surasak

    2017-09-01

    The functional transformation method (FTM) is a powerful tool for detailed investigation of digital sound synthesis by the physical modeling method, the resulting sound or measured vibrational characteristics at discretized points on real instruments directly solves the underlying physical effect of partial differential equation (PDE). In this paper, we present the Higuchi’s method to examine the difference between the timbre of tone and estimate fractal dimension of musical signals which contains information about their geometrical structure that synthesizes by FTM. With the Higuchi’s method we obtain the whole process is not complicated, fast processing, with the ease of analysis without expertise in the physics or virtuoso musicians and the easiest way for the common people can judge that sounds similarly presented.

  7. Trustworthy Tricksters: Violating a Negative Social Expectation Affects Source Memory and Person Perception When Fear of Exploitation Is High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süssenbach, Philipp; Gollwitzer, Mario; Mieth, Laura; Buchner, Axel; Bell, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    People who are high in victim-sensitivity-a personality trait characterized by a strong fear of being exploited by others-are more likely to attend to social cues associated with untrustworthiness rather than to cues associated with trustworthiness compared with people who are low in victim-sensitivity. But how do these people react when an initial expectation regarding a target's trustworthiness turns out to be false? Results from two studies show that victim-sensitive compared with victim-insensitive individuals show enhanced source memory and greater change in person perception for negatively labeled targets that violated rather than confirmed negative expectations (the "trustworthy trickster"). These findings are in line with recent theorizing on schema inconsistency and expectancy violation effects in social cognition and with research on the different facets of justice sensitivity in personality psychology.

  8. The Farmers Perception on Effectiveness of Private Forest Revolving Fund Distribution and Factors Affecting its Repayment: Case in South Lampung District, Lampung Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanudin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercial s are ed providing for forest plantation development bank not interest in fund community based . - Therefore, in this case, non bank institutions such Forest Development Funding Center (pusat pembiayaan pembangunan hutan, PPPH private forest are highly required. This paper is aimed to find out the effectiveness of revolving fund and factors affecting its repayment distribution . The research was conducted during September–December 2014 in Private Forest Farmer Groups in Katibung Sub-District South Lampung Dist 3 , , rict Lampung Province. The data was collected through household surveys and in-depth interviews. The household surveys were done using structured questionnaires that included questions related to: characteristics of the borrowers, characteristics of private forest, characteristics of loan, and household perceptions on private forest revolving fund Household perceptions on private forest revolving fund are loan . pre requirement, loan procedure, realization, interest rate, , and repayment procedure The effectiveness of private forest length of repayment periode . revolving fund d t and factors affecting repayment of loan was analyzed by istribution was analyzed by liker scale logistic regression. ult private forest revolving fund in The res showed that: 1 three private forest farmer groups in Katibung Sub-District, South Lampung effective District was 2 income from non-private forest and amount of loan , are factors affecting repayment of private forest revolving fund, 3 faced private forest revolving f the problem in und distribution PPPH private could be overcame by maximizing the role of field officers in assisting and facilitating forest revolving fund ors debit candidate.

  9. Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndikom Chizoma

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the years awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening services has remained poor in developing countries. Problems associated with cervical cancer incidence include late reporting, ignorance and cultural issues relating to cervical cancer screening. This study sought to explore the awareness, perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening among women in Ibadan as well as factors that influence utilization. Method This is a qualitative study that utilized Eight Focus Group Discussions to collect information from women in selected health facilities in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria. The 82 participants were purposely recruited from women attending Antenatal clinics in 4 secondary and 4 primary health care facilities after approval was received from the Institutional Review Board in charge of the facilities. The focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed into themes. Findings The study provided qualitative information on the awareness, perception of the utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan. Participants were mainly married women (92.7%, mean age =27.6, SD =4.5, mainly traders (39% and from Yoruba ethnic backgrounds (87.8% and had secondary education (39%. The respondents reported not being aware of cervical cancer and were not utilizing the services. Though they did not know what cervical cancer screening entailed or the screening methods, they still believed that it is important since like for other diseases will help in early detection and treatment. The participants were eager to get more information from nurses on cervical cancer about cervical cancer screening. The major factors identified by the women that influence screening utilization were ignorance, Illiteracy, belief in not being at risk, having many contending issues, nonchalant attitude to their health, financial constraint and fear of having a positive result

  10. Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndikom, Chizoma Millicent; Ofi, Bola Abosede

    2012-08-06

    Over the years awareness and uptake of cervical cancer screening services has remained poor in developing countries. Problems associated with cervical cancer incidence include late reporting, ignorance and cultural issues relating to cervical cancer screening. This study sought to explore the awareness, perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening among women in Ibadan as well as factors that influence utilization. This is a qualitative study that utilized Eight Focus Group Discussions to collect information from women in selected health facilities in Ibadan, South West, Nigeria. The 82 participants were purposely recruited from women attending Antenatal clinics in 4 secondary and 4 primary health care facilities after approval was received from the Institutional Review Board in charge of the facilities. The focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were analyzed into themes. The study provided qualitative information on the awareness, perception of the utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan. Participants were mainly married women (92.7%), mean age =27.6, SD =4.5, mainly traders (39%) and from Yoruba ethnic backgrounds (87.8%) and had secondary education (39%). The respondents reported not being aware of cervical cancer and were not utilizing the services. Though they did not know what cervical cancer screening entailed or the screening methods, they still believed that it is important since like for other diseases will help in early detection and treatment. The participants were eager to get more information from nurses on cervical cancer about cervical cancer screening. The major factors identified by the women that influence screening utilization were ignorance, Illiteracy, belief in not being at risk, having many contending issues, nonchalant attitude to their health, financial constraint and fear of having a positive result. There is an urgent need for more enlightenment

  11. A Test of the Relationships among Perceptions of Justice, Job Satisfaction, Affective Commitment and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harif Amali Rifai

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors influencing organizational citizenship behavior in an organization. These factors include procedural justice, distributive justice, job satisfaction and commitment. Although previous studies have investigated commitment as antecedent of OCB, most of them did not specifically explain the type of commitment hypothesized. In terms of commitment, this study utilizes the specific type of commitment, i.e. affective commitment. The theoretical model proposes both distributive justice and procedural justice as antecedents of job satisfaction and job satisfaction has an effect on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB through affective commitment. SEM analysis of survey data from 383 nurses who are working for private hospitals in Indonesia supports that the theoretical model has met goodness-of-fit criterions. The findings concluded that there are significant relationships between both procedural justice and distributive justice and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction has a significant impact for developing affective commitment. The results also support that affective commitment is a significant predictor of organizational citizenship behavior.

  12. Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A growing body of work shows the benefits of applying social cognitive behavioural theory to investigate infection control and biosecurity practices. Protection motivation theory has been used to predict protective health behaviours. The theory outlines that a perception of a lack of vulnerability to a disease contributes to a reduced threat appraisal, which results in poorer motivation, and is linked to poorer compliance with advised health protective behaviours. This study, conducted following the first-ever outbreak of equine influenza in Australia in 2007, identified factors associated with horse managers’ perceived vulnerability to a future equine influenza outbreak. Results Of the 200 respondents, 31.9% perceived themselves to be very vulnerable, 36.6% vulnerable and 31.4% not vulnerable to a future outbreak of equine influenza. Multivariable logistic regression modelling revealed that managers involved in horse racing and those on rural horse premises perceived themselves to have low levels of vulnerability. Managers of horse premises that experienced infection in their horses in 2007 and those seeking infection control information from specific sources reported increased levels of perceived vulnerability to a future outbreak. Conclusion Different groups across the horse industry perceived differing levels of vulnerability to a future outbreak. Increased vulnerability contributes to favourable infection control behaviour and hence these findings are important for understanding uptake of recommended infection control measures. Future biosecurity communication strategies should be delivered through information sources suitable for the horse racing and rural sectors. PMID:23902718

  13. Perceptions of vulnerability to a future outbreak: a study of horse managers affected by the first Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, Kathrin; Firestone, Simon M; Taylor, Melanie R; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L; Ward, Michael P; Dhand, Navneet K

    2013-07-31

    A growing body of work shows the benefits of applying social cognitive behavioural theory to investigate infection control and biosecurity practices. Protection motivation theory has been used to predict protective health behaviours. The theory outlines that a perception of a lack of vulnerability to a disease contributes to a reduced threat appraisal, which results in poorer motivation, and is linked to poorer compliance with advised health protective behaviours. This study, conducted following the first-ever outbreak of equine influenza in Australia in 2007, identified factors associated with horse managers' perceived vulnerability to a future equine influenza outbreak. Of the 200 respondents, 31.9% perceived themselves to be very vulnerable, 36.6% vulnerable and 31.4% not vulnerable to a future outbreak of equine influenza. Multivariable logistic regression modelling revealed that managers involved in horse racing and those on rural horse premises perceived themselves to have low levels of vulnerability. Managers of horse premises that experienced infection in their horses in 2007 and those seeking infection control information from specific sources reported increased levels of perceived vulnerability to a future outbreak. Different groups across the horse industry perceived differing levels of vulnerability to a future outbreak. Increased vulnerability contributes to favourable infection control behaviour and hence these findings are important for understanding uptake of recommended infection control measures. Future biosecurity communication strategies should be delivered through information sources suitable for the horse racing and rural sectors.

  14. Does teaching method affect students' perceptions regarding communication patterns in pediatric dentistry? A comparison of lecture and video methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwitzki, Matthias; Meller, Christina; Beyer, Christine

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether dental students' perceptions regarding six communication patterns for use in pediatric dentistry differed depending on whether they were taught by lecturing or by video-based teaching. Prior to the introduction of interpersonal skills in a clinical course in pediatric dentistry, four consecutive cohorts of students (n=107) in a German dental school were divided equally into two groups. Group one (n=57) was taught by video sequences and group two (n=50) by conventional lecture. Six communication patterns were presented: involvement of the child's toy(s), speaking in positive phrases, mentioning a personal aspect, recalling positive behavior of the patient, addressing fear verbally, and complimenting the patient. Immediately after the presentation, students were asked by means of a questionnaire about their assessment of and intentions regarding the clinical application of the communication patterns presented. After completion of the course, they were asked about the communication patterns that had been used. There were significant differences for three communication patterns in favor of video-based teaching (pstudents perceived differences between video-based teaching and lecturing regarding ease of use, but they did not seem to benefit from one method over the other regarding clinical application.

  15. Exercisers' perceptions of their fitness instructor's interacting style, perceived competence, and autonomy as a function of self-determined regulation to exercise, enjoyment, affect, and exercise frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puente, Rogelio; Anshel, Mark H

    2010-02-01

    The primary purpose of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis, derived from Self-Determination Theory (SDT), that an individual's perceived competence and autonomy mediate the relationship between the exercisers' perception of their instructor's interaction style and the exercisers' motivation to exercise. A secondary purpose was to identify the affective and behavioral outcomes derived from self-determined regulation. It was hypothesized that SDT would significantly explain and predict exercise behavior. Participants consisted of 238 college students, 103 males and 135 females (M age = 20.4 years, SD = 2.16), who volunteered to participate in the study. They were asked to complete a battery of questionnaires measuring instructor's interacting style, self-regulation to exercise, perceived autonomy and competence, enjoyment, positive and negative affect, and exercise frequency. Using structural equation modeling with observed variables, the results showed that perceived competence and autonomy mediated the relationship between perceived instructor's interacting style and self-determined regulation. It was also found that self-determined regulation was significantly related to exercise enjoyment, positive affect, and exercise frequency. It was concluded that understanding the motivational factors and emotional and behavioral consequences of physical activity will partially explain an individual's motives to engage regularly in exercise.

  16. Factors affecting perception of beneficiaries of National Programme on Improved Cookstoves regarding cost-benefit of adoption of Mamta Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, R.; Yadla, V.L. [M.S. Univ. of Baroda, Vadodara (India). Home Management Dept.

    1995-10-01

    Perceived levels of cost-benefit of adoption of Mamta Stove (MS) was investigated on a sample of 390 beneficiaries of National Programme on Improved Cookstoves (NPIC) drawn through multistage random sampling technique from 3 villages in Gujarat State, viz., Kanjari, Vadadla, and Sindhrot. A standardized cost-benefit scale that exhibited a reliability coefficient of 0.92 was used in the study. The main cooks revealed a mean age of 36 years. Regarding perception on available sources of cooking fuel and accessibility to those, a wide disparity was observed, not only with reference to commercial sources and fuel forms but also with reference to free fuels gathered from forest land and waste land. MSs were installed in rural kitchens with the active involvement of about 50% of the main cooks. Majority of the cooks in Sindhrot village attended user education camps. The mean perceived cost-benefit ratio (PCBR) was computed to be 0.14. However, PCBR of the cooks from Sindhrot village was 0.51 while those of Vadadla and Kanjari were 0.09 and {minus}0.19 respectively. The correlation coefficient computed between PCBR and selected variables revealed that there existed a significant positive correlation between PCBR of the cook and their participation in NPIC and quality of installation of MS. The observation of the highest PCBR in Sindhrot village, a model smokeless village developed by TBU Baroda, could be attributed to the implementation of NPIC in a systematic manner adopting participatory model. The paper discusses at length the implications of the study and outlines the strategies for achieving widespread adoption of MS by beneficiaries of NPIC.

  17. Perceptions and factors affecting pharmaceutical market access: results from a literature review and survey of stakeholders in different settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendyona, Semukaya; Odeyemi, Isaac; Maman, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Background A change in the pharmaceutical environment has occurred from previously only needing to convince regulators of a product's safety and efficacy to obtain marketing authorisation to now needing to satisfy the value perceptions of other stakeholders, including payers, to attain market access for products. There is thus the need to understand the concept of market access that may be defined as ‘the process that ensures the development and commercial availability of pharmaceutical products with appropriate value propositions, leading to their prescribing and to successful uptake decisions by payers and patients, with the ultimate goal of achieving profitability and best patient outcomes’. The aim of this research therefore was to explore the understanding of market access among various stakeholders and how their understanding of this concept could improve patient access to pharmaceutical products. Methods A literature review was conducted on MEDLINE by using the term ‘market access’ to find articles with explicit definitions of market access for pharmaceutical products; non-peer–reviewed and other grey literature sources were also examined. A paper-based interview survey was also conducted in three different settings. The respondents were asked about what factors they think contribute to the successful development of pharmaceutical products, as well as their definition of market access for these medicines. Results The peer-reviewed literature review did not reveal appropriate comprehensive definitions for market access, although several definitions were proposed from the non-peer–reviewed literature. These definitions ranged from basic to detailed. The survey of 110 respondents revealed differing levels of understanding of market access. Factors considered to influence successful market access, as described by the respondents, included unmet need/burden of disease (68.2%), clinical efficacy (47.3%), comparator choice (36.4%), safety profile (36

  18. Perceptions and factors affecting pharmaceutical market access: results from a literature review and survey of stakeholders in different settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendyona, Semukaya; Odeyemi, Isaac; Maman, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    A change in the pharmaceutical environment has occurred from previously only needing to convince regulators of a product's safety and efficacy to obtain marketing authorisation to now needing to satisfy the value perceptions of other stakeholders, including payers, to attain market access for products. There is thus the need to understand the concept of market access that may be defined as 'the process that ensures the development and commercial availability of pharmaceutical products with appropriate value propositions, leading to their prescribing and to successful uptake decisions by payers and patients, with the ultimate goal of achieving profitability and best patient outcomes'. The aim of this research therefore was to explore the understanding of market access among various stakeholders and how their understanding of this concept could improve patient access to pharmaceutical products. A literature review was conducted on MEDLINE by using the term 'market access' to find articles with explicit definitions of market access for pharmaceutical products; non-peer-reviewed and other grey literature sources were also examined. A paper-based interview survey was also conducted in three different settings. The respondents were asked about what factors they think contribute to the successful development of pharmaceutical products, as well as their definition of market access for these medicines. The peer-reviewed literature review did not reveal appropriate comprehensive definitions for market access, although several definitions were proposed from the non-peer-reviewed literature. These definitions ranged from basic to detailed. The survey of 110 respondents revealed differing levels of understanding of market access. Factors considered to influence successful market access, as described by the respondents, included unmet need/burden of disease (68.2%), clinical efficacy (47.3%), comparator choice (36.4%), safety profile (36.4%), and price (35.5%). The concept of

  19. Your emotion or mine: Labeling feelings alters emotional face perception- An ERP study on automatic and intentional affect labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eHerbert

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggests that words are powerful regulators of emotion processing. Although a number of studies have used words as contextual cues for emotion processing, the role of what is being labeled by the words (i.e. one’s own emotion as compared to the emotion expressed by the sender is poorly understood. The present study reports results from two experiments which used ERP methodology to evaluate the impact of emotional faces and self- versus sender-related emotional pronoun-noun pairs (e.g. my fear vs. his fear as cues for emotional face processing. The influence of self- and sender-related cues on the processing of fearful, angry and happy faces was investigated in two contexts: an automatic (experiment 1 and intentional affect labeling task (experiment 2, along with control conditions of passive face processing. ERP patterns varied as a function of the label’s reference (self vs. sender and the intentionality of the labelling task (experiment 1 vs. experiment 2. In experiment 1, self-related labels increased the motivational relevance of the emotional faces in the time-window of the EPN component. Processing of sender-related labels improved emotion recognition specifically for fearful faces in the N170 time-window. Spontaneous processing of affective labels modulated later stages of face processing as well. Amplitudes of the late positive potential (LPP were reduced for fearful, happy, and angry faces relative to the control condition of passive viewing. During intentional regulation (experiment 2 amplitudes of the LPP were enhanced for emotional faces when subjects used the self-related emotion labels to label their own emotion during face processing, and they rated the faces as higher in arousal than the emotional faces that had been presented in the label sender’s emotion condition or the passive viewing condition. The present results argue in favor of a differentiated view of language-as-context for emotion processing.

  20. Force feedback delay affects perception of stiffness but not action, and the effect depends on the hand used but not on the handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leib, Raz; Rubin, Inbar; Nisky, Ilana

    2018-05-16

    Interaction with an object often requires the estimation of its mechanical properties. We examined whether the hand that is used to interact with the object and their handedness affected people's estimation of these properties using stiffness estimation as a test case. We recorded participants' responses on a stiffness discrimination of a virtual elastic force field and the grip force applied on the robotic device during the interaction. In half of the trials, the robotic device delayed the participants' force feedback. Consistent with previous studies, delayed force feedback biased the perceived stiffness of the force field. Interestingly, in both left-handed and right-handed participants, for the delayed force field, there was even less perceived stiffness when participants used their left hand than their right hand. This result supports the idea that haptic processing is affected by laterality in the brain, not by handedness. Consistent with previous studies, participants adjusted their applied grip force according to the correct size and timing of the load force regardless of the hand that was used, the handedness, or the delay. This suggests that in all these conditions, participants were able to form an accurate internal representation of the anticipated trajectory of the load force (size and timing) and that this representation was used for accurate control of grip force independently of the perceptual bias. Thus, these results provide additional evidence for the dissociation between action and perception in the processing of delayed information.

