WorldWideScience

Sample records for tilting car body

  1. Study of a Car Body Tilting System Using a Variable Link Mechanism: Fundamental Characteristics of Pendulum Motion and Strategy for Perfect Tilting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hidehisa; Nagai, Masao

    This paper analyzes the fundamental dynamic characteristics of a tilting railway vehicle using a variable link mechanism for compensating both the lateral acceleration experienced by passengers and the wheel load imbalance between the inner and outer rails. The geometric relations between the center of rotation, the center of gravity, and the positions of all four links of the tilting system are analyzed. Then, equations of the pendulum motions of the railway vehicle body with a four-link mechanism are derived. A theoretically discussion is given on the geometrical shapes employed in the link mechanism that can simultaneously provide zero lateral acceleration and zero wheel load fluctuation. Then, the perfect tilting condition, which is the control target of the feedforward tilting control, is derived from the linear equation of tilting motion.

  2. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion of...

  3. Coefficient of restitution of model repaired car body parts

    OpenAIRE

    D. Hadryś; M. Miros

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The qualification of influence of model repaired car body parts on the value of coefficient of restitution and evaluation of impact energy absorption of model repaired car body parts.Design/methodology/approach: Investigation of plastic strain and coefficient of restitution of new and repaired model car body parts with using impact test machine for different impact energy.Findings: The results of investigations show that the value of coefficient of restitution changes with speed (ene...

  4. Forward dynamics simulation of human body under tilting perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, D.; Pasha Zanoosi, A. A.; Sadeghi-Mehr, M.

    2012-02-01

    Human body uses different strategies to maintain its stability and these strategies vary from fixed-foot strategies to strategies which foot is moved in order to increase the support base. Tilting movement of foot is one type of the perturbations usually is exposed to human body. In the presence of such perturbations human body must employ appropriate reactions to prevent threats like falling. But it is not clear that how human body maintains its stability by central nervous system (CNS). At present study it is tried that by presenting a musculoskeletal model of human lower extremity with four links, three degrees of freedom (DOF) and eight skeletal muscles, the level of muscle activations causes the maintenance of stability, be investigated. Using forward dynamics solution, leads to a more general problem, rather than inverse dynamics. Hence, forward dynamics solution by forward optimization has been used for solving this highly nonlinear problem. To this end, first the system's equations of motion has been derived using lagrangian dynamics. Eight Hill-type muscles as actuators of the system were modeled. Because determination of muscle forces considering their number is an undetermined problem, optimization of an appropriate goal function should be practiced. For optimization problem, the characteristics of genetic algorithms as a method based on direct search, and the direct collocation method, has been profited. Also by considering requirements of problem, some constraints such as conservation of model stability are entered into optimization procedure. Finally to investigate validation of model, the results from optimization and experimental data are compared and good agreements are obtained.

  5. Combined Influence of Visual Scene and Body Tilt on Arm Pointing Movements: Gravity Matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto Di Cesare, Cécile; Sarlegna, Fabrice R.; Bourdin, Christophe; Mestre, Daniel R.; Bringoux, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate actions such as goal-directed arm movements requires taking into account visual and body orientation cues to localize the target in space and produce appropriate reaching motor commands. We experimentally tilted the body and/or the visual scene to investigate how visual and body orientation cues are combined for the control of unseen arm movements. Subjects were asked to point toward a visual target using an upward movement during slow body and/or visual scene tilts. When the scene was tilted, final pointing errors varied as a function of the direction of the scene tilt (forward or backward). Actual forward body tilt resulted in systematic target undershoots, suggesting that the brain may have overcompensated for the biomechanical movement facilitation arising from body tilt. Combined body and visual scene tilts also affected final pointing errors according to the orientation of the visual scene. The data were further analysed using either a body-centered or a gravity-centered reference frame to encode visual scene orientation with simple additive models (i.e., ‘combined’ tilts equal to the sum of ‘single’ tilts). We found that the body-centered model could account only for some of the data regarding kinematic parameters and final errors. In contrast, the gravity-centered modeling in which the body and visual scene orientations were referred to vertical could explain all of these data. Therefore, our findings suggest that the brain uses gravity, thanks to its invariant properties, as a reference for the combination of visual and non-visual cues. PMID:24925371

  6. Perceived direction of gravity and the body-axis during static whole body roll-tilt in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Atsushi; Wada, Yoshiro; Inui, Takuo; Shiotani, Akihiro

    2017-10-01

    We used the subjective visual vertical (SVV) and two different subjective visual body axis (SVBA) methods to quantify roll-tilt perception under gravity, and investigated the characteristics of these methods during static roll-tilt. In addition, we independently developed a compact device to facilitate evaluation of SVBA in different gravitational environments. Ten male volunteers participated in this study. We created a roll-tilt environment using a flight simulator in a dark room. The cockpit of the simulator was tilted leftward or rightward (-30°, -20°, -10°, 0°, 10°, 20° and 30°) in each randomly ordered trial. We quantified roll-tilt perception such that the experiment was conducted under 21 different conditions per participant. We found no significant differences among the SVV error and the two types of SVBA error. The SVV and the SVBA methods may be useful for evaluating subjective roll-tilt perception.

  7. Force-controlled adjustment of car body fixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Production technology in modern car body assembling is affected by highly automated and complex facilities. However, in mounting car body assemblies adjustments are always necessary to react on quality instabilities of the input parts. Today these adjustments are made according to experience and with a high content of manual operation. This paper describes an innovative method that detects part deformations in a force sensitive way following the works of Dr. Muck, who developed a force sensit...

  8. Joining three car body steel sheets by clinching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaščák, Ľuboš; Spišák, Emil; Majerníková, Jana

    2016-12-01

    The optimization of a car body in terms of cost can be achieved by using different materials in various positions of the car in order to utilize specific properties of each different material. Resistance spot welding is the most used method of joining in car body production, but it is not always easy or even possible to join some combination of materials by this method. Clinching is an alternative method to spot welding, as a combination of drawing and forming. The research is focused on the evaluation of clinched joints' properties using shearing test and metallographic observation of material structure.

  9. Tibia Bone Microvascular Flow Dynamics as Compared to Anterior Tibial Artery Flow During Body Tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Rachel L; Siamwala, Jamila H; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R

    2018-04-01

    We compared microvascular and macrovascular blood flows of the tibia and anterior tibial artery during graded whole-body tilt. We hypothesized equal responses for bone microvascular and macrovascular blood flows during varying angles of tilt. There were 18 volunteers who were randomly positioned in the following postures: supine, 15° head-up tilt, 6° head-up tilt, 6° head-down tilt, and 15° head-down tilt using an inversion table with reference to seated posture (baseline control). Ultrasonography quantified anterior tibial arterial diameter and peak systolic velocity, enabling calculation of macrovascular blood flow to the tibia. Tibial bone microvascular blood flow was measured noninvasively using photoplethysmography in the same leg. Transitioning from a seated position to a supine position, macrovascular blood flow did not change significantly (1.81 ± 1.18 to 2.80 ± 1.74cm 3 · s-1). However, bone microvascular flow increased significantly (0.36 ± 0.23 to 1.11 ± 0.79 V) from the seated to the supine position. Transitioning from a seated posture to 15° head-down tilt, both arterial macrovascular and bone microvascular flows increased significantly (1.81 ± 1.18 to 3.32 ± 2.08 cm3 · s-1 and 0.36 ± 0.23 V to 2.99 ± 2.71 V, respectively). The normalized flow for microvascular blood flow as a function of body tilt was significantly greater than that for macrovascular blood flow at 6° and 15° head-down tilt. These data do not support our hypothesis that bone microvascular flow and arterial macrovascular flow share equal responses to altered body tilt. Therefore, for a given decrease in local blood pressure in the leg with head-down body tilt, the magnitude of increase in blood flow is greater in the microcirculation as compared to the feeding artery.Becker RL, Siamwala JH, Macias BR, Hargens AR. Tibia bone microvascular flow dynamics as compared to anterior tibial artery flow during body tilt. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(4):357-364.

  10. Topology Optimization in Electric Car Body Frame Based on Optistruct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the structure of the electric car body frame, the static analysis of the car frame were carried on. For the goal of the frame’s weight minimum, OptiStruct software was used to topology optimization design. And the optimal material distribution program of the frame structure was got. Static strength before and after optimization was comprehensive compared through the stress, deformation. The results showed that the weight of frame after optimization was reduced by 18.96%, and the requirements of the strength and stiffness were ensured.

  11. Rat Cardiovascular Responses to Whole Body Suspension: Head-down and Non-Head-Down Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

    1992-01-01

    The rat whole body suspension technique mimics responses seen during exposure to microgravity and was evaluated as a model for cardiovascular responses with two series of experiments. In one series, changes were monitored in chronically catheterized rats during 7 days of Head-Down Tilt (HDT) or Non-Head-Down Tilt (N-HDT) and after several hours of recovery. Elevations of mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures of approx. 20 % (P less than 0.05) in HDT rats began as early as day 1 and were maintained for the duration of suspension. Pulse pressures were relatively unaffected, but heart rates were elevated approx. 10 %. During postsuspension (2-7 h), most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. N-HDT rats exhibited elevations chiefly on days 3 and 7. In the second series, blood pressure was monitored in 1- and 3-day HDT and N-HDT rats to evaluate responses to rapid head-up tilt. MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated (P less than 0.05) in HDT and N-HDT rats during head-up tilt after 1 day of suspension, while pulse pressures remained un changed. HDT rats exhibited elevated pretilt MAP and failed to respond to rapid head-up tilt with further increase of MAP on day 3, indicating some degree of deconditioning. The whole body suspended rat may be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

  12. Hot stamping advanced manufacturing technology of lightweight car body

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ping; He, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book summarizes the advanced manufacturing technology of original innovations in hot stamping of lightweight car body. A detailed description of the technical system and basic knowledge of sheet metal forming is given, which helps readers quickly understand the relevant knowledge in the field. Emphasis has been placed on the independently developed hot stamping process and equipment, which help describe the theoretical and experimental research on key problems involving stress field, thermal field and phase transformation field in hot stamping process. Also, a description of the formability at elevated temperature and the numerical simulation algorithms for high strength steel hot stamping is given in combination with the experiments. Finally, the book presents some application cases of hot stamping technology such as the lightweight car body design using hot stamping components and gradient hardness components, and the cooling design of the stamping tool. This book is intended for researchers, engineers...

  13. Car body welding with micro-jet cooling

    OpenAIRE

    T. Węgrzyn; J. Piwnik; D. Hadryś; R. Wieszała

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: of that paper was analysing welding process with device to micro-jet cooling of weld joint during welding. The main reason of it was investigate possibilities of getting higher amount of desired phase acicular ferrite. High amount of acicular ferrite influences positively on high value of impact toughness. Increasing the value of impact toughness is particular importance when making repairs car body parts. It is necessary to determine the parameters of the micro-jet cooling so that y...

  14. The French Quest for the Silent Car Body: Technology, Comfort and Distinction in the Interwar Period

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Up until the First World War the open tourer had been the predominant car type in France. Then, during the 1920s, it was swiftly replaced by the closed sedan. The closed car revolution was accompanied by an intricate discourse on body noise and silence: motorists and journalists for example criticized noisy cars, test drivers praised the silence of certain car models, and automotive engineers investigated means to quieten car components with special consideration of the closed body. To unrave...

  15. Rat cardiovascular responses to whole body suspension - Head-down and non-head-down tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Steffen, Joseph M.; Dombrowski, Judy

    1992-01-01

    Two experiments aimed at examining the versatility of the whole body suspension (WBS) system as a ground-based model for cardiovascular effects of microgravity are described. The first experiment studied heart rate and arterial pressure responses in rats during a 7-day period of head-down tilt (HDT) or nonhead-down tilt (NHDT) and after removal from whole body suspension (WBS). Mean arterial (MAP), systolic, and diastolic pressures increased about 20 percent in HDT rats on the fist day, heart rates were elevated about 10 percent. During postsuspension most cardiovascular parameters returned to presuspension levels. The second experiment evaluated responses to rapid head-up tilt in HDT and NHDT rats. It was observed that, while pulse pressures remained unchanged, MAP, systolic and diastolic pressures, and HR were elevated in HDT and NHDT rats during head-up tilt after one day of suspension. The WBS rats are considered to be useful as a model to better understand responses of rats exposed to microgravity.

  16. Human cutaneous vascular responses to whole-body tilting, Gz centrifugation, and LBNP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Breit, Gregory A.; Buckley, Theresa M.; Ballard, Richard E.; Murthy, Gita; Hargens, Alan R.

    2004-01-01

    We hypothesized that gravitational stimuli elicit cardiovascular responses in the following order with gravitational stress equalized at the level of the feet, from lowest to highest response: short-(SAC) and long-arm centrifugation (LAC), tilt, and lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Up to 15 healthy subjects underwent graded application of the four stimuli. Laser-Doppler flowmetry measured regional skin blood flow. At 0.6 G(z) (60 mmHg LBNP), tilt and LBNP similarly reduced leg skin blood flow to approximately 36% of supine baseline levels. Flow increased back toward baseline levels at 80-100 mmHg LBNP yet remained stable during 0.8-1.0 G(z) tilt. Centrifugation usually produced less leg vasoconstriction than tilt or LBNP. Surprisingly, SAC and LAC did not differ significantly. Thigh responses were less definitive than leg responses. No gravitational vasoconstriction occurred in the neck. All conditions except SAC increased heart rate, according to our hypothesized order. LBNP may be a more effective and practical means of simulating cardiovascular effects of gravity than centrifugation.

  17. Properties of the internal representation of gravity inferred from spatial-direction and body-tilt estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beuzekom, A D; Van Gisbergen, J A

    2000-07-01

    One of the key questions in spatial perception is whether the brain has a common representation of gravity that is generally accessible for various perceptual orientation tasks. To evaluate this idea, we compared the ability of six tilted subjects to indicate earth-centric directions in the dark with a visual and an oculomotor paradigm and to estimate their body tilt relative to gravity. Subjective earth-horizontal and -vertical data were collected, either by adjusting a visual line or by making saccades, at 37 roll-tilt angles across the entire range. These spatial perception responses and the associated body-tilt estimates were subjected to a principal-component analysis to describe their tilt dependence. This analysis allowed us to separate systematic and random errors in performance, to disentangle the effects of task (horizontal vs. vertical) and paradigm (visual vs. oculomotor) in the space-perception data, and to compare the veridicality of space perception and the sense of self-tilt. In all spatial-orientation tests, whether involving space-perception or body-tilt judgments, subjects made considerable systematic errors which mostly betrayed tilt underestimation [Aubert effect (A effect)] and peaked near 130 degrees tilt. However, the A effect was much smaller in body-tilt estimates than in spatial pointing, implying that the underlying signal processing must have been different. Pointing results obtained with the visual and the oculomotor paradigm were not identical either, but these differences, which were task-related (horizontal vs. vertical), were subtle in comparison. The tilt-dependent pattern of random errors (noisy scatter) was almost identical in visual and oculomotor pointing results, showing a steep monotonic increase with tilt angle, but was again clearly different in the body-tilt estimates. These findings are discussed in the context of a conceptual model in an attempt to explain how the different patterns of systematic and random errors in

  18. Influence of body laterality on recovery from subjective visual vertical tilt after vestibular neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toupet, Michel; Van Nechel, Christian; Bozorg Grayeli, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    The subjective visual vertical (SVV) is an indicator of vestibular otolithic function and mainly processed by the nondominant parietal cortex. We investigated the hypothesis that recovery from SVV tilt after vestibular neuritis can be influenced by the body's lateral preference. This prospective cohort follow-up study included 254 consecutive adult patients with vestibular neuritis. The recovery from SVV tilt was faster in patients with a left hand or eye dominance than in those with a right dominance. While in left-handers the side of the neuritis did not affect the speed of recovery, in right-handed subjects, the recovery from a right-sided neuritis was significantly slower than from a left-sided affection. These observations suggest that subjects with a left sensorimotor dominance have developed more significant midline-crossing projections to the parietal cortex, allowing them to cope faster with a unilateral vestibular deficit.

  19. 49 CFR 238.207 - Link between coupling mechanism and car body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Link between coupling mechanism and car body. 238.207 Section 238.207 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.207 Link between coupling mechanism and car body. All...

  20. Peripheral Microvascular Responses to Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative Pressure Stresses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Buckley, T. M.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The response of the cutaneous microcirculation to orthostatic stress varies along the length of the body due to the interaction of central controls with regional responses to local blood pressure. We hypothesize that artificial orthostatic stresses such as Gz centrifugation and LBNP differ from whole-body tilting in terms of the distribution of microvascular blood flow. Cutaneous microvascular flows were measured by laser Doppler flowmetry at the neck, thigh, and leg of 15 normal subjects. Volunteers underwent stepwise head-up tilt (HUT) and short- and long-arm centrifugation protocols from supine control (0 Gz) to 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4, 0.2, and 0 Gz at the feet, for 30-s periods with 10-s transitions between levels. The same subjects underwent a corresponding supine LBNP protocol, up to 100 mmHg (in 20 mmHg increments) and back to zero pressure, which produced transmural pressure across blood vessels in the foot approximately equal to the HUT protocol. In general, application of all orthostatic stresses produced significant flow reductions in the lower body (p less than 0.05) and inconsistent changes in the neck. At low levels of each stress (0.4 Gz, 40 mmHg), LBNP generated the greatest relative reduction in flow in the lower body (-66.9+/-5.7%, thigh; -60.6 +/-5.7%, leg, mean +/- SE). HUT caused a less severe flow reduction than LBNP at the thigh and leg (-39.9 +/- 8.1% and -55.9+/-4.8%), while the effects induced by both forms of centrifugation were the least profound. Higher levels of each stress generally resulted in similar responses. These responses exhibit a consistent relationship to hypothesized changes in local microvascular transmural pressure, suggesting that myogenic and veno-arteriolar reflexes play a significant role in determining microvascular perfusion during orthostatic stress.

  1. Cardiovascular models of simulated moon and mars gravities: head-up tilt vs. lower body unweighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostas, Vladimir I; Stenger, Michael B; Knapp, Charles F; Shapiro, Robert; Wang, Siqi; Diedrich, André; Evans, Joyce M

    2014-04-01

    In this study we compare two models [head-up tilt (HUT) vs. body unweighting using lower body positive pressure (LBPP)] to simulate Moon, Mars, and Earth gravities. A literature search did not reveal any comparisons of this type performed previously. We hypothesized that segmental fluid volume shifts (thorax, abdomen, upper and lower leg), cardiac output, and blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and total peripheral resistance to standing would be similar in the LBPP and HUT models. There were 21 subjects who were studied while supine (simulation of spaceflight) and standing at 100% (Earth), 40% (Mars), and 20% (Moon) bodyweight produced by LBPP in Alter-G and while supine and tilted at 80 degrees, 20 degrees, and 10 degrees HUT (analogues of Earth, Mars, and Moon gravities, respectively). Compared to supine, fluid shifts from the chest to the abdomen, increases in HR, and decreases in stroke volume were greater at 100% bodyweight than at reduced weights in response to both LBPP and HUT. Differences between the two models were found for systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial BP, stroke volume, total peripheral resistance, and thorax and abdomen impedances, while HR, cardiac output, and upper and lower leg impedances were similar. Bodyweight unloading via both LBPP and HUT resulted in cardiovascular changes similar to those anticipated in actual reduced gravity environments. The LBPP model/Alter-G has the advantage of providing an environment that allows dynamic activity at reduced bodyweight; however, the significant increase in blood pressures in the Alter-GC may favor the HUT model.

  2. BODY WORK MODELING AND GENERAL DESIGN FOR A RADIO CONTROLLED CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOROBANŢU Bogdan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the general design of a small radio controlled car with its main systems and also the process and phases of modeling the body work for this kind of car. The modeling started from the sketch of a real car, a Porsche 997, shaping the clay to its final form looking like a mixture of Nissan GTR and Porsche Cayenne but keeping the proportions of the 997 to a scale of 1:14.

  3. Mechatronics for car bodies; Mechatronikloesungen fuer das Fahrwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, M.; Robrecht, M. [Ixtronics GmbH, Paderborn (Germany); Wielenberg, A. [Universitaet Paderborn (Germany). Bereich Regelungstechnik und Mechatronik, Lehrstuhl fuer Regelungstechnik und Mechatronik

    2005-10-01

    The success of the project depends on the accuracy in planning the design of electronic, hydraulic and mechanical systems in the motor car. This requires full-scale design tools from simulation models to prototype construction. The advantages of this Ixtronics strategy is illustrated by the development of an active hydraulic shock absorber for an offroad vehicle. (orig.)

  4. Analysis of occurrence of malfunctions and deterioration of body bolster parts for gondola car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Anofriev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available All parts of a car frame and body are subject to a variable degree to corrosion deterioration but their most problematic part is a body bolster. The work on technical diagnosing of cars, operated more than 22 years, has given the chance to gain an impression on the frequency of occurrence of typical malfunctions, their dislocations and the degree of corrosion damages of the frame (car models 12-532 and 12-119 and can be used for forecasting their residual resource and constructive completion.

  5. Body mass index, neighborhood fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagami, Sanae; Cohen, Deborah A; Brown, Arleen F; Asch, Steven M

    2009-09-01

    Eating away from home and particularly fast food consumption have been shown to contribute to weight gain. Increased geographic access to fast food outlets and other restaurants may contribute to higher levels of obesity, especially in individuals who rely largely on the local environment for their food purchases. We examined whether fast food and restaurant concentrations are associated with body mass index and whether car ownership might moderate this association. We linked the 2000 US Census data and information on locations of fast food and other restaurants with the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Study database, which consists of 2,156 adults sampled from 63 neighborhoods in Los Angeles County. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate associations between body mass index (BMI), fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership after adjustment for individual-level factors and socioeconomic characteristics of residential neighborhoods. A high concentration of local restaurants is associated with BMI. Car owners have higher BMIs than non-car owners; however, individuals who do not own cars and reside in areas with a high concentration of fast food outlets have higher BMIs than non-car owners who live in areas with no fast food outlets, approximately 12 lb more (p = 0.02) for an individual with a height of 5 ft. 5 in. Higher restaurant density is associated with higher BMI among local residents. The local fast food environment has a stronger association with BMI for local residents who do not have access to cars.

  6. Orthostatic intolerance in 6 degrees head-down tilt and lower body negative pressure loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Kazuyoshi; Miyamoto, Akira; Ito, Masao; Mano, Takaichi; Nakayama, Kiyoshi

    6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest experiment for 6 days was conducted at Nihon University Itabashi Hospital for 10 male athletes. In order to observe the orthostatic intolerance due to six days head-down tilt bed rest, 70 degrees head up tilt tests were performed before and after the head-down tilt. Two types of orthostatic intolerance were distinguished by the time course of their cardiovascular responses. One was vagotonia type and the other was brain anemia type. The latter type was commonly seen among astronauts after space flight due to the lack of plasma volume. As this volume change is considered to be initiated by some fluid loss from the lower extremities, analysis was made to clarify the relation between the leg volume change and the types of orthostatic intolerance. Nakayama proposed a Heart Rate Controllability Index, which is calculated from the initiate leg volume change and heart rate increase in head up tilt, for an indicator of the orthostatic intolerability. The index was applied to the subjects of six days head-down tilt above mentioned. For the subjects who showed a sign of presyncopy, the index values were higher or lower than that of the rest subjects who showed no sign of presyncopy. In order to evaluate the validity of the index, another experiment was conducted to induce an orthostatic intolerance by a different way of loading. The same types of orthostatic intolerance were observed and the index value hit high in the brain anemia type of orthostatic intolerance, while the vagotonia type showed relatively lower values than the normal group.

  7. Output Only Modal Testing of a Car Body Subject to Engine Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Møller, Nis

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an output only modal testing and identification of a car body subject to engine excitation is presented. The response data were analyzed using two different techniques: a non-parametric technique based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working...

  8. Inhalation exposure to isocyanates of car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Tielemans, E.; Skarping, G.; Bobeldijk, I.; Hemmen, J. van; Heederik, D.; Preller, L.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a large-scale epidemiological study, occupational isocyanate exposure was assessed in spray-painting environments. The aim was to assess which compounds contribute to isocyanate exposure in car body repair shops and industrial painting companies, and to identify tasks with high risk of

  9. Inhalation exposure to isocyanates of car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Tielemans, Erik; Skarping, Gunnar; Bobeldijk, Ivana; VAN Hemmen, Joop; Heederik, Dick; Preller, Liesbeth

    2006-01-01

    As part of a large-scale epidemiological study, occupational isocyanate exposure was assessed in spray-painting environments. The aim was to assess which compounds contribute to isocyanate exposure in car body repair shops and industrial painting companies, and to identify tasks with high risk of isocyanate exposure. Mainly personal task-based samples (n = 566) were collected from 24 car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with DBA in toluene. Samples were analysed by LC-MS for isocyanate monomers, oligomers and products of thermal degradation. From the 23 analysed compounds, 20 were detected. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a HDI, TDI and MDI factor with the thermal degradation products divided over the TDI and MDI factors. The HDI factor mainly consisted of HDI oligomers and was dominant in frequency and exposure levels in both industries. Spray painting of PU lacquers resulted in the highest exposures for the HDI factor (car body repair shops than in industrial painting companies. Exposure levels were low (car body repair shops (

  10. 49 CFR 238.419 - Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment. 238.419 Section 238.419 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment ...

  11. 49 CFR 238.219 - Truck-to-car-body attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Truck-to-car-body attachment. 238.219 Section 238.219 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.219 Truck-to-ca...

  12. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  13. Striped states in a many-body system of tilted dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Matthias; Böttcher, Fabian; Langen, Tim; Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Pfau, Tilman

    2017-11-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the behavior of a strongly confined dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate in the regime of quantum-mechanical stabilization by beyond-mean-field effects. Theoretically, we demonstrate that self-organized "striped" ground states are predicted in the framework of the extended Gross-Pitaevskii theory. Experimentally, by tilting the magnetic dipoles we show that self-organized striped states can be generated, likely in their metastable state. Matter-wave interference experiments with multiple stripes show that there is no long-range off-diagonal order (global phase coherence). We outline a parameter range where global phase coherence could be established, thus paving the way towards the observation of supersolid states in this system.

  14. Determination of assurance сoefficient by supporting structures fatigue of car bodies during transportation by the railway ferries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Lovskaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine assurance coefficient by supporting structures fatigue of car bodies during transportation by the railway ferries. Methodology. The operating conditions of cars in international railway-water communication have been investigated in previous works for the solution of this problem. To solve the problem there were conducted researches of dynamic features of car bodies transporting by the railway ferries in conditions of the sea storm. A mathematical model of car bodies movement was made up and accelerations acting on them in placements on the decks were determined. During determination of accelerations the actual meteorological characteristics of the Black Sea during a storm were taken into account. The assurance coefficient fatigue by supporting structures of car bodies by the railway ferries was determined and it was found that under regular loading of the car body n ≈ 2,0 . It is higher than the admissible value. Findings. Comparison of obtained acceleration values with the accelerations acting on car bodies when operating on main-line routes showed that they have exceeded the acceleration specified in the regulations approximately on 40%. It proves the need of accounting the loads acting on car bodies during transportations by the railway ferries when designing new generation cars. Originality. There was proposed a mathematical model of car bodies movement by the railway ferries in the conditions of sea storm. It gives the possibility of determining the accelerations of car bodies placed on the decker rail ferries taking into account the hydrometeorology characteristics. Practical value. The results of researches can be used when designing new generation cars to provide their strength during the combination of railway and water transportation. It gives an opportunity to develop measures as to the adaptation of cars bodies to the interaction with the fastenings of railway ferries by means of equipping their bearing

  15. Process stabilization by dual focus laser welding of aluminum alloys for car body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Kimihiro; Iwase, Takakuni; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Dausinger, Friedrich H.; Hohenberger, Bernd; Mueller, Matthias; Matsunawa, Akira; Seto, Naoki

    2003-09-01

    Aluminum alloys were welded using dual focus beams formed with two Nd:YAG lasers with the aim of obtaining a stable welding process. The relationship between the configuration of the spot beams and the quality of the weld beads was investigated using X-ray and high-speed camera observations. The number of pores was clearly related to the ratio of the keyhole depth to the keyhole opening. A larger keyhole opening and/or a shallower keyhole depth resulted in a smaller number of pores caused by instability of the weld pool. Based on the investigation, a car body component was welded with a dual focus beam system. The results show that aluminum car body panels can be welded stably at high speed with little distortion under optimum conditions.

  16. Advanced computed tomography system for the inspection of large aluminium car bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, M.; Tiseanu, I.; Sauerwein, C. [Hans Waelischmiller, Meersburg (Germany); Sindel, M.; Brodmann, M.; Schmuecker, M. [AUDI AG, Neckarsulm (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    An advanced 3D CT system with the capability to scan parts sizing from 3 mm up to 5000 mm was developed. The newly designed non destructive inspection system overcomes existing limitations of conventional CT systems in terms of part size and resolution. Reconstruction and scan algorithms were developed that allow achieving three-dimensional information of material and geometry in large automotive bodies with a resolution of up to 30 {mu}m. In micro 3D CT mode a resolution of up to 3 {mu}m can be achieved. The development of the mechatronic inspection system includes aspects of mechanics, electronics, software, and algorithms. For the manipulation of the full range of parts a high precision manipulation system and an industrial robot are used. The system allows the car manufacturer to inspect non-destructively a variety of join connections in car body parts. The capability of the system is demonstrated by different applications. (orig.)

  17. Cardiopulmonary performance testing using a robotics-assisted tilt table: feasibility assessment in able-bodied subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengsuwan, J; Laubacher, M; Nef, T; Hunt, K J

    2014-01-01

    Robotics-assisted tilt table technology was introduced for early rehabilitation of neurological patients. It provides cyclical stepping movement and physiological loading of the legs. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of this type of device for peak cardiopulmonary performance testing using able-bodied subjects. A robotics-assisted tilt table was augmented with force sensors in the thigh cuffs and a work rate estimation algorithm. A custom visual feedback system was employed to guide the subjects' work rate and to provide real time feedback of actual work rate. Feasibility assessment focused on: (i) implementation (technical feasibility), and (ii) responsiveness (was there a measurable, high-level cardiopulmonary reaction?). For responsiveness testing, each subject carried out an incremental exercise test to the limit of functional capacity with a work rate increment of 5 W/min in female subjects and 8 W/min in males. 11 able-bodied subjects were included (9 male, 2 female; age 29.6 ± 7.1 years: mean ± SD). Resting oxygen uptake (O_{2}) was 4.6 ± 0.7 mL/min/kg and O_{2}peak was 32.4 ± 5.1 mL/min/kg; this mean O_{2}peak was 81.1% of the predicted peak value for cycle ergometry. Peak heart rate (HRpeak) was 177.5 ± 9.7 beats/min; all subjects reached at least 85% of their predicted HRpeak value. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at O_{2}peak was 1.02 ± 0.07. Peak work rate) was 61.3 ± 15.1 W. All subjects reported a Borg CR10 value for exertion and leg fatigue of 7 or more. The robotics-assisted tilt table is deemed feasible for peak cardiopulmonary performance testing: the approach was found to be technically implementable and substantial cardiopulmonary responses were observed. Further testing in neurologically-impaired subjects is warranted.

  18. Global Warming Triggered Heavy Rains and its Effect on the Corrosion of Car Bodies in Uyo Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    Ihom, Aondona Paul; Peters Obot, Patrick; Umoren Udofia, Ini

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Global warning has stimulated several weather conditions; in some parts of the world it is excessive drought, while in others it is excessive rains, cold and heat. This study looked at the effect of excessive rain on the corrosion of car bodies in Uyo metropolis; a city that has been witnessing heavy rains each year with floods occurring in some parts of the city. The study monitored corrosion in different types of cars, noting the materials used for the car body, the ...

  19. Output Only Modal Testing of a Car Body Subject to Engine Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Møller, Nis

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an output only modal testing and identification of a car body subject to engine excitation is presented. The response data were analyzed using two different techniques: a non-parametric technique based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and a parametric technique working...... on the raw data in time domain, a data driven Stochastic Subspace Identification (SSI) algorithm. Both techniques identified 16 modes under 85 Hz. The results of the two techniques were validated against each other. It was concluded, that even though some of the identified modes showed an unsatisfactory...

  20. The tensile strength properties of CFRPs and GRRPs for Unnes electric car body material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumaedi, Muhammad; Sumbodo, Wirawan; Widodo, Rahmat Doni

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes composite materials tensile testing of electric car body material. The UNNES electric car body must be developed using a high strength and lightweight material. A fiber-reinforced plastic composite is widely used for the concerned objective. Selection of the type of composites, variations in fiber orientation, and the number of fiber layers will affect the tensile strength of the material. Composite materials use Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs) and glass-fiber-reinforced plastics (GFRPs) variation to the fiber areal weight, variations in fiber orientation and the number of fiber layers. The CFRPs areal weight consists of 230 gsm and 400 gsm. The GFRPsareal weight consists of 400 gsm and 600 gsm. Fibre orientationsconsist of 0° and 45°. Number of fiber layers consists of one layer and two layers. Various variations were then tested to figure out their tensile to get ultimate tensile strength of materials. Standard test method for tensile test was conducted using ASTM D3039. Tensile specimen geometry used a type of balanced and symmetric fiber orientation, with 25mm in width, 250 mm in length, and 2.5 mm in thickness. The result shows that the more fiber areal weight and the layer number were used, the more its tensile strength would increase, beside it increased the ultimate tensile strength of the material for both glass and carbon fiber with 0o and 45o fiber arientation. Fiber plain wave with 45o has greater tensile strength compared to any other variation.

  1. Data-driven inline optimization of the manufacturing process of car body parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purr, S.; Wendt, A.; Meinhardt, J.; Moelzl, K.; Werner, A.; Hagenah, H.; Merklein, M.

    2016-11-01

    The manufacturing process of car body parts needs to be adaptable during production because of fluctuating variables; finding the most suitable settings is often expensive. The cause-effect relation between variables and process results is currently unknown; thus, any measure taken to adjust the process is necessarily subjective and dependent on operator experience. To investigate the correlations involved, a data mining system that can detect influences and determine the quality of resulting parts is integrated into the series process. The collected data is used to analyze causes, predict defects, and optimize the overall process. In this paper, a data-driven method is proposed for the inline optimization of the manufacturing process of car body parts. The calculation of suitable settings to produce good parts is based on measurements of influencing variables, such as the characteristics of blanks. First, the available data are presented, and in the event of quality issues, current procedures are investigated. Thereafter, data mining techniques are applied to identify models that link occurring fluctuations and appropriate measures to adapt the process so that it addresses such fluctuations. Consequently, a method is derived for providing objective information on appropriate process parameters.

  2. Investigation of defect rate of lap laser welding of stainless steel railway vehicles car body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongxiao

    2015-02-01

    In order to resolve the disadvantages such as poor appearance quality, poor tightness, low efficiency of resistance spot welding of stainless steel rail vehicles, partial penetration lap laser welding process was investigated widely. But due to the limitation of processing technology, there will be local incomplete fusion in the lap laser welding seam. Defect rate is the ratio of the local incomplete fusion length to the weld seam length. The tensile shear strength under different defect rate and its effect on the car body static strength are not clear. It is necessary to find the biggest defect rate by numerical analysis of effects of different defect rates on the laser welding stainless steel rail vehicle body structure strength ,and tests of laser welding shear tensile strength.

  3. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION EXPOSURE IN TRAIN AND CAR PASSENGERS: A CASE STUDY IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Rahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Trains and cars are the most important modes of transportation throughout the world. In highly developed countries, trains have become essential for human use as the most well-known form of public transportation, whereas the car plays a significant role in prompt human travel from one place to another. The high magnitude of vibration caused by trains and cars may cause health problems in humans, especially low back pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate the values of daily exposure to vibration A(8 and the vibration dose value (VDV in passengers travelling by train and car and to assess the effects produced by this exposure on the human body. Moreover, this study introduces a newly developed whole-body vibration measurement instrumentation system. One train travelling from the east coast to the south of Malaysia was chosen to conduct the study. Whole-body vibration exposure was measured over 8 hours, which is equal to the duration of normal occupational exposure. One car was chosen randomly and whole-body vibration exposure was measured for 5 min and 10 min. All the data were computed using an IEPE(ICPTM accelerometer sensor connected to a DT9837 device which is capable of effectively measuring and analysing vibration. The vibration results were displayed on a personal computer using a custom graphical user interface (GUI. Matlab software was used to interpret the data. From the results, the whole-body vibration exposure level could be determined. It can be concluded that the whole-body vibration absorbed by the human body is enhanced when the magnitude of the vibration exposure experienced by the passengers increased. This was shown by the increased values of daily exposure to vibration A(8 and VDV calculated in the study.

  4. THE EXCITED LOADS OF ATTRACTION IN A SYMMETRICAL INDUCTOR SYSTEM FOR THE MAGNETIC PULSE REMOVING OF THE BODY CAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Gnatov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, repair and recovery of vehicle body operations become more and more popular. A special place here is taken by equipment that provides performance of given repair operations. The most interesting are methods for recovery of car body panels that allow the straightening without disassembling of car body panels and damaging of existing protective coating. Now, there are several technologies for repair and recovery of car body panels without their disassembly and dismantling. The most perspective is magnetic-pulse technology of external noncontact straightening. Results. The calculation of excited loads attractions in a symmetrical inductor system in the universal tool of magnetic-pulse straightening is provided. According to the obtained analytical dependence of the numerical evaluation of volumetric construction diagrams, phase and amplitude of the radial dependence of the spatial distribution of the excited efforts of attraction is obtained. The influence of the magnetic properties of the blank screen and manifested in the appearance of powerful magnetic attraction forces is determined. Originality. A new trend of research of magnetic-pulse working of thin-walled metals has been formulated and received further development, which allows to create not only new equipment, but principally new technological processes of external non-contact repair and recovery of vehicle body panels. Scientific basis of electrodynamic and magnetic attraction of thin-walled sheet metals with using the energy of high-power pulsed fields was created for the first time and proved theoretically and experimentally. Scientific and technical solutions in design of effective tools based on single-turn inductor systems of cylindrical geometry for straightening and recovery of car body panels were formulated and proved theoretically, as well as experimentally. Practical value. Using the results of the calculations we can create effective tools for an external magnetic

  5. Determination of airborne isocyanates generated during the thermal degradation of car paint in body repair shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Michel; Dufresne, André; Ostiguy, Claude; Lesage, Jacques

    2006-06-01

    Polyurethanes are widely used in car paint formulations. During thermal degradation, such polymeric systems can generate powerful asthmatic sensitizing agents named isocyanates. In body repair shops, the thermal degradation of car paint can occur during abrasive processes that generate enough heat to involve release of isocyanates in air. An environmental monitoring study was performed in two body repair training schools and in a body repair shop to evaluate the workers' exposure to isocyanates during cutting, grinding and orbital sanding operations. For sampling, cassettes containing two 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)piperazine (MOPIP)-coated glass fiber filters (MFs) ( approximately 5 mg of MOPIP per filter) and bubblers containing 15 ml of MOPIP solution in toluene (1.0 mg ml(-1)) backed at the outlet with cassettes containing two MFs were used. Tandem mass spectrometry was used to analyze the MOPIP derivatives of isocyanic acid (HNCO), all the linear aliphatic isocyanates ranging from methyl isocyanate (Me-i) to hexyl isocyanate, all the alkenyl isocyanates ranging from propylene isocyanate to hexylene isocyanate, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), trans- and cis-isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI), 2,4'-; 2,2'- and 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI), phenyl isocyanate (Ph-i) and p-toluene isocyanate (p-Tol-i). The instrumental detection limits (LOD) were in the 0.13-0.75 microg of NCO per m(3) range for 15 l air samples converted into 3 ml liquid samples. The isocyanate concentrations detected in the workers' breathing zone were in the 1.07-9.80 microg of NCO per m(3) range for cutting, 0.63-3.62 microg of NCO per m(3) range for grinding and 0-1.29 microg of NCO per m(3) range for sanding. However, a rapid decrease of the isocyanate concentration was observed while moving away from the emission source. Among the isocyanates detected the most abundant were the monomers (MDI, HDI, TDI and IPDI) and Me-i.

  6. Proposal to use vibration analysis steering components and car body to monitor, for example, the state of unbalance wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczur, R.

    2016-09-01

    The results of road tests of car VW Passat equipped with tires of size 195/65 R15, on the influence of the unbalancing front wheel on vibration of the parts of steering system, steering wheel and the body of the vehicle have been presented in this paper. Unbalances wheels made using weights of different masses, placed close to the outer edge of the steel rim and checked on the machine Hunter GSP 9700 for balancing wheels. The recorded waveforms vibration steering components and car body, at different constant driving speeds, subjected to spectral analysis to determine the possibility of isolating vibration caused by unbalanced wheel in various states and coming from good quality asphalt road surface. The results were discussed in terms of the possibility of identifying the state of unbalancing wheels and possible changes in radial stiffness of the tire vibration transmitted through the system driving wheel on the steering wheel. Vibration analysis steering components and car body, also in the longitudinal direction, including information from the CAN bus of the state of motion of the car, can be used to monitor the development of the state of unbalance wheel, tire damage or errors shape of brake discs or brake drums, causing pulsations braking forces.

