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  1. U-series dating using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    U-series dating is based on the decay of the two long-lived isotopes 238 U(τ 1/2 =4.47 x 10 9 years) and 235 U (τ 1/2 0.7 x 10 9 years). 238 U and its intermediate daughter isotopes 234 U (τ 1/2 = 245.4 ka) and 230 Th (τ 1/2 = 75.4 ka) have been the main focus of recently developed mass spectrometric techniques (Edwards et al., 1987) while the other less frequently used decay chain is based on the decay 235 U to 231 Pa (τ 1/2 = 32.8 ka). Both the 238 U and 235 U decay chains terminate at the stable isotopes 206 Pb and 207 Pb respectively. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) has a number of inherent advantages, mainly the ability to measure isotopic ratios at high precision on relatively small samples. In spite of these now obvious advantages, it is only since the mid-1980's when Chen et al., (1986) made the first precise measurements of 234 U and 232 Th in seawater followed by Edwards et al., (1987) who made combined 234 U- 230 Th measurements, was the full potential of mass spectrometric methods first realised. Several examples are given to illustrate various aspects of TIMS U-series

  2. U-series dating using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, M.T. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Earth Science

    1999-11-01

    U-series dating is based on the decay of the two long-lived isotopes{sup 238}U({tau}{sub 1/2}=4.47 x 10{sup 9} years) and {sup 235}U ({tau}{sub 1/2} 0.7 x 10{sup 9} years). {sup 238}U and its intermediate daughter isotopes {sup 234}U ({tau}{sub 1/2} = 245.4 ka) and {sup 230}Th ({tau}{sub 1/2} = 75.4 ka) have been the main focus of recently developed mass spectrometric techniques (Edwards et al., 1987) while the other less frequently used decay chain is based on the decay {sup 235}U to {sup 231}Pa ({tau}{sub 1/2} = 32.8 ka). Both the {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U decay chains terminate at the stable isotopes {sup 206}Pb and {sup 207}Pb respectively. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) has a number of inherent advantages, mainly the ability to measure isotopic ratios at high precision on relatively small samples. In spite of these now obvious advantages, it is only since the mid-1980`s when Chen et al., (1986) made the first precise measurements of {sup 234}U and {sup 232}Th in seawater followed by Edwards et al., (1987) who made combined {sup 234}U-{sup 230}Th measurements, was the full potential of mass spectrometric methods first realised. Several examples are given to illustrate various aspects of TIMS U-series 9 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Magmatic Longevity Constrained by ID-TIMS U-Pb Dating of Zircon and Titanite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanowski, D.; Wotzlaw, J. F.; Ellis, B. S.; Bachmann, O.; Von Quadt, A.

    2016-12-01

    Clues about the timescales and thermal conditions associated with the growth and evacuation of large silicic magma reservoirs are frequently drawn from radiometric dating, diffusion modelling, or thermomechanical modelling. A growing amount of petrological and geochronological evidence, supported by thermal modelling, suggests that many silicic magma reservoirs may exist for some 104-106 years in the form of high-crystallinity mushes at relatively low temperatures ( 700-750°C; [1-3]). Geochronological studies addressing this issue typically utilise the U-Pb system in zircon capable of recording extended periods of crystallisation, particularly in evolved calc-alkaline systems that spend most of their lifetime zircon-saturated. In this study, we integrate U-Pb dating of zircon and titanite to investigate the longevity of the magma reservoir that produced the Kneeling Nun Tuff, a 35 Ma, >900 km3 crystal-rich rhyolitic super-eruption from the Mogollon-Datil volcanic field in New Mexico (USA). High-precision ID-TIMS U-Pb dates of single crystals of both zircon and titanite independently record a continuous crystallisation history over >400,000 years. We combine the dating of both accessory phases with textural, major, trace element and isotopic studies of single crystals, placing tight constraints on the thermal conditions of magma accumulation and storage while recording differentiation and rejuvenation processes within the magma reservoir. The results suggest a protracted `cool' upper-crustal storage of magma prior to the Kneeling Nun Tuff eruption followed by a melting event which reduced the magma crystallinity and conditioned it for eruption. [1] Bachmann & Bergantz (2004), J. Petrol. 45, 1565-1582. [2] Gelman et al. (2013), Geology 41, 759-762. [3] Cooper & Kent (2014), Nature 506, 480-483.

  4. High-Resolution Zircon U-Pb CA-TIMS Dating of the Carboniferous—Permian Successions, Paraná Basin, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, N. P.; Mundil, R.; Montanez, I. P.; Isbell, J.; Fedorchuk, N.; Lopes, R.; Vesely, F.; Iannuzzi, R.

    2015-12-01

    The late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA) is Earth's only record of a CO2-forced climatic transition from an icehouse to greenhouse state in a vegetated world. Despite a refined framework of Gondwanan ice distribution, questions remain about the timing, volume, and synchronicity of high-latitude continental ice and the subsequent deglaciation. These questions ultimately preclude our understanding of linkages between ice volume, sea level, and high- and low-latitude climate. Poor constraints on the timing and synchronicity of glacial and interglacial transitions reflect a lack of high-resolution radioisotopic dates from high-latitude, ice-proximal Carboniferous-Permian successions. The Rio Bonito Fm in Rio Grande do Sul State of southern Brazil hosts the oldest non-glaciogenic Carboniferous- Permian deposits of the Paraná Basin, thus recording the icehouse-to-greenhouse transition. Despite a widespread effort over the last two decades to constrain these deposits in time by means of U-Pb zircon geochronology, published data sets of the Candiota and Faxinal coals of the Rio Bonito Fm host discrepancies that may reflect post- eruptive open system behavior of zircon and analytical artifacts. These discrepancies have hindered the correlation of the Candiota and Faxinal sediments within the larger Gondwanan framework. Here we present the first U-Pb ages on closed system single zircons using CA-TIMS techniques on Permo-Carboniferous ash deposits of the Paraná Basin. Preliminary results indicate two major and distinct coal-forming periods that are separated by ca 10 Ma. Our results and conclusions are not in agreement with multi- crystal U-Pb TIMS and SIMS ages that suggest coeval deposition of the Candiota and Faxinal coals. CA-TIMS analyses applied to zircons from additional ash deposits are aimed at constructing a robust chronostratigraphic framework for the Carboniferous- Permian succession of the Paraná Basin, which will facilitate a better understanding of the timing and

  5. Development of CA-ID-TIMS zircon U–Pb dating technique at Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Zhong

    2017-06-01

    Pretreatment protocols for zircon analysis, and community-wide innovations spurred on by EARTHTIME tends to be at the leading edge of technological development. Also, more and more Chinese researchers perform lots of laboratory work in improving the technique in China. Here we present the running condition, procedural blanks and zircon standards measurement results in the clean laboratory of the Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (GIGCAS. The results show the total procedural blanks (Pbc are below ∼1 pg mostly, suitable for the sample pretreatment and operation. The 206Pb/238U dates of R33 and 500 Ma solution are 419.88 ± 0.94 Ma (n = 7; MSWD = 6.8 and 500.50 ± 0.19 Ma (n = 9; MSWD = 0.84, respectively. These results demonstrate that the CA-ID-TIMS procedure is well established at GIGCAS. Our efforts are beneficial to the development of EARTHTIME-CN program. In particular, when this technique is combined with the SIMS technique, it provides an efficient way to solve a number of geochronological problems encountered in China and worldwide.

  6. Isotope age of the rare metal pegmatite formation in the Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt (Kola region of the Fennoscandian shield): U-Pb (TIMS) microlite and tourmaline dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay; Lyalina, Ludmila; Mokrushin, Artem; Zozulya, Dmitry; Groshev, Nikolay; Steshenko, Ekaterina; Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy

    2016-04-01

    The Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt is located in the central suture zone, which separates the Murmansk block from the Central-Kola and the Keivy blocks. The belt is represented by volcano-sedimentary rocks of Archaean age of 2.9-2.5 Ga. Rare metal pegmatites (Li, Cs with accessory Nb, Ta, and Be) occur among amphibolite and gabbroid intrusions in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the belt. According to the Rb-Sr data, the age of pegmatites was considered to be 2.7 Ga. Until recently there was no generally accepted point of view on the origin of pegmatites. Now we have isotopic data for a range of rock complexes that could pretend to be parental granites for the rare metal pegmatites. These are granodiorites with the zircon age of 2733±Ma, and microcline and tourmaline granites, which Pb-Pb isochronal age on tourmaline from the tourmaline granite located near the deposit is estimated to be 2520±70 Ma. The pegmatite field of the Vasin Myl'k deposit with the lepidolite--albite--microcline--spodumene--pollucite association is located among amphibolites in the northwestern part of the belt. The deposit is represented by subparallel low-angle zoned veins up to 220 m long and 5 m thick dipping in the southeastern direction at an angle of 10° too 30°. The minerals of the columbite--tonalite group from Vasin Myl'k deposit include microlite, simpsonite, and torolite, and are the oldest among different minerals represented by several generations in pegmatites under consideration. Zircons from the pegmatites are mostly represented by crystals with the structure affected by the action of fluids that put certain restrictions on its use as a geochronometer of the crystallization process. Microlite from the pegmatite taken from the dump of a prospecting drill hole was used for U--Pb (TIMS). The mineral is represented by 0.5--1.0 mm long euhedral octahedral crystals. It is brown in color, and transparent. The microlite crystals were preliminarily cleaned from

  7. Zircon and allanite U-Pb ID-TIMS ages of vaugnerites from the Calzadilla pluton, Salamanca (Spain): dating mantle-derived magmatism and post-magmatic subsolidus overprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Moro, F.J.; Romer, R. L.; López-Plaza, M.; González Sánchez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Basic to intermediate high-K, high-Mg mantle-derived rocks occur throughout the Iberian Massif and are particularly important in the Tormes Dome, where vaugnerites form several stocks and small plutons. One of the largest and geochemically most variable among these plutons is the Calzadilla pluton in the Tormes Dome that crystallized at 318 ± 1.4Ma (Bashkirian; U-Pb TIMS zircon). This age reveals that the vaugnerite pluton was emplaced during the transition from late D2 extensional deformation to early D3 contractional deformation (319 to 317Ma). Large-scale extension in the area resulted, on one hand, in extensive anatexis in the crust due to quasiisothermal decompression and mica-dehydration melting and, on the other hand, in the upwelling of the mantle, which induced partial melting of the enriched domains in the lithospheric mantle. The driving reason why crustal and mantle melts were coeval is extension. The U-Pb ID-TIMS age of allanite is not related to the emplacement nor cooling of the Calzadilla vaugnerite, but it seems to be related to a younger subsolidus overprint ca. 275Ma that, in the scale of the Central Iberian Zone, corresponds to a period of hydrothermal alteration, including episyenite formation and tungsten mineralization.

  8. Zircon and allanite U-Pb ID-TIMS ages of vaugnerites from the Calzadilla pluton, Salamanca (Spain): dating mantle-derived magmatism and post-magmatic subsolidus overprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Moro, F.J.; Romer, R. L.; López-Plaza, M.; González Sánchez, M.

    2017-07-01

    Basic to intermediate high-K, high-Mg mantle-derived rocks occur throughout the Iberian Massif and are particularly important in the Tormes Dome, where vaugnerites form several stocks and small plutons. One of the largest and geochemically most variable among these plutons is the Calzadilla pluton in the Tormes Dome that crystallized at 318 ± 1.4Ma (Bashkirian; U-Pb TIMS zircon). This age reveals that the vaugnerite pluton was emplaced during the transition from late D2 extensional deformation to early D3 contractional deformation (319 to 317Ma). Large-scale extension in the area resulted, on one hand, in extensive anatexis in the crust due to quasiisothermal decompression and mica-dehydration melting and, on the other hand, in the upwelling of the mantle, which induced partial melting of the enriched domains in the lithospheric mantle. The driving reason why crustal and mantle melts were coeval is extension. The U-Pb ID-TIMS age of allanite is not related to the emplacement nor cooling of the Calzadilla vaugnerite, but it seems to be related to a younger subsolidus overprint ca. 275Ma that, in the scale of the Central Iberian Zone, corresponds to a period of hydrothermal alteration, including episyenite formation and tungsten mineralization.

  9. Interaction of Tim23 with Tim50 Is essential for protein translocation by the mitochondrial TIM23 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkyan-Airapetov, Lada; Zohary, Keren; Popov-Celeketic, Dusan; Mapa, Koyeli; Hell, Kai; Neupert, Walter; Azem, Abdussalam; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2009-02-20

    The TIM23 complex is the major translocase of the mitochondrial inner membrane responsible for the import of essentially all matrix proteins and a number of inner membrane proteins. Tim23 and Tim50, two essential proteins of the complex, expose conserved domains into the intermembrane space that interact with each other. Here, we describe in vitro reconstitution of this interaction using recombinantly expressed and purified intermembrane space domains of Tim50 and Tim23. We established two independent methods, chemical cross-linking and surface plasmon resonance, to track their interaction. In addition, we identified mutations in Tim23 that abolish its interaction with Tim50 in vitro. These mutations also destabilized the interaction between the two proteins in vivo, leading to defective import of preproteins via the TIM23 complex and to cell death at higher temperatures. This is the first study to describe the reconstitution of the Tim50-Tim23 interaction in vitro and to identify specific residues of Tim23 that are vital for the interaction with Tim50.

  10. Tim Berners-Lee during the WSIS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Tim Berners-Lee stands in front of the first web server at the Geneva Palexpo during the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in 2003. Tim Berners-Lee developed the first network and server system that lead to the World Wide Web.

  11. Smart Mirrors for Photorefractive Control of Light with Tim Bunning, RX - Agile Filters Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-08

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2017-0008 Smart Mirrors for photorefractive control of light with Tim Bunning, RX-- Agile filters application Luciano De Sio...DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      10-02-2017 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01 Feb 2014 to 31 Jan 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Smart Mirrors for...photorefractive control of light with Tim Bunning, RX-- Agile filters application 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1-0050 5c.  PROGRAM

  12. Divergent Small Tim Homologues Are Associated with TbTim17 and Critical for the Biogenesis of TbTim17 Protein Complexes in Trypanosoma brucei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph T.; Singha, Ujjal K.; Misra, Smita

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The small Tim proteins belong to a group of mitochondrial intermembrane space chaperones that aid in the import of mitochondrial inner membrane proteins with internal targeting signals. Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, possesses multiple small Tim proteins that include homologues of T. brucei Tim9 (TbTim9) and Tim10 (TbTim10) and a unique small Tim that shares homology with both Tim8 and Tim13 (TbTim8/13). Here, we found that these three small TbTims are expressed as soluble mitochondrial intermembrane space proteins. Coimmunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis showed that the small TbTims stably associated with each other and with TbTim17, the major component of the mitochondrial inner membrane translocase in T. brucei. Yeast two-hybrid analysis indicated direct interactions among the small TbTims; however, their interaction patterns appeared to be different from those of their counterparts in yeast and humans. Knockdown of the small TbTims reduced cell growth and decreased the steady-state level of TbTim17 and T. brucei ADP/ATP carrier (TbAAC), two polytopic mitochondrial inner membrane proteins. Knockdown of small TbTims also reduced the matured complexes of TbTim17 in mitochondria. Depletion of any of the small TbTims reduced TbTim17 import moderately but greatly hampered the stability of the TbTim17 complexes in T. brucei. Altogether, our results revealed that TbTim9, TbTim10, and TbTim8/13 interact with each other, associate with TbTim17, and play a crucial role in the integrity and maintenance of the levels of TbTim17 complexes. IMPORTANCE Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. The parasite’s mitochondrion represents a useful source for potential chemotherapeutic targets. Similarly to yeast and humans, mitochondrial functions depend on the import of proteins that are encoded in the nucleus and made in the cytosol. Even though the machinery involved in this

  13. Mast cell activation is enhanced by Tim1:Tim4 interaction but not by Tim-1 antibodies [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binh Phong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphisms in the T cell (or transmembrane immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1 gene, particularly in the mucin domain, have been associated with atopy and allergic diseases in mice and human. Genetic- and antibody-mediated studies revealed that Tim-1 functions as a positive regulator of Th2 responses, while certain antibodies to Tim-1 can exacerbate or reduce allergic lung inflammation. Tim-1 can also positively regulate the function of B cells, NKT cells, dendritic cells and mast cells. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which Tim-1 modulates immune cell function are currently unknown. In this study, we have focused on defining Tim-1-mediated signaling pathways that enhance mast cell activation through the high affinity IgE receptor (FceRI. Using a Tim-1 mouse model lacking the mucin domain (Tim-1Dmucin, we show for the first time that the polymorphic Tim-1 mucin region is dispensable for normal mast cell activation. We further show that Tim-4 cross-linking of Tim-1 enhances select signaling pathways downstream of FceRI in mast cells, including mTOR-dependent signaling, leading to increased cytokine production but without affecting degranulation.

  14. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering ampersand Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized

  15. TIM-1 Promotes Hepatitis C Virus Cell Attachment and Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Qiao, Luhua; Hou, Zhouhua; Luo, Guangxiang

    2017-01-15

    Human TIM and TAM family proteins were recently found to serve as phosphatidylserine (PS) receptors which promote infections by many different viruses, including dengue virus, West Nile virus, Ebola virus, Marburg virus, and Zika virus. In the present study, we provide substantial evidence demonstrating that TIM-1 is important for efficient infection by hepatitis C virus (HCV). The knockdown of TIM-1 expression significantly reduced HCV infection but not HCV RNA replication. Likewise, TIM-1 knockout in Huh-7.5 cells remarkably lowered HCV cell attachment and subsequent HCV infection. More significantly, the impairment of HCV infection in the TIM-1 knockout cells could be restored completely by ectopic expression of TIM-1 but not TIM-3 or TIM-4. Additionally, HCV infection and cell attachment were inhibited by PS but not by phosphatidylcholine (PC), demonstrating that TIM-1-mediated enhancement of HCV infection is PS dependent. The exposure of PS on the HCV envelope was confirmed by immunoprecipitation of HCV particles with a PS-specific monoclonal antibody. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that TIM-1 promotes HCV infection by serving as an attachment receptor for binding to PS exposed on the HCV envelope. TIM family proteins were recently found to enhance infections by many different viruses, including several members of the Flaviviridae family. However, their importance in HCV infection has not previously been examined experimentally. The TIM family proteins include three members in humans: TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4. The findings derived from our studies demonstrate that TIM-1, but not TIM-3 or TIM-4, promotes HCV infection by functioning as an HCV attachment factor. Knockout of the TIM-1 gene resulted in a remarkable reduction of HCV cell attachment and infection. PS-containing liposomes blocked HCV cell attachment and subsequent HCV infection. HCV particles could also be precipitated with a PS-specific monoclonal antibody. These findings suggest that TIM-1

  16. Tim50a, a nuclear isoform of the mitochondrial Tim50, interacts with proteins involved in snRNP biogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Melvin L

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cajal body (CB is a nuclear suborganelle involved in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs, which are vital for pre-mRNA splicing. Newly imported Sm-class snRNPs traffic through CBs, where the snRNA component of the snRNP is modified, and then target to other nuclear domains such as speckles and perichromatin fibrils. It is not known how nascent snRNPs localize to the CB and are released from this structure after modification. The marker protein for CBs, coilin, may play a role in snRNP biogenesis given that it can interact with snRNPs and SMN, the protein mutated in Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Loss of coilin function in mice leads to significant viability and fertility problems and altered CB formation. Results In this report, we identify a minor isoform of the mitochondrial Tim50, Tim50a, as a coilin interacting protein. The Tim50a transcript can be detected in some cancer cell lines and normal brain tissue. The Tim50a protein differs only from Tim50 in that it contains an additional 103 aa N-terminal to the translation start of Tim50. Importantly, a putative nuclear localization signal is found within these 103 residues. In contrast to Tim50, which localizes to the cytoplasm and mitochondria, Tim50a is strictly nuclear and is enriched in speckles with snRNPs. In addition to coilin, Tim50a interacts with snRNPs and SMN. Competition binding experiments demonstrate that coilin competes with Sm proteins of snRNPs and SMN for binding sites on Tim50a. Conclusion Tim50a may play a role in snRNP biogenesis given its cellular localization and protein interaction characteristics. We hypothesize that Tim50a takes part in the release of snRNPs and SMN from the CB.

  17. Tim Berners-Lee and Kofi Annan during the WSIS

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    During the 2003 World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) at Geneva Palexpo, Tim Berners-Lee W3C's director (World Wide Web consortium) was introduced to Kofi Annan, Secretary General of the United Nations. Tim Berners-Lee developed the first network and server system that lead to the World Wide Web.

  18. Tim Berners-Lee and Kofi Annan during the WSIS

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    During the 2003 World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) at Geneva Palexpo, Tim Berners-Lee, W3C's director (World Wide Web consortium) was introduced to Kofi Annan, Secretary General of the United Nations. Tim Berners-Lee developed the first network and server system that lead to the World Wide Web.

  19. Characterizing Functional Domains for TIM-Mediated Enveloped Virus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller-Tank, Sven; Albritton, Lorraine M.; Rennert, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members were recently identified as phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance entry of Ebola virus (EBOV) and other viruses by binding PtdSer on the viral envelope, concentrating virus on the cell surface, and promoting subsequent internalization. The PtdSer-binding activity of the immunoglobulin-like variable (IgV) domain is essential for both virus binding and internalization by TIM-1. However, TIM-3, whose IgV domain also binds PtdSer, does not effectively enhance virus entry, indicating that other domains of TIM proteins are functionally important. Here, we investigate the domains supporting enhancement of enveloped virus entry, thereby defining the features necessary for a functional PVEER. Using a variety of chimeras and deletion mutants, we found that in addition to a functional PtdSer-binding domain PVEERs require a stalk domain of sufficient length, containing sequences that promote an extended structure. Neither the cytoplasmic nor the transmembrane domain of TIM-1 is essential for enhancing virus entry, provided the protein is still plasma membrane bound. Based on these defined characteristics, we generated a mimic lacking TIM sequences and composed of annexin V, the mucin-like domain of α-dystroglycan, and a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor that functioned as a PVEER to enhance transduction of virions displaying Ebola, Chikungunya, Ross River, or Sindbis virus glycoproteins. This identification of the key features necessary for PtdSer-mediated enhancement of virus entry provides a basis for more effective recognition of unknown PVEERs. IMPORTANCE T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) and other TIM family members are recently identified phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-mediated virus entry-enhancing receptors (PVEERs). These proteins enhance virus entry by binding the phospholipid, PtdSer, present on the viral

  20. Tim Berners-Lee receives the Millennium Technology Prize

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 15 April, for his invention of the Web, Tim Berners-Lee was awarded the first ever Millennium Technology Prize by the Finnish Technology Award Foundation, which recognises technological innovations of lasting benefit to society. "Tim Berners-Lee's invention perfectly encapsulates the spirit of the Prize. The Web is encouraging new types of social networks, contributing to transparency and democracy, and opening up new avenues for information management and business development," underlined Pekka Tarjanne, chairman of the jury and former Secretary-General of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). Tim Berners-Lee is congratulated by Jukka Valtasaari, Finland's Ambassador to the United States. Tim Berners-Lee created the first server, browser and editor, the HTML code, the URL address and the HTTP transmission protocol at CERN in 1990. CERN released the Web into the public domain in 1993. Tim Berners-Lee is currently head of the World Wide Web Consortium, managed by ERCIM (Europe...

  1. Project TIMS (Teaching Integrated Math/Science)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Leo, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this project is to increase the scientific knowledge and appreciation bases and skills of pre-service and in-service middle school teachers, so as to impact positively on teaching, learning, and student retention. This report lists the objectives and summarizes the progress thus far. Included is the working draft of the TIMS (Teaching Integrated Math/Science) curriculum outline. Seven of the eight instructional subject-oriented modules are also included. The modules include informative materials and corresponding questions and educational activities in a textbook format. The subjects included here are the universe and stars; the sun and its place in the universe; our solar system; astronomical instruments and scientific measurements; the moon and eclipses; the earth's atmosphere: its nature and composition; and the earth: directions, time, and seasons. The module not included regards winds and circulation.

  2. Tim Peake and Britain's road to space

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This book puts the reader in the flight suit of Britain’s first male astronaut, Tim Peake. It chronicles his life, along with the Principia mission and the down-to-the-last-bolt descriptions of life aboard the ISS, by way of the hurdles placed by the British government and the rigors of training at Russia’s Star City military base. In addition, this book discusses the learning curves required in astronaut and mission training and the complexity of the technologies required to launch an astronaut and keep them alive for months on end. This book underscores the fact that technology and training, unlike space, do not exist in a vacuum; complex technical systems, like the ISS, interact with the variables of human personality, and the cultural background of the astronauts. .

  3. TIM-1 signaling in B cells regulates antibody production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Juan; Usui, Yoshihiko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Harada, Norihiro; Yagita, Hideo; Okumura, Ko; Akiba, Hisaya

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → TIM-1 is highly expressed on anti-IgM + anti-CD40-stimulated B cells. → Anti-TIM-1 mAb enhanced proliferation and Ig production on activated B cell in vitro. → TIM-1 signaling regulates Ab production by response to TI-2 and TD antigens in vivo. -- Abstract: Members of the T cell Ig and mucin (TIM) family have recently been implicated in the control of T cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we found TIM-1 expression on anti-IgM- or anti-CD40-stimulated splenic B cells, which was further up-regulated by the combination of anti-IgM and anti-CD40 Abs. On the other hand, TIM-1 ligand was constitutively expressed on B cells and inducible on anti-CD3 + anti-CD28-stimulated CD4 + T cells. In vitro stimulation of activated B cells by anti-TIM-1 mAb enhanced proliferation and expression of a plasma cell marker syndecan-1 (CD138). We further examined the effect of TIM-1 signaling on antibody production in vitro and in vivo. Higher levels of IgG2b and IgG3 secretion were detected in the culture supernatants of the anti-TIM-1-stimulated B cells as compared with the control IgG-stimulated B cells. When immunized with T-independent antigen TNP-Ficoll, TNP-specific IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 Abs were slightly increased in the anti-TIM-1-treated mice. When immunized with T-dependent antigen OVA, serum levels of OVA-specific IgG2b, IgG3, and IgE Abs were significantly increased in the anti-TIM-1-treated mice as compared with the control IgG-treated mice. These results suggest that TIM-1 signaling in B cells augments antibody production by enhancing B cell proliferation and differentiation.

  4. TIM-1 signaling in B cells regulates antibody production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Juan [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Usui, Yoshihiko [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University, 6-7-1 Nishi-shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-0023 (Japan); Takeda, Kazuyoshi [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Harada, Norihiro [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Department of Respiratory Medicine, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Research Institute for Diseases of Old Ages, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Yagita, Hideo; Okumura, Ko [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan); Akiba, Hisaya, E-mail: hisaya@juntendo.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421 (Japan)

    2011-03-11

    Highlights: {yields} TIM-1 is highly expressed on anti-IgM + anti-CD40-stimulated B cells. {yields} Anti-TIM-1 mAb enhanced proliferation and Ig production on activated B cell in vitro. {yields} TIM-1 signaling regulates Ab production by response to TI-2 and TD antigens in vivo. -- Abstract: Members of the T cell Ig and mucin (TIM) family have recently been implicated in the control of T cell-mediated immune responses. In this study, we found TIM-1 expression on anti-IgM- or anti-CD40-stimulated splenic B cells, which was further up-regulated by the combination of anti-IgM and anti-CD40 Abs. On the other hand, TIM-1 ligand was constitutively expressed on B cells and inducible on anti-CD3{sup +} anti-CD28-stimulated CD4{sup +} T cells. In vitro stimulation of activated B cells by anti-TIM-1 mAb enhanced proliferation and expression of a plasma cell marker syndecan-1 (CD138). We further examined the effect of TIM-1 signaling on antibody production in vitro and in vivo. Higher levels of IgG2b and IgG3 secretion were detected in the culture supernatants of the anti-TIM-1-stimulated B cells as compared with the control IgG-stimulated B cells. When immunized with T-independent antigen TNP-Ficoll, TNP-specific IgG1, IgG2b, and IgG3 Abs were slightly increased in the anti-TIM-1-treated mice. When immunized with T-dependent antigen OVA, serum levels of OVA-specific IgG2b, IgG3, and IgE Abs were significantly increased in the anti-TIM-1-treated mice as compared with the control IgG-treated mice. These results suggest that TIM-1 signaling in B cells augments antibody production by enhancing B cell proliferation and differentiation.

  5. Meet EPA Scientist Tim Shafer, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tim Shafer earned his bachelor’s degree in biology and chemistry from Hope College in Holland, MI, in 1986 and his Ph.D. in pharmacology and environmental toxicology from Michigan State University in 1991.

  6. Response to Tim Barringer, A White Atlantic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Flint

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In my response to Tim Barringer’s piece, I emphasize the importance of extending one’s frame of reference when discussing transatlantic artistic connections to the consideration of as many different art forms as possible – including photography, and magazine and book illustrations – in order to get as full a picture as possible of the two-way flow in transatlantic artistic influences.This fuller picture notably extends the degree to which images of non-white subjects are seen to be in circulation. I also draw attention to the ways in which American and English artistic circles intersected outside as well as within these two countries, a point reinforced by looking at American women sculptors in Rome in the 1860s, paying particular attention to the work of the part African-American, part Native American sculptor, Edmonia Lewis. In her work can be seen a complex set of attitudes towards her subject matter that remind one forcefully of the many racial and cultural strands coming together in new American art.

  7. Tim Berners-Lee, World Wide Web inventor

    CERN Multimedia

    1994-01-01

    Former physicist, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web as an essential tool for high energy physics at CERN from 1989 to 1994. Together with a small team he conceived HTML, http, URLs, and put up the first server and the first 'what you see is what you get' browser and html editor. Tim is now Director of the Web Consortium W3C, the International Web standards body based at INRIA, MIT and Keio University.

  8. Isotopic Ratios of Samarium by TIMS for Nuclear Forensic Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louis Jean, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Inglis, Jeremy David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-08

    The isotopic ratio of Nd, Sm, and Gd can provide important information regarding fissile material (nuclear devices, reactors), neutron environment, and device yield. These studies require precise measurement of Sm isotope ratios, by either TIMS or MC-ICP-MS. There has been an increasing trend to measure smaller and smaller quantities of Sm bearing samples. In nuclear forensics 10-100 ng of Sm are needed for precise measurement. To measure sub-ng Sm samples using TIMS for nuclear forensic analysis.

  9. There are those who call it...TIM

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To boldly go where people can't... The Train Inspection Monorail, affectionately referred to as 'TIM,' will allow scientists, technicians and engineers to view and take measurements in the LHC tunnel when it is inaccessible to humans. TIM in the tunnel.Jean-Louis Grenard, who designed TIM's mechanical components, uses the portable remote control station to put the TIM through its paces at Point 1 in the LHC. Imagine being able to view parts of the LHC before people are allowed into the tunnel after the beam has been circulating...or to accurately measure the position of equipment in areas with the highest levels of radiation without risking human exposure. The Train Inspection Monorail, or 'TIM' to its closer friends, is a modular train that will run along the ceiling of the LHC tunnel, helping many groups on site to address the problems of inspecting, measuring and even handling equipment in the LHC when radiation levels and cryogenic hazards will restrict personnel access to the tunnel. TIM was developed ...

  10. Reconstituted TOM core complex and Tim9/Tim10 complex of mitochondria are sufficient for translocation of the ADP/ATP carrier across membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljev, Andreja; Ahting, Uwe; Nargang, Frank E; Go, Nancy E; Habib, Shukry J; Kozany, Christian; Panneels, Valérie; Sinning, Irmgard; Prokisch, Holger; Neupert, Walter; Nussberger, Stephan; Rapaport, Doron

    2004-03-01

    Precursor proteins of the solute carrier family and of channel forming Tim components are imported into mitochondria in two main steps. First, they are translocated through the TOM complex in the outer membrane, a process assisted by the Tim9/Tim10 complex. They are passed on to the TIM22 complex, which facilitates their insertion into the inner membrane. In the present study, we have analyzed the function of the Tim9/Tim10 complex in the translocation of substrates across the outer membrane of mitochondria. The purified TOM core complex was reconstituted into lipid vesicles in which purified Tim9/Tim10 complex was entrapped. The precursor of the ADP/ATP carrier (AAC) was found to be translocated across the membrane of such lipid vesicles. Thus, these components are sufficient for translocation of AAC precursor across the outer membrane. Peptide libraries covering various substrate proteins were used to identify segments that are bound by Tim9/Tim10 complex upon translocation through the TOM complex. The patterns of binding sites on the substrate proteins suggest a mechanism by which portions of membrane-spanning segments together with flanking hydrophilic segments are recognized and bound by the Tim9/Tim10 complex as they emerge from the TOM complex into the intermembrane space.

  11. Analysis of TIMS performance subjected to simulated wind blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S.; Kuo, S.

    1992-01-01

    The results of the performance of the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) when it is subjected to various wind conditions in the laboratory are described. Various wind conditions were simulated using a 24 inch fan or combinations of air jet streams blowing toward either or both of the blackbody surfaces. The fan was used to simulate a large volume of air flow at moderate speeds (up to 30 mph). The small diameter air jets were used to probe TIMS system response in reaction to localized wind perturbations. The maximum nozzle speed of the air jet was 60 mph. A range of wind directions and speeds were set up in the laboratory during the test. The majority of the wind tests were conducted under ambient conditions with the room temperature fluctuating no more than 2 C. The temperature of the high speed air jet was determined to be within 1 C of the room temperature. TIMS response was recorded on analog tape. Additional thermistor readouts of the blackbody temperatures and thermocouple readout of the ambient temperature were recorded manually to be compared with the housekeeping data recorded on the tape. Additional tests were conducted under conditions of elevated and cooled room temperatures. The room temperature was varied between 19.5 to 25.5 C in these tests. The calibration parameters needed for quantitative analysis of TIMS data were first plotted on a scanline-by-scanline basis. These parameters are the low and high blackbody temperature readings as recorded by the TIMS and their corresponding digitized count values. Using these values, the system transfer equations were calculated. This equation allows us to compute the flux for any video count by computing the slope and intercept of the straight line that relates the flux to the digital count. The actual video of the target (the lab floor in this case) was then compared with a simulated target. This simulated target was assumed to be a blackbody at emissivity of .95 degrees and the temperature was

  12. Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS): what, how and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) is one of the oldest mass spectrometric techniques, which has been used for determining the isotopic composition and concentration of different elements using isotope dilution. In spite of the introduction of many other inorganic mass spectrometric techniques like spark source mass spectrometry (SSMS), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), the TIMS technique plays the role of a definitive analytical methodology and still occupies a unique position in terms of its capabilities with respect to precision and accuracy as well as sensitivity

  13. Awards: New Year Knighthood for Tim Berners-Lee

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Tim Berners-Lee has been awarded his country's highest honour - a knighthood - in the UK's New Year Honours list for his work while at CERN on the World Wide Web. In the same honours list, Roger Cashmore has been made a Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George (CMG) "for his services to international co-operation in particle physics". Cashmore was CERN's Director for Collider Programmes from 1999-2003, and is now Principal of Brasenose College, Oxford. Tim Berners-Lee stands in front of the first web server at Palexpo during the World Summit on the Information Society.

  14. A highly conserved tyrosine of Tim-3 is phosphorylated upon stimulation by its ligand galectin-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyer, Philipp S. van de; Muehlfeit, Michael; Klose, Christoph; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Walz, Gerd; Kuehn, E. Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Tim-3 is a member of the TIM family of proteins (T-cell immunoglobulin mucin) involved in the regulation of CD4+ T-cells. Tim-3 is a T H 1-specific type 1 membrane protein and regulates T H 1 proliferation and the development of tolerance. Binding of galectin-9 to the extracellular domain of Tim-3 results in apoptosis of T H 1 cells, but the intracellular pathways involved in the regulatory function of Tim-3 are unknown. Unlike Tim-1, which is expressed in renal epithelia and cancer, Tim-3 has not been described in cells other than neuronal or T-cells. Using RT-PCR we demonstrate that Tim-3 is expressed in malignant and non-malignant epithelial tissues. We have cloned Tim-3 from an immortalized liver cell carcinoma line and identified a highly conserved tyrosine in the intracellular tail of Tim-3 (Y265). We demonstrate that Y265 is specifically phosphorylated in vivo by the interleukin inducible T cell kinase (ITK), a kinase which is located in close proximity of the TIM genes on the allergy susceptibility locus 5q33.3. Stimulation of Tim-3 by its ligand galectin-9 results in increased phosphorylation of Y265, suggesting that this tyrosine residue plays an important role in downstream signalling events regulating T-cell fate. Given the role of TIM proteins in autoimmunity and cancer, the conserved SH2 binding domain surrounding Y265 could represent a possible target site for pharmacological intervention

  15. Tim Berners-Lee, World Wide Web inventor

    CERN Multimedia

    1998-01-01

    The "Internet, Web, What's next?" conference on 26 June 1998 at CERN: Tim Berners-Lee, inventor of the World Wide Web and Director of the W3C, explains how the Web came to be and gave his views on the future.

  16. Tim Berners-Lee: inventor de la World Wide Web

    OpenAIRE

    Universidad de Granada. Biblioteca

    2015-01-01

    El presente Cat??logo contiene la exposici??n organizada por la Biblioteca de la ETSIIT de la Universidad de Granada durante los meses de noviembre-diciembre de 2015 y titulada: "Tim Berners-Lee: inventor de la World Wide Web"

  17. Distinct forms of mitochondrial TOM-TIM supercomplexes define signal-dependent states of preprotein sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacinska, Agnieszka; van der Laan, Martin; Mehnert, Carola S; Guiard, Bernard; Mick, David U; Hutu, Dana P; Truscott, Kaye N; Wiedemann, Nils; Meisinger, Chris; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Rehling, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial import of cleavable preproteins occurs at translocation contact sites, where the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) associates with the presequence translocase of the inner membrane (TIM23) in a supercomplex. Different views exist on the mechanism of how TIM23 mediates preprotein sorting to either the matrix or inner membrane. On the one hand, two TIM23 forms were proposed, a matrix transport form containing the presequence translocase-associated motor (PAM; TIM23-PAM) and a sorting form containing Tim21 (TIM23(SORT)). On the other hand, it was reported that TIM23 and PAM are permanently associated in a single-entity translocase. We have accumulated distinct transport intermediates of preproteins to analyze the translocases in their active, preprotein-carrying state. We identified two different forms of active TOM-TIM23 supercomplexes, TOM-TIM23(SORT) and TOM-TIM23-PAM. These two supercomplexes do not represent separate pathways but are in dynamic exchange during preprotein translocation and sorting. Depending on the signals of the preproteins, switches between the different forms of supercomplex and TIM23 are required for the completion of preprotein import.

  18. Preliminary crystallographic studies of yeast mitochondrial peripheral membrane protein Tim44p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josyula, Ratnakar [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham (United States); Jin, Zhongmin [SER-CAT, APS, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); McCombs, Deborah; DeLucas, Lawrence [Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham (United States); Sha, Bingdong, E-mail: bdsha@uab.edu [Department of Cell Biology, Center for Biophysical Sciences and Engineering, University of Alabama at Birmingham (United States)

    2006-02-01

    Tim44p is an essential mitochondrial peripheral membrane protein. To investigate the mechanism by which Tim44p functions in the TIM23 translocon to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the yeast Tim44p has been crystallized. Protein translocations across mitochondrial membranes play critical roles in mitochondrion biogenesis. Protein transport from the cell cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix is carried out by the translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex and the translocase of the inner membrane (TIM) complexes. Tim44p is an essential mitochondrial peripheral membrane protein and a major component of the TIM23 translocon. To investigate the mechanism by which Tim44p functions in the TIM23 translocon to deliver the mitochondrial protein precursors, the yeast Tim44p was crystallized. The crystals diffract to 3.2 Å using a synchrotron X-ray source and belong to space group P6{sub 3}22, with unit-cell parameters a = 124.25, c = 77.83 Å. There is one Tim44p molecule in one asymmetric unit, which corresponds to a solvent content of approximately 43%. Structure determination by MAD methods is under way.

  19. Thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) of actinides: Pushing the limits of accuracy and detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, Stefan; Boulyga, Sergei; Cunningham, Alan; Klose, Dilani; Koepf, Andreas; Poths, Jane [Safeguards Analytical Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Richter, Stephan [Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, JRC-EU, Geel (Belgium)

    2010-07-01

    New method developments in multi-collector thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS) for actinide isotope ratio analysis to improve accuracy and limits of detection will be presented. With respect to limits of detection, results on improving work function using various carbon additives will be reviewed and presented as well as developments in cavity ion source (as compared to standard flat ribbon filament ion source) for femto- and attogram levels of uranium, plutonium, and americium. With respect to accuracy, results on isotope ratio measurements of isotopes of uranium (relative accuracy of 0.3% to 0.01%) are presented with an example being U-234-Th-230 age-dating (NBL CRM 112-A). In this context, the importance of traceability (to the S.I. units) and the use of (certified) reference materials are emphasized. The focus of this presentation is on applications to nuclear safeguards / forensics.

  20. Architecture of the TIM23 inner mitochondrial translocon and interactions with the matrix import motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, See-Yeun; Schilke, Brenda A; Hayashi, Masaya; Craig, Elizabeth A

    2014-10-10

    Translocation of proteins from the cytosol across the mitochondrial inner membrane is driven by action of the matrix-localized multi-subunit import motor, which is associated with the TIM23 translocon. The architecture of the import apparatus is not well understood. Here, we report results of site-specific in vivo photocross-linking along with genetic and coimmunoprecipitation analyses dissecting interactions between import motor subunits and the translocon. The translocon is composed of the two integral membrane proteins Tim23 and Tim17, each containing four membrane-spanning segments. We found that Tim23 having a photoactivatable cross-linker in the matrix exposed loop between transmembrane domains 1 and 2 (loop 1) cross-linked to Tim44. Alterations in this loop destabilized interaction of Tim44 with the translocon. Analogously, Tim17 having a photoactivatable cross-linker in the matrix exposed loop between transmembrane segments 1 and 2 (loop 1) cross-linked to Pam17. Alterations in this loop caused destabilization of the interaction of Pam17 with the translocon. Substitution of individual photoactivatable residues in Tim44 and Pam17 in regions we previously identified as important for translocon association resulted in cross-linking to Tim23 and Tim17, respectively. Our results are consistent with a model in which motor association is achieved via interaction of Tim23 with Tim44, which serves as a scaffold for association of other motor components, and of Tim17 with Pam17. As both Tim44 and Pam17 have been implicated as regulatory subunits of the motor, this positioning is conducive for responding to conformational changes in the translocon upon a translocating polypeptide entering the channel. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Economist Innovation Award for Tim Berners-Lee

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In September, Tim Berners-Lee, who invented the World Wide Web at CERN and is now Director of the W3C World Wide Web Consortium, received the 2nd Economist Annual Innovation Award in Computing. With the award The Economist, a British weekly newspaper, recognises individuals responsible for breakthroughs in Bioscience, Computing, Energy and the Environment, and Telecommunications that have a profound impact on industry. A fifth award is given in a special "No Boundaries" category, observing innovation that transcends industries. Candidates for the awards are proposed by The Economist readers and writers, and by a group of judges. Tim Berners-Lee received the Computing award for his global hypertext project, to be known as the World Wide Web, which "forever altered the way information is shared" and is a huge contribution to the efficiency of the scientific community. Based on a programme for storing information using random associations called "Enquire", it...

  2. Dr TIM: Ray-tracer TIM, with additional specialist scientific capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxburgh, Stephen; Tyc, Tomáš; Courtial, Johannes

    2014-03-01

    We describe several extensions to TIM, a raytracing program for ray-optics research. These include relativistic raytracing; simulation of the external appearance of Eaton lenses, Luneburg lenses and generalised focusing gradient-index lens (GGRIN) lenses, which are types of perfect imaging devices; raytracing through interfaces between spaces with different optical metrics; and refraction with generalised confocal lenslet arrays, which are particularly versatile METATOYs. Catalogue identifier: AEKY_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKY_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licencing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 106905 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6327715 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java. Computer: Any computer capable of running the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) 1.6. Operating system: Any, developed under Mac OS X Version 10.6 and 10.8.3. RAM: Typically 130 MB (interactive version running under Mac OS X Version 10.8.3) Classification: 14, 18. Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEKY_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 183(2012)711 External routines: JAMA [1] (source code included) Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Visualisation of scenes that include scene objects that create wave-optically forbidden light-ray fields. Solution method: Ray tracing. Reasons for new version: Significant extension of the capabilities (see Summary of revisions), as demanded by our research. Summary of revisions: Added capabilities include the simulation of different types of camera moving at relativistic speeds relative to the scene; visualisation of the external appearance of generalised focusing gradient-index (GGRIN) lenses, including Maxwell fisheye, Eaton and Luneburg lenses; calculation of

  3. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Teens / Dating Violence Bulletins for Teens: Dating Violence What is it? If you are a victim ... often. If You Are a Victim of Dating Violence, You Might… Think it's your fault. Feel angry, ...

  4. Role of the Phosphatidylserine Receptor TIM-1 in Enveloped-Virus Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller-Tank, Sven; Kondratowicz, Andrew S.; Davey, Robert A.; Rennert, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    The cell surface receptor T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) dramatically enhances filovirus infection of epithelial cells. Here, we showed that key phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) binding residues of the TIM-1 IgV domain are critical for Ebola virus (EBOV) entry through direct interaction with PtdSer on the viral envelope. PtdSer liposomes but not phosphatidylcholine liposomes competed with TIM-1 for EBOV pseudovirion binding and transduction. Further, annexin V (AnxV) substituted for the TIM-1 IgV domain, supporting a PtdSer-dependent mechanism. Our findings suggest that TIM-1-dependent uptake of EBOV occurs by apoptotic mimicry. Additionally, TIM-1 enhanced infection of a wide range of enveloped viruses, including alphaviruses and a baculovirus. As further evidence of the critical role of enveloped-virion-associated PtdSer in TIM-1-mediated uptake, TIM-1 enhanced internalization of pseudovirions and virus-like proteins (VLPs) lacking a glycoprotein, providing evidence that TIM-1 and PtdSer-binding receptors can mediate virus uptake independent of a glycoprotein. These results provide evidence for a broad role of TIM-1 as a PtdSer-binding receptor that mediates enveloped-virus uptake. Utilization of PtdSer-binding receptors may explain the wide tropism of many of these viruses and provide new avenues for controlling their virulence. PMID:23698310

  5. TIM-family proteins promote infection of multiple enveloped viruses through virion-associated phosphatidylserine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Jemielity

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin-domain containing proteins (TIM1, 3, and 4 specifically bind phosphatidylserine (PS. TIM1 has been proposed to serve as a cellular receptor for hepatitis A virus and Ebola virus and as an entry factor for dengue virus. Here we show that TIM1 promotes infection of retroviruses and virus-like particles (VLPs pseudotyped with a range of viral entry proteins, in particular those from the filovirus, flavivirus, New World arenavirus and alphavirus families. TIM1 also robustly enhanced the infection of replication-competent viruses from the same families, including dengue, Tacaribe, Sindbis and Ross River viruses. All interactions between TIM1 and pseudoviruses or VLPs were PS-mediated, as demonstrated with liposome blocking and TIM1 mutagenesis experiments. In addition, other PS-binding proteins, such as Axl and TIM4, promoted infection similarly to TIM1. Finally, the blocking of PS receptors on macrophages inhibited the entry of Ebola VLPs, suggesting that PS receptors can contribute to infection in physiologically relevant cells. Notably, infection mediated by the entry proteins of Lassa fever virus, influenza A virus and SARS coronavirus was largely unaffected by TIM1 expression. Taken together our data show that TIM1 and related PS-binding proteins promote infection of diverse families of enveloped viruses, and may therefore be useful targets for broad-spectrum antiviral therapies.

  6. Role of Tim50 in the transfer of precursor proteins from the outer to the inner membrane of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokranjac, Dejana; Sichting, Martin; Popov-Celeketić, Dusan; Mapa, Koyeli; Gevorkyan-Airapetov, Lada; Zohary, Keren; Hell, Kai; Azem, Abdussalam; Neupert, Walter

    2009-03-01

    Transport of essentially all matrix and a number of inner membrane proteins is governed, entirely or in part, by N-terminal presequences and requires a coordinated action of the translocases of outer and inner mitochondrial membranes (TOM and TIM23 complexes). Here, we have analyzed Tim50, a subunit of the TIM23 complex that is implicated in transfer of precursors from TOM to TIM23. Tim50 is recruited to the TIM23 complex via Tim23 in an interaction that is essentially independent of the rest of the translocase. We find Tim50 in close proximity to the intermembrane space side of the TOM complex where it recognizes both types of TIM23 substrates, those that are to be transported into the matrix and those destined to the inner membrane, suggesting that Tim50 recognizes presequences. This function of Tim50 depends on its association with TIM23. We conclude that the efficient transfer of precursors between TOM and TIM23 complexes requires the concerted action of Tim50 with Tim23.

  7. Peripheral blood TIM-3 positive NK and CD8+ T cells throughout pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggyes, Matyas; Miko, Eva; Polgar, Beata

    2014-01-01

    PROBLEM: The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family is a relatively newly described group of molecules with a conserved structure and important immunological functions. Identification of Galectin-9 as a ligand for TIM-3 has established the Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway as an important...... negative regulator of Th1 immunity and tolerance induction. Data about the TIM-3/Gal-9 pathway in the pathogenesis of human diseases is emerging, but their possible role during human pregnancy is not precisely known. The aim of our study was to investigate the number, phenotype and functional activity...... of TIM-3+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells during healthy human pregnancy. METHODS OF STUDY: 57 healthy pregnant women [first trimester (n = 16); second trimester (n = 19); third trimester (n = 22)] and 30 non-pregnant controls were enrolled in the study. We measured the surface expression of TIM-3...

  8. Cooperation of TOM and TIM23 complexes during translocation of proteins into mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waegemann, Karin; Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Neupert, Walter; Azem, Abdussalam; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2015-03-13

    Translocation of the majority of mitochondrial proteins from the cytosol into mitochondria requires the cooperation of TOM and TIM23 complexes in the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes. The molecular mechanisms underlying this cooperation remain largely unknown. Here, we present biochemical and genetic evidence that at least two contacts from the side of the TIM23 complex play an important role in TOM-TIM23 cooperation in vivo. Tim50, likely through its very C-terminal segment, interacts with Tom22. This interaction is stimulated by translocating proteins and is independent of any other TOM-TIM23 contact known so far. Furthermore, the exposure of Tim23 on the mitochondrial surface depends not only on its interaction with Tim50 but also on the dynamics of the TOM complex. Destabilization of the individual contacts reduces the efficiency of import of proteins into mitochondria and destabilization of both contacts simultaneously is not tolerated by yeast cells. We conclude that an intricate and coordinated network of protein-protein interactions involving primarily Tim50 and also Tim23 is required for efficient translocation of proteins across both mitochondrial membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Infrared spectroscopy for geologic interpretation of TIMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Mary Jane

    1986-01-01

    The Portable Field Emission Spectrometer (PFES) was designed to collect meaningful spectra in the field under climatic, thermal, and sky conditions that approximate those at the time of the overflight. The specifications and procedures of PFES are discussed. Laboratory reflectance measurements of rocks and minerals were examined for the purpose of interpreting Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data. The capability is currently being developed to perform direct laboratory measurement of the normal spectral radiance of Earth surface materials at low temperatures (20 to 30 C) at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  10. Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stader, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Dating violence is a form of student-on-student victimization and is a serious school safety issue. Research indicates that at a minimum, 10 percent of high school students are victims of dating violence in one form or another. Among female high school students that date, some data indicate that as many as 30 percent may be victims of dating…

  11. Tim-3 Up-regulation in Patients with Gastric Cancer and Peptic Ulcer Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghavi-Alhosseini, Mahdieh; Tehrani, Mohsen; Ajami, Abolghasem; Rafiei, Alireza; Taghvaei, Tarang; Vahedi-Larijani, Laleh; Hossein-Nataj, Hadi; Asgarian-Omran, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background: T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein-3 (Tim-3), an inhibitory immunoregulatory receptor, has been recently implicated in tumor biology and tumor-associated immune suppression. In the present study, expression of Tim-3 was evaluated in gastric cancer (GC) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) at both mRNA and protein levels. Methods: A total of 133 gastric tissue biopsies, comprising 43 from GC cases, 48 from PUD and 42 from non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) serving as controls were collected. Additionally, non-neoplastic adjacent tissue biopsies were also obtained from 6 patients with GC. Infection with Helicobacter pylori was determined by the rapid urease test for all participants and H&E staining was conducted for GC and PUD patients. Tim-3 relative mRNA expression was determined by SYBR Green based Real-Time PCR using β-actin as a reference gene. Tim-3 protein expression was also studied by immunohistochemistry in 7 GC, 7 PUD and 10 NUD tissue samples. Results: Tim-3 was expressed at higher levels in GC (p=0.030) and PUD (p=0.022) cases compared to he NUD group. Among paired samples obtained from gastric cancer patients, tumor tissues showed elevated Tim-3 expression (p=0.019) in comparison with adjacent non-neoplastic biopsies. Tim-3 mRNA findings were supported by detection of more Tim-3 protein in cancerous (p=0.002) and ulcerative (p=0.01) tissues than in controls. Tim-3 was similarly expressed in H. pylori positive and negative cases. Conclusion: Higher Tim-3 expression in patients with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer implies that it might be involved in immune regulation and establishment of these gastrointestinal diseases. Targeted immunotherapy by blocking of inhibitory receptors like Tim-3 could be a promising approach for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:28441784

  12. Cultura digital jovem: as TIMS invadem as periferias, e agora?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Gonçalves Nogueira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this work is to present a literature review on Young and the Digital Cultural transformations caused by the dissemination of Information Technology and Communication Mobile and wireless (TIMS on the outskirts of the metropolitan area of Recife. To this end, we seek to identify how young periphery, high school students of a public school, they experience the Digital Culture in different social spaces; among them the school, scene of many tensions and generational conflicts and language as social and cultural use of these mobile devices. We highlight some theoretical approaches to the phenomenon of mobile communication and the concept of Digital Culture, adopted in this work. Proposing a reflection on the role of school in the current social context of constant cultural and linguistic transformations multimodality of the digital age. Finally, we present an exercise of looking on Youth Cultures, from different theoretical, to better understand the multiple transits covered by surveyed youth to express themselves and make sense of their audiovisual productions, mediated by TIMS. This theoretical argument was used in the dissertation in mathematics education and technology by one of the authors of this article. Therefore, we hope to contribute to further research on Digital Youth Culture in the context of the periphery.

