WorldWideScience

Sample records for tier stammenden lebensmitteln

  1. Konsumentscheidungen bei Vertrauenseigenschaften: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel des Kaufes von ökologischen Lebensmitteln in Deutschland und Dänemark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Larsen, Tino; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2001-01-01

    Beim Kauf von Gütern mit Vertrauenseigenschaften ist eine glaubwürdige Information zentral. Im Beitrag wird der Kauf von ökologischen Lebensmitteln in Deutschland unf Dänemark verglichen, zwei Ländern, in denen die Kennzeichnung ökologischer Produkte unterschiedlich gelöst worden ist. Es zeigt si...

  2. Technology Tiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    A technology tier is a level in a product system: final product, system, subsystem, component, or part. As a concept, it contrasts traditional “vertical” special technologies (for example, mechanics and electronics) and focuses “horizontal” feature technologies such as product characteristics...

  3. Tiered Storage For LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Hanushevsky, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    For more than a year, the ATLAS Western Tier 2 (WT2) at SLAC National Accelerator has been successfully operating a two tiered storage system based on Xrootd's flexible cross-cluster data placement framework, the File Residency Manager. The architecture allows WT2 to provide both, high performance storage at the higher tier to ATLAS analysis jobs, as well as large, low cost disk capacity at the lower tier. Data automatically moves between the two storage tiers based on the needs of analysis jobs and is completely transparent to the jobs.

  4. A Distributed Tier-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Lars; Grønager, Michael; Kleist, Josva

    2008-01-01

    The Tier-1 facility operated by the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) differs significantly from other Tier-1s in several aspects: firstly, it is not located at one or a few premises, but instead is distributed throughout the Nordic countries; secondly, it is not under the governance of a single...... organization but instead is a meta-center built of resources under the control of a number of different national organizations. We present some technical implications of these aspects as well as the high-level design of this distributed Tier-1. The focus will be on computing services, storage and monitoring....

  5. Tier2 Submit Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Download this tool for Windows or Mac, which helps facilities prepare a Tier II electronic chemical inventory report. The data can also be exported into the CAMEOfm (Computer-Aided Management of Emergency Operations) emergency planning software.

  6. PERBANDINGAN ANTARA KAP FIRST TIER, KAP SECOND TIER, DAN KAP THIRD TIER DALAM PENERBITAN OPINI AUDIT GOING CONCERN

    OpenAIRE

    Christiawan, Stepanus Iwan

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis ada tidaknya perbedaan kecenderungan penerbitan opini audit going concern oleh KAP First Tier, KAP Second Tier dan KAP Third Tier. Hasil penelitian yang diperoleh adalah tidak terdapat perbedaan kecenderungan penerbitan opini audit going concern antara KAP First Tier, KAP Second Tier dan KAP Third Tier. Dengan demikian kecenderungan penerbitan opini audit going concern oleh ketiga KAP sama.

  7. Pflanzliche Kontaminanten in Lebensmitteln

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusemund, Birgit; Rietjens, Ivonne M.C.M.; Cartus, Alexander; Schaefer, Bernd; Lampen, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Among the various contaminants, the group of natural plant-derived substances in the modern food chain has been generating increasing concern in recent years. The adverse effects encountered may be diverse and pose risks of acute, subchronic or chronic toxicity. The underlying mechanisms of

  8. Tier II Chemical Storage Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities that store hazardous chemicals above certain quantities must submit an annual emergency and hazardous chemical inventory on a Tier II form. This is a...

  9. Role of Tier-0, Tier-1 and Tier-2 Regional Centers in CMS DC04

    CERN Document Server

    Barrass, T; Andreeva, J; Jank, W; Sinanis, N; Colino, N; García-Abia, P; Hernández, J M; Rodríguez-Calonge, F J; Ernst, M; Anzar, A; Bauerdick, L; Fisk, I; Harris, R; Wu, Y; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Rehn, J; De Filippis, N; Donvito, G; Maggi, G; Capiluppi, P; Fanfani, A; Grandi, C; Bonacorsi, D; Chierici, A; Dell'Agnello, L; Lore, G; Martelli, B; Ricci, P; Rosso, F; Ruggieri, F; Biasotto, M; Fantinel, S; Corvo, M; Fanzago, F; Mazzucato, M; Charlot, C; Miné, P; Semeniouk, I N; Tuura, L; Delfino, M; Martínez, F; Merino, G; Pacheco, A; Rodríguez, M; Stickland, D P; Wildish, T; Newbold, D; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Nowack, A

    2005-01-01

    The CMS 2004 Data Challenge (DC04) was devised to test several key aspects of the CMS Computing Model in three ways: by trying to sustain a 25 Hz reconstruction rate at the Tier-0; by distributing the reconstructed data to six Tier-1 Regional Centers (CNAF in Italy, FNAL in US, GridKA in Germany, IN2P3 in France, PIC in Spain, RAL in UK) and handling catalogue issues; by redistributing data to Tier-2 centers for analysis. Simulated events, up to the digitization step, were produced prior to the DC as input for the reconstruction in the Pre-Challenge Production (PCP04). In this paper, the model of the Tier-0 implementation used in DC04 is described, as well as the experience gained in using the newly developed data distribution management layer, which allowed CMS to successfully direct the distribution of data from Tier-0 to Tier-1 sites by loosely integrating a number of available Grid c omponents. While developing and testing this system, CMS explored the overall functionality and limits of each component, i...

  10. Tiered Approach to Resilience Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkov, Igor; Fox-Lent, Cate; Read, Laura; Allen, Craig R; Arnott, James C; Bellini, Emanuele; Coaffee, Jon; Florin, Marie-Valentine; Hatfield, Kirk; Hyde, Iain; Hynes, William; Jovanovic, Aleksandar; Kasperson, Roger; Katzenberger, John; Keys, Patrick W; Lambert, James H; Moss, Richard; Murdoch, Peter S; Palma-Oliveira, Jose; Pulwarty, Roger S; Sands, Dale; Thomas, Edward A; Tye, Mari R; Woods, David

    2018-04-25

    Regulatory agencies have long adopted a three-tier framework for risk assessment. We build on this structure to propose a tiered approach for resilience assessment that can be integrated into the existing regulatory processes. Comprehensive approaches to assessing resilience at appropriate and operational scales, reconciling analytical complexity as needed with stakeholder needs and resources available, and ultimately creating actionable recommendations to enhance resilience are still lacking. Our proposed framework consists of tiers by which analysts can select resilience assessment and decision support tools to inform associated management actions relative to the scope and urgency of the risk and the capacity of resource managers to improve system resilience. The resilience management framework proposed is not intended to supplant either risk management or the many existing efforts of resilience quantification method development, but instead provide a guide to selecting tools that are appropriate for the given analytic need. The goal of this tiered approach is to intentionally parallel the tiered approach used in regulatory contexts so that resilience assessment might be more easily and quickly integrated into existing structures and with existing policies. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  12. 40 CFR 1508.28 - Tiering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or policy environmental impact statement to a program, plan, or policy statement or analysis of... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tiering. 1508.28 Section 1508.28 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.28 Tiering. Tiering...

  13. Visits to Tier-1 Computing Centres

    CERN Multimedia

    Dario Barberis

    At the beginning of 2007 it became clear that an enhanced level of communication is needed between the ATLAS computing organisation and the Tier-1 centres. Most usual meetings are ATLAS-centric and cannot address the issues of each Tier-1; therefore we decided to organise a series of visits to the Tier-1 centres and focus on site issues. For us, ATLAS computing management, it is most useful to realize how each Tier-1 centre is organised, and its relation to the associated Tier-2s; indeed their presence at these visits is also very useful. We hope it is also useful for sites... at least, we are told so! The usual participation includes, from the ATLAS side: computing management, operations, data placement, resources, accounting and database deployment coordinators; and from the Tier-1 side: computer centre management, system managers, Grid infrastructure people, network, storage and database experts, local ATLAS liaison people and representatives of the associated Tier-2s. Visiting Tier-1 centres (1-4). ...

  14. Tenet: An Architecture for Tiered Embedded Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh Govindan; Eddie Kohler; Deborah Estrin; Fang Bian; Krishna Chintalapudi; Om Gnawali; Sumit Rangwala; Ramakrishna Gummadi; Thanos Stathopoulos

    2005-01-01

    Future large-scale sensor network deployments will be tiered, with the motes providing dense sensing and a higher tier of 32-bit master nodes with more powerful radios providing increased overall network capacity. In this paper, we describe a functional architecture for wireless sensor networks that leverages this structure to simplify the overall system. Our Tenet architecture has the nice property that the mote-layer software is generic and reusable, and all application functionality reside...

  15. Detecting the formation of products of radiolysis of tryptophan in foods rich in protein and irradiated with {gamma} rays; Nachweis der Entstehung von Tryptophan-Radiolyseprodukten in {gamma}-bestrahlten eiweissreichen Lebensmitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleeberg, K.K.; Wickern, B. van; Simat, T.J.; Steinhart, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biochemie und Lebensmittelchemie

    1999-07-01

    N-formyl kynurenine (NFK), OIA and the four hydroxytryptophan isomers (4-, 5-, 6- and 7-OH-TRP) were found as the major radiolysis products in {gamma}-ray irradiated solutions containing tryptophan, in tripeptides and lysozyme. Their identification was achieved by enzymatic hydrolysis with pronase E under mild conditions (40 C, 30-60 min), applying electrochemical methods and RP-HPLC and uv fluroscence methods. Highly significant dissimilarity of results was shown for all the radiolysis products found in the specimens irradiated with 1.3 or 5 kGy and in non-irradiated samples. For release of the radiolysis products from protein-rich foods (egg white, white chicken meat, North Sea shrimps), a two-stage enzymatic hydrolytic process was developed, using proteinase K and carboxypeptidase A for egg white and chicken meat, and proteinase K and pronase E for the shrimps. The four OH-TRP isomers could be detected and quantified in all specimens. The contents varied from 0.02 to 1.97 mg/kg of proteine. Significant deviation of results between irradiated and non-irradiated specimens of egg white and chicken meat could be detected as from an applied dose of 3 kGy. In the shrimps, deviations were evident only at applied doses of 5 kGy. (orig./CB) [German] N-Formylkynurenin (NFK), Oxindolylalanin (OIA) und die vier Hydroxytryptophan-Isomere (4-, 5-, 6- und 7-OH-TRP) wurden als Hauptradiolyseprodukte in {gamma}-bestrahlten tryptophanhaltigen Loesungen, Tripeptiden und Lysozym nachgewiesen. Die Bestimmung erfolgte nach enzymatischer Hydrolyse mit Pronase E unter milden Bedingungen (40 C, 30-60 min) mittels RP-HPLC und UV-Fluoreszenz- und elektrochemischer Detektion. Fuer alle Radiolyseprodukte ergebben sich hochsignifikante Unterschiede zwischen den mit 1, 3 oder 5 kGy bestrahlten Proben und unbestrahlten Vergleichsproben. Zur Freisetzung der Radiolyseprodukte aus eiweissreichen Lebensmitteln (Huehnereiklar, Huehnerbrustfleisch, Nordseegarnelen) wurde eine zweistufige

  16. Revitalizing Tier 2 Intervention with Graphic Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Linda; Grisham, Dana L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore the practice of incorporating graphic novels in a Tier 2 Response To Intervention (RTI) program for five elementary-aged struggling readers in an urban school. Using a formative experiment framework, the study found that graphic novels provided a vehicle for the application of word recognition and fluency strategies learned in…

  17. Tier 3 Certification Fuel Impacts Test Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent Tier 3 regulations for light duty vehicles introduced a new certification fuel designed to be more characteristic of current market fuels. A laboratory test program was conducted to measure differences in CO2 and fuel economy between the current and future certificatio...

  18. Report on Tier-0 Scaling Tests

    CERN Document Server

    M. Branco; L. Goossens; A. Nairz

    To get prepared for handling the enormous data rates and volumes during LHC operation, ATLAS is currently running so-called Tier-0 Scaling Tests, which were started beginning of November and will last until Christmas. These tests are carried out in the context of LCG (LHC Computing Grid) Service Challenge 3 (SC3), a joint exercise of CERN IT and the LHC experiments to test the infrastructure of computing, network, and data management, in particular for its architecture, scalabilty and readiness for LHC data taking. ATLAS has adopted a multi-Tier hierarchical model to organise the workflow, with dedicated tasks to be performed at the individual levels in the Tier hierarchy. The Tier-0 centre located at CERN will be responsible for performing a first-pass reconstruction of the data arriving from the Event Filter farm, thus producing Event Summary Data (ESDs), Analysis Object Data (AODs) and event Tags, for processing calibration and alignment information, for archiving both raw and reconstructed data, and for ...

  19. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program Tier 1 Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has completed weight-of-evidence (WoE) assessments under the Endocrine Distruptor Screening Program (EDSP) for 52 pesticides included in the final list of chemicals for Tier 1 screening. See weight of evidence reports and data evaluation records.

  20. 76 FR 71623 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for...). Tier 2 taxes on railroad employees, employers, and employee representatives are one source of funding...

  1. 75 FR 73166 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service, Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for...). Tier 2 taxes on railroad employees, employers, and employee representatives are one source of funding...

  2. 78 FR 71039 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Publication of the tier 2 tax rates for...). Tier 2 taxes on railroad employees, employers, and employee representatives are one source of funding...

  3. 47 CFR 76.987 - New product tiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New product tiers. 76.987 Section 76.987... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.987 New product tiers. (a) Operators may establish a category of CPSTs, referred to as “new product tiers” (“NPTs”), and offer these tiers to subscribers at...

  4. Breaks Are Better: A Tier II Social Behavior Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, R. Justin; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    Multi-tiered systems of social behavioral support in schools provide varying levels of intervention matched to student need. Tier I (primary or universal) systems are for all students and are designed to promote pro-social behavior. Tier III (tertiary or intensive) supports are for students who engage in serious challenging behavior that has not…

  5. 26 CFR 1.1446-5 - Tiered partnership structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... defined in § 1.1446-4(b)(1)). (2) Lower-tier publicly traded partnership. The look through rules of... 26 Internal Revenue 12 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tiered partnership structures. 1.1446-5 Section...-Free Covenant Bonds § 1.1446-5 Tiered partnership structures. (a) In general. The rules of this section...

  6. ACHIEVING TIER 4 EMISSIONS IN BIOMASS COOKSTOVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchese, Anthony [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); DeFoort, Morgan [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Gao, Xinfeng [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Tryner, Jessica [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States); Dryer, Frederick [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Haas, Francis [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Lorenz, Nathan [Envirofit International

    2018-03-13

    Previous literature on top-lit updraft (TLUD) gasifier cookstoves suggested that these stoves have the potential to be the lowest emitting biomass cookstove. However, the previous literature also demonstrated a high degree of variability in TLUD emissions and performance, and a lack of general understanding of the TLUD combustion process. The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the combustion process in TLUD cookstoves. In a TLUD, biomass is gasified and the resulting producer gas is burned in a secondary flame located just above the fuel bed. The goal of this project is to enable the design of a more robust TLUD that consistently meets Tier 4 performance targets through a better understanding of the underlying combustion physics. The project featured a combined modeling, experimental and product design/development effort comprised of four different activities: • Development of a model of the gasification process in the biomass fuel bed, • Development of a CFD model of the secondary combustion zone, • Experiments with a modular TLUD test bed to provide information on how stove design, fuel properties, and operating mode influence performance and provide data needed to validate the fuel bed model, • Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) experiments with a two-dimensional optical test bed to provide insight into the flame dynamics in the secondary combustion zone and data to validate the CFD model • Design, development and field testing of a market ready TLUD prototype. Over 180 tests of 40 different configurations of the modular TLUD test bed were performed to demonstrate how stove design, fuel properties and operating mode influences performance, and the conditions under which Tier 4 emissions are obtainable. Images of OH and acetone PLIF were collected at 10 kHz with the optical test bed. The modeling and experimental results informed the design of a TLUD prototype that met Tier 3 to Tier 4 specifications in emissions and Tier 2 in

  7. Tier-1 and Tier-2 real-time analysis experience in CMS Data Challenge 2004

    CERN Document Server

    De Filippis, N; Pierro, A; Silvestris, L; Fanfani, A; Grandi, C; Hernández, J M; Bonacorsi, D; Corvo, M; Fanzago, F

    2005-01-01

    During the CMS Data Challenge 2004 a real-time analysis was attempted at INFN and PIC Tier-1 and Tier-2s in order to test the ability of the instrumented methods to quickly process the data. Several agents and automatic procedures were implemented to perform the analysis at the Tier-1/2 synchronously with the data transfer from Tier-0 at CERN. The system was implemented in the LCG-2 Grid environment and allowed on-the-fly job preparation and subsequent submission to the Resource Broker as new data came along. Running job accessed data from the Storage Elements via remote file protocol, whenever possible, or copying them locally with replica manager commands. Details of the procedures adopted to run the analysis jobs and the expected results are described. An evaluation of the ability of the system to maintain an analysis rate at Tier-1 and Tier-2 comparable with the data transfer rate is also presented. The results on the analysis timeline, the statistics of submitted jobs, the overall efficiency of the GRID ...

  8. Regulatory Compliance in Multi-Tier Supplier Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, Emray R.; Buster, Duke A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, avionics systems have increased in complexity to the point where 1st tier suppliers to an aircraft OEM find it financially beneficial to outsource designs of subsystems to 2nd tier and at times to 3rd tier suppliers. Combined with challenging schedule and budgetary pressures, the environment in which safety-critical systems are being developed introduces new hurdles for regulatory agencies and industry. This new environment of both complex systems and tiered development has raised concerns in the ability of the designers to ensure safety considerations are fully addressed throughout the tier levels. This has also raised questions about the sufficiency of current regulatory guidance to ensure: proper flow down of safety awareness, avionics application understanding at the lower tiers, OEM and 1st tier oversight practices, and capabilities of lower tier suppliers. Therefore, NASA established a research project to address Regulatory Compliance in a Multi-tier Supplier Network. This research was divided into three major study efforts: 1. Describe Modern Multi-tier Avionics Development 2. Identify Current Issues in Achieving Safety and Regulatory Compliance 3. Short-term/Long-term Recommendations Toward Higher Assurance Confidence This report presents our findings of the risks, weaknesses, and our recommendations. It also includes a collection of industry-identified risks, an assessment of guideline weaknesses related to multi-tier development of complex avionics systems, and a postulation of potential modifications to guidelines to close the identified risks and weaknesses.

  9. Tier-3 Monitoring Software Suite (T3MON) proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Andreeva, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Klimentov, A; Korenkov, V; Oleynik, D; Panitkin, S; Petrosyan, A

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing activities concentrated so far in the “central” part of the computing system of the experiment, namely the first 3 tiers (CERN Tier0, the 10 Tier1s centres and the 60+ Tier2s). This is a coherent system to perform data processing and management on a global scale and host (re)processing, simulation activities down to group and user analysis. Many ATLAS Institutes and National Communities built (or have plans to build) Tier-3 facilities. The definition of Tier-3 concept has been outlined (REFERENCE). Tier-3 centres consist of non-pledged resources mostly dedicated for the data analysis by the geographically close or local scientific groups. Tier-3 sites comprise a range of architectures and many do not possess Grid middleware, which would render application of Tier-2 monitoring systems useless. This document describes a strategy to develop a software suite for monitoring of the Tier3 sites. This software suite will enable local monitoring of the Tier3 sites and the global vie...

  10. Experience building and operating the CMS Tier-1 computing centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, M.; Bakken, J.; Bonacorsi, D.; Brew, C.; Charlot, C.; Huang, Chih-Hao; Colling, D.; Dumitrescu, C.; Fagan, D.; Fassi, F.; Fisk, I.; Flix, J.; Giacchetti, L.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Gowdy, S.; Grandi, C.; Gutsche, O.; Hahn, K.; Holzman, B.; Jackson, J.; Kreuzer, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Mason, D.; Pukhaeva, N.; Qin, G.; Quast, G.; Rossman, P.; Sartirana, A.; Scheurer, A.; Schott, G.; Shih, J.; Tader, P.; Thompson, R.; Tiradani, A.; Trunov, A.

    2010-04-01

    The CMS Collaboration relies on 7 globally distributed Tier-1 computing centres located at large universities and national laboratories for a second custodial copy of the CMS RAW data and primary copy of the simulated data, data serving capacity to Tier-2 centres for analysis, and the bulk of the reprocessing and event selection capacity in the experiment. The Tier-1 sites have a challenging role in CMS because they are expected to ingest and archive data from both CERN and regional Tier-2 centres, while they export data to a global mesh of Tier-2s at rates comparable to the raw export data rate from CERN. The combined capacity of the Tier-1 centres is more than twice the resources located at CERN and efficiently utilizing this large distributed resources represents a challenge. In this article we will discuss the experience building, operating, and utilizing the CMS Tier-1 computing centres. We will summarize the facility challenges at the Tier-1s including the stable operations of CMS services, the ability to scale to large numbers of processing requests and large volumes of data, and the ability to provide custodial storage and high performance data serving. We will also present the operations experience utilizing the distributed Tier-1 centres from a distance: transferring data, submitting data serving requests, and submitting batch processing requests.

  11. Future Approach to tier-0 extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.; McCance, G.; Cordeiro, C.; Giordano, D.; Traylen, S.; Moreno García, D.

    2017-10-01

    The current tier-0 processing at CERN is done on two managed sites, the CERN computer centre and the Wigner computer centre. With the proliferation of public cloud resources at increasingly competitive prices, we have been investigating how to transparently increase our compute capacity to include these providers. The approach taken has been to integrate these resources using our existing deployment and computer management tools and to provide them in a way that exposes them to users as part of the same site. The paper will describe the architecture, the toolset and the current production experiences of this model.

  12. Implementation of Grid Tier 2 and Tier 3 facilities on a Distributed OpenStack Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limosani, Antonio; Boland, Lucien; Crosby, Sean; Huang, Joanna; Sevior, Martin; Coddington, Paul; Zhang, Shunde; Wilson, Ross

    2014-01-01

    The Australian Government is making a $AUD 100 million investment in Compute and Storage for the academic community. The Compute facilities are provided in the form of 30,000 CPU cores located at 8 nodes around Australia in a distributed virtualized Infrastructure as a Service facility based on OpenStack. The storage will eventually consist of over 100 petabytes located at 6 nodes. All will be linked via a 100 Gb/s network. This proceeding describes the development of a fully connected WLCG Tier-2 grid site as well as a general purpose Tier-3 computing cluster based on this architecture. The facility employs an extension to Torque to enable dynamic allocations of virtual machine instances. A base Scientific Linux virtual machine (VM) image is deployed in the OpenStack cloud and automatically configured as required using Puppet. Custom scripts are used to launch multiple VMs, integrate them into the dynamic Torque cluster and to mount remote file systems. We report on our experience in developing this nation-wide ATLAS and Belle II Tier 2 and Tier 3 computing infrastructure using the national Research Cloud and storage facilities.

  13. 47 CFR 76.922 - Rates for the basic service tier and cable programming services tiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., the system does not change the rate for, or restructure in any fashion, any program service or... changes, plus projections, in those external costs that occurred or will occur in the relevant time... times the change in the number of channels on that tier. The result is the total adjustment for that...

  14. Synthetic aperture radar processing with tiered subapertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, A. W.

    1994-06-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is used to form images that are maps of radar reflectivity of some scene of interest, from range soundings taken over some spatial aperture. Additionally, the range soundings are typically synthesized from a sampled frequency aperture. Efficient processing of the collected data necessitates using efficient digital signal processing techniques such as vector multiplies and fast implementations of the discrete fourier transform. Inherent in image formation algorithms that use these is a trade-off between the size of the scene that can be acceptably imaged and the resolution with which the image can be made. These limits arise from migration errors and spatially variant phase errors, and different algorithms mitigate these to varying degrees. Two fairly successful algorithms for airborne SARs are polar format processing and overlapped subaperture (OSA) processing. This report introduces and summarizes the analysis of generalized tiered subaperture (TSA) techniques that are a superset of both polar format processing and OSA processing. It is shown how tiers of subapertures in both azimuth and range can effectively mitigate both migration errors and spatially variant phase errors to allow virtually arbitrary scene sizes, even in a dynamic motion environment.

  15. 77 FR 71481 - Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service Publication of the Tier 2 Tax Rates AGENCY... tax rates for calendar year 2013 as required by section 3241(d) of the Internal Revenue Code (26 U.S.C. 3241). Tier 2 taxes on railroad employees, employers, and employee representatives are one source of...

  16. The Taxation Implicit in Two-Tiered Exchange Rate Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    A two-tiered exchange rate system can be interpreted as a set of separate taxes on money and other financial assets.If the official two-tiered exchange rate system coexists with a black market for foreign exchange, then there is an implicit taxation of international goods trade as well.This paper

  17. Experience Building and Operating the CMS Tier-1 Computing Centres

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, M; Bonacorsi, D; Brew, C; Charlot, C; Huang, Chih-Hao; Colling, D; Dumitrescu, C; Fagan, D; Fassi, F; Fisk, I; Flix, J; Giacchetti, L; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Gowdy, S; Grandi, C; Gutsche, O; Hahn, K; Holzman, B; Jackson, J; Kreuzer, P; Kuo, C M; Mason, D; Pukhaeva, N; Qin, G; Quast, G; Rossman, P; Sartirana, A; Scheurer, A; Schott, G; Shih, J; Tader, P; Thompson, R; Tiradani, A; Trunov, A

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Collaboration relies on 7 globally distributed Tier-1 computing centres located at large universities and national laboratories for a second custodial copy of the CMS RAW data and primary copy of the simulated data, data serving capacity to Tier-2 centres for analysis, and the bulk of the reprocessing and event selection capacity in the experiment. The Tier-1 sites have a challenging role in CMS because they are expected to ingest and archive data from both CERN and regional Tier-2 centres, while they export data to a global mesh of Tier-2s at rates comparable to the raw export data rate from CERN. The combined capacity of the Tier-1 centres is more than twice the resources located at CERN and efficiently utilizing this large distributed resources represents a challenge. In this article we will discuss the experience building, operating, and utilizing the CMS Tier-1 computing centres. We will summarize the facility challenges at the Tier-1s including the stable operations of CMS services, the ability ...

  18. 47 CFR 76.1605 - New product tier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New product tier. 76.1605 Section 76.1605... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1605 New product tier. (a) Within 30 days of the offering of an NPT, operators shall file with the Commission a copy of the new rate card that contains the following...

  19. Illustrative Example of Distributed Analysis in ATLAS Spanish Tier-2 and Tier-3 centers

    CERN Document Server

    Oliver, E; The ATLAS collaboration; González de la Hoz, S; Kaci, M; Lamas, A; Salt, J; Sánchez, J; Villaplana, M

    2011-01-01

    Data taking in ATLAS has been going on for more than one year. The necessity of a computing infrastructure for data storage, access for thousands of users and process of hundreds of million of events has been confirmed in this period. Fortunately, this task has been managed by the GRID infrastructure and the manpower that also has been developing specific GRID tools for the ATLAS community. An example of a physics analysis, searches for the decay of a heavy resonance into a ttbar pair, using this infrastructure is shown. Concretely using the ATLAS Spanish Tier-2 and the IFIC Tier-3. In this moment, the ATLAS Distributed Computing group is working to improve the connectivity among centers in order to be ready for the foreseen increase on the ATLAS activity in the next years.

  20. Search-based Tier Assignment for Optimising Offline Availability in Multi-tier Web Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Philips, Laure; De Koster, Joeri; De Meuter, Wolfgang; De Roover, Coen

    2017-01-01

    Web programmers are often faced with several challenges in the development process of modern, rich internet applications. Technologies for the different tiers of the application have to be selected: a server-side language, a combination of JavaScript, HTML and CSS for the client, and a database technology. Meeting the expectations of contemporary web applications requires even more effort from the developer: many state of the art libraries must be mastered and glued together. This leads to an...

  1. Status and Trends in Networking at LHC Tier1 Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobyshev, A.; DeMar, P.; Grigaliunas, V.; Bigrow, J.; Hoeft, B.; Reymund, A.

    2012-12-01

    The LHC is entering its fourth year of production operation. Most Tier1 facilities have been in operation for almost a decade, when development and ramp-up efforts are included. LHC's distributed computing model is based on the availability of high capacity, high performance network facilities for both the WAN and LAN data movement, particularly within the Tier1 centers. As a result, the Tier1 centers tend to be on the leading edge of data center networking technology. In this paper, we analyze past and current developments in Tier1 LAN networking, as well as extrapolating where we anticipate networking technology is heading. Our analysis will include examination into the following areas: • Evolution of Tier1 centers to their current state • Evolving data center networking models and how they apply to Tier1 centers • Impact of emerging network technologies (e.g. 10GE-connected hosts, 40GE/100GE links, IPv6) on Tier1 centers • Trends in WAN data movement and emergence of software-defined WAN network capabilities • Network virtualization

  2. Status and Trends in Networking at LHC Tier1 Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobyshev, A; DeMar, P; Grigaliunas, V; Bigrow, J; Hoeft, B; Reymund, A

    2012-01-01

    The LHC is entering its fourth year of production operation. Most Tier1 facilities have been in operation for almost a decade, when development and ramp-up efforts are included. LHC's distributed computing model is based on the availability of high capacity, high performance network facilities for both the WAN and LAN data movement, particularly within the Tier1 centers. As a result, the Tier1 centers tend to be on the leading edge of data center networking technology. In this paper, we analyze past and current developments in Tier1 LAN networking, as well as extrapolating where we anticipate networking technology is heading. Our analysis will include examination into the following areas: • Evolution of Tier1 centers to their current state • Evolving data center networking models and how they apply to Tier1 centers • Impact of emerging network technologies (e.g. 10GE-connected hosts, 40GE/100GE links, IPv6) on Tier1 centers • Trends in WAN data movement and emergence of software-defined WAN network capabilities • Network virtualization

  3. Status and trends in networking at LHC Tier1 facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobyshev, A. [Fermilab; DeMar, P. [Fermilab; Grigaliunas, V. [Fermilab; Bigrow, J. [Brookhaven; Hoeft, B. [KIT, Karlsruhe; Reymund, A. [KIT, Karlsruhe

    2012-06-22

    The LHC is entering its fourth year of production operation. Most Tier1 facilities have been in operation for almost a decade, when development and ramp-up efforts are included. LHC's distributed computing model is based on the availability of high capacity, high performance network facilities for both the WAN and LAN data movement, particularly within the Tier1 centers. As a result, the Tier1 centers tend to be on the leading edge of data center networking technology. In this paper, we analyze past and current developments in Tier1 LAN networking, as well as extrapolating where we anticipate networking technology is heading. Our analysis will include examination into the following areas: Evolution of Tier1 centers to their current state Evolving data center networking models and how they apply to Tier1 centers Impact of emerging network technologies (e.g. 10GE-connected hosts, 40GE/100GE links, IPv6) on Tier1 centers Trends in WAN data movement and emergence of software-defined WAN network capabilities Network virtualization

  4. Tiered gasoline pricing: A personal carbon trading perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yao; Fan, Jin; Zhao, Dingtao; Wu, Yanrui; Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proffers a tiered gasoline pricing method from a personal carbon trading perspective. An optimization model of personal carbon trading is proposed, and then, an equilibrium carbon price is derived according to the market clearing condition. Based on the derived equilibrium carbon price, this paper proposes a calculation method of tiered gasoline pricing. Then, sensitivity analyses and consumers' surplus analyses are conducted. It can be shown that a rise in gasoline price or a more generous allowance allocation would incur a decrease in the equilibrium carbon price, making the first tiered price higher, but the second tiered price lower. It is further verified that the proposed tiered pricing method is progressive because it would relieve the pressure of the low-income groups who consume less gasoline while imposing a greater burden on the high-income groups who consume more gasoline. Based on these results, implications, limitations and suggestions for future studies are provided. - Highlights: • Tiered gasoline pricing is calculated from the perspective of PCT. • Consumers would be burdened with different actual gasoline costs. • A specific example is provided to illustrate the calculation of TGP. • The tiered pricing mechanism is a progressive system.

  5. Panel Estimates of a Two-Tiered Earnings Frontier.

    OpenAIRE

    Polachek, Solomon W; Yoon, Bong Joon

    1996-01-01

    This paper uses panel data to estimate a two-tiered instead of a one-tiered frontier model. The innovation is to develop a two-step maximum likelihood procedure yielding consistent estimates of inefficiency, while at the same time accounting for heterogeneity. The model is applied by estimating a 'two-tiered' earnings function to obtain indices of worker and firm incomplete labour market wage information using panel data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1969-84). The estimation preser...

  6. Which Tier? Effects of Linear Assessment and Student Characteristics on GCSE Entry Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello, Sylvia; Crawford, Cara

    2018-01-01

    In England, students obtain General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) qualifications, typically at age 16. Certain GCSEs are tiered; students take either higher-level (higher tier) or lower-level (foundation tier) exams, which may have different educational, career and psychological consequences. In particular, foundation tier entry, if…

  7. ATLAS Off-Grid sites (Tier-3) monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Petrosyan, A S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment on Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The experiment produces petabytes of data every year. The ATLAS Computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and originally included three levels of computing centers to be able to operate such large volume of data. The ATLAS Distributed Computing activities concentrated so far in the “central” part of the computing system of the experiment, namely the first 3 tiers (CERN Tier-0, the 10 Tier-1s centers and about 50 Tier-2s). This is a coherent system to perform data processing and management on a global scale and host (re)processing, simulation activities down to group and user analysis. With the formation of small computing centers, usually based at universities, the model was expanded to include them as Tier-3 sites. Tier-3 centers consist of non-pledged resources mostly dedicated for the data analysis by the geographically close or local scientific groups. The experiment supplies all necessary software to operate typical Grid-site, ...

  8. 40 CFR 86.1860-04 - How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards. 86.1860-04 Section 86.1860-04 Protection of Environment... § 86.1860-04 How to comply with the Tier 2 and interim non-Tier 2 fleet average NOX standards. (a) The fleet average standards referred to in this section are the corporate fleet average standards for FTP...

  9. Unified storage systems for distributed Tier-2 centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, G A; Stewart, G A; Elwell, A

    2008-01-01

    The start of data taking at the Large Hadron Collider will herald a new era in data volumes and distributed processing in particle physics. Data volumes of hundreds of Terabytes will be shipped to Tier-2 centres for analysis by the LHC experiments using the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG). In many countries Tier-2 centres are distributed between a number of institutes, e.g., the geographically spread Tier-2s of GridPP in the UK. This presents a number of challenges for experiments to utilise these centres efficaciously, as CPU and storage resources may be subdivided and exposed in smaller units than the experiment would ideally want to work with. In addition, unhelpful mismatches between storage and CPU at the individual centres may be seen, which make efficient exploitation of a Tier-2's resources difficult. One method of addressing this is to unify the storage across a distributed Tier-2, presenting the centres' aggregated storage as a single system. This greatly simplifies data management for the VO, which then can access a greater amount of data across the Tier-2. However, such an approach will lead to scenarios where analysis jobs on one site's batch system must access data hosted on another site. We investigate this situation using the Glasgow and Edinburgh clusters, which are part of the ScotGrid distributed Tier-2. In particular we look at how to mitigate the problems associated with 'distant' data access and discuss the security implications of having LAN access protocols traverse the WAN between centres

  10. The Legnaro-Padova distributed Tier-2: challenges and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badoer, Simone; Biasotto, Massimo; Costa, Fulvia; Crescente, Alberto; Fantinel, Sergio; Ferrari, Roberto; Gulmini, Michele; Maron, Gaetano; Michelotto, Michele; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Toniolo, Nicola

    2014-06-01

    The Legnaro-Padova Tier-2 is a computing facility serving the ALICE and CMS LHC experiments. It also supports other High Energy Physics experiments and other virtual organizations of different disciplines, which can opportunistically harness idle resources if available. The unique characteristic of this Tier-2 is its topology: the computational resources are spread in two different sites, about 15 km apart: the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories and the INFN Padova unit, connected through a 10 Gbps network link (it will be soon updated to 20 Gbps). Nevertheless these resources are seamlessly integrated and are exposed as a single computing facility. Despite this intrinsic complexity, the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2 ranks among the best Grid sites for what concerns reliability and availability. The Tier-2 comprises about 190 worker nodes, providing about 26000 HS06 in total. Such computing nodes are managed by the LSF local resource management system, and are accessible using a Grid-based interface implemented through multiple CREAM CE front-ends. dCache, xrootd and Lustre are the storage systems in use at the Tier-2: about 1.5 PB of disk space is available to users in total, through multiple access protocols. A 10 Gbps network link, planned to be doubled in the next months, connects the Tier-2 to WAN. This link is used for the LHC Open Network Environment (LHCONE) and for other general purpose traffic. In this paper we discuss about the experiences at the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2: the problems that had to be addressed, the lessons learned, the implementation choices. We also present the tools used for the daily management operations. These include DOCET, a Java-based webtool designed, implemented and maintained at the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2, and deployed also in other sites, such as the LHC Italian T1. DOCET provides an uniform interface to manage all the information about the physical resources of a computing center. It is also used as documentation repository available to

  11. The Legnaro-Padova distributed Tier-2: challenges and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badoer, Simone; Biasotto, Massimo; Fantinel, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The Legnaro-Padova Tier-2 is a computing facility serving the ALICE and CMS LHC experiments. It also supports other High Energy Physics experiments and other virtual organizations of different disciplines, which can opportunistically harness idle resources if available. The unique characteristic of this Tier-2 is its topology: the computational resources are spread in two different sites, about 15 km apart: the INFN Legnaro National Laboratories and the INFN Padova unit, connected through a 10 Gbps network link (it will be soon updated to 20 Gbps). Nevertheless these resources are seamlessly integrated and are exposed as a single computing facility. Despite this intrinsic complexity, the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2 ranks among the best Grid sites for what concerns reliability and availability. The Tier-2 comprises about 190 worker nodes, providing about 26000 HS06 in total. Such computing nodes are managed by the LSF local resource management system, and are accessible using a Grid-based interface implemented through multiple CREAM CE front-ends. dCache, xrootd and Lustre are the storage systems in use at the Tier-2: about 1.5 PB of disk space is available to users in total, through multiple access protocols. A 10 Gbps network link, planned to be doubled in the next months, connects the Tier-2 to WAN. This link is used for the LHC Open Network Environment (LHCONE) and for other general purpose traffic. In this paper we discuss about the experiences at the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2: the problems that had to be addressed, the lessons learned, the implementation choices. We also present the tools used for the daily management operations. These include DOCET, a Java-based webtool designed, implemented and maintained at the Legnaro-Padova Tier-2, and deployed also in other sites, such as the LHC Italian T1. DOCET provides an uniform interface to manage all the information about the physical resources of a computing center. It is also used as documentation repository available to

  12. Optimization of HEP Analysis Activities Using a Tier2 Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arezzini, S; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Ciampa, A; Mazzoni, E; Coscetti, S; Sarkar, S; Taneja, S

    2012-01-01

    While the model for a Tier2 is well understood and implemented within the HEP Community, a refined design for Analysis specific sites has not been agreed upon as clearly. We aim to describe the solutions adopted at the INFN Pisa, the biggest Tier2 in the Italian HEP Community. A Standard Tier2 infrastructure is optimized for Grid CPU and Storage access, while a more interactive oriented use of the resources is beneficial to the final data analysis step. In this step, POSIX file storage access is easier for the average physicist, and has to be provided in a real or emulated way. Modern analysis techniques use advanced statistical tools (like RooFit and RooStat), which can make use of multi core systems. The infrastructure has to provide or create on demand computing nodes with many cores available, above the existing and less elastic Tier2 flat CPU infrastructure. At last, the users do not want to have to deal with data placement policies at the various sites, and hence a transparent WAN file access, again with a POSIX layer, must be provided, making use of the soon-to-be-installed 10 Gbit/s regional lines. Even if standalone systems with such features are possible and exist, the implementation of an Analysis site as a virtual layer over an existing Tier2 requires novel solutions; the ones used in Pisa are described here.

  13. The ATLAS Tier-0: Overview and operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsing, Markus; Goossens, Luc; Nairz, Armin; Negri, Guido

    2010-01-01

    Within the ATLAS hierarchical, multi-tier computing infrastructure, the Tier-0 centre at CERN is mainly responsible for prompt processing of the raw data coming from the online DAQ system, to archive the raw and derived data on tape, to register the data with the relevant catalogues and to distribute them to the associated Tier-1 centers. The Tier-0 is already fully functional. It has been successfully participating in all cosmic and commissioning data taking since May 2007, and was ramped up to its foreseen full size, performance and throughput for the cosmic (and short single-beam) run periods between July and October 2008. Data and work flows for collision data taking were exercised in several 'Full Dress Rehearsals' (FDRs) in the course of 2008. The transition from an expert to a shifter-based system was successfully established in July 2008. This article will give an overview of the Tier-0 system, its data and work flows, and operations model. It will review the operational experience gained in cosmic, commissioning, and FDR exercises during the past year. And it will give an outlook on planned developments and the evolution of the system towards first collision data taking expected now in late Autumn 2009.

  14. Preprocessing in a Tiered Sensor Network for Habitat Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbiao Wang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate task decomposition and collaboration in a two-tiered sensor network for habitat monitoring. The system recognizes and localizes a specified type of birdcalls. The system has a few powerful macronodes in the first tier, and many less powerful micronodes in the second tier. Each macronode combines data collected by multiple micronodes for target classification and localization. We describe two types of lightweight preprocessing which significantly reduce data transmission from micronodes to macronodes. Micronodes classify events according to their cross-zero rates and discard irrelevant events. Data about events of interest is reduced and compressed before being transmitted to macronodes for target localization. Preliminary experiments illustrate the effectiveness of event filtering and data reduction at micronodes.

  15. [Discussing a "two-tiered medical system": a statement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehring, F Schulze; Weber, Ch

    2008-12-01

    The criticism of a "two-tiered medical system" is a political slogan, which is also not exactly defined. However, for the public discussion this is not of further importance because talking about a "two-tiered medical system" has a priori a negative impact; in particular in times when people's fears surrounding medical care in Germany are great. Especially in a public health insurance system, insured people worry that in the future they will only receive the most essential medical services, rather than all services that are deemed reasonable and medically appropriate. One of the central themes in the discussion of a "two-tiered medical system" that causes disputes (or animosity) between privately and publicly insured persons arises when comparing differences in waiting periods to see a doctor and additional medical treatments made available to the privately insured. Critics of the "two-tiered medical system" envision a "one-tiered medical system"; one in which every person receives uniform healthcare, and in which the "purchase" of additional medical treatments is not permitted. However, the "one-tiered medical system" remains a theoretical construct. Service differences based on price differences are the reality. So the problem of the "two-tiered medical system" manifests itself only when those services that go beyond the basic care (privately offered services) negatively impact basic care, and/or displace basic care offerings. An example of this would be when a publicly insured patient has to wait longer to see a doctor because preference is given to privately insured patients. Economically speaking, negative external effects come into play. This causality has not been found or proven to be present in the German healthcare system. It exists neither in the inpatient nor in the outpatient healthcare sector. There is no basis to the claim that there is a difference in treatment favouring private patients with detrimental effects to non-privately insured patients

  16. Spanish ATLAS Tier-2: facing up to LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; Fassi, Farida; Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; Kaci, Mohammed; Lacort Pellicer, Victor Ruben; Montiel Gonzalez, Almudena Del Rocio; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Salt, José; Villaplana Perez, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is to describe the way of addressing the main challenges of Run-2 by the Spanish ATLAS Tier-2. The considerable increase of energy and luminosity for the upcoming Run-2 with respect to Run-1 has led to a revision of the ATLAS computing model as well as some of the main ATLAS computing tools. The adaptation on these changes will be shown, with the peculiarities that it is a distributed Tier-2 composed of three sites and its members are involved on ATLAS computing tasks with a hub of research, innovation and education.