  7. Fluid Redistribution and Heart Rate in Humans During Whole-Body Tilting, G(z) Centrifugation, and Lower Body Negative Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Breit, G. A.; Ballard, R. E.; Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Gravity creates blood pressure gradients which redistribute body fluids towards the feet. Positive G(z) centrifugation and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have been proposed to simulate these and other effects of gravity during long-term existence in microgravity. We hypothesized that the magnitude of upper-to-lower body fluid redistribution would increase according to the following order: short-arm centrifugation (SAC), long-arm centrifugation (LAC), head-up tilt (HUT), and LBNP. To test this hypothesis, we employed strain gauge plethysmography of the neck, thigh and calf during HUT and supine SAC and LAC up to lG(z) at the feet, and during supine LBNP to 100 mm Hg. Supine 100 mm Hg LBNP generates footward force and produces transmural blood pressures in the foot approximately equal to 1 G(z) (90 deg) HUT. Heart rate was measured via cardiotachometry. Control measurements were made while supine. SAC and LAC elicited similar increases in thigh volume at 1 G(z) (2.3 +/- 0.4 and 2.1 +/- 0.1%, respectively; mean +/- se, n greater than or equal to 7). At 100 mm Hg LBNP, thigh volume increased (3.4 +/- 0.3%) significantly more than during l G(z) centrifugation (p less than 0.05). Surprisingly, due to a paradoxical 0.6% reduction of thigh volume between 0.8 and 1.0 G(z) HUT, thigh volume was increased only 0.6 +/- 0.3% at 1 G(z) HUT. The calf demonstrated similar, although less definitive, responses to the various gravitational stimuli. Neck volume tended to decrease less during HUT than during the other stimuli. Heart rate increased similarly during HUT (18 +/- 2 beats/min) and LAC (12 +/- 2 beats/min), and exhibited still greater elevation during LBNP (29 +/- 4 beats/min), yet did not increase during SAC. These results suggest upright posture activates mechanisms that counteract footward fluid redistribution which are not activated during supine applications of simulated gravity. LAC more closely approximated effects of normal gravity (HUT) than LBNP. Therefore

  8. MAGNETIC-PULSE CAR BODY PANELS FLATTENING. THEORETICAL ASPECTS AND PRACTICAL RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Batygin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to provide theoretical and experimental studying of the «induction system with an attractive screen» practical effectiveness with the excited magnetic pulse attractive forces numerical estimation. Originality. For the first time, the theoretical analysis of the electrodynamics process for the «inductor system with attractive screen» at the low frequent assumption were conducted. Methodology of the analysis applied is based on the classic electrodynamics circuits theory. All of the resulted carried out, were obtained as the Maxwell’s differential equation solutions and its behavior was analyzed analytically. Results. The electrodynamics process was analyzed and the principle efficiency of the «induction system with an attractive screen» as an effective tool for magnetic pulse forming of the thin sheet metals was substantiated. The axis distributions of the attractive forces based on the relations been obtained were illuminated graphically. The results of experimental testing of the system in the engineering operation of the external non-contact dents removing on the car body panels samples were presented. Practical value. According to the results of the calculation analyses the fundamental workability of the «inductor system with attractive shield» as an effective magnetic pulse sheet metal part attraction tool was proved. It was shown that the not deep metal surface damages could be worked up by magnetic pulses technologies with a high performance in a short time.

  9. Influence of hydrogen on formability and bendability of DP1180 steel for car body application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Q.; Han, F.; Wortberg, D.; Bleck, W.; Liewald, M.

    2016-11-01

    In order to reach future light weight targets, it is increasing necessary to use advanced high strength steels with tensile strength 980 MPa or higher in automotive body-inwhite structures. Due to the sensitivity to hydrogen embrittlement and the limited understanding of various aspects of hydrogen embrittlement on processing and function, the wide application of these steels is still limited. In the current work, the influence of hydrogen on the multiaxial forming behavior was investigated by determining the forming limit curve and bending limit curve of DP1180 steel. Hydrogen concentration in the material was modified by cathodic charging. Then Nakajima tests on hydrogen uncharged and pre-charged samples were carried out in order to adjust and study different strain states resulting in the forming limit curve. In the study of bending limit curve, the steel sheets were pre-strained by Marciniak test. Bending load on the uncharged and pre-charged samples was introduced by VDA238-100 bending tests. The experimental results indicated that the presence of hydrogen affected the formability and bendability of DP1180 steel. A clear difference in the influence of hydrogen at different strain states was observed. When formed in a biaxial strain state via the Nakajima test, the material showed the highest degradation in formability. Moreover, the samples with biaxial pre-loading showed more degradation in bendability comparing to those pre-strained in plane strain and uni-axial paths. Fractography by scanning electron microscope gave evidence of hydrogen-induced cleavage fracture on pre-charged Nakajima samples. Thus this investigation improves the understanding of influences of hydrogen on forming processes and provides important evidence for further studies on HE susceptibility of AHSS for the application on car body constructions.

  10. The analysis of corrosion performance of car bodies coated by no nickel and low nickel zinc phosphating processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derun, E.M.; Demirozu, T.; Piskin, M.B.; Piskin, S. [Yildiz Technical University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Davutpasa Kampuesue 127, Esenler-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-06-01

    In today's automotive industry in order to protect car bodies from corrosion, spray or immersion type zinc phosphating processes are applied. In both types, nickel and chromium are widely used though they are harmful to human health and environment. In this study, car body's corrosion performance, coated by no nickel (0 ppm) and low nickel (100, 200, 300 ppm) immersion type zinc phosphating (without chromium passivation) processes, are compared to the bodies that are coated by spray and immersion type processes including nickel (500-700 ppm) and chromium. After analyzing coating weight, composition, morphology of the crystals and salt spray test corrosion performance of car bodies specimens coated by no nickel and low nickel processes are as good as the ones coated by spray and immersion phosphating processes including nickel and chromium. In developing environment consciousness, it is inevitable to favor no nickel or low nickel processes since they give no harm to nature and human health. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Analysis of application of various materials for manufacturing parts of motor car bodies in automobile industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Вікторія Григорівна Гаврилова

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents an analysis of applying various steels for manufacturing motor-car bodies. There is a brief description of cold-rolled sheet steels RRST 1405 produced according to the standards DIN 1623 and DIN 1541; UST 1203, UST 1303 according to DIN 1624 and DIN 1606; ST 4, 08MnSiAlTi, 07MnNbAl and also a classification and a brief description of steels made according to USLAB: IF-steel with increased formability, thermo-strengthened BH-steel, dual phase (DP steels, transformation induced plasticity (TRIP steels, martensitic (Mart steels, austenitic high-tensile steels – (TWIP steels, high strength steels of new generation of AHSS type (advanced high-strength steels and UHSS (ultra high-strength steels, high-strength steels and superplastic steels of new generation for lightweight constructions (TRIPLEX-steel, hot-rolled nano-structured steel NANOHITEN. It has been shown that the main tendency in modern approach to engineering and manufacturing sheet steel used in automotive industry is to increase strength while maintaining formability characteristics, reducing the coefficient of normal plastic anisotropy (Lankford value ratio, as well as increasing srengthening at deformation. The advantages and disadvantages of the materials used in the automotive industry have been shown, as well as ways of their improving. The work represents a compilation of several publications. The materials can be used for developing a training course «Materials to be used in transport» within the framework of the International Project on reforming curricula TEMPUS «MMATENG»: «Two-stage Training Program for Engineering Materials Curriculum Modernization»

  12. Dreams of pneumatic servo and rail way cars in 2010; 2010 nen noyume kukiatsu servo to tetsudo sharyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K. [Tokyo Precision Instruments Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-01-15

    This paper describes pneumatic servo and railway cars. The comfort of railway cars is improved by reducing excess transverse centrifugal force, and longitudinal, transverse and vertical vibration. Pneumatic system plays a large role in the comfort. Pneumatic system is used for doors because of certain open/shut operation and protecting a hand caught in a door from excess tightening pressure. Pneumatic system is also used for mechanical brakes. Pneumatic spring for car suspensions improves the comfort considerably. The orifice and auxiliary tank of a pneumatic spring reduce a spring constant, and give damping to the vibration system of car bodies and springs. To reduce an outward excess centrifugal force by tilting a car body inward at curve, a body tilting equipment is used which is adopted for a pendulum car with pneumatic servo control, and a tilting car with height control of both side pneumatic springs. For transverse damping, semi-active equipment using oil damper is in wide use, while that using pneumatic servo is also in rial use. (NEDO)

  13. Innovationsallianz Green Carbody Technologies - mit energieeffizienterer und ressourcenschonenderer Technik produzieren: Presentation held at Conference on "Strategies in Car Body Engineering 2013", 19 - 20 March 2013, Bad Nauheim

    OpenAIRE

    Putz, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The Innovation Alliance Green Carbody Technologies InnoCaT researched in the years 2010 - 2012 for efficient solutions along the process chain "painted car body" including the tool shop, the press shop through body shop to the painted body under the approach of holistic planning. Examples of the results are planning of low-energy production, the energy-efficient climate control of enclosures, the automatic adjustment of body devices, resource-efficient sheet metal hot stamping and so on. All ...

  14. Comprehensive Evaluation of Car-Body Light-Weighting Scheme Based on LCC Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Qing-lan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive evaluation model of light-weighting scheme is established, which is based on three dimensions, including the life cycle costs of the resource consumed by the designed objects (LCC, willingness to pay for the environmental effect of resource consumption (WTP and performance (P. Firstly, cost of each stage is determined. Then, based on the resource classification, which is based on cost elements, determine the material list needed, and apply WTP weight coefficient to monetize life cycle environmental impact and obtain the life cycle comprehensive cost of designed scheme (TCC. In the next step Performance (P index is calculated to measure the value of the life cycle costs by applying AHP and SAW method, integrated (TCC and (P to achieve comprehensive evaluation of light-weighting scheme. Finally, the effectiveness of the evaluation model is verified by the example of car engine hood.

  15. Relationship among the variables of kinematic and tilt angle of whole body according to the foot trip during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Young-Churl; Ryew, Che-Cheong; Hyun, Seung-Hyun

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between incline angle of whole body and kinematic variables at tripping during gait. The participants consisted of healthy adult female (n=6). The three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis of posture restoring after inducing tripping of right foot at supporting phase of left foot was performed. As a result, supporting time elapsed of one stride and one foot at tripping showed longer than that of normal gait. The length of one stride showed longer at tripping than that of normal gait, and velocity of center of gravity (COG) showed faster at tripping than that of normal gait. Anteriorposterior incline angle of whole body showed more forwarded incline at tripping than that of normal gait. As a result of correlation among variables, one stride and supporting time elapsed showed positive relation r =0.973 ( R 2 =0.947, P tripped at supporting phase of one leg during gait may be impossible and rather may cause a recovery of gait pattern when secured the faster velocity of COG and the longer of supporting time elapsed of one leg.

  16. Optimization of Car Body under Constraints of Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH), and Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodiyalam, Srinivas; Yang, Ren-Jye; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    To be competitive on the today's market, cars have to be as light as possible while meeting the Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) requirements and conforming to Government-man dated crash survival regulations. The latter are difficult to meet because they involve very compute-intensive, nonlinear analysis, e.g., the code RADIOSS capable of simulation of the dynamics, and the geometrical and material nonlinearities of a thin-walled car structure in crash, would require over 12 days of elapsed time for a single design of a 390K elastic degrees of freedom model, if executed on a single processor of the state-of-the-art SGI Origin2000 computer. Of course, in optimization that crash analysis would have to be invoked many times. Needless to say, that has rendered such optimization intractable until now. The car finite element model is shown. The advent of computers that comprise large numbers of concurrently operating processors has created a new environment wherein the above optimization, and other engineering problems heretofore regarded as intractable may be solved. The procedure, shown, is a piecewise approximation based method and involves using a sensitivity based Taylor series approximation model for NVH and a polynomial response surface model for Crash. In that method the NVH constraints are evaluated using a finite element code (MSC/NASTRAN) that yields the constraint values and their derivatives with respect to design variables. The crash constraints are evaluated using the explicit code RADIOSS on the Origin 2000 operating on 256 processors simultaneously to generate data for a polynomial response surface in the design variable domain. The NVH constraints and their derivatives combined with the response surface for the crash constraints form an approximation to the system analysis (surrogate analysis) that enables a cycle of multidisciplinary optimization within move limits. In the inner loop, the NVH sensitivities are recomputed to update the NVH

  17. Dermal, inhalation, and internal exposure to 1,6-HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, A; Yu, F; Vlaanderen, J; Tielemans, E; Preller, L; Bobeldijk, I; Deddens, J A; Latza, U; Baur, X; Heederik, D

    2006-09-01

    To study inhalation and dermal exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers as well as personal protection equipment (PPE) use during task performance in conjunction with urinary hexamethylene diamine (HDA) in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters. Personal task based inhalation samples (n = 95) were collected from six car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with di-n-butylamine (DBA) in toluene. In parallel, dermal exposure was assessed using nitril rubber gloves. Gloves were submerged into DBA in toluene after sampling. Analysis for HDI and its oligomers was performed by LC-MS/MS. Urine samples were collected from 55 workers (n = 291) and analysed for HDA by GC-MS. Inhalation exposure was strongly associated with tasks during which aerosolisation occurs. Dermal exposure occurred during tasks that involve direct handling of paint. In car body repair shops associations were found between detectable dermal exposure and glove use (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.57) and inhalation exposure level (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.84 for a 10-fold increase). HDA in urine could be demonstrated in 36% and 10% of car body repair shop workers and industrial painting company workers respectively. In car body repair shops, the frequency of detectable HDA was significantly elevated at the end of the working day (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 4.22 for 3-6 pm v 0-8 am). In both branches HDA was detected in urine of approximately 25% of the spray painters. In addition HDA was detected in urine of a large proportion of non-spray painters in car body repair shops. Although (spray) painting with lacquers containing isocyanate hardeners results in the highest external exposures to HDI and oligomers, workers that do not perform paint related tasks may also receive a considerable internal dose.

  18. Unilateral otolith centrifugation by head tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Stephanie M; Bos, Jelte E; Klis, Sjaak F L

    2014-01-01

    To test for otolith asymmetries, several studies described horizontal translation of the body and head en bloc during fast vertical axis rotation. This stimulus causes one otolithic organ to rotate on-axis, and the other to experience centripetal acceleration. To test a new, more simple method of unilateral stimulation with head tilt and the body remaining on axis. During stationary and during 360 deg/s rotation, 12 healthy blindfolded subjects had their heads tilted 30 degrees sideways, positioning one otolithic organ on the axis of rotation after the other. The haptic subjective vertical (SV) was recorded several times by means of a manually adjustable rod. It was found that during stationary the SV tilted about 4 degrees on average in the direction of the head. During rotation, the SV tilted about 9 degrees on average. We therefore estimate the effect of eccentric otolith rotation to be 5 degrees on average. Tilt of the subjective vertical induced by head tilt during on-axis body rotation can provide a relatively uncomplicated alternative to test unilateral otolithic function as compared to body and head translation during rotation. Moreover, unlike eccentric rotation of the entire body, somatosensory cues are minimized by keeping the body fixed on axis and by subtracting the effect of head tilt per se.

  19. Tilt Table Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test may also be appropriate to investigate the cause of fainting if you've fainted only once, but another ... recommend a tilt table test to evaluate the cause of syncope. A tilt table test may also be recommended ...

  20. Self pierce riveting in the car body construction; Stanznieten im Karosserieleichtbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlers-Hestermann, G. [Boellhoff GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    As an alterantive to spotwelding, self pierce riveting becomes more and more important in light weight automotive body constructions. The difficulties or impossibility of spotwelding Aluminium and High Tensile Strength Steel or material mixtures accelerated this development. Even plastic material can be joined to metal. Important mechanical properties such as fatigue and crash behaviour are improved. Costs are at the same level. Two examples of body parts in aluminium (Audi A6 bonnet and BMW 3 series front end) are described. (orig.) [German] Als Alternative zum Punktschweissen setzt sich das Stanznieten mit Halbhohlniet im Karosserieleichtbau mehr und mehr durch. Mit diesem Verfahren koennen verschiedene Materialen mit bis zu vier Lagen sicher verbunden werden. Dieser Beitrag der Boellhoff GmbH stellt das Verfahren vor und berichtet ueber zwei Beispiele aus der Praxis. (orig.)

  1. Safety of children in cars: A review of biomechanical aspects and human body models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Brolin

    2015-03-01

    To study how children interact with restraints during on-road driving and during pre- and in-crash events, numerical child models implementing age-specific anthropometric features will be essential. The review of human whole body models covers multi body models (age 1.5 to 15 years and finite element models (ages 3, 6, and 10 years. All reviewed child models are developed for crash scenarios. The only finite element models to implement age dependent anthropometry details for the spine and pelvis were a 3 year-old model and an upcoming 10 year-old model. One ongoing project is implementing active muscles response in a 6 year-old multi body model to study pre-crash scenarios. These active models are suitable for the next important step in providing the automotive industry with adequate tools for development and assessment of future restraint systems in the full sequence of events from pre- to in-crash.

  2. Construction and evaluation of thoracic injury risk curves for a finite element human body model in frontal car crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Vazquez, Manuel; Davidsson, Johan; Brolin, Karin

    2015-12-01

    There is a need to improve the protection to the thorax of occupants in frontal car crashes. Finite element human body models are a more detailed representation of humans than anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). On the other hand, there is no clear consensus on the injury criteria and the thresholds to use with finite element human body models to predict rib fractures. The objective of this study was to establish a set of injury risk curves to predict rib fractures using a modified Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS). Injury criteria at the global, structural and material levels were computed with a modified THUMS in matched Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHSs) tests. Finally, the quality of each injury risk curve was determined. For the included PMHS tests and the modified THUMS, DcTHOR and shear stress were the criteria at the global and material levels that reached an acceptable quality. The injury risk curves at the structural level did not reach an acceptable quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dermal, inhalation, and internal exposure to 1,6-HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Yu, F.; Vlaanderen, J.; Tielemans, E.; Preller, L.; Bobeldijk, I.; Deddens, J.A.; Latza, U.; Baur, X.; Heederik, D.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To study inhalation and dermal exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers as well as personal protection equipment (PPE) use during task performance in conjunction with urinary hexamethylene diamine (HDA) in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.

  4. Comparison of the effects of body-weight-supported treadmill training and tilt-table standing on spasticity in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Melanie M; Hicks, Audrey L

    2011-01-01

    Determine the effects of body-weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and tilt-table standing (TTS) on clinically assessed and self-reported spasticity, motor neuron excitability, and related constructs in individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Random cross-over. Seven individuals with chronic SCI and spasticity performed thrice-weekly BWSTT for 4 weeks and thrice-weekly TTS for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week wash-out. Clinical (Modified Ashworth Scale, Spinal Cord Assessment Tool for Spinal reflexes) and self-report (Spinal Cord Injury Spasticity Evaluation Tool, Penn Spasm Frequency Scale) assessments of spasticity, quality of life (Quality of Life Index Spinal Cord Injury Version - III), functional mobility (FIM Motor Subscale), plus soleus H-reflex were measured at baseline, after the first training session and within 2 days of completing each training condition. In comparison with TTS, a single session of BWSTT had greater beneficial effects for muscle tone (effect size (ES) = 0.69), flexor spasms (ES = 0.57), and the H/M ratio (ES = 0.50). Similarly, flexor spasms (ES = 0.79), clonus (ES = 0.66), and self-reported mobility (ES = 1.27) tended to benefit more from 4 weeks of BWSTT than of TTS. Participation in BWSTT also appeared to be favorable for quality of life (ES = 0.50). In contrast, extensor spasms were reduced to a greater degree with TTS (ES = 0.68 for single session; ES = 1.32 after 4 weeks). While both BWSTT and TTS may provide specific benefits with respect to spasticity characteristics, data from this pilot study suggest that BWSTT may result in a broader range of positive outcomes.

  5. Determinants of Motion Sickness in Tilting Trains: Coriolis/Cross-Coupling Stimuli and Tilt Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Giovanni; Durmaz, Meek Angela; Ferrari, Kim; Küffer, Alexander; Lambert, Charlotte; Straumann, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Faster trains require tilting of the cars to counterbalance the centrifugal forces during curves. Motion sensitive passengers, however, complain of discomfort and overt motion sickness. A recent study comparing different control systems in a tilting train, suggested that the delay of car tilts relative to the curve of the track contributes to motion sickness. Other aspects of the motion stimuli, like the lateral accelerations and the car jitters, differed between the tested conditions and prevented a final conclusion on the role of tilt delay. Nineteen subjects were tested on a motorized 3D turntable that simulated the roll tilts during yaw rotations experienced on a tilting train, isolating them from other motion components. Each session was composed of two consecutive series of 12 ideal curves that were defined on the bases of recordings during an actual train ride. The simulated car tilts started either at the beginning of the curve acceleration phase (no-delay condition) or with 3 s of delay (delay condition). Motion sickness was self-assessed by each subject at the end of each series using an analog motion sickness scale. All subjects were tested in both conditions. Significant increases of motion sickness occurred after the first sequence of 12 curves in the delay condition, but not in the no-delay condition. This increase correlated with the sensitivity of motion sickness, which was self-assessed by each subject before the experiment. The second sequence of curve did not lead to a significant further increase of motion sickness in any condition. Our results demonstrate that, even if the speed and amplitude are as low as those experienced on tilting trains, a series of roll tilts with a delay relative to the horizontal rotations, isolated from other motion stimuli occurring during a travel, generate Coriolis/cross-coupling stimulations sufficient to rapidly induce motion sickness in sensitive individuals. The strength and the rapid onset of the motion

  6. Determinants of Motion Sickness in Tilting Trains: Coriolis/Cross-Coupling Stimuli and Tilt Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bertolini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Faster trains require tilting of the cars to counterbalance the centrifugal forces during curves. Motion sensitive passengers, however, complain of discomfort and overt motion sickness. A recent study comparing different control systems in a tilting train, suggested that the delay of car tilts relative to the curve of the track contributes to motion sickness. Other aspects of the motion stimuli, like the lateral accelerations and the car jitters, differed between the tested conditions and prevented a final conclusion on the role of tilt delay. Nineteen subjects were tested on a motorized 3D turntable that simulated the roll tilts during yaw rotations experienced on a tilting train, isolating them from other motion components. Each session was composed of two consecutive series of 12 ideal curves that were defined on the bases of recordings during an actual train ride. The simulated car tilts started either at the beginning of the curve acceleration phase (no-delay condition or with 3 s of delay (delay condition. Motion sickness was self-assessed by each subject at the end of each series using an analog motion sickness scale. All subjects were tested in both conditions. Significant increases of motion sickness occurred after the first sequence of 12 curves in the delay condition, but not in the no-delay condition. This increase correlated with the sensitivity of motion sickness, which was self-assessed by each subject before the experiment. The second sequence of curve did not lead to a significant further increase of motion sickness in any condition. Our results demonstrate that, even if the speed and amplitude are as low as those experienced on tilting trains, a series of roll tilts with a delay relative to the horizontal rotations, isolated from other motion stimuli occurring during a travel, generate Coriolis/cross-coupling stimulations sufficient to rapidly induce motion sickness in sensitive individuals. The strength and the rapid onset

  7. Tilting Saturn without Tilting Jupiter: Constraints on Giant Planet Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, R.; Lee, Man Hoi

    2015-11-01

    The migration and encounter histories of the giant planets in our solar system can be constrained by the obliquities of Jupiter and Saturn. We have performed secular simulations with imposed migration and N-body simulations with planetesimals to study the expected obliquity distribution of migrating planets with initial conditions resembling those of the smooth migration model, the resonant Nice model and two models with five giant planets initially in resonance (one compact and one loose configuration). For smooth migration, the secular spin-orbit resonance mechanism can tilt Saturn’s spin axis to the current obliquity if the product of the migration timescale and the orbital inclinations is sufficiently large (exceeding 30 Myr deg). For the resonant Nice model with imposed migration, it is difficult to reproduce today’s obliquity values, because the compactness of the initial system raises the frequency that tilts Saturn above the spin precession frequency of Jupiter, causing a Jupiter spin-orbit resonance crossing. Migration timescales sufficiently long to tilt Saturn generally suffice to tilt Jupiter more than is observed. The full N-body simulations tell a somewhat different story, with Jupiter generally being tilted as often as Saturn, but on average having a higher obliquity. The main obstacle is the final orbital spacing of the giant planets, coupled with the tail of Neptune’s migration. The resonant Nice case is barely able to simultaneously reproduce the orbital and spin properties of the giant planets, with a probability ˜ 0.15%. The loose five planet model is unable to match all our constraints (probability <0.08%). The compact five planet model has the highest chance of matching the orbital and obliquity constraints simultaneously (probability ˜0.3%).

  8. Vehicle dynamic control of a passenger car applying flexible body model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Shahram; Vaziri, Masoud; Hoseini, Mohsen

    2010-05-01

    Modern software tools have enhanced modelling, analysis and simulation capabilities pertaining to control of dynamic systems. In this regard, in this paper a full vehicle model with flexible body is exposed by using MSC. ADAMS and MSC. NASTRAN. Indeed, one of the most significant vehicle dynamic controls is directional stability control. In this case, the vehicle dynamic control system (VDC) is used to improving the vehicle lateral and yaw motions in critical manoeuvres. In this paper, for design the VDC system, an optimal control strategy has been used for tracking the intended path with optimal energy. For better performance of VDC system, an anti-lock brake system (ABS) is designed as a lower layer of the control system for maintaining the tyre longitudinal slip in proper value. The performances of the controller on rigid and flexible models are illustrated, and the results show the differences between the control efforts for these models, which are related to the differences of dynamic behaviours of rigid and flexible vehicle dynamic models.

  9. Disk Laser Welding of Car Body Zinc Coated Steel Sheets / Spawanie Laserem Dyskowym Blach Ze Stali Karoseryjnej Ocynkowanej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecki A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Autogenous laser welding of 0.8 mm thick butt joints of car body electro-galvanized steel sheet DC04 was investigated. The Yb:YAG disk laser TruDisk 3302 with the beam spot diameter of 200 μm was used. The effect of laser welding parameters and technological conditions on weld shape, penetration depth, process stability, microstructure and mechanical performance was determined. It was found that the laser beam spot focused on the top surface of a butt joint tends to pass through the gap, especially in the low range of heat input and high welding speed. All test welds were welded at a keyhole mode, and the weld metal was free of porosity. Thus, the keyhole laser welding of zinc coated steel sheets in butt configuration provides excellent conditions to escape for zinc vapours, with no risk of porosity. Microstructure, microhardness and mechanical performance of the butt joints depend on laser welding conditions thus cooling rate and cooling times. The shortest cooling time t8/5 was calculated for 0.29 s.

  10. Small-World Optimization Algorithm and Its Application in a Sequencing Problem of Painted Body Storage in a Car Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhipeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the car company, the painted body storage (PBS is set up between the paint shop and the assembly shop. It stores the vehicles in production and reorders the vehicles sequence. To improve production efficiency of assembly shop, a mathematical model is developed aiming at minimizing the consumption rate of options and the total overtime and idle time. As the PBS sequencing process contains upstream sequence inbound and downstream sequence outbound, this paper proposes an algorithm with two phases. In the first phase, the discrete small-world optimization algorithm (DSWOA is applied to schedule the inbound sequence by employing the short-range nodes and the long-range nodes in order to realize the global searching. In the second phase, the heuristic algorithm is applied to schedule the outbound sequencing. The proposed model and algorithm are applied in an automobile enterprise. The results indicate that the two-phase algorithm is suitable for the PBS sequencing problem and the DSWOA has a better searching performance than GA in this problem. The sensitivity of model parameters is analyzed as well.

  11. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  12. Dermal, inhalation, and internal exposure to 1,6‐HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, A; Yu, F; Vlaanderen, J; Tielemans, E; Preller, L; Bobeldijk, I; Deddens, J A; Latza, U; Baur, X; Heederik, D

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To study inhalation and dermal exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers as well as personal protection equipment (PPE) use during task performance in conjunction with urinary hexamethylene diamine (HDA) in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters. Methods Personal task based inhalation samples (n = 95) were collected from six car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with di‐n‐butylamine (DBA) in toluene. In parallel, dermal exposure was assessed using nitril rubber gloves. Gloves were submerged into DBA in toluene after sampling. Analysis for HDI and its oligomers was performed by LC‐MS/MS. Urine samples were collected from 55 workers (n = 291) and analysed for HDA by GC‐MS. Results Inhalation exposure was strongly associated with tasks during which aerosolisation occurs. Dermal exposure occurred during tasks that involve direct handling of paint. In car body repair shops associations were found between detectable dermal exposure and glove use (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.57) and inhalation exposure level (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.84 for a 10‐fold increase). HDA in urine could be demonstrated in 36% and 10% of car body repair shop workers and industrial painting company workers respectively. In car body repair shops, the frequency of detectable HDA was significantly elevated at the end of the working day (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 4.22 for 3–6 pm v 0–8 am). In both branches HDA was detected in urine of ∼25% of the spray painters. In addition HDA was detected in urine of a large proportion of non‐spray painters in car body repair shops. Conclusion Although (spray) painting with lacquers containing isocyanate hardeners results in the highest external exposures to HDI and oligomers, workers that do not perform paint related tasks may also receive a considerable internal dose. PMID:16728504

  13. Tilting a Wobbly Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2017-01-01

    If a small object is placed under the front leg of a chair, the chair tilts backwards. If the object is placed under a rear leg, the chair tilts sideways. The effect is surprising but can be analysed in terms of elementary physics.

  14. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Head Neck & Nervous System > Car Sickness Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Car Sickness Page Content ...

  15. Transient cardio-respiratory responses to visually induced tilt illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Ramsdell, C. D.; Mullen, T. J.; Oman, C. M.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    Although the orthostatic cardio-respiratory response is primarily mediated by the baroreflex, studies have shown that vestibular cues also contribute in both humans and animals. We have demonstrated a visually mediated response to illusory tilt in some human subjects. Blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, and lung volume were monitored in 16 supine human subjects during two types of visual stimulation, and compared with responses to real passive whole body tilt from supine to head 80 degrees upright. Visual tilt stimuli consisted of either a static scene from an overhead mirror or constant velocity scene motion along different body axes generated by an ultra-wide dome projection system. Visual vertical cues were initially aligned with the longitudinal body axis. Subjective tilt and self-motion were reported verbally. Although significant changes in cardio-respiratory parameters to illusory tilts could not be demonstrated for the entire group, several subjects showed significant transient decreases in mean blood pressure resembling their initial response to passive head-up tilt. Changes in pulse pressure and a slight elevation in heart rate were noted. These transient responses are consistent with the hypothesis that visual-vestibular input contributes to the initial cardiovascular adjustment to a change in posture in humans. On average the static scene elicited perceived tilt without rotation. Dome scene pitch and yaw elicited perceived tilt and rotation, and dome roll motion elicited perceived rotation without tilt. A significant correlation between the magnitude of physiological and subjective reports could not be demonstrated.

  16. Rigidity of tilting modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr Andersen, Henning; Kaneda, Masaharu

    Let $U_q$ denote the quantum group associated with a finite dimensional semisimple Lie algebra. Assume that $q$ is a complex root of unity of odd order and that $U_q$ is %the quantum group version obtained via Lusztig's $q$-divided powers construction. We prove that all regular projective (tilting...

  17. The dynamic behaviour of man-wide vehicles with an automatic active tilting mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwelussen, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    The major advantage of a motorcycle with respect to a passenger car is the possibility of the driver to tilt during cornering and thereby maintaining stability whereas a passenger car will suffer from the risk of capsizing at high speed. This observation has lead Brink Dynamics to create and develop

  18. Industrial based volume manufacturing of lightweight aluminium alloy panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyasodor, Gerald; Koroschetz, Christian

    2017-09-01

    To achieve the high volume manufacture of lightweight passenger cars at economic cost as required in the automotive industry, low density materials and new process route will be needed. While high strength aluminium alloy grades: AA7075 and AA6082 may provide the alternative material solution, hot stamping process used for high-strength and ultrahigh strength steels such as boron steel 22mnb5 can enable the volume manufacture of panel components with high-strength and complex-shape for car body and chassis structures. These aluminium alloy grades can be used to manufacture panel components with possible yield strengths ≥ 500 MPa. Due to the differences in material behaviors, hot stamping process of 22mnb5 cannot be directly applied to high strength aluminium alloy grades. Despite recorded successes in laboratories, researches and niche hot forming processes of high strength aluminium alloy grades, not much have been achieved for adequate and efficient volume manufacturing system applicable in the automotive industry. Due to lack of such system and based on expert knowledge in hot stamping production-line, AP&T presents in this paper a hot stamping processing route for high strength aluminium alloys been suitable for production-line development and volume manufacturing.

  19. Tilt table standing for reducing spasticity after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R W

    1993-10-01

    A patient with a T12 spinal cord injury and intractable extensor spasms of the lower extremities participated in tilt table standing trial on 5 nonconsecutive days to determine if the intervention would affect his spasticity and spasms. Each day's standing trial was followed by an immediate reduction in lower extremity spasticity (measured using the modified Ashworth scale and pendulum testing). Standing was also accompanied by a reduction in spasms that lasted until the following morning. The reduction of spasms was particularly advantageous to the performance of car transfers. Tilt table standing merits further examination as a physical treatment of spasms that accompany central nervous system lesions.

  20. Effects of 10 days 6 degrees head-down tilt on the responses to fluid loading and lower body negative pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisch, F.; Heer, M.; Beck, L.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Kropp, J.; Schulz, H.; Hillebrecht, A.; Meyer, M.

    1991-01-01

    In an international collaborative project six normal male subjects were studied before, during and after 10 days 6 degrees HDT. Fluid intake was controlled at 40 ml/(kgbw day). Urine volume and body weight were determined daily. Fluid loading and LBNP were performed in all three phases of the study. Body weight diminished by 2.6% because of fluid loss. Blood volume diminished by 13%. The responses to fluid loading were similar in the three phases of the study. Sixty minutes after end of infusion only 5.5% of the infused saline remained in the intravascular compartment. Excess interstitial fluid was eliminated in the next 24 hs but a negative balance was recorded also in the following day. The compliance of the lower limbs expressed as the rate of limb volume change/unit LBNP change was increased at the end of the HDT phase and during the post HDT phase. The set point of intravascular volume was defended, as shown by the response to FL. HDT increased the compliance of the lower limbs.

  1. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  2. Motion perception during tilt and translation after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2013-11-01

    Preliminary results of an ongoing study examining the effects of space flight on astronauts' motion perception induced by independent tilt and translation motions are presented. This experiment used a sled and a variable radius centrifuge that translated the subjects forward-backward or laterally, and simultaneously tilted them in pitch or roll, respectively. Tests were performed on the ground prior to and immediately after landing. The astronauts were asked to report about their perceived motion in response to different combinations of body tilt and translation in darkness. Their ability to manually control their own orientation was also evaluated using a joystick with which they nulled out the perceived tilt while the sled and centrifuge were in motion. Preliminary results confirm that the magnitude of perceived tilt increased during static tilt in roll after space flight. A deterioration in the crewmember to control tilt using non-visual inertial cues was also observed post-flight. However, the use of a tactile prosthesis indicating the direction of down on the subject's trunk improved manual control performance both before and after space flight.

  3. Evaluating Tilt for Wind Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annoni, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrock, Andrew K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Churchfield, Matthew J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, Paul A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-03

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of tilt in a wind plant. Tilt control, much like other wind plant control strategies, has the potential to improve the performance of a wind plant. Tilt control uses the tilt angle of the turbine to direct the wake above or below the downstream turbines. This paper presents a study of tilt in two- and three-turbine arrays. Specifically, the authors show that the power production of a two-turbine array can be increased by tilting turbines in a specific orientation. When adding more turbines, as is shown with the three-turbine array, the overall percentage of power gain increases. This outcome deviates from some of the results seen in typical wind plant control strategies. Finally, we discuss the impact this type of control strategy has on the aerodynamics in a wind plant. This analysis demonstrates that a good understanding of wake characteristics is necessary to improve the plant's performance. A tilt strategy such as the one presented in this paper may have implications for future control/optimization studies including optimization of hub heights in a wind plant and analysis of deep array effects.

  4. Source to Accretion Disk Tilt

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source to cause and maintain disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through...

  5. Motion sickness on tilting trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bernard; Dai, Mingjia; Ogorodnikov, Dmitri; Laurens, Jean; Raphan, Theodore; Müller, Philippe; Athanasios, Alexiou; Edmaier, Jürgen; Grossenbacher, Thomas; Stadtmüller, Klaus; Brugger, Ueli; Hauser, Gerald; Straumann, Dominik

    2011-11-01

    Trains that tilt on curves can go faster, but passengers complain of motion sickness. We studied the control signals and tilts to determine why this occurs and how to maintain speed while eliminating motion sickness. Accelerometers and gyros monitored train and passenger yaw and roll, and a survey evaluated motion sickness. The experimental train had 3 control configurations: an untilted mode, a reactive mode that detected curves from sensors on the front wheel set, and a predictive mode that determined curves from the train's position on the tracks. No motion sickness was induced in the untilted mode, but the train ran 21% slower than when it tilted 8° in either the reactive or predictive modes (113 vs. 137 km/h). Roll velocities rose and fell faster in the predictive than the reactive mode when entering and leaving turns (0.4 vs. 0.8 s for a 4°/s roll tilt, P<0.001). Concurrently, motion sickness was greater (P<0.001) in the reactive mode. We conclude that the slower rise in roll velocity during yaw rotations on entering and leaving curves had induced the motion sickness. Adequate synchronization of roll tilt with yaw velocity on curves will reduce motion sickness and improve passenger comfort on tilting trains.

  6. Design review of gondola car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To ensure the constantly growing volume of freight transportations it is necessary to introduce the innovation rolling stock. It should have the best technical and economic parameters in comparison with the existing fleet. Gondola car is the most popular type of railway freight car. Designs of the modern gondolas are based on many years of operating experience and numerous tests carried out by design and research organizations in the field of car building. To improve the body structure of gondolas it is necessary to perform a review of the existing structures and to identify the trends in their improvement. Methodology. The works on improvement the designs of produced gondolas are held by many engineering organizations in almost all industrialized countries. Analysis of the existing body designs of gondola cars is possible by analyzing the research in the field of transport engineering, namely patents, scientific articles, producers catalogues and so on. Findings. When analyzing it was determined that there are gondolas of different designs, but the most common are the gondolas with a solid floor and unloading hatches, the covers of which form the floor of gondola design. An effective method for reducing the gondola empty weight and increasing the body volume is also the use of aluminum alloy instead of steel. Results of the improvement analysis of the gondola bodies` designs showed that the creation of the modern gondola car requires from designers and scientists the implementation of scientific and technical solutions providing the increase of carrying capacity and the body volume, reduction of the gondolas empty weight, increase in repair intervals while improving the strength and dynamic qualities at the same time. Originality. For the first time the gondolas designs were analyzed, their advantages and disadvantages were considered and the trends in improvement of the given structures of gondola cars were determined. Practical value

  7. Modelling and Simulations of a Narrow Track Tilting Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Chong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Narrow track tilting vehicle is a new category of vehicle that combines the dynamical abilities of a passenger car with a motorcycle. In the presence of overturning moments during cornering, an accurate assessment of the lateral dynamics plays an important role to improve their stability and handling. In order to stabilise or control the narrow tilting vehicle, the demand tilt angle can be calculated from the vehicle’s lateral acceleration and controlled by either steering input of the vehicle or using additional titling actuator to reach this desired angle. The aim of this article is to present a new approach for developing the lateral dynamics model of a narrow track tilting vehicle. First, this approach utilises the well-known geometry ‘bicycle model’ and parameter estimation methods. Second, by using a tuning method, the unknown and uncertainties are taken into account and regulated through an optimisation procedure to minimise the model biases in order to improve the modelling accuracy. Therefore, the optimised model can be used as a platform to develop the vehicle control strategy. Numerical simulations have been performed in a comparison with the experimental data to validate the model accuracy.

  8. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Document Server

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  9. Car Seat Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Car Seat Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  10. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  11. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  12. 49 CFR 231.2 - Hopper cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hopper cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends... cars and high-side gondolas with fixed ends. (Cars with sides more than 36 inches above the floor are...

  13. Experimental Study of the Information Signal of Combined Shock, Tilt, and Motion Sensor Based on the 3-Axis MEMS-Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Vasyukov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern car alarm systems are equipped with smart sensors implemented using various physical principles. These sensors have to ensure high reliability and validity of monitored parameters with a lack of false operations. First of all, shock sensor, which is a part of, essentially, entire alarm systems, as well as tilt and motion sensors are referred to the smart sensors.Shock sensors with the sensitive elements (SE of piezoelectric, microphone, and electromagnetic types possess a number of the essential shortcomings caused by the type of SE. It is, first of all, a narrow band of the sensitive elements, which does not allow true differentiation of shocks to the autobody from false actions, as well as a various sensitivity of sensors depending on the SE axis orientation.Tilt sensors of electromagnetic type implemented as separate devices were seldom used because of their high cost and imperfect characteristics. Though there is still a need for such sensors. The specified shortcomings can be hardly overcome through improvement of sensitive element hangers of considered sensors. The use of the three-axial accelerometers made by MEMS technology seems to be the most perspective here.The article presents results of pilot studies of the accelerations reached when auto-body is under shock and a car is inclined and runs. When measuring, the test board STM32F3DISCOVERY with the MEMS accelerometer LSM303DLHS is used. A level of noise and vibrations has been analysed when mounting a board on the plastic panel of the car and when operating the engine in the range from 700 to 4000 rpm. The article presents accelerations implemented under the following conditions: light shocks in different parts of the auto-body (wing, trunk, hood; strong shock (closing a door; slow and fast acceleration to the speed of 20 km/h with the subsequent braking and passage of obstacles such as "sleeping policemen".Research results enabled us to make justification for selecting the

  14. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  15. Influence of Vibrotactile Feedback on Controlling Tilt Motion After Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Rupert, A. H.; Vanya, R. D.; Esteves, J. T.; Clement, G.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesize that adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the vestibular system are integrated with other sensory information leads to perceptual disturbances and impaired manual control following transitions between gravity environments. The primary goals of this ongoing post-flight investigation are to quantify decrements in manual control of tilt motion following short-duration spaceflight and to evaluate vibrotactile feedback of tilt as a sensorimotor countermeasure. METHODS. Data is currently being collected on 9 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s, body axis, thereby eliciting canal reflexes without concordant otolith or visual cues. A simple 4 tactor system was implemented to provide feedback when tilt position exceeded predetermined levels in either device. Closed-loop nulling tasks are performed during random tilt steps or sum-of-sines (TTS only) with and without vibrotactile feedback of chair position. RESULTS. On landing day the manual control performance without vibrotactile feedback was reduced by >30% based on the gain or the amount of tilt disturbance successfully nulled. Manual control performance tended to return to baseline levels within 1-2 days following landing. Root-mean-square position error and tilt velocity were significantly reduced with vibrotactile feedback. CONCLUSIONS. These preliminary results are consistent with our hypothesis that adaptive changes in vestibular processing corresponds to reduced manual control performance following G-transitions. A simple vibrotactile prosthesis improves the ability to null out tilt motion within a limited range of motion disturbances.