  1. How to identify the key factors that affect driver perception of accident risk. A comparison between Italian and Spanish driver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oña, Juan; de Oña, Rocio; Eboli, Laura; Forciniti, Carmen; Mazzulla, Gabriella

    2014-12-01

    Road crashes can be caused by different factors, including infrastructure, vehicles, and human variables. Many research studies have focused solely on identifying the key factors that cause road crashes. From these studies, it emerged that human factors have the most relevant impact on accident severity. More specifically, accident severity depends on several factors related directly to the driver, i.e., driving experience, driver's socio-economic characteristics, and driving behavior and attitudes. In this paper, we investigate driver behaviors and attitudes while driving and specifically focus on different methods for identifying the factors that most affect the driver's perception of accident risk. To this end, we designed and conducted a survey in two different European contexts: the city of Cosenza, which is located in the south of Italy, and the city of Granada, which is located in the south of Spain. Samples of drivers were contacted for their opinions on certain aspects of driving rules and attitudes while driving, and different types of questions were addressed to the drivers to assess their judgments of these aspects. Consequently, different methods of data analysis were applied to determine the aspects that heavily influence driver perception of accident risk. An experiment based on the stated preferences (SP) was carried out with the drivers, and the SP data were analyzed using an ordered probit (OP) model. Interesting findings emerged from different analyses of the data and from the comparisons among the data collected in the two different territorial contexts. We found that both Italian and Spanish drivers consider driving in an altered psychophysical state and violating the overtaking rules to be the most risky behaviors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Cigarettes with different nicotine levels affect sensory perception and levels of biomarkers of exposure in adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Diana L; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Oldham, Michael J; Fisher, Michael T; Wang, Jingzhu; Gogova, Maria; Kobal, Gerd

    2014-07-01

    Few clinical studies involving cigarettes have provided a comprehensive picture of smoke exposure, test article characterization, and insights into sensory properties combined. The purpose of these pilot studies was to determine whether cigarettes with different levels of nicotine but similar tar levels would affect sensory experience or smoking behavior so as to significantly alter levels of selected biomarkers of exposure (BOE). In 2 confined, double-blind studies, 120 adult smokers switched from Marlboro Gold cigarettes at baseline to either 1 of 2 lower nicotine cigarettes or 1 of 2 higher nicotine cigarettes and then to the other cigarette after 5 days. Urinary excretion of exposure biomarkers (nicotine equivalents [NE], total and free 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol [NNAL], 1-hydroxypyrene, and 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid) as well as carboxyhemoglobin and plasma cotinine were measured at baseline, Day 5, and Day 10. Daily cigarette consumption was monitored and sensory characteristics were rated for each cigarette. With higher nicotine yield, urine NE, urine total NNAL, and plasma cotinine increased while nonnicotine BOE decreased without changes in cigarette consumption. In contrast, with lower nicotine yield, urine NE, urine total NNAL, and plasma cotinine dropped while nonnicotine BOE and cigarettes per day increased. Higher nicotine cigarettes were rated harsher and stronger than at baseline while lower nicotine cigarettes were less strong. All 4 test cigarettes were highly disliked. These studies demonstrate that abrupt increases or decreases in nicotine and the resulting sensory changes impact BOE through changes in intensity or frequency of smoking. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Home is where the HAART is: an examination of factors affecting neighbourhood perceptions among people with HIV/AIDS on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasarhelyi, Krisztina; Brandson, Eirikka K; Palmer, Alexis K; Fernandes, Kimberly A; Zhang, Wendy; Moore, David M; Montaner, Julio S G; Hogg, Robert S

    2011-02-01

    Understanding the neighbourhood perceptions of individuals living with HIV in urban and non-urban areas may help identify potential barriers to uptake and effectiveness of therapy. We evaluate how neighbourhood perceptions are influenced by socio-economic factors, such as food security and stable housing and other explanatory variables, among individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in British Columbia. Neighbourhood perceptions, quality of life and socio-demographic information were collected in an interviewer-administered survey with study participants. Perception of neighbourhood problems, perception of neighbourhood cohesion and perception of relative standard of living were evaluated using previously defined scales. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to determine associations with neighbourhood perceptions, food security and stable housing. Our analyses were based on 457 participants, of whom 133 (29%) were food secure and 297 (65%) had stable housing. Mean scores for perceptions of neighbourhood problems and cohesion were 35 (IQR 15-58) and 57 (IQR 46-69), respectively. Being food secure and having stable housing was associated with a 9% and 11% decrease in perception of neighbourhood problems, respectively, and a 6% increase in the perception of neighbourhood cohesion in both cases. Food security and stable housing are related to neighbourhood perceptions among individuals on HAART. The results point to potential targets for intervention, involving improvements to living conditions such as housing and food security, which may promote treatment success for HAART, especially in marginalized communities.

  4. Work locus of control and its relationship to stress perception, related affections, attitudes and behaviours from a domain-specific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2012-08-01

    This research aims to examine the value of applying the Work Locus of Control Scale in predicting work-related outcomes. Study 1 surveyed 323 employees from different companies in China and found that the domain-specific scale was more predictive than the general scale in predicting perceived stressors, rather than in predicting organizational affective commitment and altruistic behaviour. Study 2 applied a multi-wave and multi-source design and used commensurate Likert scales to measure work and general locus of control. Participants were 344 employees from one corporation. Work locus of control was found to be more useful in predicting supervisor-rated job performance, conscientious and altruistic behaviours. These findings help understand the theory-based and measurement-based reasons for the advantages of using domain-specific measures. They claim the importance for employing the domain-specific measure to predict work-related perceptions and behaviours. Implications for the theory and practice are discussed. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Muscle spindle thixotropy affects force perception through afferent-induced facilitation of the motor pathways as revealed by the Kohnstamm effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjo, Florian; Forestier, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    This study was designed to explore the effects of intrafusal thixotropy, a property affecting muscle spindle sensitivity, on the sense of force. For this purpose, psychophysical measurements of force perception were performed using an isometric force matching paradigm of elbow flexors consisting of matching different force magnitudes (5, 10 and 20% of subjects' maximal voluntary force). We investigated participants' capacity to match these forces after their indicator arm had undergone voluntary isometric conditioning contractions known to alter spindle thixotropy, i.e., contractions performed at long ('hold long') or short muscle lengths ('hold short'). In parallel, their reference arm was conditioned at the intermediate muscle length ('hold-test') at which the matchings were performed. The thixotropy hypothesis predicts that estimation errors should only be observed at low force levels (up to 10% of the maximal voluntary force) with overestimation of the forces produced following 'hold short' conditioning and underestimation following 'hold long' conditioning. We found the complete opposite, especially following 'hold-short' conditioning where subjects underestimated the force they generated with similar relative error magnitudes across force levels. In a second experiment, we tested the hypothesis that estimation errors depended on the degree of afferent-induced facilitation using the Kohnstamm phenomenon as a probe of motor pathway excitability. Because the stronger post-effects were observed following 'hold-short' conditioning, it appears that the conditioning-induced excitation of spindle afferents leads to force misjudgments by introducing a decoupling between the central effort and the cortical motor outputs.

  6. Comparison of Two Music Training Approaches on Music and Speech Perception in Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Christina D; Galvin, John J; Maat, Bert; Başkent, Deniz; Free, Rolien H

    2018-01-01

    In normal-hearing (NH) adults, long-term music training may benefit music and speech perception, even when listening to spectro-temporally degraded signals as experienced by cochlear implant (CI) users. In this study, we compared two different music training approaches in CI users and their effects on speech and music perception, as it remains unclear which approach to music training might be best. The approaches differed in terms of music exercises and social interaction. For the pitch/timbre group, melodic contour identification (MCI) training was performed using computer software. For the music therapy group, training involved face-to-face group exercises (rhythm perception, musical speech perception, music perception, singing, vocal emotion identification, and music improvisation). For the control group, training involved group nonmusic activities (e.g., writing, cooking, and woodworking). Training consisted of weekly 2-hr sessions over a 6-week period. Speech intelligibility in quiet and noise, vocal emotion identification, MCI, and quality of life (QoL) were measured before and after training. The different training approaches appeared to offer different benefits for music and speech perception. Training effects were observed within-domain (better MCI performance for the pitch/timbre group), with little cross-domain transfer of music training (emotion identification significantly improved for the music therapy group). While training had no significant effect on QoL, the music therapy group reported better perceptual skills across training sessions. These results suggest that more extensive and intensive training approaches that combine pitch training with the social aspects of music therapy may further benefit CI users.

  7. Clinical evaluation of music perception, appraisal and experience in cochlear implant users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Ward. R.; Oleson, Jacob J.; Gfeller, Kate; Crosson, Jillian; Driscoll, Virginia D.; Won, Jong Ho; Anderson, Elizabeth S.; Rubinstein, Jay T.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objectives were to evaluate the relationships among music perception, appraisal, and experience in cochlear implant users in multiple clinical settings and to examine the viability of two assessments designed for clinical use. Design Background questionnaires (IMBQ) were administered by audiologists in 14 clinics in the United States and Canada. The CAMP included tests of pitch-direction discrimination, and melody and timbre recognition. The IMBQ queried users on prior musical involvement, music listening habits pre and post implant, and music appraisals. Study sample One-hundred forty-five users of Advanced Bionics and Cochlear Ltd cochlear implants. Results Performance on pitch direction discrimination, melody recognition, and timbre recognition tests were consistent with previous studies with smaller cohorts, as well as with more extensive protocols conducted in other centers. Relationships between perceptual accuracy and music enjoyment were weak, suggesting that perception and appraisal are relatively independent for CI users. Conclusions Perceptual abilities as measured by the CAMP had little to no relationship with music appraisals and little relationship with musical experience. The CAMP and IMBQ are feasible for routine clinical use, providing results consistent with previous thorough laboratory-based investigations. PMID:25177899

  8. Clinical evaluation of music perception, appraisal and experience in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, Ward R; Oleson, Jacob J; Gfeller, Kate; Crosson, Jillian; Driscoll, Virginia D; Won, Jong Ho; Anderson, Elizabeth S; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2015-02-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the relationships among music perception, appraisal, and experience in cochlear implant users in multiple clinical settings and to examine the viability of two assessments designed for clinical use. Background questionnaires (IMBQ) were administered by audiologists in 14 clinics in the United States and Canada. The CAMP included tests of pitch-direction discrimination, and melody and timbre recognition. The IMBQ queried users on prior musical involvement, music listening habits pre and post implant, and music appraisals. One-hundred forty-five users of Advanced Bionics and Cochlear Ltd cochlear implants. Performance on pitch direction discrimination, melody recognition, and timbre recognition tests were consistent with previous studies with smaller cohorts, as well as with more extensive protocols conducted in other centers. Relationships between perceptual accuracy and music enjoyment were weak, suggesting that perception and appraisal are relatively independent for CI users. Perceptual abilities as measured by the CAMP had little to no relationship with music appraisals and little relationship with musical experience. The CAMP and IMBQ are feasible for routine clinical use, providing results consistent with previous thorough laboratory-based investigations.

  9. Factors affecting relative pitch perception

    OpenAIRE

    McClaskey, Carolyn Marie

    2016-01-01

    Sounds that evoke a sense of pitch are ubiquitous in our environment and important for speech, music, and auditory scene analysis. The frequencies of these sounds rarely remain constant, however, and the direction and extent of pitch change is often more important than the exact pitches themselves. This dissertation examines the mechanisms underlying how we perceive relative pitch distance, focusing on two types of stimuli: continuous pitch changes and discrete pitch changes. In a series of e...

  10. Keep your bias to yourself: How deliberating with differently biased others affects mock-jurors' guilt decisions, perceptions of the defendant, memories, and evidence interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruva, Christine L; Guenther, Christina C

    2017-10-01

    This experiment explored how mock-jurors' (N = 648) guilt decisions, perceptions of the defendant, memories, and evidence interpretation varied as a function of jury type and pretrial publicity (PTP); utilizing a 2 (jury type: pure-PTP vs. mixed-PTP) × 3 (PTP: defendant, victim, and irrelevant) factorial design. Mock-juries (N = 126) were composed of jurors exposed to the same type of PTP (pure-PTP; e.g., defendant-PTP) or different types of PTP (mixed-PTP; e.g., half exposed to defendant-PTP and half to irrelevant-PTP). Before deliberations jurors exposed to defendant-PTP were most likely to vote guilty; while those exposed to victim-PTP were least likely. After deliberations, jury type and PTP affected jurors' guilt decisions. Specifically, jurors deliberating on pure-PTP juries had verdict distributions that closely resembled the predeliberation distributions. The verdict distributions of jurors on mixed-PTP juries suggested that jurors were influenced by those they deliberated with. Jurors not exposed to PTP appeared to incorporate bias from PTP-exposed jurors. Only PTP had significant effects on postdeliberation measures of memory and evidence interpretation. Mediation analyses revealed that evidence interpretation and defendant credibility assessments mediated the effect of PTP on guilt ratings. Taken together these findings suggest that during deliberations PTP bias can spread to jurors not previously exposed to PTP. In addition, juries composed of jurors exposed to different PTP slants, as opposed to a single PTP slant, can result in less biased decisions. Finally, deliberating with others who do not share similar biases may have little, if any, impact on biased evidence interpretation or memory errors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Los billetes de banco y la Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre: historia y patrimonio industrial de la Fábrica de Papel de Seguridad de Burgos

    OpenAIRE

    Santos y Ganges, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Burgos Security Paper Mill is a production centre of the industrial plant currently known as Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre - Real Casa de la Moneda, FNMT-RCM (National Mint and Stamp Corporation – Royal Spanish Mint). Burgos Paper Mill is the only plant belonging to this establishment of state control (the FNMT-RCM) located out of Madrid, and the oldest among the FNMT’s present facilities, as it was launched in 1952. This research sets out and explains several historical matters, such a...

  12. Cultural constraints on music perception and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven J; Demorest, Steven M

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that music, like language, is both a biological predisposition and a cultural universal. While humans naturally attend to and process many of the psychophysical cues present in musical information, there is a great - and often culture-specific - diversity of musical practices differentiated in part by form, timbre, pitch, rhythm, and other structural elements. Musical interactions situated within a given cultural context begin to influence human responses to music as early as one year of age. Despite the world's diversity of musical cultures, the majority of research in cognitive psychology and the cognitive neuroscience of music has been conducted on subjects and stimuli from Western music cultures. From the standpoint of cognitive neuroscience, identification of fundamental cognitive and neurological processes associated with music requires ascertaining that such processes are demonstrated by listeners from a broad range of cultural backgrounds and in relation to various musics across cultural traditions. This chapter will review current research regarding the role of enculturation in music perception and cognition and the degree to which cultural influences are reflected in brain function. Exploring music cognition from the standpoint of culture will lead to a better understanding of the core processes underlying perception and how those processes give rise to the world's diversity of music forms and expressions.

  13. Facilitation and Coherence Between the Dynamic and Retrospective Perception of Segmentation in Computer-Generated Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freya Bailes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the impact of listening context (sound duration and prior presentation on the human perception of segmentation in sequences of computer music. This research extends previous work by the authors (Bailes & Dean, 2005, which concluded that context-dependent effects such as the asymmetrical detection of an increase in timbre compared to a decrease of the same magnitude have a significant bearing on the cognition of sound structure. The current study replicated this effect, and demonstrated that listeners (N = 14 are coherent in their detection of segmentation between real-time and retrospective tasks. In addition, response lag was reduced from a first hearing to a second hearing, and following long (7 s rather than short (1 or 3 s segments. These findings point to the role of short-term memory in dynamic structural perception of computer music.

  14. The perception of microsound and its musical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roads, Curtis

    2003-11-01

    Sound particles or microsounds last only a few milliseconds, near the threshold of auditory perception. We can easily analyze the physical properties of sound particles either individually or in masses. However, correlating these properties with human perception remains complicated. One cannot speak of a single time frame, or a "time constant" for the auditory system. The hearing mechanism involves many different agents, each of which operates on its own timescale. The signals being sent by diverse hearing agents are integrated by the brain into a coherent auditory picture. The pioneer of "sound quanta," Dennis Gabor (1900-1979), suggested that at least two mechanisms are at work in microevent detection: one that isolates events, and another that ascertains their pitch. Human hearing imposes a certain minimum duration in order to establish a firm sense of pitch, amplitude, and timbre. This paper traces disparate strands of literature on the topic and summarizes their meaning. Specifically, we examine the perception of intensity and pitch of microsounds, the phenomena of tone fusion and fission, temporal auditory acuity, and preattentive perception. The final section examines the musical implications of microsonic analysis, synthesis, and transformation.

  15. Assessing musical abilities objectively: construction and validation of the profile of music perception skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily N C Law

    Full Text Available A common approach for determining musical competence is to rely on information about individuals' extent of musical training, but relying on musicianship status fails to identify musically untrained individuals with musical skill, as well as those who, despite extensive musical training, may not be as skilled. To counteract this limitation, we developed a new test battery (Profile of Music Perception Skills; PROMS that measures perceptual musical skills across multiple domains: tonal (melody, pitch, qualitative (timbre, tuning, temporal (rhythm, rhythm-to-melody, accent, tempo, and dynamic (loudness. The PROMS has satisfactory psychometric properties for the composite score (internal consistency and test-retest r>.85 and fair to good coefficients for the individual subtests (.56 to.85. Convergent validity was established with the relevant dimensions of Gordon's Advanced Measures of Music Audiation and Musical Aptitude Profile (melody, rhythm, tempo, the Musical Ear Test (rhythm, and sample instrumental sounds (timbre. Criterion validity was evidenced by consistently sizeable and significant relationships between test performance and external musical proficiency indicators in all three studies (.38 to.62, p<.05 to p<.01. An absence of correlations between test scores and a nonmusical auditory discrimination task supports the battery's discriminant validity (-.05, ns. The interrelationships among the various subtests could be accounted for by two higher order factors, sequential and sensory music processing. A brief version of the full PROMS is introduced as a time-efficient approximation of the full version of the battery.

  16. Can closeness, conflict, and dependency be used to characterize students’ perceptions of the affective relationship with their teacher? Testing a new child measure in middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, H.M.Y.; Jellesma, F.C.

    2015-01-01

    Background The constructs of closeness, conflict, and dependency, which are derived from attachment theory, are widely used to qualify teachers’ perceptions of relationships with individual children. Aims Our main aim was to reveal whether similar and reliable dimensions could be identified in

  17. Can Closeness, Conflict, and Dependency Be Used to Characterize Students' Perceptions of the Affective Relationship with Their Teacher? Testing a New Child Measure in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomen, Helma M. Y.; Jellesma, Francine C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The constructs of closeness, conflict, and dependency, which are derived from attachment theory, are widely used to qualify teachers' perceptions of relationships with individual children. Aims: Our main aim was to reveal whether similar and reliable dimensions could be identified in middle childhood with a newly developed student…

  18. Metal Sounds Stiffer than Drums for Ears, but Not Always for Hands: Low-Level Auditory Features Affect Multisensory Stiffness Perception More than High-Level Categorical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Ando, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Most real-world events stimulate multiple sensory modalities simultaneously. Usually, the stiffness of an object is perceived haptically. However, auditory signals also contain stiffness-related information, and people can form impressions of stiffness from the different impact sounds of metal, wood, or glass. To understand whether there is any interaction between auditory and haptic stiffness perception, and if so, whether the inferred material category is the most relevant auditory information, we conducted experiments using a force-feedback device and the modal synthesis method to present haptic stimuli and impact sound in accordance with participants’ actions, and to modulate low-level acoustic parameters, i.e., frequency and damping, without changing the inferred material categories of sound sources. We found that metal sounds consistently induced an impression of stiffer surfaces than did drum sounds in the audio-only condition, but participants haptically perceived surfaces with modulated metal sounds as significantly softer than the same surfaces with modulated drum sounds, which directly opposes the impression induced by these sounds alone. This result indicates that, although the inferred material category is strongly associated with audio-only stiffness perception, low-level acoustic parameters, especially damping, are more tightly integrated with haptic signals than the material category is. Frequency played an important role in both audio-only and audio-haptic conditions. Our study provides evidence that auditory information influences stiffness perception differently in unisensory and multisensory tasks. Furthermore, the data demonstrated that sounds with higher frequency and/or shorter decay time tended to be judged as stiffer, and contact sounds of stiff objects had no effect on the haptic perception of soft surfaces. We argue that the intrinsic physical relationship between object stiffness and acoustic parameters may be applied as prior

  19. What Constitutes a Phrase in Sound-Based Music? A Mixed-Methods Investigation of Perception and Acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kirk N; Dean, Roger T; Leung, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    Phrasing facilitates the organization of auditory information and is central to speech and music. Not surprisingly, aspects of changing intensity, rhythm, and pitch are key determinants of musical phrases and their boundaries in instrumental note-based music. Different kinds of speech (such as tone- vs. stress-languages) share these features in different proportions and form an instructive comparison. However, little is known about whether or how musical phrasing is perceived in sound-based music, where the basic musical unit from which a piece is created is commonly non-instrumental continuous sounds, rather than instrumental discontinuous notes. This issue forms the target of the present paper. Twenty participants (17 untrained in music) were presented with six stimuli derived from sound-based music, note-based music, and environmental sound. Their task was to indicate each occurrence of a perceived phrase and qualitatively describe key characteristics of the stimulus associated with each phrase response. It was hypothesized that sound-based music does elicit phrase perception, and that this is primarily associated with temporal changes in intensity and timbre, rather than rhythm and pitch. Results supported this hypothesis. Qualitative analysis of participant descriptions showed that for sound-based music, the majority of perceived phrases were associated with intensity or timbral change. For the note-based piano piece, rhythm was the main theme associated with perceived musical phrasing. We modeled the occurrence in time of perceived musical phrases with recurrent event 'hazard' analyses using time-series data representing acoustic predictors associated with intensity, spectral flatness, and rhythmic density. Acoustic intensity and timbre (represented here by spectral flatness) were strong predictors of perceived musical phrasing in sound-based music, and rhythm was only predictive for the piano piece. A further analysis including five additional spectral

  20. El timbre como elemento formal en la obra de Messiaen: la orquestación en el Saint François d'Assise, una poética del color.