  13. “This is you”: Encountering Shakespeare with Tim Crouch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Soncini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers Tim Crouch's "I Shakespeare", a suite of monologue plays based on "The Tempest" ("I, Caliban", 2003, "A Midsummer Night's Dream" ("I, Peaseblossom", 2004, "Macbeth" ("I, Banquo", 2005, "Twelfth Night" ("I, Malvolio", 2010 and "Julius Caesar" ("I, Cinna (the poet", 2012. While originally designed for a young audience, Crouch's adaptations have been performed in a variety of theatrical contexts that have added new and probably unforeseen dimensions to their negotiations with Shakespeare. In my analysis I turn to the notion of mobility as a key analytical tool to elucidate the method, aims, as well as the broader cultural meaning of Tim Crouch's reworkings. In his hands, Shakespeare is mobilized as a powerful resource to activate spectators and emphasize their co-authorship in the process of theatre. Through a combination of textual strategies and performance methods, the monologues construct the identities of Shakespeare's characters as multiple and mutable and, in parallel, cast their addressees in fluid, often contradictory roles. My main line of argument is that the plays' propensity of motion is rooted in their emphasis on Shakespeare as a highly mobile cultural signifier which seems confirmed by the monologues' journeys outside the UK. The further adaptational practices triggered by these encounters with foreign audiences are testament to the flexibility of Crouch's dramaturgy of process and its aptitude to accommodate new discursive identities and adjust to each new context of reception.

  14. Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting 2: SSP TIM 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Jim; Hawk, Clark W.

    1998-01-01

    The 2nd Space Solar Power Technical Interchange Meeting (SSP TIM 2) was conducted September 21st through 24th with the first part consisting of a Plenary session. The summary results of this Plenary session are contained in part one of this report. The attendees were then organized into Working Breakout Sessions and Integrated Product Team (IPT) Sessions for the purpose of conducting in-depth discussions in specific topic areas and developing a consensus as to appropriate study plans and actions to be taken. The Second part covers the Plenary Summary Session, which contains the summary results of the Working Breakout Sessions and IPT Sessions. The appendix contains the list of attendees. The ob'jective was to provide an update for the study teams and develop plans for subsequent study activities. This SSP TIM 2 was initiated and the results reported electronically over the Internet. The International Space Station (ISS) could provide the following opportunities for conducting research and technology (R&T) which are applicable to SSP: (1) Automation and Robotics, (2) Advanced Power Generation, (3) Advanced Power Management & Distribution (PMAD), (4) Communications Systems and Networks, (5) Energy Storage, (6) In Space Propulsion (ISP), (7) Structural Dynamics and Control, and Assembly and (8) Wireless Power Transmission.

  15. Sild humanitaar- ja loodusteaduste vahel : intervjuu Aberdeeni ülikooli sotsiaalantropoloogia professori Tim Ingoldiga / Tim Ingold ; interv. Alo Joosepson, Kaie Kotov, Silver Rattasepp, Riste Keskpaik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ingold, Tim

    2004-01-01

    4. rahvusvahelise keskkonnaesteetika ja -semiootika konverentsi "Kultuur, loodus, semiootika: kohad" üks peaesineja Tim Ingold tegeleb 1990-ndatest alates antropoloogia ja kunsti suhte uurimisega ning loeb kursust "Antropoloogia, arheoloogia, kunst ja arhitektuur"

  16. Dysregulation of TIM-3-galectin-9 pathway in the cystic fibrosis airways.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vega-Carrascal, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The T-cell Ig and mucin domain-containing molecules (TIMs) have emerged as promising therapeutic targets to correct abnormal immune function in several autoimmune and chronic inflammatory conditions. It has been reported that proinflammatory cytokine dysregulation and neutrophil-dominated inflammation are the main causes of morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the role of TIM receptors in CF has not been investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that TIM-3 is constitutively overexpressed in the human CF airway, suggesting a link between CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function and TIM-3 expression. Blockade of CFTR function with the CFTR inhibitor-172 induced an upregulation of TIM-3 and its ligand galectin-9 in normal bronchial epithelial cells. We also established that TIM-3 serves as a functional receptor in bronchial epithelial cells, and physiologically relevant concentrations of galectin-9 induced TIM-3 phosphorylation, resulting in increased IL-8 production. In addition, we have demonstrated that both TIM-3 and galectin-9 undergo rapid proteolytic degradation in the CF lung, primarily because of neutrophil elastase and proteinase-3 activity. Our results suggest a novel intrinsic defect that may contribute to the neutrophil-dominated immune response in the CF airways.

  17. Dysregulation of TIM-3-galectin-9 pathway in the cystic fibrosis airways.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vega-Carrascal, Isabel

    2011-03-01

    The T-cell Ig and mucin domain-containing molecules (TIMs) have emerged as promising therapeutic targets to correct abnormal immune function in several autoimmune and chronic inflammatory conditions. It has been reported that proinflammatory cytokine dysregulation and neutrophil-dominated inflammation are the main causes of morbidity in cystic fibrosis (CF). However, the role of TIM receptors in CF has not been investigated. In this study, we demonstrated that TIM-3 is constitutively overexpressed in the human CF airway, suggesting a link between CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) function and TIM-3 expression. Blockade of CFTR function with the CFTR inhibitor-172 induced an upregulation of TIM-3 and its ligand galectin-9 in normal bronchial epithelial cells. We also established that TIM-3 serves as a functional receptor in bronchial epithelial cells, and physiologically relevant concentrations of galectin-9 induced TIM-3 phosphorylation, resulting in increased IL-8 production. In addition, we have demonstrated that both TIM-3 and galectin-9 undergo rapid proteolytic degradation in the CF lung, primarily because of neutrophil elastase and proteinase-3 activity. Our results suggest a novel intrinsic defect that may contribute to the neutrophil-dominated immune response in the CF airways.

  18. Tim Berners-Lee at the RSIS conference from 8-9 December 2003.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2003-01-01

    Tim Berners-Lee participated in the Role of Science in the Information Society conference held at CERN from 8-9 December 2003. Tim Berners-Lee developed the first network and server system that lead to the World Wide Web.

  19. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2008-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  1. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2012-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2009-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materals in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs

  3. Luminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieser, U.

    2013-01-01

    The luminescence techniques have evolved over the last 40 years to a powerful dating instrument in archaeology and geoscience. Depending on how the luminescence is stimulated, one distinguishes the phenomena of thermoluminescence (TL), optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL). Each of these phenomena has its specific potential for dating various archaeological materials in the time range from medieval back to palaeolithic periods, or, speaking in geological terms, for dating of Holocene and late Pleistocene objects. The OSL and IRSL techniques are sometimes treated together as 'optical dating'. The luminescence techniques differ from other major dating techniques, such as 14 C, essentially by their applicability to inorganic materials, their wide age-range from about 100 years to more than 100,000 years and the kind of datable events which are the last exposure to heat or to light. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Korean medicine (TKM: aconstitutional-based concept and comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Min Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM plays an integral role in providing health care worldwide. It is based on sound fundamental principles and centuries of practices. This study compared traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Korean medicine (TKM basing on data obtained from peer reviewed articles, respective government institutional reports and World Health Organization reports. Despite the fact that TIM and TKM have individual qualities that are unique from each other including different histories of origin, they share a lot in common. Apart from Homeopathy in TIM, both systems are hinged on similar principle of body constitutional-based concept and similar disease diagnosis methods of mainly auscultation, palpation, visual inspection, and interrogation. Similarly, the treatment methods of TIM and TKM follow similar patterns involving use of medicinal herbs, moxibustion, acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy. Both T&CM are majorly practiced in well-established hospitals by T&CM doctors who have undergone an average of 6–7 years of specialized trainings. However, unlike TIM which has less insurance coverage, the popularity of TKM is majorly due to its wide national insurance coverage. These two medical traditions occupy increasingly greater portion of the global market. However, TIM especially Ayurveda has gained more global recognition than TKM although the emergence of Sasang Constitutional Medicine in TKM is beginning to become more popular. This comparative analysis between TIM and TKM may provide vital and insightful contribution towards constitutional-based concept for further development and future studies in T&CM.

  5. Traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Korean medicine (TKM): aconstitutional-based concept and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young Min; Komakech, Richard; Karigar, Chandrakant Shivappa; Saqib, Asma

    2017-06-01

    Traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) plays an integral role in providing health care worldwide. It is based on sound fundamental principles and centuries of practices. This study compared traditional Indian medicine (TIM) and traditional Korean medicine (TKM) basing on data obtained from peer reviewed articles, respective government institutional reports and World Health Organization reports. Despite the fact that TIM and TKM have individual qualities that are unique from each other including different histories of origin, they share a lot in common. Apart from Homeopathy in TIM, both systems are hinged on similar principle of body constitutional-based concept and similar disease diagnosis methods of mainly auscultation, palpation, visual inspection, and interrogation. Similarly, the treatment methods of TIM and TKM follow similar patterns involving use of medicinal herbs, moxibustion, acupuncture, cupping, and manual therapy. Both T&CM are majorly practiced in well-established hospitals by T&CM doctors who have undergone an average of 6-7 years of specialized trainings. However, unlike TIM which has less insurance coverage, the popularity of TKM is majorly due to its wide national insurance coverage. These two medical traditions occupy increasingly greater portion of the global market. However, TIM especially Ayurveda has gained more global recognition than TKM although the emergence of Sasang Constitutional Medicine in TKM is beginning to become more popular. This comparative analysis between TIM and TKM may provide vital and insightful contribution towards constitutional-based concept for further development and future studies in T&CM.

  6. Taming dendritic cells with TIM-3: another immunosuppressive strategy used by tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jaina; Bozeman, Erica N; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2012-12-01

    Evaluation of: Chiba S, Baghdadi M, Akiba H et al. Tumor-infiltrating DCs suppress nucleic acid-mediated innate immune responses through interactions between the receptor TIM-3 and the alarmin HMGB1. Nat. Immunol. 13, 832-842 (2012). The identification of TIM-3 expression on tumor-associated dendritic cells (TADCs) provides insight into another aspect of tumor-mediated immunosuppression. The role of TIM-3 has been well characterized on tumor-infiltrating T cells; however, its role on TADCs was not previously known. The current paper demonstrated that TIM-3 was predominantly expressed by TADCs and its interaction with the nuclear protein HMGB1 suppressed nucleic acid-mediated activation of an effective antitumor immune response. The authors were able to show that TIM-3 interaction with HMGB1 prevented the localization of nucleic acids into endosomal vesicles. Furthermore, chemotherapy was found to be more effective in anti-TIM-3 monoclonal antibody-treated mice or mice depleted of all DCs, which indicated that a significant role is played by TADCs in inhibiting tumor regression. Taken together, these findings identify TIM-3 as a potential target for inducing antitumor immunity in conjunction with DNA vaccines and/or immunogenic chemotherapy in clinical settings.

  7. Airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over disseminated gold deposits, Osgood Mountains, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over several disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada in 1983. The aerial surveys were flown to determine whether TIMS data could depict jasperoids (siliceous replacement bodies) associated with the gold deposits. The TIMS data were collected over the Pinson and Getchell Mines in the Osgood Mountains, the Carlin, Maggie Creek, Bootstrap, and other mines in the Tuscarora Mountains, and the Jerritt Canyon Mine in the Independence Mountains. The TIMS data seem to be a useful supplement to conventional geochemical exploration for disseminated gold deposits in the western United States. Siliceous outcrops are readily separable in the TIMS image from other types of host rocks. Different forms of silicification are not readily separable, yet, due to limitations of spatial resolution and spectral dynamic range. Features associated with the disseminated gold deposits, such as the large intrusive bodies and fault structures, are also resolvable on TIMS data. Inclusion of high-resolution thermal inertia data would be a useful supplement to the TIMS data.

  8. The TIM Barrel Architecture Facilitated the Early Evolution of Protein-Mediated Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Aaron David; Beatty, Joshua T; Landweber, Laura F

    2016-01-01

    The triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel protein fold is a structurally repetitive architecture that is present in approximately 10% of all enzymes. It is generally assumed that this ubiquity in modern proteomes reflects an essential historical role in early protein-mediated metabolism. Here, we provide quantitative and comparative analyses to support several hypotheses about the early importance of the TIM barrel architecture. An information theoretical analysis of protein structures supports the hypothesis that the TIM barrel architecture could arise more easily by duplication and recombination compared to other mixed α/β structures. We show that TIM barrel enzymes corresponding to the most taxonomically broad superfamilies also have the broadest range of functions, often aided by metal and nucleotide-derived cofactors that are thought to reflect an earlier stage of metabolic evolution. By comparison to other putatively ancient protein architectures, we find that the functional diversity of TIM barrel proteins cannot be explained simply by their antiquity. Instead, the breadth of TIM barrel functions can be explained, in part, by the incorporation of a broad range of cofactors, a trend that does not appear to be shared by proteins in general. These results support the hypothesis that the simple and functionally general TIM barrel architecture may have arisen early in the evolution of protein biosynthesis and provided an ideal scaffold to facilitate the metabolic transition from ribozymes, peptides, and geochemical catalysts to modern protein enzymes.

  9. Molecular mechanism for differential recognition of membrane phosphatidylserine by the immune regulatory receptor Tim4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Gregory T; Gong, Zhiliang; Chen, Chiu-Hao; Vargas, Ernesto; Crooks, James E; Cao, Kathleen D; Heffern, Charles T R; Henderson, J Michael; Meron, Mati; Lin, Binhua; Roux, Benot; Schlossman, Mark L; Steck, Theodore L; Lee, Ka Yee C; Adams, Erin J

    2014-04-15

    Recognition of phosphatidylserine (PS) lipids exposed on the extracellular leaflet of plasma membranes is implicated in both apoptotic cell removal and immune regulation. The PS receptor T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain-containing molecule 4 (Tim4) regulates T-cell immunity via phagocytosis of both apoptotic (high PS exposure) and nonapoptotic (intermediate PS exposure) activated T cells. The latter population must be removed at lower efficiency to sensitively control immune tolerance and memory cell population size, but the molecular basis for how Tim4 achieves this sensitivity is unknown. Using a combination of interfacial X-ray scattering, molecular dynamics simulations, and membrane binding assays, we demonstrate how Tim4 recognizes PS in the context of a lipid bilayer. Our data reveal that in addition to the known Ca(2+)-coordinated, single-PS binding pocket, Tim4 has four weaker sites of potential ionic interactions with PS lipids. This organization makes Tim4 sensitive to PS surface concentration in a manner capable of supporting differential recognition on the basis of PS exposure level. The structurally homologous, but functionally distinct, Tim1 and Tim3 are significantly less sensitive to PS surface density, likely reflecting the differences in immunological function between the Tim proteins. These results establish the potential for lipid membrane parameters, such as PS surface density, to play a critical role in facilitating selective recognition of PS-exposing cells. Furthermore, our multidisciplinary approach overcomes the difficulties associated with characterizing dynamic protein/membrane systems to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying Tim4's recognition properties, and thereby provides an approach capable of providing atomic-level detail to uncover the nuances of protein/membrane interactions.

  10. Circulating and tumor-infiltrating Tim-3 in patients with colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Quanli; Yuan, Peng; Zhao, Peng; Yuan, Huijuan; Fan, Huijie; Li, Tiepeng; Qin, Peng; Han, Lu; Fang, Weijia; Suo, Zhenhe

    2015-01-01

    T-cell exhaustion represents a progressive loss of T-cell function. The inhibitory receptor PD-1 is known to negatively regulate CD8+ T cell responses directed against tumor antigen, but the blockades of PD-1 pathway didn't show the objective responses in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). Thus, further exploring the molecular mechanism responsible for inducing T-cell dysfunction in CRC patients may reveal effective strategies for immune therapy. This study aims to characterize co-inhibitory receptors on T cells in CRC patients to identify novel targets for immunotherapy. In this study, peripheral blood samples from 20 healthy controls and 54 consented CRC patients, and tumor and matched paraneoplastic tissues from 7 patients with advanced CRC, subjected to multicolor flow cytometric analysis of the expression of PD-1 and Tim-3 receptors on CD8+ T cells. It was found that CRC patients presented with significantly higher levels of circulating Tim-3+PD-1+CD8+ T cells compared to the healthy controls (medians of 3.12% and 1.99%, respectively, p = 0.0403). A similar increase of Tim-3+PD-1+CD8+ T cells was also observed in the tumor tissues compared to paraneoplastic tussues. Tim-3+PD-1+CD8+ T cells in tumor tissues produced even less cytokine than that in paraneoplastic tissues. Functional ex vivo experiments showed that Tim-3+PD-1+CD8+ T cells produced significantly less IFN-γ than Tim-3−PD-1−CD8+ T cells, followed by Tim-3+PD-1−CD8+ T cells, and Tim-3−PD-1+CD8+ T cells, indicating a stronger inhibition of IFN-γ production of Tim-3+CD8+ T cells. It is also found in this study that Tim-3+PD-1+CD8+ T cell increase in circulation was correlated with clinical cancer stage but not histologic grade and serum concentrations of cancer biomarker CEA. Our results indicate that upregulation of the inhibitory receptor Tim-3 may restrict T cell responses in CRC patients, and therefore blockage of Tim-3 and thus restoring T cell responses may be a potential

  11. Novel effector phenotype of Tim-3+ regulatory T cells leads to enhanced suppressive function in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuqing; McMichael, Elizabeth L; Shayan, Gulidanna; Li, Jing; Chen, Kevin; Srivastava, Raghvendra M; Kane, Lawrence P; Lu, Binfeng; Ferris, Robert L

    2018-04-30

    Regulatory T (Treg) cells are important suppressive cells among tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). Treg express the well-known immune checkpoint receptor PD-1, which is reported to mark "exhausted" Treg with lower suppressive function. T cell immunoglobulin mucin (Tim)-3, a negative regulator of Th1 immunity, is expressed by a sizeable fraction of TIL Tregs, but the functional status of Tim-3+ Tregs remains unclear. CD4+CTLA-4+CD25high Treg were sorted from freshly excised head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) TIL based on Tim-3 expression. Functional and phenotypic features of these Tim-3+ and Tim-3- TIL Tregs were tested by in vitro suppression assays and multi-color flow cytometry. Gene expression profiling and NanoString analysis of Tim-3+ TIL Treg were performed. A murine HNSCC tumor model was used to test the effect of anti-PD-1 immunotherapy on Tim-3+ Treg.  Results: Despite high PD-1 expression, Tim-3+ TIL Treg displayed a greater capacity to inhibit naïve T cell proliferation than Tim-3- Treg. Tim-3+ Treg from human HNSCC TIL also displayed an effector-like phenotype, with more robust expression of CTLA-4, PD-1, CD39 and IFN-γ receptor. Exogenous IFN-γ treatment could partially reverse the suppressive function of Tim-3+ TIL Treg. Anti-PD-1 immunotherapy downregulated Tim-3 expression on Tregs isolated from murine HNSCC tumors, and this treatment reversed the suppressive function of HNSCC TIL Tregs. Tim-3+ Treg are functionally and phenotypically distinct in HNSCC TIL, and are highly effective at inhibiting T cell proliferation despite high PD-1 expression.  IFN-γ induced by anti-PD-1 immunotherapy may be beneficial by reversing Tim-3+ Treg suppression. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Radiometric dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, N.R.

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of natural radioactivity in uranium, in the last decade of the nineteenth century, the nuclear property of radioactive decay of radionuclides at immutable rates has been effectively utilized in dating of varieties of naturally occurring geological matrices and the organisms which constantly replenish their "1"4C supply through respiration when alive on earth. During the period, applications of radiometric dating techniques have been extensively diversified and have enabled the geologists to indicate the absolute time scales of geological formations and the evolution of the solar system, the earth, meteorites, lunar rocks, etc. and the archaeologists to record the facts of history of several important events like dinosaur era, Iceman, the Shroud in Turin and many other ancient artefacts. In the development of dating methods, varieties of naturally occurring radio-isotopic systems with favorable half-lives ranging from about 10 years to over 100 billion years have been used as radiometric clocks. (author)

  13. Anticipating Deep Mapping: Tracing the Spatial Practice of Tim Robinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jos Smith

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There has been little academic research published on the work of Tim Robinson despite an illustrious career, first as an artist of the London avant-garde, then as a map-maker in the west of Ireland, and finally as an author of place. In part, this dearth is due to the difficulty of approaching these three diverse strands collectively. However, recent developments in the field of deep mapping encourage us to look back at the continuity of Robinson’s achievements in full and offer a suitable framework for doing so. Socially engaged with living communities and a depth of historical knowledge about place, but at the same time keen to contribute artistically to the ongoing contemporary culture of place, the parameters of deep mapping are broad enough to encompass the range of Robinson’s whole practice and suggest unique ways to illuminate his very unusual career. But Robinson’s achievements also encourage a reflection on the historical context of deep mapping itself, as well as on the nature of its spatial practice (especially where space comes to connote a medium to be worked rather than an area/volume. With this in mind the following article both explores Robinson’s work through deep mapping and deep mapping through the work of this unusual artist.

  14. Sensor 17 Thermal Isolation Mounting Structure (TIMS) Design Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enstrom, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-04

    The SENSOR 17 thermographic camera weighs approximately 0.5lbs, has a fundamental mode of 167 Hz, and experiences 0.75W of heat leakage in through the TIMS. The configuration, shown in Figure 1, is comprised of four 300 Series SST washers paired in tandem with P.E.I (Ultem 100) washers. The SENSOR 17 sensor is mounted to a 300 series stainless plate with A-shaped arms. The Plate can be assumed to be at ambient temperatures (≈293K) and the I.R. Mount needs to be cooled to 45K. It is attached to the tip of a cryocooler by a ‘cold strap’ and is assumed to be at the temperature of the cold-strap (≈45K). During flights SENSOR 17 experiences excitations at frequencies centered around 10-30Hz, 60Hz, and 120Hz from the aircraft flight environment. The temporal progression described below depicts the 1st Modal shape at the systems resonant frequency. This simulation indicates Modal articulation will cause a pitch rate of the camera with respect to the body axis of the airplane. This articulation shows up as flutter in the camera.

  15. Ebola Virus Binding to Tim-1 on T Lymphocytes Induces a Cytokine Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Younan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ebola virus (EBOV disease (EVD results from an exacerbated immunological response that is highlighted by a burst in the production of inflammatory mediators known as a “cytokine storm.” Previous reports have suggested that nonspecific activation of T lymphocytes may play a central role in this phenomenon. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 1 (Tim-1 has recently been shown to interact with virion-associated phosphatidylserine to promote infection. Here, we demonstrate the central role of Tim-1 in EBOV pathogenesis, as Tim-1−/− mice exhibited increased survival rates and reduced disease severity; surprisingly, only a limited decrease in viremia was detected. Tim-1−/− mice exhibited a modified inflammatory response as evidenced by changes in serum cytokines and activation of T helper subsets. A series of in vitro assays based on the Tim-1 expression profile on T cells demonstrated that despite the apparent absence of detectable viral replication in T lymphocytes, EBOV directly binds to isolated T lymphocytes in a phosphatidylserine–Tim-1-dependent manner. Exposure to EBOV resulted in the rapid development of a CD4Hi CD3Low population, non-antigen-specific activation, and cytokine production. Transcriptome and Western blot analysis of EBOV-stimulated CD4+ T cells confirmed the induction of the Tim-1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, comparative analysis of transcriptome data and cytokine/chemokine analysis of supernatants highlight the similarities associated with EBOV-stimulated T cells and the onset of a cytokine storm. Flow cytometry revealed virtually exclusive binding and activation of central memory CD4+ T cells. These findings provide evidence for the role of Tim-1 in the induction of a cytokine storm phenomenon and the pathogenesis of EVD.

  16. Taming dendritic cells with TIM-3: Another immunosuppressive strategy by tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jaina; Bozeman, Erica N.; Selvaraj, Periasamy

    2013-01-01

    The identification of TIM-3 expression on tumor associated dendritic cells (TADCs) provides insight into another aspect of tumor-mediated immunosuppression. The role of TIM-3 has been well characterized on tumor-infiltrating T cells, however its role on TADCs was not previously known. The current paper demonstrated that TIM-3 was predominantly expressed by TADCs and its interaction with the nuclear protein HMGB1 suppressed nucleic acid mediated activation of an effective antitumor immune response. The authors were able to show that TIM-3 interaction with HMGB1 prevented the localization of nucleic acids into endosomal vesicles. Furthermore, chemotherapy was found to be more effective in anti-TIM-3 mAb treated mice or mice depleted of all DCs which indicated that significant role played by TADCs inhibiting tumor regression. Taken together, these findings identify TIM-3 as a potential target for inducing antitumor immunity in conjunction with DNA vaccines and/or immunogenic chemotherapy in clinical settings. PMID:23240746

  17. The TIM and TAM families of phosphatidylserine receptors mediate dengue virus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, Laurent; Carnec, Xavier; Lecoin, Manuel Perera; Ramdasi, Rasika; Guivel-Benhassine, Florence; Lew, Erin; Lemke, Greg; Schwartz, Olivier; Amara, Ali

    2012-10-18

    Dengue viruses (DVs) are responsible for the most medically relevant arboviral diseases. However, the molecular interactions mediating DV entry are poorly understood. We determined that TIM and TAM proteins, two receptor families that mediate the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer)-dependent phagocytic removal of apoptotic cells, serve as DV entry factors. Cells poorly susceptible to DV are robustly infected after ectopic expression of TIM or TAM receptors. Conversely, DV infection of susceptible cells is inhibited by anti-TIM or anti-TAM antibodies or knockdown of TIM and TAM expression. TIM receptors facilitate DV entry by directly interacting with virion-associated PtdSer. TAM-mediated infection relies on indirect DV recognition, in which the TAM ligand Gas6 acts as a bridging molecule by binding to PtdSer within the virion. This dual mode of virus recognition by TIM and TAM receptors reveals how DVs usurp the apoptotic cell clearance pathway for infectious entry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Downregulation of TIM-3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, X.Z. [Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Huang, W.Y.; Qiao, Y.; Chen, Y.; Du, S.Y.; Chen, D.; Yu, S. [Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Liu, N. [Department of Nephrology, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Dou, L.Y. [Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Jiang, Y. [Central Laboratory, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Department of Immunology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, China Medical University, Shenyang (China); Department of Dermatology, First Affiliated Hospital, China Medical University, Shenyang (China)

    2014-10-17

    The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family is associated with autoimmune diseases, but its expression level in the immune cells of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the expression of TIM-3 mRNA is associated with pathogenesis of SLE. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (qRT-PCR) was used to determine TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 132 patients with SLE and 62 healthy controls. The PBMC surface protein expression of TIMs in PBMCs from 20 SLE patients and 15 healthy controls was assayed by flow cytometry. Only TIM-3 mRNA expression decreased significantly in SLE patients compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). No significant differences in TIM family protein expression were observed in leukocytes from SLE patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) had a significantly lower expression of TIM-3 mRNA than those without LN (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in the expression of TIM-3 mRNA within different classes of LN (P>0.05). Correlation of TIM-3 mRNA expression with serum IgA was highly significant (r=0.425, P=0.004), but was weakly correlated with total serum protein (r{sub s}=0.283, P=0.049) and serum albumin (r{sub s}=0.297, P=0.047). TIM-3 mRNA expression was weakly correlated with the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI; r{sub s}=-0.272, P=0.032). Our results suggest that below-normal expression of TIM-3 mRNA in PBMC may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE.

  19. Downregulation of TIM-3 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, X.Z.; Huang, W.Y.; Qiao, Y.; Chen, Y.; Du, S.Y.; Chen, D.; Yu, S.; Liu, N.; Dou, L.Y.; Jiang, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family is associated with autoimmune diseases, but its expression level in the immune cells of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is not known. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the expression of TIM-3 mRNA is associated with pathogenesis of SLE. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis (qRT-PCR) was used to determine TIM-1, TIM-3, and TIM-4 mRNA expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 132 patients with SLE and 62 healthy controls. The PBMC surface protein expression of TIMs in PBMCs from 20 SLE patients and 15 healthy controls was assayed by flow cytometry. Only TIM-3 mRNA expression decreased significantly in SLE patients compared with healthy controls (P<0.001). No significant differences in TIM family protein expression were observed in leukocytes from SLE patients and healthy controls (P>0.05). SLE patients with lupus nephritis (LN) had a significantly lower expression of TIM-3 mRNA than those without LN (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in the expression of TIM-3 mRNA within different classes of LN (P>0.05). Correlation of TIM-3 mRNA expression with serum IgA was highly significant (r=0.425, P=0.004), but was weakly correlated with total serum protein (r s =0.283, P=0.049) and serum albumin (r s =0.297, P=0.047). TIM-3 mRNA expression was weakly correlated with the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI; r s =-0.272, P=0.032). Our results suggest that below-normal expression of TIM-3 mRNA in PBMC may be involved in the pathogenesis of SLE

  20. Radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazos R, L.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the radiocarbon dating in archaeology has not served only to solve problems related with the establishment of chronologies, but also in the development of archaeological methods of excavation and interpretation. This has been possible because the dating method by radiocarbon provides a common temporary scale that transcends the cultural and regional frontiers. It is even spoken of the revolution that has meant the fact that the application of this method has allowed to the archaeologist to pass from the construction of chronologies until the evaluation and dynamic interpretation of the archaeological data to build theories. This work explains and compares methods for the detection of 14 C, as the gas counting, the liquid scintillation counting and the mass spectrometry with accelerators. (Author)

  1. Thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments depends upon the acquisition and long term stable storage of TL energy by crystalline minerals contained within a sedimentary unit. This energy is stored in the form of trapped electrons and quartz sand is the most commonly used mineral employed in the dating process. Prior to the final depositional episode it is necessary that any previously acquired TL is removed by exposure to sunlight. After burial the TL begins to build up again at a rate dependent upon the radiation flux delivered by long-lived isotopes of uranium, thorium and potassium. The presence of rubidium and cosmic radiation generally play a lesser but contributory roll, and the total radiation dose delivered to the TL phosphor is modified by the presence of water. The period since deposition is therefore measured by determining the total amount of stored TL energy, the palaeodose (P), and the rate at which this energy is acquired, the annual radiation dose (ARD). TL dating may be applied to eolian, fluvial, coastal and in some cases, marine sediments. the technique is also successfully applied to volcanic materials and to a certain extent to archeological specimens

  2. Drosophila TIM binds importin α1, and acts as an adapter to transport PER to the nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, A Reum; Moravcevic, Katarina; Saez, Lino; Young, Michael W; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-02-01

    Regulated nuclear entry of clock proteins is a conserved feature of eukaryotic circadian clocks and serves to separate the phase of mRNA activation from mRNA repression in the molecular feedback loop. In Drosophila, nuclear entry of the clock proteins, PERIOD (PER) and TIMELESS (TIM), is tightly controlled, and impairments of this process produce profound behavioral phenotypes. We report here that nuclear entry of PER-TIM in clock cells, and consequently behavioral rhythms, require a specific member of a classic nuclear import pathway, Importin α1 (IMPα1). In addition to IMPα1, rhythmic behavior and nuclear expression of PER-TIM require a specific nuclear pore protein, Nup153, and Ran-GTPase. IMPα1 can also drive rapid and efficient nuclear expression of TIM and PER in cultured cells, although the effect on PER is mediated by TIM. Mapping of interaction domains between IMPα1 and TIM/PER suggests that TIM is the primary cargo for the importin machinery. This is supported by attenuated interaction of IMPα1 with TIM carrying a mutation previously shown to prevent nuclear entry of TIM and PER. TIM is detected at the nuclear envelope, and computational modeling suggests that it contains HEAT-ARM repeats typically found in karyopherins, consistent with its role as a co-transporter for PER. These findings suggest that although PER is the major timekeeper of the clock, TIM is the primary target of nuclear import mechanisms. Thus, the circadian clock uses specific components of the importin pathway with a novel twist in that TIM serves a karyopherin-like role for PER.

  3. Preparation and characterization of a novel nanobody against T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-3 (TIM-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni, Vida; Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Mazdak; Rezaei, Abbas; Khanahmad, Hossein; Behdani, Mahdi; Lomedasht, Fatemeh Kazemi

    2016-11-01

    As T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3) is an immune regulatory molecule; its blocking or stimulating could alter the pattern of immune response towards a desired condition. Based on the unique features of nanobodies, we aimed to construct an anti-TIM-3 nanobody as an appropriate tool for manipulating immune responses for future therapeutic purposes. We immunized a camel with TIM-3 antigen and then, synthesized a VHH phage: mid library from its B cell's transcriptome using nested PCR. Library selection against TIM-3antigen was performed in three rounds of panning. Using phage-ELISA, the most reactive colonies were selected for sub-cloning in soluble protein expression vectors. The Nanobody was purified and confirmed with a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) column, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. A flowcytometric analysis was performed to analyze the binding and biologic activities of theTIM-3 specific nanobody with TIM-3 expressing HL-60 and HEK cell lines. Specific 15kD band representing for nanobody was observed on the gel and confirmed with Western blotting. The nanobody showed significant specific immune-reactivity against TIM-3 with a relatively high binding affinity. The nanobody significantly suppressed the proliferation of TIM-3 expressing HL-60 cell line. Finally, we successfully prepared a functional anti-humanTIM-3 specific nanobody with a high affinity and an anti-proliferative activity on an AML cell line in vitro.

  4. Ebola Virus Binding to Tim-1 on T Lymphocytes Induces a Cytokine Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younan, Patrick; Iampietro, Mathieu; Nishida, Andrew; Ramanathan, Palaniappan; Santos, Rodrigo I; Dutta, Mukta; Lubaki, Ndongala Michel; Koup, Richard A; Katze, Michael G; Bukreyev, Alexander

    2017-09-26

    Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) results from an exacerbated immunological response that is highlighted by a burst in the production of inflammatory mediators known as a "cytokine storm." Previous reports have suggested that nonspecific activation of T lymphocytes may play a central role in this phenomenon. T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 1 (Tim-1) has recently been shown to interact with virion-associated phosphatidylserine to promote infection. Here, we demonstrate the central role of Tim-1 in EBOV pathogenesis, as Tim-1 -/- mice exhibited increased survival rates and reduced disease severity; surprisingly, only a limited decrease in viremia was detected. Tim-1 -/- mice exhibited a modified inflammatory response as evidenced by changes in serum cytokines and activation of T helper subsets. A series of in vitro assays based on the Tim-1 expression profile on T cells demonstrated that despite the apparent absence of detectable viral replication in T lymphocytes, EBOV directly binds to isolated T lymphocytes in a phosphatidylserine-Tim-1-dependent manner. Exposure to EBOV resulted in the rapid development of a CD4 Hi CD3 Low population, non-antigen-specific activation, and cytokine production. Transcriptome and Western blot analysis of EBOV-stimulated CD4 + T cells confirmed the induction of the Tim-1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, comparative analysis of transcriptome data and cytokine/chemokine analysis of supernatants highlight the similarities associated with EBOV-stimulated T cells and the onset of a cytokine storm. Flow cytometry revealed virtually exclusive binding and activation of central memory CD4 + T cells. These findings provide evidence for the role of Tim-1 in the induction of a cytokine storm phenomenon and the pathogenesis of EVD. IMPORTANCE Ebola virus infection is characterized by a massive release of inflammatory mediators, which has come to be known as a cytokine storm. The severity of the cytokine storm is

  5. TIM-3 as a Target for Cancer Immunotherapy and Mechanisms of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenwen Du

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer immunotherapy has produced impressive clinical results in recent years. Despite the success of the checkpoint blockade strategies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 and programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1, a large portion of cancer patients have not yet benefited from this novel therapy. T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3 has been shown to mediate immune tolerance in mouse models of infectious diseases, alloimmunity, autoimmunity, and tumor Immunity. Thus, targeting TIM-3 emerges as a promising approach for further improvement of current immunotherapy. Despite a large amount of experimental data showing an immune suppressive function of TIM-3 in vivo, the exact mechanisms are not well understood. To enable effective targeting of TIM-3 for tumor immunotherapy, further in-depth mechanistic studies are warranted. These studies will also provide much-needed insight for the rational design of novel combination therapy with other checkpoint blockers. In this review, we summarize key evidence supporting an immune regulatory role of TIM-3 and discuss possible mechanisms of action.

  6. Towards Discovery and Targeted Peptide Biomarker Detection Using nanoESI-TIMS-TOF MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garabedian, Alyssa; Benigni, Paolo; Ramirez, Cesar; Baker, Erin M.; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2018-05-01

    Abstract. In the present work, the potential of trapped ion mobility spectrometry coupled to TOF mass spectrometry (TIMS-TOF MS) for discovery and targeted monitoring of peptide biomarkers from human-in-mouse xenograft tumor tissue was evaluated. In particular, a TIMS-MS workflow was developed for the detection and quantification of peptide biomarkers using internal heavy analogs, taking advantage of the high mobility resolution (R = 150–250) prior to mass analysis. Five peptide biomarkers were separated, identified, and quantified using offline nanoESI-TIMSCID- TOF MS; the results were in good agreement with measurements using a traditional LC-ESI-MS/MS proteomics workflow. The TIMS-TOF MS analysis permitted peptide biomarker detection based on accurate mobility, mass measurements, and high sequence coverage for concentrations in the 10–200 nM range, while simultaneously achieving discovery measurements

  7. TIM, a ray-tracing program for METATOY research and its dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Dean; Hamilton, Alasdair C.; Constable, George; Snehanshu, Harsh; Talati, Sharvil; Courtial, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    TIM (The Interactive METATOY) is a ray-tracing program specifically tailored towards our research in METATOYs, which are optical components that appear to be able to create wave-optically forbidden light-ray fields. For this reason, TIM possesses features not found in other ray-tracing programs. TIM can either be used interactively or by modifying the openly available source code; in both cases, it can easily be run as an applet embedded in a web page. Here we describe the basic structure of TIM's source code and how to extend it, and we give examples of how we have used TIM in our own research. Program summaryProgram title: TIM Catalogue identifier: AEKY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEKY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 124 478 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 120 052 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Java Computer: Any computer capable of running the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) 1.6 Operating system: Any; developed under Mac OS X Version 10.6 RAM: Typically 145 MB (interactive version running under Mac OS X Version 10.6) Classification: 14, 18 External routines: JAMA [1] (source code included) Nature of problem: Visualisation of scenes that include scene objects that create wave-optically forbidden light-ray fields. Solution method: Ray tracing. Unusual features: Specifically designed to visualise wave-optically forbidden light-ray fields; can visualise ray trajectories; can visualise geometric optic transformations; can create anaglyphs (for viewing with coloured "3D glasses") and random-dot autostereograms of the scene; integrable into web pages. Running time: Problem-dependent; typically seconds for a simple scene.

  8. A quantitative analysis of TIMS data obtained on the Learjet 23 at various altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, S.

    1992-01-01

    A series of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data acquisition flights were conducted on the NASA Learjet 23 at different altitudes over a test site. The objective was to monitor the performance of the TIMS (its estimation of the brightness temperatures of the ground scene) with increasing altitude. The results do not show any significant correlation between the brightness temperatures and the altitude. The analysis indicates that the estimation of the temperatures is a function of the accuracy of the atmospheric correction used for each altitude.

  9. Analysis of Eocene depositional environments - Preliminary TM and TIMS results, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Richard K.; Krishtalka, Leonard; Redline, Andrew D.; Lang, Harold R.

    1987-01-01

    Both Landsat TM and aircraft Thermal IR Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data have been used to map the lithofacies of the Wind River Basin's Eocene physical and biological environments. Preliminary analyses of these data have furnished maps of a fault contact boundary and a complex network of fluvial ribbon channel sandstones. The synoptic view thereby emerging for Eocene fluvial facies clarifies the relationships of ribbon channel sandstones to fossil-bearing overbank/floodplain facies and certain peleosols. The utility of TM and TIMS data is thereby demonstrated.

  10. A polymorphism of the TIM-1 IgV domain: implications for the susceptibility to filovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Makoto; Fujikura, Daisuke; Noyori, Osamu; Kajihara, Masahiro; Maruyama, Junki; Miyamoto, Hiroko; Yoshida, Reiko; Takada, Ayato

    2014-12-12

    Filoviruses, including Ebola and Marburg viruses, cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans and nonhuman primates with mortality rates of up to 90%. Human T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) is one of the host proteins that have been shown to promote filovirus entry into cells. In this study, we cloned TIM-1 genes from three different African green monkey kidney cell lines (Vero E6, COS-1, and BSC-1) and found that TIM-1 of Vero E6 had a 23-amino acid deletion and 6 amino acid substitutions compared with those of COS-1 and BSC-1. Interestingly, Vero E6 TIM-1 had a greater ability to promote the infectivity of vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with filovirus glycoproteins than COS-1-derived TIM-1. We further found that the increased ability of Vero E6 TIM-1 to promote virus infectivity was most likely due to a single amino acid difference between these TIM-1s. These results suggest that a polymorphism of the TIM-1 molecules is one of the factors that influence cell susceptibility to filovirus infection, providing a new insight into the molecular basis for the filovirus host range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Endogenous Tim-1 (Kim-1) promotes T-cell responses and cell-mediated injury in experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yuji; Nikolic-Paterson, David J; Snelgrove, Sarah L; Akiba, Hisaya; Yagita, Hideo; Holdsworth, Stephen R; Kitching, A Richard

    2012-05-01

    The T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1) modulates CD4(+) T-cell responses and is also expressed by damaged proximal tubules in the kidney where it is known as kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1). We sought to define the role of endogenous Tim-1 in experimental T-cell-mediated glomerulonephritis induced by sheep anti-mouse glomerular basement membrane globulin acting as a planted foreign antigen. Tim-1 is expressed by infiltrating activated CD4(+) cells in this model, and we studied the effects of an inhibitory anti-Tim-1 antibody (RMT1-10) on immune responses and glomerular disease. Crescentic glomerulonephritis, proliferative injury, and leukocyte accumulation were attenuated following treatment with anti-Tim-1 antibodies, but interstitial foxp3(+) cell accumulation and interleukin-10 mRNA were increased. T-cell proliferation and apoptosis decreased in the immune system along with a selective reduction in Th1 and Th17 cellular responses both in the immune system and within the kidney. The urinary excretion and renal expression of Kim-1 was reduced by anti-Tim-1 antibodies reflecting diminished interstitial injury. The effects of anti-Tim-1 antibodies were not apparent in the early phase of renal injury, when the immune response to sheep globulin was developing. Thus, endogenous Tim-1 promotes Th1 and Th17 nephritogenic immune responses and its neutralization reduces renal injury while limiting inflammation in cell-mediated glomerulonephritis.

  12. Increased Tim-3 expression alleviates liver injury by regulating macrophage activation in MCD-induced NASH mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianhong; Wu, Zhuanchang; Xu, Yong; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Wen; Wang, Tixiao; Li, Chunyang; Zhang, Cuijuan; Yi, Fan; Gao, Lifen; Liang, Xiaohong; Ma, Chunhong

    2018-05-07

    As an immune checkpoint, Tim-3 plays roles in the regulation of both adaptive and innate immune cells including macrophages and is greatly involved in chronic liver diseases. However, the precise roles of Tim-3 in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) remain unstated. In the current study, we analyzed Tim-3 expression on different subpopulations of liver macrophages and further investigated the potential roles of Tim-3 on hepatic macrophages in methionine and choline-deficient diet (MCD)-induced NASH mice. The results of flow cytometry demonstrated the significantly increased expression of Tim-3 on all detected liver macrophage subsets in MCD mice, including F4/80 + CD11b + , F4/80 + CD68 + , and F4/80 + CD169 + macrophages. Remarkably, Tim-3 knockout (KO) significantly accelerated MCD-induced liver steatosis, displaying higher serum ALT, larger hepatic vacuolation, more liver lipid deposition, and more severe liver fibrosis. Moreover, compared with wild-type C57BL/6 mice, Tim-3 KO MCD mice demonstrated an enhanced expression of NOX2, NLRP3, and caspase-1 p20 together with increased generation of IL-1β and IL-18 in livers. In vitro studies demonstrated that Tim-3 negatively regulated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related downstream pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in macrophages. Exogenous administration of N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a small molecular inhibitor of ROS, remarkably suppressed caspase-1 p20 expression and IL-1β and IL-18 production in livers of Tim-3 KO mice, thus significantly reducing the severity of steatohepatitis induced by MCD. In conclusion, Tim-3 is a promising protector in MCD-induced steatohepatitis by controlling ROS and the associated pro-inflammatory cytokine production in macrophages.

  13. Servicing the first web server - Tim Berners-Lee's NeXT

    CERN Multimedia

    unknown, Association aBCM

    2009-01-01

    In August 2009 a team from the Association aBCM in Lausanne came to CERN to give the world's first web server a health check under the watchful eye of web pioneer Robert Cailliau. They took an image of the hard drive at this time, copies of which were given to Robert Cailliau and Tim Berners-Lee.

  14. Towards Discovery and Targeted Peptide Biomarker Detection Using nanoESI-TIMS-TOF MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabedian, Alyssa; Benigni, Paolo; Ramirez, Cesar E.; Baker, Erin S.; Liu, Tao; Smith, Richard D.; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, the potential of trapped ion mobility spectrometry coupled to TOF mass spectrometry (TIMS-TOF MS) for discovery and targeted monitoring of peptide biomarkers from human-in-mouse xenograft tumor tissue was evaluated. In particular, a TIMS-MS workflow was developed for the detection and quantification of peptide biomarkers using internal heavy analogs, taking advantage of the high mobility resolution (R = 150-250) prior to mass analysis. Five peptide biomarkers were separated, identified, and quantified using offline nanoESI-TIMS-CID-TOF MS; the results were in good agreement with measurements using a traditional LC-ESI-MS/MS proteomics workflow. The TIMS-TOF MS analysis permitted peptide biomarker detection based on accurate mobility, mass measurements, and high sequence coverage for concentrations in the 10-200 nM range, while simultaneously achieving discovery measurements of not initially targeted peptides as markers from the same proteins and, eventually, other proteins. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. TIM-3 is not essential for development of airway inflammation induced by house dust mite antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihisa Hiraishi

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Our findings indicate that, in mice, TIM-3 is not essential for development of HDM-induced acute or chronic allergic airway inflammation, although it appears to be involved in reduced lymphocyte recruitment during HDM-induced chronic allergic airway inflammation.

  16. Consumerism, Activism, Intrinsic Motivation, and Balance: An Interview with Tim Kasser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jared

    2010-01-01

    A year after receiving his PhD in psychology from the University of Rochester, Tim Kasser accepted a position at Knox College, in Galesburg, Illinois, where he is currently professor of psychology. He regularly teaches psychology classes on personality, clinical and abnormal psychology, dreaming, and research methods, as well as an…

  17. Tim Allen, one of Hollywood's top comedy actors with Rolf Landua from CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Tim Allen ('Galaxy Quest', 'For Richer and Poorer', 'The Santa Clause', Voice of 'Buzz Lightyear', in Toy Story 1 and 2), visited CERN in July 2000. He has a keen interest in modern physics. In his last book "I'm not really here" he contemplates the funny and the intriguing aspects of quantum physics in his daily life.

  18. The Filmmaker as Humanist: An Interview with Tim Robbins on the Making of "Cradle Will Rock".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Terrence C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an interview with Tim Robbins that focuses on the making of the film "Cradle Will Rock." Robbins offers his perspectives on issues such as the power of art to convey important social messages and sources of violence in schools. Includes resources for teachers. (CMK)

  19. El De imaginibus caelestibus de Ibn al-Ḥātim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveras, Marc

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available K. Lippincott and D. Pingree published in 1987 a first Latin edition and English translation of the 15th bilingual Arabic-Latin De imaginibus caelestibus, written originally by the Andalusian Ibn al-Ḥātim in the 10th century. The paper presented here aims to complete the preceding one with an Arabic edition, Spanish translation and some interpretations on the possible sources of talismanic imagery. In this brief astromagic treatise, Ibn al-Ḥātim focuses on twenty eight talismans, related to the lunar mansions, and their magical properties.

    En 1987 K. Lippincott y D. Pingree publicaron una primera edición latina junto a una traducción inglesa del tratado bilingüe árabo-latino del s. XV De imaginibus caelestibus, escrito originariamente por el andalusí Ibn al-Ḥātim en el s. X. El trabajo que se presenta aquí pretende completar al precedente con una edición del texto árabe, su traducción al español y añadir algunas interpretaciones a las posibles fuentes de la imaginería talismánica. En este breve tratado de astromagia, Ibn al-Ḥātim se dedica principalmente a describir veintiocho talismanes, relacionados con las mansiones lunares, y sus propiedades mágicas.

  20. Suppression of TIM-1 predicates clinical efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhibin; Zhou, Lifeng; Luo, Xi; Xia, Wentong; Chen, Dehua; Xu, Rui; Wang, Jie; Luo, Renzhong; Xu, Geng; Li, Huabin

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with house-dust mite (HDM) extract and to examine the change of biomarkers (TIM-1, IL-5 and IL-10) after 6-month SLIT in children with allergic rhinitis (AR). One hundred and sixteen HDM-sensitized children with persistent AR were enrolled to assess the clinical efficacy of SLIT by determining the individual nasal symptom score (INSS) and total nasal symptom scores (TNSS) after 6-month SLIT. Moreover, the mRNA expression of TIM-1, IL-5 and IL-10 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was examined in 16 well-controlled and 12 uncontrolled AR patients using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). After 6-month SLIT, both TNSS and INSS scores were significantly decreased compared with the baseline value (p < 0.01). The rates for well-controlled, partly controlled and uncontrolled children were 43.1%, 32.8% and 24.1%, respectively. Accordingly, the mRNA levels of TIM-1 and IL-5 decreased significantly and IL-10 mRNA level increased significantly compared with the baseline value in well-controlled children (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest SLIT with HDM extract is effective and safe for AR children and TIM-1 may be considered as an indicator for evaluating the clinical efficacy of SLIT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Onsite: A Residency with Tim Rollins/KOS. A Photo Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placky, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Presents a photo essay that visually narrates the workshop that took place in State College, Pennsylvania, from October 19-24, 1998 bringing together middle and high school students with Tim Rollins, who is a conceptual artist and educator, and Kids of Survival (KOS). (CMK)

  2. Active remodelling of the TIM23 complex during translocation of preproteins into mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov-Celeketić, Dusan; Mapa, Koyeli; Neupert, Walter; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2008-05-21

    The TIM23 (translocase of the mitochondrial inner membrane) complex mediates translocation of preproteins across and their insertion into the mitochondrial inner membrane. How the translocase mediates sorting of preproteins into the two different subcompartments is poorly understood. In particular, it is not clear whether association of two operationally defined parts of the translocase, the membrane-integrated part and the import motor, depends on the activity state of the translocase. We established conditions to in vivo trap the TIM23 complex in different translocation modes. Membrane-integrated part of the complex and import motor were always found in one complex irrespective of whether an arrested preprotein was present or not. Instead, we detected different conformations of the complex in response to the presence and, importantly, the type of preprotein being translocated. Two non-essential subunits of the complex, Tim21 and Pam17, modulate its activity in an antagonistic manner. Our data demonstrate that the TIM23 complex acts as a single structural and functional entity that is actively remodelled to sort preproteins into different mitochondrial subcompartments.

  3. T-bet-mediated Tim-3 expression dampens monocyte function during chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Wenjing; Zhang, Peixin; Liang, Yan; Zhou, Yun; Shen, Huanjun; Fan, Chao; Moorman, Jonathan P; Yao, Zhi Q; Jia, Zhansheng; Zhang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces a high rate of chronic infection via dysregulation of host immunity. We have previously shown that T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain protein-3 (Tim-3) is up-regulated on monocyte/macrophages (M/Mφ) during chronic HCV infection; little is known, however, about the transcription factor that controls its expression in these cells. In this study, we investigated the role of transcription factor, T-box expressed in T cells (T-bet), in Tim-3 expression in M/Mφ in the setting of HCV infection. We demonstrate that T-bet is constitutively expressed in resting CD14 + M/Mφ in the peripheral blood. M/Mφ from chronically HCV-infected individuals exhibit a significant increase in T-bet expression that positively correlates with an increased level of Tim-3 expression. Up-regulation of T-bet is also observed in CD14 + M/Mφ incubated with HCV + Huh7.5 cells, as well as in primary M/Mφ or monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to HCV core protein in vitro, which is reversible by blocking HCV core/gC1qR interactions. Moreover, the HCV core-induced up-regulation of T-bet and Tim-3 expression in M/Mφ can be abrogated by incubating the cells with SP600125 - an inhibitor for the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signalling pathway. Importantly, silencing T-bet gene expression decreases Tim-3 expression and enhances interleukin-12 secretion as well as signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 phosphorylation. These data suggest that T-bet, induced by the HCV core/gC1qR interaction, enhances Tim-3 expression via the JNK pathway, leading to dampened M/Mφ function during HCV infection. These findings reveal a novel mechanism for Tim-3 regulation via T-bet during HCV infection, providing new targets to combat this global epidemic viral disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. High-precision ID-TIMS zircon U-Pb geochronology using new 1013 Ohm resistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Quadt, A.; Buret, Y.; Large, S.; Peytcheva, I.; Trinquier, A.; Wotzlaw, J. F.