  17. Seasonal rainfall prediction skill over South Africa: one- versus two-tiered forecasting systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Forecast performance by coupled ocean–atmosphere or one-tiered models predicting seasonal rainfall totals over South Africa is compared with forecasts produced by computationally less demanding two-tiered systems where prescribed sea surface...

  18. Design of multi-tiered database application based on CORBA component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiaoying; Dai Zhimin

    2003-01-01

    As computer technology quickly developing, middleware technology changed traditional two-tier database system. The multi-tiered database system, consisting of client application program, application servers and database serves, is mainly applying. While building multi-tiered database system using CORBA component has become the mainstream technique. In this paper, an example of DUV-FEL database system is presented, and then discuss the realization of multi-tiered database based on CORBA component. (authors)

  19. Home/community-based services: a two-tier approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, H J; Zarski, J J; Bixenstine, C; Cibik, P

    1991-07-01

    A two-tier model for work with high-risk families is presented. It combines multiple-family groups in the community with home-based family therapy for individual families. The ecostructural conceptual framework of the model is discussed, and its application is illustrated by a case vignette.

  20. Using Tiered Assignments to Engage Learners in Advanced Placement Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents lesson plans that incorporate tiered objectives and brainstorming techniques as means for differentiating instruction and ensuring that learners are challenged at levels commensurate with their abilities even though they are developing an understanding of the same physics concepts. A listing of materials and resources…

  1. Caesarean delivery in urban second tier missionary hospital in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the current trend of Caesarean and highlight the role of a major operative obstetric practice in materno-foetal medicine. Design: Descriptive case study. Setting: St Philomena Catholic Hospital (SPCH), an urban second tier missionary hospital. Subjects: One thousand and fourteen (1014) Caesarean ...

  2. Communication costs in a multi-tiered MPSoC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Burgwal, M.D.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2008-01-01

    The amount of digital processing required for phased array beamformers is very large. It requires many parallel processors, which can be organized in a multi-tiered structure. Communication costs differ for each of the stages in such an architecture. For example, communication costs from the antenna

  3. Poseidon: A 2-tier Anomaly-based Intrusion Detection System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2005-01-01

    We present Poseidon, a new anomaly based intrusion detection system. Poseidon is payload-based, and presents a two-tier architecture: the first stage consists of a Self-Organizing Map, while the second one is a modified PAYL system. Our benchmarks on the 1999 DARPA data set show a higher detection

  4. Patch diameter limits for tiered subaperture SAR image formation algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerry, Armin W.

    1995-06-01

    Synthetic aperture radar image formation algorithms typically use transform techniques that often require trading between image resolution, algorithm efficiency, and focused image scene size limits. This is due to assumptions for the data such as simplified (often straight-line) flight paths, simplified imaging geometry, and simplified models for phase functions. Many errors in such assumptions are typically untreatable due to their dependance on both data domain positions and image domain positions. The result is that large scenes often require inefficient multiple image formation iterations, followed by a mosaicking operation of the focused image patches. One class of image formation algorithms that perform favorably divides the spatial and frequency apertures into subapertures, and perhaps those subapertures into sub- subapertures, and so on, in a tiered subaperture fashion. This allows a gradual shift from data domain into image domain that allows correcting many types of errors that limit other image formation algorithms, even in a dynamic motion environment, thereby allowing large focused image patches without mosaicking. This paper presents and compared focused patch diameter limits for tiered subaperture image formation algorithms, for various numbers of tiers of subapertures. Examples are given that show orders-of-magnitude improvement in non- mosaicked focused image patch size over traditional polar format processing, and that patch size limits increase with the number of tiers of subapertures, although with diminishing returns.

  5. Multi-tiered sports arbitrations in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galantić Miloš B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to popular perception of the legal profession, multi-tier arbitrations are neither new, nor uncommon phenomenon. With growing need of the community to arbitration becomes real, not just theoretical, alternative to judicial resolution of disputes, arbitration accepts more judicial characteristics, among which is one of the most important and at the same time controversial - multi-tiered dispute resolution. Multi-tiered arbitration proceeding is traditionally present in commercial and investment arbitrations. However, in recent decades, significant international arbitration institutions introduced the option for consensual review of arbitration awards. Sports law is an area where, by the end of the twentieth century, the phenomenon was unnoticed present. The international sports community, as a precondition for the survival of autonomous settlement of disputes, choose dispute settlement by arbitration, but with a number of significant modifications. One of the most specific is multi-tiered arbitration, especially regarding the most important cases. The main reason for such behaviour is the aspiration of the international sports community, following the example of national courts, to organize efficient, quality and final way of resolving disputes within its jurisdiction. Permanent Court of arbitration of the Olympic Committee of Serbia follows the mentioned logic, thanks to the provisions of the Sports Act and contrary to the Arbitration act, and introduces the possibility of reviewing its decision in front of the Court of arbitration for sport based in Lausanne.

  6. Building a Tier 2 Intervention: A Glimpse behind the Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth S.; Goldstein, Howard

    2014-01-01

    This article highlights the development process and data-driven decisions that characterized a 5-year iterative process of development and evaluation of a Tier 2 early language curriculum, "Story Friends." This curriculum was specifically designed to be effective and feasible for high fidelity implementation in preschool settings.…

  7. How two-tier boards can be more effective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Stefan Peij; Pieter-Jan Bezemer; Laura de Kruijs; Gregory Maassen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – This study seeks to explore how non-executive directors address governance problems on Dutch two-tier boards. Within this board model, challenges might be particularly difficult to address due to the formal separation of management boards' decision-management from supervisory boards'

  8. Lessons Learned from a Tiered Service Delivery Implementation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Evelyn S.; Pool, Juli L.; Carter, Deborah R.

    2012-01-01

    Tiered models of service delivery for both academics and behavior are being increasingly adopted across the nation, and discussions of how to implement these models effectively and simultaneously are growing. In this article, the authors share some lessons learned from a 2-year implementation project to implement a comprehensive (both academic and…

  9. Use of Self-Monitoring to Maintain Program Fidelity of Multi-Tiered Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. Ron; Oliver, Regina M.; Hebert, Michael A.; Bohaty, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Multi-tiered system of supports represents one of the most significant advancements in improving the outcomes of students for whom typical instruction is not effective. While many practices need to be in place to make multi-tiered systems of support effective, accurate implementation of evidence-based practices by individuals at all tiers is…

  10. Evolution of the ATLAS data and computing model for a Tier2 in the EGI infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández Casaní, A; The ATLAS collaboration; González de la Hoz, S; Salt Cairols, J; Fassi, F; Kaci, M; Lamas, A; Oliver, E; Sánchez, J; Sánchez, V

    2012-01-01

    Since the start of the LHC pp collisions in 2010, the ATLAS computing model has moved from a more strict design, where every Tier2 had a liaison and a network dependence from a Tier1, to a more meshed approach where every cloud could be connected. Evolution of ATLAS data models requires changes in ATLAS Tier2s policy for the data replication, dynamic data caching and remote data access. It also requires rethinking the network infrastructure to enable any Tier2 and associated Tier3 to easily connect to any Tier1 or Tier2. Tier2s are becoming more and more important in the ATLAS computing model as it allows more data to be readily accessible for analysis jobs to all users, independently of their geographical location. The Tier2s disk space has been reserved for real, simulated, calibration and alignment, group, and user data. A buffer disk space is needed for input and output data for simulations jobs. Tier2s are going to be used more efficiently. In this way Tier1s and Tier2s are becoming more equivalent for t...

  11. 25 CFR 542.40 - What is a Tier C gaming operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Tier C gaming operation? 542.40 Section 542.40 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.40 What is a Tier C gaming operation? A Tier C gaming operation is one with annual...

  12. 25 CFR 542.20 - What is a Tier A gaming operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Tier A gaming operation? 542.20 Section 542.20 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.20 What is a Tier A gaming operation? A Tier A gaming operation is one with annual...

  13. 25 CFR 542.30 - What is a Tier B gaming operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is a Tier B gaming operation? 542.30 Section 542.30 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.30 What is a Tier B gaming operation? A Tier B gaming operation is one with gross...

  14. Evolution of the Atlas data and computing model for a Tier-2 in the EGI infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, A; The ATLAS collaboration; AMOROS, G; VILLAPLANA, M; FASSI, F; KACI, M; LAMAS, A; OLIVER, E; SALT, J; SANCHEZ, J; SANCHEZ, V

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRAC ISCG 2012 Evolution of the Atlas data and computing model for a Tier2 in the EGI infrastructure During last years the Atlas computing model has moved from a more strict design, where every Tier2 had a liaison and a network dependence from a Tier1, to a more meshed approach where every cloud could be connected. Evolution of ATLAS data models requires changes in ATLAS Tier2s policy for the data replication, dynamic data caching and remote data access. It also requires rethinking the network infrastructure to enable any Tier2 and associated Tier3 to easily connect to any Tier1 or Tier2. Tier2s are becoming more and more important in the ATLAS computing model as it allows more data to be readily accessible for analysis jobs to all users, independently of their geographical location. The Tier2s disk space has been reserved for real, simulated, calibration and alignment, group, and user data. A buffer disk space is needed for input and output data for simulations jobs. Tier2s are going to be used more effic...

  15. Acute tier-1 and tier-2 effect assessment approaches in the EFSA Aquatic Guidance Document: are they sufficiently protective for insecticides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, René P A; Maltby, Lorraine; Brock, Theo C M

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate whether the acute tier-1 and tier-2 methods as proposed by the Aquatic Guidance Document recently published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) are appropriate for deriving regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) for insecticides. The tier-1 and tier-2 RACs were compared with RACs based on threshold concentrations from micro/mesocosm studies (ETO-RAC). A lower-tier RAC was considered as sufficiently protective, if less than the corresponding ETO-RAC. ETO-RACs were calculated for repeated (n = 13) and/or single pulsed applications (n = 17) of 26 insecticides to micro/mesocosms, giving a maximum of 30 insecticide × application combinations (i.e. cases) for comparison. Acute tier-1 RACs (for 24 insecticides) were lower than the corresponding ETO-RACs in 27 out of 29 cases, while tier-2 Geom-RACs (for 23 insecticides) were lower in 24 out of 26 cases. The tier-2 SSD-RAC (for 21 insecticides) using HC5 /3 was lower than the ETO-RAC in 23 out of 27 cases, whereas the tier-2 SSD-RAC using HC5 /6 was protective in 25 out of 27 cases. The tier-1 and tier-2 approaches proposed by EFSA for acute effect assessment are sufficiently protective for the majority of insecticides evaluated. Further evaluation may be needed for insecticides with more novel chemistries (neonicotinoids, biopesticides) and compounds that show delayed effects (insect growth regulators). © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Examining the Efficacy of a Tier 2 Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ben; Doabler, Christian T; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K; Fien, Hank; Strand Cary, Mari

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics intervention program, ROOTS, focused on developing whole number understanding for students at risk in mathematics. A total of 29 classrooms were randomly assigned to treatment (ROOTS) or control (standard district practices) conditions. Measures of mathematics achievement were collected at pretest and posttest. Treatment and control students did not differ on mathematics assessments at pretest. Gain scores of at-risk intervention students were significantly greater than those of control peers, and the gains of at-risk treatment students were greater than the gains of peers not at risk, effectively reducing the achievement gap. Implications for Tier 2 mathematics instruction in a response to intervention (RtI) model are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  17. Mechanical seal having a double-tier mating ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khonsari, Michael M.; Somanchi, Anoop K.

    2005-09-13

    An apparatus and method to enhance the overall performance of mechanical seals in one of the following ways: by reducing seal face wear, by reducing the contact surface temperature, or by increasing the life span of mechanical seals. The apparatus is a mechanical seal (e.g., single mechanical seals, double mechanical seals, tandem mechanical seals, bellows, pusher mechanical seals, and all types of rotating and reciprocating machines) comprising a rotating ring and a double-tier mating ring. In a preferred embodiment, the double-tier mating ring comprises a first and a second stationary ring that together form an agitation-inducing, guided flow channel to allow for the removal of heat generated at the seal face of the mating ring by channeling a coolant entering the mating ring to a position adjacent to and in close proximity with the interior surface area of the seal face of the mating ring.

  18. Time horizon for AFV emission savings under Tier 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saricks, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    Implementation of the Federal Tier 2 vehicular emission standards according to the schedule presented in the December, 1999 Final Rule will result in substantial reductions of NMHC, CO, NO x , and fine particle emissions from motor vehicles. Currently, when compared to Tier 1 and even NLEV certification requirements, the emissions performance of automobiles and light-duty trucks powered by non-petroleum (especially, gaseous) fuels (i.e., vehicles collectively termed AFVs) enjoy measurable advantage over their gasoline- and diesel-fueled counterparts over the full Federal Test Procedure and, especially, in Bag 1 (cold start). For the lighter end of these vehicle classes, this advantage may disappear shortly after 2004 under the new standards, but should continue for a longer period (perhaps beyond 2008) for the heavier end as well as for heavy-duty vehicles relative to diesel-fueled counterparts. Because of the continuing commitment of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities coalitions to the acquisition and operation of AFVs of many types and size classes, it is important for them to know in which classes their acquisitions will remain clear relative to the petroleum-fueled counterparts they might otherwise procure. This paper provides an approximate timeline for and expected magnitude of such savings, assuming that full implementation of the Tier 2 standards covering both vehicular emissions and fuel sulfur limits proceeds on schedule. The pollutants of interest are primary ozone precursors and fine particulate matter from fuel combustion

  19. Acute tier-1 and tier-2 effect assessment approaches in the EFSA Aquatic Guidance Diocument: are they sufficiently protective for insecticides?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Maltby, L.; Brock, T.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this paper is to evaluate whether the acute tier-1 and tier-2 methods as proposed by the Aquatic Guidance Document recently published by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) are appropriate for deriving regulatory acceptable concentrations (RACs) for insecticides.

  20. The Development and Validation of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test Measuring Pre-Service Elementary Education and Secondary Science Teachers' Understanding of the Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Dannah Lynn

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this research study was to develop and validate a three-tier diagnostic test to determine pre-service teachers' (PSTs) conceptual knowledge of the water cycle. For a three-tier diagnostic test, the first tier assesses content knowledge; in the second tier, a reason is selected for the content answer; and the third tier allows…

  1. Improving Pervasive Positioning through Three-tier Cyber Foraging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Toftkjær, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    resources even when such resources are not available in its vicinity. An important challenge of pervasive computing is estimating the physical position of mobile devices. As the requirements increase for continuous and accurate positioning so does the computational requirements of positioning-even limiting...... the possible accuracy in many cases. In this paper we describe how a three tier cyber foraging approach can help improve the positioning capabilities of mobile devices. We demonstrate initial results for how such an approach applies to particle filtering-based GSM positioning....

  2. Contributions to multiple element speciation in vegetable plants: Studies on the type of bonding of numerous elements, particularly zinc and cadmium; Beitraege zur Multielement-Speziation in pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln: Studien zur Bindungsform zahlreicher Elemente unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung von Zink und Cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, K.

    1997-03-01

    handelsueblichen - pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln nach Zellaufschluss bestimmt. Untersucht wurden Avocado, Bananen, Blumenkohl, Chicoree, Chinakohl, Dill, Eissalat (2 Proben), Endiviensalat, Feldsalat, Gurken, Kohlrabi, Kopfsalat, Mangold, Moehren, Paprika, Porree, Rettich, Rotkohl, Schnittsalat, Sellerie (2 Proben), Spinat, Topinambur, Weisskohl und Wurzelpetersilie. Der Zellaufschluss erfolgte durch eine Behandlung des Pflanzenmaterials mit einem elektrischen Dispergiergeraet (Ultra-Turrax) in Pufferloesung (liquid shearing). Durch nachfolgende Zentrifugation wurden die Homogenate in Ueberstaende (Cytosole) und Pellets aufgetrennt. Der Zellaufschluss der Pflanzen durch Verreiben mit Quarzsand nach Gefriertrocknung (solid shearing) ergab Blindwertprobleme bei einigen Elementen und war technisch umstaendlicher. In den untersuchten pflanzlichen Lebensmittel konnten im Durchschnitt mindestens 50% von Zn, Cd, Cu, Rb und K durch den Zellaufschluss durch Ultra-Turrax-Behandlung in Loesung ueberfuehrt werden. In vielen Faellen lag der cytosolbuertige Anteil dieser 5 Elemente bei>70%. Bei Zn und Cd war das Verhalten staerker pflanzenabhaengig als bei Zu, Rb und K. Alle 5 Elemente sind einer weiteren Speziation durch klassische Methoden damit zu einem grossen Anteil zugaenglich. Mn, Ca und besonders Fe und Sr waren durchschnittlich zum groessten Anteil an feste Zellbestandteile gebunden. Bei Ca und besonders Mn und Sr war das Loeslichkeitsverhalten jedoch sehr heterogen. Bei einigen Pflanzen betrug z.B. die Cytosolbuertigkeit von Mn und Sr ca. 90%, so dass in diesen Faellen eine umfassende Speziation ebenfalls moeglich ist. (orig./AJ)

  3. Professional development to differentiate kindergarten Tier 1 instruction: Can already effective teachers improve student outcomes by differentiating Tier 1 instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Folsom, Jessica S.; Wanzek, Jeannie; Greulich, Luana; Wasche, Jessica; Schatschneider, Christopher; Connor, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Two primary purposes guided this quasi-experimental within-teacher study: (1) to examine changes from baseline through two years of professional development (Individualizing Student Instruction) in kindergarten teachers’ differentiation of Tier 1 literacy instruction; (2) to examine changes in reading and vocabulary of three cohorts of the teachers’ students (n = 416). Teachers’ instruction was observed and students were assessed on standardized measures of vocabulary and word reading. Results suggested that teachers significantly increased their differentiation and students showed significantly greater word reading outcomes relative to baseline. No change was observed for vocabulary. Results have implications for supporting teacher effectiveness through technology-supported professional development. PMID:27346927

  4. Risk based tiered approach (RBTASM) for pollution prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elves, R G; Sweeney, L M; Tomljanovic, C

    1997-11-01

    Effective management of human health and ecological hazards in the manufacturing and maintenance environment can be achieved by focusing on the risks associated with these operations. The NDCEE Industrial Health Risk Assessment (IHRA) Program is developing a comprehensive approach to risk analysis applied to existing processes and used to evaluate alternatives. The IHRA Risk-Based Tiered Approach (RBTASM) builds on the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) effort to remediate underground storage tanks. Using readily available information, a semi-quantitative ranking of alternatives based on environmental, safety, and occupational health criteria was produced. A Rapid Screening Assessment of alternative corrosion protection products was performed on behalf of the Joint Group on Acquisition Pollution Prevention (JG-APP). Using the RBTASM in pollution prevention alternative selection required higher tiered analysis and more detailed assessment of human health risks under site-specific conditions. This example illustrates the RBTASM for a organic finishing line using three different products (one conventional spray and two alternative powder coats). The human health risk information developed using the RBTASM is considered along with product performance, regulatory, and cost information by risk managers downselecting alternatives for implementation or further analysis.

  5. The Federated Tier-2 Computing Center for LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liko, D.; Hoerman, N.; Kuhn, D.; Mair, G.; Jais, W.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The Worldwide LHC Computing Grid project (WLCG) has established a global computing infrastructure for the analysis of LHC data. It is based on several large grid projects, the EGEE project in Europe and the Open Science Grid (OSG) in the US. With the start of LHC a new international structure has been established in Europe, the European Grid Initiative (EGI), to provide a sustainable support for the infrastructure in the coming years. In Austria, supported by the BMWF, the AustrianGrid project has also established a federated Tier-2 centre for LHC with large computing clusters in Vienna and Innsbruck. It builds the basis for the LHC data analysis of the Austrian particle physics community. The Tier-2 is again supported by an Austrian National Grid Initiative (NGT-AT) that integrates into the European structure. With the start of the collider operation also the Austrian part of the grid has demonstrated its capabilities and data from the ATLAS and the CMS experiment are being analysed in Austria from the first day. As of today a number of other research areas, as biology, radio-biology and theoretical physics are also profiting from the available resources. (author)

  6. Area Green Efficiency (AGE) of Two Tier Heterogeneous Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2012-10-03

    Small cell networks are becoming standard part of the future heterogeneous networks. In this paper, we consider a two tier heterogeneous network which promises energy savings by integrating the femto and macro cellular networks and thereby reducing CO2 emissions, operational and capital expenditures (OPEX and CAPEX) whilst enhancing the area spectral efficiency (ASE) of the network. In this context, we define a performance metric which characterize the aggregate energy savings per unit macrocell area and is referred to as area green efficiency (AGE) of the two tier heterogeneous network where the femto base stations are arranged around the edge of the reference macrocell such that the configuration is referred to as femto-on-edge (FOE). The mobile users in macro and femto cellular networks are transmitting with the adaptive power while maintaining the desired link quality such that the energy aware FOE configuration mandates to (i) save energy, and (ii) reduce the co-channel interference. We present a mathematical analysis to incorporate the uplink power control mechanism adopted by the mobile users and calibrate the uplink ASE and AGE of the energy aware FOE configuration. Next, we derive analytical expressions to compute the bounds on the uplink ASE of energy aware FOE configuration and demonstrate that the derived bounds are useful in evaluating the ASE under worst and best case interference scenarios. Simulation results are produced to demonstrate the ASE and AGE improvements in comparison to macro-only and macro-femto configuration with uniformly distributed femtocells.

  7. Tier 3 batch system data locality via managed caches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Max; Giffels, Manuel; Jung, Christopher; Kühn, Eileen; Quast, Günter

    2015-05-01

    Modern data processing increasingly relies on data locality for performance and scalability, whereas the common HEP approaches aim for uniform resource pools with minimal locality, recently even across site boundaries. To combine advantages of both, the High- Performance Data Analysis (HPDA) Tier 3 concept opportunistically establishes data locality via coordinated caches. In accordance with HEP Tier 3 activities, the design incorporates two major assumptions: First, only a fraction of data is accessed regularly and thus the deciding factor for overall throughput. Second, data access may fallback to non-local, making permanent local data availability an inefficient resource usage strategy. Based on this, the HPDA design generically extends available storage hierarchies into the batch system. Using the batch system itself for scheduling file locality, an array of independent caches on the worker nodes is dynamically populated with high-profile data. Cache state information is exposed to the batch system both for managing caches and scheduling jobs. As a result, users directly work with a regular, adequately sized storage system. However, their automated batch processes are presented with local replications of data whenever possible.

  8. 2 CFR 180.435 - What must I require of a primary tier participant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What must I require of a primary tier... What must I require of a primary tier participant? You as a Federal agency official must require each... participation in the transaction; and (b) Communicate the requirement to comply with subpart C of this part to...

  9. 40 CFR 725.450 - Procedural requirements for the Tier II exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedural requirements for the Tier II exemption. 725.450 Section 725.450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... General Exemptions for New Microorganisms § 725.450 Procedural requirements for the Tier II exemption...

  10. Data-Driven Delivery of Implementation Supports in a Multi-Tiered Framework: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Collier-Meek, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    For multi-tiered systems of support, such as Response-to-Intervention and Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports, to effectively impact student outcomes, interventions delivered across the tiers must be implemented as planned (i.e., with adequate treatment integrity). However, research suggests that most school personnel struggle to deliver…

  11. Differentiating Tier 2 Social Behavioral Interventions According to Function of Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Stormont, Melissa; Clare, Ann; Latimore, Tracey; Herman, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    Schools implementing tiered supports for social behavior need to be systematic and thoughtful about moving to the next tier. However, schools often apply resources they have in a blanket fashion for children who demonstrate behavior problems. This practice is problematic, and there is a need for increased efforts to plan and be more careful about…

  12. Transporting Motivational Interviewing to School Settings to Improve the Engagement and Fidelity of Tier 2 Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Andy J.; Lee, Jon; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.; Feil, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of Tier 2 interventions are facilitated by specialized instructional support personnel, such as a school psychologists, school social workers, school counselors, or behavior consultants. Many professionals struggle to involve parents and teachers in Tier 2 behavior interventions. However, attention to the motivational issues for…

  13. 20 CFR 228.40 - Cost of living increase applicable to the tier I annuity component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cost of living increase applicable to the... § 228.40 Cost of living increase applicable to the tier I annuity component. The tier I annuity... the Federal Register annually. The cost-of-living increase is payable beginning with the benefit for...

  14. 76 FR 66666 - Basic Service Tier Encryption Compatibility Between Cable Systems and Consumer Electronics Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... entertainment, motor vehicle, public address and musical instrument amplifications.'' The SBA has developed a... tier based on the argument that the rule imposes more burdens than benefits as cable operators... asserted that while encryption of all service tiers has its benefits, it also imposes some burdens on...

  15. 48 CFR 215.203-70 - Requests for proposals-tiered evaluation of offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... NEGOTIATION Solicitation and Receipt of Proposals and Information 215.203-70 Requests for proposals—tiered... shall be consistent with FAR part 19. (b) Consideration shall be given to the tiers of small businesses (e.g., 8(a), HUBZone small business, service-disabled veteran-owned small business, small business...

  16. Knowledge Management Systems and Open Innovation in Second Tier UK Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaston, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the performance of second tier UK universities in relation to the effectiveness of their knowledge management systems and involvement in open innovation. Data were acquired using a mail survey of academic staff in social science and business faculties in second tier institutions. The results indicate that…

  17. Speech-Language Pathologist and General Educator Collaboration: A Model for Tier 2 Service Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gina D.; Bellon-Harn, Monica L.

    2014-01-01

    Tier 2 supplemental instruction within a response to intervention framework provides a unique opportunity for developing partnerships between speech-language pathologists and classroom teachers. Speech-language pathologists may participate in Tier 2 instruction via a consultative or collaborative service delivery model depending on district needs.…

  18. A multi-tiered architecture for content retrieval in mobile peer-to-peer networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we address content retrieval in Mobile Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networks. We design a multi-tiered architecture for content : retrieval, where at Tier 1, we design a protocol for content similarity governed by a parameter that trades accu...

  19. Tier II Interventions within the Framework of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Essential Features for Design, Implementation, and Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Borgmeier, Chris

    2010-01-01

    To meet the complex social behavioral and academic needs of all students, schools benefit from having available multiple evidence-based interventions of varying intensity. School-wide positive behavior support provides a framework within which a continuum of evidence-based interventions can be implemented in a school. This framework includes three levels or tiers of intervention; Tier I (primary or universal), Tier II (secondary or targeted), and Tier III (tertiary or individualized) supports...

  20. WHALE, a management tool for Tier-2 LCG sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, L. M.; Organtini, G.; Talamo, I. G.

    2012-12-01

    The LCG (Worldwide LHC Computing Grid) is a grid-based hierarchical computing distributed facility, composed of more than 140 computing centers, organized in 4 tiers, by size and offer of services. Every site, although indipendent for many technical choices, has to provide services with a well-defined set of interfaces. For this reason, different LCG sites need frequently to manage very similar situations, like jobs behaviour on the batch system, dataset transfers between sites, operating system and experiment software installation and configuration, monitoring of services. In this context we created WHALE (WHALE Handles Administration in an LCG Environment), a software actually used at the T2_IT_Rome site, an LCG Tier-2 for the CMS experiment. WHALE is a generic, site independent tool written in Python: it allows administrator to interact in a uniform and coherent way with several subsystems using a high level syntax which hides specific commands. The architecture of WHALE is based on the plugin concept and on the possibility of connecting the output of a plugin to the input of the next one, in a pipe-like system, giving the administrator the possibility of making complex functions by combining the simpler ones. The core of WHALE just handles the plugin orchestrations, while even the basic functions (eg. the WHALE activity logging) are performed by plugins, giving the capability to tune and possibly modify every component of the system. WHALE already provides many plugins useful for a LCG site and some more for a Tier-2 of the CMS experiment, especially in the field of job management, dataset transfer and analysis of performance results and availability tests (eg. Nagios tests, SAM tests). Thanks to its architecture and the provided plugins WHALE makes easy to perform tasks that, even if logically simple, are technically complex or tedious, like eg. closing all the worker nodes with a job-failure rate greater than a given threshold. Finally, thanks to the

  1. Network monitoring in the Tier2 site in Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliáš, Marek; Fiala, Lukáš; Horký, Jirí; Chudoba, Jirí; Kouba, Tomáš; Kundrát, Jan; Švec, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Network monitoring provides different types of view on the network traffic. It's output enables computing centre staff to make qualified decisions about changes in the organization of computing centre network and to spot possible problems. In this paper we present network monitoring framework used at Tier-2 in Prague in Institute of Physics (FZU). The framework consists of standard software and custom tools. We discuss our system for hardware failures detection using syslog logging and Nagios active checks, bandwidth monitoring of physical links and analysis of NetFlow exports from Cisco routers. We present tool for automatic detection of network layout based on SNMP. This tool also records topology changes into SVN repository. Adapted weathermap4rrd is used to visualize recorded data to get fast overview showing current bandwidth usage of links in network.

  2. Towards more stable operation of the Tokyo Tier2 center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Mashimo, T.; Matsui, N.; Sakamoto, H.; Ueda, I.

    2014-06-01

    The Tokyo Tier2 center, which is located at the International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP) in the University of Tokyo, was established as a regional analysis center in Japan for the ATLAS experiment. The official operation with WLCG was started in 2007 after the several years development since 2002. In December 2012, we have replaced almost all hardware as the third system upgrade to deal with analysis for further growing data of the ATLAS experiment. The number of CPU cores are increased by factor of two (9984 cores in total), and the performance of individual CPU core is improved by 20% according to the HEPSPEC06 benchmark test at 32bit compile mode. The score is estimated as 18.03 (SL6) per core by using Intel Xeon E5-2680 2.70 GHz. Since all worker nodes are made by 16 CPU cores configuration, we deployed 624 blade servers in total. They are connected to 6.7 PB of disk storage system with non-blocking 10 Gbps internal network backbone by using two center network switches (NetIron MLXe-32). The disk storage is made by 102 of RAID6 disk arrays (Infortrend DS S24F-G2840-4C16DO0) and served by equivalent number of 1U file servers with 8G-FC connection to maximize the file transfer throughput per storage capacity. As of February 2013, 2560 CPU cores and 2.00 PB of disk storage have already been deployed for WLCG. Currently, the remaining non-grid resources for both CPUs and disk storage are used as dedicated resources for the data analysis by the ATLAS Japan collaborators. Since all hardware in the non-grid resources are made by same architecture with Tier2 resource, they will be able to be migrated as the Tier2 extra resource on demand of the ATLAS experiment in the future. In addition to the upgrade of computing resources, we expect the improvement of connectivity on the wide area network. Thanks to the Japanese NREN (NII), another 10 Gbps trans-Pacific line from Japan to Washington will be available additionally with existing two 10 Gbps lines

  3. PENERAPAN ARSITEKTUR MULTI-TIER DENGAN DCOM DALAM SUATU SISTEM INFORMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Gunadi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Information System implementation using two-tier architecture result lack in several critical issues : reuse component, scalability, maintenance, and data security. The multi-tiered client/server architecture provides a good resolution to solve these problems that using DCOM technology . The software is made by using Delphi 4 Client/Server Suite and Microsoft SQL Server V. 7.0 as a database server software. The multi-tiered application is partitioned into thirds. The first is client application which provides presentation services. The second is server application which provides application services, and the third is database server which provides database services. This multi-tiered application software can be made in two model. They are Client/Server Windows model and Client/Server Web model with ActiveX Form Technology. In this research is found that making multi-tiered architecture with using DCOM technology can provide many benefits such as, centralized application logic in middle-tier, make thin client application, distributed load of data process in several machines, increases security with the ability in hiding data, dan fast maintenance without installing database drivers in every client. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penerapan sistem informasi menggunakan two-tier architecture mempunyai banyak kelemahan : penggunaan kembali komponen, skalabilitas, perawatan, dan keamanan data. Multi-tier Client-Server architecture mempunyai kemampuan untuk memecahkan masalah ini dengan DCOM teknologi. Perangkat lunak ini dapat dibuat menggunakan Delphi 4 Client/Server Suite dan Microsoft SQL Server 7.0 sebagai perangkat lunak database. Aplikasi program multi-tier ini dibagi menjadi tiga partisi. Pertama adalah aplikasi client menyediakan presentasi servis, kedua aplikasi server menyediakan servis aplikasi, dan ketiga aplikasi database menyediakan database servis. Perangkat lunak aplikasi multi-tier ini dapat dibuat dalam dua model, yaitu client

  4. A tiered observational system for anthropogenic methane emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved understanding of anthropogenic methane emissions is required for closing the global carbon budget and addressing priority challenges in climate policy. Several decades of top-down and bottom-up studies show that anthropogenic methane emissions are systematically underestimated in key regions and economic sectors. These uncertainties have been compounded by the dramatic rise of disruptive technologies (e.g., the transformation in the US energy system due to unconventional gas and oil production). Methane flux estimates derived from inverse analyses and aircraft-based mass balance approaches underscore the disagreement in nationally and regionally reported methane emissions as well as the possibility of a long-tail distribution in fugitive emissions spanning the US natural gas supply chain; i.e. a small number of super-emitters may be responsible for most of the observed anomalies. Other studies highlight the challenges of sectoral and spatial attribution of fugitive emissions - including the relative contributions of dairies vs oil and gas production or disentangling the contributions of natural gas transmission, distribution, and consumption or landfill emissions in complex urban environments. Limited observational data remains a foundational barrier to resolving these challenges. We present a tiered observing system strategy for persistent, high-frequency monitoring over large areas to provide remote detection, geolocation and quantification of significant anthropogenic methane emissions across cities, states, basins and continents. We describe how this would both improve confidence in methane emission estimates and expedite resolution of fugitive emissions and leaks. We summarize recent prototype field campaigns that employ multiple vantage points and measurement techniques (including NASA's CARVE and HyTES aircraft and PanFTS instrument on Mt Wilson). We share preliminary results of this tiered observational approach including examples of individual

  5. INFN Tier-1 experiences with Castor-2 in CMS computing challenges

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108873

    2007-01-01

    The CMS combined Computing, Software and Analysis challenge of 2006 (CSA06) is a 50 million event exercise to test the workflow and dataflow associated with the data handling model of CMS. It was designed to be a fully Grid-enabled, 25% capacity exercise of what is needed for CMS operations in 2008. All CMS Tier1’s participated, and the INFN Tier-1 - located at CNAF, Bologna, Italy - joined with a production Castor-2 installation as a Hierarchical Storage Manager solution to address data storage, dat access and custodial responsibility. After the prompt reconstruction phase at the Tier-0, the data was distributed to all participating Tier-1’s, and calibration/alignment, re-reconstruction and skimming jobs ran at the Tier-1’s. Output of skimming jobs were propagated to the Tier-2’s, to allow physics analysis job submissions. The experience collected by the INFN Tier-1 storage group during the pre-challenge Monte Carlo production, the preparation and the running of the CSA06 exercise - as well as the Ti...

  6. Tier II Interventions within the Framework of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Essential Features for Design, Implementation, and Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Cynthia M; Borgmeier, Chris

    2010-01-01

    To meet the complex social behavioral and academic needs of all students, schools benefit from having available multiple evidence-based interventions of varying intensity. School-wide positive behavior support provides a framework within which a continuum of evidence-based interventions can be implemented in a school. This framework includes three levels or tiers of intervention; Tier I (primary or universal), Tier II (secondary or targeted), and Tier III (tertiary or individualized) supports. In this paper we review the logic behind school-wide positive behavior support and then focus on Tier II interventions, as this level of support has received the least attention in the literature. We delineate the key features of Tier II interventions as implemented within school-wide positive behavior support, provide guidelines for matching Tier II interventions to school and student needs, and describe how schools plan for implementation and maintenance of selected interventions.

  7. Is the chronic Tier-1 effect assessment approach for insecticides protective for aquatic ecosystems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, T.C.M.; Bhatta, R.; Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Rico Artero, A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the appropriateness of several methods, including those recommended in the Aquatic Guidance Document of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), for the derivation of chronic Tier-1 Regulatory Acceptable Concentrations (RACs) for insecticides and aquatic organisms. The insecticides

  8. Overview of EDSP Tier II Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay histopathology and statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    These presentations are meant to provide expert pathologists and statisticians with background information on the Tier II LAGDA design. Expert pathologists at this workshop are charged with providing guidance on histopathology considerations unique to the LAGDA. Expert statisti...

  9. Tier I Rice Model - Version 1.0 - Guidance for Estimating Pesticide Concentrations in Rice Paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes a Tier I Rice Model (Version 1.0) for estimating surface water exposure from the use of pesticides in rice paddies. The concentration calculated can be used for aquatic ecological risk and drinking water exposure assessments.

  10. Statistics of the uplink co-tier interference in closed access heterogeneous networks

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we derive a statistical model of the co-tier interference in closed access two tier heterogeneous wireless cellular networks with femtocell deployments. The derived model captures the impact of bounded path loss model, wall penetration loss, user distributions, random locations, and density of the femtocells. Firstly, we derive the analytical expressions for the probability density function (PDF) and moment generating function (MGF) of the co-tier interference considering a single femtocell interferer by exploiting the random disc line picking theory from geometric probability. We then derive the MGF of the cumulative interference from all femtocell interferers considering full spectral reuse in each femtocell. Orthogonal spectrum partitioning is assumed between the macrocell and femtocell networks to avoid any cross-tier interference. Finally, the accuracy of the derived expressions is validated through Monte-Carlo simulations and the expressions are shown to be useful in quantifying important network performance metrics such as ergodic capacity. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Design and Performance of ATLAS Tier 3 Computing Facility Based on Virtual Machine Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Benjamin, D; Fernando, W; Kagan, H; Panitkin, SY; Yao, Y

    2010-01-01

    We have developed an ATLAS Tier 3 computing facility based on Virtual Machine (VM) technology. In our system all worker nodes are CernVM based virtual machines running on a SUSE Xen hypervisor. Utilization of VM technology in a Tier 3 farm allows one to simplify not only system configuration and management, but also experiment specific software installation and configuration. That in turn reduces manpower required to run such a facility which is an important factor in the Tier 3 context. We have explored performance of a virtualized Tier 3 facility on a variety of workloads typical for the ATLAS. We have found that the performance of typical ATLAS workloads in the virtualized environment was adequate, with an acceptable performance penalty from virtualization in most scenarios. We've also found cases where jobs running in VM were faster than the ones running in a physical machine.

  12. Optimal Resource Allocation under Fair QoS in Multi-tier Server Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Hirokazu; Ushio, Toshimitsu; Hayashi, Naoki

    Recent development of network technology realizes multi-tier server systems, where several tiers perform functionally different processing requested by clients. It is an important issue to allocate resources of the systems to clients dynamically based on their current requests. On the other hand, Q-RAM has been proposed for resource allocation in real-time systems. In the server systems, it is important that execution results of all applications requested by clients are the same QoS(quality of service) level. In this paper, we extend Q-RAM to multi-tier server systems and propose a method for optimal resource allocation with fairness of the QoS levels of clients’ requests. We also consider an assignment problem of physical machines to be sleep in each tier sothat the energy consumption is minimized.

  13. Integrated Multianalyte Second-Tier Testing for Newborn Screening for MSUD, IVA, and GAMT Deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham B. Sinclair PhD, FCCMG

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Advances in mass spectrometry have allowed for expansion of newborn screening test panels over the last decade but with increased numbers of disorders have come increased concerns with false-positive rates. The introduction of second-tier testing has improved the specificity of screening for a number of disorders without any corresponding sacrifice in sensitivity. Such testing does, however, put pressure on scarce laboratory resources including instrument and personnel time and even the bloodspot sample itself. The British Columbia Newborn Screening Program has developed an integrated second-tier screening approach to improve test performance without the requirement to resample and reprocess the original bloodspot specimen. By utilizing the residual extract from the first-tier assay and introducing a chromatography step as the second tier, we have been able to reduce false-positive rates due to interfering isobaric compounds for 3 different disorders (maple syrup urine disease, isovaleric aciduria, and guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in a single multianalyte assay.

  14. Tier II Analysis of Vadose Zone Sediments from UPRS 200-E-81 and 200-E-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2009-01-01

    The overall goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by Washington River Protection Solutions, are to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities; identify and evaluate the efficacy of interim measures; and aid, via collection of geochemical information and data, the future decisions that must be made by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the near-term operations, future waste retrieval, and final closure activities for the single-shell tank waste management areas (WMAs). To meet the investigative goals of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, the Environmental Sciences Laboratory performed geochemical analyses on vadose zone sediments collected within Waste Management Area C. Tier one analyses of UPR-200-E-86, which includes direct push probe holes C5952, C5958 and C5960, were performed between 3/25/08 and 4/14/08. Preliminary results were presented to CH2M Hill Hanford Group on 6/5/08. As a result of the tier one investigations, further tier two analyses were requested. Tier two investigations include particle size and mineralogy analyses on samples collected between 80 to 120 feet below ground surface that were found to contain high concentrations of chloride and sulfate. Tier one analyses on sediments retrieved near UPR-200-E-81, direct push probe hole C6394, were performed between 6/20/08 and 7/22/08. Preliminary results of the tier one analyses were presented on 8/15/08. As a result of the tier one investigations, further tier two analyses were requested. Tier two analyses include determining whether U-236 exists in samples at approximately 42 feet below the ground surface. Confirmation of U-236 will determine whether the U-238 seen in the leaches performed on samples at that depth is a result of contamination and not from leaching natural uranium. Using the water and acid extract U-238 concentrations from the tier one analysis, equilibrium Kd values were requested to be calculated. Additional tier two analysis includes

  15. Tier 3 multidisciplinary medical weight management improves outcome of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, P; Hartland, A; Hollis, A; Ali, R; Elshaw, A; Jain, S; Khan, A; Mirza, S

    2015-04-01

    In 2013 the Department of Health specified eligibility for bariatric surgery funded by the National Health Service. This included a mandatory specification that patients first complete a Tier 3 medical weight management programme. The clinical effectiveness of this recommendation has not been evaluated previously. Our bariatric centre has provided a Tier 3 programme six months prior to bariatric surgery since 2009. The aim of our retrospective study was to compare weight loss in two cohorts: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass only (RYGB only cohort) versus Tier 3 weight management followed by RYGB (Tier 3 cohort). A total of 110 patients were selected for the study: 66 in the RYGB only cohort and 44 in the Tier 3 cohort. Patients in both cohorts were matched for age, sex, preoperative body mass index and pre-existing co-morbidities. The principal variable was therefore whether they undertook the weight management programme prior to RYGB. Patients from both cohorts were followed up at 6 and 12 months to assess weight loss. The mean weight loss at 6 months for the Tier 3 cohort was 31% (range: 18-69%, standard deviation [SD]: 0.10 percentage points) compared with 23% (range: 4-93%, SD: 0.12 percentage points) for the RYGB only cohort (p=0.0002). The mean weight loss at 12 months for the Tier 3 cohort was 34% (range: 17-51%, SD: 0.09 percentage points) compared with 27% (range: 14-48%, SD: 0.87 percentage points) in the RYGB only cohort (p=0.0037). Our study revealed that in our matched cohorts, patients receiving Tier 3 specialist medical weight management input prior to RYGB lost significantly more weight at 6 and 12 months than RYGB only patients. This confirms the clinical efficacy of such a weight management programme prior to gastric bypass surgery and supports its inclusion in eligibility criteria for bariatric surgery.