    OpenAIRE

    Minguet, Vicent

    2016-01-01

    Presentamos en este artículo una aproximación al estudio de la noción de “sonido-color” del compositor francés Olivier Messiaen, de una gran importancia para la comprensión de su obra. La relación entre timbre, armonía y forma que en ella se establece es muy estrecha, instalando la idea de forma como resultado de una poética del color que permite a su vez aflorar la manifestación exterior de la significación interior. El estudio específico de algunas texturas observadas en su ópera Saint F...

  1. Development of a music perception test for adult hearing-aid users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinda Uys

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was two-fold. Firstly to develop a music perception test for hearing aid users and secondly to evaluate the influence of non-linear frequency compression (NFC on music perception with the use of the self-compiled test. This article focuses on the description of the development and validation of a music perception test. To date, the main direction in frequency lowering hearing aid studies has been in relation to speech perception abilities. With improvements in hearing aid technology, interest in musical perception as a dimension that could improve hearing aid users’ quality of life grew. The Music Perception Test (MPT was designed to evaluate different aspects of rhythm, timbre, pitch and melody. The development of the MPT could be described as design based. Phase 1 of the study included test development and recording while Phase 2 entailed presentation of stimuli to normal hearing listeners (n=15 and hearing aid users (n=4. Based on the findings of Phase 2, item analysis was performed to eliminate or change stimuli that resulted in high error rates. During Phase 3 the adapted version of the test was performed on a smaller group of normal hearing listeners (n=4 and twenty hearing aid users. Results proved that normal hearing adults as well as adults using hearing aids were able to complete all the sub-tests of the MPT although hearing aid users scored less on the various sub-tests than normal hearing listeners. For the rhythm section of the MPT normal hearing listeners scored on average 93.8% versus 75.5% of hearing aid users and 83% for the timbre section compared to 62.3% by hearing aid users. Normal hearing listeners obtained an average score of 86.3% for the pitch section and 88.2% for the melody section compared to the 70.8% and 61.9% respectively obtained by hearing aid users. This implicates that the MPT can be used successfully for assessment of music perception in hearing aid users within the South African

  2. Making Informed Decisions: How Attitudes and Perceptions Affect the Use of Crystal, Cocaine and Ecstasy among Young Men who Have Sex with Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicek, Katrina; McDavitt, Bryce; Carpineto, Julie; Weiss, George; Iverson, Ellen F; Kipke, Michele D

    2007-01-01

    Although the use of illicit substances, particularly those commonly categorized as "club drugs", among men who have sex with men (MSM), is well established in the literature, little is known about the decision making process that is used in deciding whether or not to use a particular substance. In this study, we examine the positive and negative attitudes and perceptions among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in regards to three specific drugs: crystal methamphetamine, cocaine and ecstasy. The findings reported here emerged from the baseline quantitative interviews and an accompanying qualitative phase of the Healthy Young Men's study (HYM), a longitudinal study examining risk and protective factors for substance use and sexual risk among an ethnically diverse sample of YMSM. Findings are discussed in relation to framing how service providers and others can design new and innovative interventions to prevent young men from initiating substance use.

  3. Threat Perception and Attitudes of Adolescents Towards Re-Introduced Wild Animals: A qualitative study of young learners from affected regions in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Nadin; Menzel, Susanne

    2013-12-01

    Conservation efforts such as the restoration of European bison or the support of wolf immigration into Germany are often socio-scientifically controversial. In many cases, disputes are based on individuals' threat perception and attitudes towards the animal involved. The herewith reported study provides qualitative insights into German adolescents' (n = 31, Mage = 16.6 years) attitudes towards animal reintroduction, their threat and coping appraisal about wildlife and their knowledge of local endangered species. We found that students had rather limited knowledge of local endangered species. After Kellert's categories of animal attitudes, the adolescents showed a strong moralistic view on wildlife return. Naturalistic, ecologistic and utilitarian views were also strongly apparent. According to the Protection Motivation Theory, perceived threats could be identified as threats to animals on the one hand and threats to human interests on the other. Such threat perceptions often lead to a dilemma, which made it difficult to decide upon the priorities of wildlife protection versus protection of human interests. Coping mechanism to reduce threats to human interests as mentioned by the participants included restrictions of the animal as well as strategies that focused on responsibility by humans. Regarding coping mechanism to prevent the species' extinction, participants showed a relatively superficial understanding. Furthermore, we found that participants from regions where wolves are currently immigrating or European bison are being reintroduced showed a more positive understanding of the respective animal. Our findings are discussed in the light of this topic's potential as an example of a real-life socio-scientific issue in classroom discussions.

  4. Perception as a key component in the development of fire affected land in Eastern Spain. El Massís del Caroig study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Borja, Manuel Estaban Lucas; Keesstra, Saskia; Úbeda, Xavier; Francisco Martínez Murillo, Juan; Muñoz Rojas, Miriam; Oliva, Marc; Novara, Agata

    2017-04-01

    Land Degradation needs biophysical and socioeconomic research approaches to understand the processes that alter the natural ecosystems by the human societies. Both approaches are relevant also to achieve the development of the societies and reach the sustainability of the land management (Escadafal et al., 2015; Jafari and Bakhshandehmehr, 2016). The opinion of the citizens, their perception of the land degradation and the chances we have to built more sustainable management and societies is less researched than other topics such as soil erosion, climate change, water contamination or lost of biodiversity (Francos et al., 2016; Keesstra et al., 2016; Martínez Murilloet al., 2016; Muñoz Rojas et al., 2016; Ruiz-Fernández et al, 2016; ). Forest fires are part of the Earth System since the plant colonization of the continents, fire is present in all the human societies and fire contributed to shape ecosystems. However, a negative opinion about the fire is found in many modern societies (Marques et al., 2015; Assefa and Hans-Rudolf, 2016; Orchard et al., 2016; Pereira et al., 2016). Forest fires are not a new issue in the Mediterranean due to the traditional use for grazing, agriculture or hunting, but the wildfires are generalized since the abandonment of the land in the last century. The lost of rural population and the mechanisation resulted in a vegetation recovery that triggered large wildfires in the whole North Mediterranean since the 1970´s. The perception of the forest fires by the citizens is very negative in El Massís del Caroig. Since 2012 until 2015 a questionnaire was applied to 188 stakeholders in the region and the results demonstrate that the prescribed fires are negative for any group of the society and they reject the use of prescribed fires. Fire is seen as a problem. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n 603498

  5. Automorphosis-like growth in etiolated pea seedlings is induced by the application of chemicals affecting perception of gravistimulation and its signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Kensuke; Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Yamashita, Masamichi; Ueda, Junichi

    Both microgravity conditions in space and simulated microgravity using a 3-dimensional clinostat resulted in: (1) automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings, (2) epicotyls bending ca. 45° from the vertical line to the direction away from cotyledons, (3) inhibition of hook formation and (4) alternation of growth direction of roots. These facts indicate that the growth and development of etiolated pea seedlings on earth is under the influence of gravistimulation. Lanthanum and gadolinium ions, blockers of stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels, induced automorphosis-like epicotyl bending. Cantharidin, an inhibitor of protein phosphatase, also phenocopied automorphosis-like growth. On the other hand, cytochalasin B, cytochalasin D and brefeldin A did not induce automorphological epicotyl bending and inhibition of hook formation, although these compounds strikingly inhibited elongation of etiolated pea epicotyls. These results strongly suggest that stretch-activated mechanosensitive ion channels are involved in the perception of signals of gravistimuli in plants, and they are transduced by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation cascades by changing levels of calcium ions. Possible mechanisms to induce automorphosis-like growth in relation to gravity signals in etiolated pea seedlings are discussed.

  6. Farmer perceptions of plant-soil interactions can affect adoption of sustainable management practices in cocoa agroforests: a case study from Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariani C. Wartenberg

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite extensive research focused on increasing the sustainability and productivity of agricultural systems in the tropics, adoption rates of improved management solutions often remain low among smallholder farmers. To address this, we evaluated how local knowledge and perceptions influenced decision-making processes among smallholder cocoa farmers. We conducted individual semistructured interviews with 72 cocoa farmers in Southeast Sulawesi and documented local knowledge about soil fertility indicators, nutrient cycling processes, and the interactions among shade trees, cocoa trees, and soils in cocoa agroforests. We further collected data regarding farmers' fertilizer preferences, additional income sources, and perceived barriers to improved cocoa production. We found that farmers' understanding of biophysical interactions in Southeast Sulawesi was comprehensive, mostly accurately aligned with scientific literature, and sometimes provided additional complementary knowledge. Cocoa farmers in Southeast Sulawesi approached decision making in a holistic way, integrating personal observations, information from external sources, and socioeconomic limitations and priorities. This finding highlights the value of flexible conservation farming approaches that allow farmers to minimize trade-offs and prioritize their households' needs. Finally, we identify a "dual" knowledge gap on the part of farmers and scientists regarding the direct benefits of shade tree inclusion for improved yields and income security. Addressing this through further research and targeted knowledge dissemination could contribute to an increase in the long-term adoption rates of more sustainable cocoa cultivation practices.

  7. Out of the Smokescreen: does an anti-smoking advertisement affect young women's perception of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C; Harris, W; Cook, D; Bedford, K; Zuo, Y

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of an anti-smoking advertisement on young women's perceptions of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke. Subjects/setting: 2038 females aged 12–17 years attending cinemas in New South Wales, Australia. Design/intervention: Quasi-experimental study of patrons, who were surveyed after having viewed a movie at their local cinema. The control group was surveyed during week 1 and the intervention group, during week 2. Before seeing the movie in week 2, a 30 second anti-smoking advertisement was shown, which featured a well known female actor drawing attention to the prevalence of smoking in movies. Outcomes: Attitude of current smokers and non-smokers to smoking in the movies; intention of current smokers and non-smokers to be smoking in 12 months time. Results: Among non-smokers, 48.2% of the intervention subjects thought that the smoking in the movie they viewed was "not OK" compared with 28.3% of the control subjects (p world" study suggests that placing an anti-smoking advertisement before movies containing smoking scenes can help to "immunise" young women against the influences of film stars smoking. PMID:15333884

  8. Out of the Smokescreen: does an anti-smoking advertisement affect young women's perception of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, C A; Harris, W C; Cook, D R; Bedford, K F; Zuo, Y

    2004-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of an anti-smoking advertisement on young women's perceptions of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke. SUBJECTS/ SETTING: 2038 females aged 12-17 years attending cinemas in New South Wales, Australia. DESIGN/ INTERVENTION: Quasi-experimental study of patrons, who were surveyed after having viewed a movie at their local cinema. The control group was surveyed during week 1 and the intervention group, during week 2. Before seeing the movie in week 2, a 30 second anti-smoking advertisement was shown, which featured a well known female actor drawing attention to the prevalence of smoking in movies. Attitude of current smokers and non-smokers to smoking in the movies; intention of current smokers and non-smokers to be smoking in 12 months time. Among non-smokers, 48.2% of the intervention subjects thought that the smoking in the movie they viewed was "not OK" compared with 28.3% of the control subjects (p world" study suggests that placing an anti-smoking advertisement before movies containing smoking scenes can help to "immunise" young women against the influences of film stars smoking.

  9. Relationship between spectrotemporal modulation detection and music perception in normal-hearing, hearing-impaired, and cochlear implant listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Eun; Won, Jong Ho; Kim, Cheol Hee; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa; Moon, Il Joon

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between spectrotemporal modulation (STM) sensitivity and the ability to perceive music. Ten normal-nearing (NH) listeners, ten hearing aid (HA) users with moderate hearing loss, and ten cochlear Implant (CI) users participated in this study. Three different types of psychoacoustic tests including spectral modulation detection (SMD), temporal modulation detection (TMD), and STM were administered. Performances on these psychoacoustic tests were compared to music perception abilities. In addition, psychoacoustic mechanisms involved in the improvement of music perception through HA were evaluated. Music perception abilities in unaided and aided conditions were measured for HA users. After that, HA benefit for music perception was correlated with aided psychoacoustic performance. STM detection study showed that a combination of spectral and temporal modulation cues were more strongly correlated with music perception abilities than spectral or temporal modulation cues measured separately. No correlation was found between music perception performance and SMD threshold or TMD threshold in each group. Also, HA benefits for melody and timbre identification were significantly correlated with a combination of spectral and temporal envelope cues though HA.

  10. PROJECT FUTURE IN SOCIO AFFECTIVE DIMENSION: HOW TO BUILD THE PERCEPTIONS OF STUDENTS SECONDARY EDUCATION IN PORTUGAL AND HIGH SCHOOL IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Frassetto de Araujo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to understand how the "future project" regarding the socio-affective dimension is built by high school students in Portugal and in Brazil. The project was based on the concept of culture and adolescence as a cultural construction. The definition of future project was adopted in the above mentioned dimension characterized by defining affections and passions. Through focus groups with adolescents it was possible to analyze their narratives about the future project on the socio-affective dimension; to get to know the speeches produced by them on issues regarding sexuality, gender and and sexual diversity. The survey found out that most adolescents had projects for their future. Moreover, it pointed out the differences that permeate several boys’ and girls’ behaviors. It was concluded that the questioning of these issues from ethical questions that allow teenagers to reflect on their relationships among peers, in the community, with family, responsibility and criticality is essential. And education is central to this process.

  11. Trained sensory perception of pork eating quality as affected by fresh and cooked pork quality attributes and end-point cooked temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, S J; Miller, R K; Aldredge, T L; Logan, K E; Edwards, K K; Zerby, H N; Boggess, M; Box-Steffensmeier, J M; Stahl, C A

    2010-05-01

    The present study evaluated individual and interactive influences of pork loin (n=679) ultimate ph (pH), intramuscular fat (IMF), Minolta L* color (L*), Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), and internal cooked temperatures (62.8 degrees C, 68.3 degrees C, 73.9 degrees C, and 79.4 degrees C) on trained sensory perception of palatability. Logistical regression analyses were used, fitting sensory responses as dependent variables and quality and cooked temperature as independent variables, testing quadratic and interactive effects. Incremental increases in cooked temperature reduced sensory juiciness and tenderness scores by 3.8% and 0.9%, respectively, but did not influence sensory flavor or saltiness scores. An increase of 4.9N in WBSF, from a base of 14.7N (lowest) to 58.8N (greatest) was associated with a 3.7% and 1.8% reduction in sensory tenderness and juiciness scores, respectively, with predicted sensory tenderness scores reduced by 3.55 units when comparing ends of the WBSF range. Modeled sensory responses for loins with pH of 5.40 and 5.60 had reduced tenderness, chewiness, and fat flavor ratings when compared with responses for loins with pH of 5.80 to 6.40, the range indicative of optimal sensory response. Loin IMF and L* were significant model effects; however, their influence on sensory attributes was small, with predicted mean sensory responses measurably improved only when comparing 6% and 1% IMF and L* values of 46.9 (dark) when compared with 65.0 (pale). Tenderness and juiciness scores, were related to a greater extent to loin WBSF and pH, and to a lesser extent to cooked temperature, IMF and L*. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Out of the smokescreen II: will an advertisement targeting the tobacco industry affect young people's perception of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christine; Oakes, Wendy; Bull, Diane

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of an antismoking advertisement on young people's perceptions of smoking in movies and their intention to smoke. 3091 cinema patrons aged 12-24 years in three Australian states; 18.6% of the sample (n = 575) were current smokers. Quasi-experimental study of patrons, surveyed after having viewed a movie. The control group was surveyed in week 1, and the intervention group in weeks 2 and 3. Before seeing the movie in weeks 2 and 3, a 30 s antismoking advertisement was shown, shot in the style of a movie trailer that warned patrons not to be sucked in by the smoking in the movie they were about to see. Attitude of current smokers and non-smokers to smoking in the movies; intention of current smokers and non-smokers to smoke in 12 months. Among non-smokers, 47.8% of the intervention subjects thought that the smoking in the viewed movie was not OK compared with 43.8% of the control subjects (p = 0.04). However, there was no significant difference among smokers in the intervention (16.5%) and control (14.5%) groups (p = 0.4). A higher percentage of smokers in the intervention group indicated that they were likely to be smoking in 12 months time (38.6%) than smokers in the control group (25.6%; padvertisement before movies containing smoking scenes can help to immunise non-smokers against the influences of film stars' smoking. Caution must be exercised in the type of advertisement screened as some types of advertising may reinforce smokers' intentions to smoke.

  13. Nurses' Perceptions of Barriers and Facilitators Affecting the Shaken Baby Syndrome Education Initiative: An Exploratory Study of a Massachusetts Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess nurses' perceptions of barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the shaken baby syndrome (SBS)/abusive head trauma (AHT) public policy. A legislative Act providing for the prevention of SBS/AHT was passed in Massachusetts in November 2006. A stipulation of this Act was the provision of a program to educate parents/guardians of newborns about SBS/AHT prevention. A quantitative, cross-sectional research design with a qualitative component was used for this study. Nurses in 13 Massachusetts birthing hospitals were surveyed using a Web-based questionnaire (hosted by Qualtrics, Provo, Utah). Hospital nurses' responses (N = ∼ 922; 155 responded) revealed barriers to and facilitators of SBS/AHT guideline implementation. The disadvantage of Web-based surveys as they relate to the challenges of enlisting cooperation and a lack of direct access to the nurses may have attributed to the low response rate (17%) for this study. The outcomes of logistic regression analyses and themes from the qualitative analysis revealed a lack of SBS/AHT brochures and an inability to provide SBS/AHT education for non-English-speaking parents/guardians as barriers to SBS/AHT education. An atmosphere of supportive leadership facilitated implementation of the SBS/AHT education guidelines by nurses. It is imperative that nurse leadership support be sustained so that nurses have SBS/AHT education resources, an understanding of the SBS/AHT education guidelines, and feedback about the impact of their SBS/AHT education interventions.

  14. Predicting Vaccination Intention and Benefit and Risk Perceptions: The Incorporation of Affect, Trust, and Television Influence in a Dual-Mode Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nien-Tsu Nancy

    2015-07-01

    Major health behavior change models tend to consider health decisions as primarily resulting from a systematic appraisal of relevant beliefs, such as the perceived benefits and risks of a pharmacological intervention. Drawing on research from the disciplines of risk management, communication, and psychology, this study proposed the inclusion of a heuristic route in established theory and tested the direction of influence between heuristic and systematic process variables. Affect and social trust were included as key heuristics in the proposed dual-mode framework of health decision making. Furthermore, exposure to health-related coverage on television was considered potentially influential over both heuristic and systematic process variables. To test this framework, data were collected from a national probability sample of 584 adults in the United States in 2012 regarding their decision to vaccinate against a hypothetical avian flu. The results provided some support for the bidirectional influence between heuristic and systematic processing. Affect toward flu vaccination and trust in the Food and Drug Administration were found to be powerful predictors of vaccination intention, enhancing intention both directly and indirectly via certain systematic process variables. The direction of influence between perceived susceptibility and severity, on the one hand, and affect, on the other, is less clear, suggesting the need for further research. Contrary to the opinion of media critics, exposure to televised health coverage was negatively associated with the perceived risks of vaccination. Results from this study carry theoretical and practical implications, and applying this model to the acceptance of different health interventions constitutes an area for future inquiries. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Autism: Tactile Perception and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernon, E.; Pry, R.; Baghdadli, A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: For many years, and especially since Waynbaum and Wallon, psychology and psychopathology have dealt with cognitive perception, but have had little to do with the affective qualities of perception. Our aim was to study the influence of the sensory environment on people with autism. Method: Several experiments were carried out using…

  16. Memory colours affect colour appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Christoph; Olkkonen, Maria; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2016-01-01

    Memory colour effects show that colour perception is affected by memory and prior knowledge and hence by cognition. None of Firestone & Scholl's (F&S's) potential pitfalls apply to our work on memory colours. We present a Bayesian model of colour appearance to illustrate that an interaction between perception and memory is plausible from the perspective of vision science.