  16. High Speed Rail Tilt Train Technology : A State of the Art Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    This report presents an assessment of the technical and operational features of existing and proposed tilt-body rail passenger vehicles. Basic concepts of railroad route selection, track geometry, and curve negotiation are reviewed, and the rationale...

  17. Impaired perception of surface tilt in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian L Dale

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is characterized by early postural instability and backward falls. The mechanisms underlying backward postural instability in PSP are not understood. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that postural instability in PSP is a result of dysfunction in the perception of postural verticality.We gathered posturography data on 12 subjects with PSP to compare with 12 subjects with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD and 12 healthy subjects. Objective tests of postural impairment included: dynamic sensory perception tests of gravity and of surface oscillations, postural responses to surface perturbations, the sensory organization test of postural sway under altered sensory conditions and limits of stability in stance.Perception of toes up (but not toes down surface tilt was reduced in subjects with PSP compared to both control subjects (p≤0.001 standing, p≤0.007 seated and subjects with PD (p≤0.03 standing, p≤0.04 seated. Subjects with PSP, PD and normal controls accurately perceived the direction of gravity when standing on a tilting surface. Unlike PD and control subjects, subjects with PSP exerted less postural corrective torque in response to toes up surface tilts.Difficulty perceiving backward tilt of the surface or body may account for backward falls and postural impairments in patients with PSP. These observations suggest that abnormal central integration of sensory inputs for perception of body and surface orientation contributes to the pathophysiology of postural instability in PSP.

  18. Gravito-Inertial Force Resolution in Perception of Synchronized Tilt and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Holly, Jan; Zhang, Guen-Lu

    2011-01-01

    Natural movements in the sagittal plane involve pitch tilt relative to gravity combined with translation motion. The Gravito-Inertial Force (GIF) resolution hypothesis states that the resultant force on the body is perceptually resolved into tilt and translation consistently with the laws of physics. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis for human perception during combined tilt and translation motion. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Twelve subjects provided verbal reports during 0.3 Hz motion in the dark with 4 types of tilt and/or translation motion: 1) pitch tilt about an interaural axis at +/-10deg or +/-20deg, 2) fore-aft translation with acceleration equivalent to +/-10deg or +/-20deg, 3) combined "in phase" tilt and translation motion resulting in acceleration equivalent to +/-20deg, and 4) "out of phase" tilt and translation motion that maintained the resultant gravito-inertial force aligned with the longitudinal body axis. The amplitude of perceived pitch tilt and translation at the head were obtained during separate trials. MODELING METHODS: Three-dimensional mathematical modeling was performed to test the GIF-resolution hypothesis using a dynamical model. The model encoded GIF-resolution using the standard vector equation, and used an internal model of motion parameters, including gravity. Differential equations conveyed time-varying predictions. The six motion profiles were tested, resulting in predicted perceived amplitude of tilt and translation for each. RESULTS: The modeling results exhibited the same pattern as the experimental results. Most importantly, both modeling and experimental results showed greater perceived tilt during the "in phase" profile than the "out of phase" profile, and greater perceived tilt during combined "in phase" motion than during pure tilt of the same amplitude. However, the model did not predict as much perceived translation as reported by subjects during pure tilt. CONCLUSION: Human perception is consistent with

  19. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  20. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  1. 49 CFR 231.4 - Fixed-end low-side gondola and low-side hopper cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of car, at which time they must be... cars. 231.4 Section 231.4 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... Fixed-end low-side gondola and low-side hopper cars. (Cars with sides 36 inches or less above the floor...

  2. Molecular tilt on monolayer-protected nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Giomi, L.

    2012-02-01

    The structure of the tilted phase of monolayer-protected nanoparticles is investigated by means of a simple Ginzburg-Landau model. The theory contains two dimensionless parameters representing the preferential tilt angle and the ratio ε between the energy cost due to spatial variations in the tilt of the coating molecules and that of the van der Waals interactions which favors the preferential tilt. We analyze the model for both spherical and octahedral particles. On spherical particles, we find a transition from a tilted phase, at small ε, to a phase where the molecules spontaneously align along the surface normal and tilt disappears. Octahedral particles have an additional phase at small ε characterized by the presence of six topological defects. These defective configurations provide preferred sites for the chemical functionalization of monolayer-protected nanoparticles via place-exchange reactions and their consequent linking to form molecules and bulk materials. Copyright © EPLA, 2012.

  3. Can pelvic tilting be ignored in total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Yong Shon

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The sagittal position of pelvis is a key factor in impingement and dislocation after total hip arthroplasty. Pelvic tilting affects the position of acetabular component in the sagittal plane of the body as compared with its anatomic position in the pelvis. We suggest a preoperative lateral view of spine-pelvis, in upright and supine position for evaluation of a corrective adaptation of the acetabular cup accordingly with pelvic balance.

  4. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  5. Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    , DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark ABSTRACT (1795 anslag) Background: Excessive anterior pelvic tilt has been linked to pain and dysfunction of the hip and pelvic region. Conservative treatment (e.g. manual therapy and physical training) is suggested in correcting the tilt and eventually related symptoms....... However, the effectiveness in reducing excessive anterior pelvic tilt in adults is unknown. Purpose: To systematically review studies investigating the effectiveness of conservative treatment in reducing anterior pelvic tilt in adults and evaluate the quality of evidence. Materials and methods: MEDLINE...

  6. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer based tilt sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Guo, Bin; Haridas, Kuruveettil; Lin, Tsu-Hui; Hao Cheong, Jia; Lin Tsai, Ming; Boon Yee, Tack

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a tilt sensing mechanism based on the capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUTs) is presented. By measuring the difference in the time of flight of various pulse-echo signals from different CMUT transmitting elements to one common receiving element in the oil bath, the tilt angle of the oil surface can be determined. With the proposed device, the maximum tilt angles of 20° and 28° have been measured in the clockwise and counterclockwise directions, respectively, and the difference between the measured and the theoretical values of the tilt angle was found to be within 0.05° during the whole test.

  7. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  8. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Pollak, P.; Vopicka, J.; Hanzl, V.; Sovka, Pavel

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo) speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  9. Effects of Vestibular Loss on Orthostatic Responses to Tilts in the Pitch Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Serrador, Jorge M.; Black, F. Owen; Rupert,Angus H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which vestibular loss might impair orthostatic responses to passive tilts in the pitch plane in human subjects. Data were obtained from six subjects having chronic bilateral vestibular loss and six healthy individuals matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Vestibular loss was assessed with a comprehensive battery including dynamic posturography, vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, and ocular counterrolling. Head up tilt tests were conducted using a motorized two-axis table that allowed subjects to be tilted in the pitch plane from either a supine or prone body orientation at a slow rate (8 deg/s). The sessions consisted of three tilts, each consisting of20 min rest in a horizontal position, tilt to 80 deg upright for 10 min, and then return to the horizontal position for 5 min. The tilts were performed in darkness (supine and prone) or in light (supine only). Background music was used to mask auditory orientation cues. Autonomic measurements included beat-to-beat recordings of blood pressure (Finapres), heart rate (ECG), cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), end tidal CO2, respiratory rate and volume (Respritrace), and stroke volume (impedance cardiography). For both patients and control subjects, cerebral blood flow appeared to exhibit the most rapid adjustment following transient changes in posture. Outside of a greater cerebral hypoperfusion in patients during the later stages of tilt, responses did not differ dramatically between the vestibular loss and control subjects, or between tilts performed in light and dark room conditions. Thus, with the 'exception of cerebrovascular regulation, we conclude that orthostatic responses during slow postural tilts are not substantially impaired in humans following chronic loss of vestibular function, a result that might reflect compensation by nonvisual graviceptor

  10. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  11. Optic flow induced self-tilt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Roll optic flow induces illusory self-tilt in humans. As far as the mechanism underlying this visual-vestibular interaction is understood, larger angles of self-tilt are predicted than observed. It is hypothesized that the discrepancy can be explained by idiotropic (i.e., referring to a personal

  12. Lake-tilting investigations in southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasse, T.

    1996-04-01

    The main aim of lake-tilting investigations is to determine the course of the glacio-isostatic uplift, i.e. to find a formula for the uplift. Besides the lake-tilting graphs, knowledge of the recent relative uplift and the gradient of some marine shorelines are used for solving this problem. This paper summarizes four investigations. 23 refs, 10 figs

  13. Lake-tilting investigations in southern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasse, T. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    The main aim of lake-tilting investigations is to determine the course of the glacio-isostatic uplift, i.e. to find a formula for the uplift. Besides the lake-tilting graphs, knowledge of the recent relative uplift and the gradient of some marine shorelines are used for solving this problem. This paper summarizes four investigations. 23 refs, 10 figs.

  14. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Marion Jay [Brentwood, CA; Ayers, Shannon Lee [Brentwood, CA

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  15. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  16. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  17. UV exposure in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

  18. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  19. Collaborative Car Pooling System

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira; Paulo Trigo; Porfírio Filipe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture for a collaborative Car Pooling System based on a credits mechanism to motivate the cooperation among users. Users can spend the accumulated credits on parking facilities. For this, we propose a business model to support the collaboration between a car pooling system and parking facilities. The Portuguese Lisbon-s Metropolitan area is used as application scenario.

  20. Evaluating Tilt for Wind Farms: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annoni, Jennifer; Scholbrock, Andrew; Churchfield, Matthew; Fleming, Paul

    2017-06-29

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of tilt in a wind plant. Tilt control, much like other wind plant control strategies, has the potential to improve the performance of a wind plant. Tilt control uses the tilt angle of the turbine to direct the wake above or below the downstream turbines. This paper presents a study of tilt in two- and threeturbine arrays. Specifically, the authors show that the power production of a two-turbine array can be increased by tilting turbines in a specific orientation. When adding more turbines, as is shown with the three-turbine array, the overall percentage of power gain increases. This outcome deviates from some of the results seen in typical wind plant control strategies. Finally, we discuss the impact this type of control strategy has on the aerodynamics in a wind plant. This analysis demonstrates that a good understanding of wake characteristics is necessary to improve the plant's performance. A tilt strategy such as the one presented in this paper may have implications for future control/optimization studies including optimization of hub heights in a wind plant and analysis of deep array effects.

  1. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  2. Experimental studies of octahedral tilting in perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.J.; Kennedy, B.J.; Chakoumakos, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Structures of the perovskite family, ABX 3 , have interested crystallographers over many years, and continue to attract attention on account of their fascinating electrical and magnetic properties, and their significance in the earth sciences. The ideal perovskite (cubic) is a particularly simple structure, but also a demanding one, since aside from the lattice parameter there are no variable parameters in the structure. Consequently, the majority of perovskite structures show departures from the ideal, the most common distortion being the comer-linked tilting of the practically rigid BX 6 octahedral units. Following a group theoretical study in 1997, a number of experimental investigations of octahedral tilting have been undertaken in 1998, and these are reported in this presentation. The studies are of the perovskites, SrZrO 3 , SrHfO 3 , CaTiO 3 , NaTaO 3 and LaGaO 3 . In each case, the crystal structures have been followed at high temperatures, with particular attention being paid to temperature regimes in which only the simplest octahedral tilt (only one tilt axis) pertains. Neutron powder diffraction patterns have been recorded on the medium/high resolution diffractometer installed at beam port HB4 at the High Flux Isotope Reactor, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Crystal structures have been refined by the Rietveld method, and angles of tilt of the oxygen octahedra derived from the atomic position parameters. Each of the first four perovskites listed above transforms from tetragonal (with a single tilt axis) to cubic, and in each case, as far as can be determined from our measurements, the tilt angle in the tetragonal phase decreases continuously towards zero. There are interesting differences, however, in the functional form of this variation. The LaGaO 3 transforms at modest temperature to a rhombohedral phase, also characterised by a single tilt axis, but though the tilt angle decreases slowly with increasing temperature, the sample

  3. Sensor fusion for structural tilt estimation using an acceleration-based tilt sensor and a gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Park, Jong-Woong; Spencer, B. F., Jr.; Moon, Do-Soo; Fan, Jiansheng

    2017-10-01

    A tilt sensor can provide useful information regarding the health of structural systems. Most existing tilt sensors are gravity/acceleration based and can provide accurate measurements of static responses. However, for dynamic tilt, acceleration can dramatically affect the measured responses due to crosstalk. Thus, dynamic tilt measurement is still a challenging problem. One option is to integrate the output of a gyroscope sensor, which measures the angular velocity, to obtain the tilt; however, problems arise because the low-frequency sensitivity of the gyroscope is poor. This paper proposes a new approach to dynamic tilt measurements, fusing together information from a MEMS-based gyroscope and an acceleration-based tilt sensor. The gyroscope provides good estimates of the tilt at higher frequencies, whereas the acceleration measurements are used to estimate the tilt at lower frequencies. The Tikhonov regularization approach is employed to fuse these measurements together and overcome the ill-posed nature of the problem. The solution is carried out in the frequency domain and then implemented in the time domain using FIR filters to ensure stability. The proposed method is validated numerically and experimentally to show that it performs well in estimating both the pseudo-static and dynamic tilt measurements.

  4. CT patellar cortex tilt angle: A radiological method to measure patellar tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza Toluei, F.; Afshar, A.; Salarilak, S.; Sina, A.

    2005-01-01

    Background/Objectives: the role of patellar tilt in the anterior knee pain is indisputable. Traditionally. the lateral patello-femoral angle of Laurin has been defined in both the axial view and CT images for measuring the tilt of patella. We present a new angle. which is independent of the morphology of patella and directly relates to clinical assessment of the tilt. which is appreciated from palpation of the edges of the patella. Patients and Methods: 38 patients with anterior knee pain and forty normal control subjects were examined using CT scan of patello-femoral joint in 15 degrees of knee flexion. The amount of lateral patellar tilt was quantitatively assessed using the lateral patello-femoral angle, as described by Laurin et al, and the newly defined patellar cortex tilt angle. This angle is subtended by the line drawn along the posterior femoral condyles and the one parallel to the subchondral bone of patellar cortex. The fifteen-degree tilt was taken as normal cut-off point for patellar cortex tilt angle in the control group. Results: in patients, the average tilt of patella. using the patellar cortex tilt angle was 15.26 versus 7.05 in the control group. Using Student's t test, the difference between the two means was significant (P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of patellar cortex tilt angle were 40 and 90 percent, respectively There was a moderate agreement between our presented test and the lateral tilt angle test (kappa=0.40. P<0.001). Conclusion: our results indicate that patellar tilt can also be detected using patellar cortex tilt angle. We need more specific studies ta determine the validity of the test

  5. Body

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, Christina

    2010-01-01

    The human body is both the physical form inhabited by an individual “self” and the medium through which an individual engages with society. Hence the body both shapes and is shaped by an individual’s social roles. In contrast to the cognate fields of archaeology, anthropology, and classics, there has been little explicit discussion or theorization of the body in Egyptology. Some recent works, discussed here, constitute an exception to this trend, but there is much more scope for exploring anc...

  6. Perception of tilt (somatogravic illusion) in response to sustained linear acceleration during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, G.; Moore, S. T.; Raphan, T.; Cohen, B.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1998 Neurolab mission (STS-90), four astronauts were exposed to interaural and head vertical (dorsoventral) linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g during constant velocity rotation on a centrifuge, both on Earth and during orbital space flight. Subjects were oriented either left-ear-out or right-ear-out (Gy centrifugation), or lay supine along the centrifuge arm with their head off-axis (Gz centrifugation). Pre-flight centrifugation, producing linear accelerations of 0.5 g and 1 g along the Gy (interaural) axis, induced illusions of roll-tilt of 20 degrees and 34 degrees for gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA) vector tilts of 27 degrees and 45 degrees , respectively. Pre-flight 0.5 g and 1 g Gz (head dorsoventral) centrifugation generated perceptions of backward pitch of 5 degrees and 15 degrees , respectively. In the absence of gravity during space flight, the same centrifugation generated a GIA that was equivalent to the centripetal acceleration and aligned with the Gy or Gz axes. Perception of tilt was underestimated relative to this new GIA orientation during early in-flight Gy centrifugation, but was close to the GIA after 16 days in orbit, when subjects reported that they felt as if they were 'lying on side'. During the course of the mission, inflight roll-tilt perception during Gy centrifugation increased from 45 degrees to 83 degrees at 1 g and from 42 degrees to 48 degrees at 0.5 g. Subjects felt 'upside-down' during in-flight Gz centrifugation from the first in-flight test session, which reflected the new GIA orientation along the head dorsoventral axis. The different levels of in-flight tilt perception during 0.5 g and 1 g Gy centrifugation suggests that other non-vestibular inputs, including an internal estimate of the body vertical and somatic sensation, were utilized in generating tilt perception. Interpretation of data by a weighted sum of body vertical and somatic vectors, with an estimate of the GIA from the otoliths, suggests that

  7. Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    quality by two reviewers using Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in RCT’s and the ROBINS-I tool (Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies - of interventions). Data was synthesized qualitatively. The GRADE approach was used to determine the overall quality of the evidence. PROSPERO...... treatment may reduce anterior pelvis tilt and reduce symptoms in relation to faulty posture. Keywords: pelvis, anterior tilt, anteversion, posture...

  8. Frequency Response Analysis of an Actively Lubricated Rotor/Tilting-Pad Bearing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper the dynamic response of a rotor supported by an active lubricated tilting-pad bearing is investigated in the frequency domain. The theoretical part of the investigation is based on a mathematical model obtained by means of rigid body dynamics. The oil film forces are inserted...... lubricated tilting-pad bearing. By applying a simple proportional controller it is possible to reach 30% reduction of the resonance peak associated with the first rigid body mode shape of the system. One of the most important consequences of such a vibration reduction in rotating machines is the feasibility...

  9. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based......It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... to do so, car use habit, and the interaction between the two, confirms the theory-derived hypothesis that car use habits act as an obstacle to the transformation of intentions to commute by public transportation into action....

  10. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  11. Distortionary company car taxation: deadweight losses through increased car ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household car consumption for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate that for about 20 % of households company car possession increases car ownership. The annual welfare loss of

  12. Lifting to cluster-tilting objects in higher cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pin

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we consider the $d$-cluster-tilted algebras, the endomorphism algebras of $d$-cluster-tilting objects in $d$-cluster categories. We show that a tilting module over such an algebra lifts to a $d$-cluster-tilting object in this $d$-cluster category.

  13. The impact of gravity during head-up tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.; Olufsen, Mette; Smith, Brittany

    2011-01-01

    and the carotid sinuses in a healthy volunteer. During head-up tilt the head is lifted above the heart stimulating gravitational pooling of blood in the lower extremities. This shift in volume is followed by an increase in blood pressure in the lower body, while the pressure in the head decreases, while...... a model predicting hydrostatic height between the two locations. Results from this model were compared with measurements. Furthermore, we show, using a differential equations model predicting blood pressure, that it is possible to predict blood pressure measured at the level of the carotid sinuses using...

  14. Direct cone beam SPECT reconstruction with camera tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianying Li; Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.; Zongjian Cao; Tsui, B.M.W.

    1993-01-01

    A filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm is derived to perform cone beam (CB) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction with camera tilt using circular orbits. This algorithm reconstructs the tilted angle CB projection data directly by incorporating the tilt angle into it. When the tilt angle becomes zero, this algorithm reduces to that of Feldkamp. Experimentally acquired phantom studies using both a two-point source and the three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom have been performed. The transaxial tilted cone beam brain images and profiles obtained using the new algorithm are compared with those without camera tilt. For those slices which have approximately the same distance from the detector in both tilt and non-tilt set-ups, the two transaxial reconstructions have similar profiles. The two-point source images reconstructed from this new algorithm and the tilted cone beam brain images are also compared with those reconstructed from the existing tilted cone beam algorithm. (author)

  15. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    The car is the second (40%) most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4%) of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective wa...

  16. 49 CFR 231.1 - Box and other house cars built or placed in service before October 1, 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., until car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body of car, at which time they must... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Box and other house cars built or placed in... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.1 Box and other house cars built or placed in service before October 1, 1966...

  17. Motion Perception and Manual Control Performance During Passive Tilt and Translation Following Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2010-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study is examining changes in motion perception following Space Shuttle flights and the operational implications of post-flight tilt-translation ambiguity for manual control performance. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt orientation is also being evaluated as a countermeasure to improve performance during a closed-loop nulling task. METHODS. Data has been collected on 5 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s) combined with body translation (12-22 cm, peak-to-peak) is utilized to elicit roll-tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). A forward-backward moving sled (24-390 cm, peak-to-peak) with or without chair tilting in pitch is utilized to elicit pitch tilt perception (equivalent to 20 deg, peak-to-peak). These combinations are elicited at 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 Hz for evaluating the effect of motion frequency on tilt-translation ambiguity. In both devices, a closed-loop nulling task is also performed during pseudorandom motion with and without vibrotactile feedback of tilt. All tests are performed in complete darkness. PRELIMINARY RESULTS. Data collection is currently ongoing. Results to date suggest there is a trend for translation motion perception to be increased at the low and medium frequencies on landing day compared to pre-flight. Manual control performance is improved with vibrotactile feedback. DISCUSSION. The results of this study indicate that post-flight recovery of motion perception and manual control performance is complete within 8 days following short-duration space missions. Vibrotactile feedback of tilt improves manual control performance both before and after flight.

  18. Online monitoring of torpedo car shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Romero A.; Calente, Aderaldo

    2001-03-01

    The on-line monitoring of temperature permits increasing the campaign and operational stability of the torpedo cars, as well as optimizing the consumption of refractory, thus reducing maintenance costs. It has become an indispensable tool in the productive process at Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao - CST. This technique was implemented in 1996 with the purpose of following up the evolution of refractory wear in the torpedo cars, using two fixed thermographic cameras (infrared sensors) with a scanning system. The system captures, records and transmits the thermal images of the body surfaces for analysis by computer, besides sounding the alarm when the temperature reaches pre- set values.

  19. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  20. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  1. Car suspension system monitoring under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Kuznetsov, N. Y.; Lysenko, A. V.; Vlasov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes an advanced gyro-based measuring system comprising a CGV-4K central vertical gyro and a G-3M gyrocompass. The advanced system provides additional functions that help measure unsprung mass rotation angles about a vertical axis, rolling angles, trim angles and movements of the unsprung masses of the front (ap and al) and rear b axes when a car wheel hits a single obstruction. The paper also describes the operation of the system, which measures movements of unsprung masses about the body of a car when it hits a single obstruction. The paper presents the dependency diagrams ap = f(t) and al = f(t) for front and rear wheels respectively, as well as b = f(t) for a rear left wheel, which were determined experimentally. Test results for a car equipped with an advanced gyro-based measuring system moving around a circle can form a basis for developing a mathematical model of the process.

  2. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  3. Cognitive suppression of tilt sensations during linear horizontal ego-motion in the dark

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wertheim, A.H.; Mesland, B.S.; Bles, W.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of models of otolith functioning, one would expect that, during sinusoidal linear self-motion in darkness, percepts of body tilt are experienced. However, this is normally not the case, which suggests that the otoliths are not responsive to small deviations from the vertical of the

  4. 49 CFR 231.5 - Drop-end low-side gondola cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drop-end low-side gondola cars. 231.5 Section 231... gondola cars. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a...

  5. 49 CFR 231.3 - Drop-end high-side gondola cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically rebuilding body... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drop-end high-side gondola cars. 231.3 Section 231... gondola cars. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a...

  6. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  7. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboven, F.

    1999-01-01

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  8. Spatial coherence profilometry on tilted surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Pavel; Halouzka, M.; Duan, Z.; Takeda, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 34 (2009), H40-H47 ISSN 0003-6935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : tilted surface * spatial coherence profilometry * spatial coherence * measurement error * shape measurement Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.410, year: 2009

  9. "Happiness and Education": Tilting at Windmills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verducci, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This essay explores the question: Is Nel Noddings a visionary who sees past the constraints of contemporary education or is she, like Don Quixote, madly tilting at windmills in her description and defense of happiness as an educational aim? Viewing the educational aim of happiness as an ideal raises substantial challenges for the practicality of…

  10. Misuse of car safety seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Gerhart, S

    1988-01-01

    Correct use of car seats for small children is essential to prevent serious injuries and death from automotive accidents. Failure to use a car seat properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child. A case study in which misuse of a car seat occurred is reported. The infant died of hemorrhage and shock secondary to liver laceration which resulted from excessive pressure over the abdomen sustained on impact. Surveys of car seat use for small children prior to and following a child restraint law are also reported. Observers noted types of car seats and specific forms of misuse. Survey results suggest that parents are more likely to misuse car seats for infants than toddlers. Medical professionals can reinforce the importance of proper car seat use by incorporating specific car seat use questions into the patient interview and by providing educational materials.

  11. Design of an intelligent car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yongyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.

  12. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating

  13. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  14. Design optimization for car compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nastic, T.; Schoofs, A.J.G.; Mooi, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays traffic safety and occupant protection get a lot of attention due to the large number of fatalities and injuries in car accidents. The occupant protection in two-vehicle crashes can be improved by car-to-car compatibility, which means well balanced crashworthiness characteristics of both

  15. Compatibility optimization of passenger cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nastic, T.; Schoofs, A.J.G.; Mooi, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays traffic safety and occupant protection get a lot of attention due to the large number of fatalities and injuries in car accidents. The occupant protection in two-vehicle crashes can be improved by car-to-car compatibility, which means well balanced crashworthiness characteristics of both

  16. Development of tilted fibre Bragg gratings using highly coherent 255 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... This paper reports the study on development of tilted fibre Bragg gratings using highly coherent 255 nm radiation, obtained from the second harmonic generation (SHG) of copper vapour laser (CVL). The transmission and reflection spectra of the tilted fibre Bragg gratings (TFBG) were studied for the tilt ...

  17. Design and Development of Tilting Rotary Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Varun, V.; Tejesh, P.; Prashanth, B. N.

    2018-02-01

    Casting is the best and effective technique used for manufacturing products. The important accessory for casting is furnace. Furnace is used to melt the metal. A perfect furnace is one that reduces the wastage of material, reduces the cost of manufacturing and there by reduces the cost of production. Of all the present day furnaces there may be wastage of material, and the chances of increasing the time of manufacturing as the is continuous need of tilting of the furnace for every mould and then changing the moulds. Considering these aspects, a simple and least expensive tilting rotary furnace is designed and developed. The Tilting and Rotary Furnace consists of mainly melting chamber and the base. The metal enters the melting chamber through the input door that is provided on the top of the melting chamber. Inside the melting chamber there is a graphite furnace. The metal is melted in the graphite crucible. An insulation of ceramic fibre cloth is provided inside the furnace. The metal is melted using Propane gas. The propane gas is easily available and economic. The gas is burned using a pilot burner. The pilot burner is more efficient that other burners. The pilot burner is lit with a push button igniter. The pilot burner is located at the bottom of the combustion chamber. This enables the uniform heating of the metal inside the crucible. The temperature inside the melting chamber is noted using a temperature sensor. The gas input is cut-off if the temperature is exceeding a specific temperature. After the melting of the metal is done the furnace is tilted and after the mould is filled it is rotated. The external gears are used to controlling the tilting. The results of studies carried out for the design & development of low cost, simple furnace that can be mounted anywhere on the shop floor and this can be very much useful for the education purposes and small scale manufacturing. The furnace can be rotated in 360 degrees and can help in reducing the time taken

  18. CERN car stickers 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.

  19. CuseCar--community car-sharing program : car sharing lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    CuseCar of Syracuse launched services in December 2008 with 3 Toyota Prius Hybrids. CuseCar initially, due to : concerns about availability, limited membership to Origination Sponsor Locations, which in turn developed few : members. In 2009 CuseCar o...

  20. Are cars the new tobacco?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Margaret J; Watkins, Stephen J; Gorman, Dermot R; Higgins, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Public health must continually respond to new threats reflecting wider societal changes. Ecological public health recognizes the links between human health and global sustainability. We argue that these links are typified by the harms caused by dependence on private cars. We present routine data and literature on the health impacts of private car use; the activities of the 'car lobby' and factors underpinning car dependence. We compare these with experience of tobacco. Private cars cause significant health harm. The impacts include physical inactivity, obesity, death and injury from crashes, cardio-respiratory disease from air pollution, noise, community severance and climate change. The car lobby resists measures that would restrict car use, using tactics similar to the tobacco industry. Decisions about location and design of neighbourhoods have created environments that reinforce and reflect car dependence. Car ownership and use has greatly increased in recent decades and there is little public support for measures that would reduce this. Car dependence is a potent example of an issue that ecological public health should address. The public health community should advocate strongly for effective policies that reduce car use and increase active travel.

  1. Listening talkers produce great spectral tilt contrasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich; Heegård, Jan; Henrichsen, Peter Juel

    It is well known that the envelope of the long-term average speech spectrum flattens with vocal effort. A recent study [1] showed that content words had a flatter spectral envelope than content words at the same overall level for a specific Danish speech material. The present paper investigates...... of colored geometrical shapes taken from DanPASS [2]. The spectral tilt was gauged by calculating the band-level difference in dB between two frequency bands with pass-bands 150 to 803 Hz and 803 to 1358 Hz respectively in 5 ms intervals. This was done separately for intervals containing content words...... and function words and grouped by talker. The spectral tilt difference was then calculated as the average band-level difference for function words minus the average band-level difference for content words. This calculation was grouped per talker. For the monologues these differences ranged between 5 and 8 d...

  2. A tilted transversely isotropic slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2012-05-09

    The relation between vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI) requires solving a quartic polynomial equation, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of the perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the vertical slowness that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for a small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  3. Inverse solutions for tilting orthogonal double prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anhu; Ding, Ye; Bian, Yongming; Liu, Liren

    2014-06-10

    An analytical reverse solution and actual examples are given to show how to direct a laser beam from a pair of orthogonal prisms to given targets in free space. Considering the influences of double-prism structural parameters, a lookup table method to seek the numerical reverse solution of each prism's tilting angle is also proposed for steering the double-prism orientation to track a target position located in the near field. Some case studies, as well as a specified elliptical target trajectory scanned by the cam-based driving double prisms, exhibit the significant application values of the theoretical derivation. The analytic reverse and numerical solutions can be generalized to investigate the synthesis of scanning patterns and the controlling strategy of double-prism tilting motion, the potentials of which can be explored to perform the orientation and position tracking functions in applications of precision engineering fields.

  4. GAS MOVEMENT IN ROTARY TILTING FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of gas movement and heat and mass transfer processes in the rotary tilting furnace (RTF at the heat treatment of disperse materials. The study was performed through computer modeling using software packages ANSYS CFX and Solid Works Flow Simulation. The results were used to design RTF with different capacity and application and helped to improve their technical and economic characteristics.

  5. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  6. Temperature characteristics of tilted wave lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximov, Mikhail V.; Gordeev, Nikita Yu.; Shernyakov, Yuri M.; Payusov, Alexey S.; Kalyuzhnyy, Nikolay A.; Mintairov, Sergey A.; Kulagina, Marina M.; Zhukov, Alexey E.; Shchukin, Vitaly A.; Ledentsov, Nikolai N.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the temperature characteristics of edge-emitting tilted wave lasers (TWL) composed of a thin active waveguide (0.7 μm) optically coupled to a thick passive waveguide (26 μm). The active region is based on four 1040-nm InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells. The 2-mm-long and 50-μm-wide broad area lasers show characteristic temperature of 115 K and lasing up to 120°C in the continuous-wave mode. The maximal pulsed output power as high as 40 W was achieved being limited by the available current source. Vertical far-fields of the TWLs consist of two tilted narrow lobs (2.4 deg full width at half maximum each), which contain >70% of the total output power. The tilt angle of the lobes slightly increases with the temperature (by 1 deg/40°C) due to the transverse mode hopping caused by the temperature-induced changes of the waveguide refractive indices.

  7. A COMMON SOURCE OF ACCRETION DISK TILT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source that causes and maintains disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through the disk's center of mass. The disk responds to lift by pitching around the disk's line of nodes. If the gas stream flow ebbs, then lift also ebbs and the disk attempts to return to its original orientation. To first approximation, lift does not depend on magnetic fields or radiation sources but does depend on the mass and the surface area of the disk. Also, for disk tilt to be initiated, a minimum mass transfer rate must be exceeded. For example, a 10 -11 M sun disk around a 0.8 M sun compact central object requires a mass transfer rate greater than ∼ 8 x 10 -11 M sun yr -1 , a value well below the known mass transfer rates in cataclysmic variable dwarf novae systems that retrogradely precess and exhibit negative superhumps in their light curves and a value well below mass transfer rates in protostellar-forming systems.

  8. 'Sit and tilt' preparation for subscapular system free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, J; Patwa, H; Costello, M S; Patil, Y

    2018-02-01

    The ablation of advanced head and neck cancer often results in large three-dimensional defects that require free tissue transfer to optimally address functional and cosmetic issues. The subscapular system is a highly versatile donor site for flaps used for head and neck reconstruction. Traditional methods of harvesting subscapular flaps require repositioning and re-preparing, which significantly increases the operative time and prevents simultaneous harvesting of the flap. This paper presents our experience of a single-stage 'sit and tilt' technique, which provides a convenient method for harvesting subscapular system free flaps without significant repositioning. This technique was used for a variety of head and neck defects, and body habitus did not seem to affect free tissue harvesting. It is hoped that utilisation of this preparation and harvesting technique will make head and neck surgeons more willing to take advantage of the subscapular system.

  9. Patient Specific Modeling of Head-Up Tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Nakeya; Wright, Andrew; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    blood pressure. The model contains five compartments representing arteries and veins in the upper and lower body of the systemic circulation, as well as the left ventricle facilitating pumping of the heart. A physiologically based sub-model describes gravitational effects on pooling of blood during......Short term cardiovascular responses to head-up tilt (HUT) experiments involve complex cardiovascular regulation in order to maintain blood pressure at homeostatic levels. This manuscript presents a patient specific compartmental model developed to predict dynamic changes in heart rate and arterial...... that it is possible to estimate a subset of model parameters that allows prediction of observed changes in arterial blood pressure. Furthermore, the model adequately predicts arterial and venous blood pressures, as well as cardiac output in compartments for which data are not available....

  10. Ambiguous Tilt and Translation Motion Cues in Astronauts after Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, G.; Harm, D. L.; Rupert, A. H.; Beaton, K. H.; Wood, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive changes during space flight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with visual, proprioceptive, and somatosensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination, vertigo, spatial disorientation, and perceptual illusions following transitions between gravity levels. This joint ESA-NASA pre- and post-flight experiment is designed to examine both the physiological basis and operational implications for disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances in astronauts following short-duration space flights. The first specific aim is to examine the effects of stimulus frequency on adaptive changes in eye movements and motion perception during independent tilt and translation motion profiles. Roll motion is provided by a variable radius centrifuge. Pitch motion is provided by NASA's Tilt-Translation Sled in which the resultant gravitoinertial vector remains aligned with the body longitudinal axis during tilt motion (referred to as the Z-axis gravitoinertial or ZAG paradigm). We hypothesize that the adaptation of otolith-mediated responses to these stimuli will have specific frequency characteristics, being greatest in the mid-frequency range where there is a crossover of tilt and translation. The second specific aim is to employ a closed-loop nulling task in which subjects are tasked to use a joystick to null-out tilt motion disturbances on these two devices. The stimuli consist of random steps or sum-of-sinusoids stimuli, including the ZAG profiles on the Tilt-Translation Sled. We hypothesize that the ability to control tilt orientation will be compromised following space flight, with increased control errors corresponding to changes in self-motion perception. The third specific aim is to evaluate how sensory substitution aids can be used to improve manual control performance. During the closed-loop nulling task on both devices, small tactors placed around the torso vibrate according to the actual body tilt angle relative to gravity. We hypothesize

  11. Spatial Cognitive Performance During Adaptation to Conflicting Tilt-Translation Stimuli as a Sensorimotor Spaceflight Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayanickupuram, A. J.; Ramos, K. A.; Cordova, M. L.; Wood, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    The need to resolve new patterns of sensory feedback in altered gravitoinertial environments requires cognitive processes to develop appropriate reference frames for spatial orientation awareness. The purpose of this study was to examine deficits in spatial cognitive performance during adaptation to conflicting tilt-translation stimuli. Fourteen subjects were tilted within a lighted enclosure that simultaneously translated at one of 3 frequencies. Tilt and translation motion was synchronized to maintain the resultant gravitoinertial force aligned with the longitudinal body axis, resulting in a mismatch analogous to spaceflight in which the canals and vision signal tilt while the otoliths do not. Changes in performance on different spatial cognitive tasks were compared 1) without motion, 2) with tilt motion alone (pitch at 0.15, 0.3 and 0.6 Hz or roll at 0.3 Hz), and 3) with conflicting tilt-translation motion. The adaptation paradigm was continued for up to 30 min or until the onset of nausea. The order of the adaptation conditions were counter-balanced across 4 different test sessions. There was a significant effect of stimulus frequency on both motion sickness and spatial cognitive performance. Only 3 of 14 were able to complete the full 30 min protocol at 0.15 Hz, while 7 of 14 completed 0.3 Hz and 13 of 14 completed 0.6 Hz. There were no changes in simple visual-spatial cognitive tests, e.g., mental rotation or match-to-sample. There were significant deficits during 0.15 Hz adaptation in both accuracy and reaction time during a spatial reference task in which subjects are asked to identify a match of a 3D reoriented cube assemblage. Our results are consistent with antidotal reports of cognitive impairment that are common during sensorimotor adaptation with G-transitions. We conclude that these cognitive deficits stem from the ambiguity of spatial reference frames for central processing of inertial motion cues.

  12. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  13. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  14. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Blaho

    Full Text Available The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids. (ii Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries than matt black finish. (iii The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  15. Unexpected attraction of polarotactic water-leaving insects to matt black car surfaces: mattness of paintwork cannot eliminate the polarized light pollution of black cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaho, Miklos; Herczeg, Tamas; Kriska, Gyorgy; Egri, Adam; Szaz, Denes; Farkas, Alexandra; Tarjanyi, Nikolett; Czinke, Laszlo; Barta, Andras; Horvath, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    The horizontally polarizing surface parts of shiny black cars (the reflection-polarization characteristics of which are similar to those of water surfaces) attract water-leaving polarotactic insects. Thus, shiny black cars are typical sources of polarized light pollution endangering water-leaving insects. A new fashion fad is to make car-bodies matt black or grey. Since rough (matt) surfaces depolarize the reflected light, one of the ways of reducing polarized light pollution is to make matt the concerned surface. Consequently, matt black/grey cars may not induce polarized light pollution, which would be an advantageous feature for environmental protection. To test this idea, we performed field experiments with horizontal shiny and matt black car-body surfaces laid on the ground. Using imaging polarimetry, in multiple-choice field experiments we investigated the attractiveness of these test surfaces to various water-leaving polarotactic insects and obtained the following results: (i) The attractiveness of black car-bodies to polarotactic insects depends in complex manner on the surface roughness (shiny, matt) and species (mayflies, dolichopodids, tabanids). (ii) Non-expectedly, the matt dark grey car finish is much more attractive to mayflies (being endangered and protected in many countries) than matt black finish. (iii) The polarized light pollution of shiny black cars usually cannot be reduced with the use of matt painting. On the basis of these, our two novel findings are that (a) matt car-paints are highly polarization reflecting, and (b) these matt paints are not suitable to repel polarotactic insects. Hence, the recent technology used to make matt the car-bodies cannot eliminate or even can enhance the attractiveness of black/grey cars to water-leaving insects. Thus, changing shiny black car painting to matt one is a disadvantageous fashion fad concerning the reduction of polarized light pollution of black vehicles.

  16. Carboxylic acid reductase enzymes (CARs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Margit

    2018-04-01

    Carboxylate reductases (CARs) are emerging as valuable catalysts for the selective one-step reduction of carboxylic acids to their corresponding aldehydes. The substrate scope of CARs is exceptionally broad and offers potential for their application in diverse synthetic processes. Two major fields of application are the preparation of aldehydes as end products for the flavor and fragrance sector and the integration of CARs in cascade reactions with aldehydes as the key intermediates. The latest applications of CARs are dominated by in vivo cascades and chemo-enzymatic reaction sequences. The challenge to fully exploit product selectivity is discussed. Recent developments in the characterization of CARs are summarized, with a focus on aspects related to the domain architecture and protein sequences of CAR enzymes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  18. Product declaration for cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO 2 -emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed

  19. Understanding the Hydromechanical Behavior of a Fault Zone From Transient Surface Tilt and Fluid Pressure Observations at Hourly Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Burbey, Thomas J.; Boudin, Frédérick; Lavenant, Nicolas; Davy, Philippe

    2017-12-01

    Flow through reservoirs such as fractured media is powered by head gradients which also generate measurable poroelastic deformation of the rock body. The combined analysis of surface deformation and subsurface pressure provides valuable insights of a reservoir's structure and hydromechanical properties, which are of interest for deep-seated CO2 or nuclear waste storage for instance. Among all surveying tools, surface tiltmeters offer the possibility to grasp hydraulically induced deformations over a broad range of time scales with a remarkable precision. Here we investigate the information content of transient surface tilt generated by the pressurization a kilometer scale subvertical fault zone. Our approach involves the combination of field data and results of a fully coupled poromechanical model. The signature of pressure changes in the fault zone due to pumping cycles is clearly recognizable in field tilt data and we aim to explain the peculiar features that appear in (1) tilt time series alone from a set of four instruments and 2) the ratio of tilt over pressure. We evidence that the shape of tilt measurements on both sides of a fault zone is sensitive to its diffusivity and its elastic modulus. The ratio of tilt over pressure predominantly encompasses information about the system's dynamic behavior and extent of the fault zone and allows separating contributions of flow in the different compartments. Hence, tiltmeters are well suited to characterize hydromechanical processes associated with fault zone hydrogeology at short time scales, where spaceborne surveying methods fail to recognize any deformation signal.

  20. Proton - Malaysia's national car project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods.......The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods....