    2015-12-01

    Faraday cups equipped with high gain amplifiers provide a means to measure small ion beams in static mode without the limited linear range of ion counting systems. We tested the application of newly available 1013 Ohm resistors to ID-TIMS zircon U-Pb geochronology using a range of natural and synthetic reference materials. The TritonPlus-RPQ at the Institute of Geochemistry and Petrology, ETH Zurich, is equipped with five new 1013 Ohm resistors and one MasCom secondary electron multiplier, allowing to measure the 202-204-205-206-207-208Pb masses in static mode. U is measured subsequently as U-oxide (265-267-270UO2) during a second step, also in static Faraday mode. The gain calibration of the 1013 Ohm resistors was performed using the procedure of Trinquier (2014), with 144Nd-146Nd being measured using 1011 Ohm resistor and 142-143-145-148-150Nd being measured using 1013 Ohm resitors (Trinquier, 2014; Koornneef et al., 2014). Standard deviations of the noise in all five new 1013 Ohm resistors are lower than 5.0 x 10-6 over a 6 month period, with no shift occurring over this time interval. This new detector set-up was tested by analyzing natural zircon standard materials and synthetic U/Pb solutions (www.earthime.org), ranging in age from ~2 Ma to ~600 Ma. All natural zircon standards were chemically abraded (Mattinson, 2005) and all samples were spiked with the ET2535 tracer solution. U-Pb dates obtained using the static measurement routine are compared to measurements employing dynamic peak jumping routines on the MasCom multiplier. This study illustrates the benefits and current limitations of using high gain amplifiers to measure small ion beams for zircon U-Pb geochronology compared to conventional dynamic ion counting techniques. Mattinson, J.M. (2005) Chemical Geology 220:47-66; Trinquier, A. (2014) Application Note 30281; Koornneef, J. et al (2014) Analytica Chimica Acta 819:49-55.

  5. Reversibility and two state behaviour in the thermal unfolding of oligomeric TIM barrel proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Romero, Sergio; Costas, Miguel; Rodríguez-Romero, Adela; Alejandro Fernández-Velasco, D

    2015-08-28

    Temperature is one of the main variables that modulate protein function and stability. Thermodynamic studies of oligomeric proteins, the dominant protein natural form, have been often hampered because irreversible aggregation and/or slow reactions are common. There are no reports on the reversible equilibrium thermal unfolding of proteins composed of (β/α)8 barrel subunits, albeit this "TIM barrel" topology is one of the most abundant and versatile in nature. We studied the eponymous TIM barrel, triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), belonging to five species of different bacterial taxa. All of them were found to be catalytically efficient dimers. The three-dimensional structure of four enzymes was solved at high/medium resolution. Irreversibility and kinetic control were observed in the thermal unfolding of two TIMs, while for the other three the thermal unfolding was found to follow a two-state equilibrium reversible process. Shifts in the global stability curves of these three proteins are related to the organismal temperature range of optimal growth and modulated by variations in maximum stability temperature and in the enthalpy change at that temperature. Reversibility appears to correlate with the low isoelectric point, the absence of a residual structure in the unfolded state, small cavity volume in the native state, low conformational stability and a low melting temperature. Furthermore, the strong coupling between dimer dissociation and monomer unfolding may reduce aggregation and favour reversibility. It is therefore very thought-provoking to find that a common topological ensemble, such as the TIM barrel, can unfold/refold in the Anfinsen way, i.e. without the help of the cellular machinery.

  6. TIM-1 glycoprotein binds the adhesion receptor P-selectin and mediates T cell trafficking during inflammation and autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiari, Stefano; Donnarumma, Tiziano; Rossi, Barbara; Dusi, Silvia; Pietronigro, Enrica; Zenaro, Elena; Della Bianca, Vittorina; Toffali, Lara; Piacentino, Gennj; Budui, Simona; Rennert, Paul; Xiao, Sheng; Laudanna, Carlo; Casasnovas, Jose M.; Kuchroo, Vijay K.; Constantin, Gabriela

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Selectins play a central role in leukocyte trafficking by mediating tethering and rolling on vascular surfaces. Here we have reported that T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) is a P-selectin ligand. We have shown that human and murine TIM-1 binds to P-selectin, and that TIM-1 mediates tethering and rolling of T helper-1 (Th1) and Th17, but not Th2 and regulatory T cells on P-selectin. Th1 and Th17 cells lacking the TIM-1 mucin domain showed reduced rolling in thrombin-activated mesenteric venules and inflamed brain microcirculation. Inhibition of TIM-1 had no effect on naive T cell homing, but reduced T cell recruitment in a skin hypersensitivity model and blocked experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Uniquely, the TIM-1 IgV domain was also required for P-selectin binding. Our data demonstrate that TIM-1 is a major P-selectin ligand with a specialized role in T cell trafficking during inflammatory responses and the induction of autoimmune disease. PMID:24703780

  7. Preparation and characterization of a novel nanobody against T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-3 (TIM-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Homayouni

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: As T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3 is an immune regulatory molecule; its blocking or stimulating could alter the pattern of immune response towards a desired condition. Based on the unique features of nanobodies, we aimed to construct an anti-TIM-3 nanobody as an appropriate tool for manipulating immune responses for future therapeutic purposes. Materials and Methods:We immunized a camel with TIM-3 antigen and then, synthesized a VHH phagemid library from its B cell’s transcriptome using nested PCR. Library selection against TIM-3antigen was performed in three rounds of panning. Using phage-ELISA, the most reactive colonies were selected for sub-cloning in soluble protein expression vectors. The Nanobody was purified and confirmed with a nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA column, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. A flowcytometric analysis was performed to analyze the binding and biologic activities of theTIM-3 specific nanobody with TIM-3 expressing HL-60 and HEK cell lines. Results:Specific 15kD band representing for nanobody was observed on the gel and confirmed with Western blotting. The nanobody showed significant specific immune-reactivity against TIM-3 with a relatively high binding affinity. The nanobody significantly suppressed the proliferation of TIM-3 expressing HL-60 cell line. Conclusion: Finally, we successfully prepared a functional anti-humanTIM-3 specific nanobody with a high affinity and an anti-proliferative activity on an AML cell line in vitro.

  8. Tim-3/galectin-9 regulate the homeostasis of hepatic NKT cells in a murine model of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhao-Hui; Liang, Shuwen; Potter, James; Jiang, Xuan; Mao, Hai-Quan; Li, Zhiping

    2013-02-15

    T cell Ig and mucin domain (Tim)-3 is well known to interact with its natural ligand, Galectin-9 (Gal-9), to regulate T cell function. However, little is known about the function of Tim-3/Gal-9 signaling in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mediated by hepatic NKT cells that also express Tim-3. In the current study, we define the role and the mechanism of Tim-3/Gal-9 signaling in hepatic NKT cell regulation in a mouse model of diet-induced NAFLD. Adult male wild-type or CD1d knockout C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce steatosis. Some of the mice also received one or a combination of Gal-9, anti-IL-15R/IL-15 mAb, rIL-15, α-galactosylceramide, and multilamellar liposomes containing Cl(2)MDP. The expression of Tim-3 and various markers reflecting cell proliferation, activation, cytokine production, and apoptosis was analyzed. Liver histology, steatosis grade, and hepatic triglyceride content were also evaluated. In the liver, Tim-3(+) NKT cells are in an activated state, and Gal-9 directly induces Tim-3(+) NKT cell apoptosis and contributes to the depletion of NKT cells in diet-induced steatosis. However, Gal-9 also interacts with Tim-3-expressing Kupffer cells to induce secretion of IL-15, thus promoting NKT cell proliferation. Exogenous administration of Gal-9 significantly ameliorates diet-induced steatosis by modulating hepatic NKT cell function. In summary, the Tim-3/Gal-9-signaling pathway plays a critical role in the homeostasis of hepatic NKT cells through activation-induced apoptosis and secondary proliferation and, thus, contributes to the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  9. Tim-3/Galectin-9 Regulate the Homeostasis of Hepatic NKT Cells in a Murine Model of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuwen; Potter, James; Jiang, Xuan; Mao, Hai-Quan

    2013-01-01

    T cell Ig and mucin domain (Tim)-3 is well known to interact with its natural ligand, Galectin-9 (Gal-9), to regulate T cell function. However, little is known about the function of Tim-3/Gal-9 signaling in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) mediated by hepatic NKT cells that also express Tim-3. In the current study, we define the role and the mechanism of Tim-3/Gal-9 signaling in hepatic NKT cell regulation in a mouse model of diet-induced NAFLD. Adult male wild-type or CD1d knockout C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet to induce steatosis. Some of the mice also received one or a combination of Gal-9, anti–IL-15R/IL-15 mAb, rIL-15, α-galactosylceramide, and multilamellar liposomes containing Cl2MDP. The expression of Tim-3 and various markers reflecting cell proliferation, activation, cytokine production, and apoptosis was analyzed. Liver histology, steatosis grade, and hepatic triglyceride content were also evaluated. In the liver, Tim-3+ NKT cells are in an activated state, and Gal-9 directly induces Tim-3+ NKT cell apoptosis and contributes to the depletion of NKT cells in diet-induced steatosis. However, Gal-9 also interacts with Tim-3–expressing Kupffer cells to induce secretion of IL-15, thus promoting NKT cell proliferation. Exogenous administration of Gal-9 significantly ameliorates diet-induced steatosis by modulating hepatic NKT cell function. In summary, the Tim-3/Gal-9–signaling pathway plays a critical role in the homeostasis of hepatic NKT cells through activation-induced apoptosis and secondary proliferation and, thus, contributes to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. PMID:23296703

  10. Dating and Sexual Feelings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Body Your sexuality Dating and sexual feelings Dating and sexual feelings Thinking about romance, starting to ... you learn how to stay healthy and strong. Dating older guys top If you date someone even ...

  11. Setting a date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Glenis.

    1987-01-01

    Dating techniques are discussed and explained. The age range and sensitivity of different techniques are given. Potassium/argon dating, amino-acid dating, radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology, thermoluminescence and geomagnetic field dating are all mentioned. Each technique is explained and a brief history given. The techniques and equipment used by the British Museum, and some examples of archaeological articles dated are mentioned. (UK)

  12. A multipurpose TIM-based optical telescope for Omega and the Trident laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, J.A.; Murphy, T.J.; Berggren, R.R.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have recently designed and are building a telescope which acts as an imaging light collector relaying the image to an optical table for experiment dependent analysis and recording. The expected primary use of this instrument is a streaked optical pyrometer for witness plate measurements of Hohlraum drive temperature. The telescope is based on University of Rochester's Ten-Inch Manipulator (TIM) which allows compatibility between Omega, Trident, and the NIF lasers. The optics capture a f/7 cone of light, have a field of view of 6-mm, have a spatial resolution of 5 to 7-microm per line pair at the object plane, and are optimized for operation at 280-nm. The image is at a magnification of 11.7x, which is convenient for many experiments, but can be changed using additional optics that reside outside the TIM

  13. Effect of difference between group constants processed by codes TIMS and ETOX on integral quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hideki; Ishiguro, Yukio; Matsui, Yasushi.

    1978-06-01

    Group constants of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Pu have been produced with the processing code TIMS using the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-1. The temperature and composition dependent self-shielding factors have been calculated for the two cases with and without considering mutual interference resonant nuclei. By using the group constants set produced by the TIMS code, the integral quantities, i.e. multiplication factor, Na-void reactivity effect and Doppler reactivity effect, are calculated and compared with those calculated with the use of the cross sections set produced by the ETOX code to evaluate accuracy of the approximate calculation method in ETOX. There is much difference in self-shielding factor in each energy group between the two codes. For the fast reactor assemblies under study, however, the integral quantities calculated with these two sets are in good agreement with each other, because of eventual cancelation of errors. (auth.)

  14. Järgmise lainega võivad tulla meile Ühendriikide investorid / Tim Ferland ; interv. Margit Aedla

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ferland, Tim

    2003-01-01

    Eestis asuva Ameerika Kaubanduskoja (ACCE) president Tim Ferland analüüsib Eesti senist arengut, EL-iga liitumise mõju tulevasele majanduslikule arengule, Eesti ning USA majandus- ja kaubandussuhete olukorda

  15. Book review: Social Research: Issues, Methods and Process, 3rd edition, by Tim May, Open University Press, 2001, ISBN 0335206123

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The great strength of this book by Tim May ("Social Research: Issues, Methods and Process", 3rd edition ) is its successful negotiation (perhaps navigation) of the relationships between theory and method in (social) research.

  16. Application of TIMS in isotope correlations for determining the isotope ratios of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) is a well-recognized technique for determining the isotopic composition of Pu in irradiated nuclear fuel samples. Other mass spectrometric methods such as ICPMS, SIMS can also be employed for the isotopic analysis of Pu. In the event of non-availability of a mass spectrometer, other techniques such as gamma spectrometry and alpha spectrometry can also be used. They have a limited applicability since data on all the Pu isotopes cannot be obtained

  17. Insights into the fold organization of TIM barrel from interaction energy based structure networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayabaskar, M S; Vishveshwara, Saraswathi

    2012-01-01

    There are many well-known examples of proteins with low sequence similarity, adopting the same structural fold. This aspect of sequence-structure relationship has been extensively studied both experimentally and theoretically, however with limited success. Most of the studies consider remote homology or "sequence conservation" as the basis for their understanding. Recently "interaction energy" based network formalism (Protein Energy Networks (PENs)) was developed to understand the determinants of protein structures. In this paper we have used these PENs to investigate the common non-covalent interactions and their collective features which stabilize the TIM barrel fold. We have also developed a method of aligning PENs in order to understand the spatial conservation of interactions in the fold. We have identified key common interactions responsible for the conservation of the TIM fold, despite high sequence dissimilarity. For instance, the central beta barrel of the TIM fold is stabilized by long-range high energy electrostatic interactions and low-energy contiguous vdW interactions in certain families. The other interfaces like the helix-sheet or the helix-helix seem to be devoid of any high energy conserved interactions. Conserved interactions in the loop regions around the catalytic site of the TIM fold have also been identified, pointing out their significance in both structural and functional evolution. Based on these investigations, we have developed a novel network based phylogenetic analysis for remote homologues, which can perform better than sequence based phylogeny. Such an analysis is more meaningful from both structural and functional evolutionary perspective. We believe that the information obtained through the "interaction conservation" viewpoint and the subsequently developed method of structure network alignment, can shed new light in the fields of fold organization and de novo computational protein design.

  18. Tim, Jan Lucas ja Karl Robert - vennad üheks kuuks / Maris Laurits

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laurits, Maris

    2009-01-01

    Rakvere Teatri suvelavastuse "Vennad Lõvisüdamed" kaks Karli osatäitjat Jan Lucas Videvik ja Tim Leesnurm ning Joonatani osatäitja Karl Robert Saaremäe tegid Loksal Kaldmaa talus ratsasõiduproove. Üllar Saaremäe lavastuse "Vennad Lõvisüdamed" (Astrid Lindgreni samanimelise jutustuse järgi) esietendus on 11. juunil Rakvere teatri taga aias

  19. Determination of La and Nd by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) pre-separated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaison, P.G.; Raut, N.M.; Parab, A.R.; Khodade, P.S.; Govindan, R.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Determination of La and Nd by TIMS is required for accurate determination of burn-up of nuclear fuels. During their thermal ionization mass spectrometric (TIMS) analysis, 138 Ce and 142 Ce show spectroscopic isobaric interferences at 138 La and 142 Nd, respectively. Hence, it is essential to remove Ce from La and Nd for their accurate isotopic composition determination. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a promising technique for rapid and effective separation

  20. The TimBel synchronization board for time resolved experiments at synchrotron SOLEIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, J.P.; Betinelli-Deck, P.; Bisou, J.; Elattaoui, X.; Laulhe, C.; Monteiro, P.; Nadolski, L.S.; Renaud, G.; Ravy, S.; Silly, M.; Sirotti, F.

    2012-01-01

    Time resolved experiments are one of the major services that synchrotrons can provide to scientists. The short, high frequency and regular flashes of synchrotron light are a fantastic tool to study the evolution of phenomena over time. To carry out time resolved experiments, beamlines need to synchronize their devices with these flashes of light with a jitter shorter than the pulse duration. For that purpose, Synchrotron SOLEIL has developed the TimBeL (Timing Beamlines) board fully interfaced to TANGO framework. The TimBeL system is a compact PCI board. It is made of a mother with one daughter board. All functions are performed inside a FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array) implemented on the mother board. A PLX Technology chip is used to communicate with the compact PCI crate. To enable experiments to remain always synchronous with the same bunch of electrons, the storage ring clock (CLK-SR) and the radio frequency clock (CLK-RF) are provided by the machine to beamlines. These clocks are used inside the FPGA as main clocks for state machines. Because the jitter is too large on the FPGA outputs, a daughter board with a jitter cleaner has been added to the system. This board also provides delay lines for compensating time offsets by 10 ps steps. This paper presents the main features required by time resolved experiments and how we achieved our goals with the TimBeL board

  1. Performance characteristics of a Bioassay method for plutonium using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linauskas, S.H.; Elliot, N.L.; Paterson, L.M.; Totland, M.M

    2003-01-01

    Plutonium-in-urine analysis by radiochemical isolation of Pu followed by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) is capable of high sensitivity and precision measurements {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu. Bias and precision estimates for the TIMS bioassay program at Chalk River Laboratories easily met the ANSI N13.30 performance criteria standards with {sup 239}Pu results of 1.5% and 3.0%, respectively. Analytical blanks derived from water, artificial urine and true urine samples did not produce any statistically different results. During a four-year period of development and implementation of {sup 239}Pu measurements by TIMS, average sample blank values were reduced from 3.9 fg (9.0 {mu}Bq) to 0.57 fg (1.3 {mu}Bq). This reduction was achieved through rigorous application of clean-room handling techniques throughout sample processing. Blank data were found to follow a Iognormal distribution, and current detection limit parameters for L{sub c} and L{sub d} at the 95% significance levels are 0.85 fg {sup 239}Pu (2.0 {mu}Bq) and 1.3 fg {sup 239}Pu (3.0 {mu}Bq), respectively. Detection limits in this range are expected to be sufficient to identify intakes of Pu/Am mixtures at levels that are around one-twentieth of an ALl or better under routine monitoring situations for ICRP Type S and Type M inhalation solubility classes. (author)

  2. Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting 2 (SERT TIM 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Joe; Sanders, Clark W.

    2000-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Propulsion Research Center hosted the Space Solar Power Exploratory Research & Technology (SERT) Technical Interchange Meeting TIM) 2 in Huntsville, Alabama December 7-10. 1999 with 126 people in attendance. The SERT program includes both competitively procured activities. which are being implemented through a portfolio of focused R&D investments--with the maximum leveraging of existing resources inside and outside NASA. and guided by these system studies. Axel Roth. Director of the Flight Projects Directorate NASA MSFC, welcomed the SERT TIM 2 participants and challenged them to develop the necessary technologies and demonstrations that will lead to Space Solar Power (SSP) International implementation. Joe Howell, NASA MSFC, reiterated the SERT TIM 2 objectives: 1) Refining and modeling systems approaches for the utilization of SSP concepts and technologies, ranging, from the near-term e.g. for space science, exploration and commercial space applications to the far-term (e. g. SSP for terrestrial markets), including systems concepts, technology, infrastructure (i.g., transportation), and economics. 2) Conducting technology research, development and demonstration activities to produce "proof- of-concept" validation of critical SSP elements for both the nearer and farther-term applications. 3) Initiating partnerships Nationality and Internationally that could be expanded, as appropriate, to pursue later SSP technology and applications (e.g., space science. colonization, etc.). Day one began with the NASA Centers presenting their SERT activities summary since SERT TIM 1 and wound up with a presentation by Masahiro Mori, NASDA titled "NASDA In-house Study for SSP". Demonstration for the Near-Term. Day two began with the SERT Systems Studies and Analysis reports resulting from NRA 8-23 followed by presentations of SERT Technology Demonstrations reports resulting from NRA 8-23. Day two closed with John Mankins presentation

  3. TIM-3 Suppresses Anti-CD3/CD28-Induced TCR Activation and IL-2 Expression through the NFAT Signaling Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Tomkowicz

    Full Text Available TIM-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-domain containing protein 3 is a member of the TIM family of proteins that is preferentially expressed on Th1 polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Recent studies indicate that TIM-3 serves as a negative regulator of T cell function (i.e. T cell dependent immune responses, proliferation, tolerance, and exhaustion. Despite having no recognizable inhibitory signaling motifs, the intracellular tail of TIM-3 is apparently indispensable for function. Specifically, the conserved residues Y265/Y272 and surrounding amino acids appear to be critical for function. Mechanistically, several studies suggest that TIM-3 can associate with interleukin inducible T cell kinase (ITK, the Src kinases Fyn and Lck, and the p85 phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K adaptor protein to positively or negatively regulate IL-2 production via NF-κB/NFAT signaling pathways. To begin to address this discrepancy, we examined the effect of TIM-3 in two model systems. First, we generated several Jurkat T cell lines stably expressing human TIM-3 or murine CD28-ECD/human TIM-3 intracellular tail chimeras and examined the effects that TIM-3 exerts on T cell Receptor (TCR-mediated activation, cytokine secretion, promoter activity, and protein kinase association. In this model, our results demonstrate that TIM-3 inhibits several TCR-mediated phenotypes: i NF-kB/NFAT activation, ii CD69 expression, and iii suppression of IL-2 secretion. To confirm our Jurkat cell observations we developed a primary human CD8+ cell system that expresses endogenous levels of TIM-3. Upon TCR ligation, we observed the loss of NFAT reporter activity and IL-2 secretion, and identified the association of Src kinase Lck, and PLC-γ with TIM-3. Taken together, our results support the conclusion that TIM-3 is a negative regulator of TCR-function by attenuating activation signals mediated by CD3/CD28 co-stimulation.

  4. Understanding Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Dating violence is a type of intimate partner violence. It occurs between two people in a close relationship. The nature of dating violence can be physical, emotional, or sexual. • Physical— This ...

  5. Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Social Media Publications Injury Center Teen Dating Violence Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... serious forms of violence. What is teen dating violence? Teen Dating Violence [550 KB, 2 Pages, 508] ...

  6. TIM1 (HAVCR1 Is Not Essential for Cellular Entry of Either Quasi-enveloped or Naked Hepatitis A Virions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshuman Das

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Receptor molecules play key roles in the cellular entry of picornaviruses, and TIM1 (HAVCR1 is widely accepted to be the receptor for hepatitis A virus (HAV, an unusual, hepatotropic human picornavirus. However, its identification as the hepatovirus receptor predated the discovery that hepatoviruses undergo nonlytic release from infected cells as membrane-cloaked, quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV virions that enter cells via a pathway distinct from naked, nonenveloped virions. We thus revisited the role of TIM1 in hepatovirus entry, examining both adherence and infection/replication in cells with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9-engineered TIM1 knockout. Cell culture-derived, gradient-purified eHAV bound Huh-7.5 human hepatoma cells less efficiently than naked HAV at 4°C, but eliminating TIM1 expression caused no difference in adherence of either form of HAV, nor any impact on infection and replication in these cells. In contrast, TIM1-deficient Vero cells showed a modest reduction in quasi-enveloped eHAV (but not naked HAV attachment and replication. Thus, TIM1 facilitates quasi-enveloped eHAV entry in Vero cells, most likely by binding phosphatidylserine (PtdSer residues on the eHAV membrane. Both Tim1−/− Ifnar1−/− and Tim4−/− Ifnar1−/− double-knockout mice were susceptible to infection upon intravenous challenge with infected liver homogenate, with fecal HAV shedding and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT elevations similar to those in Ifnar1−/− mice. However, intrahepatic HAV RNA and ALT elevations were modestly reduced in Tim1−/−Ifnar1−/− mice compared to Ifnar1−/− mice challenged with a lower titer of gradient-purified HAV or eHAV. We conclude that TIM1 is not an essential hepatovirus entry factor, although its PtdSer-binding activity may contribute to the spread of quasi-enveloped virus and liver injury in mice.

  7. Tim de Zeeuw to Become the Next Director General of ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The ESO Council has just appointed Tim de Zeeuw, 50, as the next Director General of ESO, effective as of 1 September 2007, when the current Director General, Catherine Cesarsky will complete her mandate. ESO PR Photo 02/07 ESO PR Photo 03/07 Professor Tim de Zeeuw "ESO is Europe's flagship organisation for ground-based astronomy," said, Richard Wade, President of the ESO Council. "The ESO Council is very pleased that Professor de Zeeuw has accepted the task as its next Director General. He has played a key role over the last few years in developing a strategic vision for ESO, and I have every confidence that he will now lead the organisation in the realisation of that exciting vision." Tim de Zeeuw has an excellent record, both as a highly respected scientist and as a leader of an internationally recognised science institute in the Netherlands. He is Scientific Director of the Leiden Observatory, a research institute in the College of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of Leiden University. Tim de Zeeuw also has considerable experience as regards science policy issues. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's current Director General commented: "Over the recent years, ESO has developed considerably with more activities and new member states, and with its ambitious project portfolio, ESO is clearly facing an exciting future. I shall be delighted to pass the baton to Tim de Zeeuw, who as a recent Council member is very familiar with our Organisation." "It is a great honour and an exciting challenge to lead this world-class organisation in the years to come in support of one of the most dynamic areas of science today," said de Zeeuw. "I look forward to overseeing the continued upgrading of the Very Large Telescope with the second-generation instrumentation and the completion of the ALMA project, and in particular to help developing the future European Extremely Large Telescope." Tim de Zeeuw's main research interests embrace the formation, structure and dynamics of galaxies

  8. Characterization of Human and Murine T-Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin Domain 4 (TIM-4) IgV Domain Residues Critical for Ebola Virus Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, Bethany A; Brouillette, Rachel B; Schaack, Grace A; Chiorini, John A; Maury, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) receptors that are responsible for the clearance of dying cells have recently been found to mediate enveloped virus entry. Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filoviridae family of viruses, utilizes PtdSer receptors for entry into target cells. The PtdSer receptors human and murine T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) domain proteins TIM-1 and TIM-4 mediate filovirus entry by binding to PtdSer on the virion surface via a conserved PtdSer binding pocket within the amino-terminal IgV domain. While the residues within the TIM-1 IgV domain that are important for EBOV entry are characterized, the molecular details of virion-TIM-4 interactions have yet to be investigated. As sequences and structural alignments of the TIM proteins suggest distinct differences in the TIM-1 and TIM-4 IgV domain structures, we sought to characterize TIM-4 IgV domain residues required for EBOV entry. Using vesicular stomatitis virus pseudovirions bearing EBOV glycoprotein (EBOV GP/VSVΔG), we evaluated virus binding and entry into cells expressing TIM-4 molecules mutated within the IgV domain, allowing us to identify residues important for entry. Similar to TIM-1, residues in the PtdSer binding pocket of murine and human TIM-4 (mTIM-4 and hTIM-4) were found to be important for EBOV entry. However, additional TIM-4-specific residues were also found to impact EBOV entry, with a total of 8 mTIM-4 and 14 hTIM-4 IgV domain residues being critical for virion binding and internalization. Together, these findings provide a greater understanding of the interaction of TIM-4 with EBOV virions. With more than 28,000 cases and over 11,000 deaths during the largest and most recent Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak, there has been increased emphasis on the development of therapeutics against filoviruses. Many therapies under investigation target EBOV cell entry. T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) domain proteins are cell surface factors important for the entry of many enveloped viruses

  9. Uranium-series dating of gypsum speleothems: methodology and examples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna Laura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical problems of dating gypsum speleothems with the U-series technique are reviewed. Gypsum speleothems are, in general, very low in U content, challenging the limits of detection methods. Various approaches to dissolving gypsum and isolation of actinides from the matrix include ion-pairing dissolution with magnesium salts and using nitric acid. The most precise dating technique is Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS, combined with Fe(OH3 scavenging and anionic exchange chromatography. Less satisfactory, but much quicker, is direct retention of actinides from HNO3 by means of TRU resin and MC-ICP-MS detection. We have tested these methods on gypsum speleothems from the Sorbas karst in Spain and from the Naica caves in Mexico.

  10. Radiogenic Isotopes As Paleoceanographic Tracers in Deep-Sea Corals: Advances in TIMS Measurements of Pb Isotopes and Application to Southern Ocean Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D. J.; van de Flierdt, T.; Bridgestock, L. J.; Paul, M.; Rehkamper, M.; Robinson, L. F.; Adkins, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea corals have emerged as a valuable archive of deep ocean paleoceanographic change, with uranium-series dating providing absolute ages and the potential for centennial resolution. In combination with measurements of radiocarbon, neodymium isotopes and clumped isotopes, this archive has recently been exploited to reconstruct changes in ventilation, water mass sourcing and temperature in relation to millennial climate change. Lead (Pb) isotopes in both corals and seawater have also been used to track anthropogenic inputs through space and time and to trace transport pathways within the oceans. Better understanding of the oceanic Pb cycle is emerging from the GEOTRACES programme. However, while Pb isotopes have been widely used in environmental studies, their full potential as a (pre-anthropogenic) paleoceanographic tracer remains to be exploited. In deep-sea corals, challenges exist from low Pb concentrations in aragonite in comparison to secondary coatings, the potential for contamination, and the efficient elemental separation required for measurement by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS). Here we discuss progress in measuring Pb isotopes in coral aragonite using a 207Pb-204Pb double spike on a ThermoFinnigan Triton TIMS. For a 2 ng NIST-981 Pb standard, the long term reproducibility (using 1011 Ω resistors) is ~1000 ppm (2 s.d.) on 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb ratios. We now show that using a new 1012 Ω resistor to measure the small 204Pb beam improves the internal precision on these ratios from ~500 ppm (2 s.e.) to ~250 ppm (2 s.e.) and we envisage a potential improvement in the long term reproducibility as a consequence. We further assess the internal precision and external reproducibility of our method using a BCR-2 rock standard and an in-house coral standard. Preliminary evidence on the application of this method to natural samples is derived from cleaning experiments and replication tests on deep-sea corals from the Southern

  11. Progress in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedges, R.E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The article concerns radiocarbon dating, the most important method for dating in archaeology. The principles and practice of the dating method are described. Recent developments in radiocarbon dating due to technical advances, are discussed, and include radiometric counting of small samples and accelerator mass spectrometry. Carbon isotopes and the environment are also discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Approaches to vegetation mapping and ecophysiological hypothesis testing using combined information from TIMS, AVIRIS, and AIRSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, R.; Vane, G.; Zimmermann, R.; Carrere, V.; Realmuto, V.; Zebker, Howard A.; Schoeneberger, P.; Schoeneberger, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Tropical Rainforest Ecology Experiment (TREE) had two primary objectives: (1) to design a method for mapping vegetation in tropical regions using remote sensing and determine whether the result improves on available vegetation maps; and (2) to test a specific hypothesis on plant/water relations. Both objectives were thought achievable with the combined information from the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS), and Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). Implicitly, two additional objectives were: (1) to ascertain that the range within each variable potentially measurable with the three instruments is large enough in the site, relative to the sensitivity of the instruments, so that differences between ecological groups may be detectable; and (2) to determine the ability of the three systems to quantify different variables and sensitivities. We found that the ranges in values of foliar nitrogen concentration, water availability, stand structure and species composition, and plant/water relations were large, even within the upland broadleaf vegetation type. The range was larger when other vegetation types were considered. Unfortunately, cloud cover and navigation errors compromised the utility of the TIMS and AVIRIS data. Nevertheless, the AIRSAR data alone appear to have improved on the available vegetation map for the study area. An example from an area converted to a farm is given to demonstrate how the combined information from AIRSAR, TIMS, and AVIRIS can uniquely identify distinct classes of land use. The example alludes to the potential utility of the three instruments for identifying vegetation at an ecological scale finer than vegetation types.

  13. LITERASI MEDIA SEBAGAI STRATEGI KOMUNIKASI TIM SUKSES RELAWAN PEMENANGAN PEMILIHAN PRESIDEN JOKOWI JK DI BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisa Senova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Memahami kegiatan literasi media yang terjadi dalam kehidupan berorganisasi akan memberikan gambaran yang jelas tentang kemampuan mengidentifikasi, menentukan, mengorganisir, dan menggunakan media, serta menjadikan informasi sebagai bahan pertimbangan pembuatan keputusan tim sukses relawan pemenangan Presiden Joko Widodo dan Jusuf Kalla di Bandung. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menemukan kegiatan literasi media sebagai strategi komunikasi tim sukses relawan pemenangan pemilihan presiden Joko Widodo dan Jusuf Kalla. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode kualitatif dengan pendekatan studi kasus. Penelitian ini menggunakan teknik pengumpulan data berupa wawancara mendalam, observasi, dan studi dokumentasi. Teknik pemeriksaan keabsahan data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan triangulasi data sumber. Media sosial menjadi media utama dalam proses penyampaian pesan kepada khalayak di kota Bandung. Terdapat beberapa jenis media sosial yang akan digunakan secara rutin dalam proses tersebut, yaitu Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, dan Youtube. Namun, timses relawan media sosial hanya fokus kepada dua jenis media sosial yang dianggap dapat mempengaruhi pandangan publik. Twiter dan Instagram dianggap mampu menjadi jejaring sosial yang efektif dalam proses penyampaian pesan politik pemilu 2014. Penyampaian informasi oleh timses relawan media sosial kepada masyarakat melalui Twitter dan Instagram dianggap sangat efektif dan tepat. Konten-konten yang disediakan oleh akun Twitter sangat mudah untuk diakses oleh semua kalangan. Penelitian tantang proses literasi media tim sukses relawan pemenangan presiden Jokowi-Jk ini dapat menambah masukan bagi ilmu komunikasi, terutama dalam bidang literasi media, bahwa saat ini keberadaan media dapat menjadi sebuah strategi komunikasi yang cukup efektif.   DOI: 10.24198/jkk.vol4n2.3

  14. TIM1 (HAVCR1) Is Not Essential for Cellular Entry of Either Quasi-enveloped or Naked Hepatitis A Virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anshuman; Hirai-Yuki, Asuka; González-López, Olga; Rhein, Bethany; Moller-Tank, Sven; Brouillette, Rachel; Hensley, Lucinda; Misumi, Ichiro; Lovell, William; Cullen, John M; Whitmire, Jason K; Maury, Wendy; Lemon, Stanley M

    2017-09-05

    Receptor molecules play key roles in the cellular entry of picornaviruses, and TIM1 (HAVCR1) is widely accepted to be the receptor for hepatitis A virus (HAV), an unusual, hepatotropic human picornavirus. However, its identification as the hepatovirus receptor predated the discovery that hepatoviruses undergo nonlytic release from infected cells as membrane-cloaked, quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV) virions that enter cells via a pathway distinct from naked, nonenveloped virions. We thus revisited the role of TIM1 in hepatovirus entry, examining both adherence and infection/replication in cells with clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9-engineered TIM1 knockout. Cell culture-derived, gradient-purified eHAV bound Huh-7.5 human hepatoma cells less efficiently than naked HAV at 4°C, but eliminating TIM1 expression caused no difference in adherence of either form of HAV, nor any impact on infection and replication in these cells. In contrast, TIM1-deficient Vero cells showed a modest reduction in quasi-enveloped eHAV (but not naked HAV) attachment and replication. Thus, TIM1 facilitates quasi-enveloped eHAV entry in Vero cells, most likely by binding phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) residues on the eHAV membrane. Both Tim1 -/- Ifnar1 -/- and Tim4 -/- Ifnar1 -/- double-knockout mice were susceptible to infection upon intravenous challenge with infected liver homogenate, with fecal HAV shedding and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevations similar to those in Ifnar1 -/- mice. However, intrahepatic HAV RNA and ALT elevations were modestly reduced in Tim1 -/- Ifnar1 -/- mice compared to Ifnar1 -/- mice challenged with a lower titer of gradient-purified HAV or eHAV. We conclude that TIM1 is not an essential hepatovirus entry factor, although its PtdSer-binding activity may contribute to the spread of quasi-enveloped virus and liver injury in mice. IMPORTANCE T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-containing domain protein 1 (TIM1) was reported more than

  15. Ontology and anthropology of interanimality: Merleau-Ponty from Tim ingold's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Ramírez Barreto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores Tim Ingold’s anthropological theory following his references to Merleau-Ponty and the concept of interanimality/interagentivity. It poses some ideas of Ingold’s “poetics of dwelling”, which he highlights from ethnographies of hunter-gatherer peoples, and how these ideas are linked to an ontological consideration which does not dissociate body and person, body and mind, nature and culture, animality and humanity. The paper reviews animal literature in Merleau-Ponty’s philosophy, and Ingold’s critique of “Anthropology of the senses”. It also gives critical clues for the ethical and political implications of this ontology.

  16. AVIRIS and TIMS data processing and distribution at the land processes distributed active archive center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, G. R.; Myers, J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Government has initiated the Global Change Research program, a systematic study of the Earth as a complete system. NASA's contribution of the Global Change Research Program is the Earth Observing System (EOS), a series of orbital sensor platforms and an associated data processing and distribution system. The EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is the archiving, production, and distribution system for data collected by the EOS space segment and uses a multilayer architecture for processing, archiving, and distributing EOS data. The first layer consists of the spacecraft ground stations and processing facilities that receive the raw data from the orbiting platforms and then separate the data by individual sensors. The second layer consists of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC) that process, distribute, and archive the sensor data. The third layer consists of a user science processing network. The EOSDIS is being developed in a phased implementation. The initial phase, Version 0, is a prototype of the operational system. Version 0 activities are based upon existing systems and are designed to provide an EOSDIS-like capability for information management and distribution. An important science support task is the creation of simulated data sets for EOS instruments from precursor aircraft or satellite data. The Land Processes DAAC, at the EROS Data Center (EDC), is responsible for archiving and processing EOS precursor data from airborne instruments such as the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), the Thematic Mapper Simulator (TMS), and Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). AVIRIS, TIMS, and TMS are flown by the NASA-Ames Research Center ARC) on an ER-2. The ER-2 flies at 65000 feet and can carry up to three sensors simultaneously. Most jointly collected data sets are somewhat boresighted and roughly registered. The instrument data are being used to construct data sets that simulate the spectral and spatial

  17. A field- and laboratory-based quantitative analysis of alluvium: Relating analytical results to TIMS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, Melissa L.; Hamilton, Victoria E.; Christensen, Philip R.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were acquired over the McDowell Mountains northeast of Scottsdale, Arizona during August 1994. The raw data were processed to emphasize lithologic differences using a decorrelation stretch and assigning bands 5, 3, and 1 to red, green, and blue, respectively. Processed data of alluvium flanking the mountains exhibit moderate color variation. The objective of this study was to determine, using a quantitative approach, what environmental variable(s), in the absence of bedrock, is/are responsible for influencing the spectral properties of the desert alluvial surface.

  18. Structural analysis on mutation residues and interfacial water molecules for human TIM disease understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Human triosephosphate isomerase (HsTIM) deficiency is a genetic disease caused often by the pathogenic mutation E104D. This mutation, located at the side of an abnormally large cluster of water in the inter-subunit interface, reduces the thermostability of the enzyme. Why and how these water molecules are directly related to the excessive thermolability of the mutant have not been investigated in structural biology. Results This work compares the structure of the E104D mutant with its wild type counterparts. It is found that the water topology in the dimer interface of HsTIM is atypical, having a "wet-core-dry-rim" distribution with 16 water molecules tightly packed in a small deep region surrounded by 22 residues including GLU104. These water molecules are co-conserved with their surrounding residues in non-archaeal TIMs (dimers) but not conserved across archaeal TIMs (tetramers), indicating their importance in preserving the overall quaternary structure. As the structural permutation induced by the mutation is not significant, we hypothesize that the excessive thermolability of the E104D mutant is attributed to the easy propagation of atoms' flexibility from the surface into the core via the large cluster of water. It is indeed found that the B factor increment in the wet region is higher than other regions, and, more importantly, the B factor increment in the wet region is maintained in the deeply buried core. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that for the mutant structure at normal temperature, a clear increase of the root-mean-square deviation is observed for the wet region contacting with the large cluster of interfacial water. Such increase is not observed for other interfacial regions or the whole protein. This clearly suggests that, in the E104D mutant, the large water cluster is responsible for the subunit interface flexibility and overall thermolability, and it ultimately leads to the deficiency of this enzyme. Conclusions Our study

  19. Una década de la Tarjeta de Identidad de Menores (TIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Ma. Zamora Chavarría

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available El documento de identidad de las personas difiere de su derecho a la identidad, propiamente dicho; uno y otro se encuentran estrechamente relacionados y el primero tiene la virtud de acreditar, de una manera inmediata y directa, frente a la comunidad, al segundo. Este artículo ofrece una serie de reflexiones alrededor del derecho al nombre y al concepto de identidad. Se centra en el documento denominado Tarjeta de Identidad para Costarricenses de Doce a Dieciocho Años, conocida popularmente como la Ley TIM y repasa lo actuado por el Tribunal en relación con este documento.

  20. Second NASA Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM): Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS) Technology Tool Box (TTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeil, D. A.; Mankins, J. C.; Christensen, C. B.; Gresham, E. C.

    2005-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Lifecycle Analysis System (ATLAS), a spreadsheet analysis tool suite, applies parametric equations for sizing and lifecycle cost estimation. Performance, operation, and programmatic data used by the equations come from a Technology Tool Box (TTB) database. In this second TTB Technical Interchange Meeting (TIM), technologists, system model developers, and architecture analysts discussed methods for modeling technology decisions in spreadsheet models, identified specific technology parameters, and defined detailed development requirements. This Conference Publication captures the consensus of the discussions and provides narrative explanations of the tool suite, the database, and applications of ATLAS within NASA s changing environment.

  1. La banda sonora del programa «Rá-Tim-Bum»

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida Duarte, Mônica de

    2005-01-01

    Esta comunicación trata de los resultados parciales de la investigación vuelta para el análisis de la banda sonora del programa televisivo Rá-Tim-Bum, de TV Educativa, empresa gubernamental. Se utiliza un cuadro teórico-metodológico de análisis de los discursos aplicado a la música propuesto por Amparo Porta por medio de tres niveles de aproximación: verosimilitud referencial (las calidades sonoras), poética (tratamiento de frases y de finalización) y tópica (ideologia difundida). El...

  2. High-precision isotopic characterization of USGS reference materials by TIMS and MC-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Dominique; Kieffer, Bruno; Maerschalk, Claude; Barling, Jane; de Jong, Jeroen; Williams, Gwen A.; Hanano, Diane; Pretorius, Wilma; Mattielli, Nadine; Scoates, James S.; Goolaerts, Arnaud; Friedman, Richard M.; Mahoney, J. Brian

    2006-08-01

    The Pacific Centre for Isotopic and Geochemical Research (PCIGR) at the University of British Columbia has undertaken a systematic analysis of the isotopic (Sr, Nd, and Pb) compositions and concentrations of a broad compositional range of U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) reference materials, including basalt (BCR-1, 2; BHVO-1, 2), andesite (AGV-1, 2), rhyolite (RGM-1, 2), syenite (STM-1, 2), granodiorite (GSP-2), and granite (G-2, 3). USGS rock reference materials are geochemically well characterized, but there is neither a systematic methodology nor a database for radiogenic isotopic compositions, even for the widely used BCR-1. This investigation represents the first comprehensive, systematic analysis of the isotopic composition and concentration of USGS reference materials and provides an important database for the isotopic community. In addition, the range of equipment at the PCIGR, including a Nu Instruments Plasma MC-ICP-MS, a Thermo Finnigan Triton TIMS, and a Thermo Finnigan Element2 HR-ICP-MS, permits an assessment and comparison of the precision and accuracy of isotopic analyses determined by both the TIMS and MC-ICP-MS methods (e.g., Nd isotopic compositions). For each of the reference materials, 5 to 10 complete replicate analyses provide coherent isotopic results, all with external precision below 30 ppm (2 SD) for Sr and Nd isotopic compositions (27 and 24 ppm for TIMS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively). Our results also show that the first- and second-generation USGS reference materials have homogeneous Sr and Nd isotopic compositions. Nd isotopic compositions by MC-ICP-MS and TIMS agree to within 15 ppm for all reference materials. Interlaboratory MC-ICP-MS comparisons show excellent agreement for Pb isotopic compositions; however, the reproducibility is not as good as for Sr and Nd. A careful, sequential leaching experiment of three first- and second-generation reference materials (BCR, BHVO, AGV) indicates that the heterogeneity in Pb isotopic compositions

  3. Role of the import motor in insertion of transmembrane segments by the mitochondrial TIM23 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Waegemann, Karin; Mapa, Koyeli; Neupert, Walter; Mokranjac, Dejana

    2011-06-01

    The TIM23 complex mediates translocation of proteins across, and their lateral insertion into, the mitochondrial inner membrane. Translocation of proteins requires both the membrane-embedded core of the complex and its ATP-dependent import motor. Insertion of some proteins, however, occurs in the absence of ATP, questioning the need for the import motor during lateral insertion. We show here that the import motor associates with laterally inserted proteins even when its ATPase activity is not required. Furthermore, our results suggest a role for the import motor in lateral insertion. Thus, the import motor is involved in ATP-dependent translocation and ATP-independent lateral insertion.

  4. DIFERENCE EFFICACY BETWEEN WINNER AND DEFEAT TIM ON WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP IN SOCCER GAME 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alen Kapidžić

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We analyse thirty games of world championship in soccer 2006 with am to determine variables which contribute signifi cant distinction and differences between winner and defeat tim. Fortifi cation differences in aplayed variables we will apply multivariant analisis of variance. For this examination we will use variable of tehnich elements, and some of tactics calculation and estimate quality of tehnics elements according to the judges. This problem is very interesting for exploration, and it’s leading to modern tendency’s so these are the elementary reasons why we chose this kind of exploration.

  5. Earth-Mars Telecommunications and Information Management System (TIMS): Antenna Visibility Determination, Network Simulation, and Management Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odubiyi, Jide; Kocur, David; Pino, Nino; Chu, Don

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of our research on Earth-Mars Telecommunications and Information Management System (TIMS) network modeling and unattended network operations. The primary focus of our research is to investigate the feasibility of the TIMS architecture, which links the Earth-based Mars Operations Control Center, Science Data Processing Facility, Mars Network Management Center, and the Deep Space Network of antennae to the relay satellites and other communication network elements based in the Mars region. The investigation was enhanced by developing Build 3 of the TIMS network modeling and simulation model. The results of several 'what-if' scenarios are reported along with reports on upgraded antenna visibility determination software and unattended network management prototype.

  6. Flebotomíneos de Timóteo, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil (Diptera: Psychodidae Sand flies in Timóteo, Minas Gerais, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Dilermando Andrade Filho

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Casos esporádicos de leishmaniose tegumentar têm ocorrido no Município de Timóteo, Minas Gerais, basicamente na população rural. Para conhecer a fauna de flebotomíneos da região, foram instaladas sete armadilhas luminosas de New Jersey na cidade, em sete diferentes bairros. As coletas foram realizadas no período de junho a outubro de 1994, dezembro de 1994 e janeiro a março de 1995, com um total de 3.240 horas por armadilha. Foram capturados 4.396 flebotomíneos, distribuídos em dois gêneros e vinte espécies: Brumptomyia cunhai, Brumptomyia nitzulescui, Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia (Pintomyia fischeri, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia termitophila, Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lutzomyia borgmeieri, Lutzomyia (Psathyromyia lutziana, Lutzomyia (Sciopemyia sordellii, Lutzomyia (Pintomyia pessoai, Lutzomyia (Trichopygomyia longispina, Lutzomyia misionensis, Lutzomyia (Psychodopygus davisi, Lutzomyia lanei, Lutzomyia (Pressatia sp. A espécie L. (N. whitmani foi a mais freqüente com 52,12%, seguida de L. (N. intermedia com 34,10%, e ambas podem estar participando da transmissão de leishmaniose cutânea na região.Sporadic cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis have occurred in Timóteo, Minas Gerais State, basically among the rural population. In order to study the region's sand fly population, New Jersey light traps were set in seven different neighborhoods. Specimens were gathered from June through October 1994, December 1994, and January through March 1995, with a total of 3,240 hours per trap. A total of 4,396 sand flies were captured, distributed among two genera and twenty species: Brumptomyia cunhai, Brumptomyia nitzulescui, Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia quinquefer, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia (Pintomyia fischeri, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia termitophila, Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lutzomyia

  7. Statins reduce the expressions of Tim-3 on NK cells and NKT cells in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Zhang, Min; Liu, Ru-Tao; Zhang, Peng; Yang, Chun-Lin; Yue, Long-Tao; Li, Heng; Li, Yong-Kang; Duan, Rui-Sheng

    2018-02-15

    3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have an immuno-regulatory effect in addition to lowing-lipids. Accumulated evidence showed that the expressions of T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) on natural killer (NK) cells increased in atherosclerotic patients and animal models. In this study, 14 patients treated with rosuvastatin and 12 patients with atorvastatin for more than 3 months were included and 20 patients without statins treatment as control. Both statins treatment reduced the expressions of Tim-3 on NK cells and their subtypes, natural killer T (NKT) cells and CD3 + T cells, and increased the proportions of NKT cells among peripheral blood mononuclear cells, accompanied by the decreased levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, and increased ratios of high density lipoprotein to cholesterol. These may contribute to the functions of statins in the treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. TIMS-1: a processing code for production of group constants of heavy resonant nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hideki; Ishiguro, Yukio; Matsui, Yasushi.

    1980-09-01

    The TIMS-1 code calculates the infinitely dilute group cross sections and the temperature dependent self-shielding factors for arbitrary values of σ 0 and R, where σ 0 is the effective background cross section of potential scattering and R the ratio of the atomic number densities for two resonant nuclei if any. This code is specifically programmed to use the evaluated nuclear data file of ENDF/B or JENDL as input data. In the unresolved resonance region, the resonance parameters and the level spacings are generated by using Monte Carlo method from the Porter-Thomas and Wigner distributions respectively. The Doppler broadened cross sections are calculated on the ultra-fine lethargy meshes of about 10 -3 -- 10 -5 using the generated and resolved resonance parameters. The effective group constants are calculated by solving the neutron slowing down equation with the use of the recurrence formula for the neutron slowing down source. The output of the calculated results is given in a format being consistent with the JAERI-Fast set (JFS) or the Standard Reactor Analysis Code (SRAC) library. Both FACOM 230/75 and M200 versions of TIMS-1 are available. (author)

  9. Application of Circuit Simulation Method for Differential Modeling of TIM-2 Iron Uptake and Metabolism in Mouse Kidney Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian eXie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Circuit simulation is a powerful methodology to generate differential mathematical models. Due to its highly accurate modelling capability, circuit simulation can be used to investigate interactions between the parts and processes of a cellular system. Circuit simulation has become a core technology for the field of electrical engineering, but its application in biology has not yet been fully realized. As a case study for evaluating the more advanced features of a circuit simulation tool called Advanced Design System (ADS, we collected and modeled laboratory data for iron metabolism in mouse kidney cells for a H ferritin (HFt receptor, T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-2 (TIM-2. The internal controlling parameters of TIM-2 associated iron metabolism were extracted and the ratios of iron movement among cellular compartments were quantified by ADS. The differential model processed by circuit simulation demonstrated a capability to identify variables and predict outcomes that could not be readily measured by in vitro experiments. For example, an initial rate of uptake of iron-loaded HFt was 2.17 pmol per million cells. TIM-2 binding probability with iron-loaded HFt was 16.6%. An average of 8.5 minutes was required for the complex of TIM-2 and iron-loaded HFt to form an endosome. The endosome containing HFt lasted roughly 2 hours. At the end of endocytosis, about 28% HFt remained intact and the rest was degraded. Iron released from degraded HFt was in the labile iron pool (LIP and stimulated the generation of endogenous HFt for new storage. Both experimental data and the model showed that TIM-2 was not involved in the process of iron export. The extracted internal controlling parameters successfully captured the complexity of TIM-2 pathway and the use of circuit simulation-based modeling across a wider range of cellular systems is the next step for validating the significance and utility of this method.

  10. Inverse European Latitudinal Cline at the timeless Locus of Drosophila melanogaster Reveals Selection on a Clock Gene: Population Genetics of ls-tim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonato, Valeria; Vanin, Stefano; Costa, Rodolfo; Tauber, Eran; Kyriacou, Charalambos P

    2018-02-01

    The spread of adaptive genetic variants in populations is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory but with relatively few biologically well-understood examples. Previous work on the ls-tim variant of timeless, which encodes the light-sensitive circadian regulator in Drosophila melanogaster, suggests that it may have originated in southeastern Italy. Flies characterized by the new allele show photoperiod-related phenotypes likely to be adaptive in seasonal environments. ls-tim may be spreading from its point of origin in Italy by directional selection, but there are alternative explanations for its observed clinal geographical distribution, including balancing selection and demography. From population analyses of ls-tim frequencies collected on the eastern side of the Iberian Peninsula, we show that ls-tim frequencies are inverted compared with those in Italy. This pattern is consistent with a scenario of directional selection rather than latitude-associated balancing selection. Neutrality tests further reveal the signature of directional selection at the ls-tim site, which is reduced a few kb pairs either side of ls-tim. A reanalysis of allele frequencies from a large number of microsatellite loci do not demonstrate any frequent ls-tim-like spatial patterns, so a general demographic effect or population expansion from southeastern Italy cannot readily explain current ls-tim frequencies. Finally, a revised estimate of the age of ls-tim allele using linkage disequilibrium and coalescent-based approaches reveals that it may be only 300 to 3000 years old, perhaps explaining why it has not yet gone to fixation. ls-tim thus provides a rare temporal snapshot of a new allele that has come under selection before it reaches equilibrium.