  16. Seasonal maximum temperature prediction skill over Southern Africa: 1- vs 2-tiered forecasting systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lazenby, MJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available TEMPERATURE PREDICTION SKILL OVER SOUTHERN AFRICA: 1- VS. 2-TIERED FORECASTING SYSTEMS Melissa J. Lazenby University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Pretoria, 0028, South Africa Willem A. Landman Council for Scientific and Industrial...) (Graham et al., 2000; Goddard & Mason, 2002). Using such a two-tiered modelling system to forecast the seasonal outcome of an area has been employed in South Africa for several years already (e.g., Landman et al., 2001). Coupled ocean...

  17. Effects of a Tier 2 Intervention on Classroom Disruptive Behavior and Academic Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Amy; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Anderson, Cynthia; Barnes, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As multi-tiered systems of support for social behavior problems are increasingly utilized in schools settings, school personnel are often in need of effective and efficient Tier 2 interventions. Although Check-in/Check-out (CICO) is a promising intervention, more robust experimental demonstrations are needed to provide evidence confirming its effectiveness when implemented by school practitioners. Using an ABAB single subject design, this study examined the effects of CICO on disruptive behav...

  18. Development of three-tier heat, temperature and internal energy diagnostic test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcay, Deniz; Gulbas, Etna

    2015-05-01

    Background:Misconceptions are major obstacles to learning physics, and the concepts of heat and temperature are some of the common misconceptions that are encountered in daily life. Therefore, it is important to develop valid and reliable tools to determine students' misconceptions about basic thermodynamics concepts. Three-tier tests are effective assessment tools to determine misconceptions in physics. Although a limited number of three-tier tests about heat and temperature are discussed in the literature, no reports discuss three-tier tests that simultaneously consider heat, temperature and internal energy. Purpose:The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable three-tier test to determine students' misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy. Sample:The sample consists of 462 11th-grade Anatolian high school students. Of the participants, 46.8% were female and 53.2% were male. Design and methods:This research takes the form of a survey study. Initially, a multiple-choice test was developed. To each multiple-choice question was added one open-ended question asking the students to explain their answers. This test was then administered to 259 high school students and the data were analyzed both quantitatively and qualitatively. The students' answers for each open-ended question were analyzed and used to create the choices for the second-tier questions of the test. Depending on those results, a three-tier Heat, Temperature and Internal Energy Diagnostic Test (HTIEDT) was developed by adding a second-tier and certainty response index to each item. This three-tier test was administered to the sample of 462 high school students. Results:The Cronbach alpha reliability for the test was estimated for correct and misconception scores as .75 and .68, respectively. The results of the study suggested that HTIEDT could be used as a valid and reliable test in determining misconceptions about heat, temperature and internal energy concepts.

  19. Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus, 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Holmes, Chris; Muongchanh, Christine; Anderson, James J. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

    2001-11-01

    The Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus (Contract 00004124) provides direct and timely public access to Columbia Basin environmental, operational, fishery and riverine data resources for federal, state, public and private entities. The Second-Tier Database known as Data Access in Realtime (DART) does not duplicate services provided by other government entities in the region. Rather, it integrates public data for effective access, consideration and application.

  20. Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Holmes, Chris; Muongchanh, Christine; Anderson, James J. (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

    2000-11-01

    The Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus (Contract 19601900) provides direct and timely public access to Columbia Basin environmental, operational, fishery and riverine data resources for federal, state, public and private entities. The Second-Tier Database known as Data Access in Realtime (DART) does not duplicate services provided by other government entities in the region. Rather, it integrates public data for effective access, consideration and application.

  1. New computer system for the Japan Tier-2 center

    CERN Multimedia

    Hiroyuki Matsunaga

    2007-01-01

    The ICEPP (International Center for Elementary Particle Physics) of the University of Tokyo has been operating an LCG Tier-2 center dedicated to the ATLAS experiment, and is going to switch over to the new production system which has been recently installed. The system will be of great help to the exciting physics analyses for coming years. The new computer system includes brand-new blade servers, RAID disks, a tape library system and Ethernet switches. The blade server is DELL PowerEdge 1955 which contains two Intel dual-core Xeon (WoodCrest) CPUs running at 3GHz, and a total of 650 servers will be used as compute nodes. Each of the RAID disks is configured to be RAID-6 with 16 Serial ATA HDDs. The equipment as well as the cooling system is placed in a new large computer room, and both are hooked up to UPS (uninterruptible power supply) units for stable operation. As a whole, the system has been built with redundant configuration in a cost-effective way. The next major upgrade will take place in thre...

  2. After dumping agreement: A two-tiered market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In its largest increase since July 1990, the NUKEM price range for this month ended up at $9.50-$10.50. On October 16th, destined to become a landmark date in uranium industry history, the republics of Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine and the Russian Federation signed quantitative restraint agreements with the US Department of Commerce. Predictably, prices jumped significantly as sellers withdrew from the market. With Commerce's initial calculation of a $7.95 market price for determining the level of CIS imports over the next six months, it appears quite certain that prices for non-CIS origins will continue to rise. (CIS imports can only begin when Commerce determines that the market price has hit $13). There is the possibility that a two-tiered market could emerge in the future with lower prices being paid for CIS origins by those utilities not affected by Euratom or Commerce restrictions. However, at this point, most potential buyers falling into this category have opted to maintain a wait-and-see approach

  3. A three-tiered approach for linking pharmacokinetic ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The power of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework arises from its utilization of pathway-based data to describe the initial interaction of a chemical with a molecular target (molecular initiating event; (MIE), followed by a progression through a series of key events that lead to an adverse outcome relevant for regulatory purposes. The AOP itself is not chemical specific, thus providing the biological context necessary for interpreting high throughput (HT) toxicity screening results. Application of the AOP framework and HT predictions in ecological and human health risk assessment, however, requires the consideration of chemical-specific properties that influence external exposure doses and target tissue doses. To address this requirement, a three-tiered approach was developed to provide a workflow for connecting biology-based AOPs to biochemical-based pharmacokinetic properties (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion; ADME), and then to chemical/human activity-based exposure pathways. This approach included: (1) The power of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework arisesfrom its utilization of pathway-based data to describe the initial interaction of a chemical with a molecular target (molecular initiating event; (MIE), followed by a progression through a series of key events that lead to an adverse outcome relevant for regulatory purposes. The AOP itself is not chemical specific, thus providing the biological context necessary for interpreti

  4. A tiered analytical approach for investigating poor quality emergency contraceptives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Monge

    Full Text Available Reproductive health has been deleteriously affected by poor quality medicines. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs are an important birth control method that women can use after unprotected coitus for reducing the risk of pregnancy. In response to the detection of poor quality ECPs commercially available in the Peruvian market we developed a tiered multi-platform analytical strategy. In a survey to assess ECP medicine quality in Peru, 7 out of 25 different batches showed inadequate release of levonorgestrel by dissolution testing or improper amounts of active ingredient. One batch was found to contain a wrong active ingredient, with no detectable levonorgestrel. By combining ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IMS-MS and direct analysis in real time MS (DART-MS the unknown compound was identified as the antibiotic sulfamethoxazole. Quantitation by UHPLC-triple quadrupole tandem MS (QqQ-MS/MS indicated that the wrong ingredient was present in the ECP sample at levels which could have significant physiological effects. Further chemical characterization of the poor quality ECP samples included the identification of the excipients by 2D Diffusion-Ordered Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (DOSY 1H NMR indicating the presence of lactose and magnesium stearate.

  5. A multi-tiered approach to safety education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Kim; Sammut, John; Kennedy, Peter

    2013-08-01

    The World Health Organization has recognised that patient safety education should begin at the undergraduate level. This should not just be for medical students, but for all students in the health professions. Although all students in the health professions should receive a basic grounding in patient safety, there is also a need to develop future leaders in this field. As a result of widespread early student exposure, some students may become interested in learning more. It follows that a postgraduate approach is also needed. The New South Wales Clinical Excellence Commission (CEC) has initiated a tiered approach to patient safety education by providing patient safety teaching in medical, nursing and allied health schools. Teaching is provided in cooperation with the host university, and is interactive, using a mixture of interactive lectures, video clips, films and break-out groups to discuss scenarios and feedback from students to their peers about the concepts they have discussed. For medical graduates, the CEC has initiated patient safety teaching in the early postgraduate years, and provides an elective in patient safety for trainee doctor specialists as part of their accredited training. This process helps to identify and mentor future medical leaders in this field. In addition to teaching the core principles of patient safety to a wide range of students in the health professions, an approach for developing future leaders will provide additional opportunities for motivated students and create opportunities for continuing development in the early postgraduate years and beyond. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Increasing performance in KVM virtualization within a Tier-1 environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chierici, Andrea; Salomoni, Davide

    2012-01-01

    This work shows the optimizations we have been investigating and implementing at the KVM (Kernel-based Virtual Machine) virtualization layer in the INFN Tier-1 at CNAF, based on more than a year of experience in running thousands of virtual machines in a production environment used by several international collaborations. These optimizations increase the adaptability of virtualization solutions to demanding applications like those run in our institute (High-Energy Physics). We will show performance differences among different filesystems (like ext3 vs ext4) when used as KVM host local storage. We will provide guidelines for solid state disks (SSD) adoption, for deployment of SR-IOV (Single Root I/O Virtualization) enabled hardware and what is the best solution to distribute and instantiate read-only virtual machine images. This work has been driven by the project called Worker Nodes on Demand Service (WNoDeS), a framework designed to offer local, grid or cloud-based access to computing and storage resources, preserving maximum compatibility with existing computing center policies and workflows.

  7. Changes of ticagrelor formulary tiers in the USA: targeting private insurance providers away from government-funded plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebruany, Victor L; Dinicolantonio, James J

    2013-01-01

    Ticagrelor (Brilinta®) is a new oral reversible antiplatelet agent approved by the FDA in July 2011 based on the results of the PLATO (Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes) trial. However, despite very favorable and broad indications, the current clinical utilization of ticagrelor is woefully small. We aimed to compare ticagrelor formulary tiers for major private (n = 8) and government-funded (n = 4) insurance providers for 2012-2013. Over the last year, ticagrelor placement improved, becoming a preferred drug (from Tier 3 in 2012 to Tier 2 in 2013) for Medco, moving from Tier 4 (with a prior approval requirement) to Tier 3 (no prior approval) for the United Health Care Private Plan and achieving Tier 3 status for Apex in 2013. In contrast, ticagrelor placement did not improve for New York Medicaid, retaining Tier 3 status. In addition, many Medicare Part D formularies have significantly worse coverage than most private plans. For example, Humana Medicare Part D has Tier 3 status requiring step therapy and quantity limits, SilverScript (CVS Caremark) Part D is Tier 3 and the American Association of Retired Persons (United Health Care) Medicare Part D is Tier 4 requiring prior approval. Ticagrelor formulary placement is significantly better for most private providers than for government-funded plans, which may possibly be due to the selective targeting of private insurance providers and the simultaneous avoidance of government-funded plans. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Site in a box: Improving the Tier 3 experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dost, J. M.; Fajardo, E. M.; Jones, T. R.; Martin, T.; Tadel, A.; Tadel, M.; Würthwein, F.

    2017-10-01

    The Pacific Research Platform is an initiative to interconnect Science DMZs between campuses across the West Coast of the United States over a 100 gbps network. The LHC @ UC is a proof of concept pilot project that focuses on interconnecting 6 University of California campuses. It is spearheaded by computing specialists from the UCSD Tier 2 Center in collaboration with the San Diego Supercomputer Center. A machine has been shipped to each campus extending the concept of the Data Transfer Node to a cluster in a box that is fully integrated into the local compute, storage, and networking infrastructure. The node contains a full HTCondor batch system, and also an XRootD proxy cache. User jobs routed to the DTN can run on 40 additional slots provided by the machine, and can also flock to a common GlideinWMS pilot pool, which sends jobs out to any of the participating UCs, as well as to Comet, the new supercomputer at SDSC. In addition, a common XRootD federation has been created to interconnect the UCs and give the ability to arbitrarily export data from the home university, to make it available wherever the jobs run. The UC level federation also statically redirects to either the ATLAS FAX or CMS AAA federation respectively to make globally published datasets available, depending on end user VO membership credentials. XRootD read operations from the federation transfer through the nearest DTN proxy cache located at the site where the jobs run. This reduces wide area network overhead for subsequent accesses, and improves overall read performance. Details on the technical implementation, challenges faced and overcome in setting up the infrastructure, and an analysis of usage patterns and system scalability will be presented.

  9. Tier 1 ecological evaluation of proposed discharge of dredged material from Oakland Harbor into ocean waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shreffler, D.K.; Thorn, R.M.; Walls, B.E.; Word, J.Q. [Battelle/Marine Sciences Lab., Sequim, WA (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Water Resources Development Act of 1986 (Public Law 99--662) authorized the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) -- San Francisco District, to accommodate larger, deeper draft vessels in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors by deepening and widening the existing navigation channel, and providing turning basins and maneuvering areas in Oakland inner Harbor. The suitability of the resulting dredged material for disposal into ocean waters was subject to the procedures of the 1991 Testing Manual, Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Ocean Disposal, known as the ``Green Book``. The Green Book provides a tiered approach for testing the suitability of dredged materials through chemical, physical, and biological evaluations. The first level of investigation, or Tier 1 evaluation, is used to determine whether a decision on LPC compliance can be made on the basis of readily available information. The Tier 1 report primarily summarizes existing information on sediment contamination and toxicity potential, identifies contaminants of concern, and determines the need for further testing. To assist the USACE in determining the suitability of dredged material from Oakland inner and Outer Harbors for ocean disposal, Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory prepared this Tier 1 report based upon information and data provided by USACE. Because this Tier 1 report originated well after an LPC determination was made to require testing of project sediments in Tier 3, the primary purpose of this report was to identify contaminants of concern (if any) in that particular dredged material. In addition, this Tier 1 report summarizes available information on chemical, physical, and biological characterization of the sediments in Oakland inner and Outer Harbors.

  10. A retrospective tiered environmental assessment of the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility, West Virginia,USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, Rebecca Ann [ORNL; Day, Robin [No Affiliation; Strickland, M. Dale [Western EcoSystems Technology

    2012-11-01

    Bird and bat fatalities from wind energy projects are an environmental and public concern, with post-construction fatalities sometimes differing from predictions. Siting facilities in this context can be a challenge. In March 2012 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) released Land-based Wind Energy Guidelines to assess collision fatalities and other potential impacts to species of concern and their habitats to aid in siting and management. The Guidelines recommend a tiered approach for assessing risk to wildlife, including a preliminary site evaluation that may evaluate alternative sites, a site characterization, field studies to document wildlife and habitat and to predict project impacts, post construction studies to estimate impacts, and other post construction studies. We applied the tiered assessment framework to a case study site, the Mount Storm Wind Energy Facility in Grant County, West Virginia, USA, to demonstrate the use of the USFWS assessment approach, to indicate how the use of a tiered assessment framework might have altered outputs of wildlife assessments previously undertaken for the case study site, and to assess benefits of a tiered ecological assessment framework for siting wind energy facilities. The conclusions of this tiered assessment for birds are similar to those of previous environmental assessments for Mount Storm. This assessment found risk to individual migratory tree-roosting bats that was not emphasized in previous preconstruction assessments. Differences compared to previous environmental assessments are more related to knowledge accrued in the past 10 years rather than to the tiered structure of the Guidelines. Benefits of the tiered assessment framework include good communication among stakeholders, clear decision points, a standard assessment trajectory, narrowing the list of species of concern, improving study protocols, promoting consideration of population-level effects, promoting adaptive management through post

  11. A Novel Amphibian Tier 2 Testing Protocol: A 30-Week Exposure of Xenopus Tropicalis to the Antiandrogen Flutamide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knechtges, Paul L; Sprando, Robert L; Porter, Karen L; Brennan, Linda M; Miller, Mark F; Kumsher, David M; Dennis, William E; Brown, Charles C; Clegg Paul L. Knechtges. Robert L. Sprando. Karen L. Potter., Eric D

    2007-01-01

    ...) using validated test systems. Subsequently, the Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee recommended the development of a standardized amphibian assay for tier 2 testing of EDCs...

  12. The evolving role of Tier2s in ATLAS with the new Computing and Data Distribution model

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez de la Hoz, S

    2012-01-01

    Originally the ATLAS computing model assumed that the Tier2s of each of the 10 clouds should keep on disk collectively at least one copy of all "active" AOD and DPD datasets. Evolution of ATLAS computing and data models requires changes in ATLAS Tier2s policy for the data replication, dynamic data caching and remote data access. Tier2 operations take place completely asynchronously with respect to data taking. Tier2s do simulation and user analysis. Large-scale reprocessing jobs on real data are at first taking place mostly at Tier1s but will progressively move to Tier2s as well. The availability of disk space at Tier2s is extremely important in the ATLAS computing model as it allows more data to be readily accessible for analysis jobs to all users, independently of their geographical location. The Tier2s disk space has been reserved for real, simulated, calibration and alignment, group, and user data. A buffer disk space is needed for input and output data for simulations jobs. Tier2s are going to be used mo...

  13. The Evolving role of Tier2s in ATLAS with the new Computing and Data Distribution Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez de la Hoz, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Originally the ATLAS computing model assumed that the Tier2s of each of the 10 clouds should keep on disk collectively at least one copy of all "active" AOD and DPD datasets. Evolution of ATLAS computing and data models requires changes in ATLAS Tier2s policy for the data replication, dynamic data caching and remote data access. Tier2 operations take place completely asynchronously with respect to data taking. Tier2s do simulation and user analysis. Large-scale reprocessing jobs on real data are at first taking place mostly at Tier1s but will progressively move to Tier2s as well. The availability of disk space at Tier2s is extremely important in the ATLAS computing model as it allows more data to be readily accessible for analysis jobs to all users, independently of their geographical location. The Tier2s disk space has been reserved for real, simulated, calibration and alignment, group, and user data. A buffer disk space is needed for input and output data for simulations jobs. Tier2s are going to be used mo...

  14. ATLAS off-Grid sites (Tier 3) monitoring. From local fabric monitoring to global overview of the VO computing activities

    CERN Document Server

    PETROSYAN, A; The ATLAS collaboration; BELOV, S; ANDREEVA, J; KADOCHNIKOV, I

    2012-01-01

    The ATLAS Distributed Computing activities have so far concentrated in the "central" part of the experiment computing system, namely the first 3 tiers (the CERN Tier0, 10 Tier1 centers and over 60 Tier2 sites). Many ATLAS Institutes and National Communities have deployed (or intend to) deploy Tier-3 facilities. Tier-3 centers consist of non-pledged resources, which are usually dedicated to data analysis tasks by the geographically close or local scientific groups, and which usually comprise a range of architectures without Grid middleware. Therefore a substantial part of the ATLAS monitoring tools which make use of Grid middleware, cannot be used for a large fraction of Tier3 sites. The presentation will describe the T3mon project, which aims to develop a software suite for monitoring the Tier3 sites, both from the perspective of the local site administrator and that of the ATLAS VO, thereby enabling the global view of the contribution from Tier3 sites to the ATLAS computing activities. Special attention in p...

  15. A four-tier problem-solving scaffold to teach pain management in dental school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanoff, Chris S; Hottel, Timothy L

    2013-06-01

    Pain constitutes a major reason patients pursue dental treatment. This article presents a novel curriculum to provide dental students comprehensive training in the management of pain. The curriculum's four-tier scaffold combines traditional and problem-based learning to improve students' diagnostic, pharmacotherapeutic, and assessment skills to optimize decision making when treating pain. Tier 1 provides underpinning knowledge of pain mechanisms with traditional and contextualized instruction by integrating clinical correlations and studying worked cases that stimulate clinical thinking. Tier 2 develops critical decision making skills through self-directed learning and actively solving problem-based cases. Tier 3 exposes students to management approaches taken in allied health fields and cultivates interdisciplinary communication skills. Tier 4 provides a "knowledge and experience synthesis" by rotating students through community pain clinics to practice their assessment skills. This combined teaching approach aims to increase critical thinking and problem-solving skills to assist dental graduates in better management of pain throughout their careers. Dental curricula that have moved to comprehensive care/private practice models are well-suited for this educational approach. The goal of this article is to encourage dental schools to integrate pain management into their curricula, to develop pain management curriculum resources for dental students, and to provide leadership for change in pain management education.

  16. Could international compulsory licensing reconcile tiered pricing of pharmaceuticals with the right to health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Gorik; Forman, Lisa; Williams, Owain D; Hill, Peter S

    2014-12-18

    The heads of the Global Fund and the GAVI Alliance have recently promoted the idea of an international tiered pricing framework for medicines, despite objections from civil society groups who fear that this would reduce the leeway for compulsory licenses and generic competition. This paper explores the extent to which an international tiered pricing framework and the present leeway for compulsory licensing can be reconciled, using the perspective of the right to health as defined in international human rights law. We explore the practical feasibility of an international tiered pricing and compulsory licensing framework governed by the World Health Organization. We use two simple benchmarks to compare the relative affordability of medicines for governments - average income and burden of disease - to illustrate how voluntary tiered pricing practice fails to make medicines affordable enough for low and middle income countries (if compared with the financial burden of the same medicines for high income countries), and when and where international compulsory licenses should be issued in order to allow governments to comply with their obligations to realize the right to health. An international tiered pricing and compulsory licensing framework based on average income and burden of disease could ease the tension between governments' human rights obligation to provide medicines and governments' trade obligation to comply with the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.

  17. Analysis of internal network requirements for the distributed Nordic Tier-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrmann, G.; Fischer, L.; Gamst, Mette

    2010-01-01

    build from resources under the control of a number of different national organisations. Being physically distributed makes the design and implementation of the networking infrastructure a challenge. NDGF has its own internal OPN connecting the sites participating in the distributed Tier-1. To assess...... the suitability of the network design and the capacity of the links, we present a model of the internal bandwidth needs for the NDGF Tier-1 and its associated Tier-2 sites. The model takes the different type of workloads into account and can handle different kinds of data management strategies. It has already...... been used to dimension the internal network structure of NDGF. We also compare the model with real life data measurements....

  18. Retrospective on the Seniors' Council Tier 1 LDRD portfolio.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, William Parker

    2012-04-01

    This report describes the Tier 1 LDRD portfolio, administered by the Seniors Council between 2003 and 2011. 73 projects were sponsored over the 9 years of the portfolio at a cost of $10.5 million which includes $1.9M of a special effort in directed innovation targeted at climate change and cyber security. Two of these Tier 1 efforts were the seeds for the Grand Challenge LDRDs in Quantum Computing and Next Generation Photovoltaic conversion. A few LDRDs were terminated early when it appeared clear that the research was not going to succeed. A great many more were successful and led to full Tier 2 LDRDs or direct customer sponsorship. Over a dozen patents are in various stages of prosecution from this work, and one project is being submitted for an R and D 100 award.

  19. Epidemiology program at the Savannah River Plant: a tiered approach to research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayerweather, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    The epidemiology program at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) uses a tiered approach to research. As research progresses from lower through higher tiers, there is a corresponding increase in study complexity, cost, and time commitment. The approach provides a useful strategy for directing research efforts towards those employee subgroups and health endpoints that can benefit most from more in-depth studies. A variety of potential exposures, health endpoints, and employee subgroups have been and continued to be studied by research groups such as Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Los Alamos National Laboratories, Centers for Disease Control, SRP's Occupational Health Technology, and the Du Pont Company's corporate Epidemiology Section. These studies are discussed in the context of a tiered approach to research

  20. Three Tier Unified Process Model for Requirement Negotiations and Stakeholder Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Muhammad Ashraf Khan; Abbas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Muhammad

    2012-11-01

    This research paper is focused towards carrying out a pragmatic qualitative analysis of various models and approaches of requirements negotiations (a sub process of requirements management plan which is an output of scope managementís collect requirements process) and studies stakeholder collaborations methodologies (i.e. from within communication management knowledge area). Experiential analysis encompass two tiers; first tier refers to the weighted scoring model while second tier focuses on development of SWOT matrices on the basis of findings of weighted scoring model for selecting an appropriate requirements negotiation model. Finally the results are simulated with the help of statistical pie charts. On the basis of simulated results of prevalent models and approaches of negotiations, a unified approach for requirements negotiations and stakeholder collaborations is proposed where the collaboration methodologies are embeded into selected requirements negotiation model as internal parameters of the proposed process alongside some external required parameters like MBTI, opportunity analysis etc.

  1. Rôle et limites des tiers-lieux dans la fabrique des villes contemporaines

    OpenAIRE

    Besson, Raphaël

    2017-01-01

    La notion de tiers-lieux se développe de manière essentiellement empirique. Elle recouvre des réalités multiples, comme des projets de coworking spaces, de living labs et de fab labs. Certains tiers-lieux s’intéressent tout particulièrement à la ville et aux nouvelles conditions de la fabrique urbaine. En s’appuyant sur des méthodes d’innovation ouverte et le potentiel des outils numériques, ces tiers-lieux défendent l’idée d’un urbanisme qui ne soit plus le patrimoine exclusif d’experts, mai...

  2. Comparison of tiered formularies and reference pricing policies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Steve; Hanley, Gillian; Greyson, Devon

    2009-01-01

    To synthesize methodologically comparable evidence from the published literature regarding the outcomes of tiered formularies and therapeutic reference pricing of prescription drugs. We searched the following electronic databases: ABI/Inform, CINAHL, Clinical Evidence, Digital Dissertations & Theses, Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews (which incorporates ACP Journal Club, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Methodology Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Health Technology Assessments and NHS Economic Evaluation Database), EconLit, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, PAIS International and PAIS Archive, and the Web of Science. We also searched the reference lists of relevant articles and several grey literature sources. We sought English-language studies published from 1986 to 2007 that examined the effects of either therapeutic reference pricing or tiered formularies, reported on outcomes relevant to patient care and cost-effectiveness, and employed quantitative study designs that included concurrent or historical comparison groups. We abstracted and assessed potentially appropriate articles using a modified version of the data abstraction form developed by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group. From an initial list of 2964 citations, 12 citations (representing 11 studies) were deemed eligible for inclusion in our review: 3 studies (reported in 4 articles) of reference pricing and 8 studies of tiered formularies. The introduction of reference pricing was associated with reduced plan spending, switching to preferred medicines, reduced overall drug utilization and short-term increases in the use of physician services. Reference pricing was not associated with adverse health impacts. The introduction of tiered formularies was associated with reduced plan expenditures, greater patient costs and increased rates of non-compliance with

  3. A TSTT integrated FronTier code and its applications in computational fluid physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, Brian; Glimm, James; Li Xiaolin; Li Yuanhua; Liu Xinfeng; Samulyak, Roman; Xu Zhiliang

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the FronTier-Lite software package and its adaptation to the TSTT geometry and mesh entity data interface. This package is extracted from the original front tracking code for general purpose scientific and engineering applications. The package contains a static interface library and a dynamic front propagation library. It can be used in research of different scientific problems. We demonstrate the application of FronTier in the simulations of fuel injection jet, the fusion pellet injection and fluid mixing problems

  4. Study of Jet Substructure in the ATLAS Experiment using Distributed Analysis within Spanish Tier-2 Infrastuctures

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver García, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Study of Jet Substructure in the ATLAS experiment using Distributed Analysis within Spanish Tier-2 Infrastructures (Estudio de Subestructura de Jets en el experimento ATLAS usando Análisis Distribuido dentro de las Infraestructuras del Tier-2 Español) Resumen en español 1. Motivación En el Large Hadron Collider (LHC) se producen partículas consideradas objetos ‘boosted’ donde sus productos de desintegración se concentran en una pequeña parte del detector. El estudio de estos ...

  5. Leaders Growing Leaders: Designing a Tier-Based Leadership Program for Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbeck, Laura; Rozycki, Grace; Dunnington, Gary

    2018-02-07

    Leadership has emerged as a crucial component of professional development for physicians in academic medicine. Most leadership skills can be learned and therefore best practices of delivering leadership development are in high demand. For practicing surgeons, specific strategies to teach leadership have been lacking. The purpose of this paper is to describe the structure of a tier-based leadership development program called Leaders Growing Leaders, to identify the major curricular components to each tier including measures and outcomes, and to share lessons learned for those who may want to begin a similar leadership development program. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spanish ATLAS Tier-2 facing up to Run-2 period of LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez de la Hoz, Santiago; The ATLAS collaboration; Fassi, Farida; Fernandez Casani, Alvaro; Kaci, Mohammed; Lacort Pellicer, Victor Ruben; Montiel Gonzalez, Almudena Del Rocio; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Salt, José; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sánchez, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is to describe the way of addressing the main challenges of Run-2 by the Spanish ATLAS Tier-2. The considerable increase of energy and luminosity for the upcoming Run-2 w.r.t. Run-1 has led to a revision of the ATLAS computing model as well as some of the main ATLAS computing tools. The adaptation to these changes will be shown, with the peculiarities that it is a distributed Tier-2 composed of three sites and its members are involved on ATLAS computing tasks with a hub of research, innovation and education.

  7. Development and Application of a Four-Tier Test to Assess Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Misconceptions about Geometrical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltakci-Gurel, Derya; Eryilmaz, Ali; McDermott, Lillian Christie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Correct identification of misconceptions is an important first step in order to gain an understanding of student learning. More recently, four-tier multiple choice tests have been found to be effective in assessing misconceptions. Purpose: The purposes of this study are (1) to develop and validate a four-tier misconception test to…

  8. 22 CFR Appendix B to Part 513 - Certification Regarding Debarment, Suspension, Ineligibility and Voluntary Exclusion-Lower Tier...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Ineligibility and Voluntary Exclusion-Lower Tier Covered Transactions B Appendix B to Part 513 Foreign Relations... Debarment, Suspension, Ineligibility and Voluntary Exclusion—Lower Tier Covered Transactions Instructions... is providing the certification set out below. 2. The certification in this clause is a material...

  9. 78 FR 35922 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Second List of Chemicals and Substances for Tier 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... regarding EDSP and requirements for Tier 1 and Tier 2 testing can be found on the Agency's EDSP Web site, at... second list based on the highly reactive physiochemical properties of the chemicals and test assay... reactive and incompatible with the testing assays. Other chemicals remain on the list as they are still in...

  10. 25 CFR 542.23 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier A gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.23 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier A gaming operations? (a) Tier A gaming operations must...

  11. 78 FR 32223 - Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...-OAR-2011-0135; FRL-9818-5] RIN 2060-A0 Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor... extension of the public comment period for the proposed rule ``Control of Air Pollution from Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards'' (the proposed rule is hereinafter referred to as...

  12. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 208 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for State Member Banks: Tier 1 Leverage Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that are in excess of 25 percent of Tier 1 capital; all other identifiable intangible assets; any..., without significant reliance on intangible assets. h. Notwithstanding anything in this appendix to the... has adopted a minimum ratio of tier 1 capital to total assets to assist in the assessment of the...

  13. Rhabdom evolution in butterflies: insights from the uniquely tiered and heterogeneous ommatidia of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Atsuko; Awata, Hiroko; Wakakuwa, Motohiro; Takemura, Shin-ya; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2012-01-01

    The eye of the Glacial Apollo butterfly, Parnassius glacialis, a ‘living fossil’ species of the family Papilionidae, contains three types of spectrally heterogeneous ommatidia. Electron microscopy reveals that the Apollo rhabdom is tiered. The distal tier is composed exclusively of photoreceptors expressing opsins of ultraviolet or blue-absorbing visual pigments, and the proximal tier consists of photoreceptors expressing opsins of green or red-absorbing visual pigments. This organization is unique because the distal tier of other known butterflies contains two green-sensitive photoreceptors, which probably function in improving spatial and/or motion vision. Interspecific comparison suggests that the Apollo rhabdom retains an ancestral tiered pattern with some modification to enhance its colour vision towards the long-wavelength region of the spectrum. PMID:22628477

  14. Analytical Study on Multi-Tier 5G Heterogeneous Small Cell Networks: Coverage Performance and Energy Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhu; Liu, Hongjing; Havyarimana, Vincent; Li, Tong; Wang, Dong

    2016-11-04

    In this paper, we investigate the coverage performance and energy efficiency of multi-tier heterogeneous cellular networks (HetNets) which are composed of macrocells and different types of small cells, i.e., picocells and femtocells. By virtue of stochastic geometry tools, we model the multi-tier HetNets based on a Poisson point process (PPP) and analyze the Signal to Interference Ratio (SIR) via studying the cumulative interference from pico-tier and femto-tier. We then derive the analytical expressions of coverage probabilities in order to evaluate coverage performance in different tiers and investigate how it varies with the small cells' deployment density. By taking the fairness and user experience into consideration, we propose a disjoint channel allocation scheme and derive the system channel throughput for various tiers. Further, we formulate the energy efficiency optimization problem for multi-tier HetNets in terms of throughput performance and resource allocation fairness. To solve this problem, we devise a linear programming based approach to obtain the available area of the feasible solutions. System-level simulations demonstrate that the small cells' deployment density has a significant effect on the coverage performance and energy efficiency. Simulation results also reveal that there exits an optimal small cell base station (SBS) density ratio between pico-tier and femto-tier which can be applied to maximize the energy efficiency and at the same time enhance the system performance. Our findings provide guidance for the design of multi-tier HetNets for improving the coverage performance as well as the energy efficiency.

  15. Induction of a Tier-1-Like Phenotype in Diverse Tier-2 Isolates by Agents That Guide HIV-1 Env to Perturbation-Sensitive, Nonnative States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jacklyn; Zhai, Yinjie; Salimi, Hamid; Espy, Nicole; Eichelberger, Noah; DeLeon, Orlando; O'Malley, Yunxia; Courter, Joel; Smith, Amos B; Madani, Navid; Sodroski, Joseph; Haim, Hillel

    2017-08-01

    The envelope glycoproteins (Envs) on the surfaces of HIV-1 particles are targeted by host antibodies. Primary HIV-1 isolates demonstrate different global sensitivities to antibody neutralization; tier-1 isolates are sensitive, whereas tier-2 isolates are more resistant. Single-site mutations in Env can convert tier-2 into tier-1-like viruses. We hypothesized that such global change in neutralization sensitivity results from weakening of intramolecular interactions that maintain Env integrity. Three strategies commonly applied to perturb protein structure were tested for their effects on global neutralization sensitivity: exposure to low temperature, Env-activating ligands, and a chaotropic agent. A large panel of diverse tier-2 isolates from clades B and C was analyzed. Incubation at 0°C, which globally weakens hydrophobic interactions, causes gradual and reversible exposure of the coreceptor-binding site. In the cold-induced state, Envs progress at isolate-specific rates to unstable forms that are sensitive to antibody neutralization and then gradually lose function. Agents that mimic the effects of CD4 (CD4Ms) also induce reversible structural changes to states that exhibit isolate-specific stabilities. The chaotropic agent urea (at low concentrations) does not affect the structure or function of native Env. However, urea efficiently perturbs metastable states induced by cold and CD4Ms and increases their sensitivity to antibody neutralization and their inactivation rates Therefore, chemical and physical agents can guide Env from the stable native state to perturbation-sensitive forms and modulate their stability to bestow tier-1-like properties on primary tier-2 strains. These concepts can be applied to enhance the potency of vaccine-elicited antibodies and microbicides at mucosal sites of HIV-1 transmission. IMPORTANCE An effective vaccine to prevent transmission of HIV-1 is a primary goal of the scientific and health care communities. Vaccine

  16. Retailer private-label margins : The role of supplier and quality-tier differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Braak, A.M.; Dekimpe, M.G.; Geyskens, I.

    2013-01-01

    The authors show how new realities in the private-label (PL) landscape, including differential PL-sourcing relationships and differentiated, three-tiered PL portfolios, affect the gross margins that retailers realize on their PLs. In addition, they examine the moderating role of the identity of the

  17. Training in two-tier labor markets : The role of job match quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Yusuf Emre; van Huizen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This study examines training investments in two-tier labor markets, focusing on the role of job match quality. Temporary workers are in general more likely than permanent workers to leave their employer and therefore are less likely to receive employer-funded training. However, as firms prefer to

  18. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and submitting...

  19. Multi-Dimensional Optimization for Cloud Based Multi-Tier Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Gueyoung

    2010-01-01

    Emerging trends toward cloud computing and virtualization have been opening new avenues to meet enormous demands of space, resource utilization, and energy efficiency in modern data centers. By being allowed to host many multi-tier applications in consolidated environments, cloud infrastructure providers enable resources to be shared among these…

  20. NUCLEAR TRANSFER IN TIER CELLS OF BOSTRYCHIA-RADICANS (RHODOMELACEAE, RHODOPHYTA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GOFF, LJ; WEST, JA; OLSEN, JL

    1992-01-01

    In the male gametophytes of the marine alga Bostrychia radicans (Montagne) Montagne (Rhodomelaceae, Rhodophyta), axial cells and the initial pericentral cells are uninucleate (4C DNA value). Each pericentral cell of axial segment 5 cuts off a uninucleate (2C) tier cell from the upper surface. In

  1. Addressing the Missing Instructional Data Problem: Using a Teacher Log to Document Tier 1 Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Roach, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Response-to-intervention (RTI) systems posit that Tier 1 consists of high-quality general classroom instruction using evidence-based methods to address the needs of most students. However, data on the extent to which general education teachers provide such instruction are rarely collected. This missing instructional data problem may result in RTI…

  2. 34 CFR 85.435 - What must I require of a primary tier participant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I require of a primary tier participant? 85... AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of ED Officials Regarding Transactions § 85.435 What... participation in the transaction; and (b) Communicate the requirement to comply with Subpart C of this part to...

  3. Getting Started: Progression Pathways within the Foundation Learning Tier at Key Stage 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This "Getting Started Guide to the Foundation Learning Tier" looks at what Progression Pathways are and their benefits at Key Stage 4. The guide is for staff working in schools and other providers who are preparing to deliver Progression Pathways to learners at Key Stage 4. It will help them plan and implement Progression Pathways, and…

  4. Effect of cage tier and age on performance, egg quality and stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of cage tiers on week 42 BW, feed conversion ratio (FCR), tonic immobility (TI), egg weight (EW), egg yield (EY), and most external and internal quality traits of the hens' eggs were found to be insignificant. Except for shape index (SI) and albumen pH, internal and external quality traits of eggs were significantly ...

  5. An appraisal of the performance of the 5th republic third tier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The third tier of government in Nigeria, most times referred to as Local Government, is basically a government structure that provides administration at the local or grass root level. This presupposes the existence of other levels of governance; and in Nigeria, the federal and state governments readily come to mind as the first ...

  6. Rural Students in a Chinese Top-Tier University: Family Background, School Effects, and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postiglione, Gerard A.; Ailei, Xie; Jung, Jisun; Yanbi, Hong

    2017-01-01

    New preferential policies in China promise to increase the number of rural students entering top-tier universities, where there is a wider path to a higher social status. While a substantial body of literature has investigated rural students' trajectories to university, there is a dearth of systematic empirical studies on the academic success of…

  7. Novel two-tiered approach of ecological risk assessment for pesticide mixtures based on joint effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Dayong; Mao, Haichen; Lv, Huichao; Zheng, Yong; Peng, Conghu; Hou, Shaogang

    2018-02-01

    Ecological risk assessments for mixtures have attracted considerable attention. In this study, 38 pesticides in the real environment were taken as objects and their toxicities to different organisms from three trophic levels were employed to assess the ecological risk of the mixture. The first tier assessment was based on the CA effect and the obtained sum of risk quotients (SRQ species-CA ) were 3.06-9.22. The second tier assessment was based on non-CA effects and the calculated SRQ species-TU are 5.37-9.29 using joint effects (TU sum ) as modified coefficients, which is higher than SRQ species-CA and indicates that ignoring joint effects might run the risk of underestimating the actual impact of pesticide mixtures. Due to the influences of synergistic and antagonistic effects, risk contribution of components to mixture risks based on non-CA effects are different from those based on the CA effect. Moreover, it was found that the top 8 dominating components explained 95.5%-99.8% of mixture risks in this study. The dominating components are similar in the two tiers for a given species. Accordingly, a novel two-tiered approach was proposed to assess the ecological risks of mixtures based on joint effects. This study provides new insights for ecological risk assessments with the consideration of joint effects of components in the pesticide mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tiered co-payments, pricing, and demand in reference price markets for pharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herr, Annika; Suppliet, Moritz

    2017-01-01

    Health insurance companies curb price-insensitive behavior and the moral hazard of insureds by means of cost-sharing, such as tiered co-payments or reference pricing in drug markets. This paper evaluates the effect of price limits –below which drugs are exempt from co-payments– on prices and on

  9. RE-AIM Checklist for Integrating and Sustaining Tier 2 Social-Behavioral Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Douglas A.; Yong, Minglee

    2014-01-01

    Even though evidence-based Tier 2 programs are now more commonly available, integrating and sustaining these interventions in schools remain challenging. RE-AIM, which stands for Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance, is a public health framework used to maximize the effectiveness of health promotion programs in…

  10. The LHC Tier1 at PIC: experience from first LHC run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flix J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the operational experience of the Tier1 computer center at Port d’InformacióCientífica (PIC supporting the commissioning and first run (Run1 of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC. Theevolution of the experiment computing models resulting from the higher amounts of data expected after therestart of the LHC are also described.

  11. 40 CFR 1043.50 - Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retrofit NOX standards. 1043.50 Section 1043.50 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF NOX, SOX, AND PM EMISSIONS FROM MARINE ENGINES AND VESSELS SUBJECT TO THE MARPOL PROTOCOL § 1043.50 Approval of methods to meet Tier 1 retrofit NOX standards...

  12. 76 FR 79221 - Penske Logistics, LLC, Customer Service Department General Motors and Tier Finished Goods...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ..., Customer Service Department General Motors and Tier Finished Goods/Finished Goods Division; a Subsidiary of... September 1, 2010, applicable to workers of Penske Logistics, LLC, Customer Service Department, a subsidiary... Services and Manpower. The workers are engaged in the supply of customer service. The notice was published...