  17. Graduates perception towards instructional methods of emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Graduates perception towards instructional methods of emergency medicine: affecting their self-confidence in emergency departments. Mohamed Daffalla Awadalla, Ahmed Abd Elrahman Abdalla, Sami Mahjoub Taha ...

  18. Perception of future goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottsen, Christina L.; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The current study: a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender and cultural differences in perception of personal goals. Previous studies show that imagined future events are affected by memories of personal...

  19. News Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Conference: Serbia hosts teachers' seminar Resources: Teachers TV website closes for business Festival: Science takes to the stage in Denmark Research: How noise affects learning in secondary schools CERN: CERN visit inspires new teaching ideas Education: PLS aims to improve perception of science for school students Conference: Scientix conference discusses challenges in science education

  20. Affects and Affect Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONSEN, JON T.; EILERTSEN, DAG ERIK; MELGÅRD, TROND; ØDEGÅRD, PÅL

    1996-01-01

    Affect consciousness (AC) was operationalized as degrees of awareness, tolerance, nonverbal expression, and conceptual expression of nine specific affects. A semistructured interview (ACI) and separate scales were developed to assess these aspects of affect integration. Their psychometric properties were preliminarily explored by having 20 former psychiatric outpatients complete the interview. Concurrent validity was assessed by using DSM-III-R Axis I and II diagnoses, the Health-Sickness Rating Scale, SCL-90-R, and several indexes from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Satisfactory interrater reliability and high levels of internal consistency supported the construct validity of the measure. Results suggest the most meaningful use of this instrument is in measuring specific affect and overall AC. Clinically, the ACI has provided highly specific and relevant qualitative data for use in planning psychotherapeutic interventions. PMID:22700292

  1. Impact of coated windows on visual perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kjeld; Dubois, Marie-Claude

    of brightness and colours in a space. Overall, the study shows that coated glazings may moderately affect the perception details, slightly affect the perception of glare from window and do not affect the perception of shadows on and around objects in the room. The results also suggest that the perception...... of brightness and other visual aspects such as sharpness, details, character, etc., seem to be a complex function of the intensity and colour of the transmitted light and is not solely and linearly dependent on the glazing light transmittance....

  2. Haptic perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by novel applications, interest in haptic perception is growing. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of a number of important aspects of haptic perception. By means of touch we can not only perceive quite different material properties, such as roughness, compliance,

  3. Auditory object formation affects modulation perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    Most sounds in our environment, including speech, music, animal vocalizations and environmental noise, have fluctuations in intensity that are often highly correlated across different frequency regions. Because across-frequency modulation is so common, the ability to process such information...... is thought to be a powerful survival strategy in the natural world (Klump, 1996; Nelken et al., 1999). Coherent modulations in one sound can aid in the detection of another sound (Hall et al., 1984; Durlach, 1963). On the other hand, modulation in one frequency region can also impede the detection...... or discrimination of modulation in other frequency regions (Yost et al., 1989). Although the neural substrates for across-frequency modulation processing remain unclear, recent studies have concentrated on brainstem structures (Pressnitzer et al., 2001). In this study it is shown that sounds occurring after...

  4. Perception of nuclear risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Hubert, Ph.

    1996-01-01

    Many factors are involved in the perception of a risk by individuals. Some are individual related (psychology, knowledge, experience), others describe the social environment (culture, ideology), others at end precise the nature of the risk. The word risk has various meanings and is understood differently by the three main categories involved in risk management, that is engineers, administrators and lay public. Several models which describe the perception phenomenon are presented. The dimensions affecting perception are listed. Based on public opinion poll data, a risk taxonomy is proposed, perceived nuclear risks are compared with other risks, and results are given concerning trust in the information diffused and the credibility of those in charge of nuclear activities. (author)

  5. Time Perception and Psychiatric Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ceviz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time perception is an ability which we use in every moment of daily life, that guides the formation and continuation of our behaviors and from an evolutionary perspective ensures survival. Internal clock models help us to understand time perception. Time perception is known to vary between individuals and particular situations. This variability is explained with the mechanisms which is associated with the processes related to attention, the speed of the internal clock and the memory unit. It is suggested that time perception is mainly associated with the activities of dopamine and acetylcholine. Some dopaminergic psychoactive substances like cocaine and amphetamine have all been shown to change time perception by increasing the speed of internal clock while on the other hand some antipsychotic drugs make an opposite change in time perception by descreasing the speed of the clock. Similarly, time perception is affected in some psychiatric disorders and an ethiopathological relationship between time perception disturbances and psychiatric disorders is suggested. In this article time perception changes in schizophrenia, attention deficit/hyperactivity syndrome, depression, anxiety disorders and personality disorders are briefly reviewed.

  6. The Relationship of Teacher Affective Behavior to Pupil Affective Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameen, Marilyn C.; Brown, Jeannette A.

    The study investigated the relationship of teacher affective behavior changes to pupil affective behavior changes in the presence of elementary school guidance services for both populations. Specifically, the study asked: Is teacher change in Intimacy and Esprit related to pupil change in Self Perception and Peer Acceptance? Activities were…

  7. Obese type 2 diabetics have a blunted hypotensive response to acute hyperthermia therapy that does not affect the perception of thermal stress or physiological strain compared to healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Eric; Newmire, Dan E; Ben-Ezra, Vic

    2016-10-15

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that a hyperthermia-hypotensive challenge via whole body hot water immersion would alter the perception of hyperthermia and physiological strain in obese type 2 diabetics (T2DM) compared to healthy non-obese (HC) individuals. Additionally, we hypothesize that the mechanisms would be attributed to impaired blood pressure adjustments and afferent signals (via changes in internal and mean skin temperatures). In random order, eleven obese T2DM (50±12y, 45±7% fat mass, 7.5±1.8% HbA1c) and nine similar aged (41±14y, P>0.05) HC non-obese (33±8% fat mass, Pperception of thermal sensation (TS, scale range: 1-13), calculated physiological strain (PSI), internal (Tre, rectal) and mean skin (Tsk) temperatures, heart rate (HR) and blood pressures (BP) were the primary dependent variables. Hyperthermia similarly increased Tre by 1.4±0.4°C, Tsk by 6.5±0.8°C and HR by 34±8bpm in both groups (P>0.5). Hyperthermia reduced diastolic BP (27% in T2DM and 33% in HC, Pdifferent between groups. Pearson product correlation reported strong correlations (r=0.69-0.89) with Tre and Tsk with TS in both populations. The linear stepwise regression analysis revealed similar relative contributions for Tre (~60%) and Tsk (~40%) on TS for both groups. These data indicate that obese T2DM with moderate metabolic control have an attenuated hyperthermia-hypotensive response that does not affect TS and PSI. This also may suggest behavioral thermoregulation is intact in this study group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Illness perceptions of addiction and substance use patterns among psychology students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayu, A.P.; Jong, C.A.J. de; Pinxten, W.J.L.; Schellekens, A.F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Negative attitudes towards patients with substance use disorders (SUDs) are common among psychologists. Perceptions of addiction might affect professionals’ attitudes towards patients. Personal substance use is associated with perceptions. Objective: To explore perceptions of addiction

  9. Which brain networks related to art perception are we talking about?. Comment on "Move me, astonish me…" delight my eyes and brain: The Vienna Integrated Model of top-down and bottom-up processes in Art Perception (VIMAP) and corresponding affective, evaluative, and neurophysiological correlates; by Matthew Pelowski et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J.; Cela-Conde, Camilo J.

    2017-07-01

    The proposal by the Vienna Integrated Model of Art Perception (Pelowski et al., [4]; VIMAP, hereafter) is a valuable and much needed attempt to summarize and understand the cognitive processes underlying art perception. Very important in their model is, as expected, to ascertain the psychological and brain processes correlated with the perception of beauty in art works. In this commentary we'll focus exclusively on the consideration of VIMAP's section 5, ;Model stages and corresponding areas of the brain.; We'll examine the evidence advanced by VIMAP in the section about brain networks related to the perception of art.

  10. Color: Physics and Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Pupa

    Unless we are colorblind, as soon as we look at something, we know what color it is. Simple, isn't it? No, not really. The color we see is rarely just determined by the physical color, that is, the wavelength of visible light associated with that color. Other factors, such as the illuminating light, or the brightness surrounding a certain color, affect our perception of that color. Most striking, and useful, is understanding how the retina and the brain work together to interpret the color we see, and how they can be fooled by additive color mixing, which makes it possible to have color screens and displays. I will show the physical origin of all these phenomena and give live demos as I explain how they work. Bring your own eyes! For more information: (1) watch TED talk: ``Color: Physics and Perception'' and (2) read book: PUPA Gilbert and W Haeberli ``Physics in the Arts'', ISBN 9780123918789.

  11. Language Experience Affects Grouping of Musical Instrument Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatara, Anjali; Boll-Avetisyan, Natalie; Agus, Trevor; Höhle, Barbara; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Language experience clearly affects the perception of speech, but little is known about whether these differences in perception extend to non-speech sounds. In this study, we investigated rhythmic perception of non-linguistic sounds in speakers of French and German using a grouping task, in which complexity (variability in sounds, presence of…

  12. Relating particles and texture perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, L.; Wijk, de R.A.; Bilt, van der A.; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.; Bosman, F.

    2005-01-01

    Practically all foods contain particles. It has been suggested that the presence of particles in food may affect the perception of sensory attributes. In the present study we investigated the effect of size and type (hardness and shape) of particles added to a CMC based vanilla custard dessert. The

  13. Micro-Valences: Affective valence in neutral everyday objects

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie eLebrecht; Moshe eBar; Lisa F Barrett; Michael J Tarr

    2012-01-01

    Affective valence influences both our cognition and our perception of the world. Indeed, the speed and quality with which we recognize objects in a visual scene can vary dramatically depending on its affective content. However, affective processing of visual objects has been typically studied using only stimuli with strong affective valences (e.g., guns or roses). Here we explore whether affective valence must be strong or obvious to exert an effect on our perception. We conclude that the maj...

  14. Climate change and coastal aquaculture farmers’ risk perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsan, Dewan; Brandt, Urs Steiner

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of risk perception in relation to climate change threats, comparison of risk perceptions in two different regions, and derives general results of what affect peoples’ level of risk perceptions. Revelation of individual risk perception is essential for local acceptance...... and cooperation. We do this by a comparative study with Bangladesh shrimp farmers and Danish mussel farmers. Since these people live on the edge of subsistence, already small changes in the climate will affect them significantly. Farmers in both developed and developing economies are concerned about global...... climate change but there are significant differences in farmers’ perceptions of the causes of global climate change in developed and developing countries....

  15. On the Primacy of Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajonc, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    Reasserts view that there can be emotional or affective arousal without prior cognitive appraisal. Criticizes Lazarus's rejection of this view on the grounds that it presents no empirical evidence, is based on an arbitrary definition of emotion, and obliterates all distinctions between cognition, sensation, and perception. (CMG)

  16. [Perceptive deafness and AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, E M; Domínguez, L; Urpegui, A; Martínez, J; Jiménez, M; Bretos, S; Vallés, H

    1997-06-01

    We report a case of a 23 years old woman HIV positive for the past five years with a four year history of right perceptive hypoacusia evolution without tinitus, vertigo or any other otologic symptomatology. After reviewing her personal and family history and conducting imilar tonal audiometry, tympanometry bilateral, contralateral estapedial reflex, auditory evoked brain stem response and a bilateral nasal fiberendoscopy, we analyzed the evolution of her immunal deficiency and the treatments to which she has been submitted with the purpose of determining the risk factors that have coincided in this case to be able to establish some criteria to follow the auditive affect in HIV positive patients.

  17. Perception of Virtual Audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Mathieu; Scherer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that virtual audiences are a valuable tool in the treatment of social anxiety, and recent works show that it also a useful in public-speaking training programs. However, little research has focused on how such audiences are perceived and on how the behavior of virtual audiences can be manipulated to create various types of stimuli. The authors used a crowdsourcing methodology to create a virtual audience nonverbal behavior model and, with it, created a dataset of videos with virtual audiences containing varying behaviors. Using this dataset, they investigated how virtual audiences are perceived and which factors affect this perception.

  18. Novelty enhances visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Schomaker

    Full Text Available The effects of novelty on low-level visual perception were investigated in two experiments using a two-alternative forced-choice tilt detection task. A target, consisting of a Gabor patch, was preceded by a cue that was either a novel or a familiar fractal image. Participants had to indicate whether the Gabor stimulus was vertically oriented or slightly tilted. In the first experiment tilt angle was manipulated; in the second contrast of the Gabor patch was varied. In the first, we found that sensitivity was enhanced after a novel compared to a familiar cue, and in the second we found sensitivity to be enhanced for novel cues in later experimental blocks when participants became more and more familiarized with the familiar cue. These effects were not caused by a shift in the response criterion. This shows for the first time that novel stimuli affect low-level characteristics of perception. We suggest that novelty can elicit a transient attentional response, thereby enhancing perception.

  19. Novelty enhances visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Judith; Meeter, Martijn

    2012-01-01

    The effects of novelty on low-level visual perception were investigated in two experiments using a two-alternative forced-choice tilt detection task. A target, consisting of a Gabor patch, was preceded by a cue that was either a novel or a familiar fractal image. Participants had to indicate whether the Gabor stimulus was vertically oriented or slightly tilted. In the first experiment tilt angle was manipulated; in the second contrast of the Gabor patch was varied. In the first, we found that sensitivity was enhanced after a novel compared to a familiar cue, and in the second we found sensitivity to be enhanced for novel cues in later experimental blocks when participants became more and more familiarized with the familiar cue. These effects were not caused by a shift in the response criterion. This shows for the first time that novel stimuli affect low-level characteristics of perception. We suggest that novelty can elicit a transient attentional response, thereby enhancing perception.

  20. Affective priming effects of musical sounds on the processing of word meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Koelsch, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that music is capable of conveying semantically meaningful concepts. Several questions have subsequently arisen particularly with regard to the precise mechanisms underlying the communication of musical meaning as well as the role of specific musical features. The present article reports three studies investigating the role of affect expressed by various musical features in priming subsequent word processing at the semantic level. By means of an affective priming paradigm, it was shown that both musically trained and untrained participants evaluated emotional words congruous to the affect expressed by a preceding chord faster than words incongruous to the preceding chord. This behavioral effect was accompanied by an N400, an ERP typically linked with semantic processing, which was specifically modulated by the (mis)match between the prime and the target. This finding was shown for the musical parameter of consonance/dissonance (Experiment 1) and then extended to mode (major/minor) (Experiment 2) and timbre (Experiment 3). Seeing that the N400 is taken to reflect the processing of meaning, the present findings suggest that the emotional expression of single musical features is understood by listeners as such and is probably processed on a level akin to other affective communications (i.e., prosody or vocalizations) because it interferes with subsequent semantic processing. There were no group differences, suggesting that musical expertise does not have an influence on the processing of emotional expression in music and its semantic connotations.

  1. Consumer perceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngapo, T. M.; Dransfield, E.; Martin, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Consumer focus groups in France, England, Sweden and Denmark were used to obtain insights into the decision-making involved in the choice of fresh pork and attitudes towards today's pig production systems. Many positive perceptions of pork meat were evoked. Negative images of the production systems...... that there was no link between the negative images of production methods and their purchase behaviour. The groups were clearly confused and mistrusted the limited information available at the point of purchase. Careful consideration should be given to meat labelling, in particular taking account of the evident consumer...... ethnocentrism, to assure that such information is targeted to enhance consumer confidence....

  2. Temporal stability of music perception and appraisal scores of adult cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gfeller, Kate; Jiang, Dingfeng; Oleson, Jacob J; Driscoll, Virginia; Knutson, John F

    2010-01-01

    An extensive body of literature indicates that cochlear implants (CIs) are effective in supporting speech perception of persons with severe to profound hearing losses who do not benefit to any great extent from conventional hearing aids. Adult CI recipients tend to show significant improvement in speech perception within 3 mo following implantation as a result of mere experience. Furthermore, CI recipients continue to show modest improvement as long as 5yr postimplantation. In contrast, data taken from single testing protocols of music perception and appraisal indicate that CIs are less than ideal in transmitting important structural features of music, such as pitch, melody, and timbre. However, there is presently little information documenting changes in music perception or appraisal over extended time as a result of mere experience. This study examined two basic questions: (1) Do adult CI recipients show significant improvement in perceptual acuity or appraisal of specific music listening tasks when tested in two consecutive years? (2) If there are tasks for which CI recipients show significant improvement with time, are there particular demographic variables that predict those CI recipients most likely to show improvement with extended CI use? A longitudinal cohort study. Implant recipients return annually for visits to the clinic. The study included 209 adult cochlear implant recipients with at least 9 mo implant experience before their first year measurement. Outcomes were measured on the patient's annual visit in two consecutive years. Paired t-tests were used to test for significant improvement from one year to the next. Those variables demonstrating significant improvement were subjected to regression analyses performed to detect the demographic variables useful in predicting said improvement. There were no significant differences in music perception outcomes as a function of type of device or processing strategy used. Only familiar melody recognition (FMR

  3. "Every drug goes to treat its own disease…" - a qualitative study of perceptions and experiences of taking anti-retrovirals concomitantly with anti-malarials among those affected by HIV and malaria in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangesho, Peter E; Reynolds, Joanna; Lemnge, Martha

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about how people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) experience malaria and the concomitant use of anti-malarial treatments with anti-retrovirals (ARVs). An understanding of how patients make sense of these experiences is important to consider in planning......, perceptions of drug strength appeared to compel some people not enrolled in the clinical study to take the drugs at separate times to avoid anticipated harm to the body. CONCLUSIONS: Management of HIV and malaria concurrently often requires individuals to cross the domains of different disease programmes...

  4. Varant Yatırımcısının Volatilite Algısına Etki Eden Faktörler: BIST’de Ampirik Bir Uygulama(Factors Affecting the Volatility Perception of Warrant Investors: An Empirical Research on BIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsrafil ZOR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to determine the factors that affect the volatility perception of warrant investors. By using 3.187 daily data of 61 call warrants whose underlying asset is BIST-30 Index and traded on BIST in 2012, firstly efficient option pricing model for the related market is confirmed and then volatilities that equalizes the efficient model prices to market prices are calculated and regression analysis is applied to determine factors that affect the volatility. The results of the analysis are revealed that if the closing price of the underlying asset, the days to maturity of the warrant and Turkish Lira Interbank rate increase, the volatility perceived by investors will decrease. Also, there is positive relationship between the closing price of warrants and the perceived volatility. In addition perceived volatility is higher on Monday and first decrease in inflation after 4 months increase reduces the perceived volatility.

  5. Comparison of pressure perception of static and dynamic two point ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the right and left index finger (p<0.05). Conclusion: Age and gender did not affect the perception of static and dynamic two point discrimination while the limb side (left or right) affected the perception of static and dynamic two point discrimination. The index finger is also more sensitive to moving rather static sensations.

  6. Affective Decision Making and the Ellsberg Paradox

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Bracha; Donald J. Brown

    2008-01-01

    Affective decision-making is a strategic model of choice under risk and uncertainty where we posit two cognitive processes -- the "rational" and the "emotional" process. Observed choice is the result of equilibrium in this intrapersonal game. As an example, we present applications of affective decision-making in insurance markets, where the risk perceptions of consumers are endogenous. We derive the axiomatic foundation of affective decision making, and show that affective decision making is ...