  11. A TIMS-based method for the high precision measurements of the three-isotope potassium composition of small samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wielandt, Daniel Kim Peel; Bizzarro, Martin

    2011-01-01

    A novel thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) method for the three-isotope analysis of K has been developed, and ion chromatographic methods for the separation of K have been adapted for the processing of small samples. The precise measurement of K-isotopes is challenged by the presence of ...

  12. DIVERSITAS TIM MANAJEMEN PUNCAK, KEKOMPREHENSIFAN PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN, INTEGRASI SOSIAL DAN KINERJA PERUSAHAAN: STUDI PADA BANK PERKREDITAN RAKYAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arief Prima Johan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAlthough research on diversity management team had been widely conducted, previous research defined diversity in many different ways and many studies focused their research on top management team of big companies and big industries. This study examined the influence of several type of diversity of top management team on decision-making comprehensiveness and social integration, and tests these last two variables on performance. Using data Rural Banks (banking industry, the results showed that several variables of diversity of top management team affect decision-making comprehensiveness and social integration. The study also confirmed that the company's performance is affected by decision-making comprehensiveness and social integration.Keywords:Team Management, Diversity, Decision-Making Comprehensiveness, Social Integration, Performance.AbstrakMeskipun penelitian mengenai diversitas tim manajemen sudah banyak dilakukan, tetapi penelitian yang lalu mendefinisikan diversitas dengan cara yang berbeda-beda dan banyak berfokus pada tim manajemen puncak perusahaan besar dan industri besar. Penelitian ini menguji pengaruh variable-variabel diversitas tim manajemen puncak perusahaan terhadap kekomprehensifan pengambilan keputusan dan integrasi sosial, serta menguji dua variable terakhir ini pada kinerja. Dengan menggunakan data Bank Perkreditan Rakyat (industri perbankan, hasil penelitian memperlihatkan bahwa beberapa variable diversitas manajemen puncak mempengaruhi kekomprehensifan pengambilan keputusan dan integrasi sosial.Penelitian juga mengkonfirmasi bahwa kinerja perusahaan dipengaruhi oleh kekomprehensifan pengambilan keputusan dan integrasi sosial.Kata Kunci:Tim Manajemen Puncak, Diversitas, Kekomprehensifan, Pengambilan Keputusan, Integrasi Sosial, Kinerja Perusahaan.

  13. El De imaginibus caelestibus de Ibn al-Ḥātim

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveras, Marc

    2009-01-01

    En 1987 K. Lippincott y D. Pingree publicaron una primera edición latina junto a una traducción inglesa del tratado bilingüe árabo-latino del s. XV De imaginibus caelestibus, escrito originariamente por el andalusí Ibn al-Ḥātim en el s. X. El trabajo que se presenta aquí pretende completar al precedente con una edición del texto árabe, su traducción al español y añadir algunas interpretaciones a las posibles fuentes de la imaginería talismánica. En este breve tratado de astromagia, Ibn al-Ḥāt...

  14. Towards unsupervised polyaromatic hydrocarbons structural assignment from SA-TIMS-FTMS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benigni, Paolo; Marin, Rebecca; Fernandez-Lima, Francisco

    2015-10-01

    With the advent of high resolution ion mobility analyzers and their coupling to ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometers, there is a need to further develop a theoretical workflow capable of correlating experimental accurate mass and mobility measurements with tridimensional candidate structures. In the present work, a general workflow is described for unsupervised tridimensional structural assignment based on accurate mass measurements, mobility measurements, in silico 2D-3D structure generation, and theoretical mobility calculations. In particular, the potential of this workflow will be shown for the analysis of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from Coal Tar SRM 1597a using selected accumulation - trapped ion mobility spectrometry (SA-TIMS) coupled to Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). The proposed workflow can be adapted to different IMS scenarios, can utilize different collisional cross-section calculators and has the potential to include MS n and IMS n measurements for faster and more accurate tridimensional structural assignment.

  15. TIMS-1, Multigroup Cross-Sections of Heavy Isotope Mixture with Resonance from ENDF/B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hideki; Ishiguro, Yukio; Matsui, Yasushi

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TIMS-1 is a code for calculating the group constants of heavy resonant nuclei by using ENDF/ B-4 format data. This code calculates infinitely dilute cross sections and self-shielding factors as a function of composition sigma-0 temperature T and R-parameter, where R is the ratio of ato- mic number density of two different resonant nuclei. 2 - Method of solution: In the unresolved resonance region, a ladder of resonance parameters and levels is generated with Monte Carlo method. The temperature dependent cross sections are calculated with the Breit-Wigner single-level and multi-level formula. The neutron spectrum is accurately calculated by solving numerically the neutron slowing down equation using a recurrence formula for neutron slowing down source. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The maximum numbers of energy groups, temperatures and compositions are 60, 4 and 10 respectively

  16. Sand flies in Timóteo, Minas Gerais, Brazil (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Carneiro, Ana Paula Salgado; Lima, Mauro Lucio Nascimento; Santiago, Rodrigo Martins; Gama, Marco Antônio; Santos, Carlos Alberto; Falcão, Alda Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    1997-01-01

    Casos esporádicos de leishmaniose tegumentar têm ocorrido no Município de Timóteo, Minas Gerais, basicamente na população rural. Para conhecer a fauna de flebotomíneos da região, foram instaladas sete armadilhas luminosas de New Jersey na cidade, em sete diferentes bairros. As coletas foram realizadas no período de junho a outubro de 1994, dezembro de 1994 e janeiro a março de 1995, com um total de 3.240 horas por armadilha. Foram capturados 4.396 flebotomíneos, distribuídos em dois gêneros e...

  17. SEM/TIMS analysis trials on hotswipe samples taken from a shielded cell at Harwell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, J.; Vatter, I.; Cooke, R.

    1998-09-01

    The IAEA require advanced techniques and procedures for the detection of traces of actinides to be applied to their environmental sampling programme for nuclear safeguards as a means to detect undeclared activities. 'Swipe' samples taken from within nuclear facilities by IAEA inspectors require analysis to determine their actinide content and composition by bulk and particle measurements. The use of analytical equipment capable of analysing individual particles, particularly of actinides, is essential to optimise the IAEA's aim to monitor Member State's nuclear activities more proficiently. A trial has been undertaken at the Harwell Laboratory of AEA Technology to establish the efficacy of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) for the particle and bulk characterisation, respectively, of actinides on samples taken from within a shielded cell. These measurements were supported by γ-spectrometry and α-spectrometry. 'Hotswipe' samples taken from within a shielded cell with a well-known recent history have been prepared for particle and bulk analysis. SEM has been used to characterise individual particles from the swipe samples and the results have been related to known cell activities. Samples were prepared for SEM using a simple procedure to minimise the potential for sample contamination. The method proved to be capable of identifying 1 μm particles that contained U, Pu, Pa and Np. The measurement of U/Pu ratios was limited to particles that contained >2% Pu in U by weight. TIMS, together with alpha spectrometry, has been used to determine the bulk actinide composition of the samples whilst gamma spectrometry has been used to determine the fission product composition. Further work to improve the potential of SEM, and also secondary ionisation mass spectrometry (SIMS), for the measurement of hotswipe samples has been proposed. (author)

  18. Correlates of minimal dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, Kira

    2006-10-01

    Researchers have associated minimal dating with numerous factors. The present author tested shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, performance evaluation, anxiety, social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness to determine the nature of their relationships with 2 measures of self-reported minimal dating in a sample of 175 college students. For women, shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, self-rated anxiety, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. For men, physical attractiveness, observer-rated social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. The patterns of relationships were not identical for the 2 indicators of minimal dating, indicating the possibility that minimal dating is not a single construct as researchers previously believed. The present author discussed implications and suggestions for future researchers.

  19. Dating of cremated bones

    OpenAIRE

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process. We developed a method of dating cremated bone by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), using this carbonate fraction. Here we present results for a variety of prehistoric sites and ages, showing a r...

  20. Carbon 14 dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortin, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This document gives a first introduction to 14 C dating as it is put into practice at the radiocarbon dating centre of Claude-Bernard university (Lyon-1 univ., Villeurbanne, France): general considerations and recalls of nuclear physics; the 14 C dating method; the initial standard activity; the isotopic fractioning; the measurement of samples activity; the liquid-scintillation counters; the calibration and correction of 14 C dates; the preparation of samples; the benzene synthesis; the current applications of the method. (J.S.)

  1. Irradiation of dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Al-Charchafchy, F.; Al-Shaikhaly, M.H.; Mirjan, J.; Auda, H.

    1974-01-01

    Testing of the technical feasibility of radurization of fresh dates was attempted. In addition preliminary studies were carried out to investigate the applicability of gamma rays to date syrup manufacture. The varieties Zahdi, Lelwi and Tabarzel were studied at different stages of ripening. The eating quality of fresh dates was not affected significantly by irradiation even with doses of 270 and 540 krad. The duration of the softening process, after-ripening, of dates was prolonged by low doses of 10-30 krad in the majority of the experimental batches. The time period of after-ripening was reduced with 270 krad, as well as with 540 krad as a result of shortening of the induction period, i.e. the time after which the date begins to soften. The microbial spoilage of khalaal Lelwi dates was considerably reduced by irradiation with doses above 90 krad. The dibis yield of fully rutab dates was highly increased by the radiation doses of 375 to 2000 krad. The darkness and viable cell count of dibis pressed from irradiated dates were significantly lower than that of untreated dates. (F.J.)

  2. Integrated Modeling System for Analysis of Watershed Water Balance: A Case Study in the Tims Branch Watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setegn, S. G.; Mahmoudi, M.; Lawrence, A.; Duque, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Applied Research Center at Florida International University (ARC-FIU) is supporting the soil and groundwater remediation efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) by developing a surface water model to simulate the hydrology and the fate and transport of contaminants and sediment in the Tims Branch watershed. Hydrological models are useful tool in water and land resource development and decision-making for watershed management. Moreover, simulation of hydrological processes improves understanding of the environmental dynamics and helps to manage and protect water resources and the environment. MIKE SHE, an advanced integrated modeling system is used to simulate the hydrological processes of the Tim Branch watershed with the objective of developing an integrated modeling system to improve understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes within the Tims Branch watershed. MIKE SHE simulates water flow in the entire land based phase of the hydrological cycle from rainfall to river flow, via various flow processes such as, overland flow, infiltration, evapotranspiration, and groundwater flow. In this study a MIKE SHE model is developed and applied to the Tim branch watershed to study the watershed response to storm events and understand the water balance of the watershed under different climatic and catchment characteristics. The preliminary result of the integrated model indicated that variation in the depth of overland flow highly depend on the amount and distribution of rainfall in the watershed. The ultimate goal of this project is to couple the MIKE SHE and MIKE 11 models to integrate the hydrological component in the land phase of hydrological cycle and stream flow process. The coupled MIKE SHE/MIKE 11 model will further be integrated with an Ecolab module to represent a range of water quality, contaminant transport, and ecological processes with respect to the stream, surface water and groundwater in the Tims

  3. S K Date

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. S K Date. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 23 Issue 2 April 2000 pp 97-101 Magnetic Materials. Comparison of the irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour of some ferro- and ferrimagnetic systems · P S Anil Kumar P A Joy S K Date · More Details Abstract ...

  4. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  5. Dating of cremated bones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanting, JN; Aerts-Bijma, AT; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    When dating unburnt bone, bone collagen, the organic fraction of the bone, is used. Collagen does not survive the heat of the cremation pyre, so dating of cremated bone has been considered impossible. Structural carbonate in the mineral fraction of the bone, however, survives the cremation process.

  6. Second Quaternary dating workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The second Quaternary dating methods workshop was held at Lucas Heights and sponsored by ANSTO and AINSE. Topics covered include, isotope and thermoluminescence dating, usage of accelerator and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry in environmental studies emphasizing on the methodologies used and sample preparation

  7. HTLV-1 tax specific CD8+ T cells express low levels of Tim-3 in HTLV-1 infection: implications for progression to neurological complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishomwa C Ndhlovu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The T cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 (Tim-3 receptor is highly expressed on HIV-1-specific T cells, rendering them partially "exhausted" and unable to contribute to the effective immune mediated control of viral replication. To elucidate novel mechanisms contributing to the HTLV-1 neurological complex and its classic neurological presentation called HAM/TSP (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, we investigated the expression of the Tim-3 receptor on CD8(+ T cells from a cohort of HTLV-1 seropositive asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Patients diagnosed with HAM/TSP down-regulated Tim-3 expression on both CD8(+ and CD4(+ T cells compared to asymptomatic patients and HTLV-1 seronegative controls. HTLV-1 Tax-specific, HLA-A*02 restricted CD8(+ T cells among HAM/TSP individuals expressed markedly lower levels of Tim-3. We observed Tax expressing cells in both Tim-3(+ and Tim-3(- fractions. Taken together, these data indicate that there is a systematic downregulation of Tim-3 levels on T cells in HTLV-1 infection, sustaining a profoundly highly active population of potentially pathogenic T cells that may allow for the development of HTLV-1 complications.

  8. Quaternary dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaney, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    The papers in this book cover absolute, relative and multiple dating methods, and have been written by specialists from a number of different earth sciences disciplines - their common interest being the dating of geological materials within the Quaternary. Papers on absolute dating methods discuss radiocarbon, uranium-series, potassium argon, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, paleomagnetic, obsidian hydration, thermoluminescence, amino acid racemization, tree rings, and lichenometric techniques. Those on relative dating include discussions on various geomorphic relative age indicators such as drainage density changes, hypsometric integrals, bifurcation ratios, stream junction angles, spur morphology, hillslope geometry, and till sheet characteristics. The papers on multiple dating cite examples from the Rocky Mountains, Australia, Lake Agassiz Basin, and the Southern Andes. Also included is the panel discussion which reviews and assesses the information presented, and a field trip guide which discusses the sequences of Wisconian tills and interlayered lacustrine and fluvial sediments. (orig.)

  9. Upregulation of Tim-3 on CD4(+) T cells is associated with Th1/Th2 imbalance in patients with allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fei; Wang, Fukun; An, Liyun; Wang, Xianling

    2015-01-01

    T cell Ig and mucin domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) is a negative regulator preferentially expressed on Th1 cells. Allergic asthma is a clinical syndrome well characterized by Th1/Th2 imbalance. To investigate the role of Tim-3 in the pathogenesis of asthma and its relationship with Th1/Th2 imbalance, a total of 40 patients with allergic asthma and 40 healthy controls were enrolled. Expression of Tim-3 and Th1/Th2 imbalance as well as the relationship between them was analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in vitro and anti-Tim-3 was used to block Tim-3 signaling; Th1/Th2 cytokines in the culture supernatant were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CD4(+) T cells and B cells were sorted and co-cultured in vitro, and anti-Tim-3 was used to block Tim-3 signaling; Total IgG/IgE in the culture supernatant was detected by ELISA. The mRNA level of T-bet and IFN-γ were significantly decreased in allergic asthma patients, while GATA-3 and IL-4 were significantly increased. Expression of Tim-3 on CD4(+) T cells was much higher in allergic asthma patients and it was negatively correlated with T-bet/GATA-3 ratio or IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio. Blocking of Tim-3 significantly increased Th1 cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ) and decreased Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13) in the culture supernatant of PBMCs. Blocking of Tim-3 dramatically reduced the production of IgG and IgE in the co-culture supernatant of CD4(+) T cells and B cells. In conclusion, Tim-3 was up-regulated in allergic asthma patients and related with the Th1/Th2 imbalance. Blocking of Tim-3 may be of therapeutic benefit by enhancing the Th1 cytokines response, down-regulating the Th2 cytokines response, and reducing IgG/IgE production.

  10. Characterization of Human and Murine T-Cell Immunoglobulin Mucin Domain 4 (TIM-4) IgV Domain Residues Critical for Ebola Virus Entry

    OpenAIRE

    Rhein, Bethany A.; Brouillette, Rachel B.; Schaack, Grace A.; Chiorini, John A.; Maury, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) receptors that are responsible for the clearance of dying cells have recently been found to mediate enveloped virus entry. Ebola virus (EBOV), a member of the Filoviridae family of viruses, utilizes PtdSer receptors for entry into target cells. The PtdSer receptors human and murine T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) domain proteins TIM-1 and TIM-4 mediate filovirus entry by binding to PtdSer on the virion surface via a conserved PtdSer binding pocket within the amin...

  11. Interaction between Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway and follicular helper CD4+ T cells contributes to viral persistence in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Ya; Zhang, Yi-Fu; Wu, Hong-Jie; Qin, Lei; Wang, Yan-Ping; Liu, A-Min; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2017-10-01

    Both Galectin 9 (Gal-9)/T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3 (TIM-3) pathway and follicular helper CD4 + T (Tfh) cells play important roles in persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Thus, we aimed to investigate the regulatory role of interaction between Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway and Tfh cells in chronic hepatitis C. A total of 44 chronic hepatitis C patients and 19 normal controls (NCs) were enrolled in this study. Purified CD4 + T cells were cultured by TIM-3 Fc protein, recombinant Gal-9, or IL-21 for 48h. TIM-3 expression, Tfh proportion, and IL-21 production was measured, respectively. The immunomodulatory role of Gal-9/TIM-3 and IL-21 was also investigated in HCV cell culture system in vitro. We found that the percentage corresponding to both TIM-3-positive and CXCR5 + ICOS + Tfh cells within CD4 + T cells, which correlated with HCV RNA replication, was significantly elevated in patients with chronic hepatitis C in comparison with those in NCs. Moreover, blockade of Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway by TIM-3 Fc protein increased Tfh cells proportion, IL-21 mRNA and protein expression within purified CD4 + T cells, while activation of Gal-9/TIM-3 signaling by Gal-9 stimulation decreased IL-21 production in both patients with chronic HCV infection and healthy individuals. Meanwhile, high concentrations (100 and 200ng/mL) of IL-21 stimulation also elevated TIM-3 expression on CD4 + T cells in chronic hepatitis C. Furthermore, TIM-3 blockage and IL-21 stimulation suppressed mRNA expressions of HCV-induced antiviral proteins (myxovirus resistance A and oligoadenylate synthetase) in Huh7.5 cells without affecting viral replication in HCV cell culture system. The interaction between Gal-9/TIM-3 pathway and Tfh cells contributed to viral persistent in chronic HCV infection, which might be pivotal for development of new therapeutic approaches for chronic hepatitis C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Luminescence dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintle, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) dating is routinely applied to burnt lithic material. Simple fires are capable of enabling stones weighing a few hundred grams to reach 450 o C, thus zeroing the TL signal. TL dates have been obtained for Upper and Lower Paleolithic sites in Europe and the Near East. TL dating continues to be used for dating pottery and for authentification of ceramic works of art. Some recent studies report the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) (also know as photoluminescence) for dating very small samples of quartz, e.g. from small pieces of pottery or frm metallurgical slag The major recent advance has been in the development of a reliable laboratory procedure for using the OSL signal from quartz to obtain the past radiation exposure. The quartz OSL signal is extremely sensitive to light and is reduced to a negligible level on exposure to direct sunlight for radionuclides during burial, signal to date san.sized quartz grains extracted from sediments, The OSL signal is stimulated by 470 nm light from emitting diodes and the detected using flirters centred on 340 nm A similar signal can be obtained from feldspar grain when are exposed to infrared wavelengths around 880 nm. The infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals is also rapidly depleted by exposure to sunlight, and dating of colluvial deposits from archaeological sites has been reported

  13. Permian U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages from Australia and China: Constraining the time scale of environmental and biotic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denyszyn, S. W.; Mundil, R.; Metcalfe, I.; He, B.

    2010-12-01

    In eastern Australia, the interconnected Bowen and Sydney Basins are filled with terrestrial sediments of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age. These sedimentary units record significant evolutionary events of eastern Gondwana during the time interval between two major mass extinctions (end Middle Permian and Permian-Triassic), and also provide lithological evidence for the Carboniferous-Permian Late Paleozoic Ice Age of southern Pangea, considered to be divisible into up to seven discrete glaciation events in Australia [e.g., 1]. These glaciations are currently assigned ages that indicate that the last of the glaciations predate the end Middle Permian mass extinction at ca. 260 Ma. However, the estimates for the time and durations are largely based on biostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy that, in the absence of robust and precise radioisotopic ages, are unacceptably fragile for providing an accurate high-resolution framework. Interbedded with the sediments are numerous tuff layers that contain zircon, many of which are associated with extensive coal measures in the Sydney and Bowen Basins. Published SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages [2, 3] have been shown to be less precise and inaccurate when compared to ages applying the CA-TIMS method to the same horizons. Also within the late Middle Permian, the eruption of the Emeishan flood basalts in SW China has been proposed to have caused the end Middle Permian mass extinction [e.g., 4], though a causal link between these events demands a rigorous test that can only be provided by high-resolution geochronology. We present new U-Pb (CA-TIMS) zircon ages on tuff layers from the Sydney and Bowen Basins, with the purpose of generating a timescale for the Upper Permian of Australia to allow correlation with different parts of the world. Initial results, with permil precision, date a tuff layer within the uppermost Bandanna Fm. to ca. 252 Ma, a tuff within the Moranbah Coal Measures to ca. 256 Ma, and a tuff within the Ingelara Fm. to

  14. Date Rape (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... owe" someone sex, even if you're a couple. Rape is not always violent. If you say " ... date rape" drugs like: rohypnol , called roofies, lunch money, or mind erasers GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid), called ...

  15. Methods of dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatty, B

    1986-04-01

    Scientific methods of dating, born less than thirty years ago, have recently improved tremendously. First the dating principles will be given; then it will be explained how, through natural radioactivity, we can have access to the age of an event or an object; the case of radiocarbon will be especially emphasized. The principle of relative methods such as thermoluminescence or paleomagnetism will also be shortly given. What is the use for dating. The fields of its application are numerous; through these methods, relatively precise ages can be given to the major events which have been keys in the history of universe, life and man; thus, dating is a useful scientific tool in astrophysics, geology, biology, anthropology and archeology. Even if certain ages are still subject to controversies, we can say that these methods have confirmed evolution's continuity, be it on a cosmic, biologic or human scale, where ages are measured in billions, millions or thousands of years respectively.

  16. Radiometric dating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourdon, B.

    2003-01-01

    The general principle of isotope dating methods is based on the presence of radioactive isotopes in the geologic or archaeological object to be dated. The decay with time of these isotopes is used to determine the 'zero' time corresponding to the event to be dated. This paper recalls the general principle of isotope dating methods (bases, analytical methods, validation of results and uncertainties) and presents the methods based on natural radioactivity (Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, U-Pb, Re-Os, K-Ar (Ar-Ar), U-Th-Ra- 210 Pb, U-Pa, 14 C, 36 Cl, 10 Be) and the methods based on artificial radioactivity with their applications. Finally, the methods based on irradiation damages (thermoluminescence, fission tracks, electron spin resonance) are briefly evoked. (J.S.)

  17. NAIP 2012 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2012 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  18. NAIP 2014 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2014 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  19. Food Product Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Product Dating "Best if Used By" is a ...

  20. NAIP 2013 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2013 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  1. NAIP 2011 Image Dates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — This map is produced by the Aerial Phtography Field Office (APFO) to show the image acquisition dates for the 2011 National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP)...

  2. Dating fossil opal phytoliths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lentfer, C.; Boyd, B.; Torrence, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Opal phytoliths are microscopic silica bodies formed by the precipitation of hydrated silica dioxide (SiO 2 nH 2 0) in, around and between cell walls. They are relatively resistant to degradation in most environments and thus, can occur in large quantities in palaeosediments. Consequently, they are valuable tools for environmental reconstruction. Furthermore, phytoliths are often the only recoverable organic material in well oxidised sediments, the occluded carbon provides the opportunity for dating sediment whose ages have previously been difficult to determine, and thus, increase the potential for fine resolution determination of environmental change. This poster describes the results of an investigation assessing the viability of AMS radiocarbon dating of fossil phytolith inclusions using samples from Garua Island, West New Britain, PNG. Thirteen phytolith samples, isolated from sediments previously dated using tephrastratigraphy and C14 dating of macroremains of nutshells and wood charcoal, were used in the analysis. As a control measure, thirteen parallel samples of microscopic charcoal were also dated using AMS. The results show that the AMS dates for the microscopic charcoal samples are consistent with ages anticipated from the other dating methods, for all but one sample. However, the dates for eight of the thirteen phytolith samples are considerably younger than expected. This bias could be explained by several factors, including downwashing of phytolith through soils, bioturbation, carbon exchange through the siliceous matrix of the phytolith bodies, and contamination from extraneous sources of modern carbon retained in the samples. Research is currently focusing on the investigation of these issues and selected samples are in the process of being retreated with strong oxidising agents to clear contaminants prior to re-dating. Further to this, a full investigation of one profile with a long sequence is underway. High concentrations of

  3. Coordinated Traffic Incident and Congestion Management (TIM-CM) : Mitigating Regional Impacts of Major Traffic Incidents in the Seattle I-5 Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-02

    Within the Seattle metropolitan area, traffic incident management (TIM) operations provide a multi-jurisdictional and coordinated strategy to detect, respond to, and clear traffic incidents so that traffic flow can be restored quickly and safely. The...

  4. Feto-maternal immune regulation by TIM-3/galectin-9 pathway and PD-1 molecule in mice at day 14.5 of pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meggyes, Matyas; Lajko, Adrienn; Palkovics, Tamas

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Immunoregulation implies the activation of negative pathways leading to the modulation of specific immune responses. Co-inhibitory receptors (such as PD-1 and TIM-3) represent possible tools for this purpose. PD-1 and TIM-3 have been demonstrated to be present on immune cells...... suggesting general involvement in immunosuppression such as fetomaternal tolerance. The aim of our study was to investigate the expression pattern of PD-1, TIM-3, and its ligand Gal-9 on different immune cell subsets in the peripheral blood and at the fetomaternal interface in pregnant mice. METHODS: TIM-3...... and PD-1 expression by peripheral and decidual immune cells from pregnant BALB-c mice in 2 weeks of gestational age were measures by flow cytometry. Placental galectin-9 expression was determined by immunohistochemically and RT-PCR. RESULTS: Gal-9 was found to be present in the spongiotrophoblast layer...

  5. Determination of isotopic composition of boron in boron carbide by TIMS and PIGE: an inter-comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasibhushan, K.; Rao, R.M.; Parab, A.R.; Alamelu, D.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Acharya, R.; Chhillar, S.; Pujari, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports a comparison of results on the determination of isotopic composition of boron in boron carbide (B 4 C) samples by Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) and Particle Induced Gamma ray Spectrometry (PIGE). B 4 C samples having varying boron isotopic composition (natural, enriched with respect to 10 B) and their synthetic mixtures) have been analysed by both the techniques. The 10 B atom% was found to be in the range of 20-67%. (author)

  6. The Fiction of Tim Winton: Relational Ecology in an Unsettled Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn McCredden

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Complicating the processes of belonging in place, for non-Indigenous Australians, is the growing realization that they live in a huge, diverse land, a place in which they are not native. The fiction of popular Anglo-Saxon Australian novelist Tim Winton echoes the understanding of poet Judith Wright, for whom “two strands – the love of the land we have invaded and the guilt of the invasion – have become part of me. It is a haunted country” (Wright 1991: 30. This essay will explore Winton’s novels in which there is a pervasive sense of unease and loss experienced by the central characters, in relation to place and land. Winton’s characters – Queenie Cookson and her traumatic witnessing of the barbaric capture and flaying of whales; Fish Lamb’s near-drowning in the sea, and Lu Fox’s quest for refuge in the wilderness, prophet-like, after the tragedy of his family’s death – are all written with a haunting sense of white unsettlement and displacement, where such natural forces – the sea and its creatures, the land’s distances and risks – confront and re-form the would-be dominators.

  7. The many Metaphysics within Physics. Essay review of 'The Metaphysics within Physics' by Tim Maudlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Mauricio

    Tim Maudlin's new book The Metaphysics within Physics (Oxford University Press, 2007) collects six essays by one of the most thoughtful and original minds working in the philosophy of physics nowadays. Some had previously circulated informally for years. For example, Chapter 1 ('A Modest Proposal Concerning Laws, Counterfactuals and Explanations') is as old as my own philosophical career-I recall reading a draft in the early 1990s. The mere publication of such a long-awaited collection is therefore already good news. In addition, the degree of coherence and the lack of redundancy are greater than one would expect from a collection of disparate essays written at diverse times and with a range of different targets. The whole book can be understood coherently as an extended argument in favor of a particular 'physics-based' methodology for inquiry in metaphysics. This methodology recommends a detailed and thorough analysis of current physics as a benchmark for any thesis, dispute or argument in metaphysics. It follows that proper metaphysical inquiry must be suitably informed not just about the current state of play in analytical metaphysics but also about the current state of development of the relevant part of present day physics.

  8. The Tim-3-galectin-9 Secretory Pathway is Involved in the Immune Escape of Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Gonçalves Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a severe and often fatal systemic malignancy. Malignant cells are capable of escaping host immune surveillance by inactivating cytotoxic lymphoid cells. In this work we discovered a fundamental molecular pathway, which includes ligand-dependent activation of ectopically expressed latrophilin 1 and possibly other G-protein coupled receptors leading to increased translation and exocytosis of the immune receptor Tim-3 and its ligand galectin-9. This occurs in a protein kinase C and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent manner. Tim-3 participates in galectin-9 secretion and is also released in a free soluble form. Galectin-9 impairs the anti-cancer activity of cytotoxic lymphoid cells including natural killer (NK cells. Soluble Tim-3 prevents secretion of interleukin-2 (IL-2 required for the activation of cytotoxic lymphoid cells. These results were validated in ex vivo experiments using primary samples from AML patients. This pathway provides reliable targets for both highly specific diagnosis and immune therapy of AML.

  9. α-Lactose Improves the Survival of Septic Mice by Blockade of TIM-3 Signaling to Prevent NKT Cell Apoptosis and Attenuate Cytokine Storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao; Deng, Hai; Li, Pingfei; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Junbo; Wang, Deping; Li, Songbo; Luo, Yixing; Wei, Zhengping; Bi, Guoyu; Yang, Xiang-Ping; Tang, Zhao-Hui

    2017-03-01

    Sepsis is the leading cause of death among critically ill patients and natural killer T (NKT) cell activation is essential to induce inflammatory cytokine cascade in sepsis. However, little is known about what regulates the NKT cell function during sepsis. Herein, we showed that T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) expression in NKT cells is elevated in experimental mice during sepsis. Tim-3 expression was positively correlated with NKT cell activation and apoptosis. In sepsis, interleukin (IL)-12 secreted by dendritic cell exposure to lipopolysaccharide increased the expression of Tim-3 in NKT cells. Administration of α-lactose to block Tim-3 signaling pathway significantly improved the survival of septic mice, concomitant with reduced IL-12 production by dendritic cells, reduced Tim-3 expression, prevented NKT cell apoptosis, and attenuated production of inflammatory cytokines. Collectively, Tim-3 signaling in NKT cells plays a critical role in the immunopathogenesis of sepsis. Thus, α-lactose could be a promising immunomodulatory agent in the treatment of sepsis.

  10. Activation-Induced TIM-4 Expression Identifies Differential Responsiveness of Intestinal CD103+ CD11b+ Dendritic Cells to a Mucosal Adjuvant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L Hilligan

    Full Text Available Macrophage and dendritic cell (DC populations residing in the intestinal lamina propria (LP are highly heterogeneous and have disparate yet collaborative roles in the promotion of adaptive immune responses towards intestinal antigen. Under steady-state conditions, macrophages are efficient at acquiring antigen but are non-migratory. In comparison, intestinal DC are inefficient at antigen uptake but migrate to the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLN where they present antigen to T cells. Whether such distinction in the roles of DC and macrophages in the uptake and transport of antigen is maintained under immunostimulatory conditions is less clear. Here we show that the scavenger and phosphatidylserine receptor T cell Immunoglobulin and Mucin (TIM-4 is expressed by the majority of LP macrophages at steady-state, whereas DC are TIM-4 negative. Oral treatment with the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT induces expression of TIM-4 on a proportion of CD103+ CD11b+ DC in the LP. TIM-4+ DC selectively express high levels of co-stimulatory molecules after CT treatment and are detected in the mLN a short time after appearing in the LP. Importantly, intestinal macrophages and DC expressing TIM-4 are more efficient than their TIM-4 negative counterparts at taking up apoptotic cells and soluble antigen ex vivo. Taken together, our results show that CT induces phenotypic changes to migratory intestinal DC that may impact their ability to take up local antigens and in turn promote the priming of mucosal immunity.

  11. History of radiocarbon dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, W F [Department of Chemistry and Institute of Geophysics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1967-08-15

    The development is traced of radiocarbon dating from its birth in curiosity regarding the effects of cosmic radiation on Earth. Discussed in historical perspective are: the significance of the initial measurements in determining the course of developments; the advent of the low-level counting technique; attempts to avoid low-level counting by the use of isotopic enrichment; the gradual appearance of the environmental effect due to the combustion of fossil fuel (Suess effect); recognition of the atmosphere ocean barrier for carbon dioxide exchange; detailed understanding of the mixing mechanism from the study of fallout radiocarbon; determination of the new half-life; indexing and the assimilation problem for the massive accumulation of dates; and the proliferation of measurement techniques and the impact of archaeological insight on the validity of radiocarbon dates. (author)

  12. Investigation of T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (TIM-3) polymorphisms in essential thrombocythaemia (ET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fuyan; Wang, Guanghai; Li, Yuantang; Tian, Wenjun; Dong, Zhenfang; Cheng, Shiqing; Liu, Yiqing; Qu, Teng; Wang, Xiaoying; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Bingchang; Ju, Ying

    2017-07-01

    T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (TIM-3) is preferentially expressed on terminally differentiated Th1 cells and inhibits their IFN-γ production. It has been reported that chronic inflammation may be an important driving force for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). Therefore, we hypothesized that as an important inflammation regulator, TIM-3 may be involved in essential thrombocythaemia (ET). The goal of this study was to investigate whether the -1516G > T, -574G > T and +4259T > G single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the TIM-3 gene contribute to the genetic susceptibility of individuals to ET. Genotyping of the TIM-3 -1516G > T, -574G > T and + 4259T > G SNPs was performed in 175 patients with ET and in 151 controls via a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. We also investigated the relationships between the genotypes of each SNP and the risk factors of ET such as routine blood indexes, age and JAK2 V617F mutation. The genotype and allele frequencies of the -1516G > T SNP (p = 0.016 and 0.019, respectively), the -574G > T SNP (p = 0.035 and 0.038, respectively) and the +4259T > G SNP (p = 0.036 and 0.038, respectively) of the ET patients and the controls were significantly different. A haplotype analysis found that the GGT and TGT haplotypes had significantly different distributions between ET and controls (p = 0.041 and 0.041, respectively). However, no significant differences were detected between the genotypes of all SNPs and routine blood indexes, age and JAK2V617F mutation. The -1516G > T, -574G > T and +4259T > G SNPs within TIM-3 gene might play an important role as a genetic risk factor in the pathogenesis of ET.

  13. Tim-4 inhibition of T-cell activation and T helper type 17 differentiation requires both the immunoglobulin V and mucin domains and occurs via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wei; Ryan, Michelle; Buckley, Deirdre; O'Connor, Rosemary; Clarkson, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Emerging experimental data suggest an important role for the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1):Tim-4 pathway in autoimmune and alloimmune responses in vivo. Using a Tim-4 ectodomain human IgG Fc fusion protein we studied the role of Tim-4 in T-cell activation, signalling and differentiation responses in vitro. We demonstrate that Tim-4Fc can inhibit naive and pre-activated T-cell activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion via a Tim-1-independent pathway. Tim-4 contains immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and mucin domains; to identify which domain accounts for the inhibitory effect novel Tim-4 fusion proteins containing either the IgV or mucin domain were generated. We demonstrate that both IgV and mucin domains are required for the inhibitory effects and that they are mediated at least in part by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity. Given the emerging interest in the role of the Tim family in T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, which play an important role in autoimmune disease and transplantation tolerance, our data show that Tim-4Fc can prevent polarization of CD4+ T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Collectively, our results highlight an inhibitory role for Tim-4Fc in vitro, which we propose is mediated by a receptor other than Tim-1. In addition, this study provides new insights into the role of Tim-4Fc in regulating Th17 immune responses and may open a new avenue for autoimmune therapy. PMID:21463297

  14. Tim-4 inhibition of T-cell activation and T helper type 17 differentiation requires both the immunoglobulin V and mucin domains and occurs via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cao, Wei

    2011-06-01

    Emerging experimental data suggest an important role for the T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1):Tim-4 pathway in autoimmune and alloimmune responses in vivo. Using a Tim-4 ectodomain human IgG Fc fusion protein we studied the role of Tim-4 in T-cell activation, signalling and differentiation responses in vitro. We demonstrate that Tim-4Fc can inhibit naive and pre-activated T-cell activation, proliferation and cytokine secretion via a Tim-1-independent pathway. Tim-4 contains immunoglobulin variable (IgV) and mucin domains; to identify which domain accounts for the inhibitory effect novel Tim-4 fusion proteins containing either the IgV or mucin domain were generated. We demonstrate that both IgV and mucin domains are required for the inhibitory effects and that they are mediated at least in part by inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activity. Given the emerging interest in the role of the Tim family in T helper type 17 (Th17) cells, which play an important role in autoimmune disease and transplantation tolerance, our data show that Tim-4Fc can prevent polarization of CD4(+) T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Collectively, our results highlight an inhibitory role for Tim-4Fc in vitro, which we propose is mediated by a receptor other than Tim-1. In addition, this study provides new insights into the role of Tim-4Fc in regulating Th17 immune responses and may open a new avenue for autoimmune therapy.

  15. Obsidian dating prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrose, W.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Developments in the nuclear industry have shown that some of the problems related to the glassification of waste for long term storage are centred on the rate of glass weathering in various repositories. Long term weathering of artificial glasses is paralleled by the archaeological problem of determining hydration rates in obsidian artefacts as a means of dating their manufacture. Figures available for sites in Papua New Guinea indicate that the weathering rate is sufficiently fast to render conventional hydration measurement completely unreliable. This follows from the range of calculated surface reduction rates which range between .0002μ to .004μ per year depending on the site's location and the obsidian source. Hydration rates for key Papua New Guinea obsidians have been determined from long term experimental laboratory exposure and these are used to evaluate the age of obsidians from selected archaeological sites. By adopting a strategy of measuring hydration in concealed fissures both the weathering rate and the dating of the Papua New Guinea obsidians have been successfully achieved. The dissolution rates of natural obsidians could be useful in considering weathering rates for artificial glasses. An improved system for calculating the annual effective hydration temperature is presented which gives a better control of micro-environmental temperature in its crucial rate determining role. The combined result of these developments gives obsidian hydration dating an enhanced capacity to be a useful and independent dating system

  16. Confronting Dating Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Raymond J.; Heller, Daniel A.; Binet, Tracy

    1997-01-01

    To be safe havens for children, schools cannot address the intellect only. Brattleboro (Vermont) Union High School went beyond academics by sponsoring a performance of "The Yellow Dress," a powerful one-woman play about a teenage victim of dating violence. The production challenged participants to unite school and community, intellect…

  17. The Realities of Date Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Cara; Watson, Jennifer; Williams, Audrey R.

    This poster presentation addresses the issue of date rape, specifically in the college environment. Highlighted are date rape statistics, demographics, and date rape drugs. Also discussed are date rape warnings and prevention strategies. It is concluded that college and university administrators must place the issue of date rape and acquaintance…

  18. Thermoluminescence dating of pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashimura, Takenobu; Ichikawa, Yoneta.

    1978-01-01

    This report is divided into two parts. The first half describes on the history of thermoluminescence dating, and the latter half, the principle and measurement examples. It was in late 1955 that the measurement of radiation dose using thermoluminescence began. The method to thermoluminescence dating was developed when it was found that most natural stones emit the thermoluminescence. About Greek earthen wares, the study of which was presented in 1961 by G. Kennedy of University of California, the dating was able to be made within the standard deviation of 10%. Since then, this dating method progressed rapidly, and a number of laboratories are now forwarding the investigation. In the samples of natural materials, intensity of thermoluminescence I is proportional to natural radiation dose D which has been absorbed by the samples, i.e. I = kD, where k is the susceptibility of thermoluminescence of the samples. Since k is different in each sample, D can be determined by irradiating the sample with β or γ ray of known dose D 0 , measuring its luminescence I 0 , and eliminating k through these two equations, because i 0 = kD 0 . Next, if t is assumed to be the time passed since a pottery was made, D is expressed as Rt, where R is the natural radiation dose per year absorbed by the pottery. Thus t is determined if R is known. The report describes on the method of measuring R. As an example, the results of measurement of the potteries excavated at Iwakura remains, Yorikura, Taishaku-kyo, are listed. Results by 14 C dating are also described for reference. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  20. Dating fractures in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halliday, K.E., E-mail: kath.halliday@nuh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Broderick, N J; Somers, J M [Department of Radiology, Nottingham University Hospitals, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Hawkes, R [Department of Radiology, Paul O' Gorman Building, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  1. Dating fractures in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halliday, K.E.; Broderick, N.J.; Somers, J.M.; Hawkes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To document the timing of the appearance of the radiological features of fracture healing in a group of infants in which the date of injury was known and to assess the degree of interobserver agreement. Materials and methods: Three paediatric radiologists independently assessed 161 images of 37 long bone fractures in 31 patients aged 0-44 months. The following features were assessed: soft-tissue swelling, subperiosteal new bone formation (SPNBF), definition of fracture line, presence or absence of callus, whether callus was well or ill defined, and the presence of endosteal callus. Results: Agreement between observers was only moderate for all discriminators except SPNBF. SPNBF was invariably seen after 11 days but was uncommon before this time even in the very young. In one case SPNBF was seen at 4 days. Conclusion: With the exception of SPNBF, the criteria relied on to date fractures are either not reproducible or are poor discriminators of fracture age.

  2. Thermoluminescence dating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zink, A.

    2004-01-01

    A crystal that is submitted to radiation stores energy and releases this energy under the form of light whenever it is heated. These 2 properties: the ability to store energy and the ability to reset the energy stored are the pillars on which time dating methods like thermoluminescence are based. A typical accuracy of the thermoluminescence method is between 5 to 7% but an accuracy of 3% can be reached with a sufficient number of measurement. This article describes the application of thermoluminescence to the dating of a series of old terra-cotta statues. This time measurement is absolute and does not require any calibration, it represents the time elapsed since the last heating of the artifact. (A.C.)

  3. Blocking Tim-3 or/and PD-1 reverses dysfunction of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Furong; Zeng, Gucheng; Zhou, Shaotang; He, Xiaoshun; Sun, Nianfeng; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Hu, Anbin

    2018-03-22

    The immunosuppression of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is associated with rapid progression of hepatitis B virus-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HBV-HCC). T cell Ig- and mucin-domain-containing molecule-3 (Tim-3) and programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) are important inhibitory molecules expressed on the surface of T cells, but their roles in the function of TILs in HBV-HCC are poorly understood. We aimed to study the roles of these two markers in HBV-HCC. Ninety patients with pathologically confirmed HBV-associated HCC were enrolled in our study. Blood samples, paired fresh tumor tissues and adjacent tissues were collected, and isolating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, TILs and adjacent-infiltrating lymphocytes were isolated from these samples. The patients were followed-up to allow survival analysis. Tim-3 or/and PD-1 was up-regulated expressed on CD4 + and CD8 + TILs in HBV-HCC patients and a higher proportion of TILs expressed PD-1 alone. Tim-3 + and PD-1 + TILs greatly decreased secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Expression of Tim-3 and PD-1 on TILs negatively correlated with disease-free survival of HCC patients. Direct blockade of Tim-3 and PD-1 in vitro significantly enhanced TILs proliferation and secretion of IFN-γ and TNF-α. Expression of Tim-3 and/or PD-1 on TILs impairs their function and correlates negatively with disease-free survival in HBV-HCC. Direct blockade of Tim-3 and PD-1 restores anti-tumor effects of TILs, which suggests a potential target for novel immunotherapy in HBV-HCC. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiocarbon dating for contributors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.S.

    1984-06-01

    This report describes the radiocarbon facility at the Institute of Nuclear Sciences, and is written for potential contributors, current users, and for those who advise others. The report briefly outlines the principles and practices of C-14 dating; with emphasis on factors that enable contributors to judge whether C-14 work is appropriate, and to assist them with the procedures to be followed in order to get the best results. Age determinations, being the main requirements by contributors, have been discussed in detail

  5. Sediment dating in review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prescott, J.R.; Robertson, G.B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper will comment on a few issues of particular relevance to Australasia. Thermoluminescent (TL) methods applied to open sites have been demonstrated to be effective. A particularly good example of this is to be found in the South East of South Australia, where a sequence of low ranges runs roughly parallel with the coast. They represent relict sand dunes left behind, on a slowly rising land surface by successive interglacial incursions of the sea at roughly 120 ka intervals. Comparison with ages established on independent geological grounds allows a test of quartz TL and IRSL ages that is believable back to 500 ka. Older than this, we do not yet understand the physics of the quartz well enough to go unequivocally forward (backward?). Similar results are emerging elsewhere. With dating limits being pushed ever further back, the time variation of the environmental radiation giving rise to the stored luminescent energy needs to be addressed. Particularly at wet sites, radioactive disequilibrium must be considered. In any case, a time profile of the radiation dose rate needs to be determined.In dating a given site or sites the value of ages obtained by any dating method,including C-14, is enhanced by parallel measurements with an different method

  6. Improved 206Pb/238U microprobe geochronology by the monitoring of a trace-element-related matrix effect; SHRIMP, ID-TIMS, ELA-ICP-MS and oxygen isotope documentation for a series of zircon standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, L.P.; Kamo, S.L.; Allen, C.M.; Davis, D.W.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Valley, J.W.; Mundil, R.; Campbell, I.H.; Korsch, R.J.; Williams, I.S.; Foudoulis, C.

    2004-01-01

    Precise isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) documentation is given for two new Palaeozoic zircon standards (TEMORA 2 and R33). These data, in combination with results for previously documented standards (AS3, SL13, QGNG and TEMORA 1), provide the basis for a detailed investigation of inconsistencies in 206Pb/238U ages measured by microprobe. Although these ages are normally consistent between any two standards, their relative age offsets are often different from those established by ID-TIMS. This is true for both sensitive high-resolution ion-microprobe (SHRIMP) and excimer laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ELA-ICP-MS) dating, although the age offsets are in the opposite sense for the two techniques. Various factors have been investigated for possible correlations with age bias, in an attempt to resolve why the accuracy of the method is worse than the indicated precision. Crystallographic orientation, position on the grain-mount and oxygen isotopic composition are unrelated to the bias. There are, however, striking correlations between the 206Pb/238U age offsets and P, Sm and, most particularly, Nd abundances in the zircons. Although these are not believed to be the primary cause of this apparent matrix effect, they indicate that ionisation of 206Pb/238U is influenced, at least in part, by a combination of trace elements. Nd is sufficiently representative of the controlling trace elements that it provides a quantitative means of correcting for the microprobe age bias. This approach has the potential to reduce age biases associated with different techniques, different instrumentation and different standards within and between laboratories. Crown Copyright ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. CB2 cannabinoid receptors modulate HIF-1α and TIM-3 expression in a hypoxia-ischemia mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossatz, Elk; Maldonado, Rafael; Robledo, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    The role of CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CB 2 R) in global brain lesions induced by hypoxia-ischemia (HI) insult is still unresolved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the involvement of CB 2 R in the behavioural and biochemical underpinnings related to brain damage induced by HI in adult mice, and the mechanisms involved. CB 2 R knockout (KO) mice and wild-type littermates (WT) underwent permanent ligation of the left common carotid artery and hypoxia. Behavioural measurements in the rotarod, beam walking, object recognition, open field, and Irwin tests were carried out 24h, 72h and 7 days. In KO mice, more extensive brain injury was observed. Behavioural deficits in the Irwin test were observed in both genotypes; while WT mice showed progressive recovery by day 7, KO mice did not. Only KO mice showed alterations in motor learning, coordination and balance, and did not recover over time. A higher expression of microglia and astrocytes was observed in several brain areas of lesioned WT and KO mice. The possible alteration of the inflammatory-related factors HIF-1α and TIM-3 was evaluated in these animals. In both genotypes, HIF-1α and TIM-3 expression was observed in lesioned areas associated with activated microglia. However, the expression levels of these proteins were exacerbated in KO mice in several lesioned and non-lesioned brain structures. Our results indicate that CB 2 R may have a crucial neuroprotective role following HI insult through the modulation of the inflammatory-related HIF-1α/TIM-3 signalling pathway in microglia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. High affinity anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR monoclonal antibodies cloned from healthy human individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Ryser

    Full Text Available We report here the cloning of native high affinity anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR IgG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of healthy human donors. The cells that express these mAbs are rare, present at a frequency of less than one per 105 memory B-cells. Using our proprietary multiplexed screening and cloning technology CellSpot™ we assessed the presence of memory B-cells reactive to foreign and endogenous disease-associated antigens within the same individual. When comparing the frequencies of antigen-specific memory B-cells analyzed in over 20 screening campaigns, we found a strong correlation of the presence of anti-TIM-3 memory B-cells with memory B-cells expressing mAbs against three disease-associated antigens: (i bacterial DNABII proteins that are a marker for Gram negative and Gram positive bacterial infections, (ii hemagglutinin (HA of influenza virus and (iii the extracellular domain of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK. One of the native anti-KIR mAbs has similar characteristics as lirilumab, an anti-KIR mAb derived from immunization of humanized transgenic mice that is in ongoing clinical trials. It is interesting to speculate that these native anti-TIM-3 and anti-KIR antibodies may function as natural regulatory antibodies, analogous to the pharmacological use in cancer treatment of engineered antibodies against the same targets. Further characterization studies are needed to define the mechanisms through which these native antibodies may function in healthy and disease conditions.

  9. On the Use of 233U-236U Double-Spike for TIMS Measurements of Uranium Isotopes: A Simulation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R W

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic ion beams with instantaneous and temporal characteristics appropriate to thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) were mathematically generated and analyzed to determine the effects of using a mixed 233 U- 236 U spike (double-spike) in the analysis of uranium isotopes. The instantaneous beam characteristics are the intensities (e.g., counts per second) modeled with a Poisson distribution plus a component of random noise that simulates the detection processes. Several beam intensity and mass fractionation vs. time functions were modeled to simulate a range of sample sizes and the commonly employed methods of data collection. These beam profiles were also generated with different noise levels, and signal-to-noise vs. analytical precision diagrams are presented. Modeling focused on natural uranium, where 238 U/ 235 U = 137.88, and on the ability of a given method to determine precisely and accurately small variations in this ratio. Practical limits on precision were determined to be 20-30 ppm, which is consistent with precision seen for other elements by state-of-the-art TIMS. The TIMS total evaporation method was compared directly with the double-spike method. While similar analytical precisions are obtained with either method, the double-spike method of correcting for analytical bias gives more accurate results. The results of a total evaporation analysis will deviate from true by more than the analytical precision if as little as 0.05% of the signal is not integrated, whereas the accuracy and precision of the double-spiked analyses are always linked

  10. The particle analysis based on FT-TIMS technique for swipe sample under the frame of nuclear safeguard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tianli; Liu Xuemei; Liu Zhao; Tang Lei; Long Kaiming

    2008-06-01

    Under the frame of nuclear safeguard, the particles analysis for swipe sample is an advance mean to detect the undeclared uranium enriched facilities and undeclared uranium enriched activity. The technique of particle analysis based on fission track-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (FT-TIMS) for swipe sample have been built. The reliability and the experimental background for selecting particles consisting of uranium from swipe sample by FT method have been verified. In addition, the utilization coefficient of particles on the surface of swipe sample have also been tested. These works have provided the technique support for application in the area of nuclear verification. (authors)

  11. Dating Violence among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2013-01-01

    Dating violence is a significant problem on college campuses. More than one-fifth of the undergraduate dating population are physically abused by their dating partners and an even greater percentage are psychologically abused. Researchers have identified risk factors for college student dating violence. Preventive interventions are strongly…

  12. Flirting in Online Dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler

    2017-01-01

    Various fields have examined the activity of flirting, predominantly based on experimental and reported data; the interactional workings are therefore often overlooked. Based on emails and chats from two Danish online dating sites, this article investigates how users negotiate romantic connections...... through the flirting strategy of ‘imagined togetherness’, linguistically constructing imagery of a shared future. Using the notion of the chronotope, turn-by-turn analysis demonstrates how users, embedded in the activity of getting to know each other, tenuously communicate romantic interest by alluding...