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF RECOMMENDATIONS FOR EXTENDING THE USEFUL LIFE OF PASSENGER CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The vast majority of passenger car fleet of «Ukrzaliznytsia» have cars with outlasted service life. In this regard there is a need to find methods to justify the extending useful life of passenger cars and to assess the car body frame residual life conformity to the operating load for the next life time. Methodology. The selection of cars enforced technical diagnostics of cars to detect the level of corrosion and mechanical damage. The following steps provided the car body frame strength analysis on the basis of experimental static and impact strength tests, the longitudinal force effect endurance tests as well as assessment and forecasting of conformity of car body operating life for the next period. Findings The car survey before testing showed that the technical condition of sleeper cars (SSC is better than that of open-type cars (SOC. So, in SSC cars the thinning of the main load-bearing elements due to corrosion does not exceed 10%, there are no cracks, deformations, rack breakages, etc. At the same time in SOC cars the thinning due to local corrosion reached 35%. There are deformations and corrosion damage of side sill Zshape of both cars, single corner post breakages, damage to the joints of longitudinal tie rod and span bolsters. The conducted static and impact strength tests with following strength assessment of the car structural members showed that the strength of the latter is provided according to the normative documents, and these cars pose no threat to traffic safety. The impact endurance tests showed that all the cars passed the endurance tests without damage, which would prevent from testing and could not be removed during the next depot repair or overhaul, and had life length that allows them to extend the useful life for the next period. Originality. The results of experimental studies show that passenger cars after 28 … 30 and 33… 35 years of operation meet the requirements of strength and safety in accordance

  2. Thermal annealing of tilted fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vila, Á.; Rodríguez-Cobo, L.; Mégret, P.; Caucheteur, C.; López-Higuera, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    We report a practical study of the thermal decay of cladding mode resonances in tilted fiber Bragg gratings, establishing an analogy with the "power law" evolution previously observed on uniform gratings. We examine how this process contributes to a great thermal stability, even improving it by means of a second cycle slightly increasing the annealing temperature. In addition, we show an improvement of the grating spectrum after annealing, with respect to the one just after inscription, which suggests the application of this method to be employed to improve saturation issues during the photo-inscription process.

  3. Background free CARS imaging by phase sensitive heterodyne CARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurna, M.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Otto, Cornelis; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we show that heterodyne CARS, based on a controlled and stable phase-preserving chain, can be used to measure amplitude and phase information of molecular vibration modes. The technique is validated by a comparison of the imaginary part of the heterodyne CARS spectrum to the

  4. An efficient eikonal solver for tilted transversely isotropic and tilted orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-01-01

    Computing first-arrival traveltimes in the presence of anisotropy is important for high-end near surface modeling, microseismic source localization, and fractured reservoir characterization. Anisotropy deviating from elliptical anisotropy introduces higher-order nonlinearity into the eikonal equation, which makes solving the equation a challenging task. We address this challenge by iteratively solving a sequence of simpler tilted elliptically anisotropic eikonal equations. At each iteration, the source function is updated to capture the effects due to the higher order nonlinear terms in the anisotropy. We use Aitken extrapolation to speed up the convergence rate of the iterative algorithm. The result is an efficient algorithm for firstarrival traveltime computations in tilted anisotropic media. We demonstrate the proposed method for the tilted transversely isotropic media and the tilted orthorhombic media. Numerical tests show that the proposed method is feasible and produces results that are comparable to wavefield extrapolation, even for strongly anisotropic and complex structures. Therefore, for the cases where one or two-point ray tracing fails, our method may be a potential substitute for computing traveltimes.

  5. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    OpenAIRE

    Luo Jun; Wang Zhiqian; Shen Chengwu; Wen Zhuoman; Liu Shaojin; Cai Sheng; Li Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendic...

  6. Effect of tilting on oxygenation in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, M; Cowan, F; Whitelaw, A

    1988-01-01

    Transcutaneous (tc) PO2 in newborn infants increased on head up tilting (median increase 0.5 kPa at term, 1.0 kPa preterm). Head down tilting was associated with an equivalent fall in tcPO2. There was no change in tcPCO2. Tilting of infants mechanically ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome or surgery produced no consistent change in PO2. PMID:3128187

  7. Numerical modelling of the tilt casting processes of titanium alumindes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research has investigated the modelling and optimisation of the tilt casting process of Titanium Aluminides (TiAl). This study is carried out in parallel with the experimental research undertaken in IRC at the University of Birmingham. They propose to use tilt casting inside a vacuum chamber and attempt to combine this tilt casting process with Induction Skull Melting (ISM). A totally novel process is developing for investment casting, which is suitable for casting gamma TiAl.\\ud \\ud As ...

  8. Substitution between cars within the household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borger, B.; Mulalic, I.; Rouwendal, J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate - for each car owned by the household

  9. INVESTIGATIONS ON OPERATION OF ROTARY TILTING FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotary tilting furnace (RTF is a new type of fuel furnaces, that provide the most efficient heating and recycling of polydisperse materials. The paper describes results of the investigations on thermal processes in the RTF, movement of materials and non-isothermal gas flow during kiln rotary process. The investigations have been carried out while using physical and computer simulations and under actual operating conditions applying the pilot plant. Results of the research have served as a basis for development of recommendations on the RTF calculations and designing and they have been also used for constructional design of a rotary tilting furnace for heating and melting of cast iron chips, reduction smelting of steel mill scale, melting of aluminum scrap, melting of lead from battery scrap. These furnaces have a high thermal efficiency (~50 %, technological flexibility, high productivity and profitability. Proven technical solutions for recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals develop the use of RTF in the foundry and metallurgical industry as the main technological unit for creation of cost-effective small-tonnage recycling of metal waste generated at the plants. The research results open prospects for organization of its own production for high-quality charging material in Belarus in lieu of imported primary metal. The proposed technology makes it possible to solve environmental challenge pertaining to liquidation of multi-tonnage heaps of metal-containing wastes.

  10. Vibrational phase contrast CARS microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurna, M.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes a new technique that improves specificity, selectivity and sensitivity in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. CARS microscopy is a nonlinear optical technique that utilizes specific bonds of molecules, sometimes referred to as the `fingerprint' of a

  11. Shopping for a safer car

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This brochure provides some helpful tips on what to look for when shopping for a safer car. Automakers are increasingly advertising the safety features of their cars. The problem is sorting out their claims and zeroing in on the safety features that ...

  12. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  13. Initial heating in cold cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Teunissen, L.P.J.; Hoogh, I.M. de

    2012-01-01

    During the initial minutes after entering a cold car, people feel uncomfortably cold. Six different warming systems were investigated in a small car in order to find out how to improve the feeling of comfort using 16 volunteers. The methods were: no additional warming next to a standard heating

  14. Panorama 2014 - Car-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)

  15. The attractiveness of car use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the driving forces behind car use is necessary for the development of effective transport policies. The high door-to-door speed of the car in comparison with other travel modes forms its main attractiveness. And speed is the main engine for mobility growth, which is not easy to curb.

  16. FUEL PRICES AND CAR SALES

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Cârstea

    2008-01-01

    Automotive industry is a very important economic sector that is highly responsive to changes in the world economy. The fuel price is the biggest enemy of car manufacturers. This is a compared analysis between Europe and Romania regarding new car registrations.

  17. Mapping of moveout in tilted transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2013-09-09

    The computation of traveltimes in a transverse isotropic medium with a tilted symmetry axis tilted transversely isotropic is very important both for modelling and inversion. We develop a simple analytical procedure to map the traveltime function from a transverse isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (vertical transversely isotropic) to a tilted transversely isotropic medium by applying point-by-point mapping of the traveltime function. This approach can be used for kinematic modelling and inversion in layered tilted transversely isotropic media. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  18. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  19. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with the...

  20. Specificity of head-up tilt testing in adolescents: effect of various degrees of tilt challenge in normal control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D A; Zlotocha, J; Henke, L; Dhala, A

    1997-10-01

    This study sought to determine the specificity of commonly used tilt protocols in children. Tilt table testing is commonly utilized in the evaluation of children and adolescents with syncope despite a lack of uniformity in tilt protocols and a lack of studies of specificity in normal control subjects. Sixty-nine normal control volunteers (12 to 18 years old, 38 male, 31 female) with no previous history of syncope, presyncope or arrhythmia underwent tilting to 80 degrees, 70 degrees or 60 degrees for a maximum of 30 min on a motorized table with a footboard support. Autonomic maneuvers, including deep breathing, carotid massage, Valsalva maneuver and diving reflex, were performed before tilt testing to determine whether the response to these maneuvers could identify subjects prone to fainting during tilt testing. Symptoms of presyncope and frank syncope were elicited in 24 of 69 subjects (13 male, 11 female): 6 (60%) of 10 were tilted at 80 degrees, 9 (29%) of 31 at 70 degrees and 9 (32%) of 28 at 60 degrees. Tilt testing at 80 degrees was terminated after the tenth subject by the institutional review board. The mean time to a positive test response was 10.5 min at 80 degrees, 14.2 min at 70 degrees and 13.2 min at 60 degrees. In the 80 degrees tilt, 4 of 10 subjects had a positive response within 10 minutes, whereas only 3 of 31 and 2 of 28 had a positive response within testing were similar with respect to age; gender; PR, QRS and QT intervals; and baseline heart rate and blood pressure. Likewise, responses to other autonomic function tests performed were similar in tilt-positive and tilt-negative patients. The power for detecting a significant difference between patients tilted at 80 degrees versus 60 degrees and 70 degrees was 0.45 and for detecting differences in autonomic tone between tilt-positive (n = 24) and tilt-negative (n = 45) subjects was 0.8. Children appear to be more susceptible to orthostatic stress than adults. Therefore, tilt protocols commonly

  1. A patient treated with tilt training and midodrine after 68 seconds asystole during head-up tilt table testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Fahrettin; Cizgici, Yaşar; Bilge, A Kaya

    2011-08-01

    Neurocardiogenic syncope is a relatively common cause of syncope and is diagnosed by head-up tilt testing. A 21-year-old man was examined for frequent syncope episodes which occurred after episodes of blood drawing and standing in queue. Syncope developed in tilt table testing. After about 68 seconds, sinus rhythm returned. Recent reports have shown that tilt training is a very effective therapy for recurrent neurocardiogenic syncope. In our case, the patient was treated with midodrine 2.5 mg once a day and a tilt training programme. Therapy resulted in improvement and during a follow-up of six months, no major events occurred.

  2. Using collisions and resonances to tilting Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoszinski, Zeeve; Hamilton, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    Uranus’ large obliquity (98°) is widely thought to have occurred from a polar strike with an Earth sized object. Morbidelli et al. (2012) argue that two or more collisions are required in order to explain the prograde motion of Uranus’ satellites. These impactors could have been less massive by about a factor of ten, but multiple polar strikes are still improbable as even larger mass impactors would be needed for more equatorial collisions. Here we explore an alternative non-collisional model inspired by the explanation to Saturn’s significant tilt (27°). Ward and Hamilton (2004) & Hamilton and Ward (2004) argue that a secular resonance currently between Saturn’s spin axis and Neptune’s orbital pole is responsible for Saturn’s large obliquity. Unfortunately, Uranus’ axial precession frequency today is too long to match any of the current planets’ fundamental frequencies. Boué and Laskar (2010) explain that Uranus may have harbored an improbably large moon in the past which could have sped up the planet’s axial precession frequency enough to resonate with the regression of its own orbital pole. We explore another scenario which requires only the interactions between the giant planets.Thommes et al. (1999, 2002, 2003) argue that at least the cores of Uranus and Neptune were formed in between Jupiter and Saturn, as the density of the protoplanetary disk was greater there. If Neptune was scattered outward before Uranus, then a secular spin-orbit resonance between the two planets is possible. However, driving Uranus’ obliquity to near 90° with a resonance capture requires a timescale on the order of 100 Myr. If Neptune migrated out quicker or its orbital inclination was initially larger, then we find that the resulting resonance kick can tilt Uranus more than 40° in a reasonable timespan. This could replace one of the impactors required in the collisional scenario described by Morbidelli et al. (2012), but in most situations the effect of such a

  3. Analysis for Suspension Hardpoint of Formula SAE Car Based on Correlation Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Xintian Liu; Jiao Luo; Yansong Wang; Hui Guo; Xinyu Wang

    2013-01-01

    According to the correlation of the hardpoints, double wishbone suspension of Formula SAE Car can be improved and optimized. For Formula SAE car, performance and kinetic characteristic of the suspension follow very closely to handling stability, comfort ability, handling of steering and service life of tire, etc. Double wishbone suspension is chosen as front suspension of Formula SAE car in the paper. Based on the multi-body dynamics and suspension kinematics theory, simulation model of front...

  4. Aerodynamic analysis of formula student car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawan, Mohammad Arief; Ubaidillah, Nugraha, Arga Ahmadi; Wijayanta, Agung Tri; Naufal, Brian Aqif

    2018-02-01

    Formula Society of Automotive Engineering (FSAE) is a contest between ungraduated students to create a high-performance formula student car that completes the regulation. Body and the other aerodynamic devices are significant because it affects the drag coefficient and the down force of the car. The drag coefficient is a measurement of the resistance of an object in a fluid environment, a lower the drag coefficient means it will have a less drag force. Down force is a force that pushes an object to the ground, in the car more down force means more grip. The objective of the research was to study the aerodynamic comparison between the race vehicle when attached to the wings and without it. These studies were done in three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation method using the Autodesk Flow Design software. These simulations were done by conducted in 5 different velocities. The results of those simulations are by attaching wings on race vehicle has drag coefficient 0.728 and without wings has drag coefficient 0.56. Wings attachment will decrease the drag coefficient about 23 % and also the contour pressure and velocity were known at these simulations.

  5. Oral rehabilitation with tilted dental implants: A metaanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Candel-Marti, Eugenia; Peñarrocha-Diago, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the course of patients treated with tilted implants versus those treated conventionally with axial implants, analyzing the success rate and marginal bone loss. Material and Methods: A PubMed search was made using the key words “tilted implants”, “angled implants”, “angulated implants”, “inclined implants” and “maxillary atrophy.” A review was made of the articles published between 1999-2010. The inclusion criteria were the use of tilted implants, clinical series involving at least 10 patients, and a minimum follow-up of 12 months after prosthetic loading. The exclusion criteria were isolated clinical cases, studies with missing data, and publications in languages other than English or Spanish. The metaanalysis finally included 13 articles: 7 retrospective studies and 6 prospective studies. Results: On analyzing the success rate in the retrospective studies, two reported a higher success rate with tilted implants; one a higher success rate with axial implants; and two reported similar success rates with both implants. On analyzing the success rate in the prospective studies, two reported a higher success rate with tilted implants; two a higher success rate with axial implants; and two reported similar success rates with both implants. On examining marginal bone loss, three studies reported greater bone loss with axial implants and one with tilted implants. Conclusions: There was no evidence of differences in success rate between tilted and axial implants in either the prospective or retrospective studies subjected to review. The marginal bone loss observed with the tilted and axial implants likewise proved very similar. It thus can be deduced that tilted implants exhibit the same evolutive behavior as axial implants. Key words:Axial implants, tilted implants, maxillary atrophy, tilted implants. PMID:22322494

  6. Running performance of racing solar car; Kyogiyo solar car no soko seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H. [Osaka Sangyo Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ando, Y.

    1997-11-25

    The paper reported on `96 World Solar Challenge which is a solar car race traveling a total of 3010km from Darwin to Adelaide of the Australian continent. We accomplished running with general cars on general roads at mean speed of 60.3km/h for 6 days. To reduce vehicle weight, the monocock structure honeycombed with carbon fiber and aramid was adopted to the whole vehicle, and a light alloy to driving system parts. To reduce air resistance, adopted were reduction in the front projection area and the smooth body form. The required power is 44.8 kWh, and the power consumption ratio during travel is very high, approximately 67 km/kWh. In the travel of solar car in the unstable weather, dependence upon battery becomes higher, and therefore the battery capacity of 3.5 kWh with which the car was loaded is small, which resulted in affecting the race totally. To predict the travel in the race and determine the travel method, needed are collection and management of realtime and accurate travel data. The measuring management system developed this time together with the vehicle was applicable to the actual race and high in practicality. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Gravity influences the visual representation of object tilt in parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Ari; Angelaki, Dora E

    2014-10-22

    Sensory systems encode the environment in egocentric (e.g., eye, head, or body) reference frames, creating inherently unstable representations that shift and rotate as we move. However, it is widely speculated that the brain transforms these signals into an allocentric, gravity-centered representation of the world that is stable and independent of the observer's spatial pose. Where and how this representation may be achieved is currently unknown. Here we demonstrate that a subpopulation of neurons in the macaque caudal intraparietal area (CIP) visually encodes object tilt in nonegocentric coordinates defined relative to the gravitational vector. Neuronal responses to the tilt of a visually presented planar surface were measured with the monkey in different spatial orientations (upright and rolled left/right ear down) and then compared. This revealed a continuum of representations in which planar tilt was encoded in a gravity-centered reference frame in approximately one-tenth of the comparisons, intermediate reference frames ranging between gravity-centered and egocentric in approximately two-tenths of the comparisons, and in an egocentric reference frame in less than half of the comparisons. Altogether, almost half of the comparisons revealed a shift in the preferred tilt and/or a gain change consistent with encoding object orientation in nonegocentric coordinates. Through neural network modeling, we further show that a purely gravity-centered representation of object tilt can be achieved directly from the population activity of CIP-like units. These results suggest that area CIP may play a key role in creating a stable, allocentric representation of the environment defined relative to an "earth-vertical" direction. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414170-11$15.00/0.

  8. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn De Munter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR. High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  9. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munter, Stijn; Ingels, Joline; Goetgeluk, Glenn; Bonte, Sarah; Pille, Melissa; Weening, Karin; Kerre, Tessa; Abken, Hinrich; Vandekerckhove, Bart

    2018-01-30

    Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv) is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR). High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  10. Lens decenter and tilt measurement by interferogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Min-Wei; Wu, Wen-Hong; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2009-11-01

    For the recent years, the vigorous development of the electro-optic industry, particularly the digital camera and the cellular phone camera, has placed a larger and larger demand for the optical devices. Among the optical lens, the aspherical optical lens plays the key component because the aspherical lens may provide better imaging quality then the spherical lens does. For the manufacturing reason, the aspherical lens is prone to a decenter or tilt issue with respect to the optical axes of its two surfaces. To measure decenter and tile error specifically would help to obviate the deficient lens, but most of the present measuring method can't provide this function. This paper proposed a new method to specifically measure the decenter and tile of lens by observing the interferogram of each surface. And the corresponding measuring instrument, which contains interferometer and motion stages, was introduced as well.

  11. CERN CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Accueil et Controle d'Accès; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with Operational Circular n¡ 2, paragraph 21, CERN car stickers are to be renewed. The new stickers are now available and will be valid for a year.Youare therefore requested:either to obtain them from the distribution points for new stickers (see below); or to send us the application form below, duly completed, via the internal mail; or to complete the application form directly via the Web at the address: http://cern.ch/registration-stickers. Each vehicle has to carry a sticker and needs a separate application form.Vehicles bearing CERN diplomatic plates (CD07, 431K and CD series) do not need a sticker for access to the CERN areas.Thank you.List of distribution points:Registration Service (bldg 55 1st floor), open from 07h30 to 16h30. Building 33 (entrance hall), open from 08h00 to 18h00. Building 120 (ground floor), outside working hours.Name Surname CERN identification number Vehicle registration plates Country issuing the plates Vehicle ma...

  12. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  13. Tilted-ring modelling of disk galaxies : Anomalous gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozsa, G. I. G.; Niemczyk, C.; Klein, U.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    We report our ongoing work on kinematical modelling of HI in disk galaxies. We employ our new software TiRiFiC (Tilted-Ring-Fitting-Code) in order to derive tilted-ring models by fitting artificial HI data cubes to observed ones in an automated process. With this technique we derive very reliable

  14. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Pal

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... The present study deals with the characterization of subsurface coal fires of East Basuria colliery in. Jharia coal field, India using tilt derivative and downward continuation of magnetic data. Magnetic data processing methods such as diurnal correction, noise removal, reduction to pole, tilt derivative and.

  15. Ion kinetic effects on the tilt mode in FRCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Seyler, C.E.; Barnes, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Theory and simulations have shown that field reversed configurations (FRG's) should be unstable magnetohydrodynamically to the tilting mode, yet tilting seldom is seen in the experiments. Profile effects (within MHD) and ion finite larmor radius (FLR) effects have been prosed to explain the observed stability of FRC's. The present work seeks to test both of these effects

  16. Angular momentum projection of tilted axis rotating states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, M.; Onishi, N.; Tajima, N. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Horibata, T.

    1998-03-01

    We applied an exact angular momentum projection to three dimensional cranked HFB (3d-CHFB) states. Tilted axis rotating states (TAR) and principal axis rotating states (PAR) are compared. It is shown that TAR is more adequate than PAR for description of the back bending phenomena driven by tilted rotation or wobbling motion. (author)

  17. Orientation and alignment in beam tilted-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    The production of atomic orientation and alignment, by anisotropic excitation is analyzed. The stokes parameters of the light emitted from tilted-foil excited ions provide measurements of orientation and alignment, and some examples are given. The variations of the stokes parameters with foil tilt angle, excited state, ion velocity and foil material are compared with existing theories

  18. A tilting wind tunnel for fire behavior studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise

    1994-01-01

    The combined effects of wind velocity and slope on wildland fire behavior can be studied in the laboratory using a tilting wind tunnel. The tilting wind tunnel requires a commercially available fan to induce wind and can be positioned to simulate heading and backing fires spreading up and down slope. The tunnel is portable and can be disassembled for transport using a...

  19. Development of tilted fibre Bragg gratings using highly coherent 255 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... coupling of the guided modes shifts to the long wavelength as the tilt angle is increased. [3]. The central wavelength and the reflectivity of a TFBG are dependent on the angle. Due to the presence of tilt angle, the transmission spectra of TFBGs exposed in air con- sisted of multiple resonance peaks occurred ...

  20. Tilting of trucks: a driver education system and warning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleuskens, R.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    To reduce the risk of tilting, TNO has developed a tilt warning system for commercial vehicles. This system is able to monitor vehicle weight, lateral acceleration and velocity during normal operation. The system CPU is constantly comparing the measured lateral acceleration to a calculated limit

  1. Dwelling on Everyday Car Journeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, Lene; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    different traffic conditions as well as the emotional states related to the drivers’ thoughts about work and family issues, the materiality of the car and the recreational activities inside the car. Analyses are based on a web-based questionnaire, sent to 373 participating drivers in the Big Data research...... experiences related to commuting. The findings will be discussed using theoretical inspiration from Sheller (2004), Bull (2003) and Thrift (2004) and we will suggest that the various emotional experiences of the commuters are of great importance for their ability to use of the car as a dwelling place....

  2. Frequency Response Analysis of an Actively Lubricated Rotor/Tilting-Pad Bearing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, the dynamic response of a rotor supported by an active lubricated tilting-pad bearing is investigated in the frequency domain. The theoretical part of the investigation is based on a mathematical model obtained by means of rigid body dynamics. The oil film forces are inserted......-pad bearing. By applying a simple proportional controller, it is possible to reach 30% reduction of the resonance peak associated with the first rigid body mode shape of the system. One of the most important consequences of such a vibration reduction in rotating machines is the feasibility of increasing...

  3. Engineering CAR-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhong, Jiang F; Zhang, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells (CAR-T cells) have achieved inspiring outcomes in patients with B cell malignancies, and are now being investigated in other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. CAR-T cells are generated by the T cells from patients' or donors' blood. After the T cells are expanded and genetically modified, they are reinfused into the patients. However, many challenges still need to be resolved in order for this technology to gain widespread adoption. In this review, we first discuss the structure and evolution of chimeric antigen receptors. We then report on the tools used for production of CAR-T cells. Finally, we address the challenges posed by CAR-T cells.

  4. Small car exposure data project. Phase 1 : methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    The Small Car Exposure Data Project represents the first phase of an effort to build a data : base of exposure variables for crash-avoidance studies. Among these are: (1) vehicle make, : model, year, body style, wheel base, weight, and horsepower; (2...

  5. TO THE ISSUE OF EXTENDING THE SERVICE LIFE OF CARS FOR TRANSPORTATION OF PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Anofriev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Freight rolling stock of «Ukrzaliznytsia» primarily has cars that are overaged. The same situation is observed in the park of specialized cars. So the car fleet for the transport of pellets consists of about 50% of cars that served one-and-a-half and more lifetimes. However, the volume of shipments of iron ore is constant for a number of years. In this regard, there is a need to find methods to justify continuing useful life of cars and to assess the conformity of residual life of the car body structure to operating load for an extended period of use. Methodology. When selecting the cars for the test their condition underwent technical diagnosis in order to identify the level of corrosion and mechanical damage. The next stages of the tests included the experimental determination of the loading level and the stress state of car body carcass based on strength and endurance tests and the evaluation of the possible values of the extended period of operation. Findings. Pre-test diagnosing of cars showed that the technical condition of cars for transportation of pellets, as a whole, is in satisfactory condition. Carried out static and impact strength tests with subsequent evaluation of strength of the car structural elements showed that the strength of the latter is provided in accordance with regulations and such cars do not threaten the traffic safety. Shock endurance tests have shown that all the cars have passed endurance tests with no damage that would impede testing and could not be removed during scheduled repairs. The cars had lifelength that allows prolong their useful life after one-and-a-half lifetime. Originality. The work presents the estimate of the residual life of bodies of pellet transportation cars, which spent one-and-a-half of the set lifetime. Practical value. The experimental results confirm the possibility of extending the service life of cars after one-and-a-half life of their lifetime. The results of the work can be

  6. The measurement of peripheral blood volume reactions to tilt test by the electrical impedance technique after exercise in athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, A A; Popov, S G; Vikulov, A D; Nikolaev, D V

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the distribution of peripheral blood volumes in different regions of the body in response to the tilt-test in endurance trained athletes after aerobic exercise. Distribution of peripheral blood volumes (ml/beat) simultaneously in six regions of the body (two legs, two hands, abdomen, neck and ECG) was assessed in response to the tilt-test using the impedance method (the impedance change rate (dZ/dT). Before and after exercise session cardiac stroke (CSV) and blood volumes in legs, arms and neck were higher in athletes both in lying and standing positions. Before exercise the increase of heart rate and the decrease of a neck blood volume in response to tilting was lower (p <0.05) but the decrease of leg blood volumes was higher (p<0.001) in athletes. The reactions in arms and abdomen blood volumes were similar. Also, the neck blood volumes as percentage of CSV (%/CSV) did not change in the control but increased in athletes (p <0.05) in response to the tilt test. After (10 min recovery) the aerobic bicycle exercise (mean HR = 156±8 beat/min, duration 30 min) blood volumes in neck and arms in response to the tilting were reduced equally, but abdomen (p<0.05) and leg blood volumes (p <0.001) were lowered more significantly in athletes. The neck blood flow (%/CSV) did not change in athletes but decreased in control (p<0.01), which was offset by higher tachycardia in response to tilt-test in controls after exercise. The data demonstrate greater orthostatic tolerance in athletes both before and after exercise during fatigue which is due to effective distribution of blood flows aimed at maintaining cerebral blood flow.

  7. Quantum carpets in a one-dimensional tilted optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Murillo, Carlos Alberto; Muã+/-Oz Arias, Manuel Humberto; Madroã+/-Ero, Javier

    A unit filling Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian embedded in a strong Stark field is studied in the off-resonant regime inhibiting single- and many-particle first-order tunneling resonances. We investigate the occurrence of coherent dipole wavelike propagation along an optical lattice by means of an effective Hamiltonian accounting for second-order tunneling processes. It is shown that dipole wave function evolution in the short-time limit is ballistic and that finite-size effects induce dynamical self-interference patterns known as quantum carpets. We also present the effects of the border right after the first reflection, showing that the wave function diffuses normally with the variance changing linearly in time. This work extends the rich physical phenomenology of tilted one-dimensional lattice systems in a scenario of many interacting quantum particles, the so-called many-body Wannier-Stark system. The authors acknownledge the finantial support of the Universidad del Valle (project CI 7996). C. A. Parra-Murillo greatfully acknowledges the financial support of COLCIENCIAS (Grant 656).

  8. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars. [57 FR 54334, Nov. 18, 1992] ...

  9. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for...

  10. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless...

  11. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than 50...

  12. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  13. A Horizontal Tilt Correction Method for Ship License Numbers Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baolong; Zhang, Sanyuan; Hong, Zhenjie; Ye, Xiuzi

    2018-02-01

    An automatic ship license numbers (SLNs) recognition system plays a significant role in intelligent waterway transportation systems since it can be used to identify ships by recognizing the characters in SLNs. Tilt occurs frequently in many SLNs because the monitors and the ships usually have great vertical or horizontal angles, which decreases the accuracy and robustness of a SLNs recognition system significantly. In this paper, we present a horizontal tilt correction method for SLNs. For an input tilt SLN image, the proposed method accomplishes the correction task through three main steps. First, a MSER-based characters’ center-points computation algorithm is designed to compute the accurate center-points of the characters contained in the input SLN image. Second, a L 1- L 2 distance-based straight line is fitted to the computed center-points using M-estimator algorithm. The tilt angle is estimated at this stage. Finally, based on the computed tilt angle, an affine transformation rotation is conducted to rotate and to correct the input SLN horizontally. At last, the proposed method is tested on 200 tilt SLN images, the proposed method is proved to be effective with a tilt correction rate of 80.5%.

  14. Photovoltaic Modules: Effect of Tilt Angle on Soiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Jose

    2011-12-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are one of the next generation's renewable energy sources for our world energy demand. PV modules are highly reliable. However, in polluted environments, over time, they will collect grime and dust. There are also limited field data studies about soiling losses on PV modules. The study showed how important it is to investigate the effect of tilt angle on soiling. The study includes two sets of mini-modules. Each set has 9 PV modules tilted at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 23, 30, 33 and 40°. The first set called "Cleaned" was cleaned every other day. The second set called "Soiled" was never cleaned after the first day. The short circuit current, a measure of irradiance, and module temperature was monitored and recorded every two minutes over three months (January-March 2011). The data were analyzed to investigate the effect of tilt angle on daily and monthly soiling, and hence transmitted solar insolation and energy production by PV modules. The study shows that during the period of January through March 2011 there was an average loss due to soiling of approximately 2.02% for 0° tilt angle. Modules at tilt angles 23° and 33° also have some insolation losses but do not come close to the module at 0° tilt angle. Tilt angle 23° has approximately 1.05% monthly insolation loss, and 33° tilt angle has an insolation loss of approximately 0.96%. The soiling effect is present at any tilt angle, but the magnitude is evident: the flatter the solar module is placed the more energy it will lose.

  15. Pulse Front Tilt and Laser Plasma Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelberger, Daniel; Thévenet, Maxence; Nakamura, Kei; Lehe, Remi; Gonsalves, Anthony; Benedetti, Carlo; Leemans, Wim

    2017-10-01

    Pulse front tilt (PFT) is potentially present in any CPA laser system, but its effects may be overlooked because spatiotemporal pulse characterization is considerably more involved than measuring only spatial or temporal profile. PFT is particularly important for laser plasma accelerators (LPA) because it influences electron beam injection and steering. In this work, experimental results from the BELLA Center will be presented that demonstrate the effect of optical grating misalignment and optical compression, resulting in PFT, on accelerator performance. Theoretical models of laser and electron beam steering will be introduced based on particle-in-cell simulations showing distortion of the plasma wake. Theoretical predictions will be compared with experiments and complimentary simulations, and tolerances on PFT and optical compressor alignment will be developed as a function of LPA performance requirements. This work was supported by the Office of High Energy Physics, Office of Science, US Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 and the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1415596.

  16. Adaptation Computing Parameters of Pan-Tilt-Zoom Cameras for Traffic Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Lin WU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Closed- CIRCUIT television (CCTV cameras have been widely used in recent years for traffic monitoring and surveillance applications. We can use CCTV cameras to extract automatically real-time traffic parameters according to the image processing and tracking technologies. Especially, the pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ cameras can provide flexible view selection as well as a wider observation range, and this makes the traffic parameters can be accurately calculated. Therefore, that the parameters of PTZ cameras are calibrated plays an important role in vision-based traffic applications. However, in the specific traffic environment, which is that the license plate number of the illegal parking is located, the parameters of PTZ cameras have to be updated according to the position and distance of illegal parking. In proposed traffic monitoring systems, we use the ordinary webcam and PTZ camera. We get vanishing-point of traffic lane lines in the pixel-based coordinate system by fixed webcam. The parameters of PTZ camera can be initialized by distance of the traffic monitoring and specific objectives and vanishing-point. And then we can use the coordinate position of the illegally parked car to update the parameters of PTZ camera and then get the real word coordinate position of the illegally parked car and use it to compute the distance. The result shows the error of the tested distance and real distance is only 0.2064 meter.

  17. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 1: Sonic anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of flow tilt angles from a fetch-limited beech forest site with clearings is presented in the context of vertical advection of carbon dioxide. Flow angles and vertical velocities from two sonic anemometers by different manufacturers were analyzed. Instead of using rotations, where zero...... distortion and vertical alignment, it was only possible to a limited extent to relate sonic anemometer flow tilt angles to upwind forest edges, but the results by the lidar indicated that an internal boundary layer affect flow tilt angles at 21m above the forest. This is in accordance with earlier studies...

  18. Ocular tilt reaction due to a cerebellar hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Kozue

    2014-01-01

    A 78-year-old man with essential hypertension abruptly developed complete ocular tilt reaction (OTR) which consisted of concomitant skew deviation with left hypertropia, extorsion of the right eye and intorsion of the left, and rightward head tilt. Cranial computed tomography demonstrated a localized cerebellar hemorrhage involving the left nodulus. The patient became asymptomatic within two weeks. This is a first reported case of complete OTR due to a cerebellar hemorrhage. Concomitant skew deviation is a common symptom of cerebellar lesions. Moreover, unilateral damage to the utricular pathway due to involvement of the left nodulus might cause rightward conjugate ocular torsion and rightward head tilt.

  19. Test of an Hypothesis of Magnetization, Tilt and Flow in an Hypabyssal Intrusion, Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggleton, S.; MacDonald, W. D.; Estrada, J. J.; Sierra, G. M.

    2002-05-01

    Magnetic remanence in the Miocene Clavijo intrusion in the Cauca Valley, adjacent to the Cordillera Central, plunges steeply northward (MacDonald et al., 1996). Assuming magnetization in a normal magnetic field, the expected remanence direction is approximately I= 10o, D= 000o; the observed remanence is I=84o, D=003o. The discrepancy could be explained by a 74o rotation about a horizontal E-W axis, i.e., about an axis normal to the nearby N-S trending Romeral fault zone. If the intrusion is the shallow feeder of a now-eroded andesitic volcano, then perhaps the paleovertical direction is preserved in flow lineations and provides a test of the tilt/rotation of the remanence. In combination, the steep remanence direction, vertical flow, and the inferred rotation of the volcanic neck lead to the hypothesis of a shallow-plunging southward lineation for this body. Using anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) as a proxy for the flow lineation, it is predicted that the K1 (maximum susceptibility) axis in this body plunges gently south. This hypothesis was tested using approximately 50 oriented cores from 5 sites near the west margin of the Clavijo intrusion. The results suggest a NW plunging lineation, inconsistent with the initial hypothesis. However, a relatively consistent flow lineation is suggested by the K1 axes. If this flow axis represents paleovertical, it suggests moderate tilting of the Clavijo body towards the southeast. The results are encouraging enough to suggest that AMS may be useful for determining paleo-vertical in shallow volcanic necks and hypabyssal intrusions, and might ultimately be useful in a tilt-correction for such bodies. Other implications of the results will be discussed. MacDonald, WD, Estrada, JJ, Sierra, GM, Gonzalez, H, 1996, Late Cenozoic tectonics and paleomagnetism of North Cauca Basin intrusions, Colombian Andes: Dual rotation modes: Tectonophysics, v 261, p. 277-289.

  20. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Minagawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application.

  1. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Kentaro; Zhou, Xiaoou; Mineishi, Shin; Di Stasi, Antonio

    2015-05-08

    T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application.

  2. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  3. System analysis of a tilted field-widened Michelson interferometer for high spectral resolution lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Hostetler, Chris; Miller, Ian; Cook, Anthony; Hair, Johnathan

    2012-01-16

    High spectral resolution lidars (HSRLs) have shown great value in aircraft aerosol remote sensing application and are planned for future satellite missions. A compact, robust, quasi-monolithic tilted field-widened Michelson interferometer is being developed as the spectral discrimination filter for an second-generation HSRL(HSRL-2) at NASA Langley Research Center. The Michelson interferometer consists of a cubic beam splitter, a solid arm and an air arm. Piezo stacks connect the air arm mirror to the body of the interferometer and can tune the interferometer within a small range. The whole interferometer is tilted so that the standard Michelson output and the reflected complementary output can both be obtained. In this paper, the transmission ratio is proposed to evaluate the performance of the spectral filter for HSRL. The transmission ratios over different types of system imperfections, such as cumulative wavefront error, locking error, reflectance of the beam splitter and anti-reflection coatings, system tilt, and depolarization angle are analyzed. The requirements of each imperfection for good interferometer performance are obtained.

  4. The effects of lateral head tilt on ocular astigmatic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fesharaki

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Any minimal angle of head tilt may cause erroneous measurement of astigmatic axis and should be avoided during refraction. One cannot rely on the compensatory function of ocular counter-torsion during the refraction.

  5. Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM): A New Rotorcraft Research Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Larry A

    1998-01-01

    ...". These two test stands are inclusively called the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model "TRAM". The baseline proprotors and airframe of the TRAM test stands are nominally 1/4-scale representations of the V-22 Osprey aircraft...

  6. A tilting approach to ranking influence

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-12-01

    We suggest a new approach, which is applicable for general statistics computed from random samples of univariate or vector-valued or functional data, to assessing the influence that individual data have on the value of a statistic, and to ranking the data in terms of that influence. Our method is based on, first, perturbing the value of the statistic by ‘tilting’, or reweighting, each data value, where the total amount of tilt is constrained to be the least possible, subject to achieving a given small perturbation of the statistic, and, then, taking the ranking of the influence of data values to be that which corresponds to ranking the changes in data weights. It is shown, both theoretically and numerically, that this ranking does not depend on the size of the perturbation, provided that the perturbation is sufficiently small. That simple result leads directly to an elegant geometric interpretation of the ranks; they are the ranks of the lengths of projections of the weights onto a ‘line’ determined by the first empirical principal component function in a generalized measure of covariance. To illustrate the generality of the method we introduce and explore it in the case of functional data, where (for example) it leads to generalized boxplots. The method has the advantage of providing an interpretable ranking that depends on the statistic under consideration. For example, the ranking of data, in terms of their influence on the value of a statistic, is different for a measure of location and for a measure of scale. This is as it should be; a ranking of data in terms of their influence should depend on the manner in which the data are used. Additionally, the ranking recognizes, rather than ignores, sign, and in particular can identify left- and right-hand ‘tails’ of the distribution of a random function or vector.

  7. Higher frequency transmission properties of motor car-chassis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong

    The transmission properties of motor car systems are analytically examined in a broad frequency range (up to 200 Hz), using a multibody system, containing rigid and elastic bodies. Most typical motor car variants used in the automobile industry were qualitatively modeled and their global power transmission behavior was analyzed with regard to various geometric shapes. A detailed transmission investigation was represented in connection with the assembly transmission tire total car system. The modal parameters were set up by theoretical finite element calculation and by experimental modal analysis of real chassis components. The higher frequency dynamic property of the hydraulic shock absorber was obtained by a real dynamic measurement. Its various modeling possibilities were discussed.

  8. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  9. Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use

    OpenAIRE

    Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...

  10. DETERMINATION THE PERMISSIBLE FORCES IN ASSESSING THE LIFT RESISTANT FACTOR OF FREIGHT CARS IN TRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shvets

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the analytical research are considered: 1 relationships between the longitudinal force acting on the car in the train; 2 lateral and vertical forces of interaction in the contact zone «wheel – rail»; 3 dynamic indicators of cars with the magnitude of the car lift resistance factor; 4 obtaining of the dependencies between them. Methodology. The study was conducted by an analytical method assessing the sustainability of the freight car when driving at different speeds on the straight and curved track sections. Findings. In the process of studying the motion of the train, in the investigation of transport events, as well as during the training on the simulator operator, to assess the actions of the driver, the values of the longitudinal forces in the inter car connections are used. To calculate the longitudinal compressive forces, acting on the car, in which car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value (critical force. To assess the impact on the value of the longitudinal force speed, coefficients of the vertical and horizontal dynamics, as well as the wind load on the side surface of the car body are the results of calculations of motion of the empty gondola car, model № 12-532 curve radius of 250 m with a rise of 150 mm and a transverse run of body of car frame relative to the track axis of the guide section 50 mm. Originality. In this study, the technique of determining the longitudinal compressive force was shown, that is somewhat different from the standard. So, as well as assessing the impact on it the speed of rolling coefficients of vertical and horizontal dynamics and wind load on the side surface of the car body. Practical value. The authors developed proposals on the enhancement of existing methods for determining the value of the longitudinal compressive forces acting on the car in which the safety value of the car lift resistance factor will be equal to the allowable value. It will evaluate the

  11. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  12. Analysis of Arterial Mechanics During Head-down Tilt Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Morgan; Martin, David S.; Westby, Christian M.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Arterial health may be affected by microgravity or ground based analogs of spaceflight, as shown by an increase in thoracic aorta stiffness1. Head-down tilt bed rest (HDTBR) is often used as a ground-based simulation of spaceflight because it induces physiological changes similar to those that occur in space2, 3. This abstract details an analysis of arterial stiffness (a subclinical measure of atherosclerosis), the distensibility coefficient (DC), and the pressure-strain elastic modulus (PSE) of the arterial walls during HDTBR. This project may help determine how spaceflight differentially affects arterial function in the upper vs. lower body.