  7. Implications of the Vienna Integrated Model of Art Perception for art-based interventions in clinical populations: Comment on "Move me, astonish me... delight my eyes and brain: The Vienna Integrated Model of top-down and bottom-up processes in Art Perception (VIMAP) and corresponding affective, evaluative, and neurophysiological correlates" by Matthew Pelowski et al.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruffi, Liila; Koelsch, Stefan

    2017-07-01

    Pelowski et al. present a holistic framework within which the multiple processes underlying art viewing can be systematically organized [1]. The proposed model integrates a broad range of dynamic mechanisms, which can effectively account for empirical as well as humanistic perspectives on art perception. Particularly challenging is the final section of the article, where the authors draw a correspondence between behavioral and cognitive components and brain structures (as well as networks). Here, we comment on the implications of the Vienna Integrated Model of Art Perception for art therapy in clinical populations, particularly focusing on (1) expanding Pelowski et al.'s considerations of the Default Mode Network (DMN) into discussion of its relevance to mental diseases, and (2) elaborating on empathic resonance in aesthetic contexts and the capacity of art to build up empathic skills.

  8. Wind speed perception and risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duzgun Agdas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. METHOD: We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk. The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual-perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. CONCLUSION: These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters.

  9. Wind speed perception and risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D; Masters, Forrest J

    2012-01-01

    How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human-wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual-perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters.

  10. Wind Speed Perception and Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdas, Duzgun; Webster, Gregory D.; Masters, Forrest J.

    2012-01-01

    Background How accurately do people perceive extreme wind speeds and how does that perception affect the perceived risk? Prior research on human–wind interaction has focused on comfort levels in urban settings or knock-down thresholds. No systematic experimental research has attempted to assess people's ability to estimate extreme wind speeds and perceptions of their associated risks. Method We exposed 76 people to 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mph (4.5, 8.9, 13.4, 17.9, 22.3, and 26.8 m/s) winds in randomized orders and asked them to estimate wind speed and the corresponding risk they felt. Results Multilevel modeling showed that people were accurate at lower wind speeds but overestimated wind speeds at higher levels. Wind speed perceptions mediated the direct relationship between actual wind speeds and perceptions of risk (i.e., the greater the perceived wind speed, the greater the perceived risk). The number of tropical cyclones people had experienced moderated the strength of the actual–perceived wind speed relationship; consequently, mediation was stronger for people who had experienced fewer storms. Conclusion These findings provide a clearer understanding of wind and risk perception, which can aid development of public policy solutions toward communicating the severity and risks associated with natural disasters. PMID:23226230

  11. Affective monitoring: A generic mechanism for affect elicitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans ePhaf

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we sketch a new framework for affect elicitation, which is based on previous evolutionary and connectionist modeling and experimental work from our group. Affective monitoring is considered a local match-mismatch process within a module of the neural network. Negative affect is raised instantly by mismatches, incongruency, disfluency, novelty, incoherence, and dissonance, whereas positive affect follows from matches, congruency, fluency, familiarity, coherence, and resonance, at least when an initial mismatch can be solved quickly. Affective monitoring is considered an evolutionary-early conflict and change detection process operating at the same level as, for instance, attentional selection. It runs in parallel and imparts affective flavour to emotional behavior systems, which involve evolutionary-prepared stimuli and action tendencies related to for instance defensive, exploratory, attachment, or appetitive behavior. Positive affect is represented in the networks by high-frequency oscillations, presumably in the gamma band. Negative affect corresponds to more incoherent lower-frequency oscillations, presumably in the theta band. For affect to become conscious, large-scale synchronization of the oscillations over the network and the construction of emotional experiences are required. These constructions involve perceptions of bodily states and action tendencies, but also appraisals as well as efforts to regulate the emotion. Importantly, affective monitoring accompanies every kind of information processing, but conscious emotions, which result from the later integration of affect in a cognitive context, are much rarer events.

  12. Perception of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.

    1992-01-01

    Perception of risks by people depends on many factors, either characterizing the individuals, or specific to the risk sources. The risk concept, which confuses the issue, is precised first. Second, the perception phenomenon is presented as an interactive process involving the individual, the hazard, and the social context. Third, dimensions of perception are listed and used to describe the perception of radiation risks. Finally, the relation between perception and attitude is clarified. (author) 50 refs

  13. Affective Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...

  14. An Examination of Cultural Values and Employees' Perceptions of Support on Affective Reaction and the Desire to Participate in a Formal Mentoring Program in an Oilfield Services Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Hanna Bea

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers have examined the effect of formal mentoring on job satisfaction and organizational commitment. However, there has been little or no focus on an employee's intent to participate in a formal mentoring program based upon an employee's perceived organizational support, and/or affective reaction (job satisfaction and…

  15. 'The perception of fear conditioning urban space'

    OpenAIRE

    Fani Bakratsa

    2011-01-01

    The dominant metabolic system within urban environments often involves deep socio-economic inequalities, exploitative productive practices and a persistent sense of alienation among the vast majority of the population. The city itself spawns the conditions both for the development of actual criminality and, more perniciously, for the emergence of an acute perception of fear within the polis. Over the years, this perception has affected a whole array of societal elements including, quite signi...

  16. Human voice perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinus, Marianne; Belin, Pascal

    2011-02-22

    We are all voice experts. First and foremost, we can produce and understand speech, and this makes us a unique species. But in addition to speech perception, we routinely extract from voices a wealth of socially-relevant information in what constitutes a more primitive, and probably more universal, non-linguistic mode of communication. Consider the following example: you are sitting in a plane, and you can hear a conversation in a foreign language in the row behind you. You do not see the speakers' faces, and you cannot understand the speech content because you do not know the language. Yet, an amazing amount of information is available to you. You can evaluate the physical characteristics of the different protagonists, including their gender, approximate age and size, and associate an identity to the different voices. You can form a good idea of the different speaker's mood and affective state, as well as more subtle cues as the perceived attractiveness or dominance of the protagonists. In brief, you can form a fairly detailed picture of the type of social interaction unfolding, which a brief glance backwards can on the occasion help refine - sometimes surprisingly so. What are the acoustical cues that carry these different types of vocal information? How does our brain process and analyse this information? Here we briefly review an emerging field and the main tools used in voice perception research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE DETERMINANTS PERCEPTION OF TAX EVASION ETHICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningsih D.N.C.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the determinants perception of tax evasion ethics, and combined three models based on the research of McGee et al (2012, Lau et al (2013, Lemvora et al (2013. Data collection used survey method on 148 auditors who worked at Public Accountant Office (KAP Big Ten. The result of this study showed that the justice and taxation systems affect significantly negative toward the perception of tax evasion ethics. Religiosity strengthened the effect of justice, taxation systems, and discrimination on the perception of tax evasion ethics.

  18. Affect Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Holm; Poulsen, Stig Bernt; Lunn, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Gergely and colleagues’ state that their Social Biofeedback Theory of Parental Affect Mirroring” can be seen as a kind of operationalization of the classical psychoanalytic concepts of holding, containing and mirroring. This article examines to what extent the social biofeedback theory of parenta...

  19. Biological Motion Perception in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Cusack

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Typically developing adults can readily recognize human actions, even when conveyed to them via point-like markers placed on the body of the actor (Johansson, 1973. Previous research has suggested that children affected by autism spectrum disorder (ASD are not equally sensitive to this type of visual information (Blake et al, 2003, but it remains unknown why ASD would impact the ability to perceive biological motion. We present evidence which looks at how adolescents and adults with autism are affected by specific factors which are important in biological motion perception, such as (eg, inter-agent synchronicity, upright/inverted, etc.

  20. Emoções de uma escuta musical afetam a percepção subjetiva de tempo Emotions from listening to music affect the subjective perception of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo verificou se emoções percebidas durante uma escuta musical influenciam a percepção temporal. Músicos e não músicos foram submetidos a tarefas de escuta de trechos musicais do repertório erudito ocidental com 20 segundos de duração cada um e tarefas de associação temporal de cada trecho ouvido a durações padrões, que variavam de 16 a 24 segundos. Os trechos musicais empregados eram representativos de uma dentre as categorias emocionais Alegria, Tristeza, Serenidade ou Medo / Raiva. Uma análise de variância mostrou que, enquanto os não músicos apresentaram subestimações temporais associadas a pelo menos um trecho musical de cada uma das categorias emocionais, os músicos subestimaram todos os trechos musicais tristes, relacionados às características de baixo arousal e valência afetiva negativa.This study examined whether perceived emotions during music listening tasks influence time perception. Musicians and non-musicians were submitted to tasks of listening to musical excerpts from Western classical repertoire of 20 seconds and tasks of temporal association of each piece of music to standard durations, ranging from 16 to 24 seconds. Musical excerpts were representative from one of the following emotional categories: Happiness, Sadness, Threat and Peacefulness. An analysis of variance showed that, while non-musicians showed temporal underestimations associated with, at least, one piece of music from each emotional category, musicians underestimated all sad musical excerpts, related to low arousal and negative valence features.

  1. Move me, astonish me… delight my eyes and brain: The Vienna Integrated Model of top-down and bottom-up processes in Art Perception (VIMAP) and corresponding affective, evaluative, and neurophysiological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelowski, Matthew; Markey, Patrick S; Forster, Michael; Gerger, Gernot; Leder, Helmut

    2017-07-01

    This paper has a rather audacious purpose: to present a comprehensive theory explaining, and further providing hypotheses for the empirical study of, the multiple ways by which people respond to art. Despite common agreement that interaction with art can be based on a compelling, and occasionally profound, psychological experience, the nature of these interactions is still under debate. We propose a model, The Vienna Integrated Model of Art Perception (VIMAP), with the goal of resolving the multifarious processes that can occur when we perceive and interact with visual art. Specifically, we focus on the need to integrate bottom-up, artwork-derived processes, which have formed the bulk of previous theoretical and empirical assessments, with top-down mechanisms which can describe how individuals adapt or change within their processing experience, and thus how individuals may come to particularly moving, disturbing, transformative, as well as mundane, results. This is achieved by combining several recent lines of theoretical research into a new integrated approach built around three processing checks, which we argue can be used to systematically delineate the possible outcomes in art experience. We also connect our model's processing stages to specific hypotheses for emotional, evaluative, and physiological factors, and address main topics in psychological aesthetics including provocative reactions-chills, awe, thrills, sublime-and difference between "aesthetic" and "everyday" emotional response. Finally, we take the needed step of connecting stages to functional regions in the brain, as well as broader core networks that may coincide with the proposed cognitive checks, and which taken together can serve as a basis for future empirical and theoretical art research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. How do large-scale agricultural investments affect land use and the environment on the western slopes of Mount Kenya? Empirical evidence based on small-scale farmers' perceptions and remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehringer, Julie G; Wambugu, Grace; Kiteme, Boniface; Eckert, Sandra

    2018-05-01

    Africa has been heavily targeted by large-scale agricultural investments (LAIs) throughout the last decade, with scarcely known impacts on local social-ecological systems. In Kenya, a large number of LAIs were made in the region northwest of Mount Kenya. These large-scale farms produce vegetables and flowers mainly for European markets. However, land use in the region remains dominated by small-scale crop and livestock farms with less than 1 ha of land each, who produce both for their own subsistence and for the local markets. We interviewed 100 small-scale farmers living near five different LAIs to elicit their perceptions of the impacts that these LAIs have on their land use and the overall environment. Furthermore, we analyzed remotely sensed land cover and land use data to assess land use change in the vicinity of the five LAIs. While land use change did not follow a clear trend, a number of small-scale farmers did adapt their crop management to environmental changes such as a reduced river water flows and increased pests, which they attributed to the presence of LAIs. Despite the high number of open conflicts between small-scale land users and LAIs around the issue of river water abstraction, the main environmental impact, felt by almost half of the interviewed land users, was air pollution with agrochemicals sprayed on the LAIs' land. Even though only a low percentage of local land users and their household members were directly involved with LAIs, a large majority of respondents favored the presence of LAIs nearby, as they are believed to contribute to the region's overall economic development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Move me, astonish me… delight my eyes and brain: The Vienna Integrated Model of top-down and bottom-up processes in Art Perception (VIMAP) and corresponding affective, evaluative, and neurophysiological correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelowski, Matthew; Markey, Patrick S.; Forster, Michael; Gerger, Gernot; Leder, Helmut

    2017-07-01

    This paper has a rather audacious purpose: to present a comprehensive theory explaining, and further providing hypotheses for the empirical study of, the multiple ways by which people respond to art. Despite common agreement that interaction with art can be based on a compelling, and occasionally profound, psychological experience, the nature of these interactions is still under debate. We propose a model, The Vienna Integrated Model of Art Perception (VIMAP), with the goal of resolving the multifarious processes that can occur when we perceive and interact with visual art. Specifically, we focus on the need to integrate bottom-up, artwork-derived processes, which have formed the bulk of previous theoretical and empirical assessments, with top-down mechanisms which can describe how individuals adapt or change within their processing experience, and thus how individuals may come to particularly moving, disturbing, transformative, as well as mundane, results. This is achieved by combining several recent lines of theoretical research into a new integrated approach built around three processing checks, which we argue can be used to systematically delineate the possible outcomes in art experience. We also connect our model's processing stages to specific hypotheses for emotional, evaluative, and physiological factors, and address main topics in psychological aesthetics including provocative reactions-chills, awe, thrills, sublime-and difference between ;aesthetic; and ;everyday; emotional response. Finally, we take the needed step of connecting stages to functional regions in the brain, as well as broader core networks that may coincide with the proposed cognitive checks, and which taken together can serve as a basis for future empirical and theoretical art research.

  4. A comprehensive model of audiovisual perception: both percept and temporal dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Besson

    Full Text Available The sparse information captured by the sensory systems is used by the brain to apprehend the environment, for example, to spatially locate the source of audiovisual stimuli. This is an ill-posed inverse problem whose inherent uncertainty can be solved by jointly processing the information, as well as introducing constraints during this process, on the way this multisensory information is handled. This process and its result--the percept--depend on the contextual conditions perception takes place in. To date, perception has been investigated and modeled on the basis of either one of two of its dimensions: the percept or the temporal dynamics of the process. Here, we extend our previously proposed audiovisual perception model to predict both these dimensions to capture the phenomenon as a whole. Starting from a behavioral analysis, we use a data-driven approach to elicit a bayesian network which infers the different percepts and dynamics of the process. Context-specific independence analyses enable us to use the model's structure to directly explore how different contexts affect the way subjects handle the same available information. Hence, we establish that, while the percepts yielded by a unisensory stimulus or by the non-fusion of multisensory stimuli may be similar, they result from different processes, as shown by their differing temporal dynamics. Moreover, our model predicts the impact of bottom-up (stimulus driven factors as well as of top-down factors (induced by instruction manipulation on both the perception process and the percept itself.

  5. Kansei, surfaces and perception engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, B.-G.; Eriksson, L.; Bergman, M.

    2016-09-01

    The aesthetic and pleasing properties of a product are important and add significantly to the meaning and relevance of a product. Customer sensation and perception are largely about psychological factors. There has been a strong industrial and academic need and interest for methods and tools to quantify and link product properties to the human response but a lack of studies of the impact of surfaces. In this study, affective surface engineering is used to illustrate and model the link between customer expectations and perception to controllable product surface properties. The results highlight the use of the soft metrology concept for linking physical and human factors contributing to the perception of products. Examples of surface applications of the Kansei methodology are presented from sauna bath, health care, architectural and hygiene tissue application areas to illustrate, discuss and confirm the strength of the methodology. In the conclusions of the study, future research in soft metrology is proposed to allow understanding and modelling of product perception and sensations in combination with a development of the Kansei surface engineering methodology and software tools.

  6. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  7. Interfacial modulation of urban affect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    Urban culture can increasingly be understood as interface culture (Munster) in which urban design, cultural institutions and architecture increasingly operate as affective interfaces distributing and mediating human perception, consumption and social encounters. As noted by Amin and Thrift (2002......, Massey 2006), they also exclude in depth social and human interaction. Through analysis of three examples of urban affective interfaces (The High Line in New York, Superkilen in Copenhagen and Stålsat By, Frederiksværk, the paper examines how affective urban interfaces modulate and mediate urban...... environments as bodily and sensorial experiences. It asks what is mediated through the interface – whether the. It also asks, what is excluded when urban environments become affective interfaces in the global networked city. Whereas urban interface collect and distribute the bodily and sensible in relational...

  8. Developmental Color Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Rosslyn; Little, Angela C.

    1975-01-01

    A sample of 107 subjects including kindergarteners, fifth graders, high school sophomores, parents of kindergarteners, and master artists were presented with a 108-item color perception test to investigate surface color perception at these age levels. A set of surface color perception rules was generated. (GO)

  9. [Affective dependency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  10. Memory Perceptions and Memory Performance in Adulthood and Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, D. F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews two questionnaires designed to measure people's perceptions of their own memories and identifies several research questions requiring further study. Results show that, in general, memory perceptions appear to be multidimensional and involve belief and affective components as well as knowledge components. (CT)

  11. A report on the public perception of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    Noting that the public's perception of risk is real whether or not it is based on what experts call scientific fact, the report examines physchological, socio-economic, informational, and cultural factors affecting risk perception. In the case of nuclear energy it is concluded that the public has little knowledge of the many measures taken to control risks

  12. Visual perception and radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorges, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although interpretation errors are common in radiology, their causes are still debated. Perceptual mechanisms appear to be responsible for a large proportion of mistakes made by both neophytes and trained radiologists. Erroneous perception of familiar contours can be triggered by unrelated opacities. Conversely, visual information cannot induce a specific perception if the observer is not familiar with the concept represented or its radiographicappearance. Additionally, the area of acute vision is smaller than is commonly recognized. Other factors, such as the attitude, beliefs,.: preconceptions, and expectations of the viewer, can affect what he or she ''sees'' whenviewing any object, including a radiograph. Familiarity with perceptual mechanisms and the limitations of the visual system as well as multiple readings may be necessary to reduce interpretation errors

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERCEPTION OF AUTONOMY SUPPORT AND PERCEPTION OF INTERPERSONAL, PROCEDURAL JUSTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Devani Laksmi Indyastuti

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have a little attention on the impact of perceived autonomy support on the justice. This study examines the impact of perceived autonomy support from supervisor and from environment toward perceived procedural justice and interpersonal justice. Based on self interest model and basic need theory, this study hypothesized that individual’s perception of autonomy supported both from supervisor and work environment would affect his/ her perception of procedural. Based on need fulf...

  14. Micro-Valences: Affective valence in neutral everyday objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie eLebrecht

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Affective valence influences both our cognition and our perception of the world. Indeed, the speed and quality with which we recognize objects in a visual scene can vary dramatically depending on its affective content. However, affective processing of visual objects has been typically studied using only stimuli with strong affective valences (e.g., guns or roses. Here we explore whether affective valence must be strong or obvious to exert an effect on our perception. We conclude that the majority of objects carry some affective valence (micro-valences and, thus, nominally neutral objects are not really neutral. Functionally, the perception of valence in everyday objects facilitates perceptually-driven choice behavior, decision-making, and affective responses.

  15. "Are the Good Beautiful or the Beautiful Good?" The Relationship between Children's Perceptions of Ability and Perceptions of Physical Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felson, Richard B.; Bohrnstedt, George W.