  13. Cost-Sharing and Drug Pricing Strategies : Introducing Tiered Co-Payments in Reference Price Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suppliet, Moritz; Herr, Annika

    2016-01-01

    Health insurances curb price insensitive behavior and moral hazard of insureds through different types of cost-sharing, such as tiered co-payments or reference pricing. This paper evaluates the effect of newly introduced price limits below which drugs are exempt from co-payments on the pricing

  14. Using UML Modeling to Facilitate Three-Tier Architecture Projects in Software Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the use of a model-centric approach to facilitate software development projects conforming to the three-tier architecture in undergraduate software engineering courses. Many instructors intend that such projects create software applications for use by real-world customers. While it is important that the first version of these…

  15. Low-complexity co-tier interference reduction scheme in open-access overlaid cellular networks

    KAUST Repository

    Radaydeh, Redha Mahmoud Mesleh

    2011-12-01

    This paper addresses the effect of co-tier interference on the performance of multiuser overlaid cellular networks that share the same available resources. It assumed that each macrocell contains a number of self-configurable and randomly located femtocells that employ the open-access control strategy to reduce the effect of cross-tier interference. It is also assumed that the desired user equipment (UE) can access only one of the available channels, maintains simple decoding circuitry with single receive antenna, and has limited knowledge of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI) due to resource limitation. To mitigate the effect of co-tier interference in the absence of the CSI of the desired UE, a low-complexity switched-based scheme for single channel selection based on the predicted interference levels associated with available channels is proposed for the case of over-loaded channels. Through the analysis, new general formulation for the statistics of the resulting instantaneous interference power and some performance measures are presented. The effect of the switching threshold on the efficiency and performance of the proposed scheme is studied. Numerical and simulation results to clarify the usefulness of the proposed scheme in reducing the impact of co-tier interference are also provided. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Explicit Instructional Interactions: Exploring the Black Box of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doabler, Christian T.; Clarke, Ben; Stoolmiller, Mike; Kosty, Derek B.; Fien, Hank; Smolkowski, Keith; Baker, Scott K.

    2017-01-01

    A critical aspect of intervention research is investigating the active ingredients that underlie intensive interventions and their theories of change. This study explored the rate of instructional interactions within treatment groups to determine whether they offered explanatory power of an empirically validated Tier 2 kindergarten mathematics…

  17. Understanding brand and dealer retention in the new car market : The moderating role of brand tier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Peter C.; Langerak, Fred; Donkers, Bas

    2007-01-01

    Dealers may contribute to brand retention through their sales and service efforts. In this study we investigate the degree to which dealers contribute to brand retention and how this contribution is moderated by brand tier. To this end we distinguish between economy, volume and prestige brands. We

  18. Poseidon: a 2-tier Anomaly-based Network Intrusion Detection System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolzoni, D.; Zambon, Emmanuele; Etalle, Sandro; Hartel, Pieter H.; Cole, Jack; Wolthusen, Stephen D.

    We present Poseidon, a new anomaly based intrusion detection system. Poseidon is payload-based, and presents a two-tier architecture: the first stage consists of a Self-Organizing Map, while the second one is a modified PAYL system. Our benchmarks on the 1999 DARPA data set show a higher detection

  19. RePIDS: a multi tier real-time payload-based intrusion detection system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamdagni, Aruna; Tan, Zhiyuan; Nanda, Priyadarsi; He, Xiangjian; Liu, Ren Ping

    2013-01-01

    Intrusion Detection System (IDS) deals with huge amount of network traffic and uses large feature set to discriminate normal pattern and intrusive pattern. However, most of existing systems lack the ability to process data for real-time anomaly detection. In this paper, we propose a 3-Tier Iterative

  20. Implementing Positive Behavior Support in Preschools: An Exploratory Study of CW-FIT Tier 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolstead, Krystine A.; Caldarella, Paul; Hansen, Blake D.; Korth, Byran B.; Williams, Leslie; Kamps, Debra M.

    2017-01-01

    Challenging behavior in preschool is a serious concern for teachers. Positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) has been shown to be effective in reducing such behaviors. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) is a specific multi-tiered intervention for implementing effective classroom management strategies using PBIS…

  1. Instructions for the Tier I Emergency and Hazardous Chemical Inventory Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act Tier I form is to provide State and local officials and the public with information on the general chemical hazard types and locations at your facility, if above reporting thresholds.

  2. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 266 - Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Pt. 266, App. II Appendix II to Part 266—Tier I Feed Rate Screening Limits for Total Chlorine Terrain-adjusted effective stack height (m) Noncomplex Terrain Urban (g...

  3. 76 FR 24872 - California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [AMS-FRL-9301-6] California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Authorization of Tier II Marine Inboard/Sterndrive Spark Ignition Engine... ignition engines. DATES: Petitions for review must be filed by July 5, 2011. ADDRESSES: The Agency's...

  4. Factors Influencing Staff Perceptions of Administrator Support for Tier 2 and 3 Interventions: A Multilevel Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnam, Katrina J.; Pas, Elise T.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Although the number of schools implementing School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is increasing, and there is great demand for evidence-based Tier 2 and 3 interventions for students requiring additional support, little systematic research has examined administrator support for such programming. This article examines…

  5. Ethical Considerations in a Three-Tiered Approach to School Discipline Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayworm, Ashley M.; Sharkey, Jill D.

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that school discipline policies and practices have a significant influence on both student and school functioning. The purpose of this article is to uncover how the ethical standards guiding the field of school psychology inform school decisions about discipline in a three-tiered approach. Various discipline approaches,…

  6. 78 FR 28012 - Tier One Environmental Impact Statement for the Rochester, Minnesota to Twin Cities, Minnesota...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... Rail Office, 395 John Ireland Boulevard, MS 480, St. Paul, MN 55155, Phone: (651) 366-3193. In addition... applicable Federal and state laws and regulations. The Tier One NEPA document addresses broad overall issues... jurisdiction by law or special expertise with respect to potential environmental issues will be invited to act...

  7. Tiered Internship Model for Undergraduate Students in Geospatial Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopteva, Irina A.; Arkowski, Donna; Craft, Elaine L.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the development, implementation, and evaluation of a tiered internship program for undergraduate students in geospatial science and technology (TIMSGeoTech). The internship program assists education programs in providing skill development that is relevant and useful, and it aligns graduates and their skills with industry…

  8. Validation of a Contemporary Five-tiered Gleason Grade Grouping Using Population-based Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jianming; Albertsen, Peter C; Moore, Dirk; Rotter, David; Demissie, Kitaw; Lu-Yao, Grace

    2017-05-01

    This population-based study assesses whether a proposed five-tiered Gleason grade grouping (GGG) system predicts prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM). Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 331320 prostate cancer patients who had primary and secondary Gleason patterns diagnosed between January 2006 and December 2012. We used the Fine and Gray proportional hazards model for subdistributions and the corresponding cumulative incidence to quantify the risk of PCSM. We found that the risk of PCSM approximately doubled with each GGG increase. Among men who underwent radical prostatectomy and using GGG1 (Gleason score ≤6) as the reference group, the adjusted hazard ratio for PCSM was 1.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.54) for GGG2, 1.87 (95% CI 1.33-2.65) for GGG3, 5.03 (95% CI 3.59-7.06) for GGG4, and 10.92 (CI 8.03-14.84) for GGG5. Similar patterns were observed regardless of the type of primary cancer treatment received or clinical stage. In summary, our study, with large, racially diverse populations that reflect real world experiences, demonstrates that the new five-tiered GGG system predicts PCSM well regardless of treatment received or clinical stage at diagnosis. In this report we examined prostate cancer mortality using the new five-tiered cancer grading system using data for a large US population. We found that the new five-tiered cancer grading system can predict prostate cancer-specific mortality well, regardless of the type of primary cancer treatment and clinical stage. We conclude that this new five-tiered cancer grading system is useful in guiding treatment decisions. Copyright © 2016 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Is the tier-1 effect assessment for herbicides protective for aquatic algae and vascular plant communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijngaarden, René P A; Arts, Gertie H P

    2018-01-01

    In the aquatic tier-1 effect assessment for plant protection products with an herbicidal mode of action in Europe, it is usually algae and/or vascular plants that determine the environmental risks. This tier includes tests with at least 2 algae and 1 macrophyte (Lemna). Although such tests are considered to be of a chronic nature (based on the duration of the test in relation to the life cycle of the organism), the measurement endpoints derived from the laboratory tests with plants (including algae) and used in the first-tier effect assessment for herbicides are acute effect concentrations affecting 50% of the test organisms (EC50 values) and not no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) or effect concentrations affecting 10% of the test organisms (EC10) values. Other European legislative frameworks (e.g., the Water Framework Directive) use EC10 values. The present study contributes to a validation of the tiered herbicide risk assessment approach by comparing the standard first-tier effect assessment with results of microcosm and mesocosm studies. We evaluated EC50 and EC10 values for standard test algae and macrophytes based on either the growth rate endpoint (E r C50) or the lowest available endpoint for growth rate or biomass/yield (E r /E y C50). These values were compared with the regulatory acceptable concentrations for the threshold option as derived from microcosm and mesocosm studies. For these studies, protection is maintained if growth rate is taken as the regulatory endpoint instead of the lowest value of either growth rate or biomass/yield in conjunction with the standard assessment factor of 10. Based on a limited data set of 14 herbicides, we did not identify a need to change the current practice. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:175-183. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  10. Setting up a STAR Tier 2 Site at Golias/Prague Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Petr; Jakl, Pavel; Kapitán, Jan; Zerola, Michal; Lauret, Jérôme; STAR Collaboration

    2010-04-01

    High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) collaborations' experience show that the computing resources available at a single site are often neither sufficient nor satisfy the need of remote collaborators eager to carry their analysis in the fastest and most convenient way. From latencies in the network connectivity to the lack of interactivity, work at distant computing centers is often inefficient. Having fully functional software stack on local resources is a strong enabler of science opportunities for any local group who can afford the time investment. The situation becomes more complex as vast amount of data are often needed to perform meaningful analysis. Prague's heavy-ions group participating in STAR experiment at RHIC has been a strong advocate of local computing as the most efficient means of data processing and physics analyses. To create an environment where science can freely thrive, a Tier 2 computing center was set up at a Regional Computing Center for Particle Physics called "Golias". It is the biggest farm in the Czech Republic fully dedicated for particle physics experiments. We report on our experience in setting up a fully functional Tier 2 center leveraging the minimal locally available human and financial resources. We discuss the solutions chosen to address storage space and analysis issues and the impact on the farms overall functionality. This includes a locally built STAR analysis framework, integration with a local DPM system (a cost effective storage solution), the influence of the availability and quality of the network connection to Tier 0 via a dedicated CESNET/ESnet link and the development of light-weight yet fully automated data transfer tools allowing the movement of entire datasets from BNL (Tier 0) to Golias (Tier 2). We will summarize the impact of the gained computing performance on the efficiency of the local physics group at offline physics analysis and show the feasibility of such a solution that can used by other groups as well.

  11. Ecological Risk Assessment of a Metal-Contaminated Area in the Tropics. Tier II: Detailed Assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Carina Niemeyer

    Full Text Available This study presents data on the detailed evaluation (tier 2 of a site-specific ecological risk assessment (ssERA in a former smelter area contaminated with metals (Santo Amaro, Bahia, Brazil. Combining information from three lines of evidence (LoE, chemical (ChemLoE, ecotoxicological (EcotoxLoE and ecological (EcoLoE, in the Triad approach, integrated risk values were calculated to rank sites and confirm the potential risk disclosed with tier 1. Risk values were calculated for the habitat and for the retention functions in each sampling point. Habitat function included the ChemLoE calculated from total metal concentrations. The EcotoxLoE was based on reproduction tests with terrestrial invertebrates (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus, Eisenia andrei, shoot length and plant biomass (Avena sativa, Brassica rapa. For the EcoLoE, ecological parameters (microbial parameters, soil invertebrate community, litter breakdown were used to derive risk values. Retention function included the ChemLoE, calculated from extractable metal concentrations, and the EcotoxLoE based on eluate tests with aquatic organisms (Daphnia magna reproduction and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata growth. Results related to the habitat function indicated that the metal residues are sufficient to cause risk to biota, while the low metal levels in extracts and the general lack of toxicity in aquatic tests indicated a high soil retention capacity in most sampling points. Integrated risk of tier 2 showed the same trend of tier 1, suggesting the need to proceed with remediation actions. The high risk levels were related to direct toxicity to organisms and indirect effects, such as failure in the establishment of vegetation and the consequent loss of habitat quality for microorganisms and soil fauna. This study shed some light on the selection of tools for the tier 2 of an ssERA in tropical metal-contaminated sites, focusing on ecological receptors at risk and using available

  12. Newborn screening for citrin deficiency and carnitine uptake defect using second-tier molecular tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-Yun

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS analysis is a powerful tool for newborn screening, and many rare inborn errors of metabolism are currently screened using MS/MS. However, the sensitivity of MS/MS screening for several inborn errors, including citrin deficiency (screened by citrulline level and carnitine uptake defect (CUD, screened by free carnitine level, is not satisfactory. This study was conducted to determine whether a second-tier molecular test could improve the sensitivity of citrin deficiency and CUD detection without increasing the false-positive rate. Methods Three mutations in the SLC25A13 gene (for citrin deficiency and one mutation in the SLC22A5 gene (for CUD were analyzed in newborns who demonstrated an inconclusive primary screening result (with levels between the screening and diagnostic cutoffs. Results The results revealed that 314 of 46 699 newborns received a second-tier test for citrin deficiency, and two patients were identified; 206 of 30 237 newborns received a second-tier testing for CUD, and one patient was identified. No patients were identified using the diagnostic cutoffs. Although the incidences for citrin deficiency (1:23 350 and CUD (1:30 000 detected by screening are still lower than the incidences calculated from the mutation carrier rates, the second-tier molecular test increases the sensitivity of newborn screening for citrin deficiency and CUD without increasing the false-positive rate. Conclusions Utilizing a molecular second-tier test for citrin deficiency and carnitine transporter deficiency is feasible.

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Undergraduate Primary Teachers' Understanding of Ecological Footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liampa, Vasiliki; Malandrakis, George N.; Papadopoulou, Penelope; Pnevmatikos, Dimitrios

    2017-08-01

    This study focused on the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic instrument about the ecological footprint. Each question in the three-tier test comprised by; (a) the content tier, assessing content knowledge; (b) the reason tier, assessing explanatory knowledge; and (c) the confidence tier that differentiates lack of knowledge from misconception through the use of a certainty response index. Based on the literature, the propositional knowledge statements and the identified misconceptions of 97 student-teachers, a first version of the test was developed and subsequently administered to another group of 219 student-teachers from Primary and Early Childhood Education Departments. Due to the complexity of the ecological footprint concept, and that it is a newly introduced concept, unknown to the public, both groups have been previously exposed to relevant instruction. Experts in the field established face and content validity. The reliability, in terms of Cronbach's alpha, was found adequate (α = 0.839), and the test-retest reliability, as indicated by Pearson r, was also satisfactory (0.554). The mean performance of the students was 56.24% in total score, 59.75% in content tiers and 48.05% in reason tiers. A variety of concepts about the ecological footprint were also observed. The test can help educators to understand the alternative views that students hold about the ecological footprint concept and assist them in developing the concept through appropriately designed teaching methods and materials.

  14. Prevalence of syphilis infection in different tiers of female sex workers in China: implications for surveillance and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiang-Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis has made a dramatic resurgence in China during the past two decades and become the third most prevalent notifiable infectious disease in China. Female sex workers (FSWs have become one of key populations for the epidemic. In order to investigate syphilis infection among different tiers of FSWs, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 8 sites in China. Methods Serum specimens (n = 7,118 were collected to test for syphilis and questionnaire interviews were conducted to obtain socio-demographic and behavioral information among FSWs recruited from different types of venues. FSWs were categorized into three tiers (high-, middle- and low-tier FSWs based on the venues where they solicited clients. Serum specimens were screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for treponemal antibody followed by confirmation with non-treponemal toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST for positive ELISA specimens to determine syphilis infection. A logistic regression model was used to determine factors associated with syphilis infection. Results Overall syphilis prevalence was 5.0% (95%CI, 4.5-5.5%. Low-tier FSWs had the highest prevalence (9.7%; 95%CI, 8.3-11.1%, followed by middle-tier (4.3%; 95%CI, 3.6-5.0%, P P Conclusions This multi-site survey showed a high prevalence of syphilis infection among FSWs and substantial disparities in syphilis prevalence by the tier of FSWs. The difference in syphilis prevalence is substantial between different tiers of FSWs, with the highest rate among low-tier FSWs. Thus, current surveillance and intervention activities, which have low coverage in low-tier FSWs in China, should be further examined.

  15. Exercise-induced cardiac remodeling in non-elite endurance athletes: Comparison of 2-tiered and 4-tiered classification of left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Lukas D; Ryffel, Christoph P; De Marchi, Stefano; Seiler, Christian; Brugger, Nicolas; Eser, Prisca; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Long-term endurance sport practice leads to eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). We aimed to compare the new 4-tiered classification (4TC) for LVH with the established 2-tiered classification (2TC) in a cohort of normotensive non-elite endurance athletes. Male participants of a 10-mile race were recruited and included when blood pressure (BP) was normal (athletes recruited, 174 were included. Mean age was 41.6±7.5 years. Forty-two (24%) athletes had LVH. Allocation in the 2TC was: 32 (76%) eccentric LVH and 10 (24%) concentric LVH. Using the 4TC 12 were reclassified to concentric LVH, and 2 to eccentric LVH, resulting in 22 (52%) eccentric LVH (7 non-dilated, 15 dilated), and 20 (48%) concentric LVH (all non-dilated). Based on the 2TC, markers of endurance training did not differ between eccentric and concentric LVH. Based on the 4TC, athletes with eccentric LVH had more cumulative training hours and faster race times, with highest values thereof in athletes with eccentric dilated LVH. In our cohort of normotensive endurance athletes, the new 4TC demonstrated a superior discrimination of exercise-induced LVH patterns, compared to the established 2TC, most likely because it takes three-dimensional information of the ventricular geometry into account.

  16. Mesocosm soil ecological risk assessment tool for GMO 2nd tier studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Maraldo, Kristine; Larsen, Thomas

    Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) of GMO is basically identical to ERA of chemical substances, when it comes to assessing specific effects of the GMO plant material on the soil ecosystem. The tiered approach always includes the option of studying more complex but still realistic ecosystem level...... effects in 2nd tier caged experimental systems, cf. the new GMO ERA guidance: EFSA Journal 2010; 8(11):1879. We propose to perform a trophic structure analysis, TSA, and include the trophic structure as an ecological endpoint to gain more direct insight into the change in interactions between species, i.......e. the food-web structure, instead of relying only on the indirect evidence from population abundances. The approach was applied for effect assessment in the agro-ecosystem where we combined factors of elevated CO2, viz. global climate change, and GMO plant effects. A multi-species (Collembola, Acari...

  17. ATLAS Tier-2 at the Compute Resource Center GoeGrid in Göttingen

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Weber, P

    2010-01-01

    GoeGrid is a grid resource center located in Goettingen, Germany. The resources are commonly used, funded, and maintained by communities doing research in the fields grid development, computer science, biomedicine, high energy physics, theoretical physics, astrophysics, and the humanities. For the high energy physics community GoeGrid serves as a Tier-2 center for the ATLAS experiment as part of the world-wide LHC computing grid (WLCG). The status and performance of the Tier-2 center will be presented with a focus on the interdisciplinary setup and administration of the cluster. Given the various requirements of the different communities on the hardware and software setup the challenge of the common operation of the cluster will be detailed. The benefits are an efficient use of computer and manpower resources. Further interdisciplinary projects are commonly organized courses for students of all fields to support education on grid-computing.

  18. ATLAS Tier-2 at the Compute Resource Center GoeGrid in Goettingen

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Weber, P

    2011-01-01

    GoeGrid is a grid resource center located in G¨ottingen, Germany. The resources are commonly used, funded, and maintained by communities doing research in the fields grid development, computer science, biomedicine, high energy physics, theoretical physics, astrophysics, and the humanities. For the high energy physics community GoeGrid serves as a Tier-2 center for the ATLAS experiment as part of the world-wide LHC computing grid (WLCG). The status and performance of the Tier-2 center is presented with a focus on the interdisciplinary setup and administration of the cluster. Given the various requirements of the different communities on the hardware and software setup the challenge of the common operation of the cluster is detailed. The benefits are an efficient use of computer and manpower resources.

  19. ATLAS Tier-2 at the Compute Resource Center GoeGrid in Gettingen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Jörg; Quadt, Arnulf; Weber, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    GoeGrid is a grid resource center located in Gettingen, Germany. The resources are commonly used, funded, and maintained by communities doing research in the fields of grid development, computer science, biomedicine, high energy physics, theoretical physics, astrophysics, and the humanities. For the high energy physics community, GoeGrid serves as a Tier-2 center for the ATLAS experiment as part of the world-wide LHC computing grid (WLCG). The status and performance of the Tier-2 center is presented with a focus on the interdisciplinary setup and administration of the cluster. Given the various requirements of the different communities on the hardware and software setup the challenge of the common operation of the cluster is detailed. The benefits are an efficient use of computer and personpower resources.

  20. Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of Washington, Columbia Basin Research, DART Project Staff, (University of Washington, School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, Seattle, WA)

    2004-12-01

    The Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus (Contract 00004124) provides direct and timely public access to Columbia Basin environmental, operational, fishery and riverine data resources for federal, state, public and private entities essential to sound operational and resource management. The database also assists with juvenile and adult mainstem passage modeling supporting federal decisions affecting the operation of the FCRPS. The Second-Tier Database known as Data Access in Real Time (DART) integrates public data for effective access, consideration and application. DART also provides analysis tools and performance measures for evaluating the condition of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks. These services are critical to BPA's implementation of its fish and wildlife responsibilities under the Endangered Species Act (ESA).

  1. The Use of Proxy Caches for File Access in a Multi-Tier Grid Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, R; Duellmann, D; Ganis, G; Janyst, L; Peters, A J; Rademakers, F; Sindrilaru, E; Hanushevsky, A

    2011-01-01

    The use of proxy caches has been extensively studied in the HEP environment for efficient access of database data and showed significant performance with only very moderate operational effort at higher grid tiers (T2, T3). In this contribution we propose to apply the same concept to the area of file access and analyse the possible performance gains, operational impact on site services and applicability to different HEP use cases. Base on a proof-of-concept studies with a modified XROOT proxy server we review the cache efficiency and overheads for access patterns of typical ROOT based analysis programs. We conclude with a discussion of the potential role of this new component at the different tiers of a distributed computing grid.

  2. Middle Tier Services Accessing the Chandra X-Ray Center Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patz, A.; Harbo, P.; Moran, J.; van Stone, D.; Zografou, P.

    The Chandra Data Archive team at the Chandra X-ray Center has developed middle tier services that are used by both our search and retrieval applications to uniformly access our data repository. Accessible through an HTTP URL interface, these services can be called by our J2EE web application (WebChaser) and our Java Swing application (Chaser), as well as any other HTTP client. Programs can call the services to retrieve observation data such as a single FITS file, a proposal abstract or a detailed report of observation parameters. Having a central interface to the archive, shared by client applications, facilitates code reusability and easier maintenance. These middle tier services have been written in Java and packaged into a single J2EE application called the Search and Retrieval (SR) Services. The package consists of a web application front-end and an Enterprise Java Beans back-end. This paper describes the design and use of the SR Services.

  3. CERN’s job diversity on display at the Cité des Métiers

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2015-01-01

    From 3 to 8 November, CERN took part in the Cité des Métiers careers fair in Geneva. Almost 10,000 people stopped by the Organization’s stand, where they were introduced to the wide range of professions practised at CERN.   Stefano Agosta, a telecommunications expert from the IT department, performs a geolocalisation demonstration with digital radio receivers for visitors to the CERN stand. Network engineering, computer graphics, geomatics, translation, video production, fire and rescue, law, computer-aided design… People often don’t realise how varied the job opportunities are at CERN. More than one hundred professions are present at the Laboratory. This was the message conveyed by representatives of various departments, including human resources and the visits service, at the CERN stand at the Cité des Métiers careers fair, from 3 to 8 November. CERN’s stand was part of the International Geneva section of the ...

  4. ATLAS off-Grid sites (Tier-3) monitoring. From local fabric monitoring to global overview of the VO computing activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosyan, Artem; Oleynik, Danila; Belov, Sergey; Andreeva, Julia; Kadochnikov, Ivan

    2012-12-01

    ATLAS is an LHC (Large Hadron Collider) experiment at the CERN particle physics laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland. The ATLAS Computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and originally included three levels of computing centers, in order to handle data volumes of multiple petabytes per year. With the formation of small computing centers, usually based at universities, the model was expanded to include them as Tier-3 sites. Tier-3 centers comprise a range of architectures and many do not possess Grid middleware, thus, monitoring of storage usage and analysis software is not possible for the typical Tier-3 site system administrator, similarly, Tier-3 site activity is not available for the virtual organization of the experiment. In this paper an ATLAS off-Grid site-monitoring software suite is presented. The software suite enables monitoring of sites not covered by the ATLAS Distributed Computing software.

  5. An Analysis of Second-Tier Arms Producing Countries' Offset Policies: Technology Transfer and Defense Industrial Base Establishment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Confer, Brian S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine if offsets are an effective means of second-tier countries acquiring technology and if offsets enhance their ability to establish and maintain an industrial...

  6. An Analysis of the Balance of Management, Technical and Leadership Progression through the Three USAF Officer Tiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Horn, Matthew J. H

    2007-01-01

    ... as the proportional emphasis of the three areas in each of the three officer tiers. The questions were answered through a comprehensive literature review and a review of current professional military education (PME...

  7. A Multidatabase System as 4-Tiered Client-Server Distributed Heterogeneous Database System

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Mohammad Ghulam

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a multidatabase system as 4-tiered Client-Server DBMS architectures. We discuss their functional components and provide an overview of their performance characteristics. The first component of this proposed system is a web-based interface or Graphical User Interface, which resides on top of the Client Application Program, the second component of the system is a client Application program running in an application server, which resides on top of the Global Database M...

  8. Tier 1 evolution in response to experiment data model changes in LCG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, S de; Huang, J W

    2014-01-01

    Changes in experiment data models are having a significant impact on the operations of the Tier 1's within WLCG. In this paper we look at how two sites, ASGC and RAL, have evolved to meet the specific request to separate the tape and disk systems for user jobs. We discuss the solutions chosen at the two sites, why the decisions were made and discuss the work required to implement, migrate to and support these solutions.

  9. Manpower Management: No Tiered Readiness - Enabling The Nation’s Force in Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    receives input from training centers to best match Marines to the needs of the Marine Corps. In the pure sense , the Recruit Distribution Model...ideal of no tiered readiness. This approach discounts that personnel movement is not a problem. It assumes Marines are able to compress training...WASHINGTON DC MRA MM /MMEA-12// SUBJ/DEPLOYING UNITS NOTIFICATION AND ACTIONS UPDATE// REF/A/DOC/MARFORCOM FORCE SYNCHRONIZATION PLAYBOOK AND SLIDER

  10. Change, resistance and coping: a study of first tier managers in further education

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Damien

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents findings from a study of first tier managers (FTMs) in Further Education colleges, a role that has been largely neglected by the extant literature. The study investigated the role in four general FE colleges and adopted a case study approach, employing semi-structured interviews as the main research method. The findings suggest that the FTM role is extremely diverse and heterogeneous, elastic and poorly understood. Yet FTMs themselves enjoyed a high degree of autonomy in ...

  11. Mathematical modelling and analysis for a three-tiered microbial food web in a chemostat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miled El hajji

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we present a mathematical six-dimensional dynamical system involving a three-tiered microbial food web without maintenance. We give a qualitative analysis of the model, and an analysis of the local stability of equilibrium points. Under general assumptions of monotonicity, we prove the uniqueness and the local stability of the positive equilibrium point corresponding to the persistence of the three bacteria. Possibilities of periodic orbits are not excluded and asymptotic coexistence is satisfied.

  12. Handoff Rate and Coverage Analysis in Multi-tier Heterogeneous Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sadr, Sanam; Adve, Raviraj S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of user mobility in multi-tier heterogeneous networks. We begin by obtaining the handoff rate for a mobile user in an irregular cellular network with the access point locations modeled as a homogeneous Poisson point process. The received signal-to-interference-ratio (SIR) distribution along with a chosen SIR threshold is then used to obtain the probability of coverage. To capture potential connection failures due to mobility, we assume that a fraction of handoff...

  13. Tier One Performance Screen Initial Operational Test and Evaluation: 2014 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    16 Table 4.2. Reliability Estimates of the Job Knowledge Tests (JKTs) in the IMT and In- Unit Validation Samples...for the IMT and in-unit samples. Table 4.2. Reliability Estimates of the Job Knowledge Tests (JKTs) in the IMT and In-Unit Validation Samples...Descriptive Statistics for Job Knowledge Tests (JKTs) in the In-Unit Validation Sample by Education Tier

  14. Energy efficient distributed cluster head scheduling scheme for two tiered wireless sensor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kannan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Sensor Network (WSN provides a significant contribution in the emerging fields such as ambient intelligence and ubiquitous computing. In WSN, optimization and load balancing of network resources are critical concern to provide the intelligence for long duration. Since clustering the sensor nodes can significantly enhance overall system scalability and energy efficiency this paper presents a distributed cluster head scheduling (DCHS algorithm to achieve the network longevity in WSN. The major novelty of this work is that the network is divided into primary and secondary tiers based on received signal strength indication of sensor nodes from the base station. The proposed DCHS supports for two tier WSN architecture and gives suggestion to elect the cluster head nodes and gateway nodes for both primary and secondary tiers. The DCHS mechanism satisfies an ideal distribution of the cluster head among the sensor nodes and avoids frequent selection of cluster head, based on Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI and residual energy level of the sensor nodes. Since the RSSI is the key parameter for this paper, the practical experiment was conducted to measure RSSI value by using MSP430F149 processor and CC2500 transceiver. The measured RSSI values were given input to the event based simulator to test the DCHS mechanism. The real time experimental study validated the proposed scheme for various scenarios.

  15. Changing the batch system in a Tier 1 computing center: why and how

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chierici, Andrea; Dal Pra, Stefano

    2014-06-01

    At the Italian Tierl Center at CNAF we are evaluating the possibility to change the current production batch system. This activity is motivated mainly because we are looking for a more flexible licensing model as well as to avoid vendor lock-in. We performed a technology tracking exercise and among many possible solutions we chose to evaluate Grid Engine as an alternative because its adoption is increasing in the HEPiX community and because it's supported by the EMI middleware that we currently use on our computing farm. Another INFN site evaluated Slurm and we will compare our results in order to understand pros and cons of the two solutions. We will present the results of our evaluation of Grid Engine, in order to understand if it can fit the requirements of a Tier 1 center, compared to the solution we adopted long ago. We performed a survey and a critical re-evaluation of our farming infrastructure: many production softwares (accounting and monitoring on top of all) rely on our current solution and changing it required us to write new wrappers and adapt the infrastructure to the new system. We believe the results of this investigation can be very useful to other Tier-ls and Tier-2s centers in a similar situation, where the effort of switching may appear too hard to stand. We will provide guidelines in order to understand how difficult this operation can be and how long the change may take.

  16. Training Future Dentists for an Academic Career: A Three-Tiered Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Zsuzsa; Albani, Sarah E; Wankiiri-Hale, Christine

    2016-05-01

    The anticipated shortage of dental faculty presents a challenge for dental education as it will greatly impact the training of the next generation of practicing dentists. One way to alleviate shortages is to identify students who are interested in an academic career at the predoctoral level and provide them with training in teaching, research, and leadership. Based on available evidence, formal programs offer the best way to introduce students to academia as a viable career path. A well-designed program can also equip interested students with the necessary skills and basic knowledge to facilitate starting an academic career. The University of Pittsburgh School of Dental Medicine has developed a three-tiered model for providing its dental students with exposure to and training in academic dentistry. The three tiers reflect differing levels of commitment: 1) a two-year academic career track program, 2) academic career track elective courses, and 3) extracurricular activities. The aim of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the program's overall effectiveness. Data were collected using student and faculty surveys and student applications for the two-year academic career track program. The data gathered included characteristics of, and feedback from, students taking the elective courses, as well as student and faculty feedback about student teacher effectiveness. The study found overall positive responses to the three-tiered program from faculty, students, and student teachers at this initial stage. Whether these students ultimately become faculty members (the ultimate goal of the program) will be assessed in the future.

  17. Status of forensic odontology in metro and in tier 2 city in urban India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, Parul; Chandra, Shaleen; Raj, Vineet; Verma, Poonam; Subha, G; Khare, Abhishek

    2013-07-01

    Dentist can play a significant role in identifying the victims or perpetrators of crime as well as in disasters. Knowledge about the various aspects of forensic science as well as dental and related evidences can help a dental practitioner in assisting the civil agencies in such cases. To evaluate the awareness and knowledge of forensic odontology among dentists in a metropolitan and a tier 2 city. Seven hundred and seventy four dentists were included in this survey. Questionnaire was designed to assess the knowledge, aptitude, and status of practice of forensic odontology. Data was analyzed by comparing overall awareness of forensic odontology among dentists in metro and tier 2 city as well as between the different groups. Apart from the source of knowledge, no significant differences were seen in respondents of metropolitan and tier 2 city. Significantly higher proportion of subjects in metro reported journals as source of knowledge (P odontology in routine practice; hence, steps must be taken to educate the dental practitioners about its clinical applications.

  18. Collusion-Aware Privacy-Preserving Range Query in Tiered Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are indispensable building blocks for the Internet of Things (IoT. With the development of WSNs, privacy issues have drawn more attention. Existing work on the privacy-preserving range query mainly focuses on privacy preservation and integrity verification in two-tiered WSNs in the case of compromisedmaster nodes, but neglects the damage of node collusion. In this paper, we propose a series of collusion-aware privacy-preserving range query protocols in two-tiered WSNs. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to consider collusion attacks for a range query in tiered WSNs while fulfilling the preservation of privacy and integrity. To preserve the privacy of data and queries, we propose a novel encoding scheme to conceal sensitive information. To preserve the integrity of the results, we present a verification scheme using the correlation among data. In addition, two schemes are further presented to improve result accuracy and reduce communication cost. Finally, theoretical analysis and experimental results confirm the efficiency, accuracy and privacy of our proposals.

  19. Fuzzy-logic based Q-Learning interference management algorithms in two-tier networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Xu, Zezhong; Li, Li; Zheng, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Unloading from macrocell network and enhancing coverage can be realized by deploying femtocells in the indoor scenario. However, the system performance of the two-tier network could be impaired by the co-tier and cross-tier interference. In this paper, a distributed resource allocation scheme is studied when each femtocell base station is self-governed and the resource cannot be assigned centrally through the gateway. A novel Q-Learning interference management scheme is proposed, that is divided into cooperative and independent part. In the cooperative algorithm, the interference information is exchanged between the cell-edge users which are classified by the fuzzy logic in the same cell. Meanwhile, we allocate the orthogonal subchannels to the high-rate cell-edge users to disperse the interference power when the data rate requirement is satisfied. The resource is assigned directly according to the minimum power principle in the independent algorithm. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the significant performance improvements in terms of the average data rate, interference power and energy efficiency over the cutting-edge resource allocation algorithms.

  20. VM-based infrastructure for simulating different cluster and storage solutions used on ATLAS tier3 sites

    CERN Document Server

    KUTOUSKI, M; The ATLAS collaboration; PETROSYAN, A; KADOCHNIKOV, I; BELOV, S; KORENKOV, V

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment on Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The experiment produces petabytes of data every year. The ATLAS Computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and originally included three levels of computing centres to be able to operate such large volume of data. With the formation of small computing centres, usually based at universities, the model was expanded to include them as Tier3 sites. The experiment supplies all necessary software to operate typical Grid-site, but Tier3 sites do not support Grid services of the experiment or support them partially. Tier3 centres comprise a range of architectures and many do not possess Grid middleware, thus, monitoring of storage and analysis software used on Tier2 sites becomes unavailable for Tier3 site system administrator and, also, Tier3 sites activity becomes unavailable for virtual organization of the experiment. In this paper we present ATLAS off-Grid sites monitoring software suite, which enables monitoring on sites, which are not unde...

  1. ATLAS off-Grid sites (Tier 3) monitoring. From local fabric monitoring to global overview of the VO computing activities

    CERN Document Server

    PETROSYAN, A; The ATLAS collaboration; BELOV, S; ANDREEVA, J; KADOCHNIKOV, I

    2012-01-01

    ATLAS is a particle physics experiment on Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The experiment produces petabytes of data every year. The ATLAS Computing model embraces the Grid paradigm and originally included three levels of computing centres to be able to operate such large volume of data. With the formation of small computing centres, usually based at universities, the model was expanded to include them as Tier3 sites. The experiment supplies all necessary software to operate typical Grid-site, but Tier3 sites do not support Grid services of the experiment or support them partially. Tier3 centres comprise a range of architectures and many do not possess Grid middleware, thus, monitoring of storage and analysis software used on Tier2 sites becomes unavailable for Tier3 site system administrator and, also, Tier3 sites activity becomes unavailable for virtual organization of the experiment. In this paper we present ATLAS off-Grid sites monitoring software suite, which enables monitoring on sites, which are not unde...

  2. Assessing the Nutritional Quality of Diets of Canadian Adults Using the 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool Tier System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Jessri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 Health Canada Surveillance Tool (HCST was developed to assess adherence of dietary intakes with Canada’s Food Guide. HCST classifies foods into one of four Tiers based on thresholds for sodium, total fat, saturated fat and sugar, with Tier 1 representing the healthiest and Tier 4 foods being the unhealthiest. This study presents the first application of HCST to assess (a dietary patterns of Canadians; and (b applicability of this tool as a measure of diet quality among 19,912 adult participants of Canadian Community Health Survey 2.2. Findings indicated that even though most of processed meats and potatoes were Tier 4, the majority of reported foods in general were categorized as Tiers 2 and 3 due to the adjustable lenient criteria used in HCST. Moving from the 1st to the 4th quartile of Tier 4 and “other” foods/beverages, there was a significant trend towards increased calories (1876 kcal vs. 2290 kcal and “harmful” nutrients (e.g., sodium as well as decreased “beneficial” nutrients. Compliance with the HCST was not associated with lower body mass index. Future nutrient profiling systems need to incorporate both “positive” and “negative” nutrients, an overall score and a wider range of nutrient thresholds to better capture food product differences.

  3. Testing SLURM open source batch system for a Tierl/Tier2 HEP computing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donvito, Giacinto; Italiano, Alessandro; Salomoni, Davide

    2014-01-01

    In this work the testing activities that were carried on to verify if the SLURM batch system could be used as the production batch system of a typical Tier1/Tier2 HEP computing center are shown. SLURM (Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management) is an Open Source batch system developed mainly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, SchedMD, Linux NetworX, Hewlett-Packard, and Groupe Bull. Testing was focused both on verifying the functionalities of the batch system and the performance that SLURM is able to offer. We first describe our initial set of requirements. Functionally, we started configuring SLURM so that it replicates all the scheduling policies already used in production in the computing centers involved in the test, i.e. INFN-Bari and the INFN-Tier1 at CNAF, Bologna. Currently, the INFN-Tier1 is using IBM LSF (Load Sharing Facility), while INFN-Bari, an LHC Tier2 for both CMS and Alice, is using Torque as resource manager and MAUI as scheduler. We show how we configured SLURM in order to enable several scheduling functionalities such as Hierarchical FairShare, Quality of Service, user-based and group-based priority, limits on the number of jobs per user/group/queue, job age scheduling, job size scheduling, and scheduling of consumable resources. We then show how different job typologies, like serial, MPI, multi-thread, whole-node and interactive jobs can be managed. Tests on the use of ACLs on queues or in general other resources are then described. A peculiar SLURM feature we also verified is triggers on event, useful to configure specific actions on each possible event in the batch system. We also tested highly available configurations for the master node. This feature is of paramount importance since a mandatory requirement in our scenarios is to have a working farm cluster even in case of hardware failure of the server(s) hosting the batch system. Among our requirements there is also the possibility to deal with pre-execution and post

  4. Testing SLURM open source batch system for a Tierl/Tier2 HEP computing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donvito, Giacinto; Salomoni, Davide; Italiano, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    In this work the testing activities that were carried on to verify if the SLURM batch system could be used as the production batch system of a typical Tier1/Tier2 HEP computing center are shown. SLURM (Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management) is an Open Source batch system developed mainly by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, SchedMD, Linux NetworX, Hewlett-Packard, and Groupe Bull. Testing was focused both on verifying the functionalities of the batch system and the performance that SLURM is able to offer. We first describe our initial set of requirements. Functionally, we started configuring SLURM so that it replicates all the scheduling policies already used in production in the computing centers involved in the test, i.e. INFN-Bari and the INFN-Tier1 at CNAF, Bologna. Currently, the INFN-Tier1 is using IBM LSF (Load Sharing Facility), while INFN-Bari, an LHC Tier2 for both CMS and Alice, is using Torque as resource manager and MAUI as scheduler. We show how we configured SLURM in order to enable several scheduling functionalities such as Hierarchical FairShare, Quality of Service, user-based and group-based priority, limits on the number of jobs per user/group/queue, job age scheduling, job size scheduling, and scheduling of consumable resources. We then show how different job typologies, like serial, MPI, multi-thread, whole-node and interactive jobs can be managed. Tests on the use of ACLs on queues or in general other resources are then described. A peculiar SLURM feature we also verified is triggers on event, useful to configure specific actions on each possible event in the batch system. We also tested highly available configurations for the master node. This feature is of paramount importance since a mandatory requirement in our scenarios is to have a working farm cluster even in case of hardware failure of the server(s) hosting the batch system. Among our requirements there is also the possibility to deal with pre-execution and post

  5. A tiered risk-based approach for predicting diffuse and point source phosphorus losses in agricultural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heathwaite, A L; Dils, R M; Liu, S; Carvalho, L; Brazier, R E; Pope, L; Hughes, M; Phillips, G; May, L

    2005-05-15

    Implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive requires an assessment of the pressures from human activity, which, combined with information on the sensitivity of the receiving waterbody to the pressures, will identify those water bodies at risk of failing to meet the Directive's environmental objectives. Part of the process of undertaking the risk assessment for lakes is an assessment of diffuse agricultural phosphorus (P) pressures. Three approaches of increasing sophistication were developed for this purpose: a basic 'risk screening' approach (tier 1) applicable to all lakes in Great Britain (GB) and based on export coefficients for different land cover classes and animal types; the Pressure Delivery Risk Screening Matrix approach (tier 2) that differentiated between pressures in surface water and groundwater river basins; and the Phosphorus Indicators Tool (PIT), a simple model of locational risk and P delivery potential (tier 3). Application of the three approaches to a range of lake catchments in England demonstrated that a tiered risk assessment approach was appropriate which was tailored to the quality of the available data. A step-wise procedure was developed whereby if the tier 1 and 2 approaches showed a catchment to be at high risk of failing to meet the Directive's environmental objectives with regard to P, it was justifiable to undertake a more detailed assessment using the tier 3 approach. The tier 1 approach was applied to all lakes in GB greater than 1 ha in size on the assumption that the boundary between the good/moderate status classes under the Water Framework Directive guidelines represented a doubling of the total P (TP) reference conditions. The initial outputs suggested that 51% of lakes in GB are predicted to not meet the TP targets identified for high or good status and must, therefore, be considered at risk. There were regional differences in numbers of lakes at risk. Scotland appeared to have the fewest sites at risk (18

  6. A tiered asthma hazard characterization and exposure assessment approach for evaluation of consumer product ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Andrew; Vincent, Melissa J; Parker, Ann; Gadagbui, Bernard K; Jayjock, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a complex syndrome with significant consequences for those affected. The number of individuals affected is growing, although the reasons for the increase are uncertain. Ensuring the effective management of potential exposures follows from substantial evidence that exposure to some chemicals can increase the likelihood of asthma responses. We have developed a safety assessment approach tailored to the screening of asthma risks from residential consumer product ingredients as a proactive risk management tool. Several key features of the proposed approach advance the assessment resources often used for asthma issues. First, a quantitative health benchmark for asthma or related endpoints (irritation and sensitization) is provided that extends qualitative hazard classification methods. Second, a parallel structure is employed to include dose-response methods for asthma endpoints and methods for scenario specific exposure estimation. The two parallel tracks are integrated in a risk characterization step. Third, a tiered assessment structure is provided to accommodate different amounts of data for both the dose-response assessment (i.e., use of existing benchmarks, hazard banding, or the threshold of toxicological concern) and exposure estimation (i.e., use of empirical data, model estimates, or exposure categories). Tools building from traditional methods and resources have been adapted to address specific issues pertinent to asthma toxicology (e.g., mode-of-action and dose-response features) and the nature of residential consumer product use scenarios (e.g., product use patterns and exposure durations). A case study for acetic acid as used in various sentinel products and residential cleaning scenarios was developed to test the safety assessment methodology. In particular, the results were used to refine and verify relationships among tiered approaches such that each lower data tier in the approach provides a similar or greater margin of safety for a given

  7. Initial recommendations for higher-tier risk assessment protocols for bumble bees, Bombus spp. (Hymenoptera: Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ana R; Almanza, Maria Teresa; Cutler, G Christopher; Fischer, David L; Hinarejos, Silvia; Lewis, Gavin; Nigro, Daniel; Olmstead, Allen; Overmyer, Jay; Potter, Daniel A; Raine, Nigel E; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Thompson, Helen; van der Steen, Jozef

    2016-04-01

    Global declines of bumble bees and other pollinator populations are of concern because of their critical role for crop production and maintenance of wild plant biodiversity. Although the consensus among scientists is that the interaction of many factors, including habitat loss, forage scarcity, diseases, parasites, and pesticides, potentially plays a role in causing these declines, pesticides have received considerable attention and scrutiny. In response, regulatory agencies have introduced more stringent pollinator testing requirements for registration and reregistration of pesticides, to ensure that the risks to pollinators are minimized. In this context, guidelines for testing bumble bees (Bombus spp.) in regulatory studies are not yet available, and a pressing need exists to develop suitable protocols for routine higher-tier studies with these non-Apis sp., social bees. To meet this need, Bayer CropScience LP, Syngenta Crop Protection LLC US, and Valent USA. Corporation organized a workshop bringing together a group of global experts on bumble bee behavior, ecology, and ecotoxicology to discuss and develop draft protocols for both semi-field (Tier II) and field (Tier III) studies. The workshop was held May 8-9, 2014, at the Bayer Bee Care Center, North Carolina, USA. The participants represented academic, consulting, and industry scientists from Europe, Canada, the United States, and Brazil. The workshop identified a clear protection goal and generated proposals for basic experimental designs, relevant measurements, and endpoints for both semifield (tunnel) and field tests. These initial recommendations are intended to form the basis of discussions to help advance the development of appropriate protocol guidelines. © 2015 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management Published by SETAC.