  13. Bomb pulse radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuniz, C.; Zoppi, U.; Hotchkis, M.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Modern forensic science has to deal not only with homicides and other traditional crimes but also with more global threats such as the smuggling of nuclear materials, clandestine production of weapons of mass destruction, stockpiling of illicit drugs by state controlled groups and war crimes. Forensic applications have always benefited from the use of advanced analytical tools that can characterize materials found at crime scenes. In this paper we will discuss the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) as an ultrasensitive tool for the crime laboratories of the third millennium. An important objective in forensic science is to order past events chronologically by analysing materials associated with criminal actions. Radiocarbon dating is known to the general public for its application to historical and prehistorical investigations. Examples of forensic significance include the assassination of the Inca Atahualpa by Francisco Pizarro in the early 1530s, the possible murder of the Tyrolean Ice Man (Oetzi) 5300 years ago and the analysis of the burial cloths allegedly associated with the crucifixion of Jesus Christ . Recent murders, including those associated with war crimes in the Balkans during the 1990s, can be studied using 14 C bomb pulse dating. This method has other forensic applications, including investigation of frauds related to food and wine counterfeiting, dating of opium crops and dating of substances used in biological warfare. AMS extends the applicability of the radiocarbon method, allowing the analysis of 14 C in submilligram organic samples. Specific molecular compounds extracted from bones, hair, skin and other carbon bearing substances of forensic significance can now be dated, enhancing the sensitivity and reliability of chronological determinations. AMS can also be used to analyse rare actinide isotopes released into the environment during the clandestine production of nuclear weapons or associated with the smuggling of nuclear materials. In

  14. Updating dating down under

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bristow, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    The article deals with the Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP), Australia's only microprobe and its applications for geochronology. SHRIMP has the ability to analyse tiny areas (less than 30μm across) within crystals directly, the only sample preparation required being polishing of the crystal surface. Most analyses so far have been done on separated crystals prepared as grain mounts, although an increasing number of analyses are now being made of crystals in rock thin sections where their textural associations can be established. Important features of SHRIMP are its double-focusing mass spectrometer and great physical size, more than 8 meters long, employing a magnet weighing six tons. This enables the machine to distinguish ions with atomic masses differing by less than one part in ten thousand while at the same time having a very great sensitivity. SHRIMP was used for dating crustal zircons from southern African Kimberlites. Although low U and Pb abundances presents problems in peak selection and focusing on SHRIMP its was found that kimberlitic zircons could be dated successfully

  15. Mini-DIAL system measurements coupled with multivariate data analysis to identify TIC and TIM simulants: preliminary absorption database analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudio, P; Malizia, A; Gelfusa, M; Poggi, L.A.; Martinelli, E.; Di Natale, C.; Bellecci, C.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays Toxic Industrial Components (TICs) and Toxic Industrial Materials (TIMs) are one of the most dangerous and diffuse vehicle of contamination in urban and industrial areas. The academic world together with the industrial and military one are working on innovative solutions to monitor the diffusion in atmosphere of such pollutants. In this phase the most common commercial sensors are based on “point detection” technology but it is clear that such instruments cannot satisfy the needs of the smart cities. The new challenge is developing stand-off systems to continuously monitor the atmosphere. Quantum Electronics and Plasma Physics (QEP) research group has a long experience in laser system development and has built two demonstrators based on DIAL (Differential Absorption of Light) technology could be able to identify chemical agents in atmosphere. In this work the authors will present one of those DIAL system, the miniaturized one, together with the preliminary results of an experimental campaign conducted on TICs and TIMs simulants in cell with aim of use the absorption database for the further atmospheric an analysis using the same DIAL system. The experimental results are analysed with standard multivariate data analysis technique as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to develop a classification model aimed at identifying organic chemical compound in atmosphere. The preliminary results of absorption coefficients of some chemical compound are shown together pre PCA analysis. (paper)

  16. Radiocarbon dates XXI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdon, J.A.; Blake, W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    This list includes 105 radiocarbon age determinations on 104 geological samples made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. They are on samples from various areas as follows: Labrador Shelf (2); Newfoundland (12); Nova Scotia (2); New Brunswick (1); Quebec (3); Ontario (1); Manitoba (1); Alberta (2); British Columbia (15); Yukon Territory (35); Northwest Territories, Mainland (10); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (21). Details of background and standard for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from November 4, 1980 to October 31, 1981 are summarized in Tables 1 and 2; Table 3 gives the number of counts used to determine the average background and standard counting rates; and Table 4 lists the number of different background and standard gas preparations used for counting

  17. Tim-3-expressing macrophages are functionally suppressed and expanded in oral squamous cell carcinoma due to virus-induced Gal-9 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianfeng; Cheng, Lijun; Zhao, Minchao; Pan, Xiangfeng; Feng, Zhiqiang; Wang, Dawei

    2017-05-01

    Oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumor in the oral cavity. High-risk human papillomavirus 16 infection is a major cause of oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma development. Strong antitumor immune responses, especially CD8 + T cell responses, are thought to be essential to effective cancer treatment and are associated with better prognosis in oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we examined the role of the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway in oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. We found that Gal-9 expression by CD4 + T cells was increased in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients, but not in human papillomavirus-negative oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Increased Gal-9 secretion by CD4 + T cells presented multiple immunosuppressive effects. Coculturing monocytes with high Gal-9-expressing CD4 + T cells resulted in the expansion of Tim-3 + monocytes, which suppressed interferon gamma production by activated CD8 + T cells. Subsequently, total monocytes incubated with exogenous Gal-9, or high Gal-9-expressing CD4 + T cells, suppressed the expression of interferon gamma by CD8 + T cells. Exogenous Gal-9 and high Gal-9-expressing CD4 + T cells also suppressed the secretion of both interleukin 10 and interleukin 12 by monocytes. These effects are Tim-3/Gal-9-dependent because blocking Tim-3 and/or Gal-9 could enhance the support of CD8 + T cell interferon gamma production and the interleukin 10 and interleukin 12 secretion by monocytes. Together, these data suggest that the high Tim-3 expression in monocytes could be utilized by tumor-promoting Gal-9 expression on CD4 + T cells. Immunotherapy in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients therefore faces an additional challenge posed by Tim-3 and Gal-9 and likely requires the blockade of these

  18. Dates fruits classification using SVM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzu'bi, Reem; Anushya, A.; Hamed, Ebtisam; Al Sha'ar, Eng. Abdelnour; Vincy, B. S. Angela

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we used SVM in classifying various types of dates using their images. Dates have interesting different characteristics that can be valuable to distinguish and determine a particular date type. These characteristics include shape, texture, and color. A system that achieves 100% accuracy was built to classify the dates which can be eatable and cannot be eatable. The built system helps the food industry and customer in classifying dates depending on specific quality measures giving best performance with specific type of dates.

  19. {sup 230}Th/U-dating of a late Holocene low uranium speleothem from Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fensterer, Claudia; Mangini, Augusta [Forschungsstelle Radiometrie, Heidelberg Academy of Sciences, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Scholz, Denis; Hoffmann, Derik [School of Geographical Sciences, University of Bristol, University Road, BS8 1SS, Bristol (United Kingdom); Pajon, Jesus M, E-mail: Claudia.Fensterer@iup.uni-heidelberg.d [Department of Archaeology, Cuban Institute of Anthropology, Amargura No. 203, e/n Habana y Aguiar, Ciudad de La Habana, CP: 10 100 (Cuba)

    2010-03-15

    We present 22 U-series ages for a stalagmite from north-western Cuba based on multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS). Our results reveal that the stalagmite continuously grew within the last {approx}1400a. Low uranium content of the sample and thus, extremely low {sup 230}Th concentrations limit the precision and accuracy of {sup 230}Th/U-dating by TIMS. Samples measured by MC-ICPMS show a high variability of {sup 232}Th content along the growth axis with some sections significantly affected by initial {sup 230}Th from a detrital phase. An a-priori bulk earth ratio for ({sup 238}U/{sup 232}Th) cannot be used to accurately account for this initial {sup 230}Th. Using an age model based on the {sup 230}Th/U ages determined on samples with low or negligible {sup 232}Th concentration, we find that the ({sup 238}U/{sup 232}Th) activity ratio of the detrital phase is an order of magnitude larger than the bulk earth value, indicating the importance of an accurately determined correction factor.

  20. U-Pb dating by zircon dissolution method using chemical abrasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehara, Lucy, E-mail: lucytakehara@gmail.com.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Chemale Junior, Farid [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia; Hartmann, Leo A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias; Dussin, Ivo A.; Kawashita, Koji [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP, (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Geocronologicas

    2012-06-15

    Chemical abrasion was carried out on zircons grains of the Temora II standard for U-Pb dating prior to analyses using in situ Laser Ablation-Multi Collector Ion Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICPMS) followed by the Isotope Dissolution Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (ID-TIMS) method. The proposed methodology was herein applied in order to reduce primarily the effects of secondary Pb loss, the presence of common lead and/or silicate impurities. Nine Temora II zircon grains were analyzed by the laser ablation method yielding an age of 418.3 +- 4.3 Ma. Zircon grains of a same population were separated for chemical abrasion before dissolution and mass spectrometry analyses. Six fractions of them were separated for isotope dissolution using {sup 235}U-{sup 205}Pb mixed spike after we have checked and assured the laboratory conditions of low blank values for total Pb of less than 2 pg/g. The obtained U-Pb zircon age by the ID-TIMS method was 415.7 +- 1.8 Ma (error 0.43 %) based on four successful determinations. The results are consistent with the published ages for the Temora diorite (Temora I - 416.75 +- 1.3 Ma; Temora II - 416.78 +- 0.33 Ma) and established as 416 +- 0.33 Ma. The technique is thus recommended for high precision U-Pb zircon analyses (error < 1 %), mainly for high resolution stratigraphic studies of Phanerozoic sequences. (author)

  1. 230Th/U-dating of a late Holocene low uranium speleothem from Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fensterer, Claudia; Mangini, Augusta; Scholz, Denis; Hoffmann, Derik; Pajon, Jesus M

    2010-01-01

    We present 22 U-series ages for a stalagmite from north-western Cuba based on multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS). Our results reveal that the stalagmite continuously grew within the last ∼1400a. Low uranium content of the sample and thus, extremely low 230 Th concentrations limit the precision and accuracy of 230 Th/U-dating by TIMS. Samples measured by MC-ICPMS show a high variability of 232 Th content along the growth axis with some sections significantly affected by initial 230 Th from a detrital phase. An a-priori bulk earth ratio for ( 238 U/ 232 Th) cannot be used to accurately account for this initial 230 Th. Using an age model based on the 230 Th/U ages determined on samples with low or negligible 232 Th concentration, we find that the ( 238 U/ 232 Th) activity ratio of the detrital phase is an order of magnitude larger than the bulk earth value, indicating the importance of an accurately determined correction factor.

  2. Dating technique tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical technique for dating ground water and polar ice up to a million years old has been successfully tested by scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The system, known as a rare gas atom counter, extends the capabilities of resonance ionization mass spectrometry to include counting single atoms of krypton-81. The counter is composed of a pulsed dye laser operated in tandem with a mass spectrometer to separate the various isotopes of krypton. In a collaborative study, ORNL scientists recently used the method for the first time to count krypton-81 in a liter of ground water removed from a sandstone aquifer near Zurich. Fewer than 1000 krypton-81 atoms were isolated from the ground water samples. According to Bernard Lehman, a collaborating geochemist at the University of Bern, this first test proved that counting the small numbers of krypton-81 atoms necessary to make an estimate of the age of water could actually be done. Among the applications of this method, Lehman says, could be improved siting of locations for the disposal of radioactive wastes

  3. Timing of metamorphism and exhumation in the Nordøyane ultra-high-pressure domain, Western Gneiss Region, Norway: New constraints from complementary CA-ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. P.; Jamieson, R. A.; Dunning, G. R.; Pecha, M. E.; Robinson, P.; Steenkamp, H. M.

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a combined CA-ID-TIMS and LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology study of zircon and associated rutile and titanite from the Nordøyane ultra-high-pressure (UHP) domain in the Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway. The dated samples include 4 eclogite bodies, 2 host-rock migmatites, and 2 cross-cutting pegmatites and leucosomes, all from the island of Harøya. Zircon from a coesite eclogite yielded an age of ca. 413 Ma, interpreted as the time of UHP metamorphism in this sample. Zircon data from the other eclogite bodies yielded metamorphic ages of ca. 413 Ma, 407 Ma, and 406 Ma; zircon trace-element data associated with 413 Ma and 407 Ma ages are consistent with eclogite-facies crystallization. In all of the eclogites, U-Pb dates from zircon cores, interpreted as the times of protolith crystallization, range from ca. 1680-1586 Ma, consistent with Gothian ages from orthogneisses in Nordøyane and elsewhere in the WGR. A zircon core age of ca. 943 Ma from one sample agrees with Sveconorwegian ages of felsic gneisses and pegmatites in the western part of the area. Migmatites hosting the eclogite bodies yielded zircon core ages of ca. 1657-1591 Ma and rim ages of ca. 395-392 Ma, interpreted as the times of Gothian protolith formation and Scandian partial melt crystallization, respectively. Pegmatite in an eclogite boudin neck yielded a crystallization age of ca. 388 Ma, interpreted as the time of melt crystallization. Rutile and titanite from 3 samples (an eclogite and two migmatites) yielded concordant ID-TIMS ages of 378-376 Ma. The results are similar to existing U-Pb data from other Nordøyane eclogites (415-405 Ma). In combination with previous pressure-temperature data from the coesite eclogite, these ages indicate that peak metamorphic conditions of 3 GPa/760 °C were reached ca. 413 Ma, followed by decompression to 1 GPa/810 °C by ca. 397 Ma and cooling below ca. 600 °C by ca. 375 Ma. The results are compatible with protracted UHP

  4. Comparison of Nitrogen Bioaccessibility from Salmon and Whey Protein Hydrolysates using a Human Gastrointestinal Model (TIM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomi Framroze

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The TIM-1 system is a computer-controlled multi-compartmental dynamic model that closely simulates in vivo gastrointestinal tract digestion in humans. During digestion, the compounds released from meal matrix by gastric and intestinal secretions (enzymes are progressively absorbed through semipermeable membranes depending on their molecular weight. These absorbed (dialysed compounds are considered as bioaccessible, which means that they can be theoretically absorbed by the small intestine in the body. Methods: Salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH, whey protein hydrolysates extensively (WPHHigh or weakly (WPH-Low hydrolysed, non-hydrolysed whey protein isolate (WPI and mixtures of WPI:SPH (90:10, 80:20 were digested in TIM-1 using the conditions for a fast gastrointestinal transit that simulate the digestion of a liquid meal in human adults. During digestion (2 hours, samples were collected in intestinal compartments (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum and in both jejunal and ileal dialysates to determine their nitrogen content. All the products were compared in terms of kinetics of nitrogen absorption through the semipermeable membranes (bioaccessible nitrogen and nitrogen distribution throughout the intestinal compartments at the end of the 2 hour digestion. Results: After a 2 h-digestion in TIM-1, SPH was the protein substrate from which the highest amount of nitrogen (67.0% becomes available for the small intestine absorption. WPH-High had the second highest amount (56.0% of bioaccessible nitrogen while this amount decreased to 38.5–42.2% for the other protein substrates. The high nitrogen bioaccessibility of SPH is consistent with its richness in low molecular weight peptides (50% < 1000 Da. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that SPH provides a higher proportion of bioaccessible nitrogen to a healthy adult compared to all forms of whey proteins, including extensively hydrolysed whey protein hydrolysate. The substitution of

  5. Expression profiles and clinical value of plasma exosomal Tim-3 and Galectin-9 in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianwei; Qiu, Xiangyu; Li, Xinying; Fan, Hang; Zhang, Fang; Lv, Tangfeng; Song, Yong

    2018-04-06

    Exosomes are membrane-bound, virus-sized vesicles present in circulating blood. Tumor cells are avid producers of exosomes, which are thought to mimic molecular features of parent tumor cells. T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) is a the next-generation immune checkpoint that can be activated by its ligand Galectin-9 to negatively regulate the anti-tumor immune response. However, the characteristics of plasma exosomal Tim-3 and Galectin-9 (Exo-T/G) in cancer remained unknown. This study was conducted to investigate the expression patterns and clinical value of plasma exosomal total protein (Exo-pro) and Exo-T/G in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Plasma was collected from 103 NSCLC patients including 60 early stages and 43 advanced stages disease samples as well as 56 healthy subjects. Exosomes were isolated from plasma by commercial exosome precipitation solution and identified by western blotting of CD63 and transmission electron microscopy. Exo-pro concentration was measured by the BCA assay. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify Exo-T/G. Additionally, 34 NSCLC samples were applied to directly detect plasma TIM-3 (Plas-T) and Galectin-9 (Plas-G). Our results showed that Exo-pro, Exo-T, and Exo-G were significantly increased in NSCLC plasma compared to that in the healthy samples. High levels of Exo-T and Exo-G were all positively correlated with several malignant parameters, including larger tumor size, advanced stages, and more distant metastasis. High levels of Exo-pro and Exo-T were also correlated with more lymph node metastasis. Additionally, plasma from lung squamous cell carcinoma showed higher Exo-T and Exo-G compared with that from lung adenocarcinoma. ALK-positive patients showed to have decreased Exo-T and Exo-G levels. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between Exo-pro and Exo-T/G, Exo-T and Exo-G, Exo-T and Plas-T, Exo-G and Plas-G, and Plas-T and Plas-G. Together

  6. PD-1hiTIM-3+ T cells associate with and predict leukemia relapse in AML patients post allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Y; Zhang, J; Claxton, D F; Ehmann, W C; Rybka, W B; Zhu, L; Zeng, H; Schell, T D; Zheng, H

    2015-01-01

    Prognosis of leukemia relapse post allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) is poor and effective new treatments are urgently needed. T cells are pivotal in eradicating leukemia through a graft versus leukemia (GVL) effect and leukemia relapse is considered a failure of GVL. T-cell exhaustion is a state of T-cell dysfunction mediated by inhibitory molecules including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3). To evaluate whether T-cell exhaustion and inhibitory pathways are involved in leukemia relapse post alloSCT, we performed phenotypic and functional studies on T cells from peripheral blood of acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving alloSCT. Here we report that PD-1 hi TIM-3 + cells are strongly associated with leukemia relapse post transplantation. Consistent with exhaustion, PD-1 hi TIM-3 + T cells are functionally deficient manifested by reduced production of interleukin 2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). In addition, these cells demonstrate a phenotype consistent with exhausted antigen-experienced T cells by losing T N and T EMRA subsets. Importantly, increase of PD-1 hi TIM-3 + cells occurs before clinical diagnosis of leukemia relapse, suggesting their predictive value. Results of our study provide an early diagnostic approach and a therapeutic target for leukemia relapse post transplantation

  7. W3C director Tim Berners-Lee to be Knighted by Queen Elizabeth web inventor recognized for contributions to internet development

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    "Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of the World Wide Web and director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), will be made a Knight Commander, Order of the British Empire (KBE) by Queen Elizabeth" (1/2 page).

  8. Up-regulated expression of Tim-3/Gal-9 at maternal-fetal interface in pregnant woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Fan-fan; Zuo, Wei; Zhou, Yuan; Hao, Hai-yan; Dang, Jing; Jiang, Min; He, Meng-zhou; Deng, Dong-rui

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3)/Galectin (Gal)-9 pathway and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) was studied. Thirty-one pregnant women with RSA and 27 normal early gravidas were investigated to detect the levels of Tim-3 and Gal-9 in villi and deciduas by Western blotting. Meanwhile, the concentration of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12 in peripheral blood plasma was determined by ELISA in 25 healthy fertile non-pregnant controls, the normal early gravidas and pregnant women with RSA mentioned above, respectively. It was found that the relative expression levels of Tim-3 and Gal-9 in villi and deciduas were significantly increased in pregnant women with RSA as compared with those in the normal early gravidas. The concentration of IL-4 in peripheral blood plasma of pregnant women with RSA was lower than that of the normal early gravidas (Ppregnant controls (Ppregnant women with RSA was significantly higher than that of the normal early gravidas (Ppregnant controls (P<0.05). It was suggested that the overexpression of Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway may be related to the pathogenesis of RSA.

  9. TIMS analysis of Sr and Nd isotopes in melt inclusions from Italian potassium-rich lavas using prototype 1013Ω amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, Janne M.; Nikogosian, Igor; van Bergen, Manfred J.; Smeets, Richard; Bouman, Claudia; Davies, Gareth R.

    2015-01-01

    Sr and Nd isotopes were determined using new thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) techniques for a suite of 21 olivine-hosted (85-92mol% Fo) melt inclusions selected from potassic and ultra-potassic lavas from the Italian peninsula. Sr isotopes were measured using default 1011Ω resistors,

  10. New sequential separation procedure for Sr, Nd and Pb isotope ratio measurement in geological material using MC-ICP-MS and TIMS

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Makishima, A.; Nath, B.N.; Nakamura, E.

    A new 3-step sequential separation chemistry for Sr, Nd and Pb from silicate samples, which is suitable for isotope analysis by MC-ICP-MS as well as TIMS, has been developed. The chemistry is designed to minimize the number of evaporation steps...

  11. Henry S. Turner, The English Renaissance Stage. Geometry, Poetics, and the Practical Spatial Arts 1580-1630 - Tim Fitzpatrick, Playwright, Space and Place in Early Modern Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Giuliani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Review of Henry S. Turner, The English Renaissance Stage. Geometry, Poetics, and the Practical Spatial Arts 1580-1630, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006, reimpr. 2010, 326 pp. ISBN: 978-0-19-959545-7 y Tim Fitzpatrick, Playwright, Space and Place in Early Modern Performance, Ashgate, Franham, 2011, 314 pp. ISBN: 978-1-4094-2827-5.

  12. Use of 1012 ohm current amplifiers in Sr and Nd isotope analyses by TIMS for application to sub-nanogram samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.M.; Bouman, C.; Schwieters, J.B.; Davies, G.R.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the use of current amplifiers equipped with 10 12 ohm feedback resistors in thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) analyses of sub-nanogram sample aliquots for Nd and Sr isotope ratios. The results of analyses using the 1012 ohm resistors were compared to those obtained

  13. Pb isotope analysis of ng size samples by TIMS equipped with a 1013 Ω resistor using a 207Pb-204Pb double spike

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; Smeets, R.J.; Koornneef, J.M.; Davies, G.R.; Vroon, P.Z.

    2016-01-01

    The use of the double spike technique to correct for instrumental mass fractionation has yielded high precision results for lead isotope measurements by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), but the applicability to ng size Pb samples is hampered by the small size of the

  14. IL-15 induces strong but short-lived tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cell responses through the regulation of Tim-3 in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heon, Elise K. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Wulan, Hasi [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); Macdonald, Loch P.; Malek, Adel O.; Braunstein, Glenn H.; Eaves, Connie G.; Schattner, Mark D. [Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Allen, Peter M.; Alexander, Michael O.; Hawkins, Cynthia A.; McGovern, Dermot W.; Freeman, Richard L. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Amir, Eitan P.; Huse, Jason D. [University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Zaltzman, Jeffrey S.; Kauff, Noah P.; Meyers, Paul G. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gleason, Michelle H., E-mail: GleasonM@cblabs.org [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Overholtzer, Michael G., E-mail: OverholtzerM@cblabs.org [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Wiseman, Sam S. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); and others

    2015-08-14

    IL-15 has pivotal roles in the control of CD8{sup +} memory T cells and has been investigated as a therapeutic option in cancer therapy. Although IL-15 and IL-2 share many functions together, including the stimulation of CD8 T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, the different in vivo roles of IL-15 and IL-2 have been increasingly recognized. Here, we explored the different effects of IL-15 and IL-2 on tumor-infiltrating (TI) T cells from resected breast tumors. We found that neither IL-2 nor IL-15 induced intratumoral CD8 T cell proliferation by itself, but after CD3/CD28-stimulation, IL-15 induced significantly higher proliferation than IL-2 during early time points, at day 2, day 3 and day 6. However, the IL-15-induced proliferation leveled off at day 9 and day 12, whereas IL-2 induced lower but progressive proliferation at each time point. Furthermore, IL-15 caused an early and robust increase of IFN-γ in the supernatant of TI cell cultures, which diminished at later time points, while the IL-2-induced IFN-γ production remained constant over time. In addition, the IL-15-costimulated CD8 T cells presented higher frequencies of apoptotic cells. The diminishing IL-15-induced response was possibly due to regulatory and/or exhaustion mechanisms. We did not observe increased IL-10 or PD-1 upregulation, but we have found an increase of Tim-3 upregulation on IL-15-, but not IL-2-stimulated cells. Blocking Tim-3 function using anti-Tim-3 antibodies resulted in increased IL-15-induced proliferation and IFN-γ production for a prolonged period of time, whereas adding Tim-3 ligand galectin 9 led to reduced proliferation and IFN-γ production. Our results suggest that IL-15 in combination of Tim-3 blocking antibodies could potentially act as an IL-2 alternative in tumor CD8 T cell expansion in vitro, a crucial step in adoptive T cell therapy. - Highlights: • We explored the effects of IL-15 and IL-2 on tumor-infiltrating (TI) T cells of breast cancer. • IL-15

  15. Regulatory effect of gamma-chain cytokines on expression of TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Jie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo measure the expression of T-cell immunoglobulin- and mucin domain-3-containing molecule 3 (TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs among patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB and to investigate the effect of common gamma-chain cytokines on the expression of TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells in these patients. MethodsFifteen previously untreated patients with CHB who visited the Department of Infectious Diseases, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, from January to May, 2014, as well as 8 healthy controls, were included in the study. Blood was collected from these subjects, and PBMCs were isolated from blood by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. PBMCs were separately stimulated with gamma-chain cytokines, interleukin (IL2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21, and anti-CD3/CD28, and the untreated cells were used as a negative control. After four days of culture, PBMCs were stained with monoclonal antibody. Flow cytometry was used to measure the expression of TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells. Comparison of continuous data was made by independent-samples t test. ResultsCompared with the untreated group, the anti-CD3/CD28, IL-2, IL-15, and IL-7 groups had significantly increased expression of TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells (9.629%±9.916%, P=0000 1; 3.817%±2.694%, P = 0.000 6; 5.772%±4.732%, P = 0.005 4; 3.560%±2.045%, P = 0.030 2, while the IL-21 group had nonsignificantly increased expression of TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells (2.503%±2.117%, P = 0.934 1. ConclusionAnti-CD3/CD28 and gamma-chain cytokines IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 can effectively upregulate the expression of TIM-3 on CD8+ T cells in patients with CHB. It indicates that the inhibition of them can not only reduce the expression of TIM-3, but also may enhance the killing function of CD8+ T cells in patients with CHB.

  16. A novel method for sampling the suspended sediment load in the tidal environment using bi-directional time-integrated mass-flux sediment (TIMS) samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Emily A.; Monbureau, Elaine; Walters, Glenn W.; Elliott, Mark A.; McKee, Brent A.; Rodriguez, Antonio B.

    2017-12-01

    Identifying the source and abundance of sediment transported within tidal creeks is essential for studying the connectivity between coastal watersheds and estuaries. The fine-grained suspended sediment load (SSL) makes up a substantial portion of the total sediment load carried within an estuarine system and efficient sampling of the SSL is critical to our understanding of nutrient and contaminant transport, anthropogenic influence, and the effects of climate. Unfortunately, traditional methods of sampling the SSL, including instantaneous measurements and automatic samplers, can be labor intensive, expensive and often yield insufficient mass for comprehensive geochemical analysis. In estuaries this issue is even more pronounced due to bi-directional tidal flow. This study tests the efficacy of a time-integrated mass sediment sampler (TIMS) design, originally developed for uni-directional flow within the fluvial environment, modified in this work for implementation the tidal environment under bi-directional flow conditions. Our new TIMS design utilizes an 'L' shaped outflow tube to prevent backflow, and when deployed in mirrored pairs, each sampler collects sediment uniquely in one direction of tidal flow. Laboratory flume experiments using dye and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were used to characterize the flow within the sampler, specifically, to quantify the settling velocities and identify stagnation points. Further laboratory tests of sediment indicate that bidirectional TIMS capture up to 96% of incoming SSL across a range of flow velocities (0.3-0.6 m s-1). The modified TIMS design was tested in the field at two distinct sampling locations within the tidal zone. Single-time point suspended sediment samples were collected at high and low tide and compared to time-integrated suspended sediment samples collected by the bi-directional TIMS over the same four-day period. Particle-size composition from the bi-directional TIMS were representative of the array of

  17. Tim-3 is a Marker of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Dysfunction during HIV Infection and Is Associated with the Recruitment of IRF7 and p85 into Lysosomes and with the Submembrane Displacement of TLR9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jordan Ari; Clayton, Kiera L; Mujib, Shariq; Zhang, Hongliang; Rahman, A K M Nur-Ur; Liu, Jun; Yue, Feng Yun; Benko, Erika; Kovacs, Colin; Ostrowski, Mario A

    2017-04-15

    In chronic diseases, such as HIV infection, plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are rendered dysfunctional, as measured by their decreased capacity to produce IFN-α. In this study, we identified elevated levels of T cell Ig and mucin-domain containing molecule-3 (Tim-3)-expressing pDCs in the blood of HIV-infected donors. The frequency of Tim-3-expressing pDCs correlated inversely with CD4 T cell counts and positively with HIV viral loads. A lower frequency of pDCs expressing Tim-3 produced IFN-α or TNF-α in response to the TLR7 agonists imiquimod and Sendai virus and to the TLR9 agonist CpG. Thus, Tim-3 may serve as a biomarker of pDC dysfunction in HIV infection. The source and function of Tim-3 was investigated on enriched pDC populations from donors not infected with HIV. Tim-3 induction was achieved in response to viral and artificial stimuli, as well as exogenous IFN-α, and was PI3K dependent. Potent pDC-activating stimuli, such as CpG, imiquimod, and Sendai virus, induced the most Tim-3 expression and subsequent dysfunction. Small interfering RNA knockdown of Tim-3 increased IFN-α secretion in response to activation. Intracellular Tim-3, as measured by confocal microscopy, was dispersed throughout the cytoplasm prior to activation. Postactivation, Tim-3 accumulated at the plasma membrane and associated with disrupted TLR9 at the submembrane. Tim-3-expressing pDCs had reduced IRF7 levels. Furthermore, intracellular Tim-3 colocalized with p85 and IRF7 within LAMP1 + lysosomes, suggestive of a role in degradation. We conclude that Tim-3 is a biomarker of dysfunctional pDCs and may negatively regulate IFN-α, possibly through interference with TLR signaling and recruitment of IRF7 and p85 into lysosomes, enhancing their degradation. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Single Chondrule K/Ar ages of Mexican Meteorites Using ID-TIMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, M.; Sole, J.

    2007-05-01

    We have determined the K/Ar ages of two H5 ordinary meteorites: Cosina and Nuevo Mercurio, neither dated until this study. We analyzed several single chondrules - weighing few milligrams - of each meteorite. Ages were obtained by using very precise K content determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. The K content in chondrules ranges between 650 and 1400 ppm. The 40Ar was measured by static vacuum noble gas mass spectrometry. Samples were fused with an infrared CO2 laser. Chondrule ages vary from 3.66 to 4.59 Ga for Cosina and from 4.20 to 4.87 Ga for Nuevo Mercurio. A comparison between our data and the published K/Ar ages of H and L whole rocks shows that dates obtained from single chondrules are older than those obtained from whole rocks and seem to preserve older events not evidenced in the WR ages. This implies that chondrules can preserve K/Ar ages very close to U-Pb crystallization ages.

  19. U-Pb Dating of Zircons and Phosphates in Lunar Meteorites, Acapulcoites and Angrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Q.; Zeigler, R. A.; Yin, Q. Z.; Korotev, R. L.; Joliff, B. L.; Amelin, Y.; Marti, K.; Wu, F. Y.; Li, X. H.; Li, Q. L.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Zircon U-Pb geochronology has made a great contribution to the timing of magmatism in the early Solar System [1-3]. Ca phosphates are another group of common accessory minerals in meteorites with great potential for U-Pb geochronology. Compared to zircons, the lower closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for apatite and merrillite (the most common phosphates in achondrites) makes them susceptible to resetting during thermal metamorphism. The different closure temperatures of the U-Pb system for zircon and apatite provide us an opportunity to discover the evolutionary history of meteoritic parent bodies, such as the crystallization ages of magmatism, as well as later impact events and thermal metamorphism. We have developed techniques using the Cameca IMS-1280 ion microprobe to date both zircon and phosphate grains in meteorites. Here we report U-Pb dating results for zircons and phosphates from lunar meteorites Dhofar 1442 and SaU 169. To test and verify the reliability of the newly developed phosphate dating technique, two additional meteorites, Acapulco, obtained from Acapulco consortium, and angrite NWA 4590 were also selected for this study as both have precisely known phosphate U-Pb ages by TIMS [4,5]. Both meteorites are from very fast cooled parent bodies with no sign of resetting [4,5], satisfying a necessity for precise dating.

  20. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  1. Luminescence dating of Netherland's sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, J.; Davids, F.; Dijkmans, J.W.A.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades luminescence dating techniques have been developed that allow earth scientists to determine the time of deposition of sediments. In this contribution we revity: 1) the development of the methodology, 2) tests of the reliability of luminescence dating on Netherlands' sediments;

  2. The isotopic dating of crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliani, G.; Cheilletz, A.

    1995-01-01

    The first part of this work deals with the answer to the question : why are the crystals dated ? Then, some isotopic dating methods are described : U-Th-Pb, K-Ar, 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, fission traces, carbon 14 methods. Examples concerning emeralds and diamonds are given. (O.L.). 12 refs., 2 figs

  3. The comparison of absolute dating (Radiocarbon dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, W; Arumbinang, H; Taftazani, A; Widayati, S; Sumiyatno; Suhardi

    1996-01-01

    The absolute dating (radiocarbon, 14 C dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples in Temanggung regency (district) of Central Java Province have been carried out. The field sampling was done especially with the purpose to obtain vertical data, so that excavation method was adopted in the case. The main data were the ecofacts of organic habitation such as bones, woods, charcoals, shells, and paper artefacts. The artefacts data were used as a comparison. The comparative data analysis were conducted at Yogyakarta archaeological Department Laboratory, thus included dating of artefacts which were performed according to archaeological analysis procedures, generally based on the attributes attached to the artefacts, whereas the absolute dating of charcoal samples were performed in the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre. Based on the relative dating of epigraphy content on the andesit rock from Gondosuli Temple which showed the year of 754 Saka or 832 AD, the Pringapus Temple was estimated to be built in the 850 AD. According to the absolute dating (Radiocarbon Dating with delta 13 C and tree ring corrections) the age for Gondosuli temple based on GDS/LU-2/Spit-7 samples is (384 -602) AD and from GDS/LU-2/Spit-8 = (452 - 652) AD. With these significant differences in the results obtained, it can be concluded that culture environment where the sample were collected already existed before the temple was built. Further investigation is still required

  4. AHP 47: A NIGHT DATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phun tshogs dbang rgyal ཕུན་ཚོགས་དབང་རྒྱལ།

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The author was born in 1993 in Ska chung (Gaqun Village, Nyin mtha' (Ningmute Township, Rma lho (Henan Mongolian Autonomous County, Rma lho (Huangnan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, PR China. Night dating was popular for teenage boys some years ago. They rode horses and yaks when they went night dating. They generally rode yaks, because horses were important for their families and used for such important tasks as pursuing bandits and going to the county town for grain and supplies. An early experience with night dating is described.

  5. High-resolution U-series dates from the Sima de los Huesos hominids yields 600 +∞-66: implications for the evolution of the early Neanderthal lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, James L.; Williams, Ross W.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Aramburu, Arantza; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Garcia, Nuria; Cuenca-Bescos, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    The Sima de los Huesos site of the Atapuerca complex near Burgos, Spain contains the skeletal remains of at least 28 individuals in a mud-breccia underlying an accumulation of the Middle Pleistocene cave bear (Ursus deningeri). We report here on new high-precision dates on the recently discovered speleothem SRA-3 overlaying human bones within the Sima de los Huesos. Earlier analyses of this speleothem by TIMS (thermal-ionization mass-spectrometry) showed the lower part to be indistinguishable from internal isotopic equilibrium at the precision of the TIMS instrumentation used, yielding minimum age of 350 kyr (kyr = 103 yr before present). Reanalysis of six samples of SRA-3 by inductively-coupled plasma-multicollector mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) produced high-precision analytical results allowing calculation of finite dates. The new dates cluster around 600 kyr. A conservative conclusion takes the lower error limit ages as the minimum age of the speleothem, or 530 kyr. This places the SH hominids at the very beginnings of the Neandertal evolutionary lineage.

  6. Dating the humans by radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedi, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    Radiocarbon has become a very powerful tool used for dating. This paper deals with a specific application of 1 4C i.e. dating of humans. Attention is focused on those aspects that, if neglected, might lead to a misinterpretation of the results or to an unsatisfying accuracy of the measurement. After a brief description of the main principles on which the radiocarbon method is based and of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, examples taken from the research activity of INFN-LABEC (Laboratorio di Tecniche Nucleari per I Beni Culturali) in Florence are presented. The case of the relic of St. Francis represents an example of dating not directly human remains but other objects that can be associated to them. The case of two burials from the archaeological area of Baratti-Populonia, in Tuscany, gives the possibility to show the importance of estimating the human palaeodiet when dating bone samples.

  7. Dating by electron paramagnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Rossi, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    Some natural materials behave like dosimeters in front of the ionizing particle flux coming from environmental radioactivity and the cosmic radiation. This property is used for the dating by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Before presenting the basic principles of the EPR analysis and the dating method which uses such a phenomenous, it is reviewed several types of application currently in course of development. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments

    OpenAIRE

    Pocevičius, Matas

    2016-01-01

    Matas Pocevičius, Radiocarbon dating of lake sediments, bachelor thesis, Vilnius University, Faculty of Physics, Department of General Physics and Spectroscopy, physics, Vilnius, 45 p., 2016. The aim of this study is to evaluate the possibility of radiocarbon dating application for Tapeliai lake bottom sediments. The literature review discusses topics related to accelerator mass spectrometry, principles of radiocarbon formation, importance of nuclear fallout for 14C, possible applications of ...

  9. UK Institute of Physics (IOP) President Sir Gareth Roberts (right) at CERN on 9 July with (right to left) IOP council vice-president and distinguished physicist Peter Kalmus, CERN engineer Tim Watson and IOP director of science Peter Cooper

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1999-01-01

    UK Institute of Physics (IOP) President Sir Gareth Roberts (right) at CERN on 9 July with (right to left) IOP council vice-president and distinguished physicist Peter Kalmus, CERN engineer Tim Watson and IOP director of science Peter Cooper

  10. Tim Burton lavastab Batmani muusikali. Placido Domingo palkas "Star Warsi" võluri. MTV muusikaauhindade show'l narriti Michael Jacksonit. Hendrixi põlenud kitarr läheb müüki

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    Jim Steinman kirjutab muusikat Tim Burtoni 2005. aastal lavale tulevale Batmani muusikalile. Los Angelese ooperimaja juht Domingo palkas George Lucase Wagneri ooperi "Nibelungide sõrmus" eriefektide ettevalmistamiseks. Britney Spears nimetas Michael Jacksonit Millenniumi artistiks.

  11. Radiocarbon dating of iron artefacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cresswell, R. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics

    1997-12-31

    Iron artefacts are generally dated by association or on stylistic grounds. This may not give a true indication of the date of manufacture, or may not be possible if the piece is out of context, ambiguous in style, or a copy. Obtaining a direct date on the artefact would be preferable. During the processes of manufacture, carbon is incorporated into the iron from the fuel source. If the fuel is of a material containing contemporaneous carbon, i.e. has an ambient radiocarbon signature, e.g. charcoal, then we may reliably radiocarbon date the artefact by extracting this carbon. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that re-working has not introduced multiple sources of carbon that would give an erroneous date. Detailed chemical analysis must precede radiocarbon analysis. Sample size is determined by carbon content, and before the advent of accelerator mass spectrometry, several tens of grams of carbon were required for radiocarbon dating (van der Merwe, 1969), prohibiting this method except for high-carbon cast-irons and bulk samples, e.g. caches of nails. AMS permits the analysis of sub-gram pieces of iron (Cresswell, 1991), thereby permitting the analysis of museum pieces with only minimal loss of material, and small fragments of iron recovered from archaeological sites. A few examples are given to illustrate these points. Paper no. 41; Extended abstract. 6 refs.

  12. Radiocarbon dating of iron artefacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresswell, R.

    1997-01-01

    Iron artefacts are generally dated by association or on stylistic grounds. This may not give a true indication of the date of manufacture, or may not be possible if the piece is out of context, ambiguous in style, or a copy. Obtaining a direct date on the artefact would be preferable. During the processes of manufacture, carbon is incorporated into the iron from the fuel source. If the fuel is of a material containing contemporaneous carbon, i.e. has an ambient radiocarbon signature, e.g. charcoal, then we may reliably radiocarbon date the artefact by extracting this carbon. Care must be taken, however, to ensure that re-working has not introduced multiple sources of carbon that would give an erroneous date. Detailed chemical analysis must precede radiocarbon analysis. Sample size is determined by carbon content, and before the advent of accelerator mass spectrometry, several tens of grams of carbon were required for radiocarbon dating (van der Merwe, 1969), prohibiting this method except for high-carbon cast-irons and bulk samples, e.g. caches of nails. AMS permits the analysis of sub-gram pieces of iron (Cresswell, 1991), thereby permitting the analysis of museum pieces with only minimal loss of material, and small fragments of iron recovered from archaeological sites. A few examples are given to illustrate these points

  13. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron; Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B.; Scherrer, Nadim C.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. 14 C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the 14 C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  14. Direct dating of human fossils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    The methods that can be used for the direct dating of human remains comprise of radiocarbon, U-series, electron spin resonance (ESR), and amino acid racemization (AAR). This review gives an introduction to these methods in the context of dating human bones and teeth. Recent advances in ultrafiltration techniques have expanded the dating range of radiocarbon. It now seems feasible to reliably date bones up to 55,000 years. New developments in laser ablation mass spectrometry permit the in situ analysis of U-series isotopes, thus providing a rapid and virtually non-destructive dating method back to about 300,000 years. This is of particular importance when used in conjunction with non-destructive ESR analysis. New approaches in AAR analysis may lead to a renaissance of this method. The potential and present limitations of these direct dating techniques are discussed for sites relevant to the reconstruction of modern human evolution, including Florisbad, Border Cave, Tabun, Skhul, Qafzeh, Vindija, Banyoles, and Lake Mungo. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Microscale radiocarbon dating of paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriks, Laura; Hajdas, Irka; McIntyre, Cameron [ETH Zurich, Ion Beam Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Kueffner, Markus; Ferreira, Ester S.B. [SIK-ISEA, Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Scherrer, Nadim C. [Bern University of Applied Sciences, HKB, Bern (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    In this paper, radiocarbon dating of paintings using minimal sample sizes has been investigated, in an effort to address the problem of limited access to sample material in paintings. {sup 14}C analyses were conducted on signed and dated paintings from two Swiss artists of the twentieth century. The selected paintings dated from the 1930s and 1960s, provided the opportunity to evaluate the dating accuracy on paintings realized before and after 1950 AD when the {sup 14}C bomb peak was created, as a result of the nuclear tests conducted in the 1950/1960s. The work focused on the one hand on minimizing the size of the canvas sample required for accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon measurement on the gas ion source of the MICADAS and, on the other hand, on testing the possibility of dating the organic binder of the paint. Following careful characterization of the paint composition by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy, paints containing no other carbon source than the natural organic binder were identified and dated. (orig.)

  16. Acute myeloid leukemia stem cell markers in prognosis and targeted therapy: potential impact of BMI-1, TIM-3 and CLL-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Noureldien H E; Sudha, Thangirala; Godugu, Kavitha; Elbaz, Osama; Abdelghaffar, Hasan A; Hassan, Emad E A; Mousa, Shaker A

    2016-09-06

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients show high relapse rates and some develop conventional chemotherapy resistance. Leukemia Stem Cells (LSCs) are the main player for AML relapses and drug resistance. LSCs might rely on the B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site-1 (BMI-1) in promoting cellular proliferation and survival. Growth of LSCs in microenvironments that are deprived of nutrients leads to up-regulation of the signaling pathways during the progression of the disease, which may illustrate the sensitivity of LSCs to inhibitors of those signaling pathways as compared to normal cells. We analyzed the expression of LSC markers (CD34, CLL-1, TIM-3 and BMI-1) using quantitative RT-PCR in bone marrow samples of 40 AML patients of different FAB types (M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, and M7). We also studied the expression of these markers in 2 AML cell lines (Kasumi-1 and KG-1a) using flow cytometry and quantitative RT-PCR. The overexpression of TIM-3, CLL-1, and BMI-1 was markedly correlated with poor prognosis in these patients. Our in vitro findings demonstrate that targeting BMI-1, which markedly increased in the leukemic cells, was associated with marked decrease in leukemic burden. This study also presents results for blocking LSCs' surface markers CD44, CLL-1, and TIM-3. These markers may play an important role in elimination of AML. Our study indicates a correlation between the expression of markers TIM-3, CLL-1, and especially of BMI-1 and the aggressiveness of AML and thus the potential impact of prognosis and therapies that target LSCs on improving the cure rates.

  17. Elevated frequencies of CD8 T cells expressing PD-1, CTLA-4 and Tim-3 within tumour from perineural squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linedale, Richard; Schmidt, Campbell; King, Brigid T; Ganko, Annabelle G; Simpson, Fiona; Panizza, Benedict J; Leggatt, Graham R

    2017-01-01

    Perineural spread of tumour cells along cranial nerves is a severe complication of primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region. While surgical excision of the tumour is the treatment of choice, removal of all the tumour is often complicated by the neural location and recurrence is frequent. Non-invasive immune treatments such as checkpoint inhibitor blockade may be useful in this set of tumours although little is understood about the immune response to perineural spread of squamous cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry studies suggest that perineural tumour contains a lymphocyte infiltrate but it is difficult to quantitate the different proportions of immune cell subsets and expression of checkpoint molecules such as PD-1, Tim-3 and CTLA-4. Using flow cytometry of excised perineural tumour tissue, we show that a T cell infiltrate is prominent in addition to less frequent B cell, NK cell and NKT cell infiltrates. CD8 T cells are more frequent than other T cells in the tumour tissue. Amongst CD8 T cells, the frequency of Tim-3, CTLA-4 and PD-1 expressing cells was significantly greater in the tumour relative to the blood, a pattern that was repeated for Tim-3, CTLA-4 and PD-1 amongst non-CD8 T cells. Using immunohistochemistry, PD-1 and PD-L1-expression could be detected in close proximity amongst perineural tumour tissue. The data suggest that perineural SCC contains a mixture of immune cells with a predominant T cell infiltrate containing CD8 T cells. Elevated frequencies of tumour-associated Tim-3+, CTLA-4+ and PD-1+ CD8 T cells suggests that a subset of patients may benefit from local antibody blockade of these checkpoint inhibitors.

  18. Elevated frequencies of CD8 T cells expressing PD-1, CTLA-4 and Tim-3 within tumour from perineural squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Linedale

    Full Text Available Perineural spread of tumour cells along cranial nerves is a severe complication of primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck region. While surgical excision of the tumour is the treatment of choice, removal of all the tumour is often complicated by the neural location and recurrence is frequent. Non-invasive immune treatments such as checkpoint inhibitor blockade may be useful in this set of tumours although little is understood about the immune response to perineural spread of squamous cell carcinomas. Immunohistochemistry studies suggest that perineural tumour contains a lymphocyte infiltrate but it is difficult to quantitate the different proportions of immune cell subsets and expression of checkpoint molecules such as PD-1, Tim-3 and CTLA-4. Using flow cytometry of excised perineural tumour tissue, we show that a T cell infiltrate is prominent in addition to less frequent B cell, NK cell and NKT cell infiltrates. CD8 T cells are more frequent than other T cells in the tumour tissue. Amongst CD8 T cells, the frequency of Tim-3, CTLA-4 and PD-1 expressing cells was significantly greater in the tumour relative to the blood, a pattern that was repeated for Tim-3, CTLA-4 and PD-1 amongst non-CD8 T cells. Using immunohistochemistry, PD-1 and PD-L1-expression could be detected in close proximity amongst perineural tumour tissue. The data suggest that perineural SCC contains a mixture of immune cells with a predominant T cell infiltrate containing CD8 T cells. Elevated frequencies of tumour-associated Tim-3+, CTLA-4+ and PD-1+ CD8 T cells suggests that a subset of patients may benefit from local antibody blockade of these checkpoint inhibitors.

  19. Quantitative MR imaging in fracture dating--Initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Katharina; Neumayer, Bernhard; Widek, Thomas; Schick, Fritz; Scheicher, Sylvia; Hassler, Eva; Scheurer, Eva

    2016-04-01

    For exact age determinations of bone fractures in a forensic context (e.g. in cases of child abuse) improved knowledge of the time course of the healing process and use of non-invasive modern imaging technology is of high importance. To date, fracture dating is based on radiographic methods by determining the callus status and thereby relying on an expert's experience. As a novel approach, this study aims to investigate the applicability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for bone fracture dating by systematically investigating time-resolved changes in quantitative MR characteristics after a fracture event. Prior to investigating fracture healing in children, adults were examined for this study in order to test the methodology for this application. Altogether, 31 MR examinations in 17 subjects (♀: 11 ♂: 6; median age 34 ± 15 y, scanned 1-5 times over a period of up to 200 days after the fracture event) were performed on a clinical 3T MR scanner (TimTrio, Siemens AG, Germany). All subjects were treated conservatively for a fracture in either a long bone or in the collar bone. Both, qualitative and quantitative MR measurements were performed in all subjects. MR sequences for a quantitative measurement of relaxation times T1 and T2 in the fracture gap and musculature were applied. Maps of quantitative MR parameters T1, T2, and magnetisation transfer ratio (MTR) were calculated and evaluated by investigating changes over time in the fractured area by defined ROIs. Additionally, muscle areas were examined as reference regions to validate this approach. Quantitative evaluation of 23 MR data sets (12 test subjects, ♀: 7 ♂: 5) showed an initial peak in T1 values in the fractured area (T1=1895 ± 607 ms), which decreased over time to a value of 1094 ± 182 ms (200 days after the fracture event). T2 values also peaked for early-stage fractures (T2=115 ± 80 ms) and decreased to 73 ± 33 ms within 21 days after the fracture event. After that time point, no

  20. An improved FT-TIMS method of measuring uranium isotope ratios in the uranium-bearing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yan; Wang, Fan; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Li, Li-Li; Zhang, Yan; Shen, Yan; Chang, Zhi-Yuan; Guo, Shi-Lun; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Cui, Jian-Yong; Liu, Yu-Ang

    2015-01-01

    An improved method of Fission Track technique combined with Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (FT-TIMS) was established in order to determine isotope ratio of uranium-bearing particle. Working standard of uranium oxide particles with a defined diameter and isotopic composition were prepared and used to review the method. Results showed an excellent agreement with certified values. The developed method was used to analyze isotope ratio of single uranium-bearing particle in swipe samples successfully. The analysis results of uranium-bearing particles in swipe samples accorded with the operation history of the origin. - Highlights: • The developed method was successfully applied in the analysis of real swipe sample. • Uranium-bearing particles were confined in the middle of track detector. • The fission tracks of collodion film and PC film could be confirmed each other. • The thickness of collodion film should be no more than about 60 μm. • The method could avoid losing uranium-bearing particles in the etching step.