  13. Magnetic configurations of the tilted current sheets in magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the geometrical structures of tilted current sheet and tail flapping waves have been analysed based on multiple spacecraft measurements and some features of the tilted current sheets have been made clear for the first time. The geometrical features of the tilted current sheet revealed in this investigation are as follows: (1 The magnetic field lines (MFLs in the tilted current sheet are generally plane curves and the osculating planes in which the MFLs lie are about vertical to the equatorial plane, while the normal of the tilted current sheet leans severely to the dawn or dusk side. (2 The tilted current sheet may become very thin, the half thickness of its neutral sheet is generally much less than the minimum radius of the curvature of the MFLs. (3 In the neutral sheet, the field-aligned current density becomes very large and has a maximum value at the center of the current sheet. (4 In some cases, the current density is a bifurcated one, and the two humps of the current density often superpose two peaks in the gradient of magnetic strength, indicating that the magnetic gradient drift current is possibly responsible for the formation of the two humps of the current density in some tilted current sheets. Tilted current sheets often appear along with tail current sheet flapping waves. It is found that, in the tail flapping current sheets, the minimum curvature radius of the MFLs in the current sheet is rather large with values around 1 RE, while the neutral sheet may be very thin, with its half thickness being several tenths of RE. During the flapping waves, the current sheet is tilted substantially, and the maximum tilt angle is generally larger than 45°. The phase velocities of these flapping waves are several tens km/s, while their periods and wavelengths are several tens of minutes, and several earth radii, respectively. These tail flapping events generally last several hours and occur during quiet periods or periods of

  14. On practicality of a hybrid car with solar cells; Taiyo denchi wo tosaishita hybrid car no jitsuyosei ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, K.; Nagayoshi, H.; Kamisako, K. [Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    The paper stated a development of a hybrid car which is a parallel type with gasoline engine and electric motor as driving source (connecting each according to the situation) and is also equipped with solar cells. Specifications are gasoline engine of 1200cc, induction motor of 5.5kW, lead battery of 288V and 7.2kWh, monocrystal silicon solar cells of 180W maximum output, and body weight of 1100kg. The rear wheel is driven by electric motor, and the front wheel by gasoline engine. The car is loaded with battery charge use solar cells on hood and roof. To enhance cleaning degree, 1.6kW solar cells are installed as an installed power system and used for battery charge. Even by an electric motor with output less than that of the usual electric car, harmful exhaust gas emitted in start-up can be controlled. This is because the electric motor can be used in accelerating. It was confirmed that the power required for it could be supplied by solar cells installed on the car. The hybrid car is practically useful for prevention of local air pollution. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  16. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  17. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  18. Tilt Table Test: State of The Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Barón-Esquivias

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The loss of consciousness has been a subject of wonder and uncertainty in humans, and for this reason it has been the object of medical investigation since the beginning of time. Even actually, it is certainly an unresolved clinical problem. Many centuries ago, complicated exorcisms and remedies were used on these unfortunate patients, who upon regaining consciousness would find themselves soaked in miraculous liquids, ingesting curative potions, and often on the way to be burned accused of being possessed. In the seventeen century, physicians began to relate loss of consciousness and haemodinamic changes. William Harvey was perhaps the first to describe a circulatory response (vasovagal reaction during a phlebotomy in the year 1628: “...Yet it fear or any other cause, or something do intervene through passion of the mind, so that the heart do beat more faintly, the blood will be no means pass through but drop after drop…”1. During the nineteenth century, loss of consciousness was the object of studies and research, and the vagally mediated cardioinhibition, as a primary cause, was noted by Foster who proposed that profound bradycardia diminished cerebral perfusion to a level inadequate to maintain consciousness2. At this time, it was reported the first use of the tilt-table test3. Commonly referred to as fainting or loss of consciousness, from last century the preferred medical term is syncope, which itself is derived from the Greek term “syncoptein” meaning “to cut short”. Syncope is defined as the sudden loss of consciousness and postural tone with spontaneous recovery. In 1907, Gowers was the first person to use the term vasovagal syncope4. In 1918 was published the work in which Cotton and Lewis described for the first time the clinical characteristics that are still used today to recognize the syncopal reaction5. However, it was not till 1932 when Lewis described this reaction as being characterized by a combination of bradycardia

  19. The Influence of Semi-active Dampers on the Vibration Behaviour of Passenger Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Sebastian; Brechter, Daniel; Janßen, Andreas; Mauch, Heiko

    The number of mechatronic components in modern car suspensions is increasing continuously to solve conflicts concerning design goals. Thus, changes in the vibration behaviour of the vehicle are caused. It needs to be ascertained whether this influence has to be taken into account when determining the fatigue life of a car and its components. Therefore, changes of the loads are studied in measurements and multi-body simulations of a passenger car with semi-active dampers. The evaluation of the forces at the wheel centre and at the shock absorber tower shows that different settings of semi-active dampers have an influence on fatigue life of the chassis and the car body. It is concluded that these effects need to be taken into account when determining fatigue life. Furthermore, multi-body simulations have been successfully applied to study the influence of semi-active dampers on the loads.

  20. Car painting process scheduling with harmony search algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahputra, M. F.; Maiyasya, A.; Purnamawati, S.; Abdullah, D.; Albra, W.; Heikal, M.; Abdurrahman, A.; Khaddafi, M.

    2018-02-01

    Automotive painting program in the process of painting the car body by using robot power, making efficiency in the production system. Production system will be more efficient if pay attention to scheduling of car order which will be done by considering painting body shape of car. Flow shop scheduling is a scheduling model in which the job-job to be processed entirely flows in the same product direction / path. Scheduling problems often arise if there are n jobs to be processed on the machine, which must be specified which must be done first and how to allocate jobs on the machine to obtain a scheduled production process. Harmony Search Algorithm is a metaheuristic optimization algorithm based on music. The algorithm is inspired by observations that lead to music in search of perfect harmony. This musical harmony is in line to find optimal in the optimization process. Based on the tests that have been done, obtained the optimal car sequence with minimum makespan value.

  1. Transit Car Performance Comparison, State-of-the-Art Car vs. PATCO Transit Car, NYCTA R-46, MBTA Silverbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    The first phase of this contract authorized the design, development, and demonstration of two State-Of-The-Art Cars (SOAC). This document reports on the gathering of comparative test data on existing in-service transit cars. The three transit cars se...

  2. Group theoretical analysis of octahedral tilting in perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.J.; Stokes, H.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Structures of the perovskite family, ABX 3 , have interested crystallographers over many years, and continue to attract attention on account of their fascinating electrical and magnetic properties, for example the giant magnetoresistive effects exhibited by certain perovskite materials. The ideal perovskite (cubic, space group Pm -/3 m) is a particularly simple structure, but also a demanding one, since aside from the lattice parameter there are no variable parameters in the structure. Consequently, the majority of perovskite structures are distorted perovskites (hettotypes), the most common distortion being the corner-linked tilting of the practically rigid BX 6 octahedral units. In this work, group theoretical methods have been applied to the study of octahedral tilting in perovskites. The only irreducible representations of the parent group (Pm -/3 m) which produce octahedral tilting subject to corner-linking constraints are M + / 3 and R 4 ' + . A six-dimensional order parameter in the reducible representation space of M + / 3 + R + / 4 describes the different possible tilting patterns. The space groups for the different perovskites are then simply the isotropy subgroups, comprising those operations which leave the order parameter invariant. The isotropy subgroups are obtained from a computer program or tabulations. The analysis yields a list of fifteen possible space groups for perovskites derived through octahedral tilting. A connection is made to the (twenty-three) tilt systems given previously by Glazer. The group-subgroup relationships have been derived and displayed. It is interesting to note that all known perovskites based on octahedral tilting conform with the fifteen space groups on our list, with the exception of one perovskite at high temperature, the structure of which seems poorly determined

  3. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Protrusion Associated with Tilted Optic Discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jaclyn; Yapp, Michael; Ly, Angelica; Hennessy, Michael P; Kalloniatis, Michael; Zangerl, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    This study resulted in the identification of an optic nerve head (ONH) feature associated with tilted optic discs, which might potentially contribute to ONH pathologies. Knowledge of such findings will enhance clinical insights and drive future opportunities to understand disease processes related to tilted optic discs. The aim of this study was to identify novel retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) anomalies by evaluating tilted optic discs using optical coherence tomography. An observed retinal nerve fiber protrusion was further investigated for association with other morphological or functional parameters. A retrospective review of 400 randomly selected adult patients with ONH examinations was conducted in a referral-only, diagnostic imaging center. After excluding other ONH pathologies, 215 patients were enrolled and evaluated for optic disc tilt and/or torsion. Gross anatomical ONH features, including size and rim or parapapillary region elevation, were assessed with stereoscopic fundus photography. Optical coherence tomography provided detailed morphological information of individual retinal layers. Statistical analysis was applied to identify significant changes between individual patient cohorts. A dome-shaped hyperreflective RNFL bulge, protruding into the neurosensory retina at the optic disc margins, was identified in 17 eyes with tilted optic discs. Available follow-up data were inconclusive regarding natural changes with this ONH feature. This RNFL herniation was significantly correlated with smaller than average optic disc size (P = .005), congenital disc tilt (P optic discs, which has not previously been assessed as an independent ONH structure. The feature is predominantly related to congenital crowded, small optic discs and variable between patients. This study is an important first step to elucidate diagnostic capabilities of tilted disc morphological changes and understanding associated functional deficits.

  4. NASA Langley Distributed Propulsion VTOL Tilt-Wing Aircraft Testing, Modeling, Simulation, Control, and Flight Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhaar, Paul M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Bacon, Barton J.; Gregory, Irene M.; Grauer, Jared A.; Busan, Ronald C.; Croom, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Control of complex Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) aircraft traversing from hovering to wing born flight mode and back poses notoriously difficult modeling, simulation, control, and flight-testing challenges. This paper provides an overview of the techniques and advances required to develop the GL-10 tilt-wing, tilt-tail, long endurance, VTOL aircraft control system. The GL-10 prototype's unusual and complex configuration requires application of state-of-the-art techniques and some significant advances in wind tunnel infrastructure automation, efficient Design Of Experiments (DOE) tunnel test techniques, modeling, multi-body equations of motion, multi-body actuator models, simulation, control algorithm design, and flight test avionics, testing, and analysis. The following compendium surveys key disciplines required to develop an effective control system for this challenging vehicle in this on-going effort.

  5. Unilateral otolith centrifugation by head tilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winters, S.M.; Bos, J.E.; Klis, S.F.L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To test for otolith asymmetries, several studies described horizontal translation of the body and head en bloc during fast vertical axis rotation. This stimulus causes one otolithic organ to rotate on-axis, and the other to experience centripetal acceleration. OBJECTIVE: To test a new,

  6. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim; Mohd Hafzi Md Isa; Yahaya Ahmad; Intan Osman; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP). Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers' car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers' purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were dis...

  7. CAR SECURITY ENHANCEMENT IN PARKING AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    NANYONGA BERINDA; AYESIGA LINDSEY PATRA; BYEKWASO FAISAL; NATULINDA LADAN

    2017-01-01

    Over time, car thefts have been reported within Kampala parking areas. This has been majorly due to inefficient security measures of the available parking systems which focus mainly on the car and not the driver, making parking management a challenge. The focus of this survey was to explore the requirements of a new system called Car to Driver Matching Security System to enhance security of cars in Kampala, in particular, from the experience of 15 people. The data collected was then analyzed ...

  8. Recording Tilt with Broadband Seismic Sensors at Erupting Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B. E.; Lees, J. M.; Lyons, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    The horizontal components of broadband seismometers are known to be susceptible to gravitational acceleration due to slow tilting, and this has been successfully exploited to assess ground deformation at many volcanoes, including Anatahan (Mariana Islands), Meakan-dake (Japan), Santiaguito (Guatemala) and Stromboli (Italy). Tilt can be estimated from seismic velocity by differentiating, scaling to remove gravity, and applying an instrument correction. The fundamental assumption in estimating tilt from broadband data is that the signal recorded is the result of tilt and not translation, thus analysis of tilt require filtering below corner frequencies of seismic instruments, where the response to tilt should be flat. However, processing techniques for deriving tilt are not uniform among researchers. Filter type and passband allowance for the processing of data sets differs from case to case, and the dominant periods of tilt signals may vary from tens to hundreds of seconds. For instance, data from Santiaguito was filtered in the 600-30s passband, while at Anatahan filters spanned 13 hours to 8 minutes. In our study, we investigate tilt from seismic data sets at Karymsky (Kamchatka, Russia), Fuego (Guatemala), Yasur (Vanuatu), and Tungurahua (Ecuador) to understand implementation and limitations of this tool. We examine the importance of filter-type distortion related to filtering on the seismic signal. For example, a comparison of time domain versus frequency domain implementation is explored using a variety of lowpass and bandpass filters. We also investigate the advantages and drawbacks of causal versus acausal filters. In a few cases tiltmeters have been co-located with broadband seismic sensors for direct comparison. Signals at Mt. St. Helens, Stromboli, Sakurajima, and Semeru show a correlation of tilt and seismic records, although records at Karymsky volcano suggest that no tilt is recorded on either instrument. We speculate that strong vent explosions exhibit

  9. 75 FR 10567 - Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Part II Department of Commerce 48 CFR Chapter 13 Commerce Acquisition Regulation (CAR); Final Rule... Acquisition Regulation (CAR) AGENCY: Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the... updates the entire CAR through FAC 2005- 21. DATES: This rule is effective April 7, 2010. ADDRESSES: The...

  10. Active deceleration support in car following

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Pauwelussen, J.J.A.; Paassen, M.M. van; Mulder, M.; Abbink, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A haptic gas pedal feedback system is developed that provides car-following information via haptic cues from the gas pedal. During normal car-following situations, the haptic feedback (HF) cues were sufficient to reduce control activity and improve car-following performance. However, in more

  11. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed. ...

  12. Trial products of solar cars; Solar car no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A.; Hatakeyama, S.; Sugiura, S.; Shinoda, S.; Daigo, Y.; Fujihara, Y.; Yano, K.; Kasuga, M. [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    A solar car was trially manufactured installing solar panels on a motor-wheelchair for the old (senior car). It is a car for one person with maximum speed of 6km/h, motor of 360w, two of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and two of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar cell is about 100W, which may not be enough to drive a 360W motor. However, if action time per day is about 2 hours, the required power 700WH, and the sunshine duration 7 hours per day, solar cells of 100W can generate 700WH. This is stored in battery, and when it is short, it is supplemented by nighttime power. Product prices are 200,000-250,000 yen. A solar go-cart was trially manufactured remodeling the gasoline-run go-cart. It is a solar go-cart for one person with maximum speed of 30km/h, a motor of 600W, four of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and four of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar battery at 200W is a third of the motor power, with battery charged three times the travel time. More than 1000 persons trially rode the go-cart. 2 figs.

  13. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Zhiqian; Shen, Chengwu; Wen, Zhuoman; Liu, Shaojin; Cai, Sheng; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  14. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  15. An improved car-following model accounting for the preceding car's taillight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Shao-Wei

    2018-02-01

    During the deceleration process, the preceding car's taillight may have influences on its following car's driving behavior. In this paper, we propose an extended car-following model with consideration of the preceding car's taillight. Two typical situations are used to simulate each car's movement and study the effects of the preceding car's taillight on the driving behavior. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis of the model parameter is in detail discussed. The numerical results show that the proposed model can improve the stability of traffic flow and the traffic safety can be enhanced without a decrease of efficiency especially when cars pass through a signalized intersection.

  16. New tilted-poles Wien filter with enhanced performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Quiros, E.; Prelas, M. A.

    1989-03-01

    The Wien filter is an E×B deflecting analyzer with the electrostatic field perpendicular to the magnetostatic field. The twofold functions of the Wien filter are as an energy analyzer as well as a mass analyzer. It has very high resolution for paraxial charged-particle beams with V=E/B, the Wien velocity. Two Wien filters, a tilted-poles Wien filter, and a classical parallel-rectangular-poles Wien filter were built and tested for electrons up to 3.5 keV and protons beams of 200 eV. (The tilted-poles Wien filter is a new diagnostic developed by the authors.) The performance of the two is compared, and the tilted-poles Wien filter has superior resolution to the classical Wien filter. Both Wien filters appear to have features useful for high-temperature plasma diagnostics, including simultaneous measurement of energy and mass spectra, and high resolution.

  17. New tilted-poles Wien filter with enhanced performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Quiros, E.; Prelas, M.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Wien filter is an E x B deflecting analyzer with the electrostatic field perpendicular to the magnetostatic field. The twofold functions of the Wien filter are as an energy analyzer as well as a mass analyzer. It has very high resolution for paraxial charged-particle beams with V = E/B, the Wien velocity. Two Wien filters, a tilted-poles Wien filter, and a classical parallel-rectangular-poles Wien filter were built and tested for electrons up to 3.5 keV and protons beams of 200 eV. (The tilted-poles Wien filter is a new diagnostic developed by the authors.) The performance of the two is compared, and the tilted-poles Wien filter has superior resolution to the classical Wien filter. Both Wien filters appear to have features useful for high-temperature plasma diagnostics, including simultaneous measurement of energy and mass spectra, and high resolution.

  18. Quantum well electronic states in a tilted magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trallero-Giner, C; Padilha, J X; Lopez-Richard, V; Marques, G E; Castelano, L K

    2017-08-16

    We report the energy spectrum and the eigenstates of conduction and uncoupled valence bands of a quantum well under the influence of a tilted magnetic field. In the framework of the envelope approximation, we implement two analytical approaches to obtain the nontrivial solutions of the tilted magnetic field: (a) the Bubnov-Galerkin spectral method and b) the perturbation theory. We discuss the validity of each method for a broad range of magnetic field intensity and orientation as well as quantum well thickness. By estimating the accuracy of the perturbation method, we provide explicit analytical solutions for quantum wells in a tilted magnetic field configuration that can be employed to study several quantitative phenomena.

  19. Method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-10-26

    A method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal requires only two lithographic exposures and does not require mask repositioning between exposures. The mask and photoresist-coated substrate are spaced a fixed and constant distance apart using a spacer and the stack is clamped together. The stack is then tilted at a crystallographic symmetry angle (e.g., 45 degrees) relative to the X-ray beam and rotated about the surface normal until the mask is aligned with the X-ray beam. The stack is then rotated in plane by a small stitching angle and exposed to the X-ray beam to pattern the first half of the structure. The stack is then rotated by 180.degree. about the normal and a second exposure patterns the remaining half of the structure. The method can use commercially available DXRL scanner technology and LIGA processes to fabricate large-area, high-quality tilted logpile photonic crystals.

  20. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 2: Lidar anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Bingöl, Ferhat

    2010-01-01

    A novel way of estimating near-surface mean flow tilt angles from ground based Doppler lidar measurements is presented. The results are compared with traditional mast based in-situ sonic anemometry. The tilt angle assessed with the lidar is based on 10 or 30 min mean values of the velocity field......) a fetch-limited beech forest site taken at 48–175 m a.g.l. (above ground level), (2) a reference site in flat agricultural terrain and (3) a second reference site in complex terrain are presented. The method to derive flow tilt angles and mean vertical velocities from lidar has several advantages compared...... alignment error at a multitude of heights. Disadvantages with estimating vertical velocities from a lidar compared to mast-based measurements are potentially slightly increased levels of statistical errors due to limited sampling time, because the sampling is disjunct, and a requirement for homogeneous flow...

  1. Ground tilt monitoring at Phlegraean Fields (Italy: a methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Del Gaudio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Among geodetic methods used for monitoring ground deformation in volcanic areas, tiltmetry represents the most rapid technique and therefore it is used by almost all the volcanological observatories in the world. The deformation of volcanic building is not only the result of endogenous causes (i.e. dykes injection or magma rising, but also non-tectonic environmental factors. Such troubles cannot be removed completely but they can be reduce. This article outlines the main source of errors affecting the signals recorded by Phlegraean tilt, network, such as the dependence of the tilt response on temperature and to the thermoelastic effect on ground deformation. The analytical procedure used to evaluate about such errors and their reduction is explained. An application to data acquired from the tilt network during two distinct phases of ground uplift and subsidence of the Phlegraean Fields is reported.

  2. Coulomb interaction effect in tilted Weyl fermion in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Hiroki; Nagaosa, Naoto

    Weyl fermions with tilted linear dispersions characterized by several different velocities appear in some systems including the quasi-two-dimensional organic semiconductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 and three-dimensional WTe2. The Coulomb interaction between electrons modifies the velocities in an essential way in the low energy limit, where the logarithmic corrections dominate. Taking into account the coupling to both the transverse and longitudinal electromagnetic fields, we derive the renormalization group equations for the velocities of the tilted Weyl fermions in two dimensions, and found that they increase as the energy decreases and eventually hit the velocity of light c to result in the Cherenkov radiation. Especially, the system restores the isotropic Weyl cone even when the bare Weyl cone is strongly tilted and the velocity of electrons becomes negative in certain directions.

  3. Absolute Measurement of Tilts via Fourier Analysis of Interferograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    The Fourier method of interferogram analysis requires the introduction of a constant tilt into the interferogram to serve as a carrier signal for information on the figure of the surface under test. This tilt is usually removed in the first steps of analysis and ignored thereafter. However, in the problem of aligning optical components and systems, knowledge of part orientation is crucial to proper instrument performance. This paper outlines an algorithm which uses the normally ignored carrier signal in Fourier analysis to compute an absolute tilt (orientation) of the test surface. We also provide a brief outline of how this technique, incorporated in a rotating Twyman-Green interferometer, can be used in alignment and metrology of optical systems.

  4. The semiology of tilt-induced psychogenic pseudosyncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannemaat, Martijn R; van Niekerk, Julius; Reijntjes, Robert H; Thijs, Roland D; Sutton, Richard; van Dijk, J Gert

    2013-08-20

    To provide a detailed semiology to aid the clinical recognition of psychogenic pseudosyncope (PPS), which concerns episodes of apparent transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) that mimic syncope. We analyzed all consecutive tilt-table tests from 2006 to 2012 showing proven PPS, i.e., apparent TLOC had occurred without EEG changes or a decrease in heart rate (HR) or blood pressure (BP). We analyzed baseline characteristics, video data, EEG, ECG, and continuous BP measurements on a 1-second time scale. Data were compared with those of 69 cases of tilt-induced vasovagal syncope (VVS). Of 800 tilt-table tests, 43 (5.4%) resulted in PPS. The majority (74%) were women. The median duration of apparent TLOC was longer in PPS (44 seconds) than in VVS (20 seconds, p semiology of PPS as a clinical entity is vital to ensure accurate diagnosis.

  5. Tilt Precursors before Earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M J; Mortensen, C E

    1974-12-13

    An array of 14 biaxial shallow-borehole tiltmeters (at 1O(-7) radian sensitivity) has been installed along 85 kilometers of the San Andreas fault during the past year. Earthquake-related changes in tilt have been simultaneously observed on up to four independent instruments. At earthquake distances greater than 10 earthquake source dimensions, there are few clear indications of tilt change. For the four instruments with the longest records (> 10 months), 26 earthquakes have occurred since July 1973 with at least one instrument closer than 10 source dimensions and 8 earthquakes with more than one instrument within that distance. Precursors in tilt direction have been observed before more than 10 earthquakes or groups of earthquakes, and no similar effect has yet been seen without the occurrence of an earthquake.

  6. Robust tilt and lock mechanism for hopping actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salton, Jonathan R.; Buerger, Stephen; Dullea, Kevin J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Salisbury, Curt Michael; Spletzer, Barry Louis

    2017-02-07

    A tilt and lock apparatus that includes a tilt servomechanism, a spiral torsion spring, a lock wheel, and a lock hook is described herein. The spiral torsion spring is mechanically coupled to the tilt servomechanism and the lock wheel (which includes an opening). When a shaft is positioned through the opening, rotation of the lock wheel is in unison with rotation of the shaft. An external surface of the lock wheel includes one or more grooves. The lock hook includes a head that engages and disengages the grooves. The lock wheel is stationary when the head engages one of the grooves and is rotatable when the head disengages the grooves. The head and the grooves are geometrically aligned when engaged to prevent creation of a force that acts to disengage the head responsive to an applied force acting on the shaft.

  7. Reverse time migration in tilted transversely isotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Linbing; Rector III, James W.; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a reverse time migration (RTM) method for the migration of shot records in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. It is based on the tilted TI acoustic wave equation that was derived from the dispersion relation. The RTM is a full depth migration allowing for velocity to vary laterally as well as vertically and has no dip limitations. The wave equation is solved by a tenth-order finite difference scheme. Using 2D numerical models, we demonstrate that ignoring the tilt angle will introduce both lateral and vertical shifts in imaging. The shifts can be larger than 0.5 wavelength in the vertical direction and 1.5 wavelength in the lateral direction.

  8. SMART SECURITY SYSTEM FOR CARS

    OpenAIRE

    Akshay V. Balki*, Ankit A. Ramteke, Akshay Dhankar, Prof. Nilesh S. Panchbudhe

    2017-01-01

    This propose work is an attempt to model design an smart advance vehicle security system that uses biometric scanner and RFID card reader to give ignition pulse using two main module and to prevent theft. The system contains biometric scanner, RFID card reader, alcohol sensor, vibration sensor, GSM module, microcontroller (8051), relay switch, high voltage mesh..The safety of car is exceptionally essential. It provides pulse to ignition system by synchronizing driver’s data from license and t...

  9. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  10. Modelling and arrangement of composite panels in modernized freight cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Płaczek Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A process of modelling in a CAD system and designing of arrangement of composite panels used for freight cars’ body shell protection against corrosion and for easier unloading of transported cargo in winter conditions is presented in this work. Arrangement of used composite panels was designing in order to fulfil assumed criteria and thus to improve the process of freight cars modernization during periodic repairs.

  11. Modelling and arrangement of composite panels in modernized freight cars

    OpenAIRE

    Płaczek Marek; Wróbel Andrzej; Olesiejuk Maciej

    2017-01-01

    A process of modelling in a CAD system and designing of arrangement of composite panels used for freight cars’ body shell protection against corrosion and for easier unloading of transported cargo in winter conditions is presented in this work. Arrangement of used composite panels was designing in order to fulfil assumed criteria and thus to improve the process of freight cars modernization during periodic repairs.

  12. Solar Powered Heat Control System for Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Abin John; Jithin Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It takes times for an air-conditioner to effectively start cooling the passenger compartment in the car. So the passenger of the car will feel the heat in the car extremely before the air-conditioner fully cooling the interior of the car. Excessive heat can also damage an automobile's interior as well as personal property kept in the passenger compartment. So, a system to reduce this excessive heat by pumping out hot air and allowing cooler ambient air to enter the car by mean...

  13. Tilted dipole model for bias-dependent photoluminescence pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Masuda, Taishi

    2014-12-01

    In a guest-host system containing elongated dyes and a nematic liquid crystal, both molecules are aligned to each other. An external bias tilts these molecules and the radiation pattern of the system is altered. A model is proposed to describe this bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns. It divides the liquid crystal/dye layer into sub-layers that contain electric dipoles with specific tilt angles. Each sub-layer emits linearly polarized light. Its radiation pattern is toroidal and is determined by the tilt angle. Its intensity is assumed to be proportional to the power of excitation light absorbed by the sub-layer. This is calculated by the Lambert-Beer's Law. The absorption coefficient is assumed to be proportional to the cross-section of the tilted dipole moment, in analogy to the ellipsoid of refractive index, to evaluate the cross-section for each polarized component of the excitation light. Contributions from all the sub-layers are added to give a final expression for the radiation pattern. Self-absorption is neglected. The model is simplified by reducing the number of sub-layers. Analytical expressions are derived for a simple case that consists of a single layer with tilted dipoles sandwiched by two layers with horizontally-aligned dipoles. All the parameters except for the tilt angle can be determined by measuring transmittance of the excitation light. The model roughly reproduces the bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns of a cell containing 0.5 wt. % coumarin 6. It breaks down at large emission angles. Measured spectral changes suggest that the discrepancy is due to self-absorption and re-emission.

  14. Tilted dipole model for bias-dependent photoluminescence pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Masuda, Taishi

    2014-01-01

    In a guest-host system containing elongated dyes and a nematic liquid crystal, both molecules are aligned to each other. An external bias tilts these molecules and the radiation pattern of the system is altered. A model is proposed to describe this bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns. It divides the liquid crystal/dye layer into sub-layers that contain electric dipoles with specific tilt angles. Each sub-layer emits linearly polarized light. Its radiation pattern is toroidal and is determined by the tilt angle. Its intensity is assumed to be proportional to the power of excitation light absorbed by the sub-layer. This is calculated by the Lambert-Beer's Law. The absorption coefficient is assumed to be proportional to the cross-section of the tilted dipole moment, in analogy to the ellipsoid of refractive index, to evaluate the cross-section for each polarized component of the excitation light. Contributions from all the sub-layers are added to give a final expression for the radiation pattern. Self-absorption is neglected. The model is simplified by reducing the number of sub-layers. Analytical expressions are derived for a simple case that consists of a single layer with tilted dipoles sandwiched by two layers with horizontally-aligned dipoles. All the parameters except for the tilt angle can be determined by measuring transmittance of the excitation light. The model roughly reproduces the bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns of a cell containing 0.5 wt. % coumarin 6. It breaks down at large emission angles. Measured spectral changes suggest that the discrepancy is due to self-absorption and re-emission

  15. Stability of multi orifice active tilting-pad journal bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Asger M.; Santos, Ilmar

    2010-01-01

    The stability properties of actively lubricated tilting-pad journal bearings are investigated theoretically. The bearing preload factor and control system gains are varied, and stable and unstable regions are identified. It is seen, that the control system influences bearing stability, and that t......The stability properties of actively lubricated tilting-pad journal bearings are investigated theoretically. The bearing preload factor and control system gains are varied, and stable and unstable regions are identified. It is seen, that the control system influences bearing stability...

  16. Sedimentary basins reconnaissance using the magnetic Tilt-Depth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A.; Williams, S.; Samson, E.; Fairhead, D.; Ravat, D.; Blakely, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    We compute the depth to the top of magnetic basement using the Tilt-Depth method from the best available magnetic anomaly grids covering the continental USA and Australia. For the USA, the Tilt-Depth estimates were compared with sediment thicknesses based on drilling data and show a correlation of 0.86 between the datasets. If random data were used then the correlation value goes to virtually zero. There is little to no lateral offset of the depth of basinal features although there is a tendency for the Tilt-Depth results to be slightly shallower than the drill depths. We also applied the Tilt-Depth method to a local-scale, relatively high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The Tilt-Depth method successfully identified a variety of important tectonic elements known from geological mapping. Of particular interest, the Tilt-Depth method illuminated deep (3km) contacts within the non-magnetic sedimentary core of the Olympic Mountains, where magnetic anomalies are subdued and low in amplitude. For Australia, the Tilt-Depth estimates also give a good correlation with known areas of shallow basement and sedimentary basins. Our estimates of basement depth are not restricted to regional analysis but work equally well at the micro scale (basin scale) with depth estimates agreeing well with drill hole and seismic data. We focus on the eastern Officer Basin as an example of basin scale studies and find a good level of agreement between previously-derived basin models. However, our study potentially reveals depocentres not previously mapped due to the sparse distribution of well data. This example thus shows the potential additional advantage of the method in geological interpretation. The success of this study suggests that the Tilt-Depth method is useful in estimating the depth to crystalline basement when appropriate quality aeromagnetic anomaly data are used (i.e. line spacing on the order of or less than the expected depth to

  17. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  18. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  19. Preferences for Alternative Fuel Vehicles of Company Car Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.J.; Hoen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Costs of car ownership for company cars drivers and private car owners are very different. Car use, car choice decisions and preferences for car characteristics may therefore differ substantially between these two markets. In this paper, we present results of a study on the preferences of company

  20. CAR Suppresses Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Facilitating the Ubiquitination and Degradation of PGC1α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Yan, Jiong; Xu, Meishu; Ren, Songrong

    2015-01-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC1α) are master regulators of drug metabolism and gluconeogenesis, respectively. In supporting the cross talk between drug metabolism and energy metabolism, activation of CAR has been shown to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis and ameliorate hyperglycemia in vivo, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that CAR suppressed hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression through posttranslational regulation of the subcellular localization and degradation of PGC1α. Activated CAR translocated into the nucleus and served as an adaptor protein to recruit PGC1α to the Cullin1 E3 ligase complex for ubiquitination. The interaction between CAR and PGC1α also led to their sequestration within the promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies, where PGC1α and CAR subsequently underwent proteasomal degradation. Taken together, our findings revealed an unexpected function of CAR in recruiting an E3 ligase and targeting the gluconeogenic activity of PGC1α. Both drug metabolism and gluconeogenesis are energy-demanding processes. The negative regulation of PGC1α by CAR may represent a cellular adaptive mechanism to accommodate energy-restricted conditions. PMID:26407237

  1. Romanian Young Consumers Perception of Car Brands: A Personal Construct Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Rozalia GABOR

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Owning a “renown” car brand, a “latest hour” model, with a futuristic design, etc. is the ultimate dream of any driver. Thus, the car producers always take into account the real or the ideal needs of consumers, including on the emergent market. The research of car brand perception among consumers is possible with quantitative and qualitative methods statistics, respectively. The combine use of these leads to the qualitative improvement of the research, in the sense that it fathoms the aspects belonging to endogenous and exogenous variables, direct noticeable, of the consumers. This research regarding the perception of the car brands most often encountered on Romanian highways, among young Romanian consumers is based on a combined use of a repertory grid and the Principal Component Analysis method for the data elaborating and construing phase. The results show: the perceptions of consumers are grouped in: the ideal image of the future, youth – sportivity, reliability; a strong perception of the symbolic significance, subjective related to car brands; good perceptions according to the history of the car brands; good perceptions according to aspects connected to reliability and maintenance of the car brands; good perceptions according to the design of the body car and aspects connected to it.

  2. CAR Suppresses Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Facilitating the Ubiquitination and Degradation of PGC1α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Yan, Jiong; Xu, Meishu; Ren, Songrong; Xie, Wen

    2015-11-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC1α) are master regulators of drug metabolism and gluconeogenesis, respectively. In supporting the cross talk between drug metabolism and energy metabolism, activation of CAR has been shown to suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis and ameliorate hyperglycemia in vivo, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that CAR suppressed hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression through posttranslational regulation of the subcellular localization and degradation of PGC1α. Activated CAR translocated into the nucleus and served as an adaptor protein to recruit PGC1α to the Cullin1 E3 ligase complex for ubiquitination. The interaction between CAR and PGC1α also led to their sequestration within the promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies, where PGC1α and CAR subsequently underwent proteasomal degradation. Taken together, our findings revealed an unexpected function of CAR in recruiting an E3 ligase and targeting the gluconeogenic activity of PGC1α. Both drug metabolism and gluconeogenesis are energy-demanding processes. The negative regulation of PGC1α by CAR may represent a cellular adaptive mechanism to accommodate energy-restricted conditions.

  3. Frequency Response Analysis of an Actively Lubricated Rotor/Tilting-Pad Bearing System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, the dynamic response of a rotor supported by an active lubricated tilting-pad bearing is investigated in the frequency domain. The theoretical part of the investigation is based on a mathematical model obtained by means of rigid body dynamics. The oil film forces are inserted...... into the model by using two different approaches: (a) linearized active oil film forces and the assumption that the hydrodynamic forces and the active hydraulic forces can be decoupled; (b) equivalent dynamic coefficients of the active oil film and the solution of the modified Reynolds' equation for the active......-pad bearing. By applying a simple proportional controller, it is possible to reach 30% reduction of the resonance peak associated with the first rigid body mode shape of the system. One of the most important consequences of such a vibration reduction in rotating machines is the feasibility of increasing...

  4. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end...

  5. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 4. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for delineation of concealed coal fire in East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coal field, India. S K Pal Jitendra Vaish Sahadev Kumar Piyush Priyam Abhay Kumar Bharti Rajwardhan Kumar. Volume ...

  6. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Pal

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... are corroborated with multi-seam occurrences, mine working levels and surface manifestation which are also correlated well with 3D model of downward continued anomaly distribution. Keywords. Downward continuation; tilt derivative; magnetic data; coal fire mapping; Jharia coal field;. India. 1.

  7. Development of tilted fibre Bragg gratings using highly coherent 255 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: oprakash@rrcat.gov.in. DOI: 10.1007/s12043-013-0672-7; ePublication: 6 February 2014. Abstract. This paper reports the study on development of tilted fibre Bragg gratings using highly coherent 255 nm radiation, obtained from the second harmonic generation (SHG) of copper vapour laser (CVL). The transmission ...

  8. Analysis of a ferrofluid core differential transformer tilt measurement sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvegy, T.; Molnár, Á.; Molnár, G.; Gugolya, Z.

    2017-04-15

    In our work, we developed a ferrofluid core differential transformer sensor, which can be used to measure tilt and acceleration. The proposed sensor consisted of three coils, from which the primary was excited with an alternating current. In the space surrounded by the coils was a cell half-filled with ferrofluid, therefore in the horizontal state of the sensor the fluid distributes equally in the three sections of the cell surrounded by the three coils. Nevertheless when the cell is being tilted or accelerated (in the direction of the axis of the coils), there is a different amount of ferrofluid in the three sections. The voltage induced in the secondary coils strongly depends on the amount of ferrofluid found in the core surrounded by them, so the tilt or the acceleration of the cell becomes measurable. We constructed the sensor in several layouts. The linearly coiled sensor had an excellent resolution. Another version with a toroidal cell had almost perfect linearity and a virtually infinite measuring range. - Highlights: • A ferrofluid core differential transformer can be used to measure tilt. • The theoretical description of two different type of the sensor is introduced. • The measuring range, and the sensitivity depends on the dimensions of the sensor.

  9. Tilt Train Technology : A State of the Art Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This report presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in tilt-train technology. It is intended to give the reader a better understanding of the unique features of this approach to train design and the variations that exist. Briefly described is th...

  10. Manipulation of enhanced absorption with tilted hexagonal boron nitride slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohu; Fu, Ceji

    2018-04-01

    The wavevector of electromagnetic wave propagation in a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) slab can be controlled by tilting its optical axis. This property can be used to manipulate the absorption in a hBN slab. By carefully analyzing the dependence of the absorptivity of a thin hBN slab on the tilted angle of its optical axis, we propose a structure that can realize great absorptivity enhancement in a band by stacking hBN slabs of different tilted angles. Our numerical results show that the absorptivity of a structure made of 91 stacked hBN slabs can be achieved higher than 0.94 in the wavenumber range from 1367 to 1580 cm-1 when the tilted angles of the slabs are properly arranged. The strong absorption is attributed to the combination of impedance matching at the slab interfaces and enlarged wavevectors in the slabs. This work reveals a novel way to realize strong absorption with anisotropic materials for applications in areas such as thermal radiative energy harvesting and conversion.

  11. Dynamic tilt illusion induced by continuous contextual orientation alternations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiangyong; Zhang, Xilei; Jiang, Yi

    2017-11-01

    In the classic tilt illusion, the perceived orientation of a center patch is shifted away from its oriented context. Additionally, a stronger illusion effect is yielded when the center patch is simultaneously rather than asynchronously presented with a constant context for a shorter duration. However, little is known about the temporal characteristic of the tilt illusion in a reverse situation in which a constant center patch is presented throughout while the contexts change. Therefore, we continuously alternated two opposite-oriented contexts and manipulated alternate speeds to examine how the tilt illusion would build up as a function of dynamic contextual alternation. Our results revealed that dynamic alternations between leftward- and rightward-oriented contexts caused a static vertical grating at the center to apparently sway from side to side. More importantly, the apparent sway illusion was modulated by the alternate speed of the oriented contexts (up to 8-10 Hz); the quicker the alternation is, the faster and weaker the apparent sway is. Intriguingly, the temporal characteristic of the "dynamic tilt illusion" suggests that, under a varying environment, the suppressions from temporally adjacent surrounds would be chunked into discrete epochs before affecting our percept.

  12. Tilted hexagonal post arrays: DNA electrophoresis in anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Dorfman, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Using Brownian dynamics simulations, we show that DNA electrophoresis in a hexagonal array of micron-sized posts changes qualitatively when the applied electric field vector is not coincident with the lattice vectors of the array. DNA electrophoresis in such “tilted” post arrays is superior to the standard “un-tilted” approach; while the time required to achieve a resolution of unity in a tilted post array is similar to an un-tilted array at a low electric field strengths, this time (i) decreases exponentially with electric field strength in a tilted array and (ii) increases exponentially with electric field strength in an un-tilted array. Although the DNA dynamics in a post array are complicated, the electrophoretic mobility results indicate that the “free path”, i.e., the average distance of ballistic trajectories of point sized particles launched from random positions in the unit cell until they intersect the next post, is a useful proxy for the detailed DNA trajectories. The analysis of the free path reveals a fundamental connection between anisotropy of the medium and DNA transport therein that goes beyond simply improving the separation device. PMID:23868490

  13. Modelling of LEG tilting pad journal bearings with active lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; García, Asier Bengoechea; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    This work constitutes the first step in a research effort aimed at studying the feasibility of introducing an active lubrication concept in tilting pad journal bearings (TPJBs) that feature the leading edge groove (LEG) lubrication system. The modification of the oil flow into each pad supply gro...

  14. Cellular structures using U_q-tilting modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina; Tubbenhauer, Daniel

    We use the theory of Uq-tilting modules to construct cellular bases for centralizer algebras. Our methods are quite general and work for any quantum group Uq attached to a Cartan matrix and include the non semi-simple cases for q being a root of unity and ground fields of positive characteristic...

  15. Simulations of Micropumps Based on Tilted Flexible Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Matthew; Elabbasi, Nagi; Demirel, Melik

    2015-11-01

    Pumping liquids at low Reynolds numbers is challenging because of the principle of reversibility. We report here a class of microfluidic pump designs based on tilted flexible structures that combines the concepts of cilia (flexible elastic elements) and rectifiers (e.g., Tesla valves, check valves). We demonstrate proof-of-concept with 2D and 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations in COMSOL Multiphysics®of micropumps consisting of a source for oscillatory fluidic motion, e.g. a piston, and a channel lined with tilted flexible rods or sheets to provide rectification. When flow is against the rod tilt direction, the rods bend backward, narrowing the channel and increasing flow resistance; when flow is in the direction of rod tilt, the rods bend forward, widening the channel and decreasing flow resistance. The 2D and 3D simulations involve moving meshes whose quality is maintained by prescribing the mesh displacement on guide surfaces positioned on either side of each flexible structure. The prescribed displacement depends on structure bending and maintains mesh quality even for large deformations. Simulations demonstrate effective pumping even at Reynolds numbers as low as 0.001. Because rod rigidity may be specified independently of Reynolds number, in principle, rod rigidity may be reduced to enable pumping at arbitrarily low Reynolds numbers.