  8. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

    2007-03-01

    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in

  9. Effect of a 2-tier rapid response system on patient outcome and staff satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Leanne M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Vaux, Amanda; Crouch, Shannon; Burmeister, Elizabeth; Daly, Michael; Joyce, Chris

    2015-08-01

    Rapid response systems (RRS) have been recommended as a strategy to prevent and treat deterioration in acute care patients. Questions regarding the most effective characteristics of RRS and strategies for implementing these systems remain. The aims of this study were to (i) describe the structures and processes used to implement a 2-tier RRS, (ii) determine the comparative prevalence of deteriorating patients and incidence of unplanned intensive care unit (ICU) admission and cardiac arrest prior to and after implementation of the RRS, and (iii) determine clinician satisfaction with the RRS. A quasi-experimental pre-test, post-test design was used to assess patient related outcomes and clinician satisfaction prior to and after implementation of a 2-tier RRS in a tertiary metropolitan hospital. Primary components of the RRS included an ICU Outreach Nurse and a Rapid Response Team. Prevalence of deteriorating patients was assessed through a point prevalence assessment and chart audit. Incidence of unplanned admission to ICU and cardiac arrests were accessed from routine hospital databases. Clinician satisfaction was measured through surveys. Prevalence of patients who met medical emergency call criteria without current treatment reduced from 3% prior to RRS implementation to 1% after implementation; a similar reduction from 9% to 3% was identified on chart review. The number of unplanned admissions to ICU increased slightly from 17.4/month prior to RRS implementation to 18.1/month after implementation (p=0.45) while cardiac arrests reduced slightly from 7.5/month to 5.6/month (p=0.22) but neither of these changes were statistically significant. Staff satisfaction with the RRS was generally high. The 2-tier RRS was accessed by staff to assist with care of deteriorating patients in a large, tertiary hospital. High levels of satisfaction have been reported by clinical staff. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Technology Innovations to Improve Biomass Cookstoves to Meet Tier 4 Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Still, Dean K [Aprovecho Research Center, Cottage Grove, OR (United States); Hatfield, Micheal S [Aprovecho Research Center, Cottage Grove, OR (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Technology Innovations to Improve Biomass Cookstoves to Meet Tier 4 Standards. Protecting public health has become a major motivation for investigating how improved cook stoves might function as a viable intervention. Currently, the great majority of cookstoves for sale in the developing world were not designed for this purpose but instead success was based on criteria such as reduced fuel use, affordability, and ease of use. With DOE funding Aprovecho Research Center spent three years creating stoves using an iterative development and modeling approach resulting in four stoves that in lab tests met the World Health Organization (2014) intermediate rate vented targets for PM2.5 and for CO.

  11. Virtualizing Microsoft Tier 1 Applications with VMware vSphere 4

    CERN Document Server

    Windom, Charles A; Fontana, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Virtualize mission-critical Microsoft applications. How do you safely deploy Tier 1 apps in virtual environments? In this in-depth guide, VMware insiders Charles A. Windom, Hemant Gaidhani, and Alex Fontana show you how. Focusing on Microsoft applications, they guide you step by step through a Proof of Concept for virtualizing Windows Server, Active Directory, Internet Information Services, Exchange Server, SQL Server, SharePoint Server, and Remote Desktop Services—all on the VMware vSphere 4 platform. You'll find out what to consider for each application before you virtualize it, and learn ho

  12. The Impact of Supervisory Board Composition on CSR Reporting. Evidence from the German Two-Tier System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Dienes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR reporting is becoming increasingly relevant in light of modern corporate governance. There is growing activity among empirical research in one-tier systems that considers the link between board composition and CSR reporting. This study is the first of its kind on the German two-tier system with special regard for the supervisory board. We analyze gender diversity, expertise, the presence of former managers, frequency of meetings, and the size of the supervisory board. Our multiple regressions indicate that gender diversity has a positive impact on CSR disclosure intensity, which is in line with prior studies on one-tier systems. Our findings have implications for both users and public policy and suggest that current European corporate governance regulations could help to increase the decision usefulness of CSR reporting.

  13. Adult mortality patterns in the former Soviet Union's southern tier: Armenia and Georgia in comparative perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Duthé

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: While the health crisis in the former USSR has been well-documented in the case of Russia and other northern former Soviet republics, little is known about countries located in the southern tier of the region, i.e., the Caucasus and Central Asia. Objective: This paper presents new mortality information from two Caucasian countries, Georgia and Armenia. Results are compared with information from two relevant countries previously examined in the literature, Kyrgyzstan and Russia. Methods: Using official statistics (with adjustments when necessary, we compare adult mortality patterns in the four countries since 1979, for all causes and by cause for the recent period. For Kyrgyzstan results are presented by ethnicity, as its mortality levels have been impacted by its large Slavic population. Results: Adult mortality patterns in Armenia and Georgia have been more favorable than in Russia. This appears to be due to a large extent to lower mortality from alcohol-related causes. Mortality patterns in these Caucasian republics resemble those observed in Kyrgyzstan, especially when considering the native portion of the population. Conclusions: As far as mortality is concerned, Armenia and Georgia have weathered the collapse of the Soviet Union better than Russia. These results document a distinct southern tier pattern of adult mortality in the former Soviet Union. Contribution: This article enriches our understanding of the health crisis in the former Soviet Union by bringing new information from two lesser-known countries and further documenting the scale of heterogeneity in mortality experiences across this vast region.

  14. CERN apprenticeships honoured at the Cité des Métiers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Florian Métral, an electronics apprentice at CERN, accepting his prize at the award ceremony.CERN's exhibition stand at the Cité des Métiers et des Formations. CERN has just taken part in the Cité des Métiers et des Formations for the first time. This job and training fair, designed to assist both young people and adults in their choice of profession, training or career change, was held at Palexpo, Geneva's main exhibition centre, from 13 to 19 November. CERN had its own stand, where the Laboratory's activities and its many different trades and training opportunities were on display. Throughout the week and the weekend, a series of guides and members of the HR Department took it in turns to present CERN and the wide range of training it offers students and apprentices. Apprentices came into the spotlight on 13 November, when the Union Industrielle Genevoise awarded prizes to the eight most meritorious apprentices in the field of mecatronics (mechanical and electronics engineering) in the Canton of Gene...

  15. Predicting First Grade Reading Performance from Kindergarten Response to Tier 1 Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Folsom, Jessica S.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Wanzek, Jeanne; Greulich, Luana; Meadows, Jane; Li, Zhi; Connor, Carol M

    2010-01-01

    Many schools are beginning to implement multi-tier response to intervention (RTI) models for the prevention of reading difficulties and to assist in the identification of students with learning disabilities (LD). The present study was part of our larger ongoing longitudinal RTI investigation within the Florida Learning Disabilities Center grant. This study used a longitudinal correlational design, conducted in 7 ethnically and socio-economically diverse schools. We observed reading instruction in 20 classrooms, examined response rates to kindergarten Tier 1 instruction, and predicted students’ first grade reading performance based upon kindergarten growth and end of year reading performance (n = 203). Teachers followed an explicit core reading program and overall, classroom instruction was rated as effective. Results indicate that controlling for students’ end of kindergarten reading, their growth across kindergarten on a variety of language and literacy measures suppressed predictions of first grade performance. Specifically, the steeper the students’ trajectory to a satisfactory outcome, the less likely they were to demonstrate good performance in first grade. Implications for future research and RTI implementation are discussed. PMID:21857718

  16. Evaluation of eye irritation potential: statistical analysis and tier testing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, O; Cottin, M; Dami, N; Roguet, R; Catroux, P; Toufic, A; Sicard, C; Dossou, K G; Gerner, I; Schlede, E; Spielmann, H; Gupta, K C; Hills, R N

    1997-01-01

    Eye irritation testing, specifically the Draize test, has been the centre of controversy for many reasons. Several alternatives, based on the principles of reduction, refinement and replacement, have been proposed and are being used by the industry and government authorities. However, no universally applicable, validated non-animal alternative(s) is currently available. This report presents a statistical analysis and two testing approaches: the partial least squares multivariate statistical analysis of de Silva and colleagues from France, the tier-testing approach for regulatory purposes described by Gerner and colleagues from Germany, and the three-step tier-testing approach of the US Interagency Regulatory Alternatives Group described by Gupta and Hill. These approaches were presented as three separate papers at the November 1993 Interagency Regulatory Alternatives Group (IRAG) Workshop on Eye Irritation Testing; they have been summarized and combined into the following three-part report. The first part (de Silva et al.) presents statistical techniques for establishing test batteries of in vitro alternatives to the eye irritation test. The second (Gerner et al.) and third (Gupta and Hill) parts are similar in that they stage assessment of information by using a combination of screening information and animal testing to effect reductions in animal use and distress.

  17. The Instrument Implementation of Two-tier Multiple Choice to Analyze Students’ Science Process Skill Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarmin Sukarmin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to analyze the profile of students’ science process skill (SPS by using instrument two-tier multiple choice. This is a descriptive research that describes the profile of students’ SPS. Subjects of the research were 10th-grade students from high, medium and low categorized school. Instrument two-tier multiple choice consists of 30 question that contains an indicator of SPS. The indicator of SPS namely formulating a hypothesis, designing experiment, analyzing data, applying the concept, communicating, making a conclusion. Based on the result of the research and analysis, it shows that: 1 the average of indicator achievement of science process skill at high categorized school on formulating hypothesis is 74,55%, designing experiment is 74,89%, analyzing data is 67,89%, applying concept is 52,89%, communicating is 80,22%, making conclusion is 76%, 2. the average of indicator achievement of science process skill at medium categorized school on formulating hypothesis is 53,47%, designing experiment is 59,86%, analyzing data is 42,22%, applying concept is 33,19%, communicating is 76,25%, making conclusion is 61,53%, 3 the average of indicator achievement of science process skill at low categorized school on formulating hypothesis is 51%, designing experiment is 55,17%, analyzing data is 39,17%, applying concept is 35,83%, communicating is 58,83%, making conclusion is 58%.

  18. Performance analysis of coordination strategies in two-tier Heterogeneous Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Boukhedimi, Ikram

    2016-08-11

    Large scale multi-tier Heterogeneous Networks (HetNets) are expected to ensure a consistent quality of service (QoS) in 5G systems. Such networks consist of a macro base station (BS) equipped with a large number of antennas and a dense overlay of small cells. The small cells could be deployed within the same coverage of the macro-cell BS, thereby causing high levels of inter-cell interference. In this regard, coordinated beamforming techniques are considered as a viable solution to counteract the arising interference. The goal of this work is to analyze the efficiency of coordinated beamforming techniques in mitigating both intra-cell and inter-cell interference. In particular, we consider the downlink of a Time-division duplexing (TDD) massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) tier-HetNet and analyze different beamforming schemes together with different degrees of coordination between the BSs. We exploit random matrix theory tools in order to provide, in explicit form, deterministic equivalents for the average achievable rates in the macro-cell and the micro-cells. We prove that our theoretical derivations allow us to draw some conclusions regarding the role played by coordination strategies in reducing the inter-cell interference. These findings are finally validated by a selection of some numerical results. © 2016 IEEE.

  19. Three-tiered integration of PACS and HIS toward next generation total hospital information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J H; Lee, D H; Choi, J W; Cho, H I; Kang, H S; Yeon, K M; Han, M C

    1998-01-01

    The Seoul National University Hospital (SNUH) started a project to innovate the hospital information facilities. This project includes installation of high speed hospital network, development of new HIS, OCS (order communication system), RIS and PACS. This project aims at the implementation of the first total hospital information system by seamlessly integrating these systems together. To achieve this goal, we took three-tiered systems integration approach: network level, database level, and workstation level integration. There are 3 loops of networks in SNUH: proprietary star network for host computer based HIS, Ethernet based hospital LAN for OCS and RIS, and ATM based network for PACS. They are linked together at the backbone level to allow high speed communication between these systems. We have developed special communication modules for each system that allow data interchange between different databases and computer platforms. We have also developed an integrated workstation in which both the OCS and PACS application programs run on a single computer in an integrated manner allowing the clinical users to access and display radiological images as well as textual clinical information within a single user environment. A study is in progress toward a total hospital information system in SNUH by seamlessly integrating the main hospital information resources such as HIS, OCS, and PACS. With the three-tiered systems integration approach, we could successfully integrate the systems from the network level to the user application level.

  20. An Energy-Efficient Multi-Tier Architecture for Fall Detection Using Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvensan, M Amac; Kansiz, A Oguz; Camgoz, N Cihan; Turkmen, H Irem; Yavuz, A Gokhan; Karsligil, M Elif

    2017-06-23

    Automatic detection of fall events is vital to providing fast medical assistance to the causality, particularly when the injury causes loss of consciousness. Optimization of the energy consumption of mobile applications, especially those which run 24/7 in the background, is essential for longer use of smartphones. In order to improve energy-efficiency without compromising on the fall detection performance, we propose a novel 3-tier architecture that combines simple thresholding methods with machine learning algorithms. The proposed method is implemented on a mobile application, called uSurvive, for Android smartphones. It runs as a background service and monitors the activities of a person in daily life and automatically sends a notification to the appropriate authorities and/or user defined contacts when it detects a fall. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated in terms of fall detection performance and energy consumption. Real life performance tests conducted on two different models of smartphone demonstrate that our 3-tier architecture with feature reduction could save up to 62% of energy compared to machine learning only solutions. In addition to this energy saving, the hybrid method has a 93% of accuracy, which is superior to thresholding methods and better than machine learning only solutions.

  1. Meta-Analyses of the Effects of Tier 2 Type Reading Interventions in Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon; Scammacca, Nancy; Gatlin, Brandy; Walker, Melodee A; Capin, Philip

    2016-09-01

    This meta-analysis extends previous work on extensive Tier 3 type reading interventions (Wanzek & Vaughn, 2007; Wanzek et al., 2013) to Tier 2 type interventions by examining a non-overlapping set of studies addressing the effects of less extensive reading interventions for students with or at risk for reading difficulties in Grades K-3. We examined the overall effects of these interventions on students' foundational skills, language, and comprehension as well as the intervention features that may be associated with improved outcomes. We conducted four meta-analyses on 72 studies to examine effects on (1) standardized foundational skill measures (mean ES = 0.54), (2) not-standardized foundational skill measures (mean ES = 0.62), (3) standardized language/comprehension measures (mean ES = 0.36), and (4) not-standardized language/comprehension measures (mean ES = 1.02). There were no differences in effects related to intervention type, instructional group size, grade level, intervention implementer, or the number of intervention hours.

  2. Tiered co-payments, pricing, and demand in reference price markets for pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Annika; Suppliet, Moritz

    2017-12-01

    Health insurance companies curb price-insensitive behavior and the moral hazard of insureds by means of cost-sharing, such as tiered co-payments or reference pricing in drug markets. This paper evaluates the effect of price limits - below which drugs are exempt from co-payments - on prices and on demand. First, using a difference-in-differences estimation strategy, we find that the new policy decreases prices by 5 percent for generics and increases prices by 4 percent for brand-name drugs in the German reference price market. Second, estimating a nested-logit demand model, we show that consumers appreciate co-payment exempt drugs and calculate lower price elasticities for brand-name drugs than for generics. This explains the different price responses of brand-name and generic drugs and shows that price-related co-payment tiers are an effective tool to steer demand to low-priced drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Two-Tier Energy-Aware Resource Management for Virtualized Cloud Computing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic costs caused by electric power take the most significant part in total cost of data center; thus energy conservation is an important issue in cloud computing system. One well-known technique to reduce the energy consumption is the consolidation of Virtual Machines (VMs. However, it may lose some performance points on energy saving and the Quality of Service (QoS for dynamic workloads. Fortunately, Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Scaling (DVFS is an efficient technique to save energy in dynamic environment. In this paper, combined with the DVFS technology, we propose a cooperative two-tier energy-aware management method including local DVFS control and global VM deployment. The DVFS controller adjusts the frequencies of homogenous processors in each server at run-time based on the practical energy prediction. On the other hand, Global Scheduler assigns VMs onto the designate servers based on the cooperation with the local DVFS controller. The final evaluation results demonstrate the effectiveness of our two-tier method in energy saving.

  4. Tiered guidance for risk-informed environmental health and safety testing of nanotechnologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, Zachary A.; Kennedy, Alan J.; Poda, Aimee R.; Cuddy, Michael F.; Moser, Robert D.; MacCuspie, Robert I.; Harmon, Ashley; Plourde, Kenton; Haines, Christopher D.; Steevens, Jeffery A.

    2015-01-01

    Provided the rapid emergence of novel technologies containing engineered nanomaterials, there is a need to better understand the potential environmental, health, and safety effects of nanotechnologies before wide-scale deployment. However, the unique properties of nanomaterials and uncertainty regarding applicable test methods have led to a lack of consensus regarding the collection and evaluation of data related to hazard and exposure potentials. Often, overly conservative approaches to characterization and data collection result in prolonged, unfocused, or irrelevant testing, which increases costs and delays deployment. In this paper, we provide a novel testing guidance framework for determining whether a nanotechnology has the potential to release material with nano-specific parameters that pose a risk to humans or the environment. The framework considers methods to categorize nanotechnologies by their structure and within their relevant-use scenarios to inform testing in a time- and resource-limited reality. Based on the precedent of dredged sediment testing, a five-tiered approach is proposed in which opportunities are presented to conclude testing once sufficient risk-related information has been collected, or that the technology in question does not require nano-specific scrutiny. A series of screening stages are suggested, covering relevant aspects including size, surface area, distribution, unique behaviors, and release potential. The tiered, adaptive guidance approach allows users to concentrate on collecting the most relevant data, thus accelerating technology deployment while minimizing risk

  5. Energy Efficient Power Allocation in Multi-tier 5G Networks Using Enhanced Online Learning

    KAUST Repository

    Alqerm, Ismail

    2017-07-25

    The multi-tier heterogeneous structure of 5G with dense small cells deployment, relays, and device-to-device (D2D) communications operating in an underlay fashion is envisioned as a potential solution to satisfy the future demand for cellular services. However, efficient power allocation among dense secondary transmitters that maintains quality of service (QoS) for macro (primary) cell users and secondary cell users is a critical challenge for operating such radio. In this paper, we focus on the power allocation problem in the multi-tier 5G network structure using a non-cooperative methodology with energy efficiency consideration. Therefore, we propose a distributive intuition-based online learning scheme for power allocation in the downlink of the 5G systems, where each transmitter surmises other transmitters power allocation strategies without information exchange. The proposed learning model exploits a brief state representation to account for the problem of dimensionality in online learning and expedite the convergence. The convergence of the proposed scheme is proved and numerical results demonstrate its capability to achieve fast convergence with QoS guarantee and significant improvement in system energy efficiency.

  6. Tiered guidance for risk-informed environmental health and safety testing of nanotechnologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Zachary A.; Kennedy, Alan J.; Poda, Aimee R.; Cuddy, Michael F.; Moser, Robert D.; MacCuspie, Robert I.; Harmon, Ashley; Plourde, Kenton; Haines, Christopher D.; Steevens, Jeffery A.

    2015-03-01

    Provided the rapid emergence of novel technologies containing engineered nanomaterials, there is a need to better understand the potential environmental, health, and safety effects of nanotechnologies before wide-scale deployment. However, the unique properties of nanomaterials and uncertainty regarding applicable test methods have led to a lack of consensus regarding the collection and evaluation of data related to hazard and exposure potentials. Often, overly conservative approaches to characterization and data collection result in prolonged, unfocused, or irrelevant testing, which increases costs and delays deployment. In this paper, we provide a novel testing guidance framework for determining whether a nanotechnology has the potential to release material with nano-specific parameters that pose a risk to humans or the environment. The framework considers methods to categorize nanotechnologies by their structure and within their relevant-use scenarios to inform testing in a time- and resource-limited reality. Based on the precedent of dredged sediment testing, a five-tiered approach is proposed in which opportunities are presented to conclude testing once sufficient risk-related information has been collected, or that the technology in question does not require nano-specific scrutiny. A series of screening stages are suggested, covering relevant aspects including size, surface area, distribution, unique behaviors, and release potential. The tiered, adaptive guidance approach allows users to concentrate on collecting the most relevant data, thus accelerating technology deployment while minimizing risk.

  7. The Impact of Income and Taxation in a Price-Tiered Cigarette Market - findings from the ITC Bangladesh Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huq, Iftekharul; Nargis, Nigar; Lkhagvasuren, Damba; Hussain, Akm Ghulam; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2018-04-25

    Taxing tobacco is among the most effective measures of tobacco control. However, in a tiered market structure where multiple tiers of taxes coexist, the anticipated impact of tobacco taxes on consumption is complex. This paper investigates changing smoking behaviour in lieu of changing prices and changing income. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of change in prices (through taxes) and change in income in a price-tiered cigarette market. A panel dataset from the International Tobacco Control Bangladesh surveys is used for analysis. For preliminary analysis transition matrices are developed. Next, probit and multinomial logit regression models are used to identify the effects of changes in prices and changes in income along with other control variables. Transition matrices show significant movement of smokers across price tiers from one wave to another. Regression results show that higher income raises the probability to up-trade and decreases the probability to down-trade. Results also show that higher prices raises the probability to up-trade and reduces the probability to down-trade. Although not significant, there exists a negative relationship between the probability to down-trade and the probability to intend to quit. It is evident from the results that a price-tiered market provides smokers more opportunities to accommodate their smoking behaviour when faced with price and income change. Therefore, tiered structure of the tax system should be replaced with uniform taxes. Moreover, overall cigarette taxes need to be raised to an extent so that it off-sets any positive effects of income growth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Diagnostic Accuracy of the FIGO and the 5-Tier Fetal Heart Rate Classification Systems in the Detection of Neonatal Acidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí Gamboa, Sabina; Giménez, Olga Redrado; Mancho, Jara Pascual; Moros, María Lapresta; Sada, Julia Ruiz; Mateo, Sergio Castan

    2017-04-01

    Objective  The objective of this study was to determine ability to detect neonatal acidemia and interobserver agreement with the FIGO 3-tier and 5-tier fetal heart rate (FHR) classification systems. Design  This was a case-control study. Setting  This study was set at the University Medical Center. Population  A total of 202 FHR tracings of 102 women who delivered an acidemic fetus (umbilical arterial cord gas pH ≤ 7.10 and BE  7.10) were assessed. A subanalysis was performed for those fetuses who suffered severe metabolic acidemia (pH ≤ 7.0 and BE < - 12). Methods  Two reviewers blind to clinical and outcome data classified tracings according to the new 3-tier system proposed by the FIGO and the 5-tier system proposed by Parer and Ikeda. Main Outcome Measures  Sensitivity and specificity for detecting neonatal acidemia and interobserver agreement in classifying FHR tracings into categories of both systems were studied. Results  The 3-tier system showed a greater sensitivity and lower specificity to detect neonatal acidemia (43.6% sensitivity, 82.5% specificity) and severe metabolic acidemia (71.4% sensitivity, 74.0% specificity) compared with the 5-tier system (36.3% sensitivity, 88% specificity and 61.9% sensitivity, 80.1% specificity, respectively). Both systems were compared by area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, with comparable predictive ability for detecting neonatal acidemia (FIGO-area under the curve [AUC]: 0.63 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.68] and Parer-AUC: 0.62 [95% CI: 0.56-0.67]). Interobserver agreement was moderate for both systems, but performance at each specific category showed a better agreement for the 5-tier system identifying a pathological tracing (orange or red, κ: 0.625 vs. pathological category, κ: 0.538). Conclusion  Both systems presented a comparable ability to predict neonatal acidemia, although the 5-tier system showed a better interobserver agreement identifying pathological

  9. A Three-Tier Diagnostic Test to Assess Pre-Service Teachers' Misconceptions about Global Warming, Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Layer Depletion, and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Harika Ozge; Cigdemoglu, Ceyhan; Moseley, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study describes the development and validation of a three-tier multiple-choice diagnostic test, the atmosphere-related environmental problems diagnostic test (AREPDiT), to reveal common misconceptions of global warming (GW), greenhouse effect (GE), ozone layer depletion (OLD), and acid rain (AR). The development of a two-tier diagnostic test…

  10. Two-tiered keratinocyte assay: IL-18 production by NCTC2544 cells to determine the skin sensitizing capacity and an epidermal equivalent assay to determine sensitizer potency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teunis, Marc; Corsini, Emanuela; Smits, Mieke

    2012-01-01

    sensitizers (DNCB, resorcinol, PPD) and 1 non sensitizer (lactic acid) were tested in tier 1. DNCB (extreme) and resorcinol (moderate) were ranked according to their potency in tier 2. These assays were successfully transferred to laboratories that did not perform both assays previously. Second, the actual...

  11. 41 CFR 105-68.455 - What may I do if a lower tier participant fails to disclose the information required under § 105...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What may I do if a lower tier participant fails to disclose the information required under § 105-68.355 to the next higher tier...

  12. Decreasing Disability Processing Days for Soldiers in the U.S. Army Through Initiatives in Human Resource Management Support Systems: A Two-Tiered, Three Year Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Kerr, Jr.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay highlights the findings of a two tiered, three year evaluation. The first tier studied human resource and quality management initiatives at Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC Washington, DC from 1992-1994. The second tier researched disability records through the United States Army Physical Disability Agency, Bethesda, Maryland in 1996. The first tier found that Total Quality Management reduced the average length of stay (ALOS and size of the disability population from 220 days and 240 disability cases to 65 days and 57 disability cases over 24 months. The second tier studied 8,301 soldiers whose disability records were processed in Fiscal Year 1996. The research shows only administrative variables affect ALOS. The authors recommend a program of disability case management and increasing emphasis on transition assistance programs to reduce ALOS in the PDES.

  13. Emplacement feasibility of a multi-tier, expanded capacity repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, Michael; Kessler, John; Fairhurst, Charles

    2008-01-01

    A geological repository at Yucca Mountain has been proposed for the disposal of spent fuel from the US commercial reactors and other radioactive waste. A legislative capacity of 70,000 MTHM has been set by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, including 63,000 MTHM of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF), the projected amount of CSNF that will be produced by about 2014. Policy issues remain as to how to handle waste that is generated beyond 2014 from a growing nuclear industry in the US. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is independently evaluating the technical, rather than legislative, limit of CSNF that could be safely disposed at Yucca Mountain. Geological, thermal management, safety and cost factors have been recently evaluated by EPRI (2006; 2007) for grouped emplacement drifts and/or a multi-tier repository. EPRI's evaluation of emplacement feasibility for a multi-tier concept is described here. Expanded capacity concepts as envisioned for Yucca Mountain (EPRI, 2006; 2007) assume excavation of one or two additional levels of drifts parallel to or above and/or below the original drift excavations. For the latter multi-tier concept each 'tier' or 'level' would essentially replicate the original layer with a 30-m separation between tiers. This arrangement essentially doubles or triples the capacity of the repository for a two- or three-tier design, respectively. The main issues that affect the feasibility of expanded capacity design are; (i) ventilation requirements; (ii) radiation hazards; (iii) thermal and thermo-mechanical constraints. (i)Ventilation: The repository design involves waste packages mounted in close proximity to each other in 600-m long drifts that remain open and actively ventilated for at least 50-100 years. Analyses,conservatively assuming that all three repository levels operate simultaneously, indicate no technological obstacles in meeting ventilation requirements for sustained simultaneous operation ba sed on current industrial

  14. Critical thinking traits of top-tier experts and implications for computer science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushey, Dean E.

    A documented shortage of technical leadership and top-tier performers in computer science jeopardizes the technological edge, security, and economic well-being of the nation. The 2005 President's Information and Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC) Report on competitiveness in computational sciences highlights the major impact of science, technology, and innovation in keeping America competitive in the global marketplace. It stresses the fact that the supply of science, technology, and engineering experts is at the core of America's technological edge, national competitiveness and security. However, recent data shows that both undergraduate and postgraduate production of computer scientists is falling. The decline is "a quiet crisis building in the United States," a crisis that, if allowed to continue unchecked, could endanger America's well-being and preeminence among the world's nations. Past research on expert performance has shown that the cognitive traits of critical thinking, creativity, and problem solving possessed by top-tier performers can be identified, observed and measured. The studies show that the identified attributes are applicable across many domains and disciplines. Companies have begun to realize that cognitive skills are important for high-level performance and are reevaluating the traditional academic standards they have used to predict success for their top-tier performers in computer science. Previous research in the computer science field has focused either on programming skills of its experts or has attempted to predict the academic success of students at the undergraduate level. This study, on the other hand, examines the critical-thinking skills found among experts in the computer science field in order to explore the questions, "What cognitive skills do outstanding performers possess that make them successful?" and "How do currently used measures of academic performance correlate to critical-thinking skills among students?" The results

  15. Secure anonymous mutual authentication for star two-tier wireless body area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Maged Hamada; Kumari, Saru; Das, Ashok Kumar; Wazid, Mohammad; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-10-01

    Mutual authentication is a very important service that must be established between sensor nodes in wireless body area network (WBAN) to ensure the originality and integrity of the patient's data sent by sensors distributed on different parts of the body. However, mutual authentication service is not enough. An adversary can benefit from monitoring the traffic and knowing which sensor is in transmission of patient's data. Observing the traffic (even without disclosing the context) and knowing its origin, it can reveal to the adversary information about the patient's medical conditions. Therefore, anonymity of the communicating sensors is an important service as well. Few works have been conducted in the area of mutual authentication among sensor nodes in WBAN. However, none of them has considered anonymity among body sensor nodes. Up to our knowledge, our protocol is the first attempt to consider this service in a two-tier WBAN. We propose a new secure protocol to realize anonymous mutual authentication and confidential transmission for star two-tier WBAN topology. The proposed protocol uses simple cryptographic primitives. We prove the security of the proposed protocol using the widely-accepted Burrows-Abadi-Needham (BAN) logic, and also through rigorous informal security analysis. In addition, to demonstrate the practicality of our protocol, we evaluate it using NS-2 simulator. BAN logic and informal security analysis prove that our proposed protocol achieves the necessary security requirements and goals of an authentication service. The simulation results show the impact on the various network parameters, such as end-to-end delay and throughput. The nodes in the network require to store few hundred bits. Nodes require to perform very few hash invocations, which are computationally very efficient. The communication cost of the proposed protocol is few hundred bits in one round of communication. Due to the low computation cost, the energy consumed by the nodes is

  16. A Novel Amphibian Tier 2 Testing Protocol: A 30-Week Exposure of Xenopus Tropicalis to the Antiandrogen Flutamide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Knechtges, Paul L; Sprando, Robert L; Porter, Karen L; Brennan, Linda M; Miller, Mark F; Kumsher, David M; Dennis, William E; Brown, Charles C; Clegg Paul L. Knechtges. Robert L. Sprando. Karen L. Potter., Eric D

    2007-01-01

    .... For that reason, a tier 2 testing protocol using Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis and a 30-week, flow-through exposure to the antiandrogen flutamide from stage 46 tadpoles through sexually mature adult frogs were developed and evaluated in this pilot study...

  17. Plaidoyer pour le graphiste'. Arts et métiers graphiques and the French Typographer as an Artist and Craftsman

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gansen, Kristof

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThis article studies the conception of the typographer in the French graphic design magazine Arts et métiers graphiques, published in the interwar period. For the magazine’s editors, the designer was both an artist and a trained craftsman who was dedicated enough to face the particular

  18. Using a Multi-Tier Diagnostic Test to Explore the Nature of Students' Alternative Conceptions on Reaction Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yaw Kai; Subramaniam, R.

    2018-01-01

    This study focused on grade 12 students' understanding of reaction kinetics. A 4-tier diagnostic instrument was developed for this purpose and administered to 137 students in the main study. Findings showed that reaction kinetics is a difficult topic for these students, with a total of 25 alternative conceptions (ACs) being uncovered. Except for…

  19. 75 FR 7426 - Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline Sulfur Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... 2060-AI23; 2060-AQ12 Tier 2 Light-Duty Vehicle and Light-Duty Truck Emission Standards and Gasoline.... The rulemaking also required oil refiners to limit the sulfur content of the gasoline they produce. Sulfur in gasoline has a detrimental impact on catalyst performance and the sulfur requirements have...

  20. Pengembangan Instrumen Evaluasi Two-tier Multiple Choice Question Untuk Mengukur Keterampilan Berpikir Tingkat Tinggi Pada Materi Kingdom Plantae

    OpenAIRE

    Nofiana, Mufida -; -, Sajidan -; Karyanto, Puguh -

    2014-01-01

    Evaluasi merupakan alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur tujuan pembelajaran yang salah satunya adalah penguasaan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi. Penguasaan keterampilan berpikir tingkat tinggi pada materi kingdom plantae membutuhkan kemampuan seperti menganalisis, mengevaluasi, dan menciptakan. Pengukuran kemampuan berpikir tingkat tinggi pada materi kingdom plantae dapat dilakukan dengan instrumen evaluasi two-tier multiple choice question. Penelitian pengembangan instrumen evaluasi bert...

  1. Lower tier toxicity risk assessment of agriculture pesticides detected on the Río Madre de Dios watershed, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-Andrés, M.; Rämö, R.; Mena Torres, F.; Ugalde, R.; Grandas, L.; Ruepert, C.; Castillo, L.E.; Den Brink, van P.J.; Gunnarsson, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Costa Rica is a tropical country with one of the highest biodiversity on Earth. It also has an intensive agriculture, and pesticide runoff from banana and pineapple plantations may cause a high toxicity risk to non-target species in rivers downstream the plantations. We performed a first tier

  2. Handbook of Response to Intervention: The Science and Practice of Multi-Tiered Systems of Support, 2nd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimerson, Shane R., Ed.; Burns, Matthew K., Ed.; VanDerHeyden, Amanda M., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of this essential handbook provides a comprehensive, updated overview of the science that informs best practices for the implementation of response to intervention (RTI) processes within Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) to facilitate the academic success of all students. The volume includes insights from leading scholars…

  3. Moving beyond the Three Tier Intervention Pyramid toward a Comprehensive Framework for Student and Learning Supports. A Center Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Introduction into federal policy of response to intervention (RTI) and positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS) led to widespread adoption and adaptation of the three tier intervention pyramid. As originally presented, the pyramid highlights three different levels of intervention and suggests the percent of students at each level. While…

  4. Investigating the Impact of the Tier 4 Policy on International Students at Private Colleges in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Abdul Waheed

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the United Kingdom government introduced the Tier 4 (general) student visa policy for foreign students, out of European Economic Area and Switzerland, aged 16 or over. According to this policy, any institution recruiting international students must be a highly trusted sponsor--a status determined by the UK Border Agency. Further, right to…

  5. 25 CFR 542.43 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.43 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for a Tier C gaming operation? (a) The surveillance system...

  6. 25 CFR 542.33 - What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier B gaming operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are the minimum internal control standards for..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR HUMAN SERVICES MINIMUM INTERNAL CONTROL STANDARDS § 542.33 What are the minimum internal control standards for surveillance for Tier B gaming operations? (a) The surveillance system shall...

  7. Screening-level Biomonitoring Equivalents for tiered interpretation of urinary 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) in a risk assessment context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Lesa L; Irwin, Kim; St-Amand, Annie; Nong, Andy; Hays, Sean M

    2018-02-01

    3-Phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) is a common metabolite of several pyrethroid pesticides of differing potency and also occurs as a residue in foods resulting from environmental degradation of parent pyrethroid compounds. Thus, 3-PBA in urine is not a specific biomarker of exposure to a particular pyrethroid. However, an approach derived from the use of Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) can be used to estimate a conservative initial screening value for a tiered assessment of population data on 3-PBA in urine. A conservative generic urinary excretion fraction for 3-PBA was estimated from data for five pyrethroid compounds with human data. Estimated steady-state urinary 3-PBA concentrations associated with reference doses and acceptable daily intakes for each of the nine compounds ranged from 1.7 μg/L for cyhalothrin and deltamethrin to 520 μg/L for permethrin. The lower value can be used as a highly conservative Tier 1 screening value for assessment of population urinary 3-PBA data. A second tier screening value of 87 μg/L was derived based on weighting by relative exposure estimates for the different pyrethroid compounds, to be applied as part of the data evaluation process if biomonitoring data exceed the Tier 1 value. These BE values are most appropriately used to evaluate the central tendency of population biomarker concentration data in a risk assessment context. The provisional BEs were compared to available national biomonitoring data from the US and Canada. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The Relationship of Print Reading in Tier I Instruction and Reading Achievement for Kindergarten Students at Risk of Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Roberts, Greg; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Kent, Shawn C.

    2014-01-01

    For many students at risk of reading difficulties, effective, early reading instruction can improve reading outcomes and set them on a positive reading trajectory. Thus, response-to-intervention models include a focus on a student's Tier I reading instruction as one element for preventing reading difficulties and identifying students with a…

  9. Development of a Three-Tier Test as a Valid Diagnostic Tool for Identification of Misconceptions Related to Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Dusica D.; Hrin, Tamara N.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Horvat, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and application of a three-tier test as a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing students' misconceptions regarding some basic concepts about carbohydrates. The test was administrated to students of the Pharmacy Department at the University of Bijeljina (Serb Republic). The results denoted construct and content…

  10. Evaluation of a 5-tier scheme proposed for classification of sequence variants using bioinformatic and splicing assay data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walker, Logan C; Whiley, Phillip J; Houdayer, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Splicing assays are commonly undertaken in the clinical setting to assess the clinical relevance of sequence variants in disease predisposition genes. A 5-tier classification system incorporating both bioinformatic and splicing assay information was previously proposed as a method to provide...

  11. The Best and the Next-Best: The Two-Tiered Approach to Recruitment by Japanese Employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kublin, Michael; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes Japan's two-tiered approach to recruitment in which graduates from top Japanese universities are automatic hires, while those from second-place schools must do job searches to find employment. Notes that, in Japan, university personnel play very large role in recruiting and that Japanese companies are concerned with goodness of fit…

  12. 47 CFR 76.944 - Commission review of franchising authority decisions on rates for the basic service tier and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commission review of franchising authority decisions on rates for the basic service tier and associated equipment. 76.944 Section 76.944 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation ...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix D to Part 225 - Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Bank Holding Companies: Tier 1 Leverage Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... substantially above minimum supervisory levels, without significant reliance on intangible assets. d... adopted a minimum ratio of tier 1 capital to total assets to assist in the assessment of the capital... ratios that related capital to total assets for state member banks are outlined in appendix B of this...

  14. 76 FR 414 - Tier 1 Environmental Impact Statement for the Los Angeles to San Luis Obispo (LOSSAN North) Rail...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... connecting Washington DC, New York, and Boston. However, rail capacity constraints result in rail congestion... systems; increasing the rail capacity on existing routes; reduction in running times to attract additional... constraints. Subsequent phases or tiers will analyze, at a greater level of detail, narrower site-specific...