  1. A comparative study of isotopic analysis of plutonium from organic and aqueous media by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Radhika M.; Mirashi, Nirupama N.; Khodade, P.S.; Shah, P.M.; Parab, A.R.; Govindan, R.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    For isotopic analysis of plutonium (Pu) in irradiated nuclear fuel samples, it is normally separated from Am, U and fission products by anion exchange method in nitrate medium. However, stripping of Pu from the column by dilute HNO 3 acid is slow due to tailing which requires long elution times and reduces the concentration of Pu in the eluted solution. The desorption of Pu from the column can be enhanced by using more dilute HNO 3 but there are problems of hydrolysis and polymer formation. Formic acid and ascorbic acid in formic acid are reported to be promising eluents for plutonium. Formic acid is also a good solvent for Pu. Further, the presence of ascorbic acid helps in reducing Pu (IV) to Pu (III) thereby leading to faster elution as well as better recovery in smaller volumes of the eluant and hence higher Pu concentrations in the collected fraction. This would circumvent the need of subsequent concentration steps allowing direct loading of Pu on the filament for analysis by TIMS. The aim of the present work was to compare the elution behaviour and mass spectrometric analysis of Pu using formic acid, formic acid + ascorbic acid and nitric acid with respect to ion current behaviour and isotopic ratios obtained

  2. Effects of a high fat meal matrix and protein complexation on the bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins using the TNO gastrointestinal model (TIM-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribnicky, David M; Roopchand, Diana E; Oren, Andrew; Grace, Mary; Poulev, Alexander; Lila, Mary Ann; Havenaar, Robert; Raskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    The TNO intestinal model (TIM-1) of the human upper gastrointestinal tract was used to compare intestinal absorption/bioaccessibility of blueberry anthocyanins under different digestive conditions. Blueberry polyphenol-rich extract was delivered to TIM-1 in the absence or presence of a high-fat meal. HPLC analysis of seventeen anthocyanins showed that delphinidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-galactoside, delphinidin-3-arabinoside and petunidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible in fed state, whilst delphinidin-3-(6″-acetoyl)-glucoside and malvidin-3-arabinoside were twice as bioaccessible under fasted conditions, suggesting lipid-rich matrices selectively effect anthocyanin bioaccessibility. TIM-1 was fed blueberry juice (BBJ) or blueberry polyphenol-enriched defatted soybean flour (BB-DSF) containing equivalent amounts of free or DSF-sorbed anthocyanins, respectively. Anthocyanin bioaccessibility from BB-DSF (36.0±10.4) was numerically, but not significantly, greater than that from BBJ (26.3±10.3). Ileal efflux samples collected after digestion of BB-DSF contained 2.8-fold more anthocyanins than same from BBJ, suggesting that protein-rich DSF protects anthocyanins during transit through upper digestive tract for subsequent colonic delivery/metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  4. Increased Expression and Modulated Regulatory Activity of Coinhibitory Receptors PD-1, TIGIT, and TIM-3 in Lymphocytes From Patients With Systemic Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Michelle; Belkina, Anna C; Proctor, Elizabeth A; Zammitti, Christopher; Simms, Robert W; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer E; Lafyatis, Robert; Dooms, Hans

    2018-04-01

    Immune dysfunction is an important component of the disease process underlying systemic sclerosis (SSc), but the mechanisms contributing to altered immune cell function in SSc remain poorly defined. This study was undertaken to measure the expression and function of the coinhibitory receptors (co-IRs) programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT), T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3), and lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) in lymphocyte subsets from the peripheral blood of patients with SSc. Co-IR expression levels on subsets of immune cells were analyzed using a 16-color flow cytometry panel. The functional role of co-IRs was determined by measuring cytokine production after in vitro stimulation of SSc and healthy control peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the presence of co-IR-blocking antibodies. Supernatants from cultures of stimulated PBMCs were added to SSc fibroblasts, and their impact on fibroblast gene expression was measured. Mathematical modeling was used to reveal differences between co-IR functions in SSc patients and healthy controls. Levels of the co-IRs PD-1 and TIGIT were increased, and each was coexpressed, in distinct T cell subsets from SSc patients compared to healthy controls. Levels of TIM-3 were increased in SSc natural killer cells. PD-1, TIGIT, and TIM-3 antibody blockade revealed patient-specific roles of each of these co-IRs in modulating activation-induced T cell cytokine production. In contrast to healthy subjects, blockade of TIGIT and TIM-3, but not PD-1, failed to reverse inhibited cytokine production in SSc patients, indicating that enhanced T cell exhaustion is present in SSc. Finally, cytokines secreted in anti-TIM-3-treated PBMC cultures distinctly changed the gene expression profile in SSc fibroblasts. The altered expression and regulatory capacity of co-IRs in SSc lymphocytes may contribute to disease pathophysiology by modulating the cytokine-mediated cross-talk of

  5. Kimberley rock art dating project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, G.L.; Morwood, M.

    1997-01-01

    The art's additional value, unequalled by traditionally recognised artefacts, is its permanent pictorial documentation presenting a 'window' into the otherwise intangible elements of perceptions, vision and mind of pre-historic cultures. Unfortunately it's potential in establishing Kimberley archaeological 'big picture' still remains largely unrecognised. Some of findings of the Kimberley Rock Art Dating Project, using AMS and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating techniques, are outlined. It is estimated that these findings will encourage involvement by a greater diversity of specialist disciplines to tie findings into levels of this art sequence as a primary reference point. The sequence represents a sound basis for selecting specific defined images for targeting detailed studies by a range of dating technique. This effectively removes the undesirable ad hoc sampling of 'apparently old paintings'; a process which must unavoidably remain the case with researchers working on most global bodies of rock art

  6. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2002-03-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene

  7. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then trow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected from the Yangsan fault system. ESR dates from the this fault system range from 870 to 240 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity continued into the pleistocene.

  8. 32Si dating of sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, U.

    2004-01-01

    Brief explanation of the use of 32 Si in the dating of sediments. 32 Si , with a half-life of c.140 years, can be applied in the age range 30-1000 years. An appropriate dating tool for that time range is essential because it includes three very important epochs: the impact of human colonisation and industrialisation during the last 150 years, the Little Ice Age between about 1650 AD and 1850 AD, and the last part of the Medieval Climatic Optimum. 23 refs

  9. The complexity behind the date

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    For the waiting world, and indeed for most of us here at CERN, ‘the LHC schedule’ simply means the date that the LHC will restart - and we only take notice when that end-date changes. But in fact the schedule is a constantly evolving intricate document coordinating all the repairs, consolidation and commissioning in every part of the machine. So, what actually goes on behind the scenes in timing and planning all the work on one of the most complex scientific instruments ever built?

  10. Determinants in the Ig Variable Domain of Human HAVCR1 (TIM-1) Are Required To Enhance Hepatitis C Virus Entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachko, Alla; Costafreda, Maria Isabel; Zubkova, Iryna; Jacques, Jerome; Takeda, Kazuyo; Wells, Frances; Kaplan, Gerardo; Major, Marian E

    2018-03-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis in humans. Several host molecules participate in HCV cell entry, but this process remains unclear. The complete unraveling of the HCV entry process is important to further understand viral pathogenesis and develop therapeutics. Human hepatitis A virus (HAV) cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), CD365, also known as TIM-1, functions as a phospholipid receptor involved in cell entry of several enveloped viruses. Here, we studied the role of HAVCR1 in HCV infection. HAVCR1 antibody inhibited entry in a dose-dependent manner. HAVCR1 soluble constructs neutralized HCV, which did not require the HAVCR1 mucinlike region and was abrogated by a mutation of N to A at position 94 (N94A) in the Ig variable (IgV) domain phospholipid-binding pocket, indicating a direct interaction of the HAVCR1 IgV domain with HCV virions. However, knockout of HAVCR1 in Huh7 cells reduced but did not prevent HCV growth. Interestingly, the mouse HAVCR1 ortholog, also a phospholipid receptor, did not enhance infection and a soluble form failed to neutralize HCV, although replacement of the mouse IgV domain with the human HAVCR1 IgV domain restored the enhancement of HCV infection. Mutations in the cytoplasmic tail revealed that direct HAVCR1 signaling is not required to enhance HCV infection. Our data show that the phospholipid-binding function and other determinant(s) in the IgV domain of human HAVCR1 enhance HCV infection. Although the exact mechanism is not known, it is possible that HAVCR1 facilitates entry by stabilizing or enhancing attachment, leading to direct interactions with specific receptors, such as CD81. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus (HCV) enters cells through a multifaceted process. We identified the human hepatitis A virus cellular receptor 1 (HAVCR1), CD365, also known as TIM-1, as a facilitator of HCV entry. Antibody blocking and silencing or knockout of HAVCR1 in hepatoma cells reduced HCV entry. Our findings that the

  11. PERBEDAAN WAKTU REAKSI PADA BERBAGAI DURASI LATIHAN DAN INDEKS MASSA TUBUH PADA TIM FUTSAL FAKULTAS KEDOKTERAN UNIVERSITAS UDAYANA TAHUN 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Gede Windhu Saputra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Futsal merupakan salah satu olahraga permainan bola yang kini makin digemari oleh banyak orang. Permainan futsal membutuhkan kondisi jasmani, kemampuan menggiring bola, mencetak gol, dan menghadang lawan yang baik. Berbagai kemampuan tersebut membutuhkan latihan rutin, indeks massa tubuh (IMT, serta waktu reaksi yang optimal agar dapat bermain dengan baik. Penelitian ini ingin melihat bagaimana perbedaan waktu reaksi pada berbagai durasi latihan dan IMT pada pemain tim futsal FK UNUD. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode analisis potong lintang dengan melihat perbedaan waktu reaksi berdasarkan durasi latihan dan IMT. Dari hasil uji T menunjukkan tidak didapatkan perbedaan bermakna dari rata-rata waktu reaksi (p>0,05 antara pemain yang berlatih kurang dari 5 jam per minggu (266,67 milidetik ± 22,223 dibandingkan dengan pemain yang berlatih lebih dari 5 jam per minggu (305,67 milidetik ± 45,247. Tidak didapatkan pula perbedaan signifikan (p>0,05 antara pemain yang memiliki indeks massa tubuh dibawah 25 kg/m2 (283,80 milidetik ± 37,067 dan yang memiliki indeks massa tubuh lebih dari sama dengan 25 kg/m2 (302,40 milidetik ± 51,897. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini tidak didapatkan perbedaan waktu reaksi yang signifikan antara kelompok pemain yang berlatih kurang dari 5 jam per minggu dibandingkan dengan kelompok pemain yang berlatih lebih dari sama dengan 5 jam per minggu. Tidak didapatkan perbedaan waktu reaksi yang signifikan pada kelompok pemain dengan IMT kurang dari 25 kg/m2 dibandingkan dengan kelompok pemain dengan IMT lebih dari sama dengan 25 kg/m2.    

  12. Recent advances in thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Initially the application of thermoluminescent dating was to ancient pottery and other baked clay, the detection of forgeries in art ceramics having a particularly powerful impact. In recent years there has been a growing extension of TL into non-pottery materials. Heated flints from paleolithic fire-places is one application. Another is in the dating of igneous rocks from recent volcanic events; formerly this had been impossible on account of the malign phenomenon of non-thermal ('anomalous') fading exhibited by volcanic minerals but this is now being circumvented by utilising TL in the 600 0 C region of the glow curve. TL dating has also been extended to unburnt calcite, one application being stalagmitic floors in paleolithic caves. Another recent development is the use of TL for dating aeolian sediment and some types of waterborne sediment. These developments give prospect of establishing a TL-based chronology, both for archaeology and quaternary research, extending back well beyond the range of radiocarbon, perhaps reaching a million years ago. (author)

  13. Sexual Intimacy in Dating Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peplau, Letitia Anne; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The patterning of sexual interaction in male-female dyads and the links between sexual behavior and emotional intimacy were investigated as part of a two-year study of college dating couples. Traditional sexual role playing was found to be common. (Author/AM)

  14. Online Dating and Conjugal Bereavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Dannagal Goldthwaite; Caplan, Scott E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined self-presentation in the online dating profiles of 241 widowed and 280 divorced individuals between 18 and 40 years old. A content analysis of open-ended user-generated profiles assessed the presence or absence of various themes, including the user's marital status, the backstory of their lost relationship, and whether they…

  15. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  16. Comparative study of radioimmunoassay dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venegas Sanchez, Ruth.

    1986-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay is frequently used in clinical chemistry for the concentration determination of several substances like hormones as thyrotropine and thyroxine. In this experiment the dates of tyroxine radioimmunoassay are processed by three methods: a) like the recommendation of the IAEA, b) Dr. G. Chase method, c) according to the provider. The best method was Dr. Chase's. (author)

  17. Peer Group Influences on Adolescent Dating Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Jennifer; Friedlander, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The peer group is a critical social context for dating and romantic relationships. Peer groups provide opportunities to meet potential dating partners and set norms for acceptable dating behaviors. This article explores how peer groups influence dating and dating aggression, as well as how they can be used in prevention efforts. It also reviews…

  18. 31 CFR 596.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM LIST GOVERNMENTS SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 596.302 Effective date. The term effective date refers to the effective date of the...

  19. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  20. Fission tracks dating for obsidian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picon, C.

    1991-01-01

    Obsidian from South America are dated by fission tracks methods. Samples are irradiated in a nuclear reactor with a flux of 10 15 n/cm 2 . Results, corrected by 'Plateau' methods, are the following: obsidian from Bolivia: 4.14 x 10 6 yr., Ecuador: 8.79 x 10 5 yr., Colombia: 3.52 x 10 6 yr., Peru: 6.55 x 10 6 yr., Chile: 1.13 x 10 6 yr. (MMZ). 5 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Radiokrypton dating coming of age

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-Tian Lu

    2016-01-01

    The dream of radiokrypton dating began in 1969 when Heinz Hugo Loosli and Hans Oeschger of the University of Bern first detected the decay of81Rr(half-life=230 000 yr)in krypton gas extracted from air[1].This isotope is produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic-ray-induced spallation and neutron-activation of stable krypton.Due to its long residence time(105 yr)in the atmosphere,81Rr is uniformly

  2. Current topics in ESR dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, Anne R.

    2011-01-01

    After over 25 years, the use of electron spin resonance (ESR) is well-established in dating sites of geological, paleontological and archaeological interest. Like any scientific technique, there have been changes in understanding and in methodology. Improvements have not, however, changed the observation that external dose calculations are still a significant source of uncertainty in ages. Examples from Europe, Africa and the Americans illustrate this point. For Pradayrol Cave (France), the occupation age, 330 ka, is unchallenged, making this the oldest known Neanderthal site in France. For Roc de Marsal, also in France, on the other hand, discrepancies between TL and sedimentary dose rates imply substantial differences in interpretation. In the Western Egyptian Desert, where artifacts and datable material are not well-correlated, the dating results show consistency with expectations based on global climate change, even in deflated sites. Climate change is also the question in geological studies in the Bahamas where, despite concerns about cosmic dose history, ESR dates confirm other evidence for sea level changes. We show that an uncertain age is not the same as an impossible one.

  3. ESR dating of fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2003-02-01

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene

  4. ESR dating of fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-02-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs. grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size; these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Gori nuclear reactor. Most of the ESR signals of fault rocks collected from the basement are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of the faults had occurred before the Quaternary period. However, ESR dates from the Oyong fault zone range from 370 to 310 ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity of the Oyong fault zone continued into the Pleistocene.

  5. The technique of express vital determination of radiocesium specific activity in muscular tissue of large agricultural animals by means of the TIM-140 radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The technique is intended for vital determination of cesium 137 specific activity in muscular tissue of large agricultural animals by means of the TIM-140 radiometer. The specific activity is determined using two measurements. With one measurement the gamma radiation detector is located on a lateral surface of coxofemoral part of the animal, and with the second measurement the absorbing gamma radiation screen is placed between the detector and zone of measurement. The external gamma background and useful signal are registered simultaneously. It allows to carry out measurements with a background till 0.05 mR/h without application of external screens

  6. The de-totalization of history in Tim O`Brien`s The Things They Carried (1990DOI:10.5007/2175-8026.2010n59p13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Manganelli Fernandes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at discussing how Tim O’Brien, a veteran of the Vietnam War, reviews the American involvement in the conflict in his novel The Things They Carried (1990. The author shows the perspective of the soldiers in the stories and, therefore, presents other possibilities to analyze that historical fact. The interplay of fiction and truth is essential for O’Brien to reach the objective of reevaluating official history in order to make the readers rethink the past.

  7. Mengelola Proses Tim

    OpenAIRE

    Raharso, Sri

    2012-01-01

    Work teams has become relatively common in organizations because brilliant execution that can onlybe done with teamwork. A team as a group of individuals who work together under a unity of purpose,as a united front. But develop team is not easy, take some years. When team leaders focus primarily onhard business tools, such as schedule, budget, and scope, they can lose sight of a more subjective aspectof the project—the team member. Each person brings a unique set of experiences and knowledge ...

  8. School Counselors' Role in Dating Violence Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigen, Laurie M.; Sikes, April; Healey, Amanda; Hays, Danica

    2009-01-01

    Dating violence among adolescents is a major public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to examine five factors of which school counselors must be aware in order to recognize, intervene, and report incidence of dating violence. These factors are (a) understanding the diverse definitions of dating violence, (b) recognizing dating violence…

  9. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.; Rivera, A.

    1984-01-01

    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence dating of sediments, whose principles and present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for the TL behaviour of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intra continental, eolian and fluvial-type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the basis of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of + - 10-15%. (Author) [pt

  10. Thermoluminescence dating of pleistocene sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Souza, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    After a short introduction on recent trends in quaternary geochronology, this article focuses on the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of sediments, whose principles, present limits and prospects are discussed. Results are presented for TL behavior of sands from various geological contexts in Brazil. They show that the coarse (approx. 100-200 μm) quartz fraction of coastal and intracontinental, eolian and fluvial - type deposits, might be datable by TL from the upper Holocene to at least the base of the upper Pleistocene, with a precision of +- 10-15%. (Author) [pt

  11. The TiM system: developing a novel telehealth service to improve access to specialist care in motor neurone disease using user-centered design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Esther V; Baird, Wendy O; Partridge, Rebecca; Cooper, Cindy L; Mawson, Susan; Quinn, Ann; Shaw, Pamela J; Walsh, Theresa; Wolstenholme, Daniel; Mcdermott, Christopher J

    2018-08-01

    Attendance at a specialist multidisciplinary motor neurone disease (MND) clinic is associated with improved survival and may also improve quality of life and reduce hospital admissions. However, patients struggle to travel to clinic and may experience difficulties between clinic visits that may not be addressed in a timely manner. We wanted to explore how we could improve access to specialist MND care. We adopted an iterative, user-centered co-design approach, collaborating with those with experience of providing and receiving MND care including patients, carers, clinicians, and technology developers. We explored the unmet needs of those living with MND, how they might be met through service redesign and through the use of digital technologies. We developed a new digital solution and performed initial testing with potential users including clinicians, patients, and carers. We used these findings to develop a telehealth system (TiM) using an Android app into which patients and carers answer a series of questions about their condition on a weekly basis. The questions aim to capture all the physical, emotional, and social difficulties associated with MND. This information is immediately uploaded to the internet for review by the MND team. The data undergoes analysis in order to alert clinicians to any changes in a patient or carer's condition. We describe the benefits of developing a novel digitally enabled service underpinned by participatory design. Future trials must evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the TiM system within a clinical environment.

  12. Digestion of cooked meat proteins is slightly affected by age as assessed using the dynamic gastrointestinal TIM model and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, S; Sayd, T; Georges, A; Chambon, C; Chalancon, S; Santé-Lhoutellier, V; Blanquet-Diot, S

    2016-06-15

    In humans, meat ensures the supply of proteins with high nutritional value and indispensable amino acids. The main goal of the present study was to compare the degradation of meat proteins in adult and elderly digestive conditions. Cooked meat was subjected to in vitro digestion in the dynamic multi-compartmental TIM (TNO gastroIntestinal Model) system. Digestibility and bioaccessibility were determined using nitrogen balance and digestion products were identified using mass spectrometry. The TIM model was adapted according to in vivo data to mimic the specific digestive conditions of elderly people. Meat protein digestibility and bioaccessibility were around 96 and 60% respectively and were not influenced by age (P > 0.05). As much as 800 peptides were identified in the duodenal and jejunal compartments issued from 50 meat proteins with a percentage of coverage varying from 13 to 69%. Six proteins, mainly from the cytosol, were differentially hydrolyzed under the adult and elderly digestive conditions. Pyruvate kinase was the only protein clearly showing a delay in its degradation under elderly digestive conditions. This study provides significant insights into the understanding of meat protein dynamic digestion. Such data will be helpful to design in vivo studies aiming to evaluate dietary strategies that can attenuate muscle mass loss and more generally maintain a better quality of life in the elderly population.

  13. Substitution of Sugar with Dates Powder and Dates Syrup in Cookies Making

    OpenAIRE

    W.A. Alsenaien; R.A. Alamer; Zhen-Xing Tang; S.A. Albahrani; M.A. Al-Ghannam; S.M. Aleid

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effects of dates powder and dates syrup as a sugar substitution, on the physical properties and sensory attributes of cookies were studied. An increase in firmness and moisture content of cookies supplemented with dates was obtained. The diameter and spread ratio of cookies showed a decrease with increasing levels of date powder or date syrup. Partial replacement of sugar with date powder or date syrup produced cookies with more dark and red color. Sensory evaluation result...

  14. 85Kr dating of groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.; Florkowski, T.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility of 85 Kr dating of groundwater is being investigated. The method of gas extraction from 200 to 300 litres of water sample has been developed. The Argon and Krypton mixture, separated from the gas extracted from water, was counted in a 1.5 ml volume proportional counter. The amount of krypton gas in the counter was determined by mass spectrometry. A number of surface and groundwater samples were analyzed indicating an 85 Kr concentration ranging from present atmospheric content (river water) to zero values. 85 Kr 'blank value' was determined to be about 5 per cent of present 85 Kr atmospheric content. For groundwater samples, the mean residence time in the system was calculated assuming the exponential model and known 85 Kr input function. Further improvement of the method should bring higher yield of krypton separation and lower volume of water necessary for analysis. (orig.) [de

  15. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  16. Making a date with radiocarbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, J.

    1979-01-01

    The use of 14 C dating techniques for samples of organic materials up to 50,000 years old is discussed with especial reference to adjustment necessary to take account of both the most recent figure for the 14 C half-life and also the natural fluctuations in the production of 14 C over 50,000 years. Methods of detection and the accuracy of the measurements are considered. It is hoped that future developments including both the possibility of counting 14 C ions directly using an accelerator as a mass spectrometer, and also the use of laser enrichment techniques will not only push back the radiocarbon calendar to 100,000 years but will also allow the use of much smaller samples than before. (U.K.)

  17. Make a date with a tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillie, M.; Pilcher, J.

    1988-01-01

    The paper concerns the use of dendrochronology to check the accuracy of radiocarbon dating. The Belfast chronology is described - this involves wood samples precisely dated by tree ring analysis and analysed by high-precision radiocarbon analysis. The analysis resulted in the first continuous high-precision calibration of the radiocarbon time-scale, and confirmed the relationship between radiocarbon dates and tree-ring dates. The use of radiocarbon dating to reveal the age of wood samples that have too few rings to produce an accurate date, is also outlined. (U.K.)

  18. The scientific dating of standing buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Nathaniel W

    2017-11-17

    The techniques of dendrochronology (tree-ring dating) and radiocarbon (14C) dating are described, as they are applied to historic buildings. Both rely on determining the felling dates of the trees used in their construction. For dendrochronology, the construction of master chronologies and the matching of individual ring-width sequences to them is described and, for radiocarbon dating, the use of tree-ring results in calibration. Results of dating are discussed, ranging from the cathedrals of Peterborough and Beauvais and the development of crown-post roof structures, to the dating and identification of standing medieval peasant houses, particularly those built using cruck construction.

  19. Quantifying time in sedimentary successions by radio-isotopic dating of ash beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaltegger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Sedimentary rock sequences are an accurate record of geological, chemical and biological processes throughout the history of our planet. If we want to know more about the duration or the rates of some of these processes, we can apply methods of absolute age determination, i.e. of radio-isotopic dating. Data of highest precision and accuracy, and therefore of highest degree of confidence, are obtained by chemical abrasion, isotope-dilution, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (CA-ID-TIMS) 238U-206Pb dating techniques, applied to magmatic zircon from ash beds that are interbedded with the sediments. This techniques allows high-precision estimates of age at the 0.1% uncertainty for single analyses, and down to 0.03% uncertainty for groups of statistically equivalent 206Pb/238U dates. Such high precision is needed, since we would like the precision to be approximately equivalent or better than the (interpolated) duration of ammonoid zones in the Mesozoic (e.g., Ovtcharova et al. 2006), or to match short feedback rates of biological, climatic, or geochemical cycles after giant volcanic eruptions in large igneous provinces (LIP's), e.g., at the Permian/Triassic or the Triassic/Jurassic boundaries. We also wish to establish as precisely as possible temporal coincidence between the sedimentary record and short-lived volcanic events within the LIP's. Precision and accuracy of the U-Pb data has to be traceable and quantifiable in absolute terms, achieved by direct reference to the international kilogram, via an absolute calibration of the standard and isotopic tracer solutions. Only with a perfect control on precision and accuracy of radio-isotopic data, we can confidently determine whether two ages of geological events are really different, and avoid mistaking interlaboratory or interchronometer biases for age difference. The development of unprecedented precision of CA-ID-TIMS 238U-206Pb dates led to the recognition of protracted growth of zircon in a magmatic liquid (see

  20. 17 CFR 248.128 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Affiliate Marketing § 248.128 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. (a) Effective date. This subpart is effective September 10, 2009. (b) Mandatory compliance date. Compliance with this... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effective date, compliance...

  1. Radiocarbon dates for Rangitoto and Motutapu, a consideration of dating accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Law, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The carbon dates for the eruptions of Rangitoto and the occupation of Maori sites on Motutapu contain inconsistencies which are explicable only after the dates have been corrected to allow for the nature of the dating method. The only date which is reasonably established is a 14th or 15th century dating for the ash shower covering Motutapu. (auth.)

  2. Geophysical Insights from Archaeomagnetic Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holme, R.; Lodge, A.; Suttie, N.; Shaw, J.; Hill, M. J.; Linford, P.

    2009-12-01

    We report on work which has been undertaken towards developing an improved methodology for archaeomagnetic dating of archaeological samples through the use of a dedicated field model. In this talk, we focus on the more general (non-archaeological) implications of our results. Our work has focused on Europe, taking advantage of the better spatial and temporal coverage of available samples. Nevertheless, we model the field globally, using an a priori model (such as, for example, CALS7K) to constrain the field away from the regions of available data. This is advantageous over the use of a local field modelling methodology, as it allows us to examine the physical consequences of structure in our model (for example, in terms of the spectra of the field and secular variation at the core-mantle boundary), and to control possible edge effects in the model, which in a local model might produce an unphysical solution. By focusing on one particular region, we produce models that may not be optimal in terms of global structure, but allow us to investigate the data content in the region where it may provide the most information on core-field evolution. In parallel, we have been expanding the archaeointensity record for Great Britain, towards producing an archaeointensity curve for the UK which could ultimately be used for dating of unoriented samples (such as pot sherds). This new record, combined with other recently acquired high-quality intensity data, allows us to consider the evolution of global geomagnetic field strength in parallel with a good model of directional measurements; from 1590, the GUFM model is appropriate. Recent attempts to determine global intensity variation have used all available data (some of uncertain quality) to quantify variations in field strength. By instead focusing on a more limited dataset of known quality, we are able to examine intensity trends in greater detail. We present evidence that the intensity of the field was higher prior to 1840 than

  3. Time evolution of a rifted continental arc: Integrated ID-TIMS and LA-ICPMS study of magmatic zircons from the Eastern Srednogorie, Bulgaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, S.; von Quadt, A.; Heinrich, C. A.; Peytcheva, I.; Marchev, P.

    2012-12-01

    Eastern Srednogorie in Bulgaria is the widest segment of an extensive magmatic arc that formed by convergence of Africa and Europe during Mesozoic to Tertiary times. Northward subduction of the Tethys Ocean beneath Europe in the Late Cretaceous gave rise to a broad range of basaltic to more evolved magmas with locally associated Cu-Au mineralization along this arc. We used U-Pb geochronology of single zircons to constrain the temporal evolution of the Upper Cretaceous magmatism and the age of basement rocks through which the magmas were emplaced in this arc segment. High precision isotope dilution-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) was combined with laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) for spatial resolution within single zircon grains. Three tectono-magmatic regions are distinguished from north to south within Eastern Srednogorie: East Balkan, Yambol-Burgas and Strandzha. Late Cretaceous magmatic activity started at ~ 92 Ma in the northernmost East Balkan region, based on stratigraphic evidence and limited geochronology, with the emplacement of minor shallow intrusions and volcanic rocks onto pre-Cretaceous basement. In the southernmost Strandzha region, magmatism was initiated at ~ 86 Ma with emplacement of gabbroic to dioritic intrusions and related dikes into metamorphic basement rocks that have previously been overprinted by Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous metamorphism. The Yambol-Burgas region is an extensional basin between the East Balkan and the Strandzha regions, which broadens and deepens toward the Black Sea further east and is filled with a thick pile of marine sediments and submarine extrusive volcanic rocks accompanied by coeval intrusions. This dominantly mafic magmatism in the intermediate Yambol-Burgas region commenced at ~ 81 Ma and produced large volumes of potassium-rich magma until ~ 78 Ma. These shoshonitic to ultrapotassic basaltic to intermediate magmas formed by differentiation of ankaramitic (high

  4. Dates and Times Made Easy with lubridate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrett Grolemund

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the lubridate package for R, which facilitates working with dates and times. Date-times create various technical problems for the data analyst. The paper highlights these problems and oers practical advice on how to solve them using lubridate. The paper also introduces a conceptual framework for arithmetic with date-times in R.

  5. Reservoir effects in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The radiocarbon dating technique depends essentially on the assumption that atmospheric carbon dioxide containing the cosmogenic radioisotope 14 C enters into a state of equilibrium with all living material (plants and animals) as part of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Terrestrial reservoir effects occur when the atmospheric 14 C signal is diluted by local effects where systems depleted in 14 C mix with systems that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Naturally, this can occur with plant material growing close to an active volcano adding very old CO 2 to the atmosphere (the original 14 C has completely decayed). It can also occur in highly industrialised areas where fossil fuel derived CO 2 dilutes the atmospheric signal. A terrestrial reservoir effect can occur in the case of fresh water shells living in rivers or lakes where there is an input of ground water from springs or a raising of the water table. Soluble bicarbonate derived from the dissolution of very old limestone produces a 14 C dilution effect. Land snail shells and stream carbonate depositions (tufas and travertines) can be affected by a similar mechanism. Alternatively, in specific cases, these reservoir effects may not occur. This means that general interpretations assuming quantitative values for these terrestrial effects are not possible. Each microenvironment associated with samples being analysed needs to be evaluated independently. Similarly, the marine environment produces reservoir effects. With respect to marine shells and corals, the water depth at which carbonate growth occurs can significantly affect quantitative 14 C dilution, especially in areas where very old water is uplifted, mixing with top layers of water that undergo significant exchange with atmospheric CO 2 . Hence, generalisations with respect to the marine reservoir effect also pose problems. These can be exacerbated by the mixing of sea water with either terrestrial water in estuaries, or ground water where

  6. Isotope ratio measurements of pg-size plutonium samples using TIMS in combination with the 'Multiple Ion Counting' and filament carburization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakopic, Rozle; Richter, Stephan; Kuehn, Heinz; Aregbe, Yetunde [European Commission, Directorate General Joint Research Centre Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, IRMM Retieseweg 111, B-2440 Geel (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    A new sample preparation procedure for isotopic measurements using the Triton TIMS (Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer) was developed which employed the technique of carburization of rhenium filaments. Carburized filaments were prepared in a special vacuum chamber in which the filaments were heated and exposed to benzene vapor. Ionization efficiency was improved by an order of magnitude. Additionally, a new 'multi-dynamic' measurement technique was developed for Pu isotope ratio measurements using the 'multiple ion counting' (MIC) system. This technique was further combined with the filament carburization technique and applied to the NBL-137 isotopic standard and samples of the NUSIMEP 5 inter-laboratory comparison campaign. The results clearly show an improved precision and accuracy for the 'multi-dynamic' measurement procedure, compared to measurements carried out either in peak-jumping or in static mode using the MIC system with non-carburized filaments. (authors)

  7. Fleeing War. Due strategie di diserzione letteraria:I parenti del Sud di Carlo Montella e Going After Cacciato di Tim O’Brien

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Segato

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio indaga due diverse strategie di diserzione rappresentate in due romanzi di guerra: I parenti del sud di Carlo Montella e Going After Cacciato di Tim O’Brien. Nelle due opere analizzate la diserzione sembra essere collegata al conflitto che fa da sfondo al romanzo. Nel libro di Montella,il protagonista, ancora obnubilato dalle dottrine tautologiche fasciste, qualche settimana dopo l’armistizio di Cassibile decide di disertare e di fuggire nella villa di un’anziana parente, con lo scopo di rinsavire dall’ideologia del regime. Nel romanzo di O’Brien, invece, la fuga messa in scena dall’autore sembra avere gli stessi tratti grotteschi e assurdi del conflitto in cui è stato catapultato il protagonista,la Guerra del Vietnam.

  8. Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 increases plant protein digestion in a dynamic, computer-controlled in vitro model of the small intestine (TIM-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D; Van Dinter, R; Cash, H; Farmer, S; Venema, K

    2017-05-30

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of the probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 [GanedenBC 30 ] (BC30) to aid in protein digestion of alimentary plant proteins. To test this, three plant proteins, from pea, soy and rice, were digested in a validated in vitro model of the stomach and small intestine (TIM-1) in the absence and in the presence of BC30. Samples were taken from the TIM-1 fractions that mimic uptake of amino acids by the host and analysed for α-amino nitrogen (AAN) and total nitrogen (TN). Both were increased by BC30 for all three plant proteins sources. The ratio of TN/AAN indicated that for pea protein digestion was increased by BC30, but the degree of polymerisation of the liberated small peptides and free amino acids was not changed. For soy and rice, however, BC30 showed a 2-fold reduction in the TN/AAN ratio, indicating that the liberated digestion products formed during digestion in the presence of BC30 were shorter peptides and more free amino acids, than those liberated in the absence of BC30. As BC30 increased protein digestion and uptake in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract, it consequently also reduced the amount of protein that would be delivered to the colon, which could there be fermented into toxic metabolites by the gut microbiota. Thus, the enhanced protein digestion by BC30 showed a dual benefit: enhanced amino acid bioavailability from plant proteins in the upper GI tract, and a healthier environment in the colon.

  9. Radiocarbon dating of soils, a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharpenseel, H.W.; Schiffmann, H.

    1977-01-01

    The application of radiocarbon dating techniques for pedological purposes is reviewed in chronological sequence of its phases of introduction. Initially dating of charcoal and buried paleosols was dominating and accompanied by few soil dating attempts of recent soil formations on the basis of extracted humic acid-C. The following controversy regarding the potentialities and limitations of recent soil dating, still being involved in the intact turnover processes of modern biodynamics, led to intensive search for the relatively oldest, most favorable C-fraction, particularly a biologically inert C-fraction of the organic C-pool. Inclusion of C-14 dating in pedogenetic working concepts required soil profile date-scanning in order to reveal the age versus depth interdependence. (orig./HK) [de

  10. Sample processing procedures and radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlik, Ivo; Tomaskova, Lenka; Dreslerova, Dagmar

    2010-01-01

    The article outlines radiocarbon dating routines and highlights the potential and limitations of this method. The author's institutions have been jointly running a conventional radiocarbon dating laboratory using the international CRL code. A procedure based on the synthesis of benzene is used. Small samples are sent abroad for dating because no AMS instrumentation is available in the Czech Republic so far. Our laboratory plans to introduce routines for the processing of milligram samples and preparation of graphitized targets for AMS

  11. Thermoluminescence dating of Indian archaeological sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhvi, A.K.; Sharma, Y.P.; Agrawal, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    In an attempt to provide a chronology for Indian archaeological sites, an extensive pottery dating programme was initiated during 1978-1979. So far we have provided a chronology for seven important Indian archaeological sites. The dated cultures include: 1) the Ochre Colour Ware culture, 2) the Pre-Harappan culture, 3) the megalithic culture and 4) the Painted Grey Ware culture. A complete survey of recently measured TL dates are presented in a model format similar to that used in Radiocarbon. (author)

  12. How AMS dating changed my life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spriggs, M.

    2001-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dating was developed in the late 1970s. Remembering back to a time before AMS dating was available to archaeologists is a bit like trying to remember how we ever survived without desktop computers, email or automatic teller machines. My own particular interest in AMS dating was an inevitable offshoot from my long-established interest in chronometric hygiene, or 'getting the dates right'. In this paper I attempt to illustrate that accurate dating matters, by discussing some examples of AMS dating projects with which I have been involved over the last six years or so. In relation to these projects, AMS has given us the ability to date sites which we could not before. It has enabled us to provide more detailed stratigraphies when datable materials are rare. It has allowed us to date materials we could not date before, such as rock art pigments. It has been able to provide indications of the degree of site disturbance in the absence of other obvious forms of evidence. And it has allowed us to assess claims for the antiquity of particular material cultural types and faunal introductions. (author). 41 refs

  13. AMS Radiocarbon Dating at Notre Dame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sean

    2014-09-01

    Current development of a local radiocarbon dating method using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the University of Notre Dame seeks to provide sensitive, reproducible, and accurate measurements for future interdisciplinary projects. While AMS has been the premier radiocarbon dating method for a few decades, repurposing Notre Dame's FN Tandem accelerator for radiocarbon dating has provided many unique challenges. Experiments have shown radiocarbon dating possible and reproducible using the FN Tandem accelerator, found optimal settings for said accelerator, and established sensitivity limits comparable to dedicated radiocarbon dating facilities. In addition, there is ongoing work to create a local chemistry lab to convert organic artifacts into graphite samples to be dated locally. Once the chemistry side has been completed, several artifacts from the IAEA's radiocarbon intercomparison have been procured. Dating these previously studied artifacts will provide an additional measure on the accuracy and repeatability of both the accelerator and chemical treatment. Provided that these IAEA artifacts are dated successfully, exciting projects will ensue, such as the authentication of artwork and dating of anthropological samples.

  14. NERC radiocarbon dating: 1975-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, D.Q.; Harkness, D.D.

    1986-06-01

    The paper reviews the work of the Natural Environment Research Council Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory in connection with Quaternary research, over the last decade. A description is given of the development of the dating service and in-house research. Quaternary research investigations aided by radiocarbon dating are described under the topic headings: The late Devensian glacial maximum, late glacial, middle Devensian, palaeomagnetic secular variation in lake sediments, vegetational history, faunal history, palaeolimnology, ground water, volcanology, periglacial research, palaoeohydrology, geomorphology, quaternary events in low-latitudes, environmental archaeology, archaeology, deep sea sediments, continental shelf, coastal geomorphology, and radiocarbon dating in Antarctica. (U.K.)

  15. Using microwaves in Disinsection of dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouba, Anis

    2008-01-01

    The date palm plays a very significant role in Tunisia in term of culture as well as social, economic and ecological aspects. The production of the dates which is estimated to 120.000 tons/year ensures the principal income for the majority of the oasis population of the South of Tunisia and constitutes the basis for agricultural, industrial, commercial and tourist activities, offering million of working days. The date palm is cultivated mainly for the production of dates which are consumed locally or also exported abroad but for its by-products (food of the cattle, wind breaks, fuel, construction) which are marketed and/ or used in the everyday life thus taking part in the sedentarisation of the populations and the maintenance of a fragile socio-economic balance. The date moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zell. ( L will epidoptera, Pyralidae) is without question the most significant problem of the Tunisian date palm. The infestation of dates in the field and in the storage and packing houses enormously depreciates the marketable quality of dates and risk to compromise exports in particular those of the variety Deglet Nour. rates of infestations of about 20% are often recorded in Tunisia where as the European standards require rates lower than 5%. In Tunisia the desinsectisation of dates is done until now by the use of methyl bromide, its high toxicity substantially reduces the duration of date treatment, and consequently the treated volumes. The replacement of this product becomes an urgent need its use will not be authorized by 2015. Within the framework of a agreement between the Regional Research Center in Oasis Agriculture (CRRAO), The Interprofessional Grouping of Fruits (GIF), and the Italian Company IMETEC, the use one of micro-waves as a desinsectisation method of dates was evaluated. The results of this present work showed that total desinsectisation of dates by microwaves can be obtained only with homogeneous dates in term of water content. Total

  16. Chromatographic separation of fructose from date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eid, Salah M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a process for separating fructose from a mixture of sugars containing essentially fructose and glucose, obtained from date palm fruits. The extraction procedure of date syrup from fresh dates gave a yield of 86.5% solids after vacuum drying. A process for separating fructose from an aqueous solution of date syrup involved adding the date syrup solutions (20, 30 and 40% by weight) to a chromatographic column filled with Dowex polystyrene strong cation exchange gel matrix resin Ca2 + and divinylbenzene, a functional group, sulfonic acid, particle size 320 microm, with a flow rate of 0.025 and 0.05 bed volume/min, under 30 and 70 degrees C column temperature. After the date sugar solution batch, a calculated quantity of water was added to the column. Glucose was retained by the resin more weakly than fructose and proceeded faster into the water batch flowing ahead. Three fractions were collected: a glucose-rich fraction, a return fraction, and a fructose-rich fraction. The return fraction is based on when the peaks of fructose and glucose were reached, which could be determined by means of an analyzer (polarimeter) based on the property of glucose and fructose solutions to turn the polarization level of polarized light. A high yield of fructose is obtained at 70 degrees C column temperature with a flow rate of 0.025 bed volume/min and date syrup solution containing 40% sugar concentration. The low recovery by weight obtained using date syrup solutions having a sugar concentration of 20 and 30%, encourages the use of a concentration of 40%. However, with the 40% date syrup supply the average concentrations of glucose and fructose in the return fractions were more than 40%, which can be used for diluting the thick date syrup solution extracted from dates.

  17. 75 FR 57252 - Designated Transfer Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ..., as the date for the transfer of functions to the Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection (``CFPB... other laws. After consulting with the heads of the agencies whose functions will transfer to the CFPB... July 21, 2011, as the transfer date will advance the mission of the CFPB and promote an orderly and...

  18. 12 CFR 563g.6 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 563g.6 Section 563g.6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SECURITIES OFFERINGS § 563g.6 Effective date. (a) Except as provided for in paragraph (d) of this section, an offering circular filed by a...

  19. 40 CFR 425.05 - Compliance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 425.05 Section 425.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.05 Compliance dates...

  20. Jealousy during Dating among Female College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanchandani, Laveena; Durham, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between several situational and personality variables and jealousy in dating relationships among 100 college women volunteers who completed a series of questionnaires about themselves and their dating situations. Six research questions were examined. Results showed that jealousy was lower for women in a steady…

  1. 21 CFR 211.137 - Expiration dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expiration dating. 211.137 Section 211.137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... § 211.137 Expiration dating. (a) To assure that a drug product meets applicable standards of identity...

  2. ESR dating of marine fossil shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, U.; Mangini, A.; Gruen, R.

    1985-01-01

    In order to establish the relatively new ESR dating method for marine shells a detailed comparison with the independent U-series technique was carried out. Agreement of both dating methods with the geological classification is strongly dependent on the species investigated and environmental conditions. Several problems encountered in the determination of the accumulated dose as well as the annual dose are discussed. (author)

  3. ESR dating of marine fossil shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, U; Mangini, A; Gruen, R

    1985-01-01

    In order to establish the relatively new ESR dating method for marine shells a detailed comparison with the independent U-series technique was carried out. Agreement of both dating methods with the geological classification is strongly dependent on the species investigated and environmental conditions. Several problems encountered in the determination of the accumulated dose as well as the annual dose are discussed.

  4. 16 CFR 314.5 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective date. 314.5 Section 314.5 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS STANDARDS FOR SAFEGUARDING CUSTOMER INFORMATION § 314.5 Effective date. (a) Each financial institution subject to the...

  5. 7 CFR 1421.101 - Maturity dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... filed and disbursed except, for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral. The maturity date for transferred marketing assistance loan collateral will be the maturity date applicable to the original loan... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING...

  6. Dating violence and suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kristin; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the possible consequences of adolescent physical, emotional and sexual dating violence through a review of the literature on the topic. An electronic search of major biomedical bibliographic databases (Pubmed, ISI, PsycINFO) was used to retrieve articles providing information on the prevalence rates, risk factors, associated consequences and possible preventive measures for adolescent dating violence across different populations. Currently, there have been few longitudinal studies conducted to identify potential risk factors for entering a violent dating relationship in adolescence. Risky behaviors such as early sexual intercourse may predispose someone for victimization. Dating violence itself is also a predictor of future dating violence. Adolescent dating violence was associated with an increase in other violence-related behaviors, substance use, depression, poorer educational outcomes, posttraumatic stress, unhealthy weight control and risky sexual behavior. The association between adolescent dating violence and an increase in suicidal behavior is a major public health concern. Future research should focus on longitudinal studies so that a causal relationship between dating violence and suicidality may be better understood.

  7. Peer Involvement in Adolescent Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Pam S.; Martsolf, Donna; Draucker, Claire Burke

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which peers are involved in adolescent dating violence. Eighty-eight young adults aged 18-21 were interviewed and asked to reflect on aggressive dating relationships they experienced as teens. The researchers used grounded theory to analyze the data. Findings showed that male and female peers were involved in…

  8. Teen Dating Violence Prevention Program Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Quincy Arrianna Rose

    2013-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) has identified the prevention of and intervention in relationship violence as a top priority (APA, n.d.). According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's 2012 Teen Dating Violence Fact Sheet, dating violence is a serious problem in the United States. In accordance with Foshee et al. (1998):…

  9. 46 CFR 308.552 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effective date. 308.552 Section 308.552 Shipping... Cargo Insurance Iv-General § 308.552 Effective date. This subpart shall be effective as and when the... commerce of the United States cannot be obtained on reasonable terms and conditions from companies...

  10. 38 CFR 3.54 - Marriage dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marriage dates. 3.54..., Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Relationship § 3.54 Marriage dates. A surviving spouse may qualify for pension, compensation, or dependency and indemnity compensation if the marriage to the...

  11. Ambiguity and violence in adolescent dating relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna; Stephenson, Pam Shockey

    2012-08-01

    Little is known about dyadic processes that lead to adolescent dating violence. The purpose of this study was to examine the phenomenon of relationship ambiguity in adolescent dating relationships to better understand how ambiguity contributes to violence and aggression between dating partners. Data were drawn from 88 narratives of young adults who had participated in a study on adolescent dating violence. Interpretive phenomenology was used to produce an in-depth description of the phenomenon of relationship ambiguity. Relationship ambiguity results in differing expectations between partners regarding closeness and intimacy, fidelity, and obligation. These differences lead to conflicts that set the stage for violence and aggression in adolescent dating relationships. A series of recommendations for clinicians working with adolescents are presented. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Record date in Serbian company law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The right of the shareholder to participate in and vote at the general meeting is determined based on the shares he holds on a certain date prior to the general meeting (record date. However, the rules regulating the record date deviate from the principle of indivisibility of shares. In extreme cases it is possible to have persons, none of which are shareholders at a given time, to participate in and vote at the general meeting. Hence, it is possible to have persons with no investment interest in the company to decide, for example, on adoption of financial reports, or on disposal of high-value assets. This issue, by its virtue, is not put forward in cases where there was no transfer of shares in the period between the record date and the date of the general meeting.

  13. 12 CFR 41.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 41.28 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective... an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if the bank receives such information prior to...

  14. 16 CFR 680.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REPORTING ACT AFFILIATE MARKETING § 680.28 Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application. (a... part shall not prohibit you from using eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to...

  15. 12 CFR 571.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... THE TREASURY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 571.28 Effective date, compliance date, and... receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive such information prior to...

  16. Longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of dating violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katherine A; Sullivan, Terri N; Farrell, Albert D

    2015-03-01

    Dating violence is commonly perpetrated in adolescence, making it imperative to understand risk factors in order to inform prevention efforts. Although individual norms supporting dating violence are strongly related to its perpetration, few studies have examined their longitudinal impact. Moreover, the influence of class norms (i.e., norms for students in the same grade, cohort, and school) supporting dating violence on perpetration has rarely been studied. The current study examined longitudinal relationships between individual and class norms supporting dating violence and perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence. Participants were two cohorts of sixth graders from 37 schools who were in dating relationships at Wave 1 and 6 months later at Wave 2 (N = 2,022; 43% female; 52% African American, 21% Latino/a, 20% White, and 7% other). The analyses used a multilevel approach, with students represented at Level 1 and classes (n = 74) at Level 2. The models tested direct effects of Wave 1 individual and class norms supporting dating violence on subsequent changes in perpetration of dating violence at Wave 2 and the extent to which gender moderated these relationships. The findings indicated that greater individual norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical and psychological dating violence and greater individual norms supporting female dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of psychological dating violence. Greater class norms supporting male dating violence predicted greater change in perpetration of physical dating violence; whereas greater class norms supporting female dating violence predicted less change in perpetration of physical dating violence. These findings highlight the need to address norms in early adolescence.

  17. Dating of fossil hominid: problems and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Danon, J.; Baksi, A.K.

    1984-01-01

    The hominid dating anterior to the Homo Erectus has been based up to now on the rocks and minerals geochronology of vulcanic origem in stratigraphic relation with the fossils. Two methods are widely used, potassium-argon and uranium fission track dating. The vulcanic material dating; lava, lephra, associated with the hominid leavings show big difficults essentially connected to several types of contamination and modification. Two available examples inside the east-african rift show the probelms linked to these dating. The current progresses in the dating methods can contribute by one hand to a better utilization of the K-Ar and fisson track methods for the vulcanic materials. By other hand, with the introduction of new dating methods (thermoluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance) will be possible to date directly whether the fossil bone itself or the associated sedimentar material. This open new perspectives in particular for every sites which are not inter-stratified with the vulcanic material. (L.C.) [pt

  18. A Phenomenological Investigation of Adolescent Dating Relationships and Dating Violence Counseling Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Danica G.; Michel, Rebecca E.; Cole, Rebekah F.; Emelianchik, Kelly; Forman, Julia; Lorelle, Sonya; McBride, Rebecca; Sikes, April

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of dating violence, incidences often go unreported due to a lack of awareness among students as to appropriate dating behaviors. This phenomenology investigated how adolescents conceptualize and experience dating relationships. We explored adolescent females' definitions of healthy and abusive relationships, experiences with…

  19. 20 CFR 404.630 - Use of date of written statement as filing date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... data on the Internet Social Security Benefit Application to us, we will use the date of the... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of date of written statement as filing date. 404.630 Section 404.630 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE...

  20. Development of thermoluminescence dating techniques at Oxford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, S.J.

    1977-01-01

    The two-decade long history of thermoluminescene as a pottery dating method is surveyed with particular reference to the various problems that have been encountered in the Oxford Laboratory's research programme. Effects, such as supralinearity and radon emanation, are explained in terms of how they are measured and how their existence influences thermoluminescence (TL) dating accuracy (currently close to plus minus 7% per analysis). Illustrations of Thermoluminescence (TL) applications include a Nok culture terracotta from Nigeria and a Cambodia bronze Buddha figure of the Khmer period, dated ising the ceramic-like casting-core retained within it. (author)

  1. ESR dating of tooth enamel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tiemei; Yang quan; Wu En

    1993-01-01

    Five tooth samples from the palaeoanthropological site of Jinniushan were dated with both electron-spin-resonance (ESR) and uranium-series techniques. The ESR age of about 230 ka is in good agreement with the U-series dating result, which confirms the hypothesis of possible coexistence of Homo erect us and Homo sapiens in China. Problems in ESR dating are discussed such as: 1) inappropriate of simple exponential extrapolation for accumulated dose determination; 2)experimental measurement of alpha detection efficiency and radon emanation and 3)selection of U-uptake model

  2. Some wholesomeness studies on irradiated Iraqi dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Rawi, A.M.; Hamoudi, H.I.

    1981-01-01

    Iraqi dates (Zahdi and Khestawi) were irradiated at different dose levels (0 to 1500 krad) to extend their shelf-lives. Samples irradiated at 150 krad showed no change in the behaviour studies of tested Swiss albino mice. Fungi were found to have a constant rate of growth on the syrup irradiated dates. Chemical products such as malondialdehyde, deoxy sugars, acids and reducing sugars were quantified. In conclusion, 150 krad is a convenient dose to extend the shelf-lives of the tested dates and is therefore recommended. (author)

  3. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of young sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni Tindahl; Murray, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    of OSL dating, outlines the problems specific to the dating of young material, and then uses recent applications to young sediments to illustrate the greatly increased scope and potential of the method in geomorphology and the geology of recent deposits. The overall reliability of this new generation...... for determining the time of deposition of water-lain sediments from the coastal zone, and aeolian deposits from both coastal and inland environments. Our conclusion is supported by the growing popularity of OSL dating in geomorphology and geology...

  4. TL and EPR dating: some applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The intensity of thermoluminescence light emitted by a crystal is a function of radiation dose. The number of defects or of radicals in a crystal or organic substances is also a function of radiation dose. Since such defects or radicals present EPR signals, the EPR intensity is also a function of radiation dose. These facts are basis for radiation dosimetry and can be applied in dating of archaeological potteries or other materials, as well as in dating geological substances such as sediments, caves speleothemes, animal teeth and bones. Recent investigation on sensitized quartz based dosimeters and dating calcite covering ancient wall painting to find early settlers in Brazil will be presented. (Author)

  5. Annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huhou

    1988-01-01

    The annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating has been discussed. The autor gives an entirely new concept of the enviromental radiation in the thermoluminescence dating. Methods of annual dose detemination used by author are dating. Methods of annual dose determination used by author are summed up, and the results of different methods are compared. The emanium escapiug of three radioactive decay serieses in nature has been considered, and several determination methods are described. The contribution of cosmic rays for the annual radiation dose has been mentioned

  6. Annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhou, Li [Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Archaeology

    1988-11-01

    The annual radiation dose in thermoluminescence dating has been discussed. The autor gives an entirely new concept of the enviromental radiation in the thermoluminescence dating. Methods of annual dose detemination used by author are dating. Methods of annual dose determination used by author are summed up, and the results of different methods are compared. The emanium escapiug of three radioactive decay serieses in nature has been considered, and several determination methods are described. The contribution of cosmic rays for the annual radiation dose has been mentioned.