  16. Abnormal Tilt Perception During Centrifugation in Patients with Vestibular Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joanne; Lewis, Richard F

    2016-06-01

    Vestibular migraine (VM), defined as vestibular symptoms caused by migraine mechanisms, is very common but poorly understood. Because dizziness is often provoked in VM patients when the semicircular canals and otolith organs are stimulated concurrently (e.g., tilting the head relative to gravity), we measured tilt perception and eye movements in patients with VM and in migraine and normal control subjects during fixed-radius centrifugation, a paradigm that simultaneously modulates afferent signals from the semicircular canals and otoliths organs. Twenty-four patients (8 in each category) were tested with a motion paradigm that generated an inter-aural centrifugal force of 0.36 G, resulting in a 20° tilt of the gravito-inertial force in the roll plane. We found that percepts of roll tilt developed slower in VM patients than in the two control groups, but that eye movement responses, including the shift in the eye's rotational axis, were equivalent in all three groups. These results demonstrate a change in vestibular perception in VM that is unaccompanied by changes in vestibular-mediated eye movements and suggest that either the brain's integration of canal and otolith signals or the dynamics of otolith responses are aberrant in patients with VM.

  17. The impact of gravity during head-up tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.; Olufsen, Mette; Smith, Brittany

    The impact of gravity during head-up tilt, a test often used in the clinic to diagnose patients who suffer from dizziness or frequent episodes of syncope, is not well described. This study uses mathematical modeling to analyze experimental blood pressure data measured at the level of the aorta...

  18. determination of determination of optimal tilt angle for maximum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The analysis showed that the best tilt angle for PV energy production is 60 if the module is fixed module ... suitable solar technology at an efficiency of 1%. Also, ... it. Thus, achieving the maximum possible performance is critical in PV power generation [14]. Installing PV modules on either a single or dual-axis trackers is one.

  19. Novel tilt-curvature coupling in lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, M. Mert; Deserno, Markus

    2017-08-01

    On mesoscopic scales, lipid membranes are well described by continuum theories whose main ingredients are the curvature of a membrane's reference surface and the tilt of its lipid constituents. In particular, Hamm and Kozlov [Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 323 (2000)] have shown how to systematically derive such a tilt-curvature Hamiltonian based on the elementary assumption of a thin fluid elastic sheet experiencing internal lateral pre-stress. Performing a dimensional reduction, they not only derive the basic form of the effective surface Hamiltonian but also express its emergent elastic couplings as trans-membrane moments of lower-level material parameters. In the present paper, we argue, though, that their derivation unfortunately missed a coupling term between curvature and tilt. This term arises because, as one moves along the membrane, the curvature-induced change of transverse distances contributes to the area strain—an effect that was believed to be small but nevertheless ends up contributing at the same (quadratic) order as all other terms in their Hamiltonian. We illustrate the consequences of this amendment by deriving the monolayer and bilayer Euler-Lagrange equations for the tilt, as well as the power spectra of shape, tilt, and director fluctuations. A particularly curious aspect of our new term is that its associated coupling constant is the second moment of the lipid monolayer's lateral stress profile—which within this framework is equal to the monolayer Gaussian curvature modulus, κ¯ m. On the one hand, this implies that many theoretical predictions now contain a parameter that is poorly known (because the Gauss-Bonnet theorem limits access to the integrated Gaussian curvature); on the other hand, the appearance of κ¯ m outside of its Gaussian curvature provenance opens opportunities for measuring it by more conventional means, for instance by monitoring a membrane's undulation spectrum at short scales.

  20. Modeling Flow Past a Tilted Vena Cava Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M A; Wang, S L

    2009-06-29

    Inferior vena cava filters are medical devices used to prevent pulmonary embolism (PE) from deep vein thrombosis. In particular, retrievable filters are well-suited for patients who are unresponsive to anticoagulation therapy and whose risk of PE decreased with time. The goal of this work is to use computational fluid dynamics to evaluate the flow past an unoccluded and partially occluded Celect inferior vena cava filter. In particular, the hemodynamic response to thrombus volume and filter tilt is examined, and the results are compared with flow conditions that are known to be thrombogenic. A computer model of the filter inside a model vena cava is constructed using high resolution digital photographs and methods of computer aided design. The models are parameterized using the Overture software framework, and a collection of overlapping grids is constructed to discretize the flow domain. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved, and the characteristics of the flow (i.e., velocity contours and wall shear stresses) are computed. The volume of stagnant and recirculating flow increases with thrombus volume. In addition, as the filter increases tilt, the cava wall adjacent to the tilted filter is subjected to low velocity flow that gives rise to regions of low wall shear stress. The results demonstrate the ease of IVC filter modeling with the Overture software framework. Flow conditions caused by the tilted Celect filter may elevate the risk of intrafilter thrombosis and facilitate vascular remodeling. This latter condition also increases the risk of penetration and potential incorporation of the hook of the filter into the vena caval wall, thereby complicating filter retrieval. Consequently, severe tilt at the time of filter deployment may warrant early clinical intervention.

  1. Slant-tilt: the visual encoding of surface orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, K A

    1983-01-01

    A specific form for the internal representation of local surface orientation is proposed, which is similar to Gibson's (1950) "amount and direction of slant". Slant amount is usually quantified by the angle sigma between the surface normal and the line of sight (0 degrees less than or equal to sigma less than or equal to 90 degrees). Slant direction corresponds to the direction of the gradient of distance from the viewer to the surface, and may be defined by the image direction tau to which the surface normal would project (0 degrees less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 360 degrees). Since the direction of slant is specified by the tilt of the projected surface normal, it is referred to as surface tilt (Stevens, 1979; Marr, 1982). The two degrees of freedom of orientation are therefore quantified by slant, an angle measured perpendicular to the image plane, and tilt, an angle measured in the image plane. The slant-tilt form provides several computational advantages relative to some other proposals and is consistent with various psychological phenomena. Slant might be encoded by various means, e.g. by the cosine of the angle, by the tangent, or linearly by the angle itself. Experimental results are reported that suggest that slant is encoded by an internal parameter that varies linearly with slant angle, with resolution of roughly one part in 100. Thus we propose that surface orientation is encoded in human vision by two quantities, one varying linearly with slant angle, the other varying linearly with tilt angle.

  2. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment : Active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golding, J. F.; van der Bles, W.; Bos, J. E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is

  3. Driving CAR T-cells forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hollie J.; Rafiq, Sarwish; Brentjens, Renier J.

    2017-01-01

    The engineered expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on the surface of T cells enables the redirection of T-cell specificity. Early clinical trials using CAR T cells for the treatment of patients with cancer showed modest results, but the impressive outcomes of several trials of CD19-targeted CAR T cells in the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies have generated an increased enthusiasm for this approach. Important lessons have been derived from clinical trials of CD19-specific CAR T cells, and ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in haematological and solid malignancies. In this Review, we discuss these trials and present strategies that can increase the antitumour efficacy and safety of CAR T-cell therapy. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, we only discuss studies with direct translational application currently or soon-to-be tested in the clinical setting. PMID:27000958

  4. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  5. Slower, smaller and lighter urban cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, P.; Honnery, D. [Monash Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Caulfield East (Australia)

    1999-01-01

    Rising global car ownership levels generate a variety of problems, including traffic congestion, oil depletion, air pollution and traffic accidents. These problems are usually most severe in urban areas. This paper examines the potential for large reductions in maximum speed, size and mass of urban cars to ameliorate these problems. It is found that cutting maximum speed would significantly lower the frequency and severity of traffic accidents, especially in the third world, where fatality rates per vehicle are very high. If cars carried a maximum of two to four persons, car length and width could be reduced. Such cars would require smaller lane widths and less parking space, thus helping to ease traffic congestion. The combination of smaller and slower vehicles means that car mass can also be greatly reduced, which in turn reduces fuel use and, with it, urban air pollution and carbon dioxide emissions. (Author)

  6. Prediction of future car forms based on historical trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijendra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cars are one of the most important products that affects our daily life. Manufacturers of cars are inclined to know factors that affect the sales of cars and how to influence them. Car is a very competitive product whose technology is already matured. Thus, purchase decisions of a car depend on factors such as, aesthetics, ergonomics, features available and price. Exterior form and colour of a car are the most important factors that influence likeness of the car. We did a case study on car aesthetics (form, colour, shape, and user focus with more than 500 car advertisements over the past 70 years, appearing in various car magazines. Results show that form of cars has changed from sharp to smooth over the years, and white colour cars are becoming more popular. Additionally, car size is becoming smaller and increasingly focused towards family. Thus, manufacturers are recommended to develop compact, efficient and hybrid cars.

  7. Comparison of respiratory physiologic features when infants are placed in car safety seats or car beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinane, T Bernard; Murphy, Joan; Bass, Joel L; Corwin, Michael J

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the respiratory physiologic features of healthy term infants placed in either a car bed or a car safety seat. Within the first 1 week of life, 67 healthy term infants were recruited and assigned randomly to be monitored in either a car bed (33 infants) or a car safety seat (34 infants). Physiologic data, including oxygen saturation and frequency and type of apnea, were obtained and analyzed in a blinded manner. The groups spent similar amounts of time in the devices (car bed: 71.6 minutes; car seat: 74.2 minutes). The mean oxygen saturation values were not different between the groups (car bed: 97.1%; car seat: 97.3%). The percentages of time with oxygen saturation of car bed: 11.8[corrected]%; car seat: 18.3[corrected]%). In both groups, a number of infants spent high percentages of study time with oxygen saturation of car safety seat group (54%-63% of study time). Values for the 6 infants in the car bed group with the most time at this level were lower (20%-42%). This difference in the duration of oxygen saturation of features of infants in the 2 car safety devices were observed to be similar. Of note, substantial periods of time with oxygen saturation of < 95% were surprisingly common in both groups.

  8. Influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilt before and after the performance of a fatigue protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvim, Felipe C; Peixoto, Jennifer G; Vicente, Eduardo J D; Chagas, Paula S C; Fonseca, Diogo S

    2010-01-01

    There is a lack of data in the literature for determining the influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilting and, thus, on lumbar stability. To assess the influences of the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on pelvic tilt. Ten healthy young subjects were recruited, with a body mass index (BMI) below 24.9 kg/m(2) and leg length discrepancy below 1 cm. The BMI, pelvic perimeter and lower-limb lengths were assessed and, subsequently, the degrees of hemi-pelvic tilt and asymmetry between them were analyzed using lateral view photographs of the subjects in a standing position, using SAPO (Software for Postural Assessment). Next, fatigue was induced in the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle on the dominant side, and after that the hemi-pelvic tilt and the asymmetry between the hemi-pelvises were reassessed. The Pearson r and Student t tests were conducted at the significance level of alpha=0.05. There were no significant correlations between the confounding variables and asymmetry of the hemi-pelvic angles. There were significant changes in the hemi-pelvic angle of the dominant side (t=3.760; p=0.004). Fatigue in the extensor portion of the gluteus maximus muscle can generate increases in the tilt angle of the ipsilateral pelvis.

  9. One-Quarter-Car Active SuspensionModel Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyniova Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Suspension system influences both the comfort and safety of the passengers. In the paper, energy recuperation and management in automotive suspension systems with linear electric motors that are controlled by a designed H∞ controller to generate a variable mechanical force for a car damper is presented. Vehicle shock absorbers in which forces are generated in response to feedback signals by active elements obviously offer increased design flexibility compared to the conventional suspensions with passive elements (springs and dampers. The main advantage of the proposed solution that uses a linear AC motor is the possibility to generate desired forces acting between the unsprung (wheel and sprung (one-quarter of the car body mass masses of the car, providing good insulation of the car sprung mass from the road surface roughness and load disturbances. As shown in the paper, under certain circumstances linear motors as actuators enable to transform mechanical energy of the vertical car vibrations to electrical energy, accumulate it, and use it when needed. Energy flow control enables to reduce or even eliminate the demands on the external power source. In particular, the paper is focused on experiments with active shock absorber that has been taken on the designed test bed and the way we developed an appropriate input signal for the test bed that as real road disturbance acts upon the vibration absorber and the obtained results are evaluated at the end. Another important point the active suspension design should satisfy is energy supply control that is made via standard controller modification, and which allows changing amount of energy required by the system. Functionality of the designed controller modification was verified taking various experiments on the experiment stand as mentioned in the paper.

  10. Should Diesel cars in Europe be discouraged?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale for the different tax treatment of gasoline and diesel cars currently observed in Europe. First, we analyse possible justifications for a different tax treatment: pure tax revenue considerations, externality cons0iderations and constraints on the tax instruments used for cars and trucks. Next, an applied general equilibrium model is used to assess the welfare effects of revenue neutral changes in the vehicle and fuel taxes on diesel and gasoline cars. The mod...

  11. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell–mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T...

  12. DARTS: Deceiving Autonomous Cars with Toxic Signs

    OpenAIRE

    Sitawarin, Chawin; Bhagoji, Arjun Nitin; Mosenia, Arsalan; Chiang, Mung; Mittal, Prateek

    2018-01-01

    Sign recognition is an integral part of autonomous cars. Any misclassification of traffic signs can potentially lead to a multitude of disastrous consequences, ranging from a life-threatening accident to a large-scale interruption of transportation services relying on autonomous cars. In this paper, we propose and examine realistic security attacks against sign recognition systems for Deceiving Autonomous caRs with Toxic Signs (we call the proposed attacks DARTS). Leveraging the concept of ad...

  13. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    OpenAIRE

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based on a neural network approach. The aim of this research is to assess the relative merit of both approaches to describe human learning behavior in car driving specifically and in operating dynamic sys...

  14. Alcohol Fuel in Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the effects of combustion of high-percentage mixture of bioethanol and gasoline on the output parameters of a passenger car engine. The car engine has not been structurally modified for the combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content. The mixture used consisted of E85 summer blend and Natural 95 gasoline in a ratio of 50:50. The parameters monitored during the experiment included the air-fuel ratio in exhaust gasses, the power output and torque of the engine and also the specific energy consumption and efficiency of the engine. As is apparent from the results, E85+N95 (50:50 mixture combustion results in lean-burn (λ > 1 due to the presence of oxygen in bioethanol. The lean-burn led to a slight decrease in torque and power output of the engine. However, due to the positive physicochemical properties of bioethanol, the decrease has not been as significant as would normally be expected from the measured air-fuel ratio. These findings are further confirmed by the calculated energy required to produce 1 kWh of energy, and by the higher efficiency of the engine during the combustion of a 50% bioethanol mixture.

  15. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Hashim Nor Haslina; Zayadi Nadzirah

    2016-01-01

    The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the st...

  16. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья) describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical ...

  17. THE RATIONALE FOR EXTENDING THE SERVICES OF PASSENGER CARS WITH POCKETS OF CORROSION IN THE CENTER SILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Myamlin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The scientific work supposed: 1 the search of accounting ways of the local corrosion damages influence to the car design, that were expired the appointed time, for the purpose of renewal; 2 experimental verification of conformity of material construction requirements of the normative documentation and justification for extending the services of passenger cars with pockets of corrosion after 30 years of operation; 3 the conformity assessment of residual life of the structure of car bodies operating pressures in the next 5 years of use. Methodology. The developed algorithm of technical diagnostics of cars with pockets of corrosion of the center sill contains several stages. First, a survey of technical condition of structures is conducted by a visual-optical method and nondestructive control methods, and the degree of damage is determined. In the next phase the experimental verification of conformity of the structure and mechanical properties of the center sill of the car with the pockets of corrosion to regulatory requirements are executed. Next, the study of strength of the supporting structures of car bodies on the basis of experimental static and impact tests of strength is executed. Finally, the endurance tests are conducted on the effect of the longitudinal forces and the evaluation and prediction of compliance resource car bodies for the next period are executed. Findings. The actual work is completed by obtaining the experimental data on the feasibility of extending the service life of passenger cars as from the point of view of an operating time of load-bearing elements of the car body to the resource, and from the point of view of chemical composition, structure and mechanical properties of the center sill with pockets of corrosion. The presence of local corrosion damages of the center sill of the presented size is not a threat to the structural strength and safety. Originality. The authors conducted a comprehensive study to

  18. High-speed instrumentation complex for car crash testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, S. V.; Gorin, I. M.; Drozhbin, Yu. A.; Kuznetsov, A. A.; Ponomaryov, A. M.; Semyonov, V. B.; Udalov, V. V.

    1993-01-01

    One of the most important car checking problems consists in safety testing which includes trials for different types of collision, e.g., frontal and lateral. This allows us to study deformations of the automobile and its parts during the impact. To obtain reliable data on overloading, acceleration, deformation, force load on the car's body as well as on the anthropomorphic dummies inside it, use is made of rather a great number of different techniques. Highly informative among them is high-speed cine recording which allows us to register variations that occur during a fraction of a second, and then to reproduce with variable rate the frame images obtained. This makes it possible to study the impact parameters variations much more accurately.

  19. Effect of tilting on cerebral hemodynamics in preterm and term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pichler, G; van Boetzelar, MC; Muller, W; Urlesberger, B

    2001-01-01

    Tilting is known to cause changes in hemodynamics due to hydrostatic pressure. The present study is an analysis of changes in cerebral hemodynamics measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) following tilting up and down in preterm and term infants. A significantly different effect of tilting up

  20. Role of Baroreflex Sensitivity in Predicting Tilt Training Response in Patients with Neurally Mediated Syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kwang Jin; Yim, Hye Ran; Park, Jungwae; Park, Seung Jung; Park, Kyoung Min; On, Young Keun; Kim, June Soo

    2016-03-01

    An association between baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and the response to tilt training has not been reported in patients with neurally mediated syncope (NMS). This study sought to investigate the role of BRS in predicting the response to tilt training in patients with NMS. We analyzed 57 patients who underwent tilt training at our hospital. A responder to tilt training was defined as a patient with three consecutive negative responses to the head-up tilt test (HUT) during tilt training. After tilt training, 52 patients (91.2%) achieved three consecutive negative responses to the HUT. In the supine position before upright posture during the first session of tilt training for responders and non-responders, the mean BRS was 18.17 ± 10.09 ms/mm Hg and 7.99 ± 5.84 ms/mm Hg (p=0.008), respectively, and the frequency of BRS ≥ 8.945 ms/mm Hg was 45 (86.5%) and 1 (20.0%; p=0.004), respectively. Age, male gender, frequency of syncopal events before HUT, type of NMS, phase of positive HUT, total number of tilt training sessions, and mean time of tilt training did not differ between the study groups. In the multivariate analysis, BRS training. The BRS value in the supine position could be a predictor for determining the response to tilt training in patients with NMS who are being considered for inpatient tilt training.

  1. Life-threatening and disabling injuries in car-to-car side impacts--implications for development of protective systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håland, Y; Lövsund, P; Nygren, A

    1993-04-01

    Improvements to the passive safety of cars in lateral collisions are of great importance. This study of injuries in car side collisions in Sweden by the use of two evaluation methods has been performed to establish the basis for future development of protective systems for this type of accident. The Folksam car accident data file has been used. Injuries were found to be twice as common for near-side than for far-side* occupants in car to car impacts. Serious to fatal (AIS 3-6) injuries to belted front seat occupants in near side impacts (10% of all injuries) were compared with the estimated number of injuries to different parts of the body with risk of serious consequences (RSC)--either deaths or permanent disabilities (4.5% of all injuries). The two injury evaluation methods resulted in different ranking orders. AIS 3-6 injuries were received by the chest (37%), abdomen/pelvis (25%), and the head (15%). The RSC method gave a ranking order of head (25%), neck (21%), leg (15%), chest (14%), and abdomen/pelvis (11%). The method of evaluating AIS 3-6 injuries emphasizes only the threat to life. The RSC method also takes into account the risk of disabilities. Injuries to the neck and the leg were found to be most disabling, whilst the injuries to the head, chest, and abdomen/pelvis were the most life threatening. The study also shows that elderly people receive significantly more chest injuries (relative to the number of head injuries), on average four times more than young people.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Superplastic forming of aluminum alloy car body panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Zhipeng; Zhang Yanshu; Zhou Yi; Jin Quanlin [Beijing Research Inst. of Mechanical and Electrical Technology, Beijing, BJ (China)

    2005-07-01

    An experimental study on superplastic forming of a front fender of 5182 aluminum alloy is presented in this paper. Based on the shape characters of the front fender and the material experimental results, dies, heater and temperature controller for superplastic forming of the fender are designed and manufactured. The SPF results show the designed processing and dies are reasonable and feasible. (orig.)

  3. Adhesiveness of cold rolled steels for car body parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleiner Marques Marra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the adhesiveness of uncoated and zinc-electrogalvanized steel sheets used in the automotive industry. Three types of adhesives, one acrylic and two epoxy resins, were employed to join low carbon cold rolled steels, one uncoated and another electrogalvanized, both previously degreased or chemically pickled. Mechanical strength of the joints was evaluated by the T-peel and tensile strength tests. Steel grade, surface condition and heating below the cure temperatures did not influence the joints' mechanical strength. However, their shear strength decreased drastically as the test temperature increased. The exposure of the joints to an atmosphere with 90% relative humidity at 40 °C caused reduction of their shear strength. Epoxy adhesives showed higher mechanical strength, but exhibited higher degradation by humidity.

  4. Problem of the Used Cars Import on the Territory of the Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskaev, Vladimir; Taskaeva, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    Authors completed the analysis of the accepted practice of classification of the sawn car bodies in Russia. They conclude that the tools of the Product Range of Foreign Economic Activity do not allow to classify the front and rear parts of the car as goods. Nowadays the participants of foreign economic activity sent the efforts to search for any new way to cut the customs payments. Meanwhile that is not incidental, that during car sale, the sellers specify in their offers not only purely technical characteristics but also the fact that “It is not a Sawn Car”. Thereby the sellers of cars agree that the car, obtained by joint of the sawn parts in the handicraft conditions, have an uncertainty of such important characteristic as safety, and that reduces the consumer properties of the purchase. Many buyers consider unsafe and even impossible to use the car in which such fundamental characteristic as safety is not provided. Therefore, the attempts of customs to carry out any classification of goods in the commodity position 8703 for the increase in collectable customs payments have a negative side as the matters of health and life of future owner of the car are concerned.

  5. Track profile approximation using railcar body acceleration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Accelerations are frequently measured from the car body of a rail vehicle, which is mounted above one or more suspension : systems. Measuring accelerations in the car body is largely done for convenience, as mounting an accelerometer to a truck or ax...

  6. CERN car stickers for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The stickers on your vehicles will cease to be valid at the end of 2013. We kindly request that you inform us as soon as possible if you no longer own a vehicle that is in our records. In particular, please inform the CERN Registration Service (Building 55, first floor) if you receive a sticker for a vehicle that you no longer own.   Stickers for 2014 are valid immediately and can be displayed as soon as you receive them. The Guards Service will continue to allow cars displaying a 2013 sticker into the CERN site until no later than 31 January 2014. After that date, the Guards Service will be obliged to deny access to any vehicles not displaying a valid sticker. Please see Operational Circular No. 2 for more details. We wish you a pleasant day and happy holidays, GS/DI security and access control service

  7. Tilted-axis wobbling in odd-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaca, R.

    2018-02-01

    A triaxial rotor Hamiltonian with a rigidly aligned high-j quasiparticle is treated by a time-dependent variational principle, using angular momentum coherent states. The resulting classical energy function has three unique critical points in a space of generalized conjugate coordinates, which can minimize the energy for specific ordering of the inertial parameters and a fixed angular momentum state. Because of the symmetry of the problem, there are only two unique solutions, corresponding to wobbling motion around a principal axis and, respectively, a tilted axis. The wobbling frequencies are obtained after a quantization procedure and then used to calculate E 2 and M 1 transition probabilities. The analytical results are employed in the study of the wobbling excitations of 135Pr nucleus, which is found to undergo a transition from low angular momentum transverse wobbling around a principal axis toward a tilted-axis wobbling at higher angular momentum.

  8. Profile stabilization of tilt mode in a Field Reversed Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.W.; Tajima, T. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Barnes, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The possibility of stabilizing the tilt mode in Field Reversed Configurations without resorting to explicit kinetic effects such as large ion orbits is investigated. Various pressure profiles, P({Psi}), are chosen, including ``hollow`` profiles where current is strongly peaked near the separatrix. Numerical equilibria are used as input for an initial value simulation which uses an extended Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that includes viscous and Hall terms. Tilt stability is found for specific hollow profiles when accompanied by high values of separatrix beta, {beta}{sub sep}. The stable profiles also have moderate to large elongation, racetrack separatrix shape, and lower values of 3, average ratio of Larmor radius to device radius. The stability is unaffected by changes in viscosity, but the neglect of the Hall term does cause stable results to become marginal or unstable. Implications for interpretation of recent experiments are discussed.

  9. On the Design of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Pockets are often machined in the surfaces of tilting-pad thrust bearings to allow for hydrostatic jacking in the start-up phase. Pockets and other recesses in the surfaces of bearing pads influence the pressure distribution and thereby the position of the pivot resulting in the most advantageous...... friction and a small pressure build-up. As in parallel-step bearings the recesses may also have a depth of the same order of magnitude as the oil film thickness. Such recesses are characterized by a strong pressure build-up caused by the reduction of the flow area at the end of the recess. Numerical models...... based on the Reynolds equation are used. They include the effects of variations of viscosity with temperature and the deformation of the bearing pads due to pressure and thermal gradients. The models are validated using measurements. Tilting-pad bearings of standard design are studied and the influences...

  10. Tilting-Pad Guide Bearing in Large Hydro-unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Feng Ma

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A new numerical method is proposed for predicting the nonlinearity of tilting-pad guide bearing oilfilm force in the rotor-bearing system in a large hydro-unit. Nonlinear displacement and velocity of the journal center, as well as nonlinear tilting angles and angular velocities of the pads in non-stationary Reynolds equation are taken into account. This method is also suited for other small rotor-bearing system. As an example, the response due to a momentarily created unbalance is Calculated. The nonlinear motion patterns of the pad and journal whirling orbit are obtained. Finally, the nonlinear orbit is compared to the linear one that could be calculated from linear stiffness and damping coefficients. It is shown that there are important differences between those two orbits and that the nonlinear simulation is more accurate.

  11. TILT-BASED PREDICTIVE TEXT INPUT CONCEPT FOR MOBILE DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Badurowicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper authors are introducing the concept of usage of physical orientation of a mobile device, calculated using built-in environmental sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer for detection of tilting gesture. This gesture is used as an acceptance factor for the two next probable word solutions suggested to the user during text input. By performing the device tilt, the first or second word is being automatically put into the desired text field and new prediction is performed. The text predictions are calculated and stored directly on the device to maintain privacy protection. The founding concept of the software is being presented, as well as initial considerations and further plans. This solution is recommended especially to smartphone manufacturers like Microsoft, Samsung and Apple to deploy in their latest models.

  12. Tilted Foils Nuclear Spin Polarization at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, Hans Toshihide

    2013-08-08

    This thesis will explain and summarize my work and involvement in experiments aimed at producing nuclear spin polarization of post-accelerated beams of ions with the tilted-foils technique at the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator at CERN. Polarizing the nuclear spin of radioactive beams in particular may provide access to observables which may be difficult to obtain otherwise. Currently, the techniques commonly employed for nuclear spin polarization are restricted to specific nuclides and experimental measurement techniques. Tilted foils polarization may provide a new tool to extend the range of nuclides that can be polarized and the types of experiments that can be performed. The experiments rely not only on the production but also on the method to measure the degree of attained polarization. Two methods will be treated, based on particle scattering in Coulomb excitation that may be utilized for stable beams, and the $\\beta$-NMR that requires $\\beta$-decaying nuclei. The experimental setups and measurements will...

  13. Source tilting within the difference formulation for radiation transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luu, T; Brooks, E; Szoke, A

    2006-09-27

    We apply a heuristic technique known as 'source tilting' to a Monte Carlo solution for radiation transport, in the difference formulation, that otherwise employs a piecewise-constant treatment of the material temperature. Source tilting improves the accuracy of the piecewise-constant treatment, reducing the excessive energy flow that occurs in the thick limit. An analysis of the cause of excessive energy flow suggests an interpolation scheme that removes this defect, obtaining the correct diffusion limit flux between zones. The results obtained with our interpolation scheme agree almost identically to those of a self-consistent piecewise-linear treatment of the difference formulation while avoiding its additional costs. The resulting method is capable of providing robust and accurate calculations for problems involving optically thick zones. We comment on the monotonicity issues that arise when employing this transport method.

  14. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains shall...

  15. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car used...

  16. Vibration analysis on compact car shock absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, W. H.; Cheah, J. X.; Lam, C. K.; Lim, E. A.; Chuah, H. G.; Khor, C. Y.

    2017-10-01

    Shock absorber is a part of the suspension system which provides comfort experience while driving. Resonance, a phenomenon where forced frequency is coinciding with the natural frequency has significant effect on the shock absorber itself. Thus, in this study, natural frequencies of the shock absorber in a 2 degree-of-freedom system were investigated using Wolfram Mathematica 11, CATIA, and ANSYS. Both theoretical and simulation study how will the resonance affect the car shock absorber. The parametric study on the performance of shock absorber also had been conducted. It is found that the failure tends to occur on coil sprung of the shock absorber before the body of the shock absorber is fail. From mathematical modelling, it can also be seen that higher vibration level occurred on un-sprung mass compare to spring mass. This is due to the weight of sprung mass which could stabilize as compared with the weight of un-sprung mass. Besides that, two natural frequencies had been obtained which are 1.0 Hz and 9.1 Hz for sprung mass and un-sprung mass respectively where the acceleration is recorded as maximum. In conclusion, ANSYS can be used to validate with theoretical results with complete model in order to match with mathematical modelling.

  17. The motor car past, present and future

    CERN Document Server

    Genta, Giancarlo; Cavallino, Francesco; Filtri, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    This book is an introduction to automotive engineering, to give freshmen ideas about this technology. The text is subdivided in parts that cover all facets of the automobile, including legal and economic aspects related to industry and products, product configuration and fabrication processes, historic evolution and future developments. The first part describes how motor vehicles were invented and evolved into the present product in more than 100 years of development. The purpose is not only to supply an historical perspective, but also to introduce and discuss the many solutions that were applied (and could be applied again) to solve the same basic problems of vehicle engineering. This part also briefly describes  the evolution of automotive technologies and market, including production and development processes. The second part deals with the description and function analysis of all car subsystems, such as: ·         vehicle body, ·         chassis, including wheels, suspensions, brakes a...

  18. Simulation of effusion from targets of tilted foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.; Gomes, I.C.

    2004-01-01

    Replacing a target transverse to the beam by a 10 times thinner one tilted at about 6 o from the beam direction reduces the thickness for heat transfer and diffusion by a factor of 10 while keeping the same production thickness. This concept makes the target cool faster and therefore supports higher beam power. Monte-Carlo effusion simulations of targets based on this concept were carried out to find optimum target geometries for both fast and slow diffusion materials

  19. Conformally flat tilted Bianchi Type-V cosmological models in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The model starts expanding with a big-bang at М = 0 and the expansion in the model stops at М = ∞ and = -2(Т + 2)¬. The model in general represents shearing, non-rotating and tilted universe. The expansion in the model decreases as time increases. For = 1 Т = 1, we have heat conduction vector Х1 = 0 Х4 = 0. When М ...

  20. Dynamic characteristics of polymer faced tilting pad journal bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Gregory F.; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic characteristics of polymer faced tilting pad journal bearings are presented. Investigations are conducted using a single pad, load on pad configuration over a range of shaft speeds and loads. Two polyether ether ketone (PEEK) faced pads, one polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) faced pad and two...... for entirely PEEK pads compared to pads with a PEEK lining and steel backing. Similar effects were observed by using a softer (PTFE) pad liner with a steel backing....

  1. Discontinuity effects in dynamically loaded tilting pad journal bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes two discontinuity effects that can occur when modelling radial tilting pad bearings subjected to high dynamic loads. The first effect to be treated is a pressure build-up discontinuity effect. The second effect is a contact-related discontinuity that disappears when a contact...... force is included in the theoretical model. Methods for avoiding the pressure build-up discontinuity effect are proposed....

  2. Tilt stability of rotating current rings with passive conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibel, E.G.; Pomphrey, N.

    1984-12-01

    We study the combined effects of rotation and resistive passive conductors on the stability of a rigid current in an external magnetic field. We present numerical and approximate analytical solutions to the equations of motion, which show that the ring is always tilt unstable on the resistive decay timescale of the conductors, although rotation and eddy currents may stabilize it over short times. Possible applications of our model include spheromaks which rotate or which are encircled by energetic particle rings

  3. Cars diagnostics for combustion and plasma processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckbreth, A.C.; Stufflebeam, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is an analysis approach for nonintrusive temperature and species measurements in hostile environments. Widely utilized in combustion, it may be able to significantly impact materials processing research. CARS is described. Its applications to combustion and plasma process environments are reviewed and contrasted

  4. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  5. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  6. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based

  7. The Hungarian car insurance cartel saga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.; Szilágyi, P.; Rodger, B.

    2013-01-01

    his chapter discusses the landmark Hungarian case relating to the car insurance and repair markets, which involved both vertical and horizontal agreements. The case concerned the horizontal relationship between Hungary’s two largest insurance companies and their vertical relationships with car

  8. Gates Auto Door Car With Lights Modulated

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Carolina; Luyung Dinani, Skom, MMSi

    2002-01-01

    In scientific writing wi ll be explained about automatic gates with modulated headlights, where to find the car lights were adjusted by the relative frequency darker because of this background that the author alleviate human task in performing daily activities by using an automatic gate with the car lights modulated.

  9. Automated Coal-Mine Shuttle Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Cable-guided car increases efficiency in underground coal mines. Unmanned vehicle contains storage batteries in side panels for driving traction motors located in wheels. Batteries recharged during inactive periods or slid out as unit and replaced by fresh battery bank. Onboard generator charges batteries as car operates.

  10. Driving an improved CAR for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaopei; Yang, Yiping

    2016-08-01

    The recent clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy for B cell malignancies represents a paradigm shift in cancer immunotherapy. Unfortunately, application of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors has so far been disappointing, and the reasons for this poor response in solid tumors remain unknown. In this issue of the JCI, Cherkassky and colleagues report on their use of a murine model of human pleural mesothelioma to explore potential factors that limit CAR T cell efficacy. Their studies have uncovered the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the inhibition of CAR T cell functions, revealed a critical role for the programmed death-1 (PD-1) pathway in CAR T cell exhaustion within the tumor microenvironment, and demonstrated improved antitumor effects with a CAR T cell-intrinsic PD-1 blockade strategy using a dominant negative form of PD-1. Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for further evaluation of mechanisms underlying CAR T cell immune evasion within the tumor microenvironment for the improvement of CAR T cell-mediated therapy for solid tumors.

  11. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  12. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-17

    "More than a million people die in car accidents each year, and most of those accidents are the result of human errorヤ Alexandru Budisteanu is 23 years old and owns a group of startups including Autonomix, an Artificial Intelligence software for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car\\'s roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount of data, Alexandru employed Artificial Intelligence algorithms to extract information from the visual data and plot a safe route for the car. Then, he built a manufacturing facility in his garage from Romania to assembly affordable VisionBot Pick and Place robots that are used to produce electronics. During this lecture, Alexandru will talk about this autonomous self-driving car prototype, for which he received the grand prize of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, and was nominated by TIME magazine as one of the worldメs most influential teens of 2013.

  13. Environmental impact of scrapping old cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wee, Bert van; Moll, Henri C.; Dirks, Jessica

    Many countries introduced scrapping programs in the 90s, partly legitimated by environmental impact reductions. However, reducing the age of the current car fleet may result in an increase of life-cycle CO2 emissions. This will probably also be true for cars to be produced in future unless fuel

  14. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less than...

  15. Modified ride-on toy cars for early power mobility: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-Han; Galloway, James C

    2012-01-01

    Children with significantly decreased mobility have limited opportunities to explore their physical and social environment. A variety of assistive technologies are available to increase mobility; however, no single device provides the level of functional mobility that children developing typically enjoy. The purpose of this technical report is to formally introduce a new power mobility option--the modified ride-on toy car. This report will provide (a) an overview of toy car features, (b) examples of basic electrical and mechanical modifications, and (c) a brief clinical case. With creative use and customized modifications, toy cars can function as a "general learning environment" for use in the clinic, home, and school. As such, we anticipate that these cars will become a multiuse clinical tool to address not only mobility goals but also goals involving body function and structure such as posture and movement impairments.

  16. Modeling of Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings with Transfer Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Vázquez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Tilting-pad journal bearings are widely used to promote stability in modern rotating machinery. However, the dynamics associated with pad motion alters this stabilizing capacity depending on the operating speed of the machine and the bearing geometric parameters, particularly the bearing preload. In modeling the dynamics of the entire rotor-bearing system, the rotor is augmented with a model of the bearings. This model may explicitly include the pad degrees of freedom or may implicitly include them by using dynamic matrix reduction methods. The dynamic reduction models may be represented as a set of polynomials in the eigenvalues of the system used to determine stability. All tilting-pad bearings can then be represented by a fixed size matrix with polynomial elements interacting with the rotor. This paper presents a procedure to calculate the coefficients of polynomials for implicit bearing models. The order of the polynomials changes to reflect the number of pads in the bearings. This results in a very compact and computationally efficient method for fully including the dynamics of tilting-pad bearings or other multiple degrees of freedom components that interact with rotors. The fixed size of the dynamic reduction matrices permits the method to be easily incorporated into rotor dynamic stability codes. A recursive algorithm is developed and presented for calculating the coefficients of the polynomials. The method is applied to stability calculations for a model of a typical industrial compressor.

  17. Anomalous DC Hall response in noncentrosymmetric tilted Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.; Carbotte, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    Weyl nodes come in pairs of opposite chirality. For broken time reversal symmetry (TR) they are displaced in momentum space by {Q} and the anomalous DC Hall conductivity σxy is proportional to {Q} at charge neutrality. For finite doping there are additive corrections to σxy which depend on the chemical potential as well as on the tilt (C ) of the Dirac cones and on their relative orientation. If inversion symmetry (I) is also broken the Weyl nodes are shifted in energy by an amount Q0 . This introduces further changes in σxy and we provide simple analytic formulas for these modifications for both type I (Ctype II (C>1 , overtilted) Weyl. For type I when the Weyl nodes have equal magnitude but oppositely directed tilts, the correction to σxy is proportional to the chemical potential μ and completely independent of the energy shift Q0 . When instead the tilts are parallel, the correction is linear in Q0 and μ drops out. For type II the corrections involve both μ and Q0 , are nonlinear and also involve a momentum cut off. We discuss the implied changes to the Nernst coefficient and to the thermal Hall effect of a finite Q0 .

  18. CAR-mediated repression of Foxo1 transcriptional activity regulates the cell cycle inhibitor p21 in mouse livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantseva, Yuliya A.; Yarushkin, Andrei A.; Pustylnyak, Vladimir O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • CAR activation decreased the level of Foxo1 in mouse livers. • CAR activation decreased the level of p21 in mouse livers. • CAR activation inhibited Foxo1 transcriptional activity in mouse livers. - Abstract: 1,4-Bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP), an agonist of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), is a well-known strong primary chemical mitogen for the mouse liver. Despite extensive investigation of the role of CAR in the regulation of cell proliferation, our knowledge of the intricate mediating mechanism is incomplete. In this study, we demonstrated that long-term CAR activation by TCPOBOP increased liver-to-body weight ratio and decreased tumour suppressor Foxo1 expression and transcriptional activity, which were correlated with reduced expression of genes regulated by Foxo1, including the cell-cycle inhibitor Cdkn1a(p21), and upregulation of the cell-cycle regulator Cyclin D1. Moreover, we demonstrated the negative regulatory effect of TCPOBOP-activated CAR on the association of Foxo1 with the target Foxo1 itself and Cdkn1a(p21) promoters. Thus, we identified CAR-mediated repression of cell cycle inhibitor p21, as mediated by repression of FOXO1 expression and transcriptional activity. CAR-FOXO1 cross-talk may provide new opportunities for understanding liver diseases and developing more effective therapeutic approaches to better drug treatments

  19. The Green City Car. A holistic approach for NVH abatement of city cars

    OpenAIRE

    Bein, Thilo; Mayer, Dirk; Elliott, Steve; Ferrali, Leonardo; Casella, Mauro; Saemann, Ernst-Ulrich; Kropp, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Finn Kryger; Meschke, Jens; Pisano, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the different passive and active concepts in a holistic approach, the FP7 project Green City Car demonstrates the feasibility of applying active systems to NVH-related problems light city cars from a system point-of view. During the project, a city car equipped with a small engine has been considered equipped with the latest technology in terms of safety aspects related to pedestrian’s impact and car-to-car compatibility, which are of major importance in an urban environment. The noi...

  20. Fluid/electrolyte balance and cardiovascular responses - Head-down tilted rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Deavers, D. R.; Meininger, G. A.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented on cardiovascular and fluid/electrolyte balance responses of rats to a 7-day-long whole-body suspension (WBS) with about 20-deg head-down tilt (HDT), followed by 7 days of recovery. Compared with horizontally positioned (N-HDT) rats serving as controls, the Na intake of HDT rats was significantly reduced during the first 3 days of HDT, and urinary and fecal Na loss exceeded the Na intake during days 5 and 6. Changes during the days of recovery showed adjustments and reestablishment of Na balance. Urinary K losses increased progressively during the 7 days of HDT, but, with the exception of days 1-3 of HDT, when the K intake was significantly reduced, the K balance was retained. Changes in cardiac responses (including elevations in mean, diastolic, and systolic arterial pressures) paralleled changes in fluid and electrolyte balance during the HDT period.