  15. Using Two-Tier Test to Identify Primary Students' Conceptual Understanding and Alternative Conceptions in Acid Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Beyza Karadeniz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify primary students' conceptual understanding and alternative conceptions in acid-base. For this reason, a 15 items two-tier multiple choice test administered 56 eighth grade students in spring semester 2009-2010. Data for this study were collected using a conceptual understanding scale prepared to include…

  16. The Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI): A Classroom Teacher Tier 2 Intervention to Help Struggling Readers in Early Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Amendum, Steve; Kainz, Kirsten; Ginsburg, Marnie

    2009-01-01

    The two studies presented in this report were designed to test the effectiveness of a new diagnostic-based reading intervention for classroom teachers, called the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI). This TRI Tier 2 intervention stressed diagnostic teaching as the key to helping struggling readers make rapid progress in reading in the regular…

  17. EDSP Tier 2 test (T2T) guidances and protocols are delivered, including web-based guidance for diagnosing and scoring, and evaluating EDC-induced pathology in fish and amphibian

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agency’s Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) consists of two tiers. The first tier provides information regarding whether a chemical may have endocrine disruption properties. Tier 2 tests provide confirmation of ED effects and dose-response information to be us...

  18. Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act. Section 312 Tier Two report forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.A.; Martin, K.J.

    1997-02-01

    As required by Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements, the Y-12 Plant staff is submitting an unclassified version of the Tier-Two Forms. This report contains data for CY 1996 for all hazardous chemicals stored at the Y-12 Plant in quantities equal to or greater than 10,000 pounds and all extremely hazardous substances stored in quantities equal to or greater than 500 pounds or the threshold planning quantity, whichever is lower. Also included with this submittal is a key to the inventory, temperature, pressure, and container codes used on the report forms. This information is included to aid in the interpretation of the data presented. It is not necessary that the code information be forwarded to the referenced state and local agencies. Classified information supporting this document will be maintained on file for review by Q-cleared personnel

  19. TANGIBLE ASSETS REVALUATION POLICY AT ENTITIES LISTED ON THE BUCHAREST STOCK EXCHANGE - TIER II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor CSŐSZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Each year before the preparation of annual financial statements the entity’s assets need to be presented and evaluated. In order to these assets to be recorded in the financial statements at fair value, they need regular revaluation. Revaluations should be made with sufficient regularity so that the accounting value does not differ substantially from that which would be determined using fair value at balance sheet date. This way, the true and fair view of the financial statements is guaranteed. The study contains an analysis of the 52 listed entities on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BSE tier II. on their revaluation policy, in relation with debt ratio of the entity, size of the entity, amount of tangible assets (tangible assets’ share in total assets and in relation with the seniority (age of tangible assets.

  20. Training in two-tier labor markets: The role of job match quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgündüz, Yusuf Emre; van Huizen, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    This study examines training investments in two-tier labor markets, focusing on the role of job match quality. Temporary workers are in general more likely than permanent workers to leave their employer and therefore are less likely to receive employer-funded training. However, as firms prefer to continue productive job matches, we hypothesize that the negative effect of holding a temporary contract on the probability to be trained diminishes with the quality of the job match. Using a recent longitudinal survey from the Netherlands, we find that temporary workers indeed participate less frequently in firm-sponsored training. However, this effect is fully driven by mismatches: holding a temporary contract does not significantly decrease the probability to receive training for workers in good job matches. Depending on match quality, a temporary job can either be a stepping stone or a dead-end. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Security audits of multi-tier virtual infrastructures in public infrastructure clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bleikertz, Sören; Schunter, Matthias; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    . Managed through a web-services interface, users can configure highly flexible but complex cloud computing environments. Furthermore, users misconfiguring such cloud services poses a severe security risk that can lead to security incidents, e.g., erroneous exposure of services due to faulty network......Cloud computing has gained remarkable popularity in the recent years by a wide spectrum of consumers, ranging from small start-ups to governments. However, its benefits in terms of flexibility, scalability, and low upfront investments, are shadowed by security challenges which inhibit its adoption...... security configurations. In this article we present a novel approach in the security assessment of the end-user configuration of multi-tier architectures deployed on infrastructure clouds such as Amazon EC2. In order to perform this assessment for the currently deployed configuration, we automated...

  2. A Three Tier Architecture Applied to LiDAR Processing and Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrat Jaeger-Frank

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Grid technologies enable solving scientific problems that involve large datasets and complex analyses, which in the past were often considered difficult to solve. Coordinating distributed Grid resources and computational processes requires adaptable interfaces and tools that provide modularized and configurable environments for accessing Grid clusters and executing high performance computational tasks. Computationally intensive processes are also subject to a high risk of component failures and thus require close monitoring. In this paper we describe a scientific workflow approach to coordinate various resources via data analysis pipelines. We present a three tier architecture for LiDAR interpolation and analysis, a high performance processing of point intensive datasets, utilizing a portal, a scientific workflow engine and Grid technologies. Our proposed solution is available to the community in a unified framework through a shared cyberinfrastructure, the GEON portal, enabling scientists to focus on their scientific work and not be concerned with the implementation of the underlying infrastructure.

  3. Conjoint behavioral consultation: implementing a tiered home-school partnership model to promote school readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Brandy L; Sheridan, Susan M; Woods, Kathryn E

    2014-01-01

    An ecological perspective to school readiness focuses on child and family readiness by enhancing the developmental contexts and relationships within which children reside (e.g., home environment, parent-child relationship, home-school relationships). The Getting Ready intervention is an ecological, relationally based, tiered intervention providing both universal and intensive services to children and families to promote child and family school readiness. Intensive level consultation services were provided via Conjoint Behavioral Consultation (CBC; Sheridan & Kratochwill, 1992 , 2008 ). The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation and effects of CBC within the Getting Ready intervention to promote child and family school readiness. Keys to successful implementation of the CBC intervention and issues needing further investigation are discussed.

  4. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-02-20

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)-a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol-is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols.

  5. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Hua; Ye, Qingqun; Yang, Geng; Xu, Jia; He, Ruiliang

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ)—a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol—is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols. PMID:26907293

  6. Smart specialisation as a process tool in lower-tier territories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drejer, Ina; Laursen, Lea Louise Holst

    The paper focuses on the potential of combining the smart specialization – and the associated quadruple helix – framework with a place-specific planning perspective in proposing as process tool for organizing business development in small and medium-sized non-urban, lower-tier territories....... The analysis is based on the study of three Danish cases that are unconventional in a smart specialization context, because R&D and technology is not necessarily at the core of the development processes. Thus, the cases are in accordance with Arnkil et al. (2010) in illustrating that extending the triple helix...... to a quadruple helix enables a larger variety of innovations - including innovations based on user knowledge rather than technology and/or research based knowledge. The paper illustrates how smart specialization can be executed in practice in local communities and how the involvement of different types of actors...

  7. Interoperating AliEn and ARC for a Distributed Tier1 in the Nordic Countries

    CERN Document Server

    Gros, Philippe; Lindemann, Jonas; Saiz, Pablo; Zarochentsev, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    To reach its large computing needs, the ALICE experiment at CERN has developed its own middleware called AliEn, centralised and relying on pilot jobs. One of its strength is the automatic installation of the required packages. The Nordic countries have offered a distributed Tier-1 centre for the CERN experiments, where the job management should be done with the NorduGrid middleware ARC. We have developed an interoperation module to allow to unify several computing sites using ARC, and make them look like a single site from the point of view of AliEn. A prototype has been completed and tested out of production. This talk will present implementation details of the system and its performance in tests.

  8. Three Tier-Level Architecture Data Warehouse Design of Civil Servant Data in Minahasa Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangkawarow, I. R. H. T.; Runtuwene, J. P. A.; Sangkop, F. I.; Ngantung, L. V. F.

    2018-02-01

    Minahasa Regency is one of the regencies in North Sulawesi Province. In running the government in Minahasa Regency, a Regent is assisted by more than 6000 people Civil Servants (PNS) scattered in 60 SKPD. Badan Kepegawaian Diklat Daerah (BKDD) of Minahasa Regency is SKPD that performs data processing of all civil servants and is responsible for arranging and formatting civil servants. In the process of arranging and determining the formation of civil servants, many obstacles faced by BKDD. One of the obstacles is the unavailability of accurate data about the amount of educational background of civil servants based on rank/class, age, length of service, department, and so forth. The way to overcome the availability of data quickly and accurately is to do Business analytical. This process can be done by designing the data warehouse first. The design of data warehouse will be done by dividing it into three tiers of level.

  9. Monitoring and optimization of ATLAS Tier 2 center GoeGrid

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219638; Quadt, Arnulf; Yahyapour, Ramin

    The demand on computational and storage resources is growing along with the amount of information that needs to be processed and preserved. In order to ease the provisioning of the digital services to the growing number of consumers, more and more distributed computing systems and platforms are actively developed and employed. The building block of the distributed computing infrastructure are single computing centers, similar to the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid, Tier 2 centre GoeGrid. The main motivation of this thesis was the optimization of GoeGrid performance by efficient monitoring. The goal has been achieved by means of the GoeGrid monitoring information analysis. The data analysis approach was based on the adaptive-network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and machine learning algorithm such as Linear Support Vector Machine (SVM). The main object of the research was the digital service, since availability, reliability and serviceability of the computing platform can be measured according to the const...

  10. Error performance analysis in K-tier uplink cellular networks using a stochastic geometric approach

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, Laila H.

    2015-09-14

    In this work, we develop an analytical paradigm to analyze the average symbol error probability (ASEP) performance of uplink traffic in a multi-tier cellular network. The analysis is based on the recently developed Equivalent-in-Distribution approach that utilizes stochastic geometric tools to account for the network geometry in the performance characterization. Different from the other stochastic geometry models adopted in the literature, the developed analysis accounts for important communication system parameters and goes beyond signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio characterization. That is, the presented model accounts for the modulation scheme, constellation type, and signal recovery techniques to model the ASEP. To this end, we derive single integral expressions for the ASEP for different modulation schemes due to aggregate network interference. Finally, all theoretical findings of the paper are verified via Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. An Abstract Semantics for Inference of Types and Effects in a Multi-Tier Web Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letterio Galletta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Types-and-effects are type systems, which allow one to express general semantic properties and to statically reason about program's execution. They have been widely exploited to specify static analyses, for example to track computational side effects, exceptions and communications in concurrent programs. In this paper we adopt abstract interpretation techniques to reconstruct (following the Cousot's methodology a types-and-effects system developed to handle security problems of a multi-tier web language. Our reconstruction allows us to show that this types-and-effects system is not sound with respect to the semantics of the language. In addition, we correct the soundness issues in the analysis and systematically construct a correct analyser.

  12. Two Tier Cluster Based Data Aggregation (TTCDA) in Wireless Sensor Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dnyaneshwar, Mantri; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2012-01-01

    the packet count reached at the sink. Here, we propose Two Tier Cluster based Data Aggregation (TTCDA) algorithm for the randomly distributed nodes to minimize computation and communication cost. The TTCDA is energy and bandwidth efficient since it reduces the transmission of the number of packets......Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) often used for monitoring and control applications where sensor nodes collect data and send it to the sink. Most of the nodes consume their energy in transmission of data packets without aggregation to sink, which may be located at single or multi hop distance....... The direct transmission of data packets to the sink from nodes in the network causes increased communication costs in terms of energy, average delay and network lifetime. In this context, the data aggregation techniques minimize the communication cost with efficient bandwidth utilization by decreasing...

  13. "Priority of liberty" and the design of a two-tier health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Friedrich; Kliemt, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Libertarian views on rights tend to rule out coercive redistribution for purposes of public health care guarantees, whereas liberal conceptions support coercive funding of potentially unlimited access to medical services in the name of medical needs. Taking the "priority of liberty" seriously as supreme political value, a plausible prudential argument can avoid these extremes by providing systematic reasons for both delivering and limiting publicly financed guarantees. Given impending demographic change and rapid technical progress in medicine, only a two-tier system with explicitly limited public guarantees and optional privately financed health services seems acceptable. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. CSRQ: Communication-Efficient Secure Range Queries in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, we have seen many applications of secure query in two-tiered wireless sensor networks. Storage nodes are responsible for storing data from nearby sensor nodes and answering queries from Sink. It is critical to protect data security from a compromised storage node. In this paper, the Communication-efficient Secure Range Query (CSRQ—a privacy and integrity preserving range query protocol—is proposed to prevent attackers from gaining information of both data collected by sensor nodes and queries issued by Sink. To preserve privacy and integrity, in addition to employing the encoding mechanisms, a novel data structure called encrypted constraint chain is proposed, which embeds the information of integrity verification. Sink can use this encrypted constraint chain to verify the query result. The performance evaluation shows that CSRQ has lower communication cost than the current range query protocols.

  15. Design and Performance Analysis of Multi-tier Heterogeneous Network through Coverage, Throughput and Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shabbir,

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented acceleration in wireless industry strongly compels wireless operators to increase their data network throughput, capacity and coverage on emergent basis. In upcoming 5G heterogeneous networks inclusion of low power nodes (LPNs like pico cells and femto cells for increasing network’s throughput, capacity and coverage are getting momentum. Addition of LPNs in such a massive level will eventually make a network populated in terms of base stations (BSs.The dense deployments of BSs will leads towards high operating expenditures (Op-Ex, capital expenditure (Cap-Ex and most importantly high energy consumption in future generation networks. Recognizing theses networks issues this research work investigates data throughput and energy efficiency of 5G multi-tier heterogeneous network. The network is modeled using tools from stochastic geometry. Monte Carlo results confirmed that rational deployment of LPNs can contribute towards increased throughput along with better energy efficiency of overall network.

  16. L'essor des métiers du conseil : dynamiques et tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Orianne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available L'activité de conseil a longtemps constitué une fonction rare et éminente. Max Weber consacre quelques pages à cette figure emblématique du « conseiller (ou guide du prince » (Weber, 1963, p. 136, qui œuvre dans l'ombre de dirigeants politiques au sein des sphères du pouvoir empreintes de prestige. Ce numéro thématique de SociologieS, portant sur les métiers du conseil, rend compte d'une évidente démocratisation de cette activité. Le prince est désormais produit en série. Le plus irremplaça...

  17. Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act. Section 312 Tier Two report forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, R.A.; Martin, K.J.

    1997-02-01

    As required by Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements, the Y-12 Plant staff is submitting an unclassified version of the Tier-Two Forms. This report contains data for CY 1996 for all hazardous chemicals stored at the Y-12 Plant in quantities equal to or greater than 10,000 pounds and all extremely hazardous substances stored in quantities equal to or greater than 500 pounds or the threshold planning quantity, whichever is lower. Also included with this submittal is a key to the inventory, temperature, pressure, and container codes used on the report forms. This information is included to aid in the interpretation of the data presented. It is not necessary that the code information be forwarded to the referenced state and local agencies. Classified information supporting this document will be maintained on file for review by Q-cleared personnel.

  18. A three-tier phenotyping approach for hunting QTLs related to heat tolerance in bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    In the global climate change scenario, heatstress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an importantdeterminant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop, feeding about one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate climate......, wheat is sensitive to heat stress, particularly at the reproductive phase. Heat tolerance is a complex trait. In the present study, a combined approach of physiological phenotyping and quantitative genetics was used to dissect the complex nature of heat tolerance into photosynthesis related traits......- with a top-to-bottom (forward) approach: Tier 1: Phenotyping: As a starting point,the quantification of heat tolerance was done by the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter, Fv/Fm, as a measure of maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry after heat stress treatment (40°C for 72h). This way...

  19. A three-tier phenotyping approach for hunting QTLs related to heat tolerance in bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2014-01-01

    In the global climate change scenario, heatstress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an importantdeterminant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop, feeding about one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate climate......, wheat is sensitive to heat stress, particularly at the reproductive phase. Heat tolerance is a complex trait. In the present study, a combined approach of physiological phenotyping and quantitative genetics was used to dissect the complex nature of heat tolerance into photosynthesis related traits......- with a top-to-bottom (forward) approach: Tier 1: Phenotyping: As a starting point,the quantification of heat tolerance was done by the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter, Fv/Fm, as a measure of maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry after heat stress treatment (40°C for 72h). This way...

  20. Multi-tier sustainable global supplier selection using a fuzzy AHP-VIKOR based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awasthi, Anjali; Govindan, Kannan; Gold, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    for sustainable global supplier selection that takes sustainability risks from sub-suppliers (i.e., (1+n)th-tier suppliers) into account. Sustainability criteria (including risk concerns) were identified from the existing literature and were further narrowed with the assistance of field experts and case decision...... weights for sustainable global supplier selection, and in the second stage, fuzzy VIKOR is used to rate supplier performances against the evaluation criteria. Among five sustainability criteria (economic, quality, environment, social, and global risk), economic criteria demonstrated the greatest weight...... and global risk displayed the least weight. This result clearly shows that global risks are still not considered a major criterion for supplier selection. Further, the proposed framework may serve as a starting point for developing managerial decision-making tools to help companies more effectively address...

  1. Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act. Section 312 Tier Two report forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.A.

    1998-02-01

    As required by Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements, the Y-12 Plant staff is submitting an unclassified version of the Tier-Two Forms. This report contains data for CY 1997 for all hazardous chemicals stored at the Y-12 Plant in quantities equal to or greater than 10,000 pounds and all extremely hazardous substances stored in quantities equal to or greater than 500 pounds or the threshold planning quantity, whichever is lower. Also included with this submittal is a key to the inventory, temperature, pressure, and container codes used on the report forms. This information is included to aid in the interpretation of the data presented. It is not necessary that the code information be forwarded to the referenced state and local agencies. Classified information supporting this document will be maintained on file for review by Q-cleared personnel

  2. Evaluation of benefits of a three tier data model for WLCG analysis

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Ozerov, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    One of the most crucial requirement for online storage is the fast and efficient access to data. Although smart client side caching often compensates for discomforts like latencies and server disk congestion, spinning disks, with their limited ability to serve multi stream random access patterns, seem to be the cause of most of the observed inefficiencies. With the appearance of the different variants of solid state disks (SSD), this deficiency could be overcome, however, replacing the entire experiment data repositories by SSDs is not feasible in the foreseeable future. Moreover, spinning disks are still appropriate media for controlled streaming applications. Assuming a deployment of a mixture of media, like spinning disks, SSDs and tape, at a site, the authors argue for the introduction of a three tier media structure within a single storage system with automatic transitions, based on usage patterns, in contrast to interlinking and maintaining different mediatypes in different systems with external p...

  3. Chromosomal microarray analysis as a first-tier clinical diagnostic test: Estonian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilina, Olga; Teek, Rita; Tammur, Pille; Kuuse, Kati; Yakoreva, Maria; Vaidla, Eve; Mölter-Väär, Triin; Reimand, Tiia; Kurg, Ants; Ounap, Katrin

    2014-03-01

    Chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA) is now established as the first-tier cytogenetic diagnostic test for fast and accurate detection of chromosomal abnormalities in patients with developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), multiple congenital anomalies (MCA), and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We present our experience with using CMA for postnatal and prenatal diagnosis in Estonian patients during 2009-2012. Since 2011, CMA is on the official service list of the Estonian Health Insurance Fund and is performed as the first-tier cytogenetic test for patients with DD/ID, MCA or ASD. A total of 1191 patients were analyzed, including postnatal (1072 [90%] patients and 59 [5%] family members) and prenatal referrals (60 [5%] fetuses). Abnormal results were reported in 298 (25%) patients, with a total of 351 findings (1-3 per individual): 147 (42%) deletions, 106 (30%) duplications, 89 (25%) long contiguous stretches of homozygosity (LCSH) events (>5 Mb), and nine (3%) aneuploidies. Of all findings, 143 (41%) were defined as pathogenic or likely pathogenic; for another 143 findings (41%), most of which were LCSH, the clinical significance remained unknown, while 61 (18%) reported findings can now be reclassified as benign or likely benign. Clinically relevant findings were detected in 126 (11%) patients. However, the proportion of variants of unknown clinical significance was quite high (41% of all findings). It seems that our ability to detect chromosomal abnormalities has far outpaced our ability to understand their role in disease. Thus, the interpretation of CMA findings remains a rather difficult task requiring a close collaboration between clinicians and cytogeneticists.

  4. Conceptual design of an ALICE Tier-2 centre. Integrated into a multi-purpose computing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zynovyev, Mykhaylo

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the issues and challenges associated with the design and operation of a data analysis facility for a high-energy physics experiment at a multi-purpose computing centre. At the spotlight is a Tier-2 centre of the distributed computing model of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The design steps, examined in the thesis, include analysis and optimization of the I/O access patterns of the user workload, integration of the storage resources, and development of the techniques for effective system administration and operation of the facility in a shared computing environment. A number of I/O access performance issues on multiple levels of the I/O subsystem, introduced by utilization of hard disks for data storage, have been addressed by the means of exhaustive benchmarking and thorough analysis of the I/O of the user applications in the ALICE software framework. Defining the set of requirements to the storage system, describing the potential performance bottlenecks and single points of failure and examining possible ways to avoid them allows one to develop guidelines for selecting the way how to integrate the storage resources. The solution, how to preserve a specific software stack for the experiment in a shared environment, is presented along with its effects on the user workload performance. The proposal for a flexible model to deploy and operate the ALICE Tier-2 infrastructure and applications in a virtual environment through adoption of the cloud computing technology and the 'Infrastructure as Code' concept completes the thesis. Scientific software applications can be efficiently computed in a virtual environment, and there is an urgent need to adapt the infrastructure for effective usage of cloud resources.

  5. BridgeUP: STEM. Creating Opportunities for Women through Tiered Mentorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunda, Amy; Cornelis, Juliette; Ferreira, Denelis; Gomez, Anay; Khan, Ariba; Li, Anna; Soo, Audrey; Mac Low, Mordecai

    2018-01-01

    BridgeUP: STEM is an ambitious, and exciting initiative responding to the extensive gender and opportunity gaps that exist in the STEM pipeline for women, girls, and under-resourced youth. BridgeUP: STEM has developed a distinct identity in the landscape of computer science education by embedding programming in the context of scientific research. One of the ways in which this is accomplished is through a tiered mentorship program. Five Helen Fellows are chosen from a pool of female, postbaccalaureate applicants to be mentored by researchers at the American Museum of Natural History in a computational research project. The Helen Fellows then act as mentors to six high school women (Brown Scholars), guiding them through a computational project aligned with their own research. This year, three of the Helen Fellows, and by extension, eighteen Brown Scholars, are performing computational astrophysics research. This poster presents one example of a tiered mentorship working on modeling the migration of stellar mass black holes (BH) in active galactic nucleus (AGN) disks. Making an analogy from the well-studied migration and formation of planets in protoplanetary disks to the newer field of migration and formation of binary BH in AGN disks, the Helen Fellow is working with her mentors to make the necessary adaptations of an N-body code incorporating migration torques from the protoplanetary disk case to the AGN disk case to model how binary BH form. This is in order to better understand and make predictions for gravitational wave observations from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). The Brown Scholars then implement the Helen Fellow’s code for a variety of different distributions of initial stellar mass BH populations that they generate using python, and produce visualizations of the output to be used in a published paper. Over the course of the project, students will develop a basic understanding of the physics related to their project and

  6. The INFN-CNAF Tier-1 GEMSS Mass Storage System and database facility activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Pier Paolo; Cavalli, Alessandro; Dell'Agnello, Luca; Favaro, Matteo; Gregori, Daniele; Prosperini, Andrea; Pezzi, Michele; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Zizzi, Giovanni; Vagnoni, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    The consolidation of Mass Storage services at the INFN-CNAF Tier1 Storage department that has occurred during the last 5 years, resulted in a reliable, high performance and moderately easy-to-manage facility that provides data access, archive, backup and database services to several different use cases. At present, the GEMSS Mass Storage System, developed and installed at CNAF and based upon an integration between the IBM GPFS parallel filesystem and the Tivoli Storage Manager (TSM) tape management software, is one of the largest hierarchical storage sites in Europe. It provides storage resources for about 12% of LHC data, as well as for data of other non-LHC experiments. Files are accessed using standard SRM Grid services provided by the Storage Resource Manager (StoRM), also developed at CNAF. Data access is also provided by XRootD and HTTP/WebDaV endpoints. Besides these services, an Oracle database facility is in production characterized by an effective level of parallelism, redundancy and availability. This facility is running databases for storing and accessing relational data objects and for providing database services to the currently active use cases. It takes advantage of several Oracle technologies, like Real Application Cluster (RAC), Automatic Storage Manager (ASM) and Enterprise Manager centralized management tools, together with other technologies for performance optimization, ease of management and downtime reduction. The aim of the present paper is to illustrate the state-of-the-art of the INFN-CNAF Tier1 Storage department infrastructures and software services, and to give a brief outlook to forthcoming projects. A description of the administrative, monitoring and problem-tracking tools that play a primary role in managing the whole storage framework is also given.

  7. Conceptual design of an ALICE Tier-2 centre. Integrated into a multi-purpose computing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zynovyev, Mykhaylo

    2012-06-29

    This thesis discusses the issues and challenges associated with the design and operation of a data analysis facility for a high-energy physics experiment at a multi-purpose computing centre. At the spotlight is a Tier-2 centre of the distributed computing model of the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The design steps, examined in the thesis, include analysis and optimization of the I/O access patterns of the user workload, integration of the storage resources, and development of the techniques for effective system administration and operation of the facility in a shared computing environment. A number of I/O access performance issues on multiple levels of the I/O subsystem, introduced by utilization of hard disks for data storage, have been addressed by the means of exhaustive benchmarking and thorough analysis of the I/O of the user applications in the ALICE software framework. Defining the set of requirements to the storage system, describing the potential performance bottlenecks and single points of failure and examining possible ways to avoid them allows one to develop guidelines for selecting the way how to integrate the storage resources. The solution, how to preserve a specific software stack for the experiment in a shared environment, is presented along with its effects on the user workload performance. The proposal for a flexible model to deploy and operate the ALICE Tier-2 infrastructure and applications in a virtual environment through adoption of the cloud computing technology and the 'Infrastructure as Code' concept completes the thesis. Scientific software applications can be efficiently computed in a virtual environment, and there is an urgent need to adapt the infrastructure for effective usage of cloud resources.

  8. Spectacle dispensing in Timor-Leste: tiered-pricing, cross-subsidization and financial viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramke, Jacqueline; Brian, Garry; Palagyi, Anna

    2012-08-01

    To examine the financial viability of the Timor-Leste National Spectacle Program as it increases spectacle availability, affordability and uptake, particularly for Timor's poor. In rural areas, three models of ready-made spectacles were dispensed according to a tiered pricing structure of US$3.00, 1.00, 0.10 and 0.00. In addition, custom-made spectacles were available in the capital, Dili. Spectacle costs, dispensing data and income for the National Spectacle Program for 18 months from March 2007 were analyzed. Rural services dispensed 3415 readymade spectacles: 47.1% to women, and 51.4% at subsidized prices, being 39.8% at US$0.10 and 11.6% free. A profit of US$1,529 was generated, mainly from the sale of US$3.00 spectacles. Women (odds ratio, OR, 1.3, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.1-1.4) and consumers aged ≥65 years (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.7-2.6) were more likely to receive subsidized spectacles. Urban services dispensed 2768 spectacles; mostly US$3.00 readymade (52.8%) and custom-made single vision (29.6%) units. Custom-made spectacles accounted for 36.7% of dispensing, but 73.1% of the US$12,264 urban profit. The combined rural and urban profit covered all rural costs, leaving US$2,200 to meet administration and other urban expenses. It is instructive and encouraging that a national spectacle dispensing program in one of the ten poorest countries of the world can use tiered-pricing based on willingness-to-pay information to cover spectacle stock replacement costs and produce profit, while using cross-subsidization to provide spectacles to the poor.

  9. Multi-tiered system of support incorporating the R.E.N.E.W. process and its relationship to perception of school safety and office discipline referrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Molly M.

    This study examined the relationship between the fidelity of multi-tier school-wide positive behavior interventions and supports (SWPBIS) and staff perception of school safety and office discipline referrals. This research provided a case study on multi-tier supports and interventions, and the RENEW person-centered planning process in an alternative special education center following the implementation of a multi-tier SWPBIS model. Pennsylvania is one of several states looking to adopt an effective Tier III behavioral tool. The research described the results of an analysis of implementation fidelity on a multi-tiered school-wide positive behavior support model developed at a special education center operated by a public school system entity. This research explored the fidelity of SWPBIS implementation; analyzed the relationship of SWPBIS to school climate as measured by staff perceptions and reduction of office discipline referrals (ODR); explored tier III supports incorporating a process Rehabilitation and Empowerment, Natural Supports, Education and Work (RENEW); and investigated the potential sustainability of the RENEW process as a multi-tier system of support. This study investigated staff perceptions on integrated supports between schools and communities and identified the degree of relationship to school risk factors, school protective factors, and office discipline referrals following the building of cooperative partnerships between Systems of Care and Local Education Agencies.

  10. Tier-1 and Tier-2A Scenario Parameterisation and Example Calculations. In Support of the Revision of the Guidance Document on Persistence in Soil under Council Directive 91/414/EEC and Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) 1107/2009 (SANCO/9188/VI/97 rev. 8, 12.07.2000)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiktak, A.; Vanderborght, J.; Klein, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.; Bromilow, R.; Egmose, M.; Sodani, M.; Ricketts, J.

    2012-01-01

    European scenarios for exposure of soil organisms to Plant Protection Products are currently not available (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues (PPR), 2010). In this document, the parameterisation of realistic worst-case scenarios for Tier-1 and Tier-2A simulations is

  11. Multi-Tiered Observation and Response Charts: Prevalence and Incidence of Triggers, Modifications and Calls, to Acutely Deteriorating Adult Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthas Flabouris

    Full Text Available Observation charts are the primary tool for recording patient vital signs. They have a critical role in documenting triggers for a multi-tiered escalation response to the deteriorating patient. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the prevalence and incidence of triggers, trigger modifications and escalation response (Call amongst general medical and surgical inpatients following the introduction of an observation and response chart (ORC.Prospective (prevalence, over two 24-hour periods, and retrospective (incidence, over entire hospital stay, observational study of documented patient observations intended to trigger one of three escalation responses, being a MER-Medical Emergency Response [highest tier], MDT-Multidisciplinary Team [admitting team], or Nurse-senior ward nurse [lowest tier] response amongst adult general medical and surgical patients.416 patients, 321 (77.2% being medical admissions, median age 76 years (IQR 62, 85 and 95 (22.8% Not for Resuscitation (NFR. Overall, 193 (46.4% patients had a Trigger, being 17 (4.1% MER, 45 (10.8% MDT and 178 (42.8% Nurse triggers. 60 (14.4% patients had a Call, and 72 (17.3% a modified Trigger.206 patients, of similar age, of whom 166 (80.5% had a Trigger, 122 (59.2% a Call, and 91 (44.2% a modified Trigger. PREVALENCE and incidence of failure to Call was 33.2% and 68% of patients, respectively, particular for Nurse Triggers (26.7% and 62.1%, respectively. The number of Modifications, Calls, and failure to Call, correlated with the number of Triggers (0.912 [p<0.01], 0.631 [p<0.01], 0.988 [p<0.01].Within a multi-tiered response system for the detection and response to the deteriorating patient Triggers, their Modifications and failure to Call are common, particularly within the lower tiers of escalation. The number of Triggers and their Modifications may erode the structure, compliance, and potential efficacy of structured observation and response charts within a multi-tiered response

  12. TANK 18 AND 19-F TIER 1A EQUIPMENT FILL MOCK UP TEST SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2011-11-04

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) has determined that Tanks 18-F and 19-F have met the F-Tank Farm (FTF) General Closure Plan Requirements and are ready to be permanently closed. The high-level waste (HLW) tanks have been isolated from FTF facilities. To complete operational closure they will be filled with grout for the purpose of: (1) physically stabilizing the tanks, (2) limiting/eliminating vertical pathways to residual waste, (3) discouraging future intrusion, and (4) providing an alkaline, chemical reducing environment within the closure boundary to control speciation and solubility of select radionuclides. Bulk waste removal and heel removal equipment remain in Tanks 18-F and 19-F. This equipment includes the Advance Design Mixer Pump (ADMP), transfer pumps, transfer jets, standard slurry mixer pumps, equipment-support masts, sampling masts, dip tube assemblies and robotic crawlers. The present Tank 18 and 19-F closure strategy is to grout the equipment in place and eliminate vertical pathways by filling voids in the equipment to vertical fast pathways and water infiltration. The mock-up tests described in this report were intended to address placement issues identified for grouting the equipment that will be left in Tank 18-F and Tank 19-F. The Tank 18-F and 19-F closure strategy document states that one of the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for a closed tank is that equipment remaining in the tank be filled to the extent practical and that vertical flow paths 1 inch and larger be grouted. The specific objectives of the Tier 1A equipment grout mock-up testing include: (1) Identifying the most limiting equipment configurations with respect to internal void space filling; (2) Specifying and constructing initial test geometries and forms that represent scaled boundary conditions; (3) Identifying a target grout rheology for evaluation in the scaled mock-up configurations; (4) Scaling-up production of a grout mix with the target rheology

  13. On the problem of selection and interpretation of the two-chamber tiered burials of Catacomb culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feshchenko, Ye. L.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of burial structures from the territory of steppe Dniper region. The special type of burial constructions could be distinguished. It consists of primary and secondary graves, united by one entrance hole. The secondary burial located vertically above the initial burial chamber. Such structures can be defined as two-chamber tiered burial. The characteristic features of this type of burial are: usage of one input pits; construction of the second chamber only after opening the entrance and penetration in the primary chamber; preserve remnants of previous burials and, if necessary; bunk camera locations; recovery facilities ("sealing" after the second burial. Further study of the the Catacomb culture will clarify features of two-chamber tiered graves.

  14. Using Three-Tier Test to Identify the Quantity of Student that Having Misconception on Newton's Laws of Motion Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Sulistri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify students quantity who are having the misconception on Newton's laws of motion concept using a Three-tiered Test. The sampling technique used in this study is purposive sampling technique and has been conducted on 56 students at Senior High School. A three-tier "Newton’s Law Of Motion Test" with 10 items is using as instrument to collected date in this study. The results showed that the quantity of students who experienced misconception with the highest category is on the concept of determining the relationship between the mass of objects and the time required for free fall that is equal to 89.3%. While the lowest category is in the concept of explaining the relationship between acceleration, mass and force with the time required for the object to fall freely that is equal to 26.8%.

  15. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. II: live weight, health measures and perching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2015-01-01

    Multi-tier aviary systems, where conveyor belts below the tiers remove the manure at regular intervals, are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor...... stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results on live weight, health measures and perching are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area...... regulations on the keeping of organic laying hens. Hen live weight, mortality and foot health were not affected by the stocking densities used in the present study. Other variables (plumage condition, presence of breast redness and blisters, pecked tail feathers, and perch use) were indirectly affected...

  16. Analisis Miskonsepsi Siswa Kelas XI SMA Pada Materi Larutan Penyangga Menggunakan Instrumen Tes Three Tier Multiple Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhujaimah, Rosi; Kartika, Irma Ratna; Nurjaydi, Muktiningsih

    2016-01-01

    The research is aimed to analyze misconceptions of high school students of class XI on the buffer solution material using instruments Three Tier Multiple Choice Tests. Another purpose of this study was to determine the percentage of student misconceptions and location misconceptions on chemical material especially on the subject of buffer solution. The research method is descriptive, data collection by giving a 13 item multiple choice questions with closed reason and CRI index and then the r...

  17. Proof-of-Concept Application of Tier 2 Modeling Approach within the Training Range Environmental Evaluation And Characterization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Operational Range Assessment Program PET Potential evapotranspiration Plus-SG Plus operator for Surface water and Groundwater POC Proof-of-concept...Tier 1 POC application. The average annual evapotranspiration for the 25-year period is 0.453 m/yr, yielding an average annual infiltration rate of...distribution (or partition ) coefficient Kd for soil (L/kg); the soil detachability due to rainfall, a (kg/L); the soil exchange layer thickness, de (m

  18. A win-win solution?: A critical analysis of tiered pricing to improve access to medicines in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Suerie; Jambert, Elodie; Childs, Michelle; von Schoen-Angerer, Tido

    2011-10-12

    Tiered pricing - the concept of selling drugs and vaccines in developing countries at prices systematically lower than in industrialized countries - has received widespread support from industry, policymakers, civil society, and academics as a way to improve access to medicines for the poor. We carried out case studies based on a review of international drug price developments for antiretrovirals, artemisinin combination therapies, drug-resistant tuberculosis medicines, liposomal amphotericin B (for visceral leishmaniasis), and pneumococcal vaccines. We found several critical shortcomings to tiered pricing: it is inferior to competition for achieving the lowest sustainable prices; it often involves arbitrary divisions between markets and/or countries, which can lead to very high prices for middle-income markets; and it leaves a disproportionate amount of decision-making power in the hands of sellers vis-à-vis consumers. In many developing countries, resources are often stretched so tight that affordability can only be approached by selling medicines at or near the cost of production. Policies that "de-link" the financing of R&D from the price of medicines merit further attention, since they can reward innovation while exploiting robust competition in production to generate the lowest sustainable prices. However, in special cases - such as when market volumes are very small or multi-source production capacity is lacking - tiered pricing may offer the only practical option to meet short-term needs for access to a product. In such cases, steps should be taken to ensure affordability and availability in the longer-term. To ensure access to medicines for populations in need, alternate strategies should be explored that harness the power of competition, avoid arbitrary market segmentation, and/or recognize government responsibilities. Competition should generally be the default option for achieving affordability, as it has proven superior to tiered pricing for reliably

  19. The nigrostriatal pathway in the rat: A single-axon study of the relationship between dorsal and ventral tier nigral neurons and the striosome/matrix striatal compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensa, L; Parent, A

    2001-09-15

    Axons from dorsal/ventral tiers of substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), ventral tegmental area (VTA), and retrorubral field (RRF) were traced after injecting their cell body with biotinylated dextran amine. Fifty-three single axons were reconstructed from serial sagittal sections with a camera lucida, and mu-opiate receptor immunostaining served to differentiate the striosome/matrix striatal compartments. Most dorsal tier SNc axons terminate within the matrix of the dorsal striatum, but their patterns of arborization vary markedly; some axons innervate one specific matriceal area, whereas others arborize in multiple discontinuous loci. Some dorsal tier SNc axons also project to both striosomes and matrix. Other dorsal tier SNc axons, as well as VTA axons, innervate the ventral striatum and send collaterals to striosomes lying ventrally in the dorsal striatum or to the ventral sector of the subcallosal streak (SS). Ventral tier SNc axons arborize principally in striosomes, but some ramify in both compartments or in striosomes and the SS. Ventral tier neurons that form deep clusters in substantia nigra pars reticulata innervate principally the matrix and the SS. The amygdala and ventral pallidum receive secondary collaterals from striatal axons of dorsal/ventral tier neurons or RRF neurons. The subthalamic nucleus receives collaterals from striatal axons of SNc clustered neurons, whereas the globus pallidus gets collaterals from striatal axons of dorsal/ventral tier SNc neurons. These findings reveal that the nigrostriatal pathway is composed of several neuronal subsystems, each endowed with a widely distributed axonal arborization that allows them to exert a multifaceted influence on striatal and/or extrastriatal structures.

  20. Privacy-Preserving Data Aggregation in Two-Tiered Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglei Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Privacy-preserving data aggregation in wireless sensor networks (WSNs with mobile nodes is a challenging problem, as an accurate aggregation result should be derived in a privacy-preserving manner, under the condition that nodes are mobile and have no pre-specified keys for cryptographic operations. In this paper, we focus on the SUM aggregation function and propose two privacy-preserving data aggregation protocols for two-tiered sensor networks with mobile nodes: Privacy-preserving Data Aggregation against non-colluded Aggregator and Sink (PDAAS and Privacy-preserving Data Aggregation against Colluded Aggregator and Sink (PDACAS. Both protocols guarantee that the sink can derive the SUM of all raw sensor data but each sensor’s raw data is kept confidential. In PDAAS, two keyed values are used, one shared with the sink and the other shared with the aggregator. PDAAS can protect the privacy of sensed data against external eavesdroppers, compromised sensor nodes, the aggregator or the sink, but fails if the aggregator and the sink collude. In PDACAS, multiple keyed values are used in data perturbation, which are not shared with the aggregator or the sink. PDACAS can protect the privacy of sensor nodes even the aggregator and the sink collude, at the cost of a little more overhead than PDAAS. Thorough analysis and experiments are conducted, which confirm the efficacy and efficiency of both schemes.

  1. The Effects of Micromixing Two Solutions of Two Concentrations in a Two Tier PDMS Micromixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundra, Sargunan; Fhong Soon, Chin; Zainal, Nurfarina; Sek Tee, Kian; Ahmad, Nornabihah; Gan, Siew Hua

    2017-08-01

    Micromixing technology has drastically advanced in the past few decades. Micromixers are one of the elements in integrated microfluidic systems for chemical, analytical chemistry, pharmaceutical, and biological applications. In this study, two tier micromixer was used to mix and dilute two solutions of similar and different concentration in order to investigate performance of micromixer’s mixing. This paper presents the fabrication of a designed micromixer using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and vinyl tape methods which reduce time, cost and complexity of prototyping. The serpentine structure of the microchannels was designed to enhance both mixing and dilution. Two types of food dyes and distilled water were used to investigate the mixing performance of the micromixer followed by spectrophotometry analysis. It is observed that the single dye solution and distilled water shows better mixing performance compared to the micromixing of two dye solutions which was supported by the diffusion theory. 2.00 ml/min was the optimum flow rate that allow optimum mixing and dilution between two different concentrated liquids.

  2. STRUKTUR PERBANKAN INDONESIA: KAJIAN PEMENUHAN PILAR 1- TIER1 PADA PERBANKAN NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Haryati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available It was stipulated by Bank Indonesia regulation that the banks must have a minimum core capital of Rp 100billion by the end of 2010. However, until the mid year of 2010, there were a small number of banks that hadsuch minimum core capital which was less than Rp100 billion. This research attempted to determine theinfluence of the internal factors (financial performance as well as the external factors such as asset qualitytowards the core capital in the national banking industries. The subjects of this study were all national banks,in which the secondary data used were published financial statements based on the observation during the sixyear-period: 2004 -2009. The analysis techniques used were rotated Factor Analysis and Ordinal LogisticRegression. The results showed that of the 21 variables, 19 variables were formed as the factors, with a loadingfactor >1. The result of logistic regression analysis showed that 11 variables had a significant influencetowards the probability of compliance with core capital such as APB, ROE, NIM, BOPO, FBIR, CPR, ABP, BIRate, INFL and VER. Therefore these ratios could be used as a reference banks to improve or to maintain the corecapital (tier 1.

  3. Macrocell Protection Interference Alignment in Two-Tier Downlink Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongpil Seo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional interference alignment (IA has been developed to mitigate interference problems for the coexistence of picocells and macrocells. This paper proposes a macrocell protection interference alignment (MCP-IA in two-tier MIMO downlink heterogeneous networks. The proposed method aligns the interference of the macro user equipment (UE and mitigates the interference of the pico-UEs with a minimum mean squared error interference rejection combining (MMSE-IRC receiver. Compared to the conventional IA, the proposed MCP-IA provides an additional array gain obtained by the precoder design of the macro BS and a diversity gain achieved by signal space selections. The degrees of freedom (DoF of the proposed MCP-IA are equal to or greater than that of the conventional IA and are derived theoretically. Link level simulations show the link capacity and the DoF of the macro UE, and also exhibit the proposed MCP-IA attaining additional array gain and diversity gain. The system level simulation illustrates that the proposed method prevents the interference of the macro UE completely and preserves the throughput of the pico-UE irrespective of the number of picocells. For 4×2 antenna configuration, the system level simulation demonstrates that the proposed MCP-IA throughput of the macro UE is not affected by the number of picocells and that the proposed MCP-IA throughput of the picocells approaches that of single-user MIMO (SU-MIMO with a 3% loss.