  7. Clay minerals in uraniferous deposit of Imouraren (Tim Mersoi basin, Niger): implications on genesis of deposit and on ore treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billon, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Nigerian uraniferous deposits are located in carboniferous and Jurassic formations of Tim Mersoi basin. AREVA is shareholder of 3 mine sites in this area: SOMAIR and COMINAK, both in exploitation since 1960's and IMOURAREN, 80 km further South, whose exploitation is planned for 2015. Mineralization of Imouraren deposit is included in the fluvial formation of Tchirezrine 2 (Jurassic), composed of channels and flood plains. Facies of channel in-fillings range from coarse sandstones to siltstones, while overflow facies are composed of analcimolites. Secondary mineralogy was acquired during 2 stages: 1- diagenesis, with formation of clay minerals, analcime, secondary quartz and albites, and 2- stage of fluids circulations, which induced alteration of detrital and diagenetic minerals, formation of new phases and uranium deposition. A mineralogical zoning, at the scale of deposit resulted from this alteration. The heterogeneity of Tchirezrine 2, at the level of both facies and mineralogy, is also evidenced during ore treatment, as ore reacts differently depending on its source, with sometimes problems of U recovery. Ore treatment tests showed that analcimes and chlorites were both penalizing minerals, because of 1- the sequestration of U-bearing minerals into analcimes, 2- their dissolution which trends to move away from U solubilization conditions (pH and Eh) and to form numerous sulfates, and 3- problems of percolation. A detection method of analcime-rich ores, based on infrared spectroscopy, was developed in order to optimize ore blending and so to reduce negative effects during ore treatment process. (author)

  8. High-precision timing of Nanhai coral by using MC-ICP-MS and TIMS techniques and its paleo-environmental significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Zicheng; Nie Baofu; Chen Tegu

    2004-01-01

    The techniques of thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and multicollector-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) were used for the high-precision timing of the domestic stalagmite standard (GBW04412), international coral standard (RKM-4) and the Nanhai corals. The results of uranium contents and the ratios of 234 U/ 238 U and 230 Th/ 234 U in the two standards measured by using two techniques were consistent within the error range. Most of the Nanhai corals have less than 3 μg/g of the uranium contents and 150 ± 5 of the δ 234 U(T) values, which means that the corals have not been subjected to the alternation since they were brought up 7000 years ago, therefore, they preserve the original environmental signals. The age sequence of the corals shows that three events of the high sea level happened in Nanhai area in the periods corresponding to 6799-6307 a B.P., 4472-4285 a B.P. and 1279-1012 a B.P. respectively. The above-mentioned three stages were relative to the Megathermal and Medieval Warm Periods in our country. (authors)

  9. Chemical abrasion-SIMS (CA-SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon from the late Eocene Caetano caldera, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kathryn E.; Coble, Matthew A.; Vazquez, Jorge A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Colgan, Joseph P.; John, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Zircon geochronology is a critical tool for establishing geologic ages and time scales of processes in the Earth's crust. However, for zircons compromised by open system behavior, achieving robust dates can be difficult. Chemical abrasion (CA) is a routine step prior to thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) dating of zircon to remove radiation-damaged parts of grains that may have experienced open system behavior and loss of radiogenic Pb. While this technique has been shown to improve the accuracy and precision of TIMS dating, its application to high-spatial resolution dating methods, such as secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is relatively uncommon. In our efforts to U-Pb date zircons from the late Eocene Caetano caldera by SIMS (SHRIMP-RG: sensitive high resolution ion microprobe, reverse geometry), some grains yielded anomalously young U-Pb ages that implicated Pb-loss and motivated us to investigate with a comparative CA and non-CA dating study. We present CA and non-CA 206Pb/238U ages and trace elements determined by SHRIMP-RG for zircons from three Caetano samples (Caetano Tuff, Redrock Canyon porphyry, and a silicic ring-fracture intrusion) and for R33 and TEMORA-2 reference zircons. We find that non-CA Caetano zircons have weighted mean or bimodal U-Pb ages that are 2–4% younger than CA zircons for the same samples. CA Caetano zircons have mean U-Pb ages that are 0.4–0.6 Myr older than the 40Ar/39Ar sanidine eruption age (34.00 ± 0.03 Ma; error-weighted mean, 2σ), whereas non-CA zircons have ages that are 0.7–1.3 Myr younger. U-Pb ages do not correlate with U (~ 100–800 ppm), Th (~ 50–300 ppm) or any other measured zircon trace elements (Y, Hf, REE), and CA and non-CA Caetano zircons define identical trace element ranges. No statistically significant difference in U-Pb age is observed for CA versus non-CA R33 or TEMORA-2 zircons. Optical profiler measurements of ion microprobe pits demonstrate consistent depths of ~ 1.6

  10. Amtrak's strategic business plan : progress to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-24

    To address its financial crisis and make its operations more efficient, in 1995 : Amtrak undertook a major corporate restructuring, along with developing its : Strategic Business Plan. This report (1) reviews Amtrak's success to date in : achieving f...

  11. Potassium-argon dating in archaeology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia). Research School of Earth Sciences)

    1990-01-01

    The potassium-argon (K-Ar) isotopic dating method can provide precise and accurate numerical ages on suitable rocks, especially igneous rocks, over a wide range of age from less than 100,000 years old, with no older limit. Together with its variants, the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar technique, the K-Ar method is very useful for the numerical age calibration of stratigraphic sequences, including those containing archaeological or fossil material, in cases where appropriate rocks for dating are present. This brief review of the basis of the K-Ar dating method and the underlying assumptions, concludes with an example of its application to the Plio-Pleistocene stratigraphic sequence in the Turkana Basin, northern Kenya. By dating alkali feldspars separated from pumice blocks in tuffaceous beds, excellent age control has been obtained for the wealth of vertebrate fossils, including hominids, as well as archaeological materials that has been found in the sequence. (author).

  12. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  13. Bullying: a stepping stone to dating aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Wendy L; Pepler, Debra

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is the use of power and aggression to control and distress another. In this paper, we review research to explore whether the lessons learned in bullying provide a stepping stone to aggressive behavior in dating relationships. We start by considering definitions and a relationship framework with which to understand both bullying and dating aggression. We consider bullying from a developmental-contextual perspective and consider risk factors associated with the typical developmental patterns for bullying and dating aggression, including developmental and sociodemographic, individual attributes, and family, peer group, community, and societal relationship contexts that might lead some children and youths to follow developmental pathways that lead to bullying and dating aggression. We conclude by discussing implications for intervention with a review of evidence-based interventions.

  14. 38 CFR 21.4135 - Discontinuance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... not leading to a standard college degree is not timely received, payments will be terminated date of... withdraws from correspondence, flight, farm cooperative, cooperative or job training, benefits will be...

  15. Chlorine-36 dating of continental evaporites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qi

    1990-01-01

    Teh chloring-36 production, principle and experimental method of 36 Cl dating are briefly described. The ages calculated from the 36 Cl/Cl ratios are generally concordant with those obtained by using 14 C, 230 Th and magnetostratigraphic techniques. It confirms the constancy of the chlorine input ratio over the last million years and implys that 36 Cl can provide accurate dates on continental saline sediments

  16. Reduction of date microbial load with ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Davood; Qorbanpoor, Ali; Rafati, Hasan; Isfeedvajani, Mohsen Saberi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Date is one of the foodstuffs that are produced in tropical areas and used worldwide. Conventionally, methyl bromide and phosphine are used for date disinfection. The toxic side effects of these usual disinfectants have led food scientists to consider safer agents such as ozone for disinfection, because food safety is a top priority. The present study was performed to investigate the possibility of replacing common conventional disinfectants with ozone for date disinfection and microbial load reduction. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, date samples were ozonized for 3 and 5 hours with 5 and 10 g/h concentrations and packed. Ozonized samples were divided into two groups and kept in an incubator which was maintained at 25°C and 40°C for 9 months. During this period, every 3 month, microbial load (bacteria, mold, and yeast) were examined in ozonized and non-ozonized samples. Results: This study showed that ozonization with 5 g/h for 3 hours, 5 g/h for 5 hours, 10 g/h for 3 hours, and 10 g/h for 5 hours leads to about 25%, 25%, 53%, and 46% reduction in date mold and yeast load and about 6%, 9%, 76%, and 74.7% reduction in date bacterial load at baseline phase, respectively. Appropriate concentration and duration of ozonization for microbial load reduction were 10 g/h and 3 hours. Conclusion: Date ozonization is an appropriate method for microbial load reduction and leads to an increase in the shelf life of dates. PMID:24124432

  17. REPORT ON THE DATING THE ODYSSEY

    OpenAIRE

    r.e. Schmid

    2012-01-01

    STUDY SUPPORTS ACCURACY OF GREEK POET HOMER, SETS DATE FOR ODYSSEUS’ RETURN FROM TROJAN WAR

    Using clues from star and sun positions mentioned by the ancient Greek poet Homer, scholars think they have determined the date when King Odysseus returned from the Trojan War and slaughtered a group of suitors who had been pressing his wife to marry one of them.

  18. Correction procedures for C-14 dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKerrell, H.

    1975-01-01

    There are two quite separate criteria to satisfy before accepting as valid the corrections to C-14 dates which have been indicated for some years now by the bristlecone pine calibration. Firstly the correction figures have to be based upon all the available tree-ring data and derived in a manner that is mathematically sound, and secondly the correction figures have to produce accurate results on C-14 dates from archaeological test samples of known historical date, these covering as wide a period as possible. Neither of these basic prerequisites has yet been fully met. Thus the two-fold purpose of this paper is to bring together, and to compare with an independently based procedure, the various correction curves or tables that have been published up to Spring 1974, as well as to detail the correction results on reliable, historically dated Egyptian, Helladic and Minoan test samples from 3100 B.C. The nomenclature followed is strictly that adopted by the primary dating journal Radiocarbon, all C-14 dates quoted thus relate to the 5568 year half-life and the standard AD/BC system. (author)

  19. Feasibility Study for the Development of Plutonium Reference Materials for Age Dating in Nuclear Forensics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, M.; Richter, S.; Aregbe, Y.; Wellum, R.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Verbruggen, A.; Mayer, K.; Prohaska, T.

    2010-01-01

    Isotopic reference materials certified for the age of nuclear material (uranium, plutonium) are needed in the fields of nuclear forensics and environmental measurements. Therefore a feasibility study for the development of plutonium reference materials for age dating has been started recently at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (EC-JRC-IRMM). The ''age'' of the material is defined as the time that has passed since the last chemical separation of the mother and daughter isotopes (e.g. 241 Pu and 241 Am). Assuming that the separation has been complete and all the daughter isotopes have been removed from the original material during this last separation, the age of the material can be determined by measuring the ratio of daughter and mother radio-nuclides, e.g. 241 Am/ 241 Pu. At a given time after the last separation and depending on the half lives of the radio-nuclides involved, a certain amount of the daughter radionuclide(s) will be present. For the determination of the unknown age of a material different ''clocks'' can be used; ''clocks'' are pairs of mother and daughter radio-nuclides, such as 241 Am/ 241 Pu, 238 Pu/ 234 U, 239 Pu/ 235 U, 240 Pu/ 236 U, and possibly 242 Pu/ 238 U. For the age estimation of a real sample, such as material seized in nuclear forensics investigations or dust samples in environmental measurements, it is advisable to use more than one clock in order to ensure the reliability of the results and to exclude the possibility that the sample under question is a mixture of two or more materials. Consequently, a future reference material certified for separation date should ideally be certified for more than one ''clock'' or several reference materials for different ''clocks'' should be developed. The first step of this study is to verify the known separation dates of different plutonium materials of different ages and isotopic compositions by measuring the mother ( 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu) and daughter

  20. LA-ICP-MS Pb-U Dating of Young Zircons from the Kos-Nisyros Volcanic Centre, SE Aegean Arc (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillong, M.; Von Quadt, A.; Peytcheva, I.; Bachmann, O.

    2014-12-01

    Zircon Pb-U dating has become a key technique for answering many important questions in geosciences. This paper describes a new LA-ICP-MS approach. We show, using previously dated samples of a large quaternary rhyolitic eruption in the Kos-Nisyros volcanic centre (the 161 ka Kos Plateau Tuff), that the precision of our LA-ICP-MS method is as good as via SHRIMP, while ID-TIMS measurements confirm the accuracy. Gradational age distribution over >140 ka of the Kos zircons and the near-absence of inherited cores indicate near-continuous crystallisation in a growing magma reservoir with little input from wall rocks. Previously undated silicic eruptions from Nisyros volcano (Lower Pumice, Nikia Flow, Upper Pumice), which are stratigraphically constrained to have happened after the Kos Plateau Tuff, are dated to be younger than respectively 124 ± 35 ka, 111 ± 42 ka and 70 ± 24 ka. Samples younger than 1 Ma were corrected for initial thorium disequilibrium using a new formula that also accounts for disequilibrium in 230Th decay. Guillong, M. et al., 2014, JAAS, 29, p. 963-967; doi: 10.1039/c4ja00009a.

  1. Efficacy of the low FODMAP diet for treating irritable bowel syndrome: the evidence to date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanayakkara WS

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wathsala S Nanayakkara,1 Paula ML Skidmore,1 Leigh O'Brien,2 Tim J Wilkinson,3 Richard B Gearry,31Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Dietary Specialists, Christchurch, New Zealand; 3Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand Abstract: This review summarizes the published clinical studies concerning the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS using restriction of Fermentable Oligosaccharide, Disaccharide, Monosaccharide, and Polyols in the diet (low FODMAP diet. In recent years, the data supporting low FODMAP diet for the management of IBS symptoms have emerged, including several randomized controlled trials, case-control studies, and other observational studies. Unlike most dietary manipulations tried in the past to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS, all studies on low FODMAP diet have consistently shown symptomatic benefits in the majority of patients with IBS. However, dietary adherence by the patients and clear dietary intervention led by specialized dietitians appear to be vital for the success of the diet. Up to 86% of patients with IBS find improvement in overall gastrointestinal symptoms as well as individual symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, diarrhea, abdominal distention, and flatulence following the diet. FODMAP restriction reduces the osmotic load and gas production in the distal small bowel and the proximal colon, providing symptomatic relief in patients with IBS. Long-term health effects of a low FODMAP diet are not known; however, stringent FODMAP restriction is not recommended owing to risks of inadequate nutrient intake and potential adverse effects from altered gut microbiota. In conclusion, the evidence to date strongly supports the efficacy of a low FODMAP diet in the treatment of IBS. Further studies are required to understand any potential adverse effects of long-term restriction of FODMAPs. Keywords: irritable bowel

  2. Dating ancient monuments by nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedicke, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties several disciplines dealing with chronologies but lacking precise methods of measurements (geology, biology, archaeology and art history) became aware of the radioactive decay as a tool of measuring elapsed time. Among the disciplines that benefit most from physical methods archaeology has to be named first. So was archaeological work revolutionised by the introduction of the C-14 dating method. A wider selection of material became datable after the introduction of luminescence techniques using the effect of nuclear radiation on semiconductors. These minerals are widespread among archaeological materials. In ancient monuments, the objective of this paper, semiconductors almost exclusively form the material basis. Over the last four millennia wood, stone, mortar and fired bricks have been used for the construction of buildings. After discussing methods taking wood as a dating material, a broader view will be given on the results achieved by luminescence dating of fired bricks, mortar and stone. For many years brick dating was performed by thermoluminescence, the recipes followed those of ceramic dating. Preferably multiple aliquot additive dose protocols were used on polymineral fine grain fractions (1-10 μm). It was expected that the error in dating monuments would be smaller compared to ceramic dating, because of the constancy of the environmental conditions which a brick experiences during its lifetime. However, the variability of firing temperatures in brick kilns overthrows this advantage. Therefore, the demands of art historians to fall short of an error margin of 5% could generally not be fulfilled. Especially in medieval or renaissance times the temporal resolution of thermoluminescence is inferior to traditional stylistic dating as long as specific stylistic forms are present. New optical luminescence techniques and a new philosophy of dose evaluation, based on single aliquot regeneration protocols, produce less scatter, and in

  3. Development of BASIC program for radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, Kunio

    1982-01-01

    The continuous improvement of the system and the needs have produced the successful radiocarbon dating system of today to detect very low energy β-radioactivity. However, it still takes longer than 1,000 minutes for a sample counting. In a gas counting system, it is very difficult to keep the drift of impressed high voltage for a proportional counter less than 5 volts throughout the counting time. The temperature and the characteristics of gas itself also change during experiment. The accumulation of the above drift and errors are closely concerned with the accuracy and reliability of the radiocarbon date. The detection and reduction of the errors are only possible by using a ''fully automatic radiocarbon dating system'' linked to a personal computer system. In this paper, the author presents the BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) program for a fully automatic radiocarbon dating system. In this paper, the outline of the system and software development are described. The details of the program include the description for gas-collection, gas-enclosing, plateau counting, β-ray counting, age calculation and data file maintenance. The author wrote numerous remark statements into the program so that it can be understood by users without detailed knowledge of the operation of a personal computer system or of the radiocarbon dating. Using this system, the author found that the radiocarbon dating has greatly progressed in speed and labour-saving, and that the accuracy and reliability of the date itself has also improved much than former manual systems. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  4. Bullying Predicts Reported Dating Violence and Observed Qualities in Adolescent Dating Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between reported bullying, reported dating violence, and dating relationship quality measured through couple observations was examined. Given past research demonstrating similarity between peer and dating contexts, we expected that bullying would predict negative dating experiences. Participants with dating experience (n = 585; 238 males, M(age) = 15.06) completed self-report assessments of bullying and dating violence perpetration and victimization. One month later, 44 opposite-sex dyads (M(age) = 15.19) participated in behavioral observations. In 10-min sessions, couples were asked to rank and discuss areas of relationship conflict while being video-recorded. Qualities of the relationship were later coded by trained observers. Regression analysis revealed that bullying positively predicted dating violence perpetration and victimization. Self-reported bullying also predicted observations of lower relationship support and higher withdrawal. Age and gender interactions further qualified these findings. The bullying of boys, but not girls, was significantly related to dating violence perpetration. Age interactions showed that bullying was positively predictive of dating violence perpetration and victimization for older, but not younger adolescents. Positive affect was also negatively predicted by bullying, but only for girls. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that adolescents carry forward strategies learned in the peer context to their dating relationships. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, H.

    2001-01-01

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  6. Date Attachable Offline Electronic Cash Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-I Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cash (e-cash is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling.

  7. Auspicious birth dates among Chinese in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Douglas; Chee, Christine Pal; Sviatschi, Maria Micaela; Zhong, Nan

    2015-07-01

    The number eight is considered lucky in Chinese culture, e.g. the Beijing Olympics began at 8:08 pm on 8/8/2008. Given the potential for discretion in selecting particular dates of labor induction or scheduled Cesarean section (C-section), we consider whether Chinese-American births in California occur disproportionately on the 8th, 18th, or 28th day of the month. We find 2.3% "too many" Chinese births on these auspicious birth dates, whereas Whites show no corresponding increase. The increase in Chinese births is driven by higher parity C-sections: the number of repeat C-sections is 6% "too high" on auspicious birth dates. Sons born to Chinese parents account for the entire increase; daughter deliveries do not seem to be timed to achieve "lucky" birth dates. We also find avoidance of repeat C-section deliveries on the 4th, 14th, and 24th of the month, considered unlucky in Chinese culture. Finally, we replicate earlier work finding that Friday the 13th delivery dates are avoided and document a particularly large decrease among Chinese. For Whites and Chinese in California, mothers with higher levels of education are particularly likely to avoid delivering on the 13th. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Date attachable offline electronic cash scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chun-I; Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling.

  9. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hee Kwon

    2005-01-01

    We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the nuclear reactor. The Upcheon fault zone is exposed close to the Ulzin nuclear reactor. The space-time pattern of fault activity on the Upcheon fault deduced from ESR dating of fault gouge can be summarised as follows : this fault zone was reactivated between fault breccia derived from Cretaceous sandstone and tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 2 Ma, 1.5 Ma and 1 Ma ago. After those movements, the Upcheon fault was reactivated between Cretaceous sandstone and fault breccia zone about 800 ka ago. This fault zone was reactivated again between fault breccia derived form Cretaceous sandstone and Tertiary volcanic sedimentary rocks about 650 ka and after 125 ka ago. These data suggest that the long-term(200-500 k.y.) cyclic fault activity of the Upcheon fault zone continued into the Pleistocene. In the Ulzin area, ESR dates from the NW and EW trend faults range from 800 ka to 600 ka NE and EW trend faults were reactivated about between 200 ka and 300 ka ago. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 400 ka and 50 ka. Results of this research suggest the fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor fault activity continued into the Pleistocene. One ESR date near the Youngkwang nuclear reactor is 200 ka

  10. Date Attachable Offline Electronic Cash Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei-Zhe; Hau, Hoi-Tung

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cash (e-cash) is definitely one of the most popular research topics in the e-commerce field. It is very important that e-cash be able to hold the anonymity and accuracy in order to preserve the privacy and rights of customers. There are two types of e-cash in general, which are online e-cash and offline e-cash. Both systems have their own pros and cons and they can be used to construct various applications. In this paper, we pioneer to propose a provably secure and efficient offline e-cash scheme with date attachability based on the blind signature technique, where expiration date and deposit date can be embedded in an e-cash simultaneously. With the help of expiration date, the bank can manage the huge database much more easily against unlimited growth, and the deposit date cannot be forged so that users are able to calculate the amount of interests they can receive in the future correctly. Furthermore, we offer security analysis and formal proofs for all essential properties of offline e-cash, which are anonymity control, unforgeability, conditional-traceability, and no-swindling. PMID:24982931

  11. OU3 sediment dating and sedimentation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, R.B.; Wolaver, H.A.; Burger, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Technologies at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFS) investigated the sediment history of Standley Lake, Great Western Reservoir, and Mower Reservoir using 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu global fall-out as dating indicators. These Colorado Front Range reservoirs have been the subject of study by various city, state and national agencies due to suspected Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant impacts. We performed sediment dating as part of the RCRA Facility Investigation/Remedial Investigation Report for Operable Unit 3. A sediment chronology profile assists scientist in determining the year of sedimentation for a particular peak concentration of contaminants. Radioisotope sediment dating for the three reservoirs indicated sedimentation rates of 0.7 to 0.8 in./yr. for Standley Lake (SL), 0.9 in./yr. for Great Western Reservoir (GWR), and 0.3 in./yr. in Mower Reservoir (MR). RFS sediment dating for Operable Unit 3 compared favorably with the Hardy, Livingston, Burke, and Volchok Standley Lake study. This report describes the cesium/plutonium sediment dating method, estimates sedimentation rates for Operable Unit 3 reservoirs, and compares these results to previous investigations

  12. Thermoluminescence of laterites: applicability in dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankaran, A.V.; Nambi, K.S.V.; Sunta, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The northward drift of the Indian subcontinent during the past geological periods brought it under the spell of humid tropical climate in post-mesozoic times which initiated chemical weathering processes (lateritization) of the ancient crustal rocks leading to neomineralization. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) of these 'later-formed minerals' has been used to date laterites from a number of localities in India. While the TL emission of most of the laterite samples was poor, three from Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states, each derived from mineralogically dissimilar parent rock, yielded measurable TL and provided dates in the range of 2 to 3.6 x 10 5 yr. It is suggested that TL dating can be a promising tool for such samples, and especially those with low alpha activity (U, Th at sub-ppm levels). (author)

  13. Thermoluminescence of laterites: applicability in dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankaran, A V; Nambi, K S.V.; Sunta, C M

    1985-01-01

    The northward drift of the Indian subcontinent during the past geological periods brought it under the spell of humid tropical climate in post-mesozoic times which initiated chemical weathering processes (lateritization) of the ancient crustal rocks leading to neomineralization. In the present study, thermoluminescence (TL) of these 'later-formed minerals' has been used to date laterites from a number of localities in India. While the TL emission of most of the laterite samples was poor, three from Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states, each derived from mineralogically dissimilar parent rock, yielded measurable TL and provided dates in the range of 2 to 3.6 x 10/sup 5/ yr. It is suggested that TL dating can be a promising tool for such samples, and especially those with low alpha activity (U, Th at sub-ppm levels).

  14. Geological Survey of Canada radiocarbon dates XXIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeely, R.; McCuaig, S.

    1991-01-01

    This list presents 622 radiocarbon age determinations made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. All samples dated more than two years ago have now been reported in date lists. The total number (609) of samples from various areas are as follows: Offshore (43); Newfoundland (42); Labrador (11); Nova Scotia (39); New Brunswick (7); Champlain Sea (38); Quebec (54); Ontario (23); Manitoba (3); Saskatchewan (9); Alberta (6); British Columbia (92); Yukon Territory (71); Northwest Territories, mainland (33); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (126); U.S.A. - New York (6); Washington (1); Denmark Greenland (3). Tables 1 and 2 summarize the details of background and standard counts for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from December 6, 1988 to January 9, 1990. (author). Refs

  15. Geological Survey of Canada radiocarbon dates XXIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeely, R; McCuaig, S

    1992-12-31

    This list presents 622 radiocarbon age determinations made by the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory. All samples dated more than two years ago have now been reported in date lists. The total number (609) of samples from various areas are as follows: Offshore (43); Newfoundland (42); Labrador (11); Nova Scotia (39); New Brunswick (7); Champlain Sea (38); Quebec (54); Ontario (23); Manitoba (3); Saskatchewan (9); Alberta (6); British Columbia (92); Yukon Territory (71); Northwest Territories, mainland (33); Northwest Territories, Arctic Archipelago (126); U.S.A. - New York (6); Washington (1); Denmark Greenland (3). Tables 1 and 2 summarize the details of background and standard counts for the 2 L and 5 L counters during the period from December 6, 1988 to January 9, 1990. (author). Refs.

  16. Radiocarbon dating with accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) has two great advantages over conventional dating: 1) much smaller samples can be handled and 2) counting time is significantly shorter. Three examples are given for Holocene-age material from east-central Ellesmere Island. The results demonstrate the potential use of this technique as a powerful research tool in studies of Quaternary chronology. Individual fragments of marine shells as small as 0.1 g have been dated successfully at the IsoTrace Laboratory, University of Toronto. In the case of an aquatic moss from a lake sediment core, an increment 0.5 cm thick could be used instead of a 5 cm-thick slice, thus allowing a much more precise estimate of the onset of organic sedimentation

  17. A teoria da pessoa de Tim Ingold: mudança ou continuidade nas representações ocidentais e nos conceitos antropológicos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Machado e Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir a proposta analítica de Tim Ingold para compreender a noção de pessoa, que pretende superar a dualidade mente/corpo. Essa dualidade é "repensada" através da objeção ao conceito de "representação coletiva", em favor de uma abordagem que incorpora elementos biológicos na explicação, concebendo a noção de pessoa como um aspecto da vida orgânica. O argumento aqui desenvolvido é que a incorporação desses princípios como uma tentativa de superar o dualismo mente/corpo nos obriga a enfrentar de modo renovado as questões aí colocadas, mas questiona se o resultado não seria reiterar explicações das propostas analíticas que quer refutar. Isto é, a base epistemológica da escola sociológica francesa que postula o fundamento social da cognição. Para isso, este artigo está organizado em três partes. A primeira, introdutória, apresenta o contexto social recente e o desenvolvimento das ciências cognitivas como condições propiciadoras da retomada do tema em questão. A segunda apresenta a perspectiva analítica de Ingold para compreender a noção de pessoa que, ao mesmo tempo, pretende ultrapassar dualismos como natureza e cultura, mente e corpo. Finalmente, na terceira parte, discute as implicações teóricas e ideológicas do argumento analítico proposto por IngoldThe aim of this paper is to discuss the analytical proposition of Tim Ingold in understanding the notion of Person who wants to overcome the duality of mind and body. This duality is "rethought" through the objection to the concept of "collective representation", in favor of an approach that incorporates biological principles in explaining, to conceive the person as an aspect of organic life in general. The argument developed here is that the incorporation of these principles as an attempt to overcome the mind / body dualism forces us to confront the issues in a new way. And it also questions whether the result would not renew

  18. Disinfestation of Date Fruits by Gamma Radiation and Its Effect on the Nutritional Contents of Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.A.; Boshra, S.A.; Mikhaiel, A.A.; Hassan, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Irradiation dis infestations of Siwa date fruits seems to be a very promising method. Considerations of the health safety of irradiated date fruits involve nutritional contents has been investigated by chemical analysis. The dose of 400 and 1000 Gy were lethal for the different stages of oases date moth, Ephestia calidella. Dates are a good source of iron and potassium, they also contain calcium, magnesium, copper and other minerals. The radiation dose 1000 Gy had mostly affected the carbohydrates content, some minerals as Fe, Ca and Na partially changed by the treatment. Protein and vitamin contents were slightly affected

  19. U.S. Tsunami Information technology (TIM) Modernization:Developing a Maintainable and Extensible Open Source Earthquake and Tsunami Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, S. B.; Lisowski, S.; Baker, B.; Hagerty, M.; Lomax, A.; Leifer, J. M.; Thies, D. A.; Schnackenberg, A.; Barrows, J.

    2015-12-01

    Tsunami Information technology Modernization (TIM) is a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) project to update and standardize the earthquake and tsunami monitoring systems currently employed at the U.S. Tsunami Warning Centers in Ewa Beach, Hawaii (PTWC) and Palmer, Alaska (NTWC). While this project was funded by NOAA to solve a specific problem, the requirements that the delivered system be both open source and easily maintainable have resulted in the creation of a variety of open source (OS) software packages. The open source software is now complete and this is a presentation of the OS Software that has been funded by NOAA for benefit of the entire seismic community. The design architecture comprises three distinct components: (1) The user interface, (2) The real-time data acquisition and processing system and (3) The scientific algorithm library. The system follows a modular design with loose coupling between components. We now identify the major project constituents. The user interface, CAVE, is written in Java and is compatible with the existing National Weather Service (NWS) open source graphical system AWIPS. The selected real-time seismic acquisition and processing system is open source SeisComp3 (sc3). The seismic library (libseismic) contains numerous custom written and wrapped open source seismic algorithms (e.g., ML/mb/Ms/Mwp, mantle magnitude (Mm), w-phase moment tensor, bodywave moment tensor, finite-fault inversion, array processing). The seismic library is organized in a way (function naming and usage) that will be familiar to users of Matlab. The seismic library extends sc3 so that it can be called by the real-time system, but it can also be driven and tested outside of sc3, for example, by ObsPy or Earthworm. To unify the three principal components we have developed a flexible and lightweight communication layer called SeismoEdex.

  20. An assessment of variability in radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, E.M.; Baxter, M.S.; Aitchison, T.C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of replicate experiments, involving analysis of homogenized wood and identical tree-ring sections, suggests that the 14 C counting error in radiocarbon dating quantifies only part of the total variability of measurement. Statistical modelling implies that a more realistic assessment of error is provided by a value approximately three times the counting error. The incorporation of this more realistic measure of variability into an appropriate procedure for calibrating a single date and for matching a floating chronology to a master chronology is described. (author)

  1. Dating Petroglyphs from Fugoppe Cave, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Ogawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years, I have tried to establish a relative date for petroglyphs in Fugoppe Cave, Japan. Unsuspected amidst debris accumulating from about 1300 years ago, the petroglyphs were rediscovered accidentally in 1950. From an analysis of petroglyphs on fallen rocks scattered randomly on the site floor, I argue that the artworks date from ca.1900 years ago. The cave itself, formed by wave action, saw its main occupation by pottery-making people from 1700–1500 years ago; although the petroglyphs on the rock walls predated their occupation, it seems unlikely that the occupants attached any meaning to them.

  2. The TL dating of ancient porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.L.; Stokes, M.J.; Wang Weida; Xia Junding; Zhou Zhixin

    1997-01-01

    The age determination of ancient porcelain using the pre-dose technique in TL dating was reported. The variation of beta dose with depth below the surface of the porcelain slice, the thermal activation characteristic (TAC) for 110 degree C peak, the measurement of paleodose and the estimation of annual dose were studied. The results show that this technique is suitable for authenticity testing of ancient porcelain, but both accuracy and precision for porcelain dating are worse than those for pottery, because porcelain differs from pottery on composition, structure and firing temperature. Besides, some complicated factors in the pre-dose technique would be the possible cause of the greater errors

  3. Obsidian Hydration Dating in the Undergraduate Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manche, Emanuel P.; Lakatos, Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of obsidian hydration dating for the instructor by presenting: (1) principles of the method; (2) procedures; (3) applications; and (4) limitations. The theory of the method and one or more laboratory exercises can be easily introduced into the undergraduate geology curriculum. (JN)

  4. 29 CFR 1910.98 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective dates. 1910.98 Section 1910.98 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... section, if any standard in 41 CFR part 50-204, other than a national consensus standard incorporated by...

  5. Use of radiocarbon technique for archaelogic dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chausson, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The nuclear technique based on the beta radiation measurements emitted by the radiocarbon is applied an the geochronologycal dating of organic samples of prehistoric fires and sambaqui shells. This paper describes the origin of the method, the technique used and its applications, the analysis method, the equipments and the experiences performed. (Author) [pt

  6. 77 FR 30928 - Target Date Disclosure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2550 RIN 1210-AB38 Target Date Disclosure AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of comment period. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor's Employee Benefits Security Administration is...

  7. When Pregnancy Goes Past Your Due Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... due date determined? • What is postterm pregnancy? • What causes a postterm pregnancy? • What are the risks associated with postterm pregnancy? • ... longer than 42 weeks is called “postterm.” What causes a postterm pregnancy? The causes of postterm pregnancy are unknown, but ...

  8. Radiocarbon dating of interlaboratory check samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, W.

    1983-01-01

    This note presents the results of a series of interlaboratory age determinations in which the Geological Survey of Canada's Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory has been involved. There is good agreement between laboratories, although there may be other problems related to the interpretation of individual samples

  9. Physical Dating Aggression Growth during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocentini, Annalaura; Menesini, Ersilia; Pastorelli, Concetta

    2010-01-01

    The development of Physical Dating Aggression from the age of 16 to 18 years was investigated in relation to time-invariant predictors (gender, parental education, family composition, number of partners) and to time-varying effects of delinquent behavior and perception of victimization by the partner. The sample consisted of 181 adolescents with a…

  10. 31 CFR 595.302 - Effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effective date. 595.302 Section 595.302 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions...

  11. 50 CFR 216.212 - Effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Taking of Marine Mammals Incidental to Explosive Severance Activities Conducted During Offshore Structure Removal Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico § 216.212 Effective dates...

  12. Date change and safeguards at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, A.; Gregory, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper briefly describes the arrangements in Dounreay for tackling the Millennium problem and for managing the accountancy of fissile material. The impact of the date change upon safeguards at Dounreauy has been assessed and the paper shows the problems which have been identified and are being tackled with

  13. Historical Analysis of College Campus Interracial Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W.; Firebaugh, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Interracial dating on American campuses has had a relatively stormy past. Until the past three decades or so, it was outlawed in some states. Southern institutions, in particular, such as the infamous Bob Jones University have made this issue divisive even among their own constituencies. Age and generation seem to be cogent factors with younger…

  14. ESR dating of the fault rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hee Kwon [Kangwon National Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-01-15

    Past movement on faults can be dated by measurement of the intensity of ESR signals in quartz. These signals are reset by local lattice deformation and local frictional heating on grain contacts at the time of fault movement. The ESR signals then grow back as a result of bombardment by ionizing radiation from surrounding rocks. The age is obtained from the ratio of the equivalent dose, needed to produce the observed signal, to the dose rate. Fine grains are more completely reset during faulting, and a plot of age vs, grain size shows a plateau for grains below critical size : these grains are presumed to have been completely zeroed by the last fault activity. We carried out ESR dating of fault rocks collected near the Ulzin nuclear reactor. ESR signals of quartz grains separated from fault rocks collected from the E-W trend fault are saturated. This indicates that the last movement of these faults had occurred before the quaternary period. ESR dates from the NW trend faults range from 300ka to 700ka. On the other hand, ESR date of the NS trend fault is about 50ka. Results of this research suggest that long-term cyclic fault activity near the Ulzin nuclear reactor continued into the pleistocene.

  15. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Southon, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-06-20

    This report presents progress made on a technique for {sup 14}C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions.

  16. 38 CFR 21.7135 - Discontinuance dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Pub. L. 98-525) (c) Divorce. If the veteran becomes divorced, the effective date of reduction of his or her educational assistance is the last day of the month in which the divorce occurs. (Authority...) If the veteran or servicemember, for reasons other than being called or ordered to active duty...

  17. Radiocarbon dating of ancient rock paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilger, W.A.; Hyman, M.; Rowe, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents progress made on a technique for 14 C dating pictographs. A low-temperature oxygen plasma is used coupled with high-vacuum technologies to selectively remove C-containing material in the paints without contamination from inorganic carbon from rock substrates or accretions

  18. The unexpected truth about dates and hypoglycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed I Yasawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dates are a concentrated source of essential nutrients, vitamins, minerals, and carbohydrates (CHOs, which are necessary for the maintenance of optimum health. Most of the CHOs in dates come from sugars including glucose and fructose. Dates are commonly consumed in Saudi Arabia, particularly at the time of breaking the fast to provide instant energy and maintain blood sugar level. However, dates may cause hypoglycemia in a rare condition named as heredity fructose intolerance (HFI, and a few families have been to see us with a history of that nature. This is to report the preliminary results of an on-going study of a group of patients who get symptoms of hypoglycemia following the ingestion of dates and have suffered for years without an accurate diagnosis. Methodology: This report is based on three patients, from the same family, living in a date growing region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. The patients had been to several medical centers without getting any definite answers or diagnosis until they were referred to the Gastroenterology Clinic of King Fahd Hospital of the University, Al-Khobar, KSA. The data were obtained by careful history and laboratory investigations, and a final diagnosis of HFI made on fructose intolerance test (FIT. Results: The patients reported that they had avoided eating dates because of various symptoms, such as bloating, nausea, and even hypoglycemia when larger amounts were consumed. Their other symptoms included sleepiness, sweating, and shivering. After full examinations and necessary laboratory tests based on the above symptoms, FIT was performed and the patients were diagnosed with HFI. They were referred to a dietitian who advised a fructose-free diet. They felt well and were free of symptoms. Conclusion: HFI may remain undiagnosed until adulthood and may lead to disastrous complications and even death. The diagnosis can only be suspected after a careful dietary history is taken supported by

  19. Single-machine scheduling with release dates, due dates and family setup times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.; van de Velde, S.L.; van de Velde, S.L.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    1996-01-01

    We address the NP-hard problem of scheduling n independent jobs with release dates, due dates, and family setup times on a single machine to minimize the maximum lateness. This problem arises from the constant tug-of-war going on in manufacturing between efficient production and delivery

  20. Single-machine scheduling with release dates, due dates, and family setup times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.J. Schutten (Marco); S.L. van de Velde (Steef); W.H.M. Zijm

    1996-01-01

    textabstractWe address the NP-hard problem of scheduling n independent jobs with release dates, due dates, and family setup times on a single machine to minimize the maximum lateness. This problem arises from the constant tug-of-war going on in manufacturing between efficient production and delivery

  1. Internet dating as a project: the commodification and rationalisation of online dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjaša Žakelj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative empirical data from two studies on Internet dating in Slovenia, this paper discusses the social contexts of the Internet dating of heterosexual men and women and homosexual men. Special attention is given to different aspects of the commodification and rationalisation of dating in the process of forming potential (romantic partnerships. First, we discuss our respondents’ reasons for using the Internet to get in touch with potential (romantic partners. Second, we focus on the demands and strategies of targeted market- ing in personal profile writing and, finally, on the process of selecting potential partners. Our study shows that the primary understanding of Internet dating among people who engage in it is its economic nature. Together with targeted marketing and the predeter- mined criteria for choosing interesting others, Internet dating can thus be understood as a market that encourages rationalisation and commodification in the process of forming intimate relationships.

  2. Witnessing Interparental Violence and Acceptance of Dating Violence as Predictors for Teen Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Marie E; Temple, Jeff R; Weston, Rebecca; Le, Vi Donna

    2016-04-01

    We examined the association between witnessing interparental violence, attitudes about dating violence, and physical and psychological teen dating violence (TDV) victimization. Participants were 918 teens with dating experience. Witnessing interparental violence and acceptance of dating violence were significant predictors of TDV victimization. Acceptance of dating violence was also a partial mediator between witnessing interparental violence and TDV victimization. Witnessing mother-to-father violence and acceptance of female-perpetrated violence were the most consistent predictors. TDV programs aiming to prevent victimization could benefit from targeting youth exposed to father-to-mother and mother-to-father violence, targeting attitudes about violence, and tailoring interventions to gender-specific risk factors. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Up-Dating: Ratings of Perceived Dating Success Are Better Online than Offline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullwood, Chris; Attrill-Smith, Alison

    2018-01-01

    The primary aims of this study were to test whether perceived dating success would differ between offline and online zero-acquaintance dating contexts and to investigate the role that self-esteem might play in these evaluations. Participants were presented with the same photos of targets in either an offline or online dating scenario and rated their chances of dating success along with their perceptions of how attractive they thought the target would consider them. Higher self-esteem individuals believed they would be rated as more attractive. There was an overall perception that, irrespective of self-esteem level, meeting online would lead to better chances of dating success. These findings are considered in relation to an increased ability to more precisely manage impressions and develop an image of the self which would be evaluated more positively online.

  4. Precise determination of δ88Sr in rocks, minerals, and waters by double-spike TIMS: A powerful tool in the study of chemical, geologic, hydrologic and biologic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neymark, Leonid A.; Premo, Wayne R.; Mel'nikov, Nikolay N.; Emsbo, Poul

    2014-01-01

    We present strontium isotopic (88Sr/86Sr and 87Sr/86Sr) results obtained by 87Sr–84Sr double spike thermal ionization mass-spectrometry (DS-TIMS) for several standards as well as natural water samples and mineral samples of abiogenic and biogenic origin. The detailed data reduction algorithm and a user-friendly Sr-specific stand-alone computer program used for the spike calibration and the data reduction are also presented. Accuracy and precision of our δ88Sr measurements, calculated as permil (‰) deviations from the NIST SRM-987 standard, were evaluated by analyzing the NASS-6 seawater standard, which yielded δ88Sr = 0.378 ± 0.009‰. The first DS-TIMS data for the NIST SRM-607 potassium feldspar standard and for several US Geological Survey carbonate, phosphate, and silicate standards (EN-1, MAPS-4, MAPS-5, G-3, BCR-2, and BHVO-2) are also reported. Data obtained during this work for Sr-bearing solids and natural waters show a range of δ88Sr values of about 2.4‰, the widest observed so far in terrestrial materials. This range is easily resolvable analytically because the demonstrated external error (±SD, standard deviation) for measured δ88Sr values is typically ≤0.02‰. It is shown that the “true” 87Sr/86Sr value obtained by the DS-TIMS or any other external normalization method combines radiogenic and mass-dependent mass-fractionation effects, which cannot be separated. Therefore, the “true” 87Sr/86Sr and the δ87Sr parameter derived from it are not useful isotope tracers. Data presented in this paper for a wide range of naturally occurring sample types demonstrate the potential of the δ88Sr isotope tracer in combination with the traditional radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr tracer for studying a variety of biological, hydrological, and geological processes.

  5. Mercury in dated Greenland marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmund, G.; Nielsen, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age of the sedi......Twenty marine sediment cores from Greenland were analysed for mercury, and dated by the lead-210 method. In general the cores exhibit a mercury profile with higher mercury concentrations in the upper centimetres of the core. The cores were studied by linear regression of In Hg vs, age...... indicating that the mercury mainly originates from atmospheric washout. But the large variability indicates that other processes also influence the mercury flux to Arctic marine sediments. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. 210Pb dating of Baltic Sea sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gellermann, R.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the results of 210 Pb measurement in sediment cores from the Baltic Sea. The models used for the interpretation are derived and discussed. In general, the sedimentation parameters calculated with different models are consistent. However, parameters of cores independently taken on same partly show clearly differing values. The reasons of this observation have to be analysed by further studies. An essential problem considered in this paper is the dating of disturbed sediments. The use of such cores for the reconstruction of the input history of chemical indicators requires a deconvolution of data. The response function necessary for this procedure can be derived from 210 Pb measurements. The results of such a reconstruction considerably differ from those obtained by conventional dating models. The analysis of the measuring uncertainty of the indicator (e.g. lead) in the deconvolution procedure unveals the limits of the method and prevents it from overinterpretation. (orig.) [de

  7. Dating methods and their relevance in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.

    1981-01-01

    The article describes some of the most important radiometric clocks. It is pointed out how much the chronological interpretation of isotopic ratios depends on preconceived models about origin and history of investigated minerals. A number of physico-chemical effects are discussed, which give rise to fictitious datings. The possibility is considered that all the radiometric ages used for establishing the geologic time scale might be due to such effects. The history and foundations of the latter are reviewed, and the possibility of a wrong decision is mentioned. Several results from fossil objects indicate very young ages. The usual treatment of anomalous results is criticised. Long-time clocks fails to reproduce documented young ages. It is suggested that in the age interpretation of isotopic ratios much younger than conventional ages be also taken into consideration. The importance of directly dating fossils is stressed. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Radiocarbon dating development and practices at MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamisah Alias; Bashillah Baharuddin; Juhari Mohd Yusof; Ahmad Raduan Ujang

    2002-01-01

    The MINT radiocarbon dating technique was introduced and a very well-designed vacuum line was developed to generate benzene from samples containing carbon. A liquid scintillation counter provides a very good prerequisite for precise measurement of the C-14 activity in the benzene. From time to time, assessment on the status of the analytical capabilities of the system and advice on improvement and upgrading required was made. For routine analysis, standard sampling, pretreatment, carbon dioxide conversion and measurement procedures were adopted. Radiocarbon dating is now, one of the most important developments of the twenties century in the comprehension of the history of human development, a quick, easy, reliable and scientifically acceptable method to determine the age of historical artefacts and archaeological samples. (Author)

  9. Perspectives in radiocarbon dating by radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polach, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Opportunities for individual contributions to the technology of radiocarbon dating over the past 40 years have been large. Meaningful developments are traced in this review of C-14 dating by gas proportional (GP) and liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry. The performance of characteristic as well as state of the art GP and LS systems is tabulated and their merit for low-level counting of C-14 is evaluated. Future developments in radiometry will lie in the updating of existing systems to incorporate new technologies and the refinement of resolution and identification of extreme low-level signals. Parallel development with AMS, sharing on merit the ever widening applied C-14 research field, and enhanced interdisciplinary collaboration are foreseen as the scenario leading to the year 2000

  10. Perspectives in radiocarbon dating by radiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polach, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Opportunities for individual contributions to the technology of radiocarbon dating over the past 40 years have been large. Meaningful developments are traced in this review of C-14 dating by gas proportional (GP) and liquid scintillation (LS) spectrometry. The performance of characteristic as well as state of the art GP and LS systems is tabulated and their merit for low-level counting of C-14 is evaluated. Future developments in radiometry will lie in the updating of existing systems to incorporate new technologies and the refinement of resolution and identification of extreme low-level signals. Parallel development with AMS, sharing on merit the ever widening applied C-14 research field, and enhanced interdisciplinary collaboration are foreseen as the scenario leading to the year 2000. (orig.)

  11. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    case studies will show the degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 years can occur within one river. In the Limfjord, freshwater influence......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in too high radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers, including the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. In my talk, I will explain the causes and consequences of this effect. Two...... caused reservoir ages to vary between 250 and 700 years during the period 5400 BC - AD 700. Finally, I will discuss the implications of the freshwater reservoir effect for radiocarbon dating of Mesolithic pottery from inland sites of the Ertebølle culture in Northern Germany....

  12. Towards Luminescence Dating Of Mosaic Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, A.; Martini, M.; Sibila, E.; Villa, I.

    The possibility of dating archaeological glass by means of luminescent techniques has been investigated in recent years, despite the difficulties of this application, mainly linked to the amorphous structure of the material. We focused in particular on mosaic glass, after the encouraging results obtained on byzantine and medieval samples. Further studies were devoted to the comprehension of the luminescent mechanisms in silica glasses, and to the investigation of the relationships between luminescence, colouring or opacifier ions and crystalline phase of the vitreous matrix. The results of a study on the dosimetric characteristics of thermoluminescence (TL) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) of a few medieval blue-green mosaic glasses from the San Lorenzo church (Milan) are presented, and the experimental protocols established to identify their suitability for dating are discussed.

  13. AGAR PENULISAN RESEP TETAP UP TO DATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmatini Rahmatini

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakResep adalah suatu permintaan tertulis dari dokter, dokter gigi atau dokter hewan kepada apoteker untuk membuatkan obat dalam bentuk sediaan tertentu dan menyerahkannya kepada pasien. Resep merupakan perwujudan akhir dari kompetensi, pengetahuan dan keahlian dokter dalam menerapkan pengetahuannya dalam bidang farmakologi dan terapi.Penulisan resep harus ditulis dengan jelas sehingga dapat dibaca oleh petugas di apotek. Resep yang ditulis dengan tidak jelas akan menimbulkan terjadinya kesalahan saat peracikan / penyiapan obat dan penggunaan obat yang diresepkan.Ilmu pengetahuan tentang obat selalu berubah, obat – obat baru selalu muncul di pasaran.Secara umum, seorang dokter harus mengikuti perkembangan dalam terapi obat. Bila muncul efek samping akibat obat yang seharusnya diketahui dan dapat dicegah oleh dokter, maka dokter akan berhadapan dengan hukum.Agar penulisan resep tetap up to date, seorang dokter harus mengumpulkan berbagai informasi yang tersedia. Sumber informasi yang dapat digunakan adalah : Buku acuan, Kompendium obat, Daftar Obat Esensial Nasional (DOEN dan Pedoman terapi, Buletin obat, Jurnal Kedokteran, Pusat informasi obat,Informasi melalui komputer, Sumber informasi dari industri farmasi, dan informasi lisan.Bandingkan kelebihan dan kekurangan berbagai sumber informasi. Tugas seorang dokter adalah melakukan cara terbaik untuk tetap up to date dengan mendaftar sumber informasi yang dapat dimanfaatkan. Carilah sedikitnya satu dari yang berikut ini : (1 jurnal kedokteran: (2 buletin obat; (3 buku acuan farmakologi atau acuan klinis; (4 komisi terapi maupun konsultan, atau lulusan pasca sarjana farmakologi. Dengan bekal pengetahuan dan kemampuan untuk melakukan penilaian secara kritis setiap bentuk informasi, diharapkan dokter tetap up to date dalam menulis resepKata kunci : Resep – up to- date.Abstract Prescription is a written request from a doctor, dentist or veterinarian to the pharmacist to make a particular drug

  14. Radiocarbon dating methods using benzene liquid scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Shigeko; Matsumoto, Eiji

    1983-01-01

    The radiocarbon dating method using benzene liquid scintillation is reported in detail. The results of measurement of NBS oxalic acid agree with the recommended value, indicating that isotopic fractionation during benzene synthesis can be negligible. Ten samples which have been already measured by gas counter are dated by benzene liquid scintillation. There is no significant difference in age for the same sample between benzene liquid scintillation and gas counters. It is shown that quenching has to be corrected for the young sample. Memory effect in stainless steel reaction vessel can be removed by using an exchangeable inner vessel and by baking it in the air. Using this method, the oldest age that can be measured with 2.3 g carbon is 40,000 years B.P. (author)

  15. William Crabtree and the date of Easter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, D.

    2014-04-01

    A previously unknown treatise by William Crabtree (c.1603-c.1644) has recently been unearthed in the Lancashire Record Office. The treatise, in manuscript form and written in 1640, deals with the controversy over the long-term impact of the Julian Calendar - then in use in England - upon the ecclesiastical dating of Easter. By Crabtree's time, the timing of the Easter celebration in England was often several weeks adrift of the intentions of the early Church Fathers. The Gregorian Calendar, which Roman Catholic countries had adopted as long ago as 1582 in order to resolve the problem, was still vehemently resisted by the English state. This is possibly the only surviving manuscript in Crabtree's own hand. In it, he displays noteworthy dispassionate objectivity as he outlines the astronomical basis for the Easter date and explains why it has gone awry.

  16. Evaluation of the commercial FBR introduction date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.K.; Merrill, E.T.

    1981-09-01

    This report examines one criterion for introducing a commercial FBR: economic competitiveness with a Light Water Reactor (LWR). For this analysis, the commercial FBR is assumed to be the fifth-of-a kind replicate which represents an economically mature plant. This FBR is deemed economically competitive when its life-cycle energy cost is less than or equal to that of an LWR. Results of this analysis are used in a comparative analysis of alternative FBR development stategies. The strategies evaluated in these studies assume both 1000- and 1457-MWe FBRs. Since the capital costs per kilowatt, and therefore the energy costs, for these two FBR sizes are different, they will become economically competitive at different times. The probability density function for the 1457-MW(e) FBR has an expected value date or weighted average date of 2030, compared with 2033 for the probability density function for the 1000-MW(e) FBR

  17. La traducción al español de The Undercover Economist de Tim Harford: Consecuencias comerciales de la reducción de costes de traducción

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez de las Heras, Marina

    2014-01-01

    [SP] Siempre se alude a la invisibilidad del traductor como un recinto del que este solo ha de salir si es para reforzar la calidad de su producto. Pero, ¿qué pasa cuando es precisamente la traducción la que entorpece la lectura? El economista camuflado, del economista Tim Harford, es un libro que pretende acercar la economía a personas legas en la materia. Está publicado por el Grupo Planeta y traducido por la agencia argentina Redactores en Red y se considera un superventas de la literatura...

  18. Carbon-14 Bomb-Pulse Dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, B A

    2007-12-16

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the concentration of carbon-14 atmosphere and created a pulse that labeled everything alive in the past 50 years as carbon moved up the food chain. The variation in carbon-14 concentration in time is well-documented and can be used to chronologically date all biological materials since the mid-1950s.

  19. Radiocarbon dating for the Quaternary scientist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilcher, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The accuracy of many conventional and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon dates is not adequate for the sort of questions now being asked in Quaternary studies. The need for, and effects of, radiocarbon calibration are discussed and guide-lines offered for the selection of a laboratory. High precision laboratories and the use of wiggle matching will go a long way to answering the critical questions of rates of change and durations of events in the Holocene. (Author)

  20. Progress and problems with automated TL dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKerrell, H.; Mejdahl, V.