  1. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  2. Flex cars and the alcohol price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Alex Luiz; Da Silveira, Jaylson Jair; De Almeida Prado, Fernando Pigeard

    2009-01-01

    We build a model that incorporates the effect of the innovative 'flex' car, an automobile that is able to run with either gasoline or alcohol, on the dynamics of fuel prices in Brazil. Our model shows that differences regarding fuel prices will now depend on the proportions of alcohol, gasoline and flex cars in the total stock. Conversely, the demand for each type of car will also depend on the expected future prices of alcohol and gasoline (in addition to the car prices). The model reflects our findings that energy prices are tied in the long run and that causality runs stronger from gasoline to alcohol. The estimated error correction parameter is stable, implying that the speed of adjustment towards equilibrium remains unchanged. The latter result is probably due to a still small fraction of flex cars in the total stock (approx. 5%), despite the fact that its sales nearly reached 100% in 2006. (author)

  3. [Effect of table tilt and spine flexion-rotation on the acoustic window of the lumbar spine in pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebbag, Ilana; Tang, Raymond; Gunka, Vit; Sahota, JagPaul; Vaghadia, Himat; Sawka, Andrew

    2018-04-06

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether application of dorsal table tilt and body rotation to a parturient seated for neuraxial anesthesia increased the size of the paramedian target area for neuraxial needle insertion. Labor and Delivery Room. Thirty term pregnant women, ASA I-II, scheduled for an elective C-section delivery. Lumbar ultrasonography was performed in four seated positions: (F) lumbar flexion; (FR) as in position F with right shoulder rotation; (FT) as in position F with dorsal table-tilt; (FTR) as in position F with dorsal table-tilt combined with right shoulder rotation. For each position, the size of the 'target area', defined as the visible length of the posterior longitudinal ligament was measured at the L3-L4 interspace. The mean posterior longitudinal ligament was 18.4±4mm in position F, 18.9±5.5mm in FR, 19±5.3mm in FT, and 18±5.2mm in FTR. Mean posterior longitudinal ligament length was not significantly different in the four positions. These data show that the positions studied did not increase the target area as defined by the length of the posterior longitudinal ligament for the purpose of neuraxial needle insertion in obstetric patients. The maneuvers studied will have limited use in improving spinal needle access in pregnant women. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  4. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks. 180.519 Section 180.519 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car...

  5. Modelling and optimization of car-to-car compatibility - Modellierung und optimierung von pkw-pkw-kompatibilität

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Nastic, T.; Huibers, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper simple and more detailed MADYMO multibody models were used to simulate the car structure for improving the car-to-car compatibility of the whole car fleet. As a first step, survey studies were performed to develop a method for the optimization of car design with respect to frontal and

  6. Numerical tilting compensation in microscopy based on wavefront sensing using transport of intensity equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junbao; Meng, Xin; Wei, Qi; Kong, Yan; Jiang, Zhilong; Xue, Liang; Liu, Fei; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu

    2018-03-01

    Wide-field microscopy is commonly used for sample observations in biological research and medical diagnosis. However, the tilting error induced by the oblique location of the image recorder or the sample, as well as the inclination of the optical path often deteriorates the imaging quality. In order to eliminate the tilting in microscopy, a numerical tilting compensation technique based on wavefront sensing using transport of intensity equation method is proposed in this paper. Both the provided numerical simulations and practical experiments prove that the proposed technique not only accurately determines the tilting angle with simple setup and procedures, but also compensates the tilting error for imaging quality improvement even in the large tilting cases. Considering its simple systems and operations, as well as image quality improvement capability, it is believed the proposed method can be applied for tilting compensation in the optical microscopy.

  7. Modern state of the structural perfection of hopper cars for transportation of grains and their development prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Фомін

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the modern fleet of hopper cars used for grain transportation in Ukraine has been done. The analysis revealed the need to create a new generation of wagons to upgrade the fleet of freight cars and reduce the number of specialized cars with expired service life. The structural features of various hoppers used for grain transportation as compared to the other types of hoppers as well as the prospects for their development have been covered. The analysis of the hopper cars fleet used for grain transportation has led to the conclusion that Car 19-7053 is losing competitiveness in carrying capacity. The new generation of «teardrop» shape cars with increased volume due to the highest quality using the design envelope has been proposed. The newly designed car is supposed to be of the same length and base as the prototype model. Thus, the length of the consist remaining the same but there being more cars in it with increased body volume, capacity and small length of the cars, it will be possible to carry more goods. The article noted that such characteristics will pomote the competitiveness of the designed car. The article outlines the design requirements on new-generation railcars, namely, the increase in capacity and better cargo accommodation thanks to the rational design, the use of strong corrosion-resistant steels, aluminum alloys; the improvement of adaptation of the cars to the complex mechanization of loading and unloading operations and the maximum reduction of manual labor in these operations; less material and labour consumption in manufacturing through better manufacturability of the design, maximum unification of units and parts; the strength and reliability of the car under operating conditions and etc. We determined the optimal constructive solutions for innovative, competitive freight rolling stock. The following materials are the base to create the bunker hoppers or to modernize the existing models and to improve the

  8. Ketone bodies metabolism during ischemic and reperfusion brain injuries following bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries in rats Metabolismo dos corpos cetônicos durante as lesões de isquemia e reperfusão cerebrais após oclusão bilateral das artérias carótidas comuns em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique Girão Faria

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vivo alterations on ketone bodies metabolism after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion through an experimental model of brain ischemia induced by simple occlusion of common carotid arteries (CCAs in Wistar rats. METHODS: Forty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly distributed on two groups (S - Sham; T - Test and further redistributed into four times sets of study. After bilateral occlusion of CCAs for 30min, the animals of group T were allowed reperfusion for 0, 5, 10 and 15min. Samples of cerebral tissue and systemic arterial blood were collected and the metabolites acetoacetate (ACT and beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB were determined. RESULTS: Cerebral ACT and BHB levels increased significantly in Group T after 30min of carotid occlusion (time 0. The highest brain ketone bodies (ACT+BHB concentration was verified at 5min of reperfusion, decreasing after 10min of recirculation. Systemic ketone bodies levels increased similarly between test and sham groups. Group S demonstrated a significant increase in cerebral and systemic ACT and BHB concentrations mainly after 40-45min of study. CONCLUSIONS: The partial transient acute global brain ischemia induced by the bilateral carotid occlusion in Wistar rats triggered ketogenesis probably due to a central stimulation of catecholamine secretion. There was an increased cerebral uptake of ketone bodies following brain ischemia, reaffirming these metabolites as alternative energy substrates under conditions of cerebral metabolic stress as well as its potential role on neuroprotection. The greatest changes in ketone bodies metabolism were verified at initial minutes of recirculation as a result of the reperfusion injury phenomenon.OBJETIVO: Avaliar as alterações in vivo no metabolismo dos corpos cetônicos após isquemia/reperfusão cerebral através de um modelo experimental de isquemia cerebral induzido pela simples oclusão das artérias carótidas comuns (CCAs em ratos Wistar. M

  9. Sympathetic neural and hemodynamic responses to head-up tilt during isoosmotic and hyperosmotic hypovolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posch, Alexander M; Luippold, Adam J; Mitchell, Katherine M; Bradbury, Karleigh E; Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Charkoudian, Nisha

    2017-10-01

    We hypothesized that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) during head-up tilt (HUT) would be augmented during exercise-induced (hyperosmotic) dehydration but not isoosmotic dehydration via an oral diuretic. We studied 26 young healthy subjects (7 female, 19 male) divided into three groups: euhydrated (EUH, n = 7), previously exercised in 40°C while maintaining hydration; dehydrated (DEH, n = 10), previously exercised in 40°C during which ~3% of body weight was lost via sweat loss; and diuretic (DIUR, n = 9), a group that did not exercise but lost ~3% of body weight via diuresis (furosemide, 80 mg by mouth). We measured MSNA, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) during supine rest and 30° and 45° HUT. Plasma volume (PV) decreased similarly in DEH (-8.5 ± 3.3%) and DIUR (-11.4 ± 5.7%) ( P > 0.05). Plasma osmolality was similar between DIUR and EUH (288 ± 4 vs. 284 ± 5 mmol/kg, respectively) but was significantly higher in DEH (299 ± 5 mmol/kg) ( P HR and MSNA increased in all subjects during HUT (main effect of position; P HR were higher in DEH compared with DIUR ( P HR with HUT were larger in both hypovolemic groups compared with EUH ( P controlling HR responses during dehydration, and a stronger role for osmolality in control of SNA. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Interactions of volume regulation with control of vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) have important implications for blood pressure regulation. Here, we demonstrate that SNA and heart rate (HR) during hyperosmotic hypovolemia (exercise-induced) were augmented during supine and tilt compared with isoosmotic hypovolemia (diuretic), which primarily augmented the HR response. Our data suggest that hypovolemia per se had a larger role in controlling HR responses, whereas osmolality had a stronger role in control of SNA.

  10. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingshan Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous and sequential CAR-T cells are being studied for clinical applications. Multi-target CAR-engineered T cells are also entering clinical trials. T cell receptor-engineered CAR-T and universal CAR-T cells represent new frontiers in CAR-T cell development. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CAR constructs and registered clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China and provided a quick glimpse of the landscape of CAR-T studies in China.

  11. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingshan; Song, Yongping; Liu, Delong

    2017-10-23

    Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous and sequential CAR-T cells are being studied for clinical applications. Multi-target CAR-engineered T cells are also entering clinical trials. T cell receptor-engineered CAR-T and universal CAR-T cells represent new frontiers in CAR-T cell development. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CAR constructs and registered clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China and provided a quick glimpse of the landscape of CAR-T studies in China.

  12. First results from car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure radio channel measurements at 5.2GHZ

    OpenAIRE

    Paier, Alexander; Kåredal, Johan; Czink, Nicolai; Hofstetter, Helmut; Dumard, Charlotte; Zemen, Thomas; Tufvesson, Fredrik; Mecklenbräuker, Christoph; Molisch, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure (henceforth called C2X) communications are constantly gaining importance for road-safety and other applications. In order to design efficient C2X systems, an understanding of realistic C2X propagation channels is required, but currently, only few measurements have been published. This paper presents a description of an extensive measurement campaign recently conducted in an urban scenario, a rural scenario, and on a highway. We focused on 4 ÿ 4 multiple-in...

  13. Automatic car driving detection using raw accelerometry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strączkiewicz, M; Urbanek, J K; Fadel, W F; Crainiceanu, C M; Harezlak, J

    2016-09-21

    Measuring physical activity using wearable devices has become increasingly popular. Raw data collected from such devices is usually summarized as 'activity counts', which combine information of human activity with environmental vibrations. Driving is a major sedentary activity that artificially increases the activity counts due to various car and body vibrations that are not connected to human movement. Thus, it has become increasingly important to identify periods of driving and quantify the bias induced by driving in activity counts. To address these problems, we propose a detection algorithm of driving via accelerometry (DADA), designed to detect time periods when an individual is driving a car. DADA is based on detection of vibrations generated by a moving vehicle and recorded by an accelerometer. The methodological approach is based on short-time Fourier transform (STFT) applied to the raw accelerometry data and identifies and focuses on frequency vibration ranges that are specific to car driving. We test the performance of DADA on data collected using wrist-worn ActiGraph devices in a controlled experiment conducted on 24 subjects. The median area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting driving periods was 0.94, indicating an excellent performance of the algorithm. We also quantify the size of the bias induced by driving and obtain that per unit of time the activity counts generated by driving are, on average, 16% of the average activity counts generated during walking.

  14. Influence of unsteady aerodynamics on driving dynamics of passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemer, Jakob; Stickel, Thomas; Sagan, Erich; Schwarz, Martin; Wall, Wolfgang A.

    2014-11-01

    Recent approaches towards numerical investigations with computational fluid dynamics methods on unsteady aerodynamic loads of passenger cars identified major differences compared with steady-state aerodynamic excitations. Furthermore, innovative vehicle concepts such as electric-vehicles or hybrid drives further challenge the basic layout of passenger cars. Therefore, the relevance of unsteady aerodynamic loads on cross-wind stability of changing basic vehicle architectures should be analysed. In order to assure and improve handling and ride characteristics at high velocity of the actual range of vehicle layouts, the influence of unsteady excitations on the vehicle response was investigated. For this purpose, a simulation of the vehicle dynamics through multi-body simulation was used. The impact of certain unsteady aerodynamic load characteristics on the vehicle response was quantified and key factors were identified. Through a series of driving simulator tests, the identified differences in the vehicle response were evaluated regarding their significance on the subjective driver perception of cross-wind stability. Relevant criteria for the subjective driver assessment of the vehicle response were identified. As a consequence, a design method for the basic layout of passenger cars and chassis towards unsteady aerodynamic excitations was defined.

  15. Effect of rear end spoiler angle of a sedan car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashud, Mohammad; Das, Rubel Chandra

    2017-06-01

    Automotive vehicle's performance, safety, maneuverability can be influenced by multi-disciplinary factors such as car engine, tires, aerodynamics, and ergonomics of design. With the recent years, inflation in the fuel prices & the demand to have reduced greenhouse emissions has played a significant role in redefining the car aerodynamics. The shape of the vehicle uses about 3% of fuel to overcome the resistance in urban driving, while it takes 11% of fuel for the highway driving. This considerable high value of fuel usage in highway driving attracts several design engineers to enhance the aerodynamics of the vehicle using minimal design changes. Besides, automotive vehicles have become so much faster experiencing uplift force which creates unexpected accidents. This brings the idea of using external devices, which could be attached to the present vehicle without changing the body. This paper is based on the design, developments and numeral calculation of the effects of external device, which will be spoiler that mounted at the rear side of the sedan car to make the present vehicles more aerodynamically attractive. The influence of rear spoiler on the generated lift, drag, and pressure distributions are investigated and reported using commercially available Autodesk Simulation CFD software tool.

  16. Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Buchacz, A.; Majzner, M.; Sobek, M.

    2015-11-01

    Aerodynamics is one of the most important factors which influence on every aspect of a design of a car and car driving parameters. The biggest influence aerodynamics has on design of a shape of a race car body, especially when the main objective of the race is the longest distance driven in period of time, which can not be achieved without low energy consumption and low drag of a car. Designing shape of the vehicle body that must generate the lowest possible drag force, without compromising the other parameters of the drive. In the article entitled „Application of CAD/CAE class systems to aerodynamic analysis of electric race cars” are being presented problems solved by computer analysis of cars aerodynamics and free form modelling. Analysis have been subjected to existing race car of a Silesian Greenpower Race Team. On a basis of results of analysis of existence of Kammback aerodynamic effect innovative car body were modeled. Afterwards aerodynamic analysis were performed to verify existence of aerodynamic effect for innovative shape and to recognize aerodynamics parameters of the shape. Analysis results in the values of coefficients and aerodynamic drag forces. The resulting drag forces Fx, drag coefficients Cx(Cd) and aerodynamic factors Cx*A allowed to compare all of the shapes to each other. Pressure distribution, air velocities and streams courses were useful in determining aerodynamic features of analyzed shape. For aerodynamic tests was used Ansys Fluent CFD software. In a paper the ways of surface modeling with usage of Realize Shape module and classic surface modeling were presented. For shapes modeling Siemens NX 9.0 software was used. Obtained results were used to estimation of existing shapes and to make appropriate conclusions.

  17. Emergency information systems for cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, M.; Vani Manasa, N.; Kumar, K. Rajesh; Sundar, S.

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this work is to create a Health Care monitoring and Guidance system for persons who are travelling in outdoor environments like cars. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies are separately and combined today in many applications in our day to day life. The GSM module will send a message along with the GPS location to the end user through text, and a call is initiated to the user for further instructions. The Global Positioning System (GPS) will give the location of the interested vehicle. This system helps the doctor or anyone to monitor the accident who is outdoor and has less help. This will help the hospital to monitor the accident as well as guide the injured through difficult situations. Using a buzzer, the persons nearby will come to know that the person is in danger or in poor health conditions. This project provides a good two-way communication with the injured and the hospital to assist them to give first aid before an ambulance arrives. So, this paper devices a novel technique to assist the people who just met with accident through GPS and GSM.

  18. REPAIR TECHNOLOGY IMPROVEMENT OF SPECIALIZED FREIGHT CARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bubnov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The volume of cargo transportation demands the introduction of a new generation of cars that would be able to provide all the needs of carriers. But this is impossible without the implementation of renovation repair facilities with the introduction of new technologies and modernization of the repair process. Repair of rolling stock is a key factor that must proceed with the establishment of new cars, as not all of the inventions may be repaired in car-repair depots, most of which are obsolete. The purpose is to analyze the possibility of increasing the efficiency of the repair process by introducing new repair technologies or improving the existing ones. It will improve not only the quality of the repair, but also its rate. Methodology. Works on improving the designs of freight cars are held by many design organizations in almost all industrialized countries. It makes repair organizations (depots and car-repair plants to upgrade the repair process. Achievements of-this goal is possible by improving the technology renovation and reorganization through the use of flexible flow technologies, which to date are the most effective in the repair of rolling stock. Findings. When performing the analysis it was determined that there are different designs of cars. More of cars are all-purpose and their repair does not cause difficulties for car-repair business. However, the number of specialized cars is also significant, and the technology of their repair should be improved. One of the reasons is that many models, such as tank wagons for the carriage of sulfur, are intended for the carriage of dangerous goods and their failure at the time of motion is not permitted. Originality. Firstly the authors have defined direction at improving technologies of repair specialized cars. Practical value. Actual improvement in the construction of cars is to improve the existing repair facilities. In addition, the repair technology using nowadays when repairing

  19. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  20. Electric cars as mobile power storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of electric cars as a means of optimising the use of renewable energy sources. Charging the cars' batteries during periods when cheap electricity prices prevail and then using excess capacity to supply the mains with electricity during periods of peak demand is discussed. The possible use of wind for power generation is discussed and a system proposed by a leading supplier of electrical apparatus and systems is examined. Two examples of electric cars and associated power chains are looked at and tests in everyday practice are described

  1. THEORETICAL BASIS OF MOTOR CAR QUALITY EVALUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bazhinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment of the quality of cars, which is based on the integral parameters of comfort, reliability, safety, environmental and technical solutions are considered and defined. The amount of parameters that define the quality level of the car use throughout the country is defined. Mathematical formulas and quality indicators of the integral index are developed. The integral quality index of vehicles allows comparing the vehicles of different classes based on external operating conditions. The numerical values of the integral index determines the quality of the car.

  2. Development and testing of a pelvic goniometer designed to measure pelvic tilt and hip flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen; Flinn, Nannette; Wootten, Mary; McCorry, Stephanie

    2003-06-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of a pelvic goniometer designed to measure the pelvic tilt and hip flexion during seated posture. Assessment of the seated posture requires measurement of the pelvis and hip. Determining accurate pelvic tilt and hip flexion angles during sitting is often difficult using standard techniques. A pelvic goniometer has been designed to measure pelvic tilt and hip flexion angle of persons in a seated posture. VALIDATION of the pelvic goniometer was done radiographically. Ten male volunteers sat in three postures--erect, forward or anterior tilt, and posterior tilt. Pelvic tilt and hip angle were recorded using radiographs and the pelvic goniometer. Reliability of pelvic and conventional goniometers was done using seated nondisabled subjects with physical therapists performing measurements. the average differences and correlation between the pelvic goniometer and radiographic measures were as follows--pelvic tilt: -4.9 degrees, 0.93; hip angle 1.2 degrees, 0.81. Reliability: average range of hip angle across three measures was about 3 degrees for both goniometers. The data indicate that the pelvic goniometer has utility in measuring pelvic tilt and hip angle, especially within the seated posture. Because it measures both pelvic tilt and hip angle, the pelvic goniometer has an advantage over conventional goniometers that only measure the latter. A valid and reliable tool that measures pelvic tilt and hip angle of persons in a seated posture is needed for clinical research and practice. Its applications include wheelchair seating evaluations and ergonomic assessments of seated workers.

  3. The Two-Body Inversion Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papeo, L.; Stein, T.; Soto-Faraco, S.

    2017-01-01

    How does one perceive groups of people? It is known that functionally interacting objects (e.g., a glass and a pitcher tilted as if pouring water into it) are perceptually grouped. Here, we showed that processing of multiple human bodies is also influenced by their relative positioning. In a series

  4. Anticipated Impact of In-Car Mobile Calls on the Electromagnetic Interaction of Handset Antenna and Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah I. Yahya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of the in-car mobile call on the electromagnetic interaction of the mobile handset antenna and user’s head. This impact was evaluated from two different perspectives; First, the antenna performance, e.g., total isotropic sensitivity and total efficiency, and second, the specific absorption rate (SAR induced in the user's head. A Yee-FDTD based electromagnetic solver was used to simulate a mobile phone in hand close proximity to head at cheek and tilt positions, and working at a frequency of 1900 MHz (GSM 1900/PCS while making a call inside a car. A Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM was used to simulate the user’s head, a generic phone was used to simulate the mobile phone, a semi-realistic model with three tissues, i.e., skin, bone and muscle, was used to simulate the user’s hand, and a CAD model of Ferrari F430-brand was used to simulate the car. The results showed a considerable degradation in the mobile phone antenna performance while making a mobile phone call inside a car that may drive the mobile phone increases its radiated power to establish a successful connection with the base-station antenna, and consequently increases the induced specific absorption rate in the user’s head.

  5. Tilt table testing in patients with suspected epilepsy1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edfors, R.; Erdal, J.; Rogvi-Hansen, B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 20-30% of patients with epilepsy are misdiagnosed and syncope often seems to be the mistaken cause. We re-evaluated patients referred to an epilepsy clinic where suspicion of neurally mediated (reflex) syncope were raised using tilt table testing (HUT). METHODS: HUT...... laboratory results and medical records of 120 consecutive patients were reviewed retrospectively over a period of 27 months. RESULTS: HUT was positive in 59 (49%) patients. Seventeen of 38 (45%) patients previously diagnosed with epilepsy and taking antiepileptic drugs were found to be misdiagnosed. Four...

  6. A computer simulation study of tilted smectic mesophases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, I.M.

    2000-05-01

    Results are presented from a series of simulations undertaken to determine the effect of a novel form of molecular biaxiality upon the phase behaviour of the well established Gay-Berne (GB) liquid crystal model. Firstly, the simulation of a bulk system interacting via the Internally-Rotated Gay Berne (IRGB) potential, which offers a single-site representation of a molecule rigidly constrained into a zig-zag conformation, is presented. The results of simulations performed for systems of IRGB particles with an aspect ratio of 3:1 confirm that the introduction of biaxiality into the model results in the destabilisation of the orientationally ordered phases. For particles with a sufficiently pronounced zig-zag conformation, this results in the complete destabilisation of the smectic A phase and the smectic B phase being replaced by the tilted smectic J phase. Following these observations, the effect upon the phase behaviour of increasing molecular elongation is also considered, with an increase in the aspect ratio from 3:1 to 4:1 resulting in the nematic and smectic J phases being replaced by smectic A and smectic G phases respectively. Secondly, a version of the IRGB potential modified to include a degree of molecular flexibility is considered. Results obtained from bulk systems interacting via the flexible IRGB for 3:1 and 4:1 molecules show that the introduction of flexibility results in the destabilisation of the smectic A phase and the stabilisation of the nematic and tilted hexatic phases. Finally, the effect upon the phase behaviour of the rigid IRGB model of the inclusion of a longitudinal linear quadrupole is examined. These results show that increasing quadrupole moment results in the destabilisation of the tilted hexatic phase, although the biaxial order parameter is increased with increasing quadrupole moment. There is no clear correlation between quadrupole magnitude and the other observed phase transitions, with the nematic and smectic A phases being

  7. Performance of a Tilt Current Meter in the Surf Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Asger Bendix; Carstensen, Stefan; Christensen, Drude Fritzbøger

    2017-01-01

    Tilt Current Meters (TCM’s) are relatively simple and inexpensive instruments for measuring currents in rivers and inthe sea. Their low cost and easy deployment means that a relatively large number of TCM’s can be deployed comparedto more conventional current meters such as Acoustic Doppler...... a number ofimportant challenges to the measurements as the hydrodynamic forcing changes and the oscillations of the TCM cannotnecessarily be averaged out as for a steady current. This study addresses some of these challenges by analyzing theperformance of a TCM in the surf zone where wave orbital motion...

  8. Edge Waves and Localization in Lattices Containing Tilted Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Tallarico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of waves in a structured geometrically chiral solid. A special attention is given to the analysis of the Bloch-Floquet waves in a doubly periodic high-contrast lattice containing tilted resonators. Dirac-like dispersion of Bloch waves in the structure is identified, studied, and applied to wave-guiding and wave-defect interaction problems. The work is extended to the transmission problems and models of fracture, where localization and edge waves occur. The theoretical derivations are accompanied with numerical simulations and illustrations.

  9. Tilt table testing in patients with suspected epilepsy1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edfors, R.; Erdal, J.; Rogvi-Hansen, B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 20-30% of patients with epilepsy are misdiagnosed and syncope often seems to be the mistaken cause. We re-evaluated patients referred to an epilepsy clinic where suspicion of neurally mediated (reflex) syncope were raised using tilt table testing (HUT). METHODS: HUT...... of 21 patients with epilepsy (19%) had dual diagnoses of reflex syncope and epilepsy. CONCLUSION: HUT is an informative investigation when suspicions of reflex syncope are raised in patients referred to an epilepsy clinic. Reflex syncope is an important and common differential diagnosis of epilepsy...

  10. The impact of reducing car weight on global emissions: the future fleet in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrenho, André Cabrera; Norman, Jonathan B; Allwood, Julian M

    2017-06-13

    Current European policies define targets for future direct emissions of new car sales that foster a fast transition to electric drivetrain technologies. However, these targets do not consider the emissions produced in electricity generation and material production, and therefore fail to incentivise car manufacturers to consider the benefits of vehicle weight reduction. In this paper, we examine the potential benefits of limiting the average weight and altering the material composition of new cars in terms of global greenhouse gas emissions produced during the use phase, electricity generation and material production. We anticipate the emissions savings for the future car fleet in Great Britain until 2050 for various alternative futures, using a dynamic material flow analysis of ferrous metals and aluminium, and considering an evolving demand for car use. The results suggest that fostering vehicle weight reduction could produce greater cumulative emissions savings by 2050 than those obtained by incentivising a fast transition to electric drivetrains, unless there is an extreme decarbonization of the electricity grid. Savings promoted by weight reduction are immediate and do not depend on the pace of decarbonization of the electricity grid. Weight reduction may produce the greatest savings when mild steel in the car body is replaced with high-strength steel.This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'. © 2017 The Authors.

  11. The impact of reducing car weight on global emissions: the future fleet in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrenho, André Cabrera; Norman, Jonathan B.; Allwood, Julian M.

    2017-05-01

    Current European policies define targets for future direct emissions of new car sales that foster a fast transition to electric drivetrain technologies. However, these targets do not consider the emissions produced in electricity generation and material production, and therefore fail to incentivise car manufacturers to consider the benefits of vehicle weight reduction. In this paper, we examine the potential benefits of limiting the average weight and altering the material composition of new cars in terms of global greenhouse gas emissions produced during the use phase, electricity generation and material production. We anticipate the emissions savings for the future car fleet in Great Britain until 2050 for various alternative futures, using a dynamic material flow analysis of ferrous metals and aluminium, and considering an evolving demand for car use. The results suggest that fostering vehicle weight reduction could produce greater cumulative emissions savings by 2050 than those obtained by incentivising a fast transition to electric drivetrains, unless there is an extreme decarbonization of the electricity grid. Savings promoted by weight reduction are immediate and do not depend on the pace of decarbonization of the electricity grid. Weight reduction may produce the greatest savings when mild steel in the car body is replaced with high-strength steel. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  12. CAR models: next-generation CAR modifications for enhanced T-cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abate-Daga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available T cells genetically targeted with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to B-cell malignancies have demonstrated tremendous clinical outcomes. With the proof in principle for CAR T cells as a therapy for B-cell malignancies being established, current and future research is being focused on adapting CAR technology to other cancers, as well as enhancing its efficacy and/or safety. The modular nature of the CAR, extracellular antigen-binding domain fused to a transmembrane domain and intracellular T-cell signaling domains, allows for optimization by replacement of the various components. These modifications are creating a whole new class of therapeutic CARs. In this review, we discuss the recent major advances in CAR design and how these modifications will impact its clinical application.

  13. Comments on ``CARS probe of RDX decomposition''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stufflebeam, J. H.; Eckbreth, A. C.

    1984-08-01

    Recent CARS data from a solid propellant flame that purported to show resonances from the bending modes of HCN are analyzed to demonstrate that the spectral features in question are vibrational transitions of CO 2.

  14. Design of two wheel self balancing car

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chun-hong; Ren, Bin

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a design scheme of the two-wheel self-balancing dolly, the integration of the gyroscope and accelerometer MPU6050 constitutes the car position detection device.System selects 32-bit MCU stmicroelectronics company as the control core, completed the processing of sensor signals, the realization of the filtering algorithm, motion control and human-computer interaction. Produced and debugging in the whole system is completed, the car can realize the independent balance under the condition of no intervention. The introduction of a suitable amount of interference, the car can adjust quickly to recover and steady state. Through remote control car bluetooth module complete forward, backward, turn left and other basic action..

  15. Papers on vehicle size : cars and trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    The four papers in this volume describe analyses of car size : trends and truck occupant injuries and fatalities. All four were : written between June 1985 and December 1987. The topics : addressed include where heavy truck accidents occur, injury an...

  16. How to Buy a Car 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Charity A.

    2006-01-01

    This article elaborates on the basics of problem-based learning units and tips for implementation. The problem-based learning unit described focuses on the course of action involved in purchasing a new car. (Contains 2 figures.)

  17. Computer Security: your car, my control

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    We have discussed the Internet of Things (IoT) and its security implications already in past issues of the CERN Bulletin, for example in “Today’s paranoia, tomorrow’s reality” (see here). Unfortunately, tomorrow has come. At this years's Black Hat conference researchers presented their findings on how easily your car can be hacked and controlled remotely. Sigh.   While these researchers have just shown that they can wirelessly hijack a Jeep Cherokee, others have performed similar studies with SmartCars, Fords, a Tesla, a Corvette, BMWs, Chryslers and Mercedes! With the increasing computerisation of cars, the engine management system, air conditioning, anti-lock braking system, electronic stability programme, etc. are linked to the infotainment, navigation and communication systems, opening the door for these vehicles to be hacked remotely. The now prevalent Bluetooth connection with smartphones is one entry vector to attack your car remotely...

  18. CARs in the Lead Against Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormhøj, Maria; Bedoya, Felipe; Frigault, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    The recent clinical success of CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in chronic and acute leukemia has led to increased interest in broadening this technology to other hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Now, advances are being made using CAR T cell technology...... to target myeloma antigens such as B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), CD138, and kappa-light chain as well as CD19 on putative myeloma stem cells. To date, only a limited number of multiple myeloma patients have received CAR T cell therapy but preliminary results have been encouraging. In this review, we...... summarize the recently reported results of clinical trials conducted utilizing CAR T cell therapy in multiple myeloma (MM)....

  19. CARS diagnostics of high pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbusch, J.

    2001-01-01

    After a short description of the principles of the CARS, RECARS and POLCARS techniques and a discussion of setups for CARS experiments some experimental results are summarized. The results concern mainly plasma under atmospheric pressure, in particular the determination of temperature in a CO 2 laser-induced pyrolysis flame burning in a silane-acetylene gas mixture, the measurements of N 2 vibrational and rotational temperatures as well as the electron density by CARS and of an NO minority by POLCARS in an atmospheric microwave discharge, and finally RECARS experiments on indium iodide, Which is present in metal halide discharge lamps. Guided by these examples some problems and difficulties arising when performing CARS measurements are discussed

  20. Exercise thermoregulation in men after 1 and 24-hours of 6 degrees head-down tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, A. C.; Dearborn, A. S.; Weidhofer, A. R.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise thermoregulation is dependent on heat loss by increased skin blood flow (convective and conductive heat loss) and through enhanced sweating (evaporative heat loss). Reduction of plasma volume (PV), increased plasma osmolality, physical deconditioning, and duration of exposure to simulated and actual microgravity reduces the ability to thermoregulate during exercise. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that 24 h of head down tilt (HDT24) would alter thermoregulatory responses to a submaximal exercise test and result in a higher exercise rectal temperature (Tre) when compared with exercise Tre after 1 h of head down tilt (HDT1). METHODS: Seven men (31+/-SD 6 yr, peak oxygen uptake (VpO2peak) of 44+/-6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) were studied during 70 min of supine cycling at 58+/-SE 1.5% VO2peak at 22.0 degrees C Tdb and 47% rh. RESULTS: Relative to pre-tilt sitting chair rest data, HDT1 resulted in a 6.1+/-0.9% increase and HDT24 in a 4.3+/-2.3% decrease in PV (delta = 10.4% between experiments, p<0.05) while plasma osmolality remained unchanged (NS). Pre-exercise Tre was elevated after HDT24 (36.71 degrees C +/-0.06 HDT1 vs. 36.93 degrees C+/-0.11 HDT24, p<0.05). The 70 min of exercise did not alter this relationship (p<0.05) with respective end exercise increases in Tre to 38.01 degrees C and 38.26 degrees C (degrees = 1.30 degrees C (HDT1) and 1.33 degrees C (HDT24)). While there were no pre-exercise differences in mean skin temperature (Tsk), a significant (p<0.05) time x treatment interaction occurred during exercise: after min 30 in HDT24 the Tsk leveled off at 31.1 degrees C, while it continued to increase reaching 31.5 degrees C at min 70 in HDT1. A similar response (NS) occurred in skin blood velocity. Neither local sweating rates nor changes in body weight during exercise of -1.63+/-0.24 kg (HDT1) or - 1.33+/-0.09 kg (HDT24) were different (NS) between experiments. CONCLUSION: While HDT24 resulted in elevated pre-exercise Tre, reduced PV

  1. CARS Diagnostics of High Pressure Combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    e) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(e) J. H. Stufflebeam t JDAAG29- 79-C-0008J %A,, Shirley R,,. Hall 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10...also the work in N2 at elevated tem- perature up to 30 atmospheres. John H. Stufflebeam continued the high pressure CARS work under the contract...Spectroscopy, Bordeaux, France, September 1982. 12. J. H. Stufflebeam , J. F. Verdieck, and R. J. Hall: CARS Diagnostics of High Pressure and

  2. GLYCAN-DIRECTED CAR-T CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Migliorini, Denis; King, Tiffany R; Mandel, Ulla; June, Carl H; Posey, Avery D

    2018-01-23

    Cancer immunotherapy is rapidly advancing in the treatment of a variety of hematopoietic cancers, including pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B cell lymphoma, with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells. CARs are genetically encoded artificial T cell receptors that combine the antigen specificity of an antibody with the machinery of T cell activation. However, implementation of CAR technology in the treatment of solid tumors has been progressing much slower. Solid tumors are characterized by a number of challenges that need to be overcome, including cellular heterogeneity, immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), and, in particular, few known cancer-specific targets. Post-translational modifications that differentially occur in malignant cells generate valid cell surface, cancer-specific targets for CAR-T cells. We previously demonstrated that CAR-T cells targeting an aberrant O-glycosylation of MUC1, a common cancer marker associated with changes in cell adhesion, tumor growth, and poor prognosis, could control malignant growth in mouse models. Here, we discuss the field of glycan-directed CAR-T cells and review the different classes of antibodies specific for glycan-targeting, including the generation of high affinity O-glycopeptide antibodies. Finally, we discuss historic and recently investigated glycan targets for CAR-T cells and provide our perspective on how targeting the tumor glycoproteome and/or glycome will improve CAR-T immunotherapy. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Bluetooth based function control in a car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, P.; Sumanth, N.; Jude, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to show the various functions that can be controlled in a Car using the Wireless Bluetooth Technology. Due to the portable and wireless nature of this technology, it is easier for the end user to operate the functions in a car. The functions that are built into the system can be used from a distance of 10 meters. The Passive Keyless System and the Remote Keyless System methodologies are adopted. These are operated by the ATMEGA328P microcontroller.

  4. Construction and Deployment of Tilt Sensors along the Lateral Margins of Jarvis Glacier, Alaska to improve understanding of the Deformation Regime of Wet-Based Polythermal Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I. R.; Hawley, R. L.; Clemens-Sewall, D.; Campbell, S. W.; Waszkiewicz, M.; Bernsen, S.; Gerbi, C. C.; Kreutz, K. J.; Koons, P. O.

    2017-12-01

    Most studies of natural ice have been on bodies of ice with frozen beds which experience minimal lateral shear strain, to the exclusion of polythermal ice sheets & glaciers which due to their mixed basal thermal regime have wet-based beds. The deficiency in knowledge and understanding of the operative deformation mechanisms of wet-based bodies of ice results in uncertainty in the constitutive flow law of ice. Given that the flow law was derived experimentally under assumptions more conducive to bodies of ice with frozen-based beds, it is necessary to calibrate the flow law when applied to different bodies of ice such as wet-based polythermal glaciers. To this end, Dartmouth and the University of Maine have collaborated to carry out research on Jarvis Glacier in Alaska, a geometrically simple, wet-based glacier. Here, we constructed and deployed an array of 25 tilt sensors into 3 boreholes drilled along the glacier's shear margin. Our goal is to obtain 3D strain measurements to calculate the full velocity field & create deformation regime maps in the vicinity of the boreholes, as well as to support numerical modeling. The tilt sensors were developed in-lab: Each tilt sensor comes equipped with an LSM303C chip (embedded with a 3-axis accelerometer and magnetometer) and Arduino Pro-Mini mounted on a custom-made printed circuit board encased within a watertight aluminum tube. The design concept was to produce a sensor string, consisting of tilt sensors spaced apart at pre-calculated intervals, to be lowered into a borehole and frozen-in over months to collect strain data through a Campbell Scientific CR1000 datalogger. Three surface-to-bed boreholes were successfully installed with tilt sensor strings. Given the lack of prior in-situ borehole geophysics studies on polythermal glaciers, deliberate consideration on factors such as strain relief and waterproofing electrical components was necessary in the development of the sensor system. On-site challenges also arose due

  5. Situations of car-to-pedestrian contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Hitosugi, Masahito; Takahashi, Kunio; Doi, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the severity of injuries and the number of pedestrian deaths in traffic accidents, active safety devices providing pedestrian detection are considered effective countermeasures. The features of car-to-pedestrian collisions need to be known in detail to develop such safety devices. Because information on real-world accidents is limited, this study investigated near-miss situations captured by drive recorders installed in passenger cars. We showed similarities of the contact situation between near-miss incidents and real-world fatal pedestrian accidents in Japan. We analyzed the near-miss incident data via video capturing pedestrians crossing the road in front of forward-moving cars. Using a video frame captured by a drive recorder, the time to collision (TTC) was calculated from the car velocity and the distance between the car and pedestrian at the moment that the pedestrian initially appeared. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians were not using a pedestrian crossing was shorter than that in the cases where pedestrians were using a pedestrian crossing. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians emerged from behind obstructions was shorter than that in the cases where drivers had unobstructed views of the pedestrians. We propose that the specifications of the safety device for pedestrian detection and automatic braking should reflect the severe approach situation for a pedestrian and car including the TTC observed for near-miss incidents.

  6. Head-Down Tilt with Balanced Traction as a Model for Simulating Spinal Acclimation to Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, R. E.; Styf, J. R.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Fechner, K.; Haruna, Y.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts experience total body height increases of 4 to 7 cm in microgravity. Thus, stretching of the spinal cord, nerve roots, and muscular and ligamentous tissues may be responsible for the hyperreflexia, back pain, and muscular atrophy associated with exposure to microgravity. Axial compression of the spine makes 6 deg. head-down tilt (HDT) an unsuitable model for spinal acclimation to microgravity. However, this axial compression may be counteracted by balanced traction consisting of 10% body weight (sin 6 deg. = 0.1) applied to the legs. Six healthy male subjects underwent 3 days each of 60 HDT with balanced traction and horizontal bed rest (HBR), with a 2 week recovery period between treatments. Total body and spine length, lumbar disc height, back pain, erector spinae intramuscular pressure, and ankle joint torque were measured before, during and after each treatment. Total body and spine (processes of L5 - C7) lengths increased significantly more during HDT with balanced traction (22 +/- 8 mm and 25 +/- 8 mm, respectively) than during HBR (16 +/- 4 mm and 14 +/- 9 mm, respectively). Back and leg pain were significantly greater during HDT with balanced traction than during HBR. The distance between the lower end plate of L4 and the upper endplate of S1, as measured by sonography, increased significantly in both treatments to the same degree (2.9 +/- 1.9 mm, HDT with balanced traction; 3.3 +/- 1.5 mm, HBR). Intramuscular pressure of the erector spinae muscles and maximal ankle joint torque were unaltered with both models. While neither model increased height to the magnitude observed in microgravity, HDT with balanced traction may be a better model for simulating the body lengthening and back pain experienced in microgravity.

  7. Tilted seat position for non-ambulant individuals with neurological and neuromuscular impairment: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, SM; Porter, D; Pountney, TE

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of tilt-in-space seating on outcomes for people with neurological or neuromuscular impairment who cannot walk. Data sources: Search through electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED). Discussions with researchers who are active in field. Review methods: Selection criteria included interventional studies that investigated the effects of seat tilt on outcome or observational studies that identified outcomes for those who had used tilt-in-space seati...

  8. Research on Calculation of the IOL Tilt and Decentration Based on Surface Fitting

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lin; Wang, Ke; Yan, Yan; Song, Xudong; Liu, Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL) result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentrati...

  9. Spontaneous tilting after placement of the gunther-tulip inferior vena caval filter: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Cha, In Ho; Seol, Hae Young; Park, Cheol Min [Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    Tilting of a deployed filter in the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a particular kind of periprocedural complication and this can reduce the filter's clot-trapping ability and increase the occlusion of the IVC at a later period. The authors report here on a case of spontaneous tilting of an inferior vena caval filter that was associated with thrombosis in the IVC within 2 weeks of the initially successful placement of the filter without tilting.

  10. Spontaneous tilting after placement of the gunther-tulip inferior vena caval filter: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Cha, In Ho; Seol, Hae Young; Park, Cheol Min

    2006-01-01

    Tilting of a deployed filter in the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a particular kind of periprocedural complication and this can reduce the filter's clot-trapping ability and increase the occlusion of the IVC at a later period. The authors report here on a case of spontaneous tilting of an inferior vena caval filter that was associated with thrombosis in the IVC within 2 weeks of the initially successful placement of the filter without tilting

  11. Using different methods to assess the discomfort during car driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnik, David; Otáhal, Stanislav; Dodic Fikfak, Metoda

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the discomfort caused by car driving. Discomfort estimates were achieved by self-administered questionnaire, measured by different testing methods, and through the goniometry of principal angles. Data from a total of 200 non-professional drivers who fulfilled the questionnaire was analysed. 118 subjects were analysed by goniometry and 30 drivers were assessed using the OWAS (Ovaco orking Posture Analysis), RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment), and CORLETT tests. The aim of this paper was to assess the appearance of the discomfort and to find some correlations between drivers' postures. Results suggest that different levels of discomfort are perceived in different body regions when driving cars. Differences appear mostly between the genders concerning the discomfort. With the questionnaire and the different estimation techniques, it is possible to identify 'at risk' drivers and ensure urgent attention when necessary. It can be concluded that the questionnare and the CORLETT test are good in predicting location of discomfort. TheB org CRI10scale is good indicator of the level of the discomfort, while OWAS and RULA can appraise the body posture to predict discomfort appearance. According to the goniometry data, the drivers posture could be one of the contributing factors in appearing of discomfort.