  4. Two-Tier Reactive Power and Voltage Control Strategy Based on ARMA Renewable Power Forecasting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinling Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To address the static voltage stability issue and suppress the voltage fluctuation caused by the increasing integration of wind farms and solar photovoltaic (PV power plants, a two-tier reactive power and voltage control strategy based on ARMA power forecasting models for wind and solar plants is proposed in this paper. Firstly, ARMA models are established to forecast the output of wind farms and solar PV plants. Secondly, the discrete equipment is pre-regulated based on the single-step prediction information from ARMA forecasting models according to the optimization result. Thirdly, a multi-objective optimization model is presented and solved by particle swarm optimization (PSO according to the measured data and the proposed static voltage stability index. Finally, the IEEE14 bus system including a wind farm and solar PV plant is utilized to test the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. The results show that the proposed strategy can suppress voltage fluctuation and improve the static voltage stability under the condition of high penetration of renewables including wind and solar power.

  5. Three-tier multi-granularity switching system based on PCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubao; Sun, Hao; Liu, Yanfei

    2017-10-01

    With the growing demand for business communications, electrical signal processing optical path switching can't meet the demand. The multi-granularity switch system that can improve node routing and switching capabilities came into being. In the traditional network, each node is responsible for calculating the path; synchronize the whole network state, which will increase the burden on the network, so the concept of path calculation element (PCE) is proposed. The PCE is responsible for routing and allocating resources in the network1. In the traditional band-switched optical network, the wavelength is used as the basic routing unit, resulting in relatively low wavelength utilization. Due to the limitation of wavelength continuity, the routing design of the band technology becomes complicated, which directly affects the utilization of the system. In this paper, optical code granularity is adopted. There is no continuity of the optical code, and the number of optical codes is more flexible than the wavelength. For the introduction of optical code switching, we propose a Code Group Routing Entity (CGRE) algorithm. In short, the combination of three-tier multi-granularity optical switching system and PCE can simplify the network structure, reduce the node load, and enhance the network scalability and survivability. Realize the intelligentization of optical network.

  6. Near-optimal downlink precoding for two-tier priority-based wireless networks

    KAUST Repository

    Park, Kihong

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we study a two-tier priority-based wireless cellular network in which the primary base station (BS) has multiple antennas and the other terminals have a single antenna. We assume that we have two classes of users: high priority users and low priority users. We consider a rate maximization problem of the low priority users under signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio constraints on the high priority user to guarantee a certain quality-of-service for the high priority user. Since the interference due to the low priority users which communicate with each other via direct transmission may severely degrade the performance of the high priority user, we propose a BS-aided two-way relaying approach in which the BS helps relay the low priority users\\' signals instead of allowing them to communicate with each other via a direct path between them. In addition, an algorithm to find a near-optimal beamforming solution at the BS is proposed. The asymptotic results in the high power regime are derived to verify the average sum rate performance in the proposed scheme. Finally, based on some selected numerical results, we show that the proposed scheme outperforms the direct transmission scheme over a wide transmit power range.

  7. Flexible Design for α-Duplex Communications in Multi-Tier Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    AlAmmouri, Ahmad

    2016-06-13

    Backward compatibility is an essential ingredient for the success of new technologies. In the context of inband full-duplex (FD) communication, FD base stations (BSs) should support half-duplex (HD) users’ equipment (UEs) without sacrificing the foreseen FD gains. This paper presents flexible and tractable modeling framework for multi-tier cellular networks with FD BSs and FD/HD UEs. The presented model is based on stochastic geometry and accounts for the intrinsic vulnerability of uplink transmissions. The results show that FD UEs are not necessarily required to harvest rate gains from FD BSs. In particular, the results show that adding FD UEs to FD BSs offers a maximum of 5% rate gain over FD BSs and HD UEs case if multi-user diversity is exploited, which is a marginal gain compared to the burden required to implement FD transceivers at the UEs’ side. To this end, we shed light on practical scenarios where HD UEs operation with FD BSs outperforms the operation when both the BSs and UEs are FD and we find a closed form expression for the critical value of the self-interference attenuation power required for the FD UEs to outperform HD UEs.

  8. Strategically Leapfrogging Education in Prehospital Trauma Management: Four-Tiered Training Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Rohit; Vyas, Dinesh; Narayan, Mayur; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-12-01

    Trauma-related injury in fast developing countries are linked to 90% of international mortality rates, which can be greatly reduced by improvements in often non-existent or non-centralized emergency medical systems (EMS)-particularly in the pre-hospital care phase. Traditional trauma training protocols-such as Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS), International Trauma Life Support (ITLS), and Basic Life Support (BLS)-have failed to produce an effective pre-hospital ground force of medical first responders. To overcome these barriers, we propose a new four-tiered set of trauma training protocols: Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) Trauma Training, Acute Trauma Training (ATT), Broad Trauma Training (BTT), and Cardiac and Trauma Training (CTT). These standards are specifically differentiated to accommodate the educational and socioeconomic diversity found in fast developing settings, where each free course is taught in native, lay language while ensuring the education standards are maintained by fully incorporating high-fidelity simulation, video-recorded debriefing, and retraining. The innovative pedagogy of this trauma education program utilizes MOOC for global scalability and a "train-the-trainer" approach for exponential growth-both components help fast developing countries reach a critical mass of first responders needed for the base of an evolving EMS.

  9. Adjustable Two-Tier Cache for IPTV Based on Segmented Streaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Chun Liang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet protocol TV (IPTV is a promising Internet killer application, which integrates video, voice, and data onto a single IP network, and offers viewers an innovative set of choices and control over their TV content. To provide high-quality IPTV services, an effective strategy is based on caching. This work proposes a segment-based two-tier caching approach, which divides each video into multiple segments to be cached. This approach also partitions the cache space into two layers, where the first layer mainly caches to-be-played segments and the second layer saves possibly played segments. As the segment access becomes frequent, the proposed approach enlarges the first layer and reduces the second layer, and vice versa. Because requested segments may not be accessed frequently, this work further designs an admission control mechanism to determine whether an incoming segment should be cached or not. The cache architecture takes forward/stop playback into account and may replace the unused segments under the interrupted playback. Finally, we conduct comprehensive simulation experiments to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach. The results show that our approach can yield higher hit ratio than previous work under various environmental parameters.

  10. Offline monitoring and data quality of the ATLAS Resistive Plate Chambers at CERN Tier0 facility

    CERN Document Server

    Guida, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) were installed in the barrel region of ATLAS detector to provide the muon trigger (and a coarse measure of the “non-bending” phi coordinate) in the region || < 1.05. The RPC are gaseous detector which measure the muon trajectory with 3 cm strips in the bending plane (r-z) and in the orthogonal direction (r-phi) with few nanoseconds time resolution. The trigger is done in both projections and has a programmable threshold from about 5 to 20 GeV transverse momentum. A total of 596 RPC chambers were installed, arranged in three cylindrical layers. They cover an area of 3650 square meters and are equipped with 368000 read-out electronic channels. The monitoring and the control of such a large subsystem is crucial to maximize the physics reach of the experiment. A dedicated tool was developed to perform the offline monitoring, to evaluate the quality of the RPC data and the detector performance. This tool is executed together with the reconstruction process at “Tier-0” ...

  11. Early crocodylomorph increases top tier predator diversity during rise of dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanno, Lindsay E; Drymala, Susan; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Schneider, Vincent P

    2015-03-19

    Triassic predatory guild evolution reflects a period of ecological flux spurred by the catastrophic end-Permian mass extinction and terminating with the global ecological dominance of dinosaurs in the early Jurassic. In responding to this dynamic ecospace, terrestrial predator diversity attained new levels, prompting unique trophic webs with a seeming overabundance of carnivorous taxa and the evolution of entirely new predatory clades. Key among these was Crocodylomorpha, the largest living reptiles and only one of two archosaurian lineages that survive to the present day. In contrast to their existing role as top, semi-aquatic predators, the earliest crocodylomorphs were generally small-bodied, terrestrial faunivores, occupying subsidiary (meso) predator roles. Here we describe Carnufex carolinensis a new, unexpectedly large-bodied taxon with a slender and ornamented skull from the Carnian Pekin Formation (~231 Ma), representing one of the oldest and earliest diverging crocodylomorphs described to date. Carnufex bridges a problematic gap in the early evolution of pseudosuchians by spanning key transitions in bauplan evolution and body mass near the origin of Crocodylomorpha. With a skull length of >50 cm, the new taxon documents a rare instance of crocodylomorphs ascending to top-tier predator guilds in the equatorial regions of Pangea prior to the dominance of dinosaurs.

  12. Managing a tier-2 computer centre with a private cloud infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnasco, Stefano; Berzano, Dario; Brunetti, Riccardo; Lusso, Stefano; Vallero, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In a typical scientific computing centre, several applications coexist and share a single physical infrastructure. An underlying Private Cloud infrastructure eases the management and maintenance of such heterogeneous applications (such as multipurpose or application-specific batch farms, Grid sites, interactive data analysis facilities and others), allowing dynamic allocation resources to any application. Furthermore, the maintenance of large deployments of complex and rapidly evolving middleware and application software is eased by the use of virtual images and contextualization techniques. Such infrastructures are being deployed in some large centres (see e.g. the CERN Agile Infrastructure project), but with several open-source tools reaching maturity this is becoming viable also for smaller sites. In this contribution we describe the Private Cloud infrastructure at the INFN-Torino Computer Centre, that hosts a full-fledged WLCG Tier-2 centre, an Interactive Analysis Facility for the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC and several smaller scientific computing applications. The private cloud building blocks include the OpenNebula software stack, the GlusterFS filesystem and the OpenWRT Linux distribution (used for network virtualization); a future integration into a federated higher-level infrastructure is made possible by exposing commonly used APIs like EC2 and OCCI

  13. Managing a tier-2 computer centre with a private cloud infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnasco, Stefano; Berzano, Dario; Brunetti, Riccardo; Lusso, Stefano; Vallero, Sara

    2014-06-01

    In a typical scientific computing centre, several applications coexist and share a single physical infrastructure. An underlying Private Cloud infrastructure eases the management and maintenance of such heterogeneous applications (such as multipurpose or application-specific batch farms, Grid sites, interactive data analysis facilities and others), allowing dynamic allocation resources to any application. Furthermore, the maintenance of large deployments of complex and rapidly evolving middleware and application software is eased by the use of virtual images and contextualization techniques. Such infrastructures are being deployed in some large centres (see e.g. the CERN Agile Infrastructure project), but with several open-source tools reaching maturity this is becoming viable also for smaller sites. In this contribution we describe the Private Cloud infrastructure at the INFN-Torino Computer Centre, that hosts a full-fledged WLCG Tier-2 centre, an Interactive Analysis Facility for the ALICE experiment at the CERN LHC and several smaller scientific computing applications. The private cloud building blocks include the OpenNebula software stack, the GlusterFS filesystem and the OpenWRT Linux distribution (used for network virtualization); a future integration into a federated higher-level infrastructure is made possible by exposing commonly used APIs like EC2 and OCCI.

  14. Velocity-Aware Handover Management in Two-Tier Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Arshad, Rabe

    2017-01-19

    While network densification is considered an important solution to cater the ever-increasing capacity demand, its effect on the handover (HO) rate is overlooked. In dense 5G networks, HO delays may neutralize or even negate the gains offered by network densification. Hence, user mobility imposes a nontrivial challenge to harvest capacity gains via network densification. In this paper, we propose a velocity-aware HO management scheme for two-tier downlink cellular network to mitigate the HO effect on the foreseen densification throughput gains. The proposed HO scheme sacrifices the best base station (BS) connectivity, by skipping HO to some BSs along the user trajectory, to maintain longer connection durations and reduce HO rates. Furthermore, the proposed scheme enables cooperative BS service and strongest interference cancellation to compensate for skipping the best connectivity. To this end, we consider different HO skipping scenarios and develop a velocity-aware mathematical model, via stochastic geometry, to quantify the performance of the proposed HO schemes in terms of the coverage probability and user throughput. The results highlight the HO rate problem in dense cellular environments and show the importance of the proposed HO schemes. Finally, the value of BS cooperation along with handover skipping is quantified for different user mobility profiles.

  15. A tiered assessment strategy for more effective evaluation of bioaccumulation of chemicals in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillicrap, Adam; Springer, Tim; Tyler, Charles R

    2016-03-01

    There is currently limited guidance available for regulators and risk assessors on how to use data from non-guideline methods when assessing the bioaccumulation potential of a chemical. Furthermore, bioaccumulation assessments can be more subjective than they need to be due to the lack of a guidance framework on how to use/include the range of information that may be available for a substance. Under some circumstances, in silico, in vitro and/or in vivo non-test guideline data may be sufficient to classify whether a substance is bioaccumulative without the need for further animal testing. Classifying the bioaccumulative potential of a substance is especially difficult when the bioconcentration factor (BCF) is close to the threshold for defining it as bioaccumulative/very bioaccumulative (B/vB), and a more structured process is required to reduce uncertainty in the BCF estimates. In these situations, in silico and in vitro data can, and should, be used to provide greater confidence in classifying these substances. To aid future evaluations of bioaccumulation data, a proposed tiered assessment strategy is presented incorporating all available data on the bioaccumulative properties of a substance. In addition, a revised scheme is recommended for improving the classification of the bioaccumulative potential of a substance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Implementation of system intelligence in a 3-tier telemedicine/PACS hierarchical storage management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Woodrew; Ho, Bruce K. T.; Chao, John T.; Sadri, Reza M.; Huang, Lu J.; Taira, Ricky K.

    1995-05-01

    Our tele-medicine/PACS archive system is based on a three-tier distributed hierarchical architecture, including magnetic disk farms, optical jukebox, and tape jukebox sub-systems. The hierarchical storage management (HSM) architecture, built around a low cost high performance platform [personal computers (PC) and Microsoft Windows NT], presents a very scaleable and distributed solution ideal for meeting the needs of client/server environments such as tele-medicine, tele-radiology, and PACS. These image based systems typically require storage capacities mirroring those of film based technology (multi-terabyte with 10+ years storage) and patient data retrieval times at near on-line performance as demanded by radiologists. With the scaleable architecture, storage requirements can be easily configured to meet the needs of the small clinic (multi-gigabyte) to those of a major hospital (multi-terabyte). The patient data retrieval performance requirement was achieved by employing system intelligence to manage migration and caching of archived data. Relevant information from HIS/RIS triggers prefetching of data whenever possible based on simple rules. System intelligence embedded in the migration manger allows the clustering of patient data onto a single tape during data migration from optical to tape medium. Clustering of patient data on the same tape eliminates multiple tape loading and associated seek time during patient data retrieval. Optimal tape performance can then be achieved by utilizing the tape drives high performance data streaming capabilities thereby reducing typical data retrieval delays associated with streaming tape devices.

  17. A high performance hierarchical storage management system for the Canadian tier-1 centre at TRIUMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deatrich, D C; Liu, S X; Tafirout, R

    2010-01-01

    We describe in this paper the design and implementation of Tapeguy, a high performance non-proprietary Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system which is interfaced to dCache for efficient tertiary storage operations. The system has been successfully implemented at the Canadian Tier-1 Centre at TRIUMF. The ATLAS experiment will collect a large amount of data (approximately 3.5 Petabytes each year). An efficient HSM system will play a crucial role in the success of the ATLAS Computing Model which is driven by intensive large-scale data analysis activities that will be performed on the Worldwide LHC Computing Grid infrastructure continuously. Tapeguy is Perl-based. It controls and manages data and tape libraries. Its architecture is scalable and includes Dataset Writing control, a Read-back Queuing mechanism and I/O tape drive load balancing as well as on-demand allocation of resources. A central MySQL database records metadata information for every file and transaction (for audit and performance evaluation), as well as an inventory of library elements. Tapeguy Dataset Writing was implemented to group files which are close in time and of similar type. Optional dataset path control dynamically allocates tape families and assign tapes to it. Tape flushing is based on various strategies: time, threshold or external callbacks mechanisms. Tapeguy Read-back Queuing reorders all read requests by using an elevator algorithm, avoiding unnecessary tape loading and unloading. Implementation of priorities will guarantee file delivery to all clients in a timely manner.

  18. Experience with Multi-Tier Grid MySQL Database Service Resiliency at BNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodek, Tomasz; Ernst, Michael; Hover, John; Katramatos, Dimitrios; Packard, Jay; Smirnov, Yuri; Yu, Dantong

    2011-01-01

    We describe the use of F5's BIG-IP smart switch technology (3600 Series and Local Traffic Manager v9.0) to provide load balancing and automatic fail-over to multiple Grid services (GUMS, VOMS) and their associated back-end MySQL databases. This resiliency is introduced in front of the external application servers and also for the back-end database systems, which is what makes it 'multi-tier'. The combination of solutions chosen to ensure high availability of the services, in particular the database replication and fail-over mechanism, are discussed in detail. The paper explains the design and configuration of the overall system, including virtual servers, machine pools, and health monitors (which govern routing), as well as the master-slave database scheme and fail-over policies and procedures. Pre-deployment planning and stress testing will be outlined. Integration of the systems with our Nagios-based facility monitoring and alerting is also described. And application characteristics of GUMS and VOMS which enable effective clustering will be explained. We then summarize our practical experiences and real-world scenarios resulting from operating a major US Grid center, and assess the applicability of our approach to other Grid services in the future.

  19. Tiering strategic environmental assessment and project environmental impact assessment in highway planning in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Luis E.; Silva-Sanchez, Solange S.

    2008-01-01

    Constructing highways in dense urban areas is always a challenge. In Sao Paulo Metropolitan Region, heavy truck traffic contributes to clog streets and expressways alike. As part of the traffic neither originates nor head to the region, a peripheral highway has been proposed to reduce traffic problems. This project, called Rodoanel, is an expressway approximately 175 km long. The fact that the projected south and north sections would cross catchments that supply most of the metropolis water demand was strongly disputed and made the environmental permitting process particularly difficult. The agency in charge commissioned a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of a revamped project, and called it the Rodoanel Programme. However, the SEA report failed to satisfactorily take account of significant strategic issues. Among these, the highway potential effect of inducing urban sprawl over water protection zones is the most critical issue, as it emerged later as a hurdle to project licensing. Conclusion is that, particularly where no agreed-upon framework for SEA exists, when vertical tiering with downstream project EIA is sought, then a careful scoping of strategic issues is more than necessary. If an agreement on 'what is strategic' is not reached and not recognized by influential stakeholders, then the unsettled conflicts will be transferred to project EIA. In such a context, SEA will have added another loop to the usually long road to project approval

  20. Energy Aware Pricing in a Three-Tiered Cloud Service Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debdeep Paul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider a three-tiered cloud service market and propose an energy efficient pricing strategy in this market. Here, the end customers are served by the Software-as-a-Service (SaaS providers, who implement customized services for their customers. To host these services, these SaaS providers, in turn, lease the infrastructure related resources from the Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS or Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS providers. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a mechanism for pricing between SaaS providers and Iaas/PaaS providers and between SaaS providers and the end customers. The pricing scheme is designed in a way such that the integration of renewable energy is promoted, which is a very crucial aspect of energy efficiency. Thereafter, we propose a technique to strategically provide an improved Quality of Service (QoS by deploying more resources than what is computed by the optimization procedure. This technique is based on the square root staffing law in queueing theory. We carry out numerical evaluations with real data traces on electricity price, renewable energy generation, workload, etc., in order to emulate the real dynamics of the cloud service market. We demonstrate that, under practical assumptions, the proposed technique can generate more profit for the service providers operating in the cloud service market.

  1. LeaRN: A Collaborative Learning-Research Network for a WLCG Tier-3 Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calle, Elio Pérez

    2011-01-01

    The Department of Modern Physics of the University of Science and Technology of China is hosting a Tier-3 centre for the ATLAS experiment. A interdisciplinary team of researchers, engineers and students are devoted to the task of receiving, storing and analysing the scientific data produced by the LHC. In order to achieve the highest performance and to develop a knowledge base shared by all members of the team, the research activities and their coordination are being supported by an array of computing systems. These systems have been designed to foster communication, collaboration and coordination among the members of the team, both face-to-face and remotely, and both in synchronous and asynchronous ways. The result is a collaborative learning-research network whose main objectives are awareness (to get shared knowledge about other's activities and therefore obtain synergies), articulation (to allow a project to be divided, work units to be assigned and then reintegrated) and adaptation (to adapt information technologies to the needs of the group). The main technologies involved are Communication Tools such as web publishing, revision control and wikis, Conferencing Tools such as forums, instant messaging and video conferencing and Coordination Tools, such as time management, project management and social networks. The software toolkit has been deployed by the members of the team and it has been based on free and open source software.

  2. LeaRN: A Collaborative Learning-Research Network for a WLCG Tier-3 Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Calle, Elio

    2011-12-01

    The Department of Modern Physics of the University of Science and Technology of China is hosting a Tier-3 centre for the ATLAS experiment. A interdisciplinary team of researchers, engineers and students are devoted to the task of receiving, storing and analysing the scientific data produced by the LHC. In order to achieve the highest performance and to develop a knowledge base shared by all members of the team, the research activities and their coordination are being supported by an array of computing systems. These systems have been designed to foster communication, collaboration and coordination among the members of the team, both face-to-face and remotely, and both in synchronous and asynchronous ways. The result is a collaborative learning-research network whose main objectives are awareness (to get shared knowledge about other's activities and therefore obtain synergies), articulation (to allow a project to be divided, work units to be assigned and then reintegrated) and adaptation (to adapt information technologies to the needs of the group). The main technologies involved are Communication Tools such as web publishing, revision control and wikis, Conferencing Tools such as forums, instant messaging and video conferencing and Coordination Tools, such as time management, project management and social networks. The software toolkit has been deployed by the members of the team and it has been based on free and open source software.

  3. [Rapid first-tier genetic diagnosis in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ács, Orsolya Dóra; Péterfia, Bálint; Hollósi, Péter; Haltrich, Irén; Sallai, Ágnes; Luczay, Andrea; Buiting, Karin; Horsthemke, Bernhard; Török, Dóra; Szabó, András; Fekete, György

    2018-01-01

    According to the international literature, DNA methylation analysis of the promoter region of SNRPN locus is the most efficient way to start genetic investigation in patients with suspected Prader-Willi syndrome. Our aim was to develop a simple, reliable first-tier diagnosis to confirm Prader-Willi syndrome, therefore to compare our self-designed simple, cost-efficient high-resolution melting analysis and the most commonly used methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to confirm Prader-Willi syndrome. We studied 17 clinically suspected Prader-Willi syndrome children and their DNA samples. With self-designed primers, bisulfite-sensitive polymerase chain reaction, high-resolution melting analysis and, as a control, methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were performed. Prader-Willi syndrome was genetically confirmed in 6 out of 17 clinically suspected Prader-Willi syndrome patients. The results of high-resolution melting analysis and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification were equivalent in each case. Using our self-designed primers and altered bisulfite-specific PCR conditions, high-resolution melting analysis appears to be a simple, fast, reliable and effective method for primarily proving or excluding clinically suspected Prade-Willi syndrome cases. Orv Hetil. 2018; 159(2): 64-69.

  4. Inductive and ultrasonic multi-tier interface for low-power, deeply implantable medical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanni, Ayodele; Vilches, Antonio; Toumazou, C

    2012-08-01

    We report the development of a novel multi-tier interface which enables the wireless, noninvasive transfer of sufficient amounts of power as well as the collection and transmission of data from low-power, deeply implantable analog sensors. The interface consists of an inductive coupling subsystem and an ultrasonic subsystem. The designed and experimentally verified inductive subsystem ensures that 5 W of power is transferred across 10 mm of air gap between a single pair of PCB spiral coils with an efficiency of 83% using our prototype CMOS logic gate-based driver circuit. The implemented ultrasonic subsystem, based on ultrasonic PZT ceramic discs driven in their low-frequency, radial/planar-excitation mode, further ensures that 29 μW of power is delivered 70 mm deeper inside a homogenous liquid environment-with no acoustic matching layer employed-with an efficiency of 1%. Overall system power consumption is 2.3 W. The implant is intermittently powered every 800 msec; charging a capacitor which provides sufficient power for a duration of ~ 18 msec; sufficient for an implant μC operating at a frequency of 500 KHz to transmit a nibble (4 bits) of digitized sensed data.

  5. Interference statistics and capacity analysis for uplink transmission in two-tier small cell networks: A geometric probability approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tabassum, Hina

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a novel framework to derive the statistics of the interference considering dedicated and shared spectrum access for uplink transmission in two-tier small cell networks such as the macrocell-femtocell networks. The framework exploits the distance distributions from geometric probability theory to characterize the uplink interference while considering a traditional grid-model set-up for macrocells along with the randomly deployed femtocells. The derived expressions capture the impact of path-loss, composite shadowing and fading, uniform and non-uniform traffic loads, spatial distribution of femtocells, and partial and full spectral reuse among femtocells. Considering dedicated spectrum access, first, we derive the statistics of co-tier interference incurred at both femtocell and macrocell base stations (BSs) from a single interferer by approximating generalized- K composite fading distribution with the tractable Gamma distribution. We then derive the distribution of the number of interferers considering partial spectral reuse and moment generating function (MGF) of the cumulative interference for both partial and full spectral reuse scenarios. Next, we derive the statistics of the cross-tier interference at both femtocell and macrocell BSs considering shared spectrum access. Finally, we utilize the derived expressions to analyze the capacity in both dedicated and shared spectrum access scenarios. The derived expressions are validated by the Monte Carlo simulations. Numerical results are generated to assess the feasibility of shared and dedicated spectrum access in femtocells under varying traffic load and spectral reuse scenarios. © 2014 IEEE.

  6. ‘Une page est une image’: Text as Image in Arts et métiers graphiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof Van Gansen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Arts et métiers graphiques (1927–39 was a French graphic arts periodical published by type founder Charles Peignot. It tried to address all aspects of graphic design and the art of the book in articles written by prominent art critics, graphic designers, book historians, and literary authors. These contents were presented curiously: on fine paper with an intricate page layout and multiple fonts, and with offset inserts serving as illustrations or samples of technical innovations such as colour printing, all of which would please the bibliophile readership. Apart from advocating the renaissance of the beau livre and bibliophilism, Arts et métiers graphiques tried to redefine or adjust the traditional view of the literary text. A literary text was not only a thing to be read, it was also a visual and material object, hence the editors’ virtually exclusive focus on material aspects of the books they discussed. In doing so, they wanted to broaden the scope of literary criticism to include such aspects. After a historical overview of the magazine and a discussion of the editors’ views on bibliophilism, this article aims to investigate the visual and material conception of the text in Arts et métiers graphiques.

  7. ‘Une page est une image.’ Tekst als beeld in Arts et Métiers Graphiques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof Van Gansen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Arts et Métiers Graphiques (1927-1939 was a French graphic arts periodical published by type founder Charles Peignot. It tried to address all aspects of graphic design and of the art of the book in articles written by prominent art critics, graphic designers, book historians and literary authors. These contents were presented in a luxury way: on fine paper with an intricate page layout and multiple fonts, and with offset inserts serving as illustrations or samples of technical innovations such as color printing – all of which would please the bibliophile readership. Apart from advocating the renaissance of the beau livre and bibliophilia, Arts et Métiers Graphiques tried to redefine or adjust the traditional view on the literary text. A literary text was not only a thing to be read, it was also a visual and material object – hence the editors’ often exclusive focus on material aspects of the books they discussed. In doing so, they wanted to enlarge the scope of literary criticism to include these aspects. After a historical overview of the magazine and a discussion of the editors’ views on bibliophilism, this article aims to investigate the notion of the text as image in Arts et Métiers Graphiques.

  8. Assessment of risk to wildlife from ionising radiation: can initial screening tiers be used with a high level of confidence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N A; Barnett, C L; Hosseini, A; Brown, J E; Cailes, C; Copplestone, D; Beaugelin-Seiller, K

    2010-01-01

    A number of models are being used to assess the potential environmental impact of releases of radioactivity. These often use a tiered assessment structure whose first tier is designed to be highly conservative and simple to use. An aim of using this initial tier is to identify sites of negligible concern and to remove them from further consideration with a high degree of confidence. In this paper we compare the screening assessment outputs of three freely available models. The outputs of these models varied considerably in terms of estimated risk quotient (RQ) and the radionuclide-organism combinations identified as being the most limiting. A number of factors are identified as contributing to this variability: values of transfer parameters (concentration ratios and K d ) used; organisms considered; different input options and how these are utilised in the assessment; assumptions as regards secular equilibrium; geometries and exposure scenarios. This large variation in RQ values between models means that the level of confidence required by users is not achieved. We recommend that the factors contributing to the variation in screening assessments be subjected to further investigation so that they can be more fully understood and assessors (and those reviewing assessment outputs) can better justify and evaluate the results obtained.

  9. A multi-tiered approach for assessing the forestry and wood products industries' impact on the carbon balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    The forestry and wood products industries play a significant role in CO 2 emissions reduction by increasing carbon stocks in living forest biomass and wood products. Moreover, wood can substitute for fossil fuels. Different methods can be used to assess the impact of regional forestry and wood products industries on regional CO 2 emissions. This article considers three of those methods and combines them into a multi-tiered approach. The multi-tiered approach proposed in this article combines: 1) a Kyoto-Protocol-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from regional industrial production, 2) a consumer-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from regional consumption, and 3) a value-creation-oriented method focused on changes in CO 2 emissions resulting from forest management and wood usage strategies. North Rhine-Westphalia is both a typical German state and an example of a region where each of these three methods yields different results. It serves as a test case with which to illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach. This case study argues that the choice of assessment methods is essential when developing and evaluating a strategy for reducing CO 2 emissions. Emissions can be reduced through various social and economic processes. Since none of the assessment methods considered above is suitable for all of these processes, only a multi-tiered approach may ensure that strategy development results in an optimal emissions reduction strategy.

  10. Differential utility of the Bacteroidales DNA and RNA markers in the tiered approach for microbial source tracking in subtropical seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rulong; Cheng, Ken H F; Wong, Klaine; Cheng, Samuel C S; Lau, Stanley C K

    2015-07-01

    Source tracking of fecal pollution is an emerging component in water quality monitoring. It may be implemented in a tiered approach involving Escherichia coli and/or Enterococcus spp. as the standard fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and the 16S rRNA gene markers of Bacteroidales as source identifiers. The relative population dynamics of the source identifiers and the FIB may strongly influence the implementation of such approach. Currently, the relative performance of DNA and RNA as detection targets of Bacteroidales markers in the tiered approach is not known. We compared the decay of the DNA and RNA of the total (AllBac) and ruminant specific (CF128) Bacteroidales markers with those of the FIB in seawater spiked with cattle feces. Four treatments of light and oxygen availability simulating the subtropical seawater of Hong Kong were tested. All Bacteroidales markers decayed significantly slower than the FIB in all treatments. Nonetheless, the concentrations of the DNA and RNA markers and E. coli correlated significantly in normoxic seawater independent of light availability, and in hypoxic seawater only under light. In hypoxic seawater without light, the concentrations of RNA but not DNA markers correlated with that of E. coli. Generally, the correlations between Enterococcus spp. and Bacteroidales were insignificant. These results suggest that either DNA or RNA markers may complement E. coli in the tiered approach for normoxic or hypoxic seawater under light. When light is absent, either DNA or RNA markers may serve for normoxic seawater, but only the RNA markers are suitable for hypoxic seawater.

  11. Searches for beyond the Standard Model physics with boosted topologies in the ATLAS experiment using the Grid-based Tier-3 facility at IFIC-Valencia

    CERN Document Server

    Villaplana Pérez, Miguel; Vos, Marcel

    Both the LHC and ATLAS have been performing well beyond expectation since the start of the data taking by the end of 2009. Since then, several thousands of millions of collision events have been recorded by the ATLAS experiment. With a data taking efficiency higher than 95% and more than 99% of its channels working, ATLAS supplies data with an unmatched quality. In order to analyse the data, the ATLAS Collaboration has designed a distributed computing model based on GRID technologies. The ATLAS computing model and its evolution since the start of the LHC is discussed in section 3.1. The ATLAS computing model groups the different types of computing centers of the ATLAS Collaboration in a tiered hierarchy that ranges from Tier-0 at CERN, down to the 11 Tier-1 centers and the nearly 80 Tier-2 centres distributed world wide. The Spanish Tier-2 activities during the first years of data taking are described in section 3.2. Tier-3 are institution-level non-ATLAS funded or controlled centres that participate presuma...

  12. Regelungen im Verkehr mit Lebensmitteln und Bedarfsgegenständen in Deutschland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gundula; Freund, Astrid; Gründig, Friedrich

    Im Zuge der Globalisierung von Produktion und Handel ändert sich auch der Charakter der Vorschriften im Lebensmittelrecht. Zunehmend treten internationale Rechtsbestimmungen, Abkommen, Standards und andere Normen an die Stelle nationaler Regelungen.

  13. Lead contents in and on food. Bleigehalte in und auf Lebensmitteln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J. (ed.); Weigert, P. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The present situation of contamination of foods by lead in the Federal Republic of Germany is described. Statistical evaluation is based on the 1989 data stored in the ZEBS data base which are available as ADABAS files. The weekly lead intakes were calculated for an average adult female (58 kg body weight) and male person (70 kg body weight) in the age group from 36 to 50 years. For a health assessment of the total lead intake, the provisional tolerable weekly intake as proposed by FAO/WHO was taken as a basis. The edible offals (liver, kidney) of meat animals (cattle, pig), proved to be particularly contaminated with lead, also, owing to the particular nature of their surface, some leafy vegetables (green cabbage, herbs), as well as certain canned products. The extremely high lead levels found in some canned products may be avoided if the use of tinned cans with soldered side seam is discontinued. Most of the foods were found to have low lead levels, on an average. Drinking water and beer are particularly poor in lead. As compared to 1984, the total lead levels of foods have decreased slightly. This is mainly due to the fact that the recently measured lead levels of drinking water were included in the evaluations. The following median weekly intakes were found: Men 0.5801 mg/week, women 0.4111. The reduction of the weekly lead intake leads to a decrease of the percentage share of the WHO values by approx. 11% (in women) and 13% (in men), respectively, if the medians are taken as a basis for calculation of lead levels. (orig./MG)

  14. Product-Carbon-Footprint von Lebensmitteln in Österreich: biologisch und konventionell im Vergleich

    OpenAIRE

    Theurl, M.C.; Markut, T.; Hörtenhuber, S.; Lindenthal, T.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this broad conceived study was to analyse greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) of more than 130 foodstuffs from two organic agricultural production methods (Organic premium brand and Organic EU-standard) as compared to conventional farming in Austria. The system boundaries of the life-cycle study ranged from agriculture and its upstream supply chain to the retailer, including changes in soil organic carbon (humus) and land use change. In conclusion, all organic products in both organic ...

  15. Limiting values for radioactive materials in food; Grenzwerte fuer radioaktive Stoffe in Lebensmitteln. Beispiel Tschernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Martin [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution describes the fundamentals of radiation protection: LNT (linear, no threshold) hypotheses, ALARA (a slow as reasonably achievable), limiting values. Using the example the nuclear accident in Chernobyl the differences in contamination development in different foodstuffs in Germany is demonstrated including recommended limiting values and the radiation exposures after 30 years due to consumption of contaminated food. The natural radioactivity is about 0.3 mSv/year.

  16. Food contamination with environmentally hazardous chemical substances. Kontamination von Lebensmitteln mit Umweltchemikalien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petz, M. (Wuppertal Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany, F.R.). Fachbereich 9 - Naturwissenschaften 2 - Chemie - Biologie)

    1990-01-01

    The author explains the difference between residues and contaminants in food. Of the contaminants, the heavy metals lead, cadmium and mercury are discussed at length, e.g. their pathway through the food chain and their accumulation in plants, animals, and humans etc. PCB in food and in mother's milk are gone into, as are the consequences of this contamination. Finally, dibenzofuranes and dibenzodioxins are mentioned, again with a view to the contamination of mother's milk. The health hazards from contaminated food is related to the health hazards of malnutrition and overeating. (MG).

  17. Evolution of the Building Management System in the INFN CNAF Tier-1 data center facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Pier Paolo; Donatelli, Massimo; Falabella, Antonio; Mazza, Andrea; Onofri, Michele

    2017-10-01

    The INFN CNAF Tier-1 data center is composed by two different main rooms containing IT resources and four additional locations that hosts the necessary technology infrastructures providing the electrical power and cooling to the facility. The power supply and continuity are ensured by a dedicated room with three 15,000 to 400 V transformers in a separate part of the principal building and two redundant 1.4MW diesel rotary uninterruptible power supplies. The cooling is provided by six free cooling chillers of 320 kW each with a N+2 redundancy configuration. Clearly, considering the complex physical distribution of the technical plants, a detailed Building Management System (BMS) was designed and implemented as part of the original project in order to monitor and collect all the necessary information and for providing alarms in case of malfunctions or major failures. After almost 10 years of service, a revision of the BMS system was somewhat necessary. In addition, the increasing cost of electrical power is nowadays a strong motivation for improving the energy efficiency of the infrastructure. Therefore the exact calculation of the power usage effectiveness (PUE) metric has become one of the most important factors when aiming for the optimization of a modern data center. For these reasons, an evolution of the BMS system was designed using the Schneider StruxureWare infrastructure hardware and software products. This solution proves to be a natural and flexible development of the previous TAC Vista software with advantages in the ease of use and the possibility to customize the data collection and the graphical interfaces display. Moreover, the addition of protocols like open standard Web services gives the possibility to communicate with the BMS from custom user application and permits the exchange of data and information through the Web between different third-party systems. Specific Web services SOAP requests has been implemented in our Tier-1 monitoring system in

  18. Nuclear deterrence in second tier nuclear weapon states: a case study of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, Manpreet

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear deterrence today anchors the national security of all states that possess nuclear weapons. Certain principles or requirements of nuclear deterrence are the same for all such countries. For instance, the ability to threaten with unacceptable damage, or the ability to raise the costs of an action that an adversary might want to take by threatening punishment that would make the act seem meaningless and even regrettable. But must every nuclear nation indulge in an exercise of large-scale warhead accumulation or yield refinements through nuclear testing, or creation of elaborate nuclear war fighting plans in order to claim credible deterrence? Can the practice of deterrence in the second tier states follow a different course? The study examines the manner in which India is engaged in constructing a credible and stable deterrence relationship with two of its nuclear armed adversaries, Pakistan and China with an arsenal much smaller, and command and control structures far simpler than in any of the P-5 nations. Does this difference impact the nature of its nuclear deterrence? In its efforts at creating and sustaining credible nuclear deterrence should India necessarily be expected to follow the same path and rules as those of the P-5? Would it be compelled to build hundreds of warheads and a huge weapons infrastructure? Would a deterrence based on anything less not be credible or stable? The study concludes that even countries with small nuclear arsenals behave no differently from states that possess several thousands of such weapons. The assumption that small nuclear arsenals and rudimentary command and control lend themselves to temptations of easy nuclear use is misplaced. Credible nuclear deterrence between India and Pakistan or India and China would hold on the same bases it has held elsewhere - fear of nuclear destruction, imposition of unacceptable damage, and the ability to rationally calculate and weigh the benefits against the costs of use of nuclear

  19. Toward a Tiered Model to Share Clinical Trial Data and Samples in Precision Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Broes

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent revolution in science and technology applied to medical research has left in its wake a trial of biomedical data and human samples; however, its opportunities remain largely unfulfilled due to a number of legal, ethical, financial, strategic, and technical barriers. Precision oncology has been at the vanguard to leverage this potential of “Big data” and samples into meaningful solutions for patients, considering the need for new drug development approaches in this area (due to high costs, late-stage failures, and the molecular diversity of cancer. To harness the potential of the vast quantities of data and samples currently fragmented across databases and biobanks, it is critical to engage all stakeholders and share data and samples across research institutes. Here, we identified two general types of sharing strategies. First, open access models, characterized by the absence of any review panel or decision maker, and second controlled access model where some form of control is exercised by either the donor (i.e., patient, the data provider (i.e., initial organization, or an independent party. Further, we theoretically describe and provide examples of nine different strategies focused on greater sharing of patient data and material. These models provide varying levels of control, access to various data and/or samples, and different types of relationship between the donor, data provider, and data requester. We propose a tiered model to share clinical data and samples that takes into account privacy issues and respects sponsors’ legitimate interests. Its implementation would contribute to maximize the value of existing datasets, enabling unraveling the complexity of tumor biology, identify novel biomarkers, and re-direct treatment strategies better, ultimately to help patients with cancer.

  20. Implementation of a 4-tier Cloud-Based Architecture for Collaborative Health Care Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Azeez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cloud services permit healthcare providers to ensure information handling and allow different service resources such as Software as a Service (SaaS, Platform as a Service (PaaS and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS on the Internet, given that security and information proprietorship concerns are attended to. Health Care Providers (HCPs in Nigeria however, have been confronted with various issues because of their method of operations. Amongst the issues are ill-advised methods of data storage and unreliable nature of patient medical records. Apart from these challenges, trouble in accessing quality healthcare services, high cost of medical services, and wrong analysis and treatment methodology are not left out. Cloud Computing has relatively possessed the capacity to give proficient and reliable method for securing medical information and the need for data mining tools in this form of distributed system will go a long way in achieving the objective set out for this project. The aim of this research therefore is to implement a cloud-based architecture that is suitable to integrate Healthcare Delivery into the cloud to provide a productive mode of operation. The proposed architecture consists of four phases (4-Tier; a User Authentication and Access Control Engine (UAACE which prevents unauthorized access to patient medical records and also utilizes standard encryption/decoding techniques to ensure privacy of such records. The architecture likewise contains a Data Analysis and Pattern Prediction Unit (DAPPU which gives valuable data that guides decision making through standard Data mining procedures as well as Cloud Service Provider (CSP and Health Care Providers (HCPs. The architecture which has been implemented on CloudSim has proved to be efficient and reliable base on the results obtained when compared with previous work.