    1981-01-01

    A number of basic problems connected with the measurement of beta and gamma dose-rates are discussed, and the possibility of using low-temperature peaks in quartz and feldspar for dose-rate measurements is examined. Preliminary results of TL measurements on individual grains of quartz and feldspar are presented. A TL dating method based on the difference in the archaeological dose received by potassium feldspar and quartz grains is proposed. (author)

  1. {sup 14}C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.H., E-mail: jefflee@snu.ac.kr [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choe, K. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.C. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M. [AMS Lab., NCIRF, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, J.G. [Jeju National Museum, Jeju 690-782 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340-880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The {sup 14}C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  2. 14C AMS dating Yongcheon cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Choe, K.; Kim, J.C.; Choi, S.H.; Kang, J.; Song, S.; Song, Y.M.; Jang, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The biggest island in South Korea is Jeju Island, which lies 80 km south of the mainland and has one shield volcano, Mt. Halla. The volcanic island and its lava tubes were added to the world heritage list by UNESCO in 2007. Among the many lava tubes on the island, a unique cave had been accidentally found in 2005 while some workers were replacing a telephone pole. Until the discovery, it had been completely isolated from the outside by naturally-built sand blocks. Yongcheon cave is a lime-decorated lava tube showing both the properties of a volcanic lava tube and a limestone cave. This cave, about 3 km in length, is acknowledged to be the best of this type in the world and includes a large clean-water lake, lava falls, and richly developed speleothems inside it. Even though there is archaeological evidence from well preserved pottery that ancient people entered this place, the preservation of artifacts was ensured by a geological change that made later entrance difficult. We have collected charcoal samples scattered around the cave and dated them using AMS. Ages were in the range of ca. 1570-1260 BP (A.D. 340–880) and this corresponds to the Ancient Three Kingdoms and the Unified Silla era in Korean history. The 14 C AMS measurement results presented in this paper on wood charcoal provide precise dates which will be very useful not only to clarify the nature of human activities in this cave but also to provide reference dates when comparing other dating methods.

  3. Dating cremated bone: the scientific background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanting, J. N.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method of obtaining absolute chronology dates out of burnt or cremated bone is presented. The authors explain their recent experiments and give promising results.

    Los autores presentan un nuevo método para obtener fechas de datación absoluta a partir de restos de hueso sometidos a diferentes grados de combustión y explican algunas de sus recientes experiencias y los resultados obtenidos.

  4. Violence in dating: An update for adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia Peralta, Maruzzella Paola; González Bravo, Luis Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This literature review updates evidence about intimate partner violence in dating relationships, revealing a particular phenomenon, emphasizing issues such as the prevalence for both sexes, which according to various reviewed studies may range from 0.8% for sexual violence to 98% for psychological aggression. Factors associated with abuse or early sexual initiation, temporal extent of the relationship, role of parents and peers, among others; and the consequences as dropouts: teenage pregnanc...

  5. Date Sensitive Computing Problems: Understanding the Threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-29

    equipment on Earth.3 It can also interfere with electromagnetic signals from such devices as cell phones, radio, televison , and radar. By itself, the ...spacecraft. Debris from impacted satellites will add to the existing orbital debris problem, and could eventually cause damage to other satellites...Date Sensitive Computing Problems Understanding the Threat Aug. 17, 1998 Revised Aug. 29, 1998 Prepared by: The National Crisis Response

  6. Progress in ESR dating of fossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeya, M.

    1983-01-01

    In this review the progress of ESR dating is briefly described together with its historical development. Examples of fossil dating include shells and corals in geological sediments, fossil bones and teeth in anthropology and fossil woods in geology. The total dose of natural radiation (TD) equivalent to the archaeological dose in TL dating was obtained by the additive dose method. Initially, the TDs were plotted against the known ages; using the apparent annual dose-rate thus obtained gives the ESR age within a factor of 2 or 3 for a fossil. Precise assessment of the radiation environment was made later taking the disequilibrium of uranium series disintegration into account. ESR ages of corals agreed well with those obtained by radiocarbon and uranium-thorium methods. The time-independent accumulation rate or a linear accumulation or uranium was adopted as a first sensible model for the opensystem fossil bones: the relation between the TD and the age explains the ages of anthropologically important bones. Lastly, geological assessment of fossil woods was made by ESR based on the organic radicals and electron traps in the silicified part. (author)

  7. Dates as raw material for agricultural distilleries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laczynski, B

    1971-01-01

    Pit-containing dates had 88.0 to 89.2% dry matter, 41.7 to 47.5% sucrose, and 2.1 to 2.9% total protein. The mechanical broken charges of raw material were steamed, dispersed to a suspension of 15 to 17/sup 0/ Balling and pH 4.8 to 5.0, enriched with P and N, inoculated with 5 to 7 % of yeast suspension, and acidified to pH > 3.5. Thermophilic yeast cultivated at 27/sup 0/ and fermented below 30/sup 0/ for 2 days gave best results. The fermented liquor had a pH > 3.5, apparent density of 2.0/sup 0/, and contained 7.5 to 9.0 EtOH. From 100 kg dates were obtained 280 t0 340 l of the 15 to 17/sup 0/ dispersion and 320 to 360 l residue containing (per l) 6.0 to 8.5 g protein and 0.04 oat units. EtOH yield (l/quintal) was 914 for potatoes, 28.54 for molasses, 36.29 for cereals, 25.15 for dates, and 18.53 for malt.

  8. Preference Versus Choice in Online Dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Stephen; Torgler, Benno

    2017-03-01

    This study explores factors that influence matches of online dating participants' stated preference for particular characteristics in a potential partner and compares these with the characteristics of the online daters actually contacted. The nature of online dating facilitates exploration of the differences between stated preference and actual choice by participants, as online daters willingly provide a range of demographics on their ideal partner. Using data from the Australian dating website RSVP, we analyze 219,013 contact decisions. We conduct a multivariate analysis using the number of matched variables between the participants' stated preference and the characteristics of the individuals contacted. We find that factors such as a person's age, their education level, and a more social personality all increase the number of factors they choose in a potential partner that match their original stated preference. Males (relative to females) appear to match fewer characteristics when contacting potential love interests. Conversely, age interaction effects demonstrate that males in their late 60's are increasingly more selective (than females) regarding who they contact. An understanding of how technology (the Internet) is impacting human mating patterns and the psychology behind the participants informs the wider social science of human behavior in large-scale decision settings.

  9. Radiocarbon C-14 dating - MINT experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamisah Alias

    2002-01-01

    The measurement of a radiocarbon date is a complex process which involved all the stages from advice given prior to submission of samples right through to reporting of results. The aim of our radiocarbon dating is to determine the residual 14 C content of a sample, the value of which is translated into an age that is an estimate of the time elapsed since the given sample was removed from the environment in which it had formed in equilibrium with respect to 14-C radioactive decay and metabolic assimilation. Carbon is obtained from carbon containing samples in the form of carbon dioxide, which is then reacted with lithium forming lithium carbide. The carbide is then hydrolysed to acetylene before it was polymerised to benzene using a high-efficiency vanadium-alumina-silica catalyst to produce benzene with up to 96% yield. Sample, background and modem standard activities are measured with a coincidence scintillation counter using in glass vials of 21 ml capacity. An improved chemical procedure was used to obtain and purify the benzene from the samples for measurement using a liquid scintillation counter. Radiocarbon dating measurements of samples collected reveal some results. The validity of the data have yet to be confirmed by the results of the measurements on two international control samples. (Author)

  10. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    The measurement of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are less than a few hundred million years but more than a few years provides information about the temporal behavior of geologic and climatic processes, the temporal history of meteoritic bodies as well as the production mechanisms of these radioisotopes. A new extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful though the high cost and limited availability have been discouraging. We have built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity 14 C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. We found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate 14 C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect 14 C directly at modern concentrations. We show how a conventional carbon negative ion source, located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sampling to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible

  11. Environmental history and dating of coastal dunefields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illenberger, W.K.; Verhagen, B.T.

    1990-01-01

    Sand pulses can be inferred from the geomorphologic evolution of coastal dunefields over the last 6500 years in the eastern Cape Province, South Africa. These pulses correlate with erosion cycles and variation in sea-level, temperature and effective moisture. The concept that sand dunes have a wind memory and represent a record of the wind that blew to produce them can be modified and applied to dunefields: the morphology of dunefields represents an environmental record, going back thousands of years. The carbonate content of eastern Cape coastal sands is biogenic with young coarse carbonate grains constantly being added to the system, resulting in a pronounced negative correlation of radiocarbon age with grain size. It takes thousands of years for an average mollusc shell to be broken to 1-mm-diameter fragments, and a further couple of thousand years to break these sizes down to 0.2-0.3 mm diameter. Eastern Cape coastal dunefields have for the first time been dated definitively via the radiocarbon ages of the carbonate component of the sand. These dunefields have been forming during the past 5000 years or so. Dating wind-blown sand transport is feasible, and correlates with dates inferred from the dunefield morphology. 5 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  12. Production of baker's yeast using date juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiroti, A; Hosseini, S N

    2007-07-01

    Baker's yeast is an important additive among the products which improves bread quality and for present time is being produced in different countries by batch, fed batch or continuous cultures. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used in fermentation of starch in dough, giving a favourable taste and produces a variety of vitamins and proteins. The main ingredient in yeast production is carbon source such as beet molasses, cane molasses, and so on. Since beet molasses has other major function as in high yield alcohol production and also due to the bioenvironmental issues and related wastewater treatment, the use of other carbohydrate sources may be considered. One of these carbohydrate sources is date which is wasted a great deal annually in this country (Iran) . In this study, the capability of date to act as a suitable carbon sources was investigated. The waste date turned into juice and consequently production and growth rate of Sacchromyces cervisiae were studied with this juice. A maximum possible yield of 50% was obtained by the optimum medium (P3), at pH 3.4, 30 degrees C, 1.4 vvm aeration rate and agitation of 500 r/min.

  13. Interim Results from a Study of the Impacts of Tin (II) Based Mercury Treatment in a Small Stream Ecosystem: Tims Branch, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian [Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL); BryanJr., Larry [Savannah River Ecology Laboratory; Mathews, Teresa J [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Roy, W Kelly [ORNL; Jett, Robert T [ORNL; Smith, John G [ORNL

    2012-03-01

    A research team is assessing the impacts of an innovative mercury treatment system in Tims Branch, a small southeastern stream. The treatment system, installed in 2007, reduces and removes inorganic mercury from water using tin(II) (stannous) chloride addition followed by air stripping. The system results in discharge of inorganic tin to the ecosystem. This screening study is based on historical information combined with measurements of contaminant concentrations in water, fish, sediment, biofilms and invertebrates. Initial mercury data indicate that first few years of mercury treatment resulted in a significant decrease in mercury concentration in an upper trophic level fish, redfin pickerel, at all sampling locations in the impacted reach. For example, the whole body mercury concentration in redfin pickerel collected from the most impacted pond decreased approximately 72% between 2006 (pre-treatment) and 2010 (post-treatment). Over this same period, mercury concentrations in the fillet of redfin pickerel in this pond were estimated to have decreased from approximately 1.45 {micro}g/g (wet weight basis) to 0.45 {micro}g/g - a decrease from 4.8x to 1.5x the current EPA guideline concentration for mercury in fillet (0.3 {micro}g/g). Thermodynamic modeling, scanning electron microscopy, and other sampling data for tin suggest that particulate tin (IV) oxides are a significant geochemical species entering the ecosystem with elevated levels of tin measured in surficial sediments and biofilms. Detectable increases in tin in sediments and biofilms extended approximately 3km from the discharge location. Tin oxides are recalcitrant solids that are relatively non-toxic and resistant to dissolution. Work continues to develop and validate methods to analyze total tin in the collected biota samples. In general, the interim results of this screening study suggest that the treatment process has performed as predicted and that the concentration of mercury in upper trophic level

  14. Thieme Textbook Internal Medicine - TIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flasnoecker, M.

    1999-01-01

    The textbook and reference work covers the entire field of internal medicine arranged in 15 chapters, each covering a particular branch of internal medicine. This subject arrangement corresponds to the subject clusters of the regime of post-graduate education. Every branch, i. e. every chapter, has its own responsible editor. This selection of editors and authors,- all in all 180 experts in general and clinical practice -, guarantees a maximum of competence and compliance with the frontiers of research and clinical experience. (orig./CB) [de

  15. 17 CFR 232.13 - Date of filing; adjustment of filing date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., shall not affect the date of filing. (2) If the conditions of paragraph (a)(1) of this section are... and consistent with the public interest and the protection of investors. (c) Payment of fees. Fees...

  16. 12 CFR 717.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 717.28 Effective date... eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive...

  17. 12 CFR 334.28 - Effective date, compliance date, and prospective application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY FAIR CREDIT REPORTING Affiliate Marketing § 334.28 Effective date... eligibility information that you receive from an affiliate to make solicitations to a consumer if you receive...

  18. From opening to subduction of an oceanic domain constrained by LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating (Variscan belt, Southern Armorican Massif, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, J.-L.; Ballèvre, M.; Peucat, J.-J.; Cornen, G.

    2017-12-01

    In the Variscan belt of Western Europe, the lifetime and evolution of the oceanic domain is poorly constrained by sparse, outdated and unreliable multigrain ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon dating. In this article, we present a complete in situ LA-ICP-MS dataset of about 300 U-Pb zircon analyses obtained on most of the ophiolitic and eclogitic outcrops of Southern Brittany, comprising new dating of previously published zircon populations and newly discovered rock samples. In situ dating and cathodo-luminescence imaging of each zircon grain yields new absolute time-constraints on the evolution of the Galicia-Moldanubian Ocean. The new results confirm that the opening of this oceanic domain is well defined at about 490 Ma. In contrast, the generally-quoted 400-410 Ma-age for the high-pressure event related to the subduction of the oceanic crust is definitely not recorded in the zircons of the eclogites. In light of these new data, we propose that the obduction of oceanic rocks occurred at about 370-380 Ma while the high-pressure event is recorded at 355 Ma in only a few zircon grains of some eclogite samples. Additionally, this large scale dating project demonstrates that the zircons from eclogites do not systematically recrystallise during the high pressure event and consequently their U-Pb systems do not record that metamorphism systematically. These zircons rather preserve the isotopic memory of the magmatic crystallization of their igneous protolith. Another example of an eclogite sample from the French Massif Central illustrates the frequent mistake in the interpretation of the ages of the early hydrothermal alteration of zircons in the oceanic crust versus partial or complete recrystallization during eclogite facies metamorphism.

  19. Date canning: a new approach for the long time preservation of date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homayouni, Aziz; Azizi, Aslan; Keshtiban, Ata Khodavirdivand; Amini, Amir; Eslami, Ahad

    2015-04-01

    Dramatic growth in date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) production, makes it clear to apply proper methods to preserve this nutritious fruit for a long time. Numerous methods have been used to gain this goal in recent years that can be classified into non-thermal (fumigation, ozonation, irradiation, and packaging) and thermal (heat treatment, cold storage, dehydration, jam etc.) processing methods. In this paper these methods were reviewed and novel methods for date preservation were presented.

  20. INTERIM RESULTS FROM A STUDY OF THE IMPACTS OF TIN(II) BASED MERCURY TREATMENT IN A SMALL STREAM ECOSYSTEM: TIMS BRANCH, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, B.; Bryan, L.; Mathews, T.

    2012-03-30

    source control measures have resulted in rapid responses in lake or reservoir fisheries (Joslin 1994, Turner and Southworth 1999; Orihel et al., 2007), but examples of similar responses in Hg-contaminated stream ecosystems are less common. Recent work suggests that stream systems may actually be more susceptible to mercury bioaccumulation than lakes, highlighting the need to better understand the ecological drivers of mercury bioaccumulation in stream-dwelling fish (Chasar et al. 2009, Ward et al. 2010). In the present study we examine the response of fish to remedial actions in Tims Branch, a point-source contaminated stream on the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. This second order stream received inorganic mercury inputs at its headwaters from the 1950s-2000s which contaminated the water, sediments, and biota downstream. In 2007, an innovative mercury removal system using tin (II) chloride (stannous chloride, SnCl{sub 2}) was implemented at a pre-existing air stripper. Tin(II) reduces dissolved Hg (II) to Hg (0), which is removed by the air stripper. During this process, tin(II) is oxidized to tin (IV) which is expected to precipitate as colloidal tin(IV) oxides and hydroxides, particulate materials with relatively low toxicity (Hallas and Cooney, 1981, EPA 2002, ATSDR, 2005). The objectives of the present research are to provide an initial assessment of the net impacts of the tin(II) based mercury treatment on key biota and to document the distribution and fate of inorganic tin in this small stream ecosystem after the first several years of operating a full scale system. To support these objectives, we collected fish, sediment, water, invertebrates, and biofilm samples from Tims Branch to quantify the general behavior and accumulation patterns for mercury and tin in the ecosystem and to determine if the treatment process has resulted in: (1) a measurable beneficial impact on (i.e., decrease of) mercury concentration in

  1. Fission track dating of kimberlitic zircons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    The only reliable method for dating kimberlites at present is the lengthy and specialized hydrothermal procedure that extracts 206 Pb and 238 U from low-uranium zircons. This paper describes a second successful method by fission track dating of large single-crystal zircons, 1.0-1.5 cm in dimension. The use of large crystals overcomes the limitations imposed in conventional fission track analysis which utilizes crushed fragments. Low track densities, optical track dispersion, and the random orientation of polished surfaces in the etch and irradiation cycle are effectively overcome. Fission track ages of zircons from five African kimberlites are reported, from the Kimberley Pool (90.0 +- 6.5 m.y.), Orapa (87.4 +- 5.7 and 92.4 +- 6.1 m.y.), Nzega (51.1 +- 3.8 m.y.), Koffiefontein (90.9 +- 8.2 m.y.), and Val do Queve (133.4 +- 11.5 m.y.). In addition we report the first radiometric ages (707.9 +- 59.6 and 705.5 +- 61.0 m.y.) of crustal zircons from kimberlites in northwest Liberia. The fission track ages agree well with earlier age estimates. Most of the zircons examined in this study are zoned with respect to uranium but linear correlations are established (by regression analysis) between zones of variable uranium content, and within zones of constant uranium content (by analysis of variance). Concordance between the fission track method and the U/Pb technique is established and we concluded that track fading from thermal annealing has not taken place. Kimberlitic zircons dated in this study, therefore, record the time of eruption. (orig.)

  2. 24 CFR 220.811 - Date of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 220.811 Section... and Obligations-Projects Insured Project Improvement Loans § 220.811 Date of default. For the purposes of §§ 220.800 et seq., the date of default shall be considered as: (a) The date of the first...

  3. Date fruit: chemical composition, nutritional and medicinal values, products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhen-Xing; Shi, Lu-E; Aleid, Salah M

    2013-08-15

    Date fruit has served as a staple food in the Arab world for centuries. Worldwide production of date fruit has increased almost threefold over the last 40 years, reaching 7.68 million tons in 2010. Date fruit can provide many essential nutrients and potential health benefits to the consumer. Date fruit goes through four ripening stages named kimri, khalal, rutab and tamer. The main chemical components of date fruit include carbohydrates, dietary fibre, enzymes, protein, fat, minerals, vitamins, phenolic acids and carotenoids. The chemical composition of date fruit varies according to ripening stage, cultivar, growing environment, postharvest conditions, etc. The nutritional and medicinal activities of date fruit are related to its chemical composition. Many studies have shown that date fruit has antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, anticancer and immunostimulant activities. Various date fruit-based products such as date syrup, date paste, date juice and their derived products are available. Date by-products can be used as raw materials for the production of value-added products such as organic acids, exopolysaccharides, antibiotics, date-flavoured probiotic-fermented dairy produce, bakery yeasts, etc. In this paper the chemical composition and nutritional and medicinal values of date fruit as well as date fruit-based products are reviewed. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Dating Violence among High School Students in Southeastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Clements, Carrie; McCuiston, Ashley M.; Fox, Jane A.

    2009-01-01

    Adolescents are a high-risk group for dating violence. Using the Youth Risk Behavior Survey data, this study examined the associations among dating violence (including physical dating violence [PDV] and sexual dating violence [SDV]) and selected health risk behaviors among 375 and 372 high school students, in 2005 and 2007, respectively, in…

  5. 7 CFR 35.8 - Date of export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of export. 35.8 Section 35.8 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.8 Date of export. Date of export means the date of loading on board the...

  6. 21 CFR 610.50 - Date of manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of manufacture. 610.50 Section 610.50 Food... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Dating Period Limitations § 610.50 Date of manufacture. The date of manufacture shall be determined as follows: (a) For products for which an official standard of potency is...

  7. Uses of radiocarbon dating in archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Anila; Bishnoi, Indra; Charan, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dating is one of the mist effective tools in the archaeologist's kit. It has provided illumination where none was once thought possible. The historians of one hundred years ago could only dream of such a wonderful, albeit frightening atomic clock ticking away, helping to mark the passing of the years and the ages of man. It is a vital part in the investigation and preservation of our past and a lovely bit of analysis to compliment digital records of monuments. It places the plants, animals, and people of yore into an understandable and verifiable context

  8. Dating method with /sup 39/Ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loosli, H H [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Physikalisches Inst.

    1983-04-01

    The principles of a dating method based on the cosmic-ray-produced radioisotope /sup 39/Ar are given. Technical requirements such as background and standard gas samples and gas proportional counting systems are described. With samples extracted from Greenland ice it can be demonstrated that /sup 39/Ar ages agree with ages obtained by other methods. First results on ocean water samples show that with this isotope valuable information on ocean mixing and circulation can be expected. /sup 39/Ar results on groundwater samples disagree for some aquifers with conventional /sup 14/C ages; possible explanations are discussed, especially underground production of /sup 39/Ar.

  9. Radiocarbon dating prehistoric pottery from Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Craig, Oliver; Heron, Carl

    2012-01-01

    , such as when aquatic products have been prepared in the pottery. Soot can derive from old wood that was used for the hearth fire, or from (potentially aquatic) food that boiled over. Plant remains may have been present in the clay for a long time before manufacture of the pottery. Post......-depositional contamination with organic carbon, such as humic acids, may also be problematic. We present these data with radiocarbon datings of contemporaneous terrestrial and aquatic samples to find out the true age of the pottery and estimate the reservoir age. Lipid analysis and bulk carbon and nitrogen stable isotope...

  10. Suitability of Ostrich eggshell for radiocarbon dating

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogel, JC

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available deposits cannot be guaranteed. A more direct approach would be to ana- lyze modern ostrich eggs of which the date of laying is known. It is necessary to know exactly when the eggs were laid because the elevated 14C content of the environment caused... sample we also analyzed the organic contents of the egg—a mixture of the egg white and yolk. Also given is the 14C content of the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere in the month in which the eggs were laid. This closely reflects the 14C content...

  11. Zechariah and the Dating of Biblical Hebrew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2006-01-01

    The data presented in the article indicate clearly that the ability to write proper EBH did not end with the exile; but when did it end? In the course of the fifth century, or the fourth century, or even later? This is difficult to resolve, on linguistic grounds. On linguistic grounds, can we say...... conclusions of most biblical scholars. Considering only linguistic data, texts in EBH could have been composed after the exile. Other, non-linguistic considerations can make this unlikely, but we can raise no objections from a linguistic viewpoint to such a dating....

  12. Thermoluminescence dating of some Hungarian medieval churches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasa, I.; Bajnoczy, G.

    1984-01-01

    Thermoluminescence dating of three Hungarian historic churches was performed using the quarz inclusion technique and sup(60)Co gamma irradiation. Quarz grains obtained from the bricks were irradiated and the radiation doses were measured by CaSOsub(4):Dy TL dosemeters. Glow curves of irradiated and non-irradiated samples were also measured. From the results it was concluded that the ages of two churches were 10 and 30 percent less, respectively, than the ages estimated earlier. The age of the third church proved to be correct. (R.P.)

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of rock surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza

    There are many examples of rock surfaces, rock art and stone structures whose ages are of great importance to the understanding of various phenomena in geology, climatology and archaeology. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is a well-established chronological tool that has successfully...... to include the effects of the environmental dose rate. By fitting the model to the dose-depth variation from a single clast, four events (two light exposures of different durations each followed by a burial period) in the history of a single cobble are identified and quantified. However, the use of model...

  14. K/Ar dating of diagenetic illites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizusaki, A.M.P.; Anjos, S.M.C. dos; Costa, M.G.F. da; Silva, O.B. da; Kawashita, K.

    1990-01-01

    Ascertaining the potassium/argon (K/Ar) age of diagenetic illites yields important information for hydrocarbon exploration since the growth of this mineral in the pores of sandstone reservoir and oil migration are interlinked events in the diagenetic evolution of rocks. Illite growth ceases as soon as hydrocarbons completely fill in rock pores, displacing interstitial water. By providing an estimate of the period when the illite formed, K/Ar dating can indirectly tells us when hydrocarbons entered the reservoir. Samples of oil-saturated sandstones collected from Carboniferous reservoirs of the Solimoes Basin reveal a diagenetic evolution consisting predominantly of quartz, calcite, and illite overgrowths. In the present study, illite was mechanically separated by repeating a series of ultrasonic baths and ultrasonic probes followed by high-speed centrifuging. Resultant fractions were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry to measure the illite content of each sample. The separated illite material was found to be composed of illite and ordered mixed layer illite-smectite with 80% illite layers. Separated fractions were dated radiometrically by the K/Ar method. Preliminary results indicate an average age of some 200 m.y., which marks the end of the diagenetic development of the illites of this area. (author)

  15. Comparison of gestational dating methods and implications ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVES: Estimating gestational age is usually based on date of last menstrual period (LMP) or clinical estimation (CE); both approaches introduce potential bias. Differences in methods of estimation may lead to misclassificat ion and inconsistencies in risk estimates, particularly if exposure assignment is also gestation-dependent. This paper examines a'what-if' scenario in which alternative methods are used and attempts to elucidate how method choice affects observed results.METHODS: We constructed two 20-week gestational age cohorts of pregnancies between 2000 and 2005 (New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ohio, USA) using live birth certificates : one defined preterm birth (PTB) status using CE and one using LMP. Within these, we estimated risk for 4 categories of preterm birth (PTBs per 106 pregnancies) and risk differences (RD (95% Cl s)) associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM2. 5).RESULTS: More births were classified preterm using LMP (16%) compared with CE (8%). RD divergences increased between cohorts as exposure period approached delivery. Among births between 28 and 31 weeks, week 7 PM2.5 exposure conveyed RDs of 44 (21 to 67) for CE and 50 (18 to 82) for LMP populations, while week 24 exposure conveyed RDs of 33 (11 to 56) and -20 (-50 to 10), respectively.CONCLUSIONS: Different results from analyses restricted to births with both CE and LMP are most likely due to differences in dating methods rather than selection issues. Results are sensitive t

  16. Palaeo-poo: date from rat scats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, S.; Department of Geography.

    1997-01-01

    AMS dating has allowed a detailed study of the stratigraphy of stick-nest rat (Leporillus spp.) middens. The results of multiple dates on apparently the same layers of the middens show that the taphonomy of the midden is complex. Nevertheless, the information recovered from this source is an exciting addition to understanding arid ecosystems. Information about the local and regional vegetation, possible CO 2 -induced changes in stomata, distribution of mammals and their predator-prey relations has been recovered from the middens. Palaeoecological information coming from the arid zone has been limited but this source provides a breakthrough in providing direct and detailed ecological information. This helps contextualise the late Holocene increase in arid zone archaeological site visibility. It emphasises the pattern of arid zone mammal losses. It provides important corroborating evidence to other palaeoecological records. It is emphasised that the deposits containing pollen and macrofossils are datable using radiocarbon but there are some serious problems in providing ecological information from stick-nest rat middens

  17. The Rate of Cyber Dating Abuse among Teens and How It Relates to Other Forms of Teen Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Janine M.; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse--abuse via technology and new media--in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three…

  18. Dating Norms and Dating Violence among Ninth Graders in Northeast Georgia: Reports from Student Surveys and Focus Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Patricia M.; Orpinas, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    This mixed-methods study describes the norms supporting male-to-female and female-to-male dating violence in a diverse sample of ninth graders. The quantitative study, based on student surveys (n = 624), compared norms supporting dating violence by sex, race/ethnicity, and dating status, and it examined the relation between dating violence norms…

  19. New dates reignite human evolution debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolch, G.

    2000-01-01

    Australian research into the Asian fossil record is unearthing controversial evidence with implications for the evolution of humans. Dr Jian-xin Zhao and Prof Ken Collerson from the University of Queensland's Department of Earth Sciences have been studying the fossil record in East Asia for clues to the early migration of hominids out of Africa in collaboration with Chinese archaeologists Dr Kai Hu of Nanjing University and Hankui Xu of Nanjing Institute of Palaeontology, Academia Sinica. Together they have been studying the remains of Nanjing Man, the name given to two Homo erectus skulls and the tooth of a third individual discovered in Tangshan Cave 250 km north-west of Shanghai. Dr Zhao and Prof Collerson have now employed more accurate dating techniques and materials, using a mass spectrometer to analyse the amounts of thorium-230 and uranium-234 in a calcite flowstone above the Nanjing Man fossil bed. Unlike fossil teeth, uranium and thorium became locked into the flowstone's crystal lattice when the calcite became crystallised. Because of this, the U-series decay in the calcite reliably records when the calcite crystallised. Taking into account the half-lives of uranium-234 and thorium-230, Dr Zhao and Prof Collerson determined the age of the calcite flowstone to be 577,000 years old (+44,000/-34,000 years). As the flowstone overlies the fossil bed, this date only defines the minimum age of the Nanjing Man fossil bed. For comparison, the dentine and enamel components of one fossil deer tooth collected from the Nanjing Man fossil bed yielded discordant mass spectrometric U-series ages of 388,000 and 130,100 years, respectively. Dr Zhao says that this 'strongly demonstrates the unreliability of fossil teeth as a chronometer'. Other evidence in the sediments surrounding the fossils has been the presence of flora and fauna that are typical of a glacial period. Dr Zhao therefore believes that the skulls could have been deposited during a glacial period

  20. Dating mortars: three medieval Spanish architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirós Castillo, Juan Antonio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues in building archaeology is finding the age of elements and structures discovered. Mortars represent a class of material basically constituted by a mixture of different phases (i.e. binder, aggregates, water and are widely used for constructive uses and artworks. Current scientific literature regarding the possibility of accurate radiocarbon dating for mortars reports different and still contradictory results. In this study, a new protocol for radiocarbon dating of mortar developed at the Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental heritage (CIRCE is used to perform 14C measurements on archaeological mortars coming from three medieval architectures of northern Spain (two churches and the walls of a castle. Results observed will be discussed and compared with independent age estimations (i.e. radiocarbon dating performed on organic materials found in the same study site, archaeological analyses in order to frame experimental observations in the actual site knowledge by means of a multidisciplinary approach.Una de las principales problemáticas a las que se enfrenta la arqueología de la arquitectura es datar los elementos y las estructuras. Las argamasas son un tipo de material constituido por una mezcla de diferentes elementos (agregados, agua y empleadas en muchos tipos de construcciones. Los estudios realizados hasta la actualidad en torno a la posibilidad de realizar dataciones radiocarbónicas precisas han proporcionado resultados contradictorios. El objetivo de este artículo es el de presentar un nuevo protocolo para datar la arquitectura histórica desarrollado por el Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Enviromental Heritage (CIRCE, basado en la realización de dataciones radiocarbónicas de argamasas a partir del análisis de tres arquitecturas medievales del norte del España, dos iglesias y la muralla de un castillo. Los resultados obtenidos han sido confrontados y comparados con otros

  1. Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Obradovich, J.

    1981-01-01

    Obsidian hydration dating of volcanic events had been compared with ages of the same events determined by the 14C and KAr methods at several localities. The localities, ranging in age from 1200 to over 1 million yr, include Newberry Craters, Oregon; Coso Hot Springs, California; Salton Sea, California; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and Mineral Range, Utah. In most cases the agreement is quite good. A number of factors including volcanic glass composition and exposuretemperature history must be known in order to relate hydration thickness to age. The effect of composition can be determined from chemical analysis or the refractive index of the glass. Exposure-temperature history requires a number of considerations enumerated in this paper. ?? 1981.

  2. Temporary Immersion System for Date Palm Micropropagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Ahmed; Bayoudh, Chokri; Sellemi, Amel; Drira, Noureddine

    2017-01-01

    The temporary immersion system (TIS) is being used with tremendous success for automation of micropropagation of many plant species. TIS usually consists of a culture vessel comprising two compartments, an upper one with the plant material and a lower one with the liquid culture medium and an automated air pump. The latter enables contact between all parts of the explants and the liquid medium by setting overpressure to the lower part of the container. These systems are providing the most satisfactory conditions for date palm regeneration via shoot organogenesis and allow a significant increase of multiplication rate (5.5-fold in comparison with that regenerated on agar-solidified medium) and plant material quality, thereby reducing production cost.

  3. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, K

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'.

  4. The automated Risoe TL dating reader system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.

    1988-01-01

    The features of the new modified Riso TL dating reader system are described. A vacuum chamber that accommodates the entire 24-position sample changer unit has been designed. The vacuum and N 2 -gas functions are software-controlled. A newly designed heater system is capable of repeated heating cycles to 700 0 C. The sample changer system accommodates fine-grain discs as well as planchettes for coarse grains. Two software-controlled beta irradiators can be attached to the reader, e.g. for predose measurement. The software allows a user without programming expertise to create any desired measuring sequence, and to store and recall data and glow curves for making analyses. (author)

  5. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Hirotaka; Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Nakamura, Toshio; Fujita, Keiko

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'

  6. Application of krypton-85 in groundwater dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozanski, K.

    1979-01-01

    The method for determination 85 Kr activity in groundwater and its application in isotope hydrology is presented. Various aspects of 85 Kr presence in the earth's ecosphere are discussed in the first part of the paper. The method for 85 Kr activity measurement in groundwater is presented in the second part of the paper. Analytical procedure consists of the following steps: extraction of the gases dissolved in water sample, separation of the Ar+Kr mixture from the gases, 85 Kr activity measurement in miniature proportional counter, mass spectrometry determination of the krypton gas volume in the proportional counter. About 7 days is necessary for complete analysis of one sample - the error of analysis not exceeds 10 per cent. The results of 85 Kr activity measurements (together with tritium and carbon 14 C determinations) in 14 different water samples allowed to verify usefulness of 85 Kr dating of young water. (author)

  7. The freshwater reservoir effect in radiocarbon dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    of magnitude and degree of variability of the freshwater reservoir effect over short and long timescales. Radiocarbon dating of recent water samples, aquatic plants, and animals, shows that age differences of up to 2000 14C years can occur within one river. The freshwater reservoir effect has also implications......The freshwater reservoir effect can result in anomalously old radiocarbon ages of samples from lakes and rivers. This includes the bones of people whose subsistence was based on freshwater fish, and pottery in which fish was cooked. Water rich in dissolved ancient calcium carbonates, commonly known...... as hard water, is the most common reason for the freshwater reservoir effect. It is therefore also called hardwater effect. Although it has been known for more than 60 years, it is still less well-recognized by archaeologists than the marine reservoir effect. The aim of this study is to examine the order...

  8. Radiocarbon dating of Irish Sea sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, P. J.

    1986-09-01

    Radiocarbon dating has been carried out on three cores from areas of muddy sediments in the N. Irish Sea to estimate rates of sediment accumulation. 14C age profiles of the two eastern basin cores revealed a near-constant age from the sediment surface to the base of the core (12 500±1000 years bp). The 14C age profile of the western basin core revealed a zone of apparent mixing to a depth of 55 cm, underlain by a zone of constant sedimentation rate (0·018 cm y -1) to 160 cm. These data are discussed in relation both to previously reported sedimentological studies of the area and to the authorised discharges of low-level radioactive waste from the Sellafield nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.

  9. Dating oxalate minerals in rock surface deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watchman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxalate minerals are found associated with rocks, mineral coatings, micro-organisms, plants and animals. They are important in archaeology because they have been found intimately associated with organic binders in prehistoric paints. Oxalate minerals also accumulate in the coatings on rock shelter walls and fallen ceiling slabs where they form the natural backing supports for painting and opaque laminates covering engravings. Though the relationship between anthropogenic activity in a rock shelter and oxalate formation is often uncertain, the radiocarbon age of the oxalate may provide the only means for determining the antiquity of a rock painting or engraving. This paper examines the history of dating oxalate minerals at archaeological sites and provides insights into achieving reliable age estimates. (author). 37 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Optimization of laboratory illumination in optical dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza; Murray, Andrew; Lindvold, Lars René

    2017-01-01

    As part of the development of new laboratory lighting, we present a methodological approach applicable to the characterization of any light source intended for illumination in optical dating laboratories. We derive optical absorption cross-sections for quartz and feldspar from published data......-emitting diodes (LEDs); this comparison demonstrates the significant advantage of the LED sources over the filtered light sources, because essentially all of the reduction of both OSL and IRSL signals by the LEDs occurs at wavelengths to which the human eye is most sensitive. We conclude that exposure of quartz...... and feldspar extracts from various samples to the light from an LED with emission peak at 594 nm results in a 1% OSL or IRSL signal loss for a 48-h exposure at a power density of ~0.2 mW.cm-2....

  11. Role of radiation dating technique - one example

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Shigueo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Etchevarne, Carlos A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Fac. de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas. Dept. Antropologia e Etnologia; Cano, Nilo F.; Munita, C.S. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: The great majority of archaeological or geological dating technique is based on radiation effect. The so called radioactivity method uses radioactive decays of elements. This is the case of the well known radiocarbon or carbon-14 method. Also the method of relating daughter nucleus to decaying nucleus, as in K-40/Ar-40, Th- 230/U-234, etc. Here we will concentrate in the method based on energy deposition in a solid by radiation from the disintegration of U-series and Th-series. {beta}-rays emitted by the decay of K-40 into Ca-40 (80%) and Ar-40 (11%) also contributes. The role of {alpha}, {beta} and {gamma} radiation emitted by radionuclides in the U-238 and Th-232 series and of {beta} rays from the decay of K-40, all of them in the soil irradiate anything in their course. For dating, we can have sediments as well as potteries produced by ancient people and became buried. The important process consists in transferring a fraction of the energy of radiation to the solid, mainly liberating electrons from valence band to conduction band and from there to traps. In many case the energy of the radiation is used to create defects which in turn create energy levels (traps) in the forbidden gap (or energy gap). There are three ways to recover the energy stored in the solid: (1) by emission of light optically stimulated (OSL), (2) by emission of light thermally stimulated (TL), (3) by microwave absorption (EPR or ESR). Using these techniques among several applications, we will present one to find the first settlers in the northeaster region of Brazil. (author)

  12. Role of radiation dating technique - one example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigueo

    2012-01-01

    Full text: The great majority of archaeological or geological dating technique is based on radiation effect. The so called radioactivity method uses radioactive decays of elements. This is the case of the well known radiocarbon or carbon-14 method. Also the method of relating daughter nucleus to decaying nucleus, as in K-40/Ar-40, Th- 230/U-234, etc. Here we will concentrate in the method based on energy deposition in a solid by radiation from the disintegration of U-series and Th-series. β-rays emitted by the decay of K-40 into Ca-40 (80%) and Ar-40 (11%) also contributes. The role of α, β and γ radiation emitted by radionuclides in the U-238 and Th-232 series and of β rays from the decay of K-40, all of them in the soil irradiate anything in their course. For dating, we can have sediments as well as potteries produced by ancient people and became buried. The important process consists in transferring a fraction of the energy of radiation to the solid, mainly liberating electrons from valence band to conduction band and from there to traps. In many case the energy of the radiation is used to create defects which in turn create energy levels (traps) in the forbidden gap (or energy gap). There are three ways to recover the energy stored in the solid: (1) by emission of light optically stimulated (OSL), (2) by emission of light thermally stimulated (TL), (3) by microwave absorption (EPR or ESR). Using these techniques among several applications, we will present one to find the first settlers in the northeaster region of Brazil. (author)

  13. Dating methods enter high-school physics curriculum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.

    2002-01-01

    The new curriculum of physics of the upper forms in French grammar schools includes a part dedicated to ''nuclear transformations''. One of the applications most often considered in manuals is isotopic dating and generally several methods are explained to pupils: carbon 14 dating, potassium-argon dating (used for dating ancient lava layers) and uranium-thorium dating (used for dating corals). The author reviews with a critical eye the content of manuals and laments through concrete examples the lack of exactness and accuracy of some presentations. (A.C.)

  14. Dating by fission tracks in archaeology. 3. Tephrochronology and Hominid dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poupeau, G.; Zuleta, E.

    1984-01-01

    Tephras (or volcanic ashes) are excellent stratigraphic tracers. Its utilization in this domain, or tephrochronology, is shortly presented. The main archaeological utilization of the tephrochronology is related with the dating of fossil hominids, there where exist the volcano-fossil sedimentar series, at Ceylon or at East-African Rift. (L.C.) [pt

  15. Astronomical dating in the 19th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgen, Frederik J.

    2010-01-01

    Today astronomical tuning is widely accepted as numerical dating method after having revolutionised the age calibration of the geological archive and time scale over the last decades. However, its origin is not well known and tracing its roots is important especially from a science historic perspective. Astronomical tuning developed in consequence of the astronomical theory of the ice ages and was repeatedly used in the second half of the 19th century before the invention of radio-isotopic dating. Building upon earlier ideas of Joseph Adhémar, James Croll started to formulate his astronomical theory of the ice ages in 1864 according to which precession controlled ice ages occur alternatingly on both hemispheres at times of maximum eccentricity of the Earth's orbit. The publication of these ideas compelled Charles Lyell to revise his Principles of Geology and add Croll's theory, thus providing an alternative to his own geographical cause of the ice ages. Both Croll and Lyell initially tuned the last glacial epoch to the prominent eccentricity maximum 850,000 yr ago. This age was used as starting point by Lyell to calculate an age of 240 million years for the beginning of the Cambrium. But Croll soon revised the tuning to a much younger less prominent eccentricity maximum between 240,000 and 80,000 yr ago. In addition he tuned older glacial deposits of late Miocene and Eocene ages to eccentricity maxima around 800,000 and 2,800,000 yr ago. Archibald and James Geikie were the first to recognize interglacials during the last glacial epoch, as predicted by Croll's theory, and attempted to tune them to precession. Soon after Frank Taylor linked a series of 15 end-moraines left behind by the retreating ice sheet to precession to arrive at a possible age of 300,000 yr for the maximum glaciation. In a classic paper, Axel Blytt (1876) explained the scattered distribution of plant groups in Norway to precession induced alternating rainy and dry periods as recorded by the

  16. Luminescence dating at Rose cottage cave: a progress report

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Woodborne, S

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Deal with infrared-stimulated luminescence and thermoluminescence dates from Rose Cottage Cave in South Africa. Discrepancy between luminescence and radiocarbon dates; Concentration of radioactive elements in sediments before and after leaching...

  17. Functional properties and Solubility of date seed proteins as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Med ali

    2013-03-06

    Mar 6, 2013 ... Key words: Phoenix dactylifera L, date palm seed, fibre, protein, functional properties. INTRODUCTION. The date .... was employed to perform dynamic measurements. ... are likely to be composed of high-molecular weight.

  18. 10 CFR 76.43 - Date for decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... decision. The Director will render a decision on an application within 6 months of the receipt of the application unless the Director alters the date for decisions and publishes notice of the new date in the...

  19. Combination of archaeomagnetism and thermoluminescence for precision dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, H.; Göksu, H. Y.; Regulla, D. F.

    Archaeomagnetic dating was applied to two chalk-burning ovens from an early medieval noble-cemetery. Usually this method allows dating by the investigation of the geomagnetic declination and inclination through the thermoremanent magnetisation of baked clay in situ. However, in this case the method resulted in multiple dates since it was not possible to distinguish the brainching of the geomagnetic secular variation curve. Thermoluminescence dating was applied to the same samples to overcome the problem of multiple dates. This first combined application of archaeomagnetism and thermoluminescence for dating yielded A.D. 670±30 for the two ovens, which dates the first stone-church at the site after a wooden predecessor archeologically dated A.D. 620-630.

  20. Development of a new medium containing date syrup for production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... A confirmatory experiment of the optimal medium composition ... product of date industry; it is rich in carbohydrates (75% w/w) and small ... producers at cheap prices. ... date syrup using a combination of statistical strategies.

  1. Dating of archaeological objects using Carbon-14 facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamisah Hj Alias; Noraishah Othman; Nasasni Nasrol

    2004-01-01

    Dating is the key to organising all archaeological evidence. Furthermore, the development of dating methods, whether traditional or scientific, illustrates the ingenuity and lateral thinking that make archaeological problem-solving such a fascinating exercise. The development of MINT radiocarbon dating procedures is reviewed. Basic principles and counting techniques are discussed. A sample is converted by chemical methods into a suitable form, such as carbon dioxide followed by the acetylene gas, and the benzene end-product is placed inside a proportional counter to measure the radioactivity of 14 C. Not until some years ago did absolute dates by radiocarbon dating become a reality for prehistoric archaeology in Malaysia where thermoluminescence and fission-track dating had begun to provide a locally applicable dating method some decades earlier. Applications of radiocarbon dating procedures in the fields of archaeology are also discussed. (Author)

  2. Constructing deposition chronologies for peat deposits using radiocarbon dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Piotrowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiocarbon dating is one of the main methods used to establish peat chronologies. This article reviews the basis of the method and its application to dating of peat deposits. Important steps in the radiocarbon dating procedure are described, including selection and extraction of material (and fractions for dating, chemical and physical preparation of media suitable for measurements, measurements of 14C activity or concentration, calculations, calibration of results and age-depth modelling.

  3. An improved technique for fission track dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yunlong; Wu Zhaohui; Xia Yuliang

    1996-01-01

    The necessity of improving the fission track dating (FTD) technique both at home and abroad is illustrated. The ways of making such improvement are also proposed. It is suggested to calibrate the constant b value of the uranium standard glass by using the method of fission products activity. The 3 kinds of uranium standard glass which have been calibrated are NBS SRM962a, UB 1 and UB 2 . An established new method σ·Φ ρ d /b, to measure neutron fluence, avoids the influence of the varying neutron spectrum on measuring neutron fluence. The improved etching technique for fission tracks in zircon adopted a two-step method which includes the molten alkali system etching using NaOH + KOH and the mixed acid system etching using HNO 3 + HF; this technique results in adequate track etching, increased track clarity and less interference. In this way the intensity of tracks is authentically reflected. Dividing angular zone in accordance with the angular distribution of spontaneous fission track on the crystal surface of minerals to count the tracks and using the improved etching technique to remove the non-uniform angular distribution of spontaneous fission tracks in zircon, ensure the accuracy of tracks count. The improved FTD techniques were used to finish Laboratory Standardized Calibration. The tests using international FTD age standards samples have proved that above mentioned techniques are reliable and practical in obtaining the accurate FTD data. (8 tabs.; 3 figs.)

  4. Ages of the solar system: Isotopic dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.

    1982-01-01

    The major concern of this section will be to outline the ways in which measurements of isotope abundances have been used to determine the chronology of the origin and evolution of the solar system. In passing it should be remembered that the use of isotopic information is by no means restricted simply to the measurement of time scales and, particularly in recent years, isotope abundances have been used to investigate problems as diverse as the heat sources in the early solar nebula and the chemical evolution of the Earth's mantle. The fundamental property of isotopes which makes them especially useful for dating and other applications is the fact that, apart from a limited amount of mass fractionation, the composition of an isotopic mixture is unaffected by chemical processes. In those cases where mass fractionation does occur this effect may itself be useful, particularly as a source of information on temperatures. Since our main theme is time the events discussed in this section will be most conveniently presented as a chronological sequence, progressing from some time before the solar system existed down to the present day. (orig./WL)

  5. Air pollutants targeted by radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Chemists at the Commerce Department's National Bureau of Standards (NBS) are answering questions about where certain atmospheric contaminants originate by refining a method best known for determining the age of archeological objects. Called radiocarbon dating, the method allows NBS scientists to examine air samples and determine whether contaminants come from naturally occurring or manmade sources-or a combination of the two. Making these distinctions is important to federal and state environmental agencies, which identify industrial sources of pollution for regulatory action. An overbalance of atmospheric carbon can cause a number of environmental problems. In methane's case, high levels are of concern to environmental agencies because of greenhouse properties. Methane also has been implicated as a possible contributor to changes in the ozone layer that protects the Earth from excessive ultraviolet light. Levels of methane have been increasing at an annual rate of about one percent over the last decade. This has caused concern in the environmental community, which hopes to determine just where the elevated levels are coming from. The NBS research is aimed at definitively pinpointing sources of methane and other atmospheric contaminants

  6. Thermoluminescence dating of Brazilian indigenous ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, T. M. B.; Gennari, R. F.; Etchevarne, C.; Watanabe, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two indigenous ceramics fragments, one from Lagoa Queimada (LQ) and another from Barra dos Negros (BN), both sites located on Bahia state (Brazil), were dated by thermoluminescence (TL) method. Each fragment was physically prepared and divided into two fractions, one was used for TL measurement and the other for annual dose determination. The TL fraction was chemically treated, divided in sub samples and irradiated with several doses. The plot extrapolation from TL intensities as function of radiation dose enabled the determination of the accumulated dose (D ac ), 3.99 Gy and 1.88 Gy for LQ and BN, respectively. The annual dose was obtained through the uranium, thorium and potassium determination by ICP-MS. The annual doses (D an) obtained were 2.86 and 2.26 mGy/year. The estimated ages were ∼1375 and 709 y for BN and LQ ceramics, respectively. The ages agreed with the archaeologists' estimation for the Aratu and Tupi tradition periods, respectively. (authors)

  7. The dates of publication of Blume’s Flora Javae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danser, B.H.

    1939-01-01

    The actual dates of publication of the greater part of BLUME’s Flora Javae (lit. 1) appear to be unknown among taxonomists. The title-page of the first volume is dated 1828, and we find the same year at the base of the preface. The volume containing the Orchideae (lit. 2) is dated 1858, but further

  8. Genetic comparisons of Egyptian date palm cultivars (Phoenix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA technique was used to compare genetic material from four females date palm and four unknown male trees of Egyptian date palm. The genetic similarity between the four females date palm (Zaghloul, Amhat, Samany and Siwi) ranged from 87.5 to 98.9%. The banding profiles obtained ...

  9. From Romance to Rocket Science: Speed Dating in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muurlink, Olav; Poyatos Matas, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    This article is the first comprehensive review of speed dating in the tertiary sector. While speed dating has its origins as a networking technique to connect singles, it has only more recently made its way into the academy. Since 2005 universities world-wide have begun to adopt speed dating protocols as a tool for building research culture. An…

  10. 24 CFR 232.840 - Date of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 232.840 Section 232.840 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued....840 Date of default. In computing loan insurance benefits, the date of default shall be considered as...

  11. 24 CFR 241.840 - Date of default.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of default. 241.840 Section... § 241.840 Date of default. In computing loan insurance benefits, the date of default shall be considered... of the lender's acceleration of the debt because of the borrower's default under the first...

  12. 17 CFR 230.417 - Date of financial statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Date of financial statements... RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 General Requirements § 230.417 Date of financial statements. Whenever financial statements of any person are required to be furnished as of a date within a...

  13. 75 FR 78155 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    .... FDA-2000-N-0011] Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug... 1, 2014, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations that are issued between... established January 2, 2012, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations issued between...

  14. 77 FR 70885 - Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    .... FDA-2000-N-0011] Uniform Compliance Date for Food Labeling Regulations AGENCY: Food and Drug... January 1, 2016, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations that are issued between... established January 1, 2014, as the uniform compliance date for food labeling regulations issued between...

  15. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1985

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of archaeological samples received for dating in 1985 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 66 samples were dated, 42 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for short-term fading as measured for samples stored at room temperature...

  16. A Survey of Archaeological Samples Dated in 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejdahl, Vagn

    A survey is given of archaeological samples dated in 1984 at the Nordic Laboratory for Thermoluminescence Dating. A total of 79 samples were dated, 49 of which were burnt stones. All results were corrected for fading as measured for samples stored for four weeks at room temperature. The alpha dose...

  17. The Role of Perceptions in Dating Violence among Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Moises

    2006-01-01

    The high prevalence of dating violence and the severity of its aftermath warrant the collaboration between research and practice for the development of prevention and intervention programs. This study investigates young adolescents' perceptions of dating partner's behaviors in common dating situations and their behavioral reaction to these dating…

  18. A comparison of due-date selection rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, K.R.; Bertrand, J.W.M.

    1981-01-01

    In sequencing and scheduling models it is usually assumed that due dates represent exogeneous information. In many practical settings, however, due dates can be discretionary, or at least negotiable. Relatively few studies have incorporated discretionary due dates, and even then the rules proposed

  19. 5 CFR 880.206 - Date of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Date of death. 880.206 Section 880.206...) RETIREMENT AND INSURANCE BENEFITS DURING PERIODS OF UNEXPLAINED ABSENCE Procedures § 880.206 Date of death... OPM, the date of death of a missing annuitant who has been determined to be dead by an authorized...

  20. 17 CFR 248.18 - Effective date; transition rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Safeguarding Personal Information Relation to Other Laws; Effective Date § 248.18 Effective date; transition... customers on the compliance date. By July 1, 2001, you must have provided an initial notice, as required by § 248.4, to consumers who are your customers on July 1, 2001. (2) Example. You provide an initial notice...