    1979-01-01

    Children's ratings were obtained, examining reciprocal feedback between perceptions of physical attractiveness and ability. Data supported the conclusion that perceptions of ability affect those of physical attractiveness but not vice versa. The role of the relative ambiguity of stimuli associated with physical attractiveness may explain the…

  16. Snacks With Nutrition Labels: Tastiness Perception, Healthiness Perception, and Willingness to Pay by Norwegian Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Oostindjer, Marije; Amdam, Gro V; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2016-02-01

    Consumers tend to have the perception that healthy equals less tasty. This study aimed to identify whether information provided by the Keyhole symbol, a widely used front-of-package symbol in Nordic countries to indicate nutritional content, and percent daily values (%DVs) affect Norwegian adolescents' perception of the healthiness of snacks and their intention to buy them. Two tasks were used to evaluate adolescents' perception of snacks with the Keyhole symbol: with %DVs or with no nutrition label. A third task was used to test their abilities to use %DVs (pairwise selections). A survey obtained personal attributes. A total of 566 Norwegian adolescents. Taste perception, health perception, and ability to use %DVs. Linear mixed models and logistic models that tested effects of labels and personal attributes on main outcome measures. The Keyhole symbol increased health perception without influencing taste perception of snacks. Norwegian adolescents had limited abilities to use information from the %DVs correctly to identify healthier foods. Norwegian adolescents had a positive perception of the Keyhole symbols. Keyhole symbols as a simple, heuristic front-of-package label have potential as an information strategy that may influence self-efficacy in promoting healthy snack choices among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessing the knowledge and perceptions of medical students from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-05

    Apr 5, 2011 ... Original Research: Assessing knowledge and perceptions regarding the millennium development goals. 126. Vol 54 No .... issues affect the quality of medical treatment of a patient. As good health ..... Knowledge translation in.

  18. How investor perceptions drive actual trading and risk-taking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors' perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risk-taking behavior? To answer this

  19. How Investor Perceptions Drive Actual Trading and Risk-Taking Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, A.O.I.; Post, T.; Pennings, J.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent work in behavioral finance showed how investors’ perceptions (i.e., return expectations, risk tolerance, and risk perception) affect hypothetical trading and risk-taking behavior. However, are such perceptions also capable of explaining actual trading and risktaking behavior? To answer this

  20. Test expectancy affects metacomprehension accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Keith W; Wiley, Jennifer; Griffin, Thomas D

    2011-06-01

    Theory suggests that the accuracy of metacognitive monitoring is affected by the cues used to judge learning. Researchers have improved monitoring accuracy by directing attention to more appropriate cues; however, this is the first study to more directly point students to more appropriate cues using instructions regarding tests and practice tests. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the accuracy metacognitive monitoring was affected by the nature of the test expected. Students (N= 59) were randomly assigned to one of two test expectancy groups (memory vs. inference). Then after reading texts, judging learning, completed both memory and inference tests. Test performance and monitoring accuracy were superior when students received the kind of test they had been led to expect rather than the unexpected test. Tests influence students' perceptions of what constitutes learning. Our findings suggest that this could affect how students prepare for tests and how they monitoring their own learning. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  1. The affect heuristic in judgments of risks and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finucane, M.; Slovic, P.; Johnson, S.M.; Alhakami, A.

    1998-01-01

    The role of affect in judgment of risks and benefits is examined in two studies. Despite using different methodologies the two studies suggest that risk and benefit are linked somehow in people's perception, consequently influencing their judgments. Short paper

  2. The cognitive/affective distinction of job insecurity: Validation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    emotional exhaustion were also gathered from employees in a variety of South African ... the cognitive and affective dimensions of job insecurity could be distinguished ...... from the perception of an external reality, whereas the affective response represents an internal .... 'Differentiating cognitive and affective job insecurity: ...

  3. Knowledge, risk perception and practice regarding tuberculosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Window opening during bus transportation is recommended as a tuberculosis prevention strategy.Yet, drivers are affected by lack knowledge and risk perception of passengers and assistants. Boosting knowledge of and notifying the high risk of tuberculosis transmission for every passenger could be too costly.

  4. Color Functions in Information Perception and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolliver, Don L.

    1973-01-01

    This paper reviews research findings related to color and how it affects perception and retention of information. From the literature it appears colors have varying degrees of value as cues or aids to memory of stimulus information and difference appears to exist between colors as they interact in informational materials. (21 references)…

  5. An Insight into Student Perceptions of Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kay Kyeong-Ju; Tunningley, Joan; Warner, Zachary; Buening, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Cyberbullying is a major public concern due to its physical, emotional, and psychological impact affecting both victims and perpetrators. This study analyzed existing survey results from seventh- and eighth-grade students at a school in the midwestern United States to investigate possible similarities and differences in perceptions of…

  6. Alpha Power Predicts Persistence of Bistable Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piantoni, Giovanni; Romeijn, Nico; Gomez-Herrero, German; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D; Van Someren, Eus J W

    2017-01-01

    Perception is strongly affected by the intrinsic state of the brain, which controls the propensity to either maintain a particular perceptual interpretation or switch to another. To understand the mechanisms underlying the spontaneous drive of the brain to explore alternative interpretations of

  7. Assessment of Body perception, Psychological Distress, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity can lead to psychological, social, and medical problems that may negatively affect the quality of life Aim: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the body perception, psychological distress, and subjective quality of life of obese subjects in comparison with normal weighted ones. Methods: A total of 494 ...

  8. Affective Decision Making in Insurance Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Bracha

    2004-01-01

    This paper suggests incorporating affective considerations into decision making theory and insurance decision in particular. I describe a decision maker with two internal accounts - the rational account and the mental account. The rational account decides on insurance to maximize expected (perceived) utility, while the mental account chooses risk perceptions which then affect the perceived expected utility. The two accounts interact to reach a decision which is composed of both risk perceptio...

  9. Controlling You Watching Me: Measuring Perception Control on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keep, Melanie; Attrill-Smith, Alison

    2017-09-01

    Online self-presentation assumes that individuals intentionally control how others perceive them based on their online behaviors. Existing tools are limited in their ability to measure this notion of perception control and there is little understanding around factors which may affect the desire for perception control. This article reports on the development of a perception control scale and comparisons of perception control across age and between genders. A total of 222 participants completed an online survey with items measuring perception control and participant demographics. A principal component analysis revealed a one-factor, 12-item scale explaining 41.14% of the variance. Perception control was found to increase with age and did not differ between genders. Results are consistent with existing impression management research suggesting that while participants of both genders desire to control how others perceive them, as a person's sense of self stabilizes over time, they are less motivated to change their behaviors to control others' impressions of them.

  10. The Competitive Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, João Tiago

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to define what competitive perception is. Using Dufrenne’s phenomenological analysis of the art spectator’s experience, namely the concept of aesthetic perception, I will claim that it is useful to apply this phenomenological approach to the experience of watching sport events. I will argue that the concepts of uncertainty and auto teleology, being two main features in sport competition, are helpful to define competitive perception.

  11. Cognitive style as a factor in accounting students' perceptions of career-choice factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gul, F; Huang, A; Subramaniam, N

    1992-12-01

    Since prior studies of individuals' perceptions of career-choice factors have not considered the effect of cognitive styles of subjects, this study, using 68 accounting students, investigated the mediating effects of the field dependent-independent cognitive dimension on perceptions of the importance of career-choice factors. The results, in general, show that cognitive style affected individuals' perceptions of career-choice factors, suggesting that future studies of individuals' perceptions should take into account individual cognitive differences.

  12. Not explicit but implicit memory is influenced by individual perception style

    OpenAIRE

    Hine, Kyoko; Tsushima, Yoshiaki

    2018-01-01

    Not only explicit but also implicit memory has considerable influence on our daily life. However, it is still unclear whether explicit and implicit memories are sensitive to individual differences. Here, we investigated how individual perception style (global or local) correlates with implicit and explicit memory. As a result, we found that not explicit but implicit memory was affected by the perception style: local perception style people more greatly used implicit memory than global percept...

  13. Does Attorney Advertising Influence Patient Perceptions of Pelvic Mesh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Elizabeth; King, Jesse; Lucent, Vincent; Ephraim, Sonya; Murphy, Miles; Taff, Eileen

    2018-01-01

    To measure the relative influence of attorney advertising on patient perceptions of pelvic mesh compared with a history of surgery and a first urology visit. A 52-item survey was administered to 170 female patients in 2 urology offices between 2014 and 2016. Multiple survey items were combined to form scales for benefit and risk perceptions of pelvic mesh, perceptions of the advertising, attitudes toward pelvic mesh, and knowledge of pelvic mesh and underlying medical conditions. Data were analyzed using hierarchical linear regression models. Exposure to attorney advertising was quite high; 88% reported seeing a mesh-related attorney advertisement in the last 6 months. Over half of patients reported seeing attorney advertisements more than once per week. A history of prior mesh implant surgery was the strongest predictor of benefit and risk perceptions of pelvic mesh. Exposure to attorney advertising was associated with higher risk perceptions but did not significantly affect perceptions of benefits. Past urologist visits increased perceptions of benefits but had no effect on risk perceptions. Attorney advertising appears to have some influence on risk perceptions, but personal experience and discussions with a urogynecologist or urologist also influence patient perceptions. Implications, limitations, and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Competition Field Perceptions of Table-tennis Athletes and their Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ying-Chieh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between positive and negative perceptions is fundamental in perception models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between field perceptions of table tennis players and the outcome (net result during the matches in a competition. Experimental data were collected from 10 elite table tennis players and analysed. The results addressed the following three competition field perceptions: (1 before the service, the player’s positive perceptions had significant effect on the positive outcome (winning rate of that service; (2 the perception after the net result of the previous service increased the positive outcome of the next service, and (3 the player’s positive/negative perception during the matches affected the win/loss outcome of that competition. In conclusion, the player’s positive perceptions enhanced their winning rate during table tennis competitions. Therefore, during the training program, coaches need to develop positive perceptions and strengthen the psychological quality of table tennis players.

  15. 论对电子管风琴中民族乐器音色的模仿性触键及对民族音乐作品的诠释%On the imitation touching keys of the timbres of national musical instruments in electronic organand interpretation of national music works

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓博

    2013-01-01

      电子管风琴中设置的我国民族乐器音色包括二胡、笛、笙、筝等等。如何利用有限的音色资源演奏民族音乐作品?并且实现模仿得像?演奏得像?这是演奏者必须思考和掌握的问题。文章将从模仿民族乐器中的吹奏乐器、弹拨乐器、拉奏乐器几方面探讨如何在电子管风琴上对民族乐器音色实现模仿性触键,并以《二泉映月》为代表论述演奏民族音乐作品的触键特征,力求将保留原曲韵味与发挥电子管风琴特点相统一,融合民族性与时代性,不断开拓电子管风琴演奏的广阔天地!%  China's national musical instrument in electronic organ includes erhu, flute, Sheng, zither etc.. How to use the limited resources to play folk music sound? And imitate? Play like? This is the problem performer must consider and master. This article from the imitation of national musical instrument to explore how to achieve imitation touch of the timbres of national musical instruments in electronic organ, to take the "Erquanyingyue" as the representative to discuss the features of touching key in the national music playing, in order to retain the unity of original flavor and play music electron tube the characteristics, ethnic fusion with the times, and constantly open up vast space of electronic organ!

  16. Differentiating aversive conditioning in bistable perception: Avoidance of a percept vs. salience of a stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbertz, Gregor; Sterzer, Philipp

    2018-05-01

    Alternating conscious visual perception of bistable stimuli is influenced by several factors. In order to understand the effect of negative valence, we tested the effect of two types of aversive conditioning on dominance durations in binocular rivalry. Participants received either aversive classical conditioning of the stimuli shown alone between rivalry blocks, or aversive percept conditioning of one of the two possible perceptual choices during rivalry. Both groups showed successful aversive conditioning according to skin conductance responses and affective valence ratings. However, while classical conditioning led to an immediate but short-lived increase in dominance durations of the conditioned stimulus, percept conditioning yielded no significant immediate effect but tended to decrease durations of the conditioned percept during extinction. These results show dissociable effects of value learning on perceptual inference in situations of perceptual conflict, depending on whether learning relates to the decision between conflicting perceptual choices or the sensory stimuli per se. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Perception Levels of Prime Beef Training and Readiness Task Confidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawrence, D

    1997-01-01

    .... A heuristic model was developed which hypothesized that since previous research has shown that perception of training affects self efficacy, and that self efficacy affects performance, it may be...

  18. Professor Age and Gender Affect Student Perceptions and Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, Shauna W.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2015-01-01

    Student evaluations provide rich information about teaching performance, but a number of factors beyond teacher effectiveness influence student evaluations. In this study we examined the effects of professor gender and perceived age on ratings of effectiveness and rapport as well as academic performance. We also asked students to rate professor…

  19. Short-term memory affects color perception in context.

    OpenAIRE

    Olkkonen, M.; Allred, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Color-based object selection — for instance, looking for ripe tomatoes in the market — places demands on both perceptual and memory processes: it is necessary to form a stable perceptual estimate of surface color from a variable visual signal, as well as to retain multiple perceptual estimates in memory while comparing objects. Nevertheless, perceptual and memory processes in the color domain are generally studied in separate research programs with the assumption that they are independent. He...

  20. Perceptions of ethics in IS: How age can affect awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Wilford, S.; Wakunuma, Kutoma

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This aim of this paper was to highlight the awareness of ethical issues across the group of information systems (IS) professionals from a range of geographical regions. Design/methodology/approach – An initial survey was conducted that informed in-depth interviews with 26 IS professionals from across the globe. The study identified that around 70 per cent of the sample were over 50 years old. This provided an opportunity to consider age-related differences in per...

  1. An affect misattribution pathway to perceptions of intrinsic reward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leander, N. Pontus; Kay, Aaron C.; Chartrand, Tanya L.; Payne, B. Keith

    Intrinsic rewards are typically thought to stem from an activity's inherent properties and not from separable rewards one receives from it. Yet, people may not consciously notice or remember all the subtle external rewards that correspond with an activity and may misattribute some directly to the

  2. extension staffs' perceptions of factors affecting co-ordination

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ian

    organizations involved in delivery of agricultural extension services. To improve service ... extension in Rakai district would improve the performance of the District's agricultural ... their nature (public, private or firm-oriented) and their goals, and.

  3. Statistical Frequency in Perception Affects Children’s Lexical Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtsmeier, Peter T.; Gerken, LouAnn; Goffman, Lisa; Hogan, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    Children’s early word production is influenced by the statistical frequency of speech sounds and combinations. Three experiments asked whether this production effect can be explained by a perceptual learning mechanism that is sensitive to word-token frequency and/or variability. Four-year-olds were exposed to nonwords that were either frequent (presented 10 times) or infrequent (presented once). When the frequent nonwords were spoken by the same talker, children showed no significant effect of perceptual frequency on production. When the frequent nonwords were spoken by different talkers, children produced them with fewer errors and shorter latencies. The results implicate token variability in perceptual learning. PMID:19338981

  4. Statistical frequency in perception affects children's lexical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richtsmeier, Peter T; Gerken, LouAnn; Goffman, Lisa; Hogan, Tiffany

    2009-06-01

    Children's early word production is influenced by the statistical frequency of speech sounds and combinations. Three experiments asked whether this production effect can be explained by a perceptual learning mechanism that is sensitive to word-token frequency and/or variability. Four-year-olds were exposed to nonwords that were either frequent (presented 10 times) or infrequent (presented once). When the frequent nonwords were spoken by the same talker, children showed no significant effect of perceptual frequency on production. When the frequent nonwords were spoken by different talkers, children produced them with fewer errors and shorter latencies. The results implicate token variability in perceptual learning.

  5. Does Religiosity Affect Perceptions of Racism in the New South?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Henderson

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In the 1950s in the American South religion was used by the White population to justify segregation. Though survey research the authors find that religious Whites perceive less institutional racism than their non-religious counterparts. Among Black respondents, the religious perceive more institutional racism than their non-religious counterparts. It seems that the legacy of traditional linkages between White churches and support for segregation in the South may still be found because religious White people are significantly less likely to acknowledge the persistence of institutional racism than White people who describe themselves as non-religious.

  6. Students' Perceptions of Factors that Affect College Funding Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Julia Y.; Fossey, W. Richard; Davis, William E.; Burnett, Michael F.; Stuhlmann, Janice; Suchy, Patricia A.

    2006-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the factors that college students perceive are important in helping them make good financial decisions about paying for a college education. The study categorizes and summarizes students' self-reported responses to an open-ended survey question about recommendations for changes in financial aid counseling practices.…

  7. Arthrokinetic information affects linear self-motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bles, W.; Jelmorini, M.; Bekkering, H.; Graaf, B. de

    1995-01-01

    De arthrokinetische lineaire bewegingsinformatie via handcontact kan een lineaire eigenbewegingssensatie te weeg brengen. Deze sensatie is dominant over in grootte vergelijkbare vestibulaire bewegingssensaties.

  8. Music Alters Visual Perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike

    2011-01-01

    Background: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e. g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the

  9. Studying Sensory Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  10. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2011-01-01

    The sensation of wetness is well-known but barely investigated. There are no specific wetness receptors in the skin, but the sensation is mediated by temperature and pressure perception. In our study, we have measured discrimination thresholds for the haptic perception of wetness of three di erent

  11. Principals' Perceptions of Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

  12. Singers' and Nonsingers' Perception of Vocal Vibrato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, A Anita; Subramanian, Uma

    2015-09-01

    Vibrato, a small, nevertheless an important component in the singing voice is known to enrich the overall singing voice quality. However, in the perception of overall performance, it is often neglected. Singing performance is often appreciated by a mixed audience of those who love music, but not necessarily sing and other singers who may or may not be teachers of singing. The objectives of the present study were aimed at investigating singers' and nonsingers' perception of vocal vibrato and its effect on the ratings of singer's overall performance. Prerecorded audio samples of the chorus of a hymn (How Great Thou Art) as sung by 10 singers (both men and women) were played via a speaker to two groups of judges which consisted of three experienced singers and three experienced nonsingers. The singer judges (SJs) were vocal instructors in Western classical, music theater, pop, and contemporary styles. Seven parameters (presence of vibrato, rate, extent, conspicuousness, quality, periodicity, and type) related to vibrato were evaluated through auditory perception by these two groups of judges on a rating scale developed specifically for the study, and one parameter evaluated singer's overall performance. Cohen's Kappa statistical analysis was used for inter-rater reliability within groups. Nonsinger judges (NSJs) within the group showed varied ratings as did SJs, yet SJs did have higher agreement than NSJs. Chi-square analysis was used across groups. Both groups were distinct from each other in their perception of vibrato. Ratings of singer's overall performance were not affected for NSJs, but certainly affected for SJ. It could not be concluded that ratings on singer's overall performance was affected as a result of vibrato. Since vibrato is often over-ridden by the singer's voice. But a rare occasion can arise where a vibrato may not sound pleasant and can affect the listener's perception of the singer's performance. Often a feedback from listeners would help monitor

  13. Representing affective facial expressions for robots and embodied conversational agents by facial landmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, C.; Ham, J.R.C.; Postma, E.O.; Midden, C.J.H.; Joosten, B.; Goudbeek, M.

    2013-01-01

    Affective robots and embodied conversational agents require convincing facial expressions to make them socially acceptable. To be able to virtually generate facial expressions, we need to investigate the relationship between technology and human perception of affective and social signals. Facial

  14. Toward Instructional Leadership: Principals' Perceptions of Large-Scale Assessment in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prytula, Michelle; Noonan, Brian; Hellsten, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a study of the perceptions that Saskatchewan school principals have regarding large-scale assessment reform and their perceptions of how assessment reform has affected their roles as principals. The findings revealed that large-scale assessments, especially provincial assessments, have affected the principal in Saskatchewan…

  15. The influence of pain-related expectations on intensity perception of non-painful somatosensory stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaman, Jonas; Wiech, Katja; Claes, Nathalie; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Van Diest, Ilse; Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The extent to which pain-related expectations, known to affect pain perception, also affect perception of non-painful sensations remains unclear, as well as the potential role of unpredictability in this context. METHODS: In a proprioceptive fear conditioning paradigm, various arm

  16. Children's Perceptions of TV Commercials and Products: The Effects of PSAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Peter Gilbert

    1982-01-01

    Investigated whether public service announcements (PSAs) on the nature of television advertising affect (1) children's awareness of advertising intent; (2) their belief in its truthfulness; and (3) their perception of advertised products. Data indicate that PSAs can influence children's perceptions of advertising's credibility and can affect their…

  17. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M; Freudenstein, Frederik; Böhmert, Christoph; Wiart, Joe; Croft, Rodney J

    2017-06-08

    An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study's multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance) and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance). Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means for improving the

  18. RF EMF Risk Perception Revisited: Is the Focus on Concern Sufficient for Risk Perception Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Peter M.; Freudenstein, Frederik; Böhmert, Christoph; Wiart, Joe; Croft, Rodney J.