  12. Tidal tilts observations in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.; Milyukov, V.

    2001-01-01

    A new tilt meter, based on the technology for building a space-borne high-sensitivity accelerometer and manufactured at IFSI/CNR, has a been operating during several years in the INFN Gran Sasso underground laboratory. The results of the analysis of a three-year data set, processed with the program package ETERNA, to estimate earth tidal parameters are reported. For the best series of data (1998) tide measurement accuracies are: 0.5-1% for the M 2 (lunar principal) amplitude and 3-4% for the O 1 (lunar declination) amplitude. The tilt meter installed at a depth of 1400 m shows no clear evidence of meteorological effects. Observed tidal parameters are compared with theoretical tidal parameters predicted for a non-hydrostatic inelastic Earth model and demonstrate good agreement for the M 2 component. Due to the high accuracy of the tidal components prediction (better than 1%) tidal measurements were used to estimate the long-term stability of the instrument response

  13. An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2015-03-23

    Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.

  14. Effective ellipsoidal models for wavefield extrapolation in tilted orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair Bin

    2016-04-22

    Wavefield computations using the ellipsoidally anisotropic extrapolation operator offer significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for media of orthorhombic symmetry. Therefore, we propose the use of ‘effective ellipsoidally anisotropic’ models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. We compute effective velocities for the ellipsoidally anisotropic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield, obtained by solving the TOR eikonal equation. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper ellipsoidally anisotropic wave extrapolation operators. Although the effective models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The proposed methodology offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate anisotropic strength. Furthermore, the computed wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference based TOR wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate applicability and usefulness of our formulation through numerical tests on synthetic TOR models. © 2016 Institute of Geophysics of the ASCR, v.v.i

  15. Evaluation of the Thermal Effects in Tilting Pad Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of thermal effects is of expressive importance in the context of rotordynamics to evaluate the behavior of hydrodynamic bearings because these effects can influence their dynamic characteristics under specific operational conditions. For this reason, a thermohydrodynamic model is developed in this work, in which the pressure distribution in the oil film and the temperature distribution are calculated together. From the pressure distribution, the velocity distribution field is determined, as well as the viscous dissipation, and consequently, the temperature distribution. The finite volume method is applied to solve the Reynolds equation and the energy equation in the thermohydrodynamic model (THD. The results show that the temperature is higher as the rotational speed increases due to the shear rate of the oil film. The maximum temperature in the bearing occurs in the overloaded pad, near the outlet boundary. The experimental tests were performed in a tilting pad journal bearing operating in a steam turbine to validate the model. The comparison between the experimental and numerical results provides a good correlation. The thermohydrodynamic lubrication developed in this assignment is promising to consistently evaluate the behavior of the tilting pad journal bearing operating in relatively high rotational speeds.

  16. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel

  17. Car User Taxes, Quality Characteristics, and Fuel Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borger, B.; Rouwendal, J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the impact of car user taxes on vehicle quality and demand for kilometres. First, holding car prices fixed, we find that a higher fuel tax leads households to choose cars of better fuel efficiency, provided that the demand for car use is inelastic. Surprisingly, a higher kilometre tax

  18. Car mass and fatality risk: has the relationship changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, L; Frick, M C

    1994-01-01

    The finding that the relative safety disadvantage of small compared with large cars is less for post-1980 cars than for pre-1980 cars has stimulated speculation that increasing fuel economy standards would increase fatalities less than previously expected. Fatal crashes between two cars of similar model year were examined to see whether this would be the case. Driver fatality risk in relation to car mass was examined with Fatal Accident Reporting System data for crashes between two cars of a specific model year. The relative risk for driver fatality in the lighter car compared with the other driver's risk in a car 50% heavier was as follows: for 1966 through 1979 cars, the risk was between 3.7 and 5.1; for 1984 cars, 2.6; and for 1990 cars, 4.1. The results suggest that the lesser mass effect observed for mid-1980s cars occurred because improved crashworthiness features appeared in small cars earlier than in large cars. As all cars are redesigned, the relationship between risk and mass can be expected to approach that observed earlier in pre-1980 cars. If so, future fatality increases from fuel economy increases will be greater than estimated on the basis of mid-1980 data.

  19. 49 CFR 231.9 - Tank cars without end sills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without end sills. 231.9 Section 231.9..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.9 Tank cars without end sills. (a...

  20. 49 CFR 231.7 - Tank cars with side platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars with side platforms. 231.7 Section 231.7..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.7 Tank cars with side platforms. (a...

  1. 49 CFR 231.11 - Caboose cars without platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caboose cars without platforms. 231.11 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.11 Caboose cars without...

  2. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built or...

  3. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a) of...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 57.19079 Section 57.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 57.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage. ...

  5. 30 CFR 56.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 56.19079 Section 56.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage. ...

  6. 49 CFR 173.319 - Cryogenic liquids in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cryogenic liquids in tank cars. 173.319 Section... cars. (a) General requirements. (1) A tank car containing a flammable cryogenic liquid may not be shipped unless it was loaded by, or with the consent of, the owner of the tank car. (2) The amount of...

  7. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled to...

  8. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars. ...

  9. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a...

  10. Direct experimental measurement of SRS-induced spectral tilt in multichannel multispan communication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapin, Yu A; Nanii, Oleg E; Novikov, A G; Pavlov, V N; Plotskii, A Yu; Treshchikov, V N

    2012-09-30

    Nonlinear SRS-induced tilt of the spectrum of a multichannel DWDM signal is studied experimentally in standard singlemode fibreoptic communication lines. It is found that at a fixed spectral bandwidth and total power the nonlinear SRS tilt is independent of the number of channels, radiation source type, and the initial tilt (positive or negative). In a multispan line consisting of identical spans the total nonlinear tilt of the spectrum (in dB) is proportional to the number of spans, spectral width and total power. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  11. Research on calculation of the IOL tilt and decentration based on surface fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Ke; Yan, Yan; Song, Xudong; Liu, Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL) result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentration) and the scanned angle, at which a piece of AS-OCT image was taken by the instrument, the IOL tilt and decentration were calculated. IOL tilt angle and decentration of each subject were given. Moreover, the horizontal and vertical tilt was also obtained. Accordingly, the possible errors of IOL tilt and decentration existed in the method employed by AS-OCT instrument. Based on 6-12 pieces of AS-OCT images at different directions, the tilt angle and decentration values were shown, respectively. The method of the surface fitting to the IOL surface can accurately analyze the IOL's location, and six pieces of AS-OCT images at three pairs symmetrical directions are enough to get tilt angle and decentration value of IOL more precisely.

  12. Research on Calculation of the IOL Tilt and Decentration Based on Surface Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentration and the scanned angle, at which a piece of AS-OCT image was taken by the instrument, the IOL tilt and decentration were calculated. IOL tilt angle and decentration of each subject were given. Moreover, the horizontal and vertical tilt was also obtained. Accordingly, the possible errors of IOL tilt and decentration existed in the method employed by AS-OCT instrument. Based on 6–12 pieces of AS-OCT images at different directions, the tilt angle and decentration values were shown, respectively. The method of the surface fitting to the IOL surface can accurately analyze the IOL’s location, and six pieces of AS-OCT images at three pairs symmetrical directions are enough to get tilt angle and decentration value of IOL more precisely.

  13. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF NATURALLY TILTED, RETROGRADELY PRECESSING, NODAL SUPERHUMPING ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Accretion disks around black hole, neutron star, and white dwarf systems are thought to sometimes tilt, retrogradely precess, and produce hump-shaped modulations in light curves that have a period shorter than the orbital period. Although artificially rotating numerically simulated accretion disks out of the orbital plane and around the line of nodes generate these short-period superhumps and retrograde precession of the disk, no numerical code to date has been shown to produce a disk tilt naturally. In this work, we report the first naturally tilted disk in non-magnetic cataclysmic variables using three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Our simulations show that after many hundreds of orbital periods, the disk has tilted on its own and this disk tilt is without the aid of radiation sources or magnetic fields. As the system orbits, the accretion stream strikes the bright spot (which is on the rim of the tilted disk) and flows over and under the disk on different flow paths. These different flow paths suggest the lift force as a source to disk tilt. Our results confirm the disk shape, disk structure, and negative superhump period and support the source to disk tilt, source to retrograde precession, and location associated with X-ray and He II emission from the disk as suggested in previous works. Our results identify the fundamental negative superhump frequency as the indicator of disk tilt around the line of nodes.

  14. Comparative analysis of diffused solar radiation models for optimum tilt angle determination for Indian locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, P.; Chandel, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Tilt angle and orientation greatly are influenced on the performance of the solar photo voltaic panels. The tilt angle of solar photovoltaic panels is one of the important parameters for the optimum sizing of solar photovoltaic systems. This paper analyses six different isotropic and anisotropic diffused solar radiation models for optimum tilt angle determination. The predicted optimum tilt angles are compared with the experimentally measured values for summer season under outdoor conditions. The Liu and Jordan model is found to exhibit t lowest error as compared to other models for the location. (author)

  15. REMOTE CONTROLLED CAR HEATER USING A RASPBERRY PI

    OpenAIRE

    Loukola, Petrik

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, the goal was to design and implement a technology with which the user can control the car heaters and monitor the car temperature via Wi-Fi network and web browser. The idea for this project came from the Finnish cold climate. Winters in Finland can be very cold and if the car owners want to drive their cars, it is recommended to preheat the car engine and interior before driving the car. This will make driving safer, the car will make less pollution, better for the engines li...

  16. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3 is not required for fatty acid synthesis and does not protect against high-fat diet induced obesity in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah W Renner

    Full Text Available Carbonic anhydrases are a family of enzymes that catalyze the reversible condensation of water and carbon dioxide to carbonic acid, which spontaneously dissociates to bicarbonate. Carbonic anhydrase III (Car3 is nutritionally regulated at both the mRNA and protein level. It is highly enriched in tissues that synthesize and/or store fat: liver, white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle. Previous characterization of Car3 knockout mice focused on mice fed standard diets, not high-fat diets that significantly alter the tissues that highly express Car3. We observed lower protein levels of Car3 in high-fat diet fed mice treated with niclosamide, a drug published to improve fatty liver symptoms in mice. However, it is unknown if Car3 is simply a biomarker reflecting lipid accumulation or whether it has a functional role in regulating lipid metabolism. We focused our in vitro studies toward metabolic pathways that require bicarbonate. To further determine the role of Car3 in metabolism, we measured de novo fatty acid synthesis with in vitro radiolabeled experiments and examined metabolic biomarkers in Car3 knockout and wild type mice fed high-fat diet. Specifically, we analyzed body weight, body composition, metabolic rate, insulin resistance, serum and tissue triglycerides. Our results indicate that Car3 is not required for de novo lipogenesis, and Car3 knockout mice fed high-fat diet do not have significant differences in responses to various diets to wild type mice.

  17. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  18. Are Weeds Hitchhiking a Ride on Your Car? A Systematic Review of Seed Dispersal on Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansong, Michael; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487) were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars. PMID:24265803

  19. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  20. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  1. Forecasting U.S. Car Sales and Car Registrations in Japan: Rationality, Accuracy and Herding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Rülke, Jan; Pierdzioch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze forecasts of car sales in the U.S. and forecasts of car registrations in Japan. We document a substantial heterogeneity of forecasts, and we show that, based on traditional criteria, forecasts are neither rational nor unbiased. We also report that forecasters anti-herd, that is...

  2. Gasoline-powered series hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2012-02-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available series hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains in electric drivetrains (regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox) even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze life cycle GHG emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art plug-in battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available series hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that series hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer emissions (126g CO2eq per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2eq per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental emissions from plug-in battery cars due to losses during grid transmission and battery dis-/charging, and manufacturing larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  3. Gasoline-powered serial hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-04-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available serial hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains from regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox, and light weighting - even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available serial hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that serial hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer life cycle GHG emissions (126g CO2e per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2e per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental life cycle emissions from battery cars from losses during grid transmission, battery dis-/charging, and larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  4. SPECT imaging: Experimental determination of the effect of camera head tilt and appropriate quality control protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, T.J.; Cradduck, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although it is recognized in SPECT imaging that the camera face shall remain parallel to the axis of rotation there is no evidence of the limits that must be imposed on this parameter for acceptable reconstruction of the data. This study was made with the purpose of establishing limits of camera head tilt based on experiments designed to measure degradation of the image with increasing camera head tilt. The effect of camera head tilt is to place off-axis data in the wrong plane for reconstruction. Points off axis exhibit a pseudomotion along a line parallel to the axis of rotation so that data from one plane are ''seen'' by the reconstruction algorithm to be in different planes, depending on the angle of rotation. The changes in system resolution due to camera head tilt were assessed using the cold spheres in a Jaszczak phantom. The contrast of the spheres was measured for increasing angles of head tilt. Significant degradation occurred at tilt angles as low as one degree. Based on these observations a quality control procedure for camera head tilt was developed. A point source is imaged off-axis and a computer program has been written that is able to give the angle of head tilt based on the pseudomotion of the point source throughout the rotation of the camera head. This method can be used to calibrate the head tilt angle. It is evident that the camera head tilt must be checked for every patient study. Unlike center of rotation offsets, it is not possible to correct the raw data for camera head tilt during reconstruction

  5. Ketone Bodies as Brain Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Paula Sofia Valente da

    2015-01-01

    SILVA, Paula Sofia Valente da - Ketone Bodies as Brain Substrates. Coimbra : [s.n.], 2015. Dissertação de Mestrado em Bioquimica. Since their discovery as a marker for diabetic ketoacidosis, ketone bodies have become known for their therapeutic role as effective agents in refractory epilepsy and a diet specifically designed to increase ketone bodies’ levels in circulation has been often prescribed as treatment. In the classical ketogenic diet, intake of even small additional amounts of car...

  6. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  7. The old-new car sticker

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    You have had the same car sticker for ten years and have been driving in and out of CERN every day. Suddenly one morning the guard stops you and tells you need a new one. Hmmm ?! “There were 60 000 stickers in circulation in Geneva and we could not control wether the sticker had been distributed to the right person”, saysa Claude Ducastel, responsible for Entrance Security. “So to solve this problem, last year DSU decided to change Operational Circular N°2 and introduce new car stickers that will be changed every year.” Three types of car stickers were introduced: blue, green and red. The blue one is for staff members whose contract is for one year or more. It indicates the plate number of the car. The green one is for staff members whose contract is for less than one year. It indicates the plate number of the car and the date the contract of the employee terminates. It also has a big L for "Limited". The red one is for enterprise subcontractors whose contracts finish at the end of the year. If ...

  8. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-06-15

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  9. Experimental study of the distillation process in a tilted cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xihui; Chen, Houtao; Wang, Zhijie; Xiao, Gang

    2017-05-01

    Heat and mass transfer correlations in a basin solar still are not applicable for brine-flowing type solar still. Thermal efficiency is hard to determine explicitly due to the varying temperature of brine along the flow direction. A simple method is proposed in the present work to evaluate the performance of the brine-flowing type still through the energy balance equation of brine. Experiments in a tilted cavity which is used to simulate a brine-flowing type solar still are conducted, and it is found that thermal efficiency of the simulated still is always less than 76.3%. An empirical equation is obtained, which may provide a clue for the development of an explicit theoretical model to predict fresh water production of the brine-flowing solar still.

  10. Rain Sensor with Stacked Light Waveguide Having Tilted Air Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sensor to detect rain drop on and above waveguide utilizing light deflection and scattering was realized, keeping wide sensing coverage and sensitivity to detect mist accumulation. Proposed sensor structure under stacked light wave guide consisted of light blocking fixture surrounding photodetector and adjacent light source. Tilted air gap between stacked light waveguide and light blocking fixture played major role to increase sensitivity and to enhance linearity. This sensor structure eliminated complex collimating optics, while keeping wide sensing coverage using simple geometry. Detection algorithm based on time-to-intensity transformation process was used to convert raining intensity into countable raining process. Experimental result inside simulated rain chamber showed distinct different response between light rain and normal rain. Application as automobile rain sensor is expected.

  11. Comparison of scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after pectoralis minor stretching on scapular alignment and scapular upward rotators activity in subjects with short pectoralis minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Yoon, Tae-Lim; Choi, Sil-Ah; Choi, Woo-Jeong; Choi, Bong-Sam; Ko, Chang-Hee

    2015-08-01

    To compare scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after pectoralis minor (PM) stretching on the PM index (PMI), scapular anterior tilting index, scapular upward rotation angle, and scapular upward rotators' activity in subjects with a short PM. Fifteen subjects with a short PM participated in this study. The PMI, scapular anterior tilting index, and scapular upward rotation angle were measured after scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretches. Scapular upward rotators' activities were collected during scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretches. The PMI and scapular upward rotation angle, as well as the activity of the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles, were significantly greater for scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching and the scapular anterior tilting index was significantly lower for scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching than the scapular posterior tilting exercise alone. Scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching in subjects with a short PM could be an effective method of modifying scapular alignment and scapular upward rotator activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of dynamic performance of freight cars taking into account technical condition of side bearers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Myamlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The railway transport plays an important role in social and economic life of the country and carries out the large containment of transportation activities. The transport industry should migrate towards innovation changes and increase its significance as an important transit subsystem on the way of renovation of both the infrastructure and the strategy of all transportation process components including the interaction with other transport modes. At present the life sets strategic challenges for the railway branch, and the basic goals among them are as follows: high-speed train traffic development, increase of the weight of freight trains, new rolling stock development etc. Due to the urgency of this subject, the researchers should cope with the task devoted to one of aspects of improving the freight transportation efficiency, namely to the study of effects of various factors and characteristics of technical conditions of the freight cars running gears (which are unavoidable to arise during operation on their basic dynamic indices. The deviations of technical conditions of running gears from the normal state of the wedge system of bogie swing suspension also play an important role among them. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the influence of different factors of the technical conditions of freight car running gears (size deviation in both the bearers and the wedge system during operation on their basic indices – coefficients of horizontal and vertical dynamics, vehicle body acceleration, frame strength, and derailment stability coefficient. Methodology. The study was conducted by numerical integration and mathematical modeling of the freight car dynamic loading using the software package “Dynamics of Rail Vehicles” (“DYNRAIL”. Findings. As a result of the research for freight car dynamic coefficients determination taking into account technical conditions of the side bearers, the dependencies of the basic freight cars

  13. Noise mapping inside a car cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Sjøj, Sidsel Marie Nørholm; Jacobsen, Finn

    The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay-and-sum beamform......The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay......-and-sum beamforming and spherical harmonics beamforming. These methods have a poor spatial esolution at low frequencies, and since much noise generated in cars is dominated by low frequencies the methods are not optimal. In the present paper the mapping is done by solving an inverse problem with a transfer matrix...

  14. Design Process Improvement for Electric CAR Harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Thiwarat; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    In an automobile parts design company, the customer satisfaction is one of the most important factors for product design. Therefore, the company employs all means to focus its product design process based on the various requirements of customers resulting in high number of design changes. The objective of this research is to improve the design process of the electric car harness that effects the production scheduling by using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as the main tools. FTA is employed for root cause analysis and FMEA is used to ranking a High Risk Priority Number (RPN) which is shows the priority of factors in the electric car harness that have high impact to the design of the electric car harness. After the implementation, the improvements are realized significantly since the number of design change is reduced from 0.26% to 0.08%.

  15. A Psychometric Investigation of Gender-Tilted Families: Implications for Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Clark W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Obtained self-reports from 40 couples from gender-tilted families, families which have several children of same sex. Parents of boys reported higher levels of family conflict and lower satisfaction with their families than did parents of girls. Parents of male-tilted families expressed more masculine sex-role orientations, greater personal…

  16. Patients with severe acquired brain injury show increased arousal in tilt-table training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riberholt, Christian G; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) are often mobilised using a tilt-table. Complications such as orthostatic intolerance have been reported. The primary objective of this study was to investigate if using a tilt-table was feasible for mobilising patients with severe ABI admitted...

  17. The Application of Normal Stress Reduction Function in Tilt Tests for Different Block Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Gratchev, Ivan; Hein, Maw; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of the shapes of rock cores, which control the sliding or toppling behaviours in tilt tests for the estimation of rock joint roughness coefficients (JRC). When the JRC values are estimated by performing tilt tests, the values are directly proportional to the basic friction of the rock material and the applied normal stress on the sliding planes. Normal stress obviously varies with the shape of the sliding block, and the basic friction angle is also affected by the sample shapes in tilt tests. In this study, the shapes of core blocks are classified into three representative shapes and those are created using plaster. Using the various shaped artificial cores, a set of tilt tests is carried out to identify the shape influences on the normal stress and the basic friction angle in tilt tests. The test results propose a normal stress reduction function to estimate the normal stress for tilt tests according to the sample shapes based on Barton's empirical equation. The proposed normal stress reduction functions are verified by tilt tests using artificial plaster joints and real rock joint sets. The plaster joint sets are well matched and cast in detailed printed moulds using a 3D printing technique. With the application of the functions, the obtained JRC values from the tilt tests using the plaster samples and the natural rock samples are distributed within a reasonable JRC range when compared with the measured values.

  18. Optimum Tilt Angle for Photovoltaic Solar Panels in Zomba District, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kamanga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine the optimum tilt angle for installing photovoltaic solar panels in Zomba district, Malawi, has been conducted. The study determined the optimum monthly tilt angles of PV solar panels and the seasonal adjustments needed for the panels in order to collect maximum solar radiation throughout the year. In this study, global solar radiation (GSR on four tilted surfaces was measured. The north-facing surfaces were titled at angles of 0°, 15°, 20°, and 25°. The GSR data was used to determine the daily and monthly optimum tilt angles for the PV panels. The optimum tilt angles were found to be 0° or 25° depending on the time of the year. From October to February, the optimum tilt angle has been determined to be 0° and, from March to September, the optimum tilt angle is observed to be 25°. There are only two seasonal adjustments that are needed for PV solar panels in Zomba district and these should be carried out at the end of February and at the end of September. For fixed solar panels with no seasonal adjustments, the optimum tilt angle for the PV solar panels that are northfacing has been determined to be 25°.

  19. Switching PD-based sliding mode control for hovering of a tilting-thruster underwater robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sangrok; Bak, Jeongae; Kim, Jongwon; Seo, TaeWon; Kim, Hwa Soo

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a switching PD-based sliding mode control (PD-SMC) method for the 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) hovering motion of the underwater robot with tilting thrusters. Four thrusters of robot can be tilted simultaneously in the horizontal and vertical directions, and the 6-DOF motion is achieved by switching between two thruster configurations. Therefore, the tilting speed of thruster becomes the most essential parameter to determine the stability of hovering motion. Even though the previous PD control ensures stable hovering motion within a certain ranges of tilting speed, a PD-SMC is suggested in this paper by combining PD control with sliding mode control in order to achieve acceptable hovering performance even at the much lower tilting speeds. Also, the sign function in the sliding mode control is replaced by a sigmoid function to reduce undesired chattering. Simulations show that while PD control is effective only for tilting duration of 600 ms, the PD-based sliding mode control can guarantee the stable hovering motion of underwater robot even for the tilting duration of up to 1500 ms. Extensive experimental results confirm the hovering performance of the proposed PD-SMC method is much superior to that of PD method for much larger tilting durations.

  20. On the simplifications for the thermal modeling of tilting-pad journal bearings under thermoelastohydrodynamic regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Fillon, Michel; Santos, Ilmar

    2012-01-01

    The relevance of calculating accurately the oil film temperature build up when modeling tilting-pad journal bearings is well established within the literature on the subject. This work studies the feasibility of using a thermal model for the tilting-pad journal bearing which includes a simplified...

  1. The effect of tilt angle on the performance of evacuated tube solar air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evacuated tube solar air collector had different collector tilt angles from the horizontal with the one inclined at 30° and 45°. Experimental results revealed that tilt angle had significant influence on the thermal performance of the evacuated tube solar air collector along with or without reflector. Experiments also showed ...

  2. Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) As Next Generation Nonlinear LIDAR Spectroscopy and Microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear spectroscopy using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering and femtosecond laser pulses has been successfully developed as powerful tools for chemical analysis and biological imaging. Recent developments show promising possibilities of incorporating CARS into LIDAR system for remote detection of molecular species in airborne particles. The corresponding theory is being developed to describe nonlinear scattering of a mesoscopic particle composed of complex molecules by laser pulses with arbitrary shape and spectral content. Microscopic many-body transform theory is used to compute the third order susceptibility for CARS in molecules with known absorption spectrum and vibrational modes. The theory is combined with an integral scattering formula and Mie-Lorentz formulae, giving a rigorous formalism which provides powerful numerical experimentation of CARS spectra, particularly on the variations with the laser parameters and the direction of detection.

  3. The end of the Dutch car tax?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besseling, P.J.; Lebouille, R.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the project 'Paying differently for mobility' an option that is considered is to switch the Dutch Tax on Motor cars and Vehicles (BPM) to a higher tariff for the future road pricing system. Due to some special characteristics of the BPM, this will be a highly complex financial operation. In this article, we explore three variants for their effect on the vehicle market and on the budget. We also explain the advantages and disadvantages for several groups of car owners. [nl

  4. Shady Car Dealings and Taxing Work Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The empirical focus of this article is a ten-month ethnography of a tax audit process led by the Danish Tax and Customs Administration. The tax audit concerns a number of shady car dealings from which taxable income is not reported. This article focuses on the process whereby the tax administration...... succeeds in making some of these car dealings visible. This article draws inspiration from interpretative tax studies that consider taxation as an organisational, institutional, social and cultural phenomenon. Complementing those studies’ approaches, the present study draws both on Latour’s concept...

  5. Islamic Mobility : Car Culture in Modern Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    In a modern and respectable middle-class suburb outside Kuala Lumpur, the overtness of cars evokes intense speculation about the nature of the make-up of covert middle-class homes and the formation of Malay Muslim identities more generally. I argue that the more ‘Islamic’ cultures of consumption assert themselves in modern Malaysia, the more the growing Malay Muslim middle class is split between desiring cars as positional commodities, on the one hand, and claims for piety through consumption...

  6. Development of car for Eco-marathon

    OpenAIRE

    Qviller, Aksel

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to develop the front suspension and certain parts of the in-wheel motor of NTNU’s new car for Shell Eco-marathon, as well as assisting other team members. NTNU has participated in the Urban Concept class in the European race every year since 2008, with one world record (2009), twice second place, and one failure (2010). The original PureChoice car (renamed DNV Fuel Fighter during the second year) was powered by hydrogen, but the power source was changed ...

  7. Performance verification of focus variation and confocal microscopes measuring tilted ultra-fine surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Baruffi, Federico; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of two optical instruments, scilicet a laser scanning confocal microscope and a focus-variation microscope, was investigated considering measurements of tilted surfaces. The measured samples were twelve steel artefacts for mould surface finish reference, covering Sa roughness...... parameter in the range (101—103) nm. The 3D surface texture parameters considered were Sa, Sq and Sdq. The small working distance of the confocal microscope objectives influenced the measurement setup, preventing from selecting a high tilting angle. The investigation was carried out comparing measurements...... of flat surfaces (0° tilt) with measurements of 12.5° tilted surfaces. The confocal microscope results showed a high sensitivity to tilting due to the laser beam reflection on the metal surfaces. The focus variation microscope results were more robust with respect to the considered angular variation...

  8. Validation of Tilt Gain under Realistic Path Loss Model and Network Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a simple and commonly-applied radio optimization technique, the impact on practical network performance from base station antenna downtilt is not well understood. Most published studies based on empirical path loss models report tilt angles and performance gains that are far higher...... than practical experience suggests. We motivate in this paper, based on a practical LTE scenario, that the discrepancy partly lies in the path loss model, and shows that a more detailed semi-deterministic model leads to both lower gains in terms of SINR, outage probability and downlink throughput...... and lower optimum tilt settings. Furthermore, we show that a simple geometrically based tilt optimization algorithm can outperform other tilt profiles, including the setting applied by the cellular operator in the specific case. In general, the network performance is not highly sensitive to the tilt...

  9. Influence of diffusion of fuel-efficient motor vehicles on gasoline demand for individual user owned passenger cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Takahiro

    2000-01-01

    Trends in the demand for petrol in Japan for cars owned by individuals are discussed with reference to expected improvements in fuel efficiency for new models and the results of a survey of user preferences for fuel-efficient vehicles. Demand for petrol in Japan has continued to increase in line with the number of cars used by individual owners. A questionnaire on motor vehicles sent to households found that, while cost and body style were the primary factors in car purchase, three-quarters of respondents would consider buying a low fuel consumption (LFC) version of the model chosen. The influence of LFC vehicles on future demand for petrol was estimated for up to 2015 by combining market timing with consumer preferences. Comparison of the estimated petrol consumption by LFC cars with the Government's requirement for reduced energy use by the transport sector in order to meet its climate change targets indicated a shortfall and a need to increase consumer demand for LFC vehicles. Government measures to reduce energy use in the transport sector, fuel efficiency targets for 2010, major LFC cars, fuel efficiency improvements by major Japanese motor manufacturers and scenarios for assessing the influence of LFC cars are summarised in five tables. Trends in petrol consumption and estimated use by individual user owned passenger cars are shown graphically

  10. Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S M; El Haddad, I; Pieber, S M; Zardini, A A; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Clairotte, M; Daellenbach, K R; Huang, R-J; Slowik, J G; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Marchand, N; de Gouw, J; Jimenez, J L; Hayes, P L; Robinson, A L; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C; Prévôt, A S H

    2017-07-13

    Carbonaceous particulate matter (PM), comprising black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA, from atmospheric aging of precursors), is a highly toxic vehicle exhaust component. Therefore, understanding vehicle pollution requires knowledge of both primary emissions, and how these emissions age in the atmosphere. We provide a systematic examination of carbonaceous PM emissions and parameterisation of SOA formation from modern diesel and gasoline cars at different temperatures (22, -7 °C) during controlled laboratory experiments. Carbonaceous PM emission and SOA formation is markedly higher from gasoline than diesel particle filter (DPF) and catalyst-equipped diesel cars, more so at -7 °C, contrasting with nitrogen oxides (NO X ). Higher SOA formation from gasoline cars and primary emission reductions for diesels implies gasoline cars will increasingly dominate vehicular total carbonaceous PM, though older non-DPF-equipped diesels will continue to dominate the primary fraction for some time. Supported by state-of-the-art source apportionment of ambient fossil fuel derived PM, our results show that whether gasoline or diesel cars are more polluting depends on the pollutant in question, i.e. that diesel cars are not necessarily worse polluters than gasoline cars.

  11. Demand for mini cars and large cars; decay effects, and gasoline demand in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David; Schmitz, Klaus E.; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explains why: (a) consumers underinvest in new car fuel economy by opting to buy large vehicles; (b) macro shifts in vehicle classes have occurred in the last decades; and how (c) the effects of vehicle fuel economy and shifts in vehicle type influence the growth path of gasoline demand, which is the key to designing effective energy efficiency goals for transport. From 2008, 1.9 EXJ (Exajoules) of energy were consumed in Japan by private vehicles producing 124 MtCO 2 emissions. For the period 1980 to 2008, we estimated: (1) gasoline demand for three vehicle sizes; (2) vehicle sales; (3) new car fuel economy changes (the ‘real’ technical change); and (4) vehicle stocks. Using a data sample for 1980–2008 we found that: (a) in the short term consumers buy fuel economy, that is sales of mini and small cars increase, but this is not sustained in the long term: and (b) consumers increasingly traded in their cars for larger cars. A further finding was that gasoline demand is projected to increase to 2.3 EXJ by 2035, even with a growing number of mini cars. The policy implication is clear: Japan’s policy to reduce oil dependency to 80% by 2030 is in peril as long as buyers prefer larger cars and drive ever longer distances.

  12. Perancangan dan Implementasi Kontroler PID untuk Pengaturan Autonomous Car-Following Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Parluhutan Bonor Sinaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengiriman logistik ke daerah-daerah rawan bencana merupakan hal yang sangat sulit dilakukan, tentunya diperlukan pengetahuan mengenai kondisi medan jalan. Salah satu dampak yang utama adalah sulitnya melakukan manuver dalam pengendalian performansi  truk logistik yang pada umumnya berupa truk-truk gandeng. Untuk membantu pengemudi truk dalam berkendara pada kondisi tersebut, dirancang sebuah prototype mobil mandiri (Autonomous Car yang mampu melakukan manuver-manuver pergerakan secara sendirinya, salah satu manuver tersebut ialah Following Car.  Dalam Tugas Akhir ini perancangan sistem yang akan dilakukan dengan  memodelkan  dua buah kendaraan mobil RC (remote control yang bertindak sebagai  follower dan leader car. Pengoperasian dari  following car dilakukan dengan memodifikasi dari kendaraan RC-1, sedangkan RC-2 bertindak sebagai leader car yang dikondisikan secara manual. Dengan penerapan kontroler PID pada implementasi sistem didapatkan penurunan time settling menjadi 2,7 Detik dan peningkatan error steady state sebesar 2,44%. Pada implementasi diberikan kecepatan leader secara acak, dengan implementasi kontroler PID, kondisi jarak antara autonomous car dengan leader car masih dalam range keadaan ideal pada set point.

  13. The development of CAR design for tumor CAR-T cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; Jin, Guoliang; Chai, Dafei; Zhou, Xiaowan; Gu, Weiyu; Chong, Yanyun; Song, Jingyuan; Zheng, Junnian

    2018-03-02

    In recent years, the chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells (Chimeric antigen receptor T cells, CAR-T) immunotherapy has developed rapidly, which has been considered the most promising therapy. Efforts to enhance the efficacy of CAR-based anti-tumor therapy have been made, such as the improvement of structures of CAR-T cells, including the development of extracellular antigen recognition receptors, intracellular co-stimulatory molecules and the combination application of CARs and synthetic small molecules. In addition, effects on the function of the CAR-T cells that the space distance between the antigen binding domains and tumor targets and the length of the spacer domains have are also being investigated. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, it is necessary to make a summary of the development of CAR-T cells. In this review, we mainly focus on the present design strategies of CAR-T cells with the hope that they can provide insights to increase the anti-tumor efficacy and safety.

  14. In-vitro hemodynamics of stented bioprosthetic heart valves in the tilted implantation position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin-Ebell, Joerg; Sievers, Hans H; Misfeld, Martin; Runge, Maike; Vogt, Paul Robert; Scharfschwerdt, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Although, in small aortic annulus or aortic annulus calcification, it is recommended that valves are implanted in a tilted position, mechanical valves show impaired hemodynamic performance when positioned in this way. To date, no investigations have been conducted with biological valves implanted in a tilted position. Measurements were performed in a pulsatile flow simulator. The aortic roots were mounted in a fluid reservoir and tested with bioprosthetic valves implanted in the regular position (21 mm; n = 7) or at a 200 tilt (23 mm; n = 7). Additional 21 mm valves were implanted in both positions with a systemic pressure of 120/80 mmHg. Subsequently, the valves were implanted into a glass model and flow visualization monitored by adding air bubbles illuminated with a laser diode. The 21 mm valves showed a slightly higher transvalvular gradient in the tilted than in the regular position, while 23 mm valves in a tilted position showed a lower gradient than 21 mm valves in the regular position. Flow in the regular position was seen to be straight and central, but in the tilted position was diverted and impacted on the aortic wall. Vortex formation in the tilted position was more pronounced than in the regular position, with certain low-flow areas being observed. The implantation of a one size-larger bioprosthetic valve at a 20 degree tilt in a small aortic root resulted in a slight reduction in transvalvular gradient compared to a smaller valve implanted in the regular position. Whilst mechanical valve performance is markedly compromised in the tilted position, the bioprosthetic valve showed only minor impairment of transvalvular pressure gradient due to tilting, and this was overcompensated by the larger valve size. However, the advantage of a greater orifice area must be traded against the consequences of the observed flow disturbances.

  15. 49 CFR 179.300 - General specifications applicable to multi-unit tank car tanks designed to be removed from car...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tank car tanks designed to be removed from car structure for filling and emptying (Classes DOT-106A and... SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Multi-Unit Tank Car Tanks (Classes DOT-106A and 110AW) § 179.300 General specifications applicable to multi-unit tank car tanks designed to be removed from car structure...

  16. A comprehensive overview of the frequency and the severity of injuries sustained by car occupants and subsequent implications in terms of injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Cuny, Sophie; Hermitte, Thierry; Labrousse, Maxime

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to give an overview of the road injuries issues in France in the 2010's by determining the frequency and the severity of injuries sustained by car occupants, and to infer the implications in terms of vehicule safety. Three types of analysis are conducted. First, we present a time series analysis at a macro statistical level showing a dramatic decrease of injured and fatally injured occupants in passenger cars compared to other modes of road transport. Secondly, we propose a descriptive statistical analysis of the injuries (frequency and severity) sustained by car occupants, by body regions, using the AIS. Finally we propose some insights into the effectiveness of some safety features. French National crash census (BAAC) is used for a general overview of injury frequencies and raw severity scores (fatal, hospitalized, slighty injured) in car crashes. In-depth crash investigations data are used to specify the body regions and the severity of the injuries sustained by car occupants. Data show that car occupants mortality and morbidity decreased more over the last decade than other road modes: -58 % fatalities and -64 % hospitalized (compared to -39% and -55% for pedestrians, and -21% and -44% for motorcyclists for example). In crashes for which at least one person has been injured, 19 % of occupants are uninjured, 49 % of occupants sustain MAIS 1 injuries, 15 % MAIS2, 8% MAIS 3, and 9 % MAIS 4+. Regardless of seat belt use, the body regions most often injured are head, upper and lower extremities and thorax. However, at least two third up to 92% of involved persons sustain no injury at each of these body regions. The frequency of severe injuries is low, often less than 10 % and concern head and thorax mainly. Finally, the frequency and severity of injuries decrease for belted occupants in newer cars compared to older cars, whatever body regions. The frequency of severe injuries decreased by almost 50 % in these newer cars.

  17. Increase of child car seat temperature in cars parked in the outpatient parking lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Tetsu; Suzue, Junji; Kamada, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukiko; Tananari, Yoshifumi; Maeno, Yasuki; Ito, Shinichi; Nishino, Hiroshi; Kakimoto, Noriko; Yamakawa, Rumi

    2011-12-01

    A guideline for the safe use of child car seats (CS) was published by the Japan Pediatric Society in 2008. There have been few studies of the increase of temperature of a CS in parked cars. The aim of this study was to determine the change in the temperature of the CS in cars parked in full sun. The temperature of CS was measured during summer (July and August) in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The CS used in this study (n= 50) were for children (≤ 6 years old) who were taken by car to Sugimura Children's Medical Clinic. Temperatures were only measured on sunny days. Measurements were performed from 09.00 to 17.00 hours. Thermochron (Thermochron i-Button: G type, Maxim Integrated Products, CA, USA) was used to measure the temperatures. The maximum temperatures of CS were compared in time at the clinic, taking into consideration seat colors, and car colors. Of the 50 cars, three cars were excluded due to being in the shade while the temperature was measured. A total of 47 cars were used for this study. The temperature of the CS ranged from 38.0 to 65.5°C (47.8 ± 5.8°C). Eighteen CS (38.3%) reached a temperature of 50°C or above. The maximum temperature of the 13.00-15.00-hours group was significantly higher than that of the 09.00-11.00-hours group (P= 0.035). The CS temperatures in the black car group were significantly higher than those of the white car group (P= 0.013). CS may become very hot while a car is parked in sun, especially if the car and the CS are black, so the CS should be cooled before a young child is placed in it. Guardians of small children should be aware of this risk. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Boxfish swimming paradox resolved: forces by the flow of water around the body promote manoeuvrability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wassenbergh, S; van Manen, K; Marcroft, T A; Alfaro, M E; Stamhuis, E J

    2015-02-06

    The shape of the carapace protecting the body of boxfishes has been attributed an important hydrodynamic role in drag reduction and in providing automatic, flow-direction realignment and is therefore used in bioinspired design of cars. However, tight swimming-course stabilization is paradoxical given the frequent, high-performance manoeuvring that boxfishes display in their spatially complex, coral reef territories. Here, by performing flow-tank measurements of hydrodynamic drag and yaw moments together with computational fluid dynamics simulations, we reverse several assumptions about the hydrodynamic role of the boxfish carapace. Firstly, despite serving as a model system in aerodynamic design, drag-reduction performance was relatively low compared with more generalized fish morphologies. Secondly, the current theory of course stabilization owing to flow over the boxfish carapace was rejected, as destabilizing moments were found consistently. This solves the boxfish swimming paradox: destabilizing moments enhance manoeuvrability, which is in accordance with the ecological demands for efficient turning and tilting. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Increasing fuel efficiency of passenger cars with the “climate-control” system as a method of improving the ecological safety of the urban infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakova, L. N.; Burakova, A. D.; Burakova, O. D.; Dovbysh, V. O.

    2018-01-01

    Motor vehicle should provide safety and a high ecological standard of living for the population. One of the methods to improve the ecological friendliness of motor vehicles in particular passenger cars (cars), which are considered in this article, is the growth of their fuel economy. It is established that fuel consumption and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances with exhaust gases of cars when using the “climate control” system depend on the effective ambient temperature, the color of the opaque car body elements, the power of the car engine and the interior volume. However, the simplest controlled factor is the color of the opaque car body elements, which is characterized by the coefficient of light reflection. In the course of experimental studies, we established the dependences of a change in fuel consumption and a share of reducing emissions of harmful substances with exhaust gases of passenger cars with the “climate control” system on the coefficient of light reflection. A method has been developed to reduce fuel consumption and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances with the exhaust gases of passenger cars when using the “climate control” system, which involves painting the vehicle roof white and allows reducing fuel consumption by 5.5-10.3% and the amount of specific emissions of harmful substances by 0.37-1.13% (CO) and 0.47-1.08% (CH).

  20. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…