    2017-01-01

    An implicit assumption of risk perception studies is that concerns expressed in questionnaires reflect concerns in everyday life. The aim of the present study is to check this assumption, i.e., the extrapolability of risk perceptions expressed in a survey, to risk perceptions in everyday life. To that end, risk perceptions were measured by a multidimensional approach. In addition to the traditional focus on measuring the magnitude of risk perceptions, the thematic relevance (how often people think about a risk issue) and the discursive relevance (how often people think about or discuss a risk issue) of risk perceptions were also collected. Taking into account this extended view of risk perception, an online survey was conducted in six European countries with 2454 respondents, referring to radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF) risk potentials from base stations, and access points, such as WiFi routers and cell phones. The findings reveal that the present study’s multidimensional approach to measuring risk perception provides a more differentiated understanding of RF EMF risk perception. High levels of concerns expressed in questionnaires do not automatically imply that these concerns are thematically relevant in everyday life. We use thematic relevance to distinguish between enduringly concerned (high concern according to both questionnaire and thematic relevance) and not enduringly concerned participants (high concern according to questionnaire but no thematic relevance). Furthermore, we provide data for the empirical value of this distinction: Compared to other participants, enduringly concerned subjects consider radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure to a greater extent as a moral and affective issue. They also see themselves as highly exposed to radio frequency electromagnetic fields. However, despite these differences, subjects with high levels of thematic relevance are nevertheless sensitive to exposure reduction as a means for improving the

  19. Towards a neural basis of music perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Siebel, Walter A

    2005-12-01

    Music perception involves complex brain functions underlying acoustic analysis, auditory memory, auditory scene analysis, and processing of musical syntax and semantics. Moreover, music perception potentially affects emotion, influences the autonomic nervous system, the hormonal and immune systems, and activates (pre)motor representations. During the past few years, research activities on different aspects of music processing and their neural correlates have rapidly progressed. This article provides an overview of recent developments and a framework for the perceptual side of music processing. This framework lays out a model of the cognitive modules involved in music perception, and incorporates information about the time course of activity of some of these modules, as well as research findings about where in the brain these modules might be located.

  20. Risk perception among nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation protection training and general employee training within the nuclear industry are designed to reduce workers' concerns about radiation and to develop skills that will protect against unwarranted exposures. Inaccurate perceptions about radiation by workers can cause a lack of adequate concern or exaggerated fears, which in turn can result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the worker or co-workers. The purpose of the study is threefold: (a) to identify health and safety concerns among nuclear power plant employees, (b) to discover variables that influence the perception of risk among employees, and (c) to ascertain if attitudes of the family, community, and the media affect workers' perception of risk. Workers identified five areas of concern: shift work, radiation, industrial safety, stress, and sabotage

  1. Colour-grapheme synaesthesia affects binocular vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L.E. Paffen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In colour-grapheme synaesthesia, non-coloured graphemes are perceived as being inherently coloured. In recent years, it has become evident that synaesthesia-inducing graphemes can affect visual processing in a manner comparable to real, physical colours. Here, we exploit the phenomenon of binocular rivalry in which incompatible images presented dichoptically compete for conscious expression. Importantly, the competition only arises if the two images are sufficiently different; if the difference between the images is small, the images will fuse into a single mixed percept. We show that achromatic graphemes that induce synaesthetic colour percepts evoke binocular rivalry, while without the synaesthetic percept, they do not. That is, compared to achromatically perceived graphemes, synaesthesia-inducing graphemes increase the predominance of binocular rivalry over binocular fusion. This finding shows that the synaesthetic colour experience can provide the conditions for evoking binocular rivalry, much like stimulus features that induce rivalry in normal vision.

  2. Embodied perception: A proposal to reconcile affordance and spatial perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; van der Kamp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Proffitt's embodied approach to perception is deeply indebted to Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception, in particular the idea that the primary objects of perception are affordances or what the environment offers for action. Yet, rather than directly addressing affordance perception,

  3. Perception of trigeminal mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filiou, Renée-Pier; Lepore, Franco; Bryant, Bruce; Lundström, Johan N; Frasnelli, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    The trigeminal system is a chemical sense allowing for the perception of chemosensory information in our environment. However, contrary to smell and taste, we lack a thorough understanding of the trigeminal processing of mixtures. We, therefore, investigated trigeminal perception using mixtures of 3 relatively receptor-specific agonists together with one control odor in different proportions to determine basic perceptual dimensions of trigeminal perception. We found that 4 main dimensions were linked to trigeminal perception: sensations of intensity, warmth, coldness, and pain. We subsequently investigated perception of binary mixtures of trigeminal stimuli by means of these 4 perceptual dimensions using different concentrations of a cooling stimulus (eucalyptol) mixed with a stimulus that evokes warmth perception (cinnamaldehyde). To determine if sensory interactions are mainly of central or peripheral origin, we presented stimuli in a physical "mixture" or as a "combination" presented separately to individual nostrils. Results showed that mixtures generally yielded higher ratings than combinations on the trigeminal dimensions "intensity," "warm," and "painful," whereas combinations yielded higher ratings than mixtures on the trigeminal dimension "cold." These results suggest dimension-specific interactions in the perception of trigeminal mixtures, which may be explained by particular interactions that may take place on peripheral or central levels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Neural networks for perception human and machine perception

    CERN Document Server

    Wechsler, Harry

    1991-01-01

    Neural Networks for Perception, Volume 1: Human and Machine Perception focuses on models for understanding human perception in terms of distributed computation and examples of PDP models for machine perception. This book addresses both theoretical and practical issues related to the feasibility of both explaining human perception and implementing machine perception in terms of neural network models. The book is organized into two parts. The first part focuses on human perception. Topics on network model ofobject recognition in human vision, the self-organization of functional architecture in t

  5. Perceptions of control in adults with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlert, S

    1994-01-01

    That psychosocial problems are extant in epilepsy is evidenced by a suicide rate among epileptic persons five times that of the general population and an unemployment rate estimated to be more than twice that of the population as a whole. External perceptions of control secondary to repeated episodes of seizure activity that generalize to the social sphere have been implicated as causes of these problems. The hypothesis that individuals who continue to have seizures become more and more external in perceptions of control was tested by a survey mailed to a sample of individuals with epilepsy in a metropolitan area of the Midwest. Dependent variables were, scores on instruments measuring locus of control and attributional style. The independent variable was a measure of seizure control based on present age, age at onset, and length of time since last seizure. Gender, socioeconomic status, and certain parenting characteristics were included as control variables, as they are also known to affect perceptions of control. Analysis by multiple regression techniques supported the study's hypothesis when perceptions of control was conceptualized as learned helplessness for bad, but not for good, events. The hypothesis was not confirmed when perceptions of control was conceptualized as either general or health locus of control.

  6. Embodied affectivity: On moving and being moved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFuchs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behaviour strongly influences one’s emotional reaction towards certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject’s bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion. Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colours or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one’s own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner’s affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  7. Embodied Perception: A Proposal to Reconcile Affordance and Spatial Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ca?al-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Kamp, John

    2015-01-01

    Proffitt's embodied approach to perception is deeply indebted to Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception, in particular the idea that the primary objects of perception are affordances or what the environment offers for action. Yet, rather than directly addressing affordance perception, most of the empirical work evaluating Proffitt's approach focuses on the perception of spatial properties of the environment. We propose that theoretical and empirical efforts should be directed towar...

  8. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  9. Perception as a closed-loop convergence process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahissar, Ehud; Assa, Eldad

    2016-05-09

    Perception of external objects involves sensory acquisition via the relevant sensory organs. A widely-accepted assumption is that the sensory organ is the first station in a serial chain of processing circuits leading to an internal circuit in which a percept emerges. This open-loop scheme, in which the interaction between the sensory organ and the environment is not affected by its concurrent downstream neuronal processing, is strongly challenged by behavioral and anatomical data. We present here a hypothesis in which the perception of external objects is a closed-loop dynamical process encompassing loops that integrate the organism and its environment and converging towards organism-environment steady-states. We discuss the consistency of closed-loop perception (CLP) with empirical data and show that it can be synthesized in a robotic setup. Testable predictions are proposed for empirical distinction between open and closed loop schemes of perception.

  10. Influence of workplace demands on nurses' perception of patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanujam, Rangaraj; Abrahamson, Kathleen; Anderson, James G

    2008-06-01

    Patient safety is an ongoing challenge in the design and delivery of health-care services. As registered nurses play an integral role in patient safety, further examination of the link between nursing work and patient safety is warranted. The present study examines the relationship between nurses' perceptions of job demands and nurses' perceptions of patient safety. Structural equation modeling is used to analyze the data collected from a survey of 430 registered nurses at two community hospitals in the USA. As hypothesized, nurses' perception of patient safety decreases as the job demands increase. The level of personal control over practice directly affects nurses' perception of the ability to assure patient well-being. Nurses who work full-time and are highly educated have a decreased perception of patient safety, as well. The significant relationship between job demands and patient safety confirms that nurses make a connection between their working conditions and the ability to deliver safe care.

  11. Colour perception in ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaschewski, T.; Ruppert, S; Tannock, R.; Albrecht, B.; Becker, A.; Uebel, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Rothenberger, A.

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour

  12. Perceptions of pork quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with consumer perceptions of food quality before and after consuming the product, and with the relationship between quality perception and the actural physiological characteristics of the product. The paper is work in progress and with an investigation of how German consumers per...... of the pork on expected and experienced quality. The study uses the Total Food Quality Model (Grunert et al, 1996) as a theoretical framework.......This paper deals with consumer perceptions of food quality before and after consuming the product, and with the relationship between quality perception and the actural physiological characteristics of the product. The paper is work in progress and with an investigation of how German consumers...... perceive the quality of pork (n=200). The main objectives of the study are 1) to investigate which factors determine expected and experienced quality of pork, 2) to investigate the relation between exp and experienced quality, and 3) to investigate the impact of the physiological characteristics...

  13. Teachers perception of school

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This paper is part of MA thesis in which primary school teachers' perceptions of was explored. The study was ... of relevance, management, and result in enhancement of students learning, and obstructions. ...... Professional Ethics, Counseling.

  14. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...... of interdisciplinary perspectives, ranging from theoretical discussion of concepts to findings from recent scientific studies. It incorporates contributions from leading philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, and an artificial intelligence theorist. The contributions take a range of positions with respect...

  15. Perception, time of perception, perception of the time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barata, André

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available From a conceptual point of view, time is independent of its experience. That is: it can be given a conceptual description of time without any reference to terms related to the subjective consciousness of time. But concerning a phenomenology of that subjective experience of time, it can it be showed that such experience of time is, in itself, temporal. The very same terms employed in a conceptual description of time – terms like “change” and “duration”– are implied in the phenomenological description of every perception, including perception of time. This authorizes a characterization of subjective time experience as subjective time. At last, based on temporal nature of perception of time, I will suggest an explanation for our common experience of asymmetries subjective time and objective time.Desde un punto de vista conceptual, el tiempo es independiente respecto de la experiencia del tiempo. Es decir: puede darse una descripción conceptual del tiempo sin referencia ninguna a términos relacionados con la conciencia subjetiva del tiempo. Pero en lo concerniente a una fenomenología de esa experiencia subjetiva del tiempo, puede revelarse que tal experiencia de tiempo es, ella en sí misma, temporal? Los mismísimos términos empleados en una descripción conceptual del tiempo, como “cambio” y “duración”, están implicados en la descripción fenomenológica de toda percepción, incluida la percepción del tiempo. Esto autoriza una caracterización de la experiencia subjetiva del tiempo como tiempo subjetivo. Finalmente, sobre la base de la naturaleza temporal de la percepción del tiempo, sugeriré una explicación racional de nuestra experiencia común de asimetrías entre el tiempo subjetivo y el tiempo objetivo.

  16. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  17. Risk perception and benefits perception. Survey results and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, R.; Remedi, J.; Baron, J.; Caspani, C.

    2000-01-01

    The fact that the risks deriving from different activities involving the same radiation exposure are seen very differently by a single population is a highly significant one. Exactly identical risks are considered oppositely, depending on the origin of radiation (whether produced by medical applications or by nuclear power plants, resulting from natural radiation or from artificial radiation). It appears as if there was good radiation and bad radiation..! One of the purposes of the paper is the discussion of causes. The acceptance of a given risk by a certain section of the population is closely related to the benefits that the group expects to receive-either consciously or unconsciously-from the activity producing the risk. Consequently, an analysis of the factors influencing the eventual rejection of a practice should explore not only fears, but also hopes...! On the basis of a risk-perception survey carried out in a population sector attending hospitals-including both patients and physicians-, a prior objective analysis of the results obtained was performed and, later on, the various statements by those surveyed were studied. The design of the survey allowed for a comparative assessment of the perception of different risks depending on the people's educational and social level. An epistemological study was made on the validity involved in the use of the data resulting from the survey, so as to reach different conclusions. The population's opinion about the capacity for response, the qualification and the mitigation means available to the State authorities in order to face an eventual radiological emergency plays a leading role in risk perception. In an analysis of the relevant factors involved in risk and benefits perception by the population (in the real world), attention must be paid to the existence of organized opinion groups representing the interest of a given sector. Of course, the population's confidence in the experts providing the information is a key

  18. Emotion perception after moderate-severe traumatic brain injury: The valence effect and the role of working memory, processing speed, and nonverbal reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, H.; Dethier, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Westbrook, R.F.; McDonald, S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) impairs emotion perception. Perception of negative emotions (sadness, disgust, fear, and anger) is reportedly affected more than positive (happiness and surprise) ones. It has been argued that this reflects a specialized neural network underpinning negative

  19. Emotion perception after moderate–severe traumatic brain injury: The valence effect and the role of working memory, processing speed, and nonverbal reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenberg, H.; Dethier, M.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Westbrook, R.F.; McDonald, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) impairs emotion perception. Perception of negative emotions (sadness, disgust, fear, and anger) is reportedly affected more than positive (happiness and surprise) ones. It has been argued that this reflects a specialized neural network underpinning negative

  20. Residents' perceptions of tourism impacts and attitudes towards tourism policies.

    OpenAIRE

    Brida, J.G.; Disegna, Marta; Osti, L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore residents' perceptions of tourism impacts and how they affect attitudes towards local tourism policies. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of community attachment and employment sector of residents. This study presents the results of a quantitative survey among residing families of a small mountain community located in the North-East of Italy. The findings reveal that residents perceptions on economic, environmental and socio-cultural impacts ...

  1. How our body influences our perception of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Roy Harris

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the fact that the senses are embodied is necessary for an organism to interpret sensory information. Before a unified perception of the world can be formed, sensory signals must be processed with reference to body representation. The various attributes of the body such as shape, proportion, posture, and movement can be both derived from the various sensory systems and can affect perception of the world (including the body itself. In this review we examine the relationships between sensory and motor information, body representations, and perceptions of the world and the body. We provide several examples of how the body affects perception (including but not limited to body perception. First we show that body orientation effects visual distance perception and object orientation. Also, visual-auditory crossmodal-correspondences depend on the orientation of the body: audio high frequencies correspond to a visual up defined by both gravity and body coordinates. Next, we show that perceived locations of touch is affected by the orientation of the head and eyes on the body, suggesting a visual component to coding body locations. Additionally, the reference-frame used for coding touch locations seems to depend on whether gaze is static or moved relative to the body during the tactile task. The perceived attributes of the body such as body size, affect tactile perception even at the level of detection thresholds and two-point discrimination. Next, long-range tactile masking provides clues to the posture of the body in a canonical body schema. Finally, ownership of seen body parts depends on the orientation and perspective of the body part in view. Together, all of these findings demonstrate how sensory and motor information, body representations, and perceptions (of the body and the world are interdependent.

  2. Neurophysiological Influence of Musical Training on Speech Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Shahin, Antoine J.

    2011-01-01

    Does musical training affect our perception of speech? For example, does learning to play a musical instrument modify the neural circuitry for auditory processing in a way that improves one’s ability to perceive speech more clearly in noisy environments? If so, can speech perception in individuals with hearing loss, who struggle in noisy situations, benefit from musical training? While music and speech exhibit some specialization in neural processing, there is evidence suggesting that skill...

  3. Climate change and coastal environmental risk perceptions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlton, Stuart J; Jacobson, Susan K

    2013-11-30

    Understanding public perceptions of climate change risks is a prerequisite for effective climate communication and adaptation. Many studies of climate risk perceptions have either analyzed a general operationalization of climate change risk or employed a case-study approach of specific adaptive processes. This study takes a different approach, examining attitudes toward 17 specific, climate-related coastal risks and cognitive, affective, and risk-specific predictors of risk perception. A survey of 558 undergraduates revealed that risks to the physical environment were a greater concern than economic or biological risks. Perceptions of greater physical environment risks were significantly associated with having more pro-environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Democratic-leaning. Perceptions of greater economic risks were significantly associated with having more negative environmental attitudes, being female, and being more Republican-leaning. Perceptions of greater biological risks were significantly associated with more positive environmental attitudes. The findings suggest that focusing on physical environment risks maybe more salient to this audience than communications about general climate change adaptation. The results demonstrate that climate change beliefs and risk perceptions are multifactorial and complex and are shaped by individuals' attitudes and basic beliefs. Climate risk communications need to apply this knowledge to better target cognitive and affective processes of specific audiences, rather than providing simple characterizations of risks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Crossmodal influences on visual perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Ladan; Kim, Robyn

    2010-09-01

    Vision is generally considered the dominant sensory modality; self-contained and independent of other senses. In this article, we will present recent results that contradict this view, and show that visual perception can be strongly altered by sound and touch, and such alterations can occur even at early stages of processing, as early as primary visual cortex. We will first review the behavioral evidence demonstrating modulation of visual perception by other modalities. As extreme examples of such modulations, we will describe two visual illusions induced by sound, and a visual illusion induced by touch. Next, we will discuss studies demonstrating modulation of activity in visual areas by stimulation of other modalities, and discuss possible pathways that could underpin such interactions. This will be followed by a discussion of how crossmodal interactions can affect visual learning and adaptation. We will review several studies showing crossmodal effects on visual learning. We will conclude with a discussion of computational principles governing these crossmodal interactions, and review several recent studies that demonstrate that these interactions are statistically optimal.

  5. Measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Margarida Bernardo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this master thesis is to identify which dimensions of convenience affect consumers’ intention of using online shopping. Also it explores a conceptual model to measuring consumer perceptions of online shopping convenience. This paper contains prospects about online consumer behavior, and the results have important implications for retailers, managers and marketers, related to online shopping strategies. An empirical investigation was carried out to test the hypotheses. In order t...

  6. [Perception of health risks: psychological and social factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzenhäuser, S; Epp, A

    2009-12-01

    This article reviews central findings and current developments of psychological and sociological research on the perception of health risks. Risk perception is influenced by numerous psychological, social, political, and cultural factors. These factors can be categorized into (a) risk characteristics, (b) characteristics of the risk perceiving person and his/her situation, and (c) characteristics of risk communication. Thus, besides individual cognitive and affective processing of risk information, social processes of risk amplification (e.g., media effects) are also involved in the construction of individual risk perceptions. We discuss the recommendations for health risk communication that follow from these findings with regard to different communication goals.

  7. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected

  8. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  9. Stroke risk perception among participants of a stroke awareness campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraywinkel, Klaus; Heidrich, Jan; Heuschmann, Peter U; Wagner, Markus; Berger, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    Background Subjective risk factor perception is an important component of the motivation to change unhealthy life styles. While prior studies assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge, little is known about determinants of the individual perception of stroke risk. Methods Survey by mailed questionnaire among 1483 participants of a prior public stroke campaign in Germany. Participants had been informed about their individual stroke risk based on the Framingham stroke risk score. Stroke risk factor knowledge, perception of lifetime stroke risk and risk factor status were included in the questionnaire, and the determinants of good risk factor knowledge and high stroke risk perception were identified using logistic regression models. Results Overall stroke risk factor knowledge was good with 67–96% of the participants recognizing established risk factors. The two exceptions were diabetes (recognized by 49%) and myocardial infarction (57%). Knowledge of a specific factor was superior among those affected by it. 13% of all participants considered themselves of having a high stroke risk, 55% indicated a moderate risk. All major risk factors contributed significantly to the perception of being at high stroke risk, but the effects of age, sex and education were non-significant. Poor self-rated health was additionally associated with high individual stroke risk perception. Conclusion Stroke risk factor knowledge was high in this study. The self perception of an increased stroke risk was associated with established risk factors as well as low perception of general health. PMID:17371603

  10. Explaining citizens’ perceptions of international climate-policy relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Faure, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically analyses the antecedents of citizens’ perceptions of the relevance of international climate policy. Its use of representative surveys in the USA, China and Germany controls for different environmental attitudes and socio-economic factors between countries. The findings of the micro-econometric analysis suggest that the perceived relevance of international climate policy is positively affected by its perceived effectiveness, approval of the key topics discussed at international climate conferences, and environmental attitudes, but is not affected by perceived procedural justice. A higher level of perceived trust in international climate policy was positively related to perceived relevance in the USA and in China, but not in Germany. Citizens who felt that they were well informed and that their position was represented at climate summits were more likely to perceive international climate policy as relevant in China in particular. Generally, the results show only weak evidence of socio-demographic effects. - Highlights: • Perceptions of climate-policy relevance increase with perceptions of effectiveness. • In China and the USA, trust increases perceptions of climate-policy relevance. • Environmental attitudes are related to perceptions of climate-policy relevance. • In China, well-informed citizens perceive climate policy as more relevant. • Socio-demographics only weakly affect perceptions of climate-policy relevance.

  11. Dreams, Perception, and Creative Realization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaskin, Katie

    2015-10-01

    This article draws on the ethnography of Aboriginal Australia to argue that perceptual openness, extending from waking life into dreaming experience, provides an important cognitive framework for the apprehension of dreamt experience in these contexts. I argue that this perceptual openness is analogous to the "openness to experience" described as a personality trait that had been linked with dream recall frequency (among other things). An implication of identifying perceptual openness at a cultural rather than at an individual level is two-fold. It provides an example of the ways in which cultural differences affect perception, indicative of cognitive diversity; and, given the relationship between dreams and creativity suggested anecdotally and through research, a cultural orientation toward perceptual openness is also likely to have implications for the realization of creativity that occurs through dreams. Such creativity though cannot be separated from the relational context in which such dreamt material is elaborated and understood. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Perceptions of tutors and students on affectivity and conflict mediation in an e learning course for the Brazilian police/ Percepciones de tutores y alumnos acerca de la afectividad en la mediación de conflictos en un curso a distancia de la policía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Tenório

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicts are inherent to human relations and should not be ignored; however, they are a lesser component in e-learning discussion. The role of the tutor and the importance of affectivity in conflict mediation in a course offered to Military Police sergeants of a Brazilian state were studied. The perceptions of seven tutors and sixty-four students were collected in a questionnaire prepared with Google Forms. For those subjected to it, conflicts in the virtual learning environment were not common, probably due to the fact that the interactions between students and tutors were considered respectful and friendly. Nevertheless, they expressed their views on which actions were expected in the event of a conflict. In the event of a conflict between students, the tutor should act as a mediator, in an impartial, friendly and firm manner; in a student‑and‑tutor event, one should seek conciliation and consensus through dialogue, although the placement of a temporary mediator was considered unnecessary. Both tutors and students felt that affectivity would help reduce or mediate conflicts. In the understanding of the students, keeping relations based on ethics and on mutual acceptance and respect would mitigate conflicts between colleagues. Friendliness was chosen as the most important social-affective competence a tutor should rely on in conflict mediation. ________________________________________________________ Los conflictos son inherentes a las relaciones humanas y no deben ser ignorados, sin embargo, son escasamente abordados en educación a distancia. En este trabajo se investigó el papel del tutor y la importancia de la afectividad en la mediación de conflictos, en un curso de sargentos de una escuela virtual para la cualificación profesional de la policía militar de un estado brasileño. Fueron recopiladas las percepciones de siete tutores y sesenta y cuatro alumnos a través de un cuestionario elaborado y disponible en Google Forms. Para

  13. Percepção do idoso dos comportamentos afetivos expressos pela equipe de enfermagem Percepción del anciano frente a los comportamientos afectivos expresados por el equipo de enfermería Perception of the elderly in the view of affective behaviors expressed by the nursing team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Prochet

    2011-12-01

    recibido por los profesionales de enfermería en el que se refiere a la dimensión verbal, siendo el comportamiento más evidente la demostración de sinceridad. Las actitudes no verbales de ser oído/escuchado y tocado con delicadeza asumieron evaluación negativa. La afectividad en las acciones de enfermería es percibida por los ancianos, lo que interfiere en la evaluación de la calidad de la asistencia.Objective: To identify the perception of affective behavior, by the elderly hospitalized, from the care provided by the nursing team. Material and methodology: Quantitative study, cross-sectional and developed with 28 individuals. It was used a tool consisted of 21 types of verbal and nonverbal behavior. Results: The positive results of the actions included verbal behaviors to talk (57.2%, guide (60.7%, respect (50%, provide security (44.6% and demonstrate honesty (96.4%. The positive of non-verbal dimension joined aspects related to respect (63.4%, touching (46.4%, hearing / listening (23.2% and the look as a positive expression (71.4%. Conclusion: Most elderly people perceived as positive the affectivity of care received by the Nursing Team regarding the verbal dimension, with an emphasis on the honesty. The non-verbal attitudes of being heard/listened and touched gently turned into a negative assessment. The affection in nursing actions is perceived by the elderly and these interfere on the assessment of quality of care.

  14. How does real affect affect affect recognition in speech?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    2009-01-01

    The automatic analysis of affect is a relatively new and challenging multidisciplinary research area that has gained a lot of interest over the past few years. The research and development of affect recognition systems has opened many opportunities for improving the interaction between man and

  15. Emotion perception and empathy: An individual differences test of relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olderbak, Sally; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    Numerous theories posit a positive relation between perceiving emotion expressed in the face of a stranger (emotion perception) and feeling or cognitively understanding the emotion of that person (affective and cognitive empathy, respectively). However, when relating individual differences in emotion perception with individual differences in affective or cognitive empathy, effect sizes are contradictory, but often not significantly different from zero. Based on 4 studies (study ns range from 97 to 486 persons; n total = 958) that differ from one another on many design and sample characteristics, applying advanced modeling techniques to control for measurement error, we estimate relations between affective empathy, cognitive empathy, and emotion perception. Relations are tested separately for each of the 6 basic emotions (an emotion-specific model) as well as across all emotions (an emotion-general model). Reflecting the literature, effect sizes and statistical significance with an emotion-general model vary across the individual studies (rs range from -.001 to .24 for emotion perception with affective empathy and -.01 to .39 for emotion perception with cognitive empathy), with a meta-analysis of these results indicating emotion perception is weakly related with affective (r = .13, p = .003) and cognitive empathy (r = .13, p = .05). Relations are not strengthened in an emotion-specific model. We argue that the weak effect sizes and inconsistency across studies reflects a neglected distinction of measurement approach-specifically, empathy is assessed as typical behavior and emotion perception is assessed as maximal effort-and conclude with considerations regarding the measurement of each construct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Affective dimensions of intergroup humiliation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Leidner

    Full Text Available Despite the wealth of theoretical claims about the emotion of humiliation and its effect on human relations, there has been a lack of empirical research investigating what it means to experience humiliation. We studied the affective characteristics of humiliation, comparing the emotional experience of intergroup humiliation to two other emotions humiliation is often confused with: anger and shame. The defining characteristics of humiliation were low levels of guilt and high levels of other-directed outrage (like anger and unlike shame, and high levels of powerlessness (like shame and unlike anger. Reasons for the similarities and differences of humiliation with anger and shame are discussed in terms of perceptions of undeserved treatment and injustice. Implications for understanding the behavioral consequences of humiliation and future work investigating the role of humiliation in social life are discussed.

  17. Seismic risk perception test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  18. Does Political Ideology Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper asks the question whether political ideology affects economic growth. Voters may demand inefficient levels of redistribution and government intervention, and they may care too little for aspects that really matter for the economy. Their norms and perceptions of society might, via...... their political ideology, affect economic performance. The paper presents evidence suggesting that rightwing societies have grown faster in the last decades than other democratic societies. Further analysis suggests that these societies develop better legal systems and less government intervention, which in turn...

  19. Perception of risk from radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovic, P.

    1996-01-01

    Perceptions of risk from radiation have been studied systematically for about 20 years. This paper summarises the key findings and conclusions from this research with regard to the nature of risk perceptions, the impacts of these perceptions, and the need for communication about radiological hazards. Perhaps the most important generalisation from research in this area is that there is no uniform or consistent perception of radiation risks. Public perception and acceptance is determined by the context in which the radiation is used -and the very different reactions to different uses provide insight into the nature of perception and the determinants of acceptable risk. (author)

  20. Affective design identification on the development of batik convection product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastawa, H.; Purwaningsih, R.

    2017-11-01

    The affective design is increasingly applied to product development in order to meet the desires and preferences of customers. Batik is a traditional Indonesian culture containing historical and cultural values. The development of batik design is one of the efforts to strengthen the identity and superiority of Indonesia’s creative industries as well as to preserve batik as the cultural heritage of the nation. Batik product designs offered by the manufacturers do not necessarily correspond with the wishes of consumers, especially the affective values involved. Therefore it is necessary to identify consumer perceptions of convection- based batik product in the form of clothing and fabrics, especially the affective value as the consideration for the designer or manufacturer to develop design alternatives to batik convection products. This research aims to obtain information on consumer affective value, to identify the affective value perception differences among X and Y Generation and to classify affective value in the corresponding cluster of the batik products convection. This study uses Kansei engineering to determine the perception of affective design in the form of Kansei word. Cluster Analysis was used to form clusters that classify affective value of the same class. The results showed that there were 16 pairs of Kansei word which was worth as an affective consumer desire, the 3 indicators that had significant differences among X and Y Generation and 4 clusters with different characteristics.

  1. The perception of hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The fourth chapter deals with the profusion of factors determining the differing assessment of hazards by our society. Subjective factors influencing risk perception comprise, among others, general knowledge and recognition of a hazard; the degree of voluntariness when taking the risk and its influencibility; the problem of large scale accidents; immediate and delayed results. Next to the objective and the subjective risks, the individual and the social or collective risks are assessed differently. The author dicusses in detail recent investigations into and study methods for the determination of risk perception, while eliminating systematic trends from subjective perception since common assessments are shared by whole groups of individuals time and again which allow a better understanding of today's handling of hazards. (HSCH) [de

  2. Pterins and affective disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Hoekstra (Rocco)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThe pathophysiology of affective disorders is largely unknown. In patients with various affective disorders the activity of pterins and related amino acids were investigated before and after clinical treatment. In particular the bipolar affective disorder could be

  3. The influence of dispositional optimism on post-visit anxiety and risk perception accuracy among breast cancer genetic counselees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, B. M.; Albada, A.; Bensing, J. M.; Ausems, M. G. E. M.; van Dulmen, A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective uch is unknown about the influence of dispositional optimism and affective communication on genetic counselling outcomes. This study investigated the influence of counselees' optimism on the counselees' risk perception accuracy and anxiety, while taking into account the affective

  4. Brain mechanisms for simple perception and bistable perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Megan; Arteaga, Daniel; He, Biyu J

    2013-08-27

    When faced with ambiguous sensory inputs, subjective perception alternates between the different interpretations in a stochastic manner. Such multistable perception phenomena have intrigued scientists and laymen alike for over a century. Despite rigorous investigations, the underlying mechanisms of multistable perception remain elusive. Recent studies using multivariate pattern analysis revealed that activity patterns in posterior visual areas correlate with fluctuating percepts. However, increasing evidence suggests that vision--and perception at large--is an active inferential process involving hierarchical brain systems. We applied searchlight multivariate pattern analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging signals across the human brain to decode perceptual content during bistable perception and simple unambiguous perception. Although perceptually reflective activity patterns during simple perception localized predominantly to posterior visual regions, bistable perception involved additionally many higher-order frontoparietal and temporal regions. Moreover, compared with simple perception, both top-down and bottom-up influences were dramatically enhanced during bistable perception. We further studied the intermittent presentation of ambiguous images--a condition that is known to elicit perceptual memory. Compared with continuous presentation, intermittent presentation recruited even more higher-order regions and was accompanied by further strengthened top-down influences but relatively weakened bottom-up influences. Taken together, these results strongly support an active top-down inferential process in perception.

  5. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  6. Nuclear risks perception and information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Hubert, P.

    1994-01-01

    In this text we present the studies made by the IPSN (Institute of Protection and Nuclear Safety) on the nuclear risks perception by the public and we compare this perception of risks with other industries

  7. Preschool Children's Perceptions of Their Parents: A Comparison of Children From Married and Divorced Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Sandra

    1993-01-01

    Young children's perceptions of their parents have been shown to affect responses to parents, and to be relevant in personality development and self-esteem. Typically, research examining children's perceptions of their parents focused on children from intact families. Yet, with the frequent occurrence of divorce in our society, and the trauma and lifestyle changes often associated with marital dissolution, it is possible that children's perceptions of their parents may also change. This ...

  8. Music Training and Education Slow the Deterioration of Music Perception Produced by Presbycusis in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Gómez, Felipe N.; Véliz, Guillermo; Rojas, Marcos; Martínez, Cristián; Olmedo, Rubén; Panussis, Felipe; Dagnino-Subiabre, Alexies; Delgado, Carolina; Delano, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    The perception of music depends on the normal function of the peripheral and central auditory system. Aged subjects without hearing loss have altered music perception, including pitch and temporal features. Presbycusis or age-related hearing loss is a frequent condition in elderly people, produced by neurodegenerative processes that affect the cochlear receptor cells and brain circuits involved in auditory perception. Clinically, presbycusis patients have bilateral high-frequency hearing loss...

  9. Quality of life in unaffected twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinberg, Maj; Bech, Per; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The disability and hardship associated with affective disorder is shared by the family members of affective patients and might affect the family member's quality of life. METHOD: In a cross-sectional, high-risk, case-control study, monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins with (High......-Risk twins) and without (the control group/Low-Risk twins) a co-twin history of affective disorder were identified through nationwide registers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that a genetic liability to affective disorder is associated with a lower perception of quality...

  10. Timbre Brownfield Prioritization Tool to support effective brownfield\

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pizol, L.; Zabeo, A.; Klusáček, Petr; Giubilato, E.; Critto, A.; Frantál, Bohumil; Martinát, Stanislav; Kunc, Josef; Osman, Robert; Bartke, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 166, č. 166 (2016), s. 178-192 ISSN 0301-4797 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11035 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * prioritisation * Web-based tool Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 4.010, year: 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.09.030

  11. Absolute Pitch: Effects of Timbre on Note-Naming Ability

    OpenAIRE

    Vanzella, Patr?cia; Schellenberg, E. Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Background Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify or produce isolated musical tones. It is evident primarily among individuals who started music lessons in early childhood. Because AP requires memory for specific pitches as well as learned associations with verbal labels (i.e., note names), it represents a unique opportunity to study interactions in memory between linguistic and nonlinguistic information. One untested hypothesis is that the pitch of voices may be difficult for AP poss...

  12. Affective Responses to Acute Exercise in Elderly Impaired Males: The Moderating Effects of Self-Efficacy and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Edward; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined relationships between perceptions of personal efficacy and affective responsibility to acute exercise in elderly male inpatients and outpatients at a Veterans Administration Medical Center. A significant change in feelings of fatigue was revealed over time but exercise effects on affect were shown to be moderated by perceptions of…

  13. [Time perception in depressed and manic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi-yuan; Ji, Yi-fu; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ping; Jiang, Yu-bao

    2010-02-02

    To investigate the time perception in affective disorders by using neuropsychological tests and to try to elucidate its neurobiochemical mechanism. Using a time reproduction task, a comparative study was conducted for 28 depressive patients, 22 manic patients, and 26 age and education level matched healthy persons as healthy controls. Both depressive patients and manic patients are abnormal (P reproduction task in patients were not related to age, education, duration of illness, number of admission (P > 0.05), but had some relation to severity of illness.And the results were positively correlated with the score of HAMD in depressive patients (six times: r = 0.44, 0.46, 0.73, 0.61, 0.55, 0.50, P < 0.05), but negatively with the score of BRMS in manic patients (six times: r = -0.57, -0.54, -0.71, -0.69, -0.80, -0.71, P < 0.05). Emotion will affect one's time perception. And the neurotransmitter in brain may participate in the processes of time perception.

  14. Core affect and the psychological construction of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James A

    2003-01-01

    At the heart of emotion, mood, and any other emotionally charged event are states experienced as simply feeling good or bad, energized or enervated. These states--called core affect--influence reflexes, perception, cognition, and behavior and are influenced by many causes internal and external, but people have no direct access to these causal connections. Core affect can therefore be experienced as free-floating (mood) or can be attributed to some cause (and thereby begin an emotional episode). These basic processes spawn a broad framework that includes perception of the core-affect-altering properties of stimuli, motives, empathy, emotional meta-experience, and affect versus emotion regulation; it accounts for prototypical emotional episodes, such as fear and anger, as core affect attributed to something plus various nonemotional processes.

  15. Impact of hospital security programmes and workplace aggression on nurse perceptions of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blando, James D; O'Hagan, Emily; Casteel, Carri; Nocera, Mary-Alice; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-04-01

    To assess how nurses' perception of their safety and risk of violence was affected by their work environment and whether this perception correlated with their actual risk. The work environment has an impact on nurses' perception of their risk of violence and this perception affects worker productivity, quality, employee retention, worker satisfaction and their actual safety. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in person of 314 emergency department nurses and 143 psychiatric nurses, and assault data was collected from injury logs. This study found that nurses in the emergency and psychiatric units differed in their perception of violence and safety. The workplace elements that led to a perception of lower risk of violence were not correlated with a lower rate of injury from violent acts. The nurses' beliefs about the adequacy of security equipment, security guards and the frequency of verbal abuse were strongly correlated with perceived safety. Several factors that influence nurses' perception of their risk of violence are not well correlated with their actual risk. Managers must address workplace elements that affect nurse perceptions because this has an impact on quality and employee retention. They must also address factors that have an impact on the actual risk of violence because this study showed, for the first time, that these may differ from perceptions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Perception, Illusion, and Magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Paul R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a psychology course in which magical illusions were used for teaching the principles of sensation and perception. Students read psychological, philosophical, historical, and magical literature on illusion, performed a magical illusion, and analyzed the illusion in terms of the psychological principles involved. (Author/KC)

  17. Colour Perception in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Ruppert, Sinje; Tannock, Rosemary; Albrecht, Bjorn; Becker, Andreas; Uebel, Henrik; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Rothenberger, Aribert

    2006-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with unexplained impairments on speeded naming of coloured stimuli. These deficits may reflect hypofunctioning retinal dopaminergic mechanisms impairing particularly blue-yellow colour discrimination. Colour perception and rapid colour naming ability were investigated in 14 children…

  18. Directional loudness perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka

    developed. The research and modeling of loudness have mainly been concerned with the temporal and spectral aspects of sounds, while the spatial aspects have mostly been overlooked. This PhD thesis investigates the spatial aspects of loudness perception, namely, how does the direction from which a sound...

  19. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Dolfine Kosters, N.; Daanen, h.a.m.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2012-01-01

    In daily life, people interact with textiles of different degrees of wetness, but little is known about the me-chanics of wetness perception. This paper describes an experiment with six conditions regarding haptic dis-crimination of the wetness of fabrics. Three materials were used: cotton wool,

  20. Haptic perception of wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kosters, N.D.; Kappers, Astrid M.L.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    In daily life, people interact with textiles of different degrees of wetness, but little is known about the mechanics of wetness perception. This paper describes an experiment with six conditions regarding haptic discrimination of the wetness of fabrics. Three materials were used: cotton wool,