  1. Multi-tiered sensing and data processing for monitoring ship structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWCCD; Lynch, Jerome [UNIV. OF MICHIGAN; Brady, Thomas [NSWCCD

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive structural health monitoring (SHM) system is a critical mechanism to ensure hull integrity and evaluate structural performance over the life of a ship, especially for lightweight high-speed ships. One of the most important functions of a SHM system is to provide real-time performance guidance and reduce the risk of structural damage during operations at sea. This is done by continuous feedback from onboard sensors providing measurements of seaway loads and structural responses. Applications of SHM should also include diagnostic capabilities such as identifying the presence of damage, assessing the location and extent of damage when it does occur in order to plan for future inspection and maintenance. The development of such SHM systems is extremely challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with the missions of high performance ships, the lack of data from known damage conditions, the limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, the management of the vast amounts of data, and the need for continued, real-time data processing. This paper will discuss some of these challenges and several outstanding issues that need to be addressed in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum high-speed catamaran, the HSV-2 Swift. A multi-tiered approach for sensing and data processing will be discussed as potential SHM architecture for future shipboard application. This approach will involve application of low cost and dense sensor arrays such as wireless communications in selected areas of the ship hull in addition to conventional sensors measuring global structural response of the ship. A recent wireless hull monitoring demo on FSF-I SeaFighter will be discussed as an example to show how this proposed architecture is a viable approach for long-term and real-time hull monitoring.

  2. Steering patients to safer hospitals? The effect of a tiered hospital network on hospital admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Dennis P; Lindrooth, Richard C; Christianson, Jon B

    2008-10-01

    To determine if a tiered hospital benefit and safety incentive shifted the distribution of admissions toward safer hospitals. A large manufacturing company instituted the hospital safety incentive (HSI) for union employees. The HSI gave union patients a financial incentive to choose hospitals that met the Leapfrog Group's three patient safety "leaps." The analysis merges data from four sources: claims and enrollment data from the company, the American Hospital Association, the AHRQ HCUP-SID, and a state Office of the Insurance Commissioner. Changes in hospital admissions' patterns for union and nonunion employees using a difference-in-difference design. We estimate the probability of choosing a specific hospital from a set of available alternatives using conditional logistic regression. Patients affiliated with the engineers' union and admitted for a medical diagnosis were 2.92 times more likely to select a hospital designated as safer in the postperiod than in the preperiod, while salaried nonunion (SNU) patients (not subject to the financial incentive) were 0.64 times as likely to choose a compliant hospital in the post- versus preperiod. The difference-in-difference estimate, which is based on the predictions of the conditional logit model, is 0.20. However, the machinists' union was also exposed to the incentive and they were no more likely to choose a safer hospital than the SNU patients. The incentive did not have an effect on patients admitted for a surgical diagnosis, regardless of union status. All patients were averse to travel time, but those union patients selecting an incentive hospital were less averse to travel time. Patient price incentives and quality/safety information may influence hospital selection decisions, particularly for medical admissions, though the optimal incentive level for financial return to the plan sponsor is not clear.

  3. Progress in Harmonizing Tiered HIV Laboratory Systems: Challenges and Opportunities in 8 African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jason; Umaru, Farouk; Edgil, Dianna; Kuritsky, Joel

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In 2014, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS released its 90-90-90 targets, which make laboratory diagnostics a cornerstone for measuring efforts toward the epidemic control of HIV. A data-driven laboratory harmonization and standardization approach is one way to create efficiencies and ensure optimal laboratory procurements. Following the 2008 “Maputo Declaration on Strengthening of Laboratory Systems”—a call for government leadership in harmonizing tiered laboratory networks and standardizing testing services—several national ministries of health requested that the United States Government and in-country partners help implement the recommendations by facilitating laboratory harmonization and standardization workshops, with a primary focus on improving HIV laboratory service delivery. Between 2007 and 2015, harmonization and standardization workshops were held in 8 African countries. This article reviews progress in the harmonization of laboratory systems in these 8 countries. We examined agreed-upon instrument lists established at the workshops and compared them against instrument data from laboratory quantification exercises over time. We used this measure as an indicator of adherence to national procurement policies. We found high levels of diversity across laboratories’ diagnostic instruments, equipment, and services. This diversity contributes to different levels of compliance with expected service delivery standards. We believe the following challenges to be the most important to address: (1) lack of adherence to procurement policies, (2) absence or limited influence of a coordinating body to fully implement harmonization proposals, and (3) misalignment of laboratory policies with minimum packages of care and with national HIV care and treatment guidelines. Overall, the effort to implement the recommendations from the Maputo Declaration has had mixed success and is a work in progress. Program managers should continue efforts to

  4. The Transportation Security Administration’s Four Major Security Programs for Mass Transit--How They Can Be Improved to Address the Needs of Tier II Mass Transit Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    SECURITY ADMINISTRATION’S FOUR MAJOR SECURITY PROGRAMS FOR MASS TRANSIT—HOW THEY CAN BE IMPROVED TO ADDRESS THE NEEDS OF TIER II MASS TRANSIT...Transportation Security Administration’s Four Major Security Programs for Mass Transit—How They Can Be Improved To Address the Needs of Tier II Mass Transit...TRANSIT—HOW THEY CAN BE IMPROVED TO ADDRESS THE NEEDS OF TIER II MASS TRANSIT AGENCIES John P. Joyce Chief, Transit Police Chief of Greater

  5. A Multi-Tier Social-Ecological System Analysis of Protected Areas Co-Management in Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenrick W. Williams

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-management of protected areas has been recognized as a viable option to sustainably manage ecosystems. This collaborative approach actively engages civil society in the protected areas governance processes. Attempts at co-management, however, have not been uniformly successful; whereas the governance of some initiatives succeed and become strong and sustainable, others become weak or fail over time. In this paper, we provide a nuanced application of Ostrom’s multi-tier SES framework to carry out a systematic analysis of representative cases of co-management in Belize. This novel approach allows us to avoid the common problem of overstating the explanatory power of individual variables, while enabling us to tease out the interrelationships among critical process and contextual variables that may influence co-management outcomes. Our findings show that strong co-management is associated with a multiplicity of variables, including information sharing, conflict resolution, investments, self-organization, and networking. Contextual conditions inclusive of strong leadership, social capital, and high levels of dependence on resources for daily livelihoods seem to have influenced these processes over time. The presence of cross-scale and cross-level networks also seems to be important in influencing co-management outcomes. Our study contributes to the further development of Ostrom’s multi-tier SES framework by proposing the addition of five new third-tier variables. We advance some key lessons in the analysis of co-management outcomes and offer some policy recommendations to improve protected areas co-management policy and practice in Belize.

  6. Three-tiered risk stratification model to predict progression in Barrett's esophagus using epigenetic and clinical features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiaki Sato

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus predisposes to esophageal adenocarcinoma. However, the value of endoscopic surveillance in Barrett's esophagus has been debated because of the low incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus. Moreover, high inter-observer and sampling-dependent variation in the histologic staging of dysplasia make clinical risk assessment problematic. In this study, we developed a 3-tiered risk stratification strategy, based on systematically selected epigenetic and clinical parameters, to improve Barrett's esophagus surveillance efficiency.We defined high-grade dysplasia as endpoint of progression, and Barrett's esophagus progressor patients as Barrett's esophagus patients with either no dysplasia or low-grade dysplasia who later developed high-grade dysplasia or esophageal adenocarcinoma. We analyzed 4 epigenetic and 3 clinical parameters in 118 Barrett's esophagus tissues obtained from 35 progressor and 27 non-progressor Barrett's esophagus patients from Baltimore Veterans Affairs Maryland Health Care Systems and Mayo Clinic. Based on 2-year and 4-year prediction models using linear discriminant analysis (area under the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC curve: 0.8386 and 0.7910, respectively, Barrett's esophagus specimens were stratified into high-risk (HR, intermediate-risk (IR, or low-risk (LR groups. This 3-tiered stratification method retained both the high specificity of the 2-year model and the high sensitivity of the 4-year model. Progression-free survivals differed significantly among the 3 risk groups, with p = 0.0022 (HR vs. IR and p<0.0001 (HR or IR vs. LR. Incremental value analyses demonstrated that the number of methylated genes contributed most influentially to prediction accuracy.This 3-tiered risk stratification strategy has the potential to exert a profound impact on Barrett's esophagus surveillance accuracy and efficiency.

  7. A tiered approach combining the short time exposure (STE) test and the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assay for predicting eye irritation potential of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Mori, Taeko; Abo, Takayuki; Koike, Mirei; Takahashi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2012-01-01

    For the evaluation of eye irritation, one in vitro alternative test may not completely replace the Draize test. Therefore, a tiered approach combining several in vitro assays, including cytotoxicity assays, is proposed in order to estimate the eye irritation potential of a wide range of chemical classes. The Short Time Exposure (STE) test, a relatively newer alternative eye irritation test, involves exposing Statens seruminstitut rabbit cornea (SIRC) cells for 5 min to two concentrations (5% and 0.05%) of test material. In the present study, we examined the predictive capacity of a tiered approach analyzing the results from the STE test and then the results of the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assay for assessing globally harmonized system (GHS) eye irritation rankings of various chemicals. The accuracy of predicting the GHS rankings was slightly improved when the tiered approach combination of STE test and BCOP assay was used compared to when the STE test irritation rank classification was used alone. Moreover, the under prediction rate was substantially improved when this tiered approach was used. From these results, the tiered approach of combining the data analysis of the STE test and BCOP assay might be a promising alternative eye irritation test strategy.

  8. A Multi-Tiered Approach for Building Capacity in Hydrologic Modeling for Water Resource Management in Developing Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, K. N.; Limaye, A. S.; Rushi, B. R.; Adams, E. C.; Anderson, E.; Ellenburg, W. L.; Mithieu, F.; Griffin, R.

    2017-12-01

    Water resource management is the process by which governments, businesses and/or individuals reach and implement decisions that are intended to address the future quantity and/or quality of water for societal benefit. The implementation of water resource management typically requires the understanding of the quantity and/or timing of a variety of hydrologic variables (e.g. discharge, soil moisture and evapotranspiration). Often times these variables for management are simulated using hydrologic models particularly in data sparse regions. However, there are several large barriers to entry in learning how to use models, applying best practices during the modeling process, and selecting and understanding the most appropriate model for diverse applications. This presentation focuses on a multi-tiered approach to bring the state-of-the-art hydrologic modeling capabilities and methods to developing regions through the SERVIR program, a joint NASA and USAID initiative that builds capacity of regional partners and their end users on the use of Earth observations for environmental decision making. The first tier is a series of trainings on the use of multiple hydrologic models, including the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and Ensemble Framework For Flash Flood Forecasting (EF5), which focus on model concepts and steps to successfully implement the models. We present a case study for this in a pilot area, the Nyando Basin in Kenya. The second tier is focused on building a community of practice on applied hydrology modeling aimed at creating a support network for hydrologists in SERVIR regions and promoting best practices. The third tier is a hydrologic inter-comparison project under development in the SERVIR regions. The objective of this step is to understand model performance under specific decision-making scenarios, and to share knowledge among hydrologists in SERVIR regions. The results of these efforts include computer programs, training materials, and new

  9. Welfare of organic laying hens kept at different indoor stocking densities in a multi-tier aviary system. I: egg laying, and use of veranda and outdoor area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte L.

    2015-01-01

    on egg production, laying behaviour and use of veranda and outdoor area are reported for organic laying hens housed in a multi-tier system with permanent access to a veranda and kept at stocking densities (D) of 6, 9 and 12 hens/m2 available floor area, with concomitant increases in the number of hens......Multi-tier aviary systems are becoming more common in organic egg production. The area on the tiers can be included in the net area available to the hens (also referred to as usable area) when calculating maximum indoor stocking densities in organic systems within the EU. In this article, results...... of organic laying hens. Laying percentage was significantly lower (Playing...

  10. Understanding the potential of facilities managers to be advocates for energy efficiency retrofits in mid-tier commercial office buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, Jim; Walton, Andrea; Dodd, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Realising energy efficiency opportunities in new commercial office buildings is an easier task than retrofitting older, mid-tier building stock. As a result, a number of government programs aim to support retrofits by offering grants, upgrades, and energy audits to facilitate energy efficiency opportunities. This study reports on a state government program in Victoria, Australia, where the uptake of such offerings was lower than expected, prompting the program team to consider whether targeting facilities managers (FMs), rather than building owners, might be a better way of delivering the program. The influences and practices of FMs that impact on their ability to be advocates for energy efficiency were explored. The results revealed that complex building ownership arrangements, poor communication skills, isolation from key decision making processes, a lack of credible business cases and information, split incentives, and the prospect of business disruptions can all impact on FMs’ ability to drive organizational change. Future program efforts should continue to interrogate the social context of retrofits in mid-tier buildings, including other influences and influencers beyond FMs, and adapt accordingly. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency retrofits of older commercial buildings can be a challenge. • Government support for retrofits is not always taken up by building owners. • Targeting facilities managers (FMs) to encourage retrofits is proposed. • FMs’ ability to be advocates for energy efficiency is constrained. • Government offerings need to better fit with the realities of the problem.

  11. 2-tier in-plane motion correction and out-of-plane motion filtering for contrast-enhanced ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Casey N; Eghtedari, Mohammad; Mattrey, Robert F; Kono, Yuko; Kummel, Andrew C

    2014-11-01

    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) cines of focal liver lesions (FLLs) can be quantitatively analyzed to measure tumor perfusion on a pixel-by-pixel basis for diagnostic indication. However, CEUS cines acquired freehand and during free breathing cause nonuniform in-plane and out-of-plane motion from frame to frame. These motions create fluctuations in the time-intensity curves (TICs), reducing the accuracy of quantitative measurements. Out-of-plane motion cannot be corrected by image registration in 2-dimensional CEUS and degrades the quality of in-plane motion correction (IPMC). A 2-tier IPMC strategy and adaptive out-of-plane motion filter (OPMF) are proposed to provide a stable correction of nonuniform motion to reduce the impact of motion on quantitative analyses. A total of 22 cines of FLLs were imaged with dual B-mode and contrast specific imaging to acquire a 3-minute TIC. B-mode images were analyzed for motion, and the motion correction was applied to both B-mode and contrast images. For IPMC, the main reference frame was automatically selected for each cine, and subreference frames were selected in each respiratory cycle and sequentially registered toward the main reference frame. All other frames were sequentially registered toward the local subreference frame. Four OPMFs were developed and tested: subsample normalized correlation (NC), subsample sum of absolute differences, mean frame NC, and histogram. The frames that were most dissimilar to the OPMF reference frame using 1 of the 4 above criteria in each respiratory cycle were adaptively removed by thresholding against the low-pass filter of the similarity curve. Out-of-plane motion filter was quantitatively evaluated by an out-of-plane motion metric (OPMM) that measured normalized variance in the high-pass filtered TIC within the tumor region-of-interest with low OPMM being the goal. Results for IPMC and OPMF were qualitatively evaluated by 2 blinded observers who ranked the motion in the cines

  12. R5 clade C SHIV strains with tier 1 or 2 neutralization sensitivity: tools to dissect env evolution and to develop AIDS vaccines in primate models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagadenahalli B Siddappa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available HIV-1 clade C (HIV-C predominates worldwide, and anti-HIV-C vaccines are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibody (nAb responses are considered important but have proved difficult to elicit. Although some current immunogens elicit antibodies that neutralize highly neutralization-sensitive (tier 1 HIV strains, most circulating HIVs exhibiting a less sensitive (tier 2 phenotype are not neutralized. Thus, both tier 1 and 2 viruses are needed for vaccine discovery in nonhuman primate models.We constructed a tier 1 simian-human immunodeficiency virus, SHIV-1157ipEL, by inserting an "early," recently transmitted HIV-C env into the SHIV-1157ipd3N4 backbone [1] encoding a "late" form of the same env, which had evolved in a SHIV-infected rhesus monkey (RM with AIDS. SHIV-1157ipEL was rapidly passaged to yield SHIV-1157ipEL-p, which remained exclusively R5-tropic and had a tier 1 phenotype, in contrast to "late" SHIV-1157ipd3N4 (tier 2. After 5 weekly low-dose intrarectal exposures, SHIV-1157ipEL-p systemically infected 16 out of 17 RM with high peak viral RNA loads and depleted gut CD4+ T cells. SHIV-1157ipEL-p and SHIV-1157ipd3N4 env genes diverge mostly in V1/V2. Molecular modeling revealed a possible mechanism for the increased neutralization resistance of SHIV-1157ipd3N4 Env: V2 loops hindering access to the CD4 binding site, shown experimentally with nAb b12. Similar mutations have been linked to decreased neutralization sensitivity in HIV-C strains isolated from humans over time, indicating parallel HIV-C Env evolution in humans and RM.SHIV-1157ipEL-p, the first tier 1 R5 clade C SHIV, and SHIV-1157ipd3N4, its tier 2 counterpart, represent biologically relevant tools for anti-HIV-C vaccine development in primates.

  13. Durer au travail dans les métiers de l'informatique : quelles conditions de possibilité ? : Etude sociologique des devenirs de cadres informaticiens

    OpenAIRE

    Poussou-Plesse, Marielle; Denis, Duplan; Constance, Perrin-Joly; Guillemard, Anne-Marie

    2008-01-01

    La recherche pose la question de la longévité professionnelle dans les métiers de l'informatique dans le cadre d'un système d'emploi. Le fait économique structurant de ces métiers est bien leur inscription dans une chaîne de valeur distinguant des fabricants (constructeurs de matériel informatique et éditeurs de logiciels), des intermédiaires (au premier chef, des Sociétés de services et d'ingénierie informatiques) et des utilisateurs finaux. Ces maillons constituent des segments d'employeurs...

  14. Les métiers innovants de la formation. Le champ de la formation professionnelle et l'ingénierie de formation à distance

    OpenAIRE

    Marty, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    National audience; This document is extracted from a conference for PhD students at La Sorbonne University (Paris) about innovative teaching professions. It describes and analyses the crafts of vocational education as well as public distance education engineering.; Ce document est le support d'une conférence sur les métiers innovants de la formation. Après les définitions d'usage, il décrit et analyse les métiers de la formation professionnelle continue et l'ingénierie de formation à distance...

  15. Implémentation d’un système distribué basé sur une architecture technique n-tiers.

    OpenAIRE

    ALACHAHER, Nadjib

    2014-01-01

    L’objectif de notre PFE est d’implémenter un système distribué en utilisant une architecture N-tiers. Vu l’intérêt grandissant du e-learning, nous avons opté pour la réalisation d’une plateforme e-learning afin d’aider les étudiants qui souhaitent à apprendre à distance des nouveaux langages de programmation. Our objective is to implement a PFE distributed system using N-tier architecture. Given the growing interest in e-learning, we opted for the realization of e-lear...

  16. Energy-efficient downlink resource management in self-organized OFDMA-based two-tier femtocell networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Adnan; Aslam, Saleem; Kim, Hyung Seok; Lee, Kyung-Geun

    2015-12-01

    Femtocell is a novel technology that is used for escalating indoor coverage as well as the capacity of traditional cellular networks. However, interference is the limiting factor for performance improvement due to co-channel deployment between macrocells and femtocells. The traditional network planning is not feasible because of the random deployment of femtocells. Therefore, self-organization approaches are the key to having successful deployment of femtocells. This study presents the joint resource block (RB) and power allocation task for the two-tier femtocell network in a self-organizing manner, with the concern to minimizing the impact of interference and maximizing the energy efficiency. In this study, we analyze the performance of the system in terms of the energy efficiency, which is composed of both the transmission and circuit power. Most of the previous studies investigate the performance regarding the throughput requirement of the two-tier femtocell network while the energy efficiency aspect is largely ignored. Here, the joint allocation task is modeled as a non-cooperative game which is demonstrated to exhibit pure and unique Nash equilibrium. In order to reduce the complexity of the proposed non-cooperative game, the joint RB and power allocation task is divided into two subproblems: an RB allocation and a particle swarm optimization-based power allocation. The analysis of the proposed game is carried out in terms of not only energy efficiency but also throughput. With practical 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long-Term Evolution (LTE) parameters, the simulation results illustrate the superior performance of the proposed game as compared to the traditional methods. Also, the comparison is carried out with the joint allocation scheme which only considers the throughput as the objective function. The results illustrate that significant performance improvement is achieved in terms of energy efficiency with slight loss in the throughput. The

  17. The development and validation of a two-tiered multiple-choice instrument to identify alternative conceptions in earth science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangione, Katherine Anna

    This study was to determine reliability and validity for a two-tiered, multiple- choice instrument designed to identify alternative conceptions in earth science. Additionally, this study sought to identify alternative conceptions in earth science held by preservice teachers, to investigate relationships between self-reported confidence scores and understanding of earth science concepts, and to describe relationships between content knowledge and alternative conceptions and planning instruction in the science classroom. Eighty-seven preservice teachers enrolled in the MAT program participated in this study. Sixty-eight participants were female, twelve were male, and seven chose not to answer. Forty-seven participants were in the elementary certification program, five were in the middle school certification program, and twenty-nine were pursuing secondary certification. Results indicate that the two-tiered, multiple-choice format can be a reliable and valid method for identifying alternative conceptions. Preservice teachers in all certification areas who participated in this study may possess common alternative conceptions previously identified in the literature. Alternative conceptions included: all rivers flow north to south, the shadow of the Earth covers the Moon causing lunar phases, the Sun is always directly overhead at noon, weather can be predicted by animal coverings, and seasons are caused by the Earth's proximity to the Sun. Statistical analyses indicated differences, however not all of them significant, among all subgroups according to gender and certification area. Generally males outperformed females and preservice teachers pursuing middle school certification had higher scores on the questionnaire followed by those obtaining secondary certification. Elementary preservice teachers scored the lowest. Additionally, self-reported scores of confidence in one's answers and understanding of the earth science concept in question were analyzed. There was a

  18. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple-Choice Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Cell Division and Reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesli, Ertugrul; Kara, Yilmaz

    2012-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test for measuring students' understanding of cell division and reproduction. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  19. Effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S.: Preliminary Objective and Subjective Outcome Evaluation Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T.L. Shek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two tiers of programs in the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes. In the Tier 1 Program, teaching units based on different positive youth development constructs are covered. Pre- and post-test data utilizing the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale (CPYDS and post-test subjective outcome evaluation data were collected from 546 students who participated in the 20h Tier 1 Program of the P.A.T.H.S. Project. Results showed that high proportions of the respondents had positive perceptions of the program and the instructors, with 85.3% of the respondents regarding the program as helpful to them. Positive changes in the program participants in many measures of positive youth development were also observed. Although there were some increases in problem behavior in some areas, adolescent problem behavior was generally stable. The present study provides preliminary support for the effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. in Hong Kong.

  20. Conceptualizing RTI in 21st-Century Secondary Science Classrooms: Video Games' Potential to Provide Tiered Support and Progress Monitoring for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Matthew T.; Beecher, Constance C.

    2010-01-01

    Secondary schools across the United States are adopting response to intervention (RTI) as a means to identify students with learning disabilities (LD) and provide tiered instructional interventions that benefit all students. The majority of current RTI research focuses on students with reading difficulties in elementary school classrooms.…

  1. Preliminary Evaluation of a Tier 2 Mathematics Intervention for First-Grade Students: Using a Theory of Change to Guide Formative Evaluation Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Ben; Doabler, Christian T.; Strand Cary, Mari; Kosty, Derek; Baker, Scott; Fien, Hank; Smolkowski, Keith

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study examined the efficacy of a Tier 2 first-grade mathematics intervention program targeting whole-number understanding for students at risk in mathematics. The study used a randomized block design. Students (N = 89) were randomly assigned to treatment (Fusion) or control (standard district practice) conditions. Measures of…

  2. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Diagnostic Test for High School Students' Understanding of Flowering Plant Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheau-Wen

    2004-01-01

    This study involved the development and application of a two-tier diagnostic test measuring students' understanding of flowering plant growth and development. The instrument development procedure had three general steps: defining the content boundaries of the test, collecting information on students' misconceptions, and instrument development.…

  3. 31 CFR 19.330 - What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What requirements must I pass down to persons at lower tiers with whom I intend to do business? 19.330 Section 19.330 Money and Finance...) Responsibilities of Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business with Other Persons § 19.330 What...

  4. Development and Application of a Two-Tier Multiple Choice Diagnostic Instrument To Assess High School Students' Understanding of Inorganic Chemistry Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel; Goh, Ngoh Khang; Chia, Lian Sai; Treagust, David F.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development and application of a two-tier multiple choice diagnostic instrument to assess high school students' understanding of inorganic chemistry qualitative analysis. Shows that the Grade 10 students had difficulty understanding the reactions involved in the identification of cations and anions, for example, double decomposition…

  5. Regional métier definition: A comparative investigation of statistical methods using a workflow applied to the international otter trawl fisheries in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deporte, Nicolas; Ulrich, Clara; Mahévas, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The European Common Fisheries Policy recognizes the importance of accounting for heterogeneity in fishing practices, and métier-based sampling is now at the core of the EU Data Collection Framework. The implementation of such an approach would require Member States to agree on the standard region...

  6. Impact of Transformational Leadership Behaviors on the Implementation of a Multi-Tiered System of Support with Emphasis on Cultural Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, Donna Johnson

    2015-01-01

    Multi-Tiered Systems of Support (MTSS) are frameworks used to assess individual needs of students and the supports needed to meet those needs. An MTSS is complex with components which impact core instruction, curriculum, formative assessment, interventions, summative assessment, and problem solving. All of these components are a part of a school's…

  7. Should they stay or should they go? Reactivation and termination of low-tier customers : Effects on satisfaction, word-of-mouth, and purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blömeke, E.; Clement, M.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Many companies face the problem of having a substantial number of low-tier customers – clients at the bottom of the customer pyramid. For this segment, it is necessary to either reactivate or terminate the customer relationships to increase profitability. Managers seek to learn more about marketing

  8. The Science behind Curriculum Development and Evaluation: Taking a Design Science Approach in the Production of a Tier 2 Mathematics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doabler, Christian T.; Clarke, Ben; Fien, Hank; Baker, Scott K.; Kosty, Derek B.; Cary, Mari Strand

    2015-01-01

    The production of an effective mathematics curriculum begins with a scientific development, evaluation, and revision framework. The purpose of this study was to conduct an initial investigation of a recently developed Tier 2 mathematics curriculum designed to improve the outcomes of first grade students at risk for mathematics difficulties (MD).…

  9. 75 FR 57958 - Solicitation of Written Comments on Draft Tier 2 Strategies/Modules for Inclusion in the “HHS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... well as a strategy to increase influenza vaccination coverage among healthcare personnel. These Tier 2... among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States and the most common type of... transmit influenza from patients or transmit influenza to patients and other staff. Higher vaccination...

  10. 41 CFR 105-68.450 - What action may I take if a primary tier participant fails to disclose the information required...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION Regional Offices-General Services... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What action may I take if a primary tier participant fails to disclose the information required under § 105-68.335? 105-68...

  11. A model of enteric fermentation in dairy cows to estimate methane emission for the Dutch National Inventory Report using the IPCC Tier 3 approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.; Schijndel, van M.W.; Dijkstra, J.

    2011-01-01

    The protocol for the National Inventory of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions in The Netherlands includes a dynamic and mechanistic model of animal digestion and fermentation as an Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 3 approach to estimate enteric CH4 emission by dairy cows. The

  12. A multi-tier higher order Conditional Random Field for land cover classification of multi-temporal multi-spectral Landsat imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon, BP

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present a 2-tier higher order Conditional Random Field which is used for land cover classification. The Conditional Random Field is based on probabilistic messages being passed along a graph to compute efficiently...

  13. Use of read-across and tiered exposure assessment in risk assessment under REACH - A case study on a phase-in substance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, S.R.; Mikkers, J.; Bouwman, T.; Marquart, H.; Kroese, E.D.

    2010-01-01

    REACH requests the exploration of alternative strategies for hazard identification before resorting to (in vivo) testing. Here, we combined read-across as non-testing strategy with a tiered exposure assessment for the risk characterisation of 1-methoxypropan-2-ol (PGME) as a representative for

  14. A tiered approach for the human health risk assessment for consumption of vegetables from with cadmium-contaminated land in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swartjes, Frank A., E-mail: frank.swartjes@rivm.nl; Versluijs, Kees W.; Otte, Piet F.

    2013-10-15

    Consumption of vegetables that are grown in urban areas takes place worldwide. In developing countries, vegetables are traditionally grown in urban areas for cheap food supply. In developing and developed countries, urban gardening is gaining momentum. A problem that arises with urban gardening is the presence of contaminants in soil, which can be taken up by vegetables. In this study, a scientifically-based and practical procedure has been developed for assessing the human health risks from the consumption of vegetables from cadmium-contaminated land. Starting from a contaminated site, the procedure follows a tiered approach which is laid out as follows. In Tier 0, the plausibility of growing vegetables is investigated. In Tier 1 soil concentrations are compared with the human health-based Critical soil concentration. Tier 2 offers the possibility for a detailed site-specific human health risk assessment in which calculated exposure is compared to the toxicological reference dose. In Tier 3, vegetable concentrations are measured and tested following a standardized measurement protocol. To underpin the derivation of the Critical soil concentrations and to develop a tool for site-specific assessment the determination of the representative concentration in vegetables has been evaluated for a range of vegetables. The core of the procedure is based on Freundlich-type plant–soil relations, with the total soil concentration and the soil properties as variables. When a significant plant–soil relation is lacking for a specific vegetable a geometric mean of BioConcentrationFactors (BCF) is used, which is normalized according to soil properties. Subsequently, a ‘conservative’ vegetable-group-consumption-rate-weighted BioConcentrationFactor is calculated as basis for the Critical soil concentration (Tier 1). The tool to perform site-specific human health risk assessment (Tier 2) includes the calculation of a ‘realistic worst case’ site-specific vegetable

  15. Gestion documentaire des dossiers mixtes : méthodes et outils dans une approche-métier

    OpenAIRE

    Monfort, Alice

    2015-01-01

    Comment gérer de façon efficiente les dossiers mixtes où coexistent des documents physiques et des documents électroniques ? Après avoir exploré la notion de dossier dans les environnements physique et électronique, ce mémoire tente d'identifier des solutions de gestion documentaire permettant de répondre aux spécificités des dossiers dont les supports sont hétérogènes en s'appuyant sur une approche-métier à travers l'étude du dossier individuel de salarié et du dossier relatif à l'immeuble....

  16. Hierarchical Structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory in a Large Population Sample: Goldberg's Trait-Tier Mapping Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P; Weiss, Alexander; Barrett, Paul; Duberstein, Paul

    2013-03-01

    The structure of the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) is poorly understood, and applications have mostly been confined to the broad Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Lie scales. Using a hierarchical factoring procedure, we mapped the sequential differentiation of EPI scales from broad, molar factors to more specific, molecular factors, in a UK population sample of over 6500 persons. Replicable facets at the lowest tier of Neuroticism included emotional fragility, mood lability, nervous tension, and rumination. The lowest order set of replicable Extraversion facets consisted of social dynamism, sociotropy, decisiveness, jocularity, social information seeking, and impulsivity. The Lie scale consisted of an interpersonal virtue and a behavioral diligence facet. Users of the EPI may be well served in some circumstances by considering its broad Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Lie scales as multifactorial, a feature that was explicitly incorporated into subsequent Eysenck inventories and is consistent with other hierarchical trait structures.

  17. The effectiveness of boards of directors in two-tier board system: Evidence from Vietnamese-listed enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan Tran

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents several theories to achieve a better understanding of corporate governance structures and their operations in a two-tier-board corporate governance structure. The author also analyses transitional economies using the case of Vietnam. The author investigates the influence of independent directors upon the probability of CEO turnover as well as the sensitivity of the link between performance and turnover. The findings show that non-executive directors are not always independent. At the same time, independent directors have a vital role to play in making decisions concerning CEO dismissal. These directors also reduce the effects of CEO ownership and CEO duality upon the probability of CEO turnover. In summation, the research found that performance and CEO age constitute key factors in CEO turnover, regardless of the corporation or board size.

  18. Short-term choice behaviour in a mixed fishery: investigating métier selection in the Danish gillnet fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bo Sølgaard; Ulrich, Clara; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau

    2012-01-01

    fishers in a mixed fishery make use of a number of decision variables used previously in the literature, but also a number of decision parameters rarely explicitly accounted for, such as price, weather, and management regulation. The seasonal availability of individual target species and within......The study presents a short-term effort allocation modelling approach based on a discrete choice random utility model combined with a survey questionnaire to examine the selection of métiers (a combination of fishing area and target species) in the Danish North Sea gillnet fishery. Key decision......-year changes in monthly catch ration were the main explanatory drivers, but gillnetters were also responsive to information on the whole fishery, fish prices, and distance travelled to fishing grounds. Heterogeneous responses were evident from geographic differences in home harbour, which underpins the need...

  19. A tiered analytical protocol for the characterization of heavy oil residues at petroleum-contaminated hazardous waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollard, S.J.T.; Kenefick, S.L.; Hrudey, S.E.; Fuhr, B.J.; Holloway, L.R.; Rawluk, M.

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils from abandoned refinery sites in Alberta, Canada is used to illustrate a tiered analytical approach to the characterization of complex hydrocarbon wastes. Soil extracts isolated from heavy oil- and creosote-contaminated sites were characterized by thin layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID), ultraviolet fluorescence, simulated distillation (GC-SIMDIS) and chemical ionization GC-MS analysis. The combined screening and detailed analytical methods provided information essential to remedial technology selection including the extent of contamination, the class composition of soil extracts, the distillation profile of component classes and the distribution of individual class components within various waste fractions. Residual contamination was characteristic of heavy, degraded oils, consistent with documented site operations and length of hydrocarbon exposure at the soil surface

  20. Update on a Pharmacokinetic-Centric Alternative Tier II Program for MMT—Part I: Program Implementation and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Dorman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns have been raised regarding environmental manganese exposure since high exposures have been associated with neurological disorders. The USA Environmental Protection Agency most recent human health risk assessment of inhaled manganese conducted in 1993 identified specific areas of uncertainty regarding manganese pharmacokinetics. This led to the development of a test rule under the USA Clean Air Act that required the generation of pharmacokinetic information on the inorganic manganese combustion products of the organometallic fuel additive methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT. The Alternative Tier 2 testing program for MMT, described in this paper, has yielded substantial pharmacokinetic data and has enabled the generation of physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK models for manganese. These models are capable of predicting tissue manganese concentrations across a variety of dose routes, levels, and durations while accounting for factors such as age, gender, and reproductive status, enabling the consideration of tissue dosimetry in future risk assessments.

  1. Supply chain relationships between first and second tier suppliers in South African automotive supply chains: A focus on trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletta S. Tolmay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The automotive industry is characterised by a network of long term collaborative agreements between component suppliers and assemblers. For collaboration to be successful trust between the supply chain partners is vital. Although many variables influence the efficiency of collaborative relationships, the human behaviour issues related to culture and trust are often much more difficult to solve. Trust is singled out in this article as a contributor to value in the supply chain relationships. Increased trust leads to more confidence resulting in better collaboration. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to explore collaborative relationships between first and second tier suppliers (component manufacturers in automotive supply chains in South Africa and the role of trust in the relationship value. Method: This quantitative study had been conducted amongst members of the National Association for Automobile Component and Allied Manufacturers of South Africa (NAACAM, who are suppliers to the large automotive assemblers. The research utilised closed ended questions to obtain the perceptions of managers in automotive component manufacture regarding trust and relationship value with their best suppliers. Results: With a linear regression model it was found that there is a high degree of trust in the collaborative relationships between first and second tier suppliers of components in the automotive industry in South Africa. Conclusion: The automotive industry is one of the most successful industries in South Africa. They compete globally and apply best practices, particularly those in supply chain management. The industry is characterised by networks of collaborative relationships on different levels. These relationships seem to be successful as they are based on trust.

  2. Lower tier toxicity risk assessment of agriculture pesticides detected on the Río Madre de Dios watershed, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-Andrés, M; Rämö, R; Mena Torres, F; Ugalde, R; Grandas, L; Ruepert, C; Castillo, L E; Van den Brink, P J; Gunnarsson, J S

    2016-10-25

    Costa Rica is a tropical country with one of the highest biodiversity on Earth. It also has an intensive agriculture, and pesticide runoff from banana and pineapple plantations may cause a high toxicity risk to non-target species in rivers downstream the plantations. We performed a first tier risk assessment of the maximum measured concentrations of 32 pesticides detected over 4 years in the River Madre de Dios (RMD) and its coastal lagoon on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica. Species sensitivity distributions (SSDs) were plotted in order to derive HC 5 values for each pesticide, i.e., hazard concentrations for 5 % of the species, often used as environmental criteria values in other countries. We also carried out toxicity tests for selected pesticides with native Costa Rican species in order to calculate risk coefficients according to national guidelines in Costa Rica. The concentrations of herbicides diuron and ametryn and insecticides carbofuran, diazinon, and ethoprophos exceeded either the HC 5 value or the lower limit of its 90 % confidence interval suggesting toxic risks above accepted levels. Risk coefficients of diuron and carbofuran derived using local guidelines indicate toxicity risks as well. The assessed fungicides did not present acute toxic risks according to our analysis. Overall, these results show a possible toxicity of detected pesticides to aquatic organisms and provide a comparison of Costa Rican national guidelines with more refined methods for risk assessment based on SSDs. Further higher tier risk assessments of pesticides in this watershed are also necessary in order to consider pesticide water concentrations over time, toxicity from pesticide mixtures, and eventual effects on ecosystem functions.

  3. Extending access to essential services against constraints: the three-tier health service delivery system in rural China (1949-1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xing Lin; Martinez-Alvarez, Melisa; Zhong, Jun; Xu, Jin; Yuan, Beibei; Meng, Qingyue; Balabanova, Dina

    2017-05-23

    China has made remarkable progress in scaling up essential services during the last six decades, making health care increasingly available in rural areas. This was partly achieved through the building of a three-tier health system in the 1950s, established as a linked network with health service facilities at county, township and village level, to extend services to the whole population. We developed a Theory of Change to chart the policy context, contents and mechanisms that may have facilitated the establishment of the three-tier health service delivery system in rural China. We systematically synthesized the best available evidence on how China achieved universal access to essential services in resource-scarce rural settings, with a particular emphasis on the experiences learned before the 1980s, when the country suffered a particularly acute lack of resources. The search identified only three peered-reviewed articles that fit our criteria for scientific rigor. We therefore drew extensively on government policy documents, and triangulated them with other publications and key informant interviews. We found that China's three-tier health service delivery system was established in response to acute health challenges, including high fertility and mortality rates. Health system resources were extremely low in view of the needs and insufficient to extend access to even basic care. With strong political commitment to rural health and a "health-for-all" policy vision underlying implementation, a three-tier health service delivery model connecting villages, townships and counties was quickly established. We identified several factors that contributed to the success of the three-tier system in China: a realistic health human resource development strategy, use of mass campaigns as a vehicle to increase demand, an innovative financing mechanisms, public-private partnership models in the early stages of scale up, and an integrated approach to service delivery. An

  4. A Tiered Approach to Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening (TARP) Using a Weight Gain Predictive Model and a Telemedicine System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwin, Jaclyn; Tomlinson, Lauren A; Quinn, Graham E; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Baumritter, Agnieshka; Binenbaum, Gil

    2017-01-05

    The Telemedicine Approaches to Evaluating Acute-Phase Retinopathy of Prematurity (e-ROP) Study telemedicine system of remote fundus image grading and The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Retinopathy of Prematurity (CHOP-ROP) postnatal weight gain predictive model are 2 approaches for improving ROP screening efficiency. Current screening has low specificity for severe ROP. To describe a tiered approach to ROP screening (TARP) for identifying children who develop severe ROP using telemedicine and a predictive model synergistically. This investigation was a post hoc analysis of a cohort in the e-ROP Study (a multicenter prospective telemedicine study) and the Postnatal Growth and Retinopathy of Prematurity (G-ROP) Study (a multicenter retrospective cohort study). The setting was neonatal intensive care units at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Participants in the e-ROP Study were premature infants with a birth weight less than 1251 g and a known ROP outcome enrolled between May 25, 2011, and October 31, 2013. The G-ROP Study enrolled all infants undergoing ROP examinations with a known ROP outcome who were born between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2011. The mean outcomes were the sensitivity for type 1 ROP, reductions in infants requiring imaging or examinations, numbers of imaging sessions and examinations, and total clinical encounters (imaging sessions and examinations combined). The following 4 screening approaches were evaluated: ROUTINE (only diagnostic examinations by an ophthalmologist), CHOP-ROP (birth weight and gestational age, with weekly weight gain initiating examinations when the risk cut point is surpassed), e-ROP IMAGING (trained reader grading of type 1 or 2 ROP initiates diagnostic examinations), and TARP (CHOP-ROP alarm initiates imaging, and imaging finding of severe ROP initiates diagnostic examinations). A total of 242 infants were included in the study, with a median birth

  5. Antiretroviral treatment and prevention of peripartum and postnatal HIV transmission in West Africa: evaluation of a two-tiered approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besigin Tonwe-Gold

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART has only been recently recommended for HIV-infected pregnant women requiring treatment for their own health in resource-limited settings. However, there are few documented experiences from African countries. We evaluated the short-term (4 wk and long-term (12 mo effectiveness of a two-tiered strategy of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT in Africa: women meeting the eligibility criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO received HAART, and women with less advanced HIV disease received short-course antiretroviral (scARV PMTCT regimens. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The MTCT-Plus Initiative is a multi-country, family-centred HIV care and treatment program for pregnant and postpartum women and their families. Pregnant women enrolled in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire received either HAART for their own health or short-course antiretroviral (scARV PMTCT regimens according to their clinical and immunological status. Plasma HIV-RNA viral load (VL was measured to diagnose peripartum infection when infants were 4 wk of age, and HIV final status was documented either by rapid antibody testing when infants were aged > or = 12 mo or by plasma VL earlier. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the rate of HIV transmission and HIV-free survival. Between August 2003 and June 2005, 107 women began HAART at a median of 30 wk of gestation, 102 of them with zidovudine (ZDV, lamivudine (3TC, and nevirapine (NVP and they continued treatment postpartum; 143 other women received scARV for PMTCT, 103 of them with sc(ZDV+3TC with single-dose NVP during labour. Most (75% of the infants were breast-fed for a median of 5 mo. Overall, the rate of peripartum HIV transmission was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3%-4.2% and the cumulative rate at 12 mo was 5.7% (95% CI 2.5%-9.0%. The overall probability of infant death or infection with HIV was 4.3% (95% CI 1.7%-7.0% at age week 4 wk and 11.7% (95

  6. Elaboration of the Thermodynamic Model of Refining the Converter Bath when Blowing through Three-Tier Oxygen Lance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy G. Chernyatevich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. In modern conditions, the BOP-process is the main method of mass use steel product production. At the same time, due to the shortage of high-quality charge materials, resource and energy-saving technologies are particularly relevant. To optimize the BOP-process under modern conditions, it is promising to use improved oxygen lances for top blowing in comparison with known designs. Objective. An important stage in the development of advanced steel production technologies is obtaining information on the thermodynamic model of blowing a converter bath through a three-tier lance with the elaboration of the regularities of oxidation processes within the reaction zone of a 160-ton industrial converter. Methods. The analysis that was carried out has a theoretical nature and is based on the definition of the influence of temperature and pressure on the regularities of oxidation processes within the reaction zones formed when oxygen jets are introduced into the volume of a metal bath, foamed slag-metallic emulsion and waste gases in the working space of the converter. As a thermodynamic parameter, the Gibbs energy was used to estimate the probability of chemical reactions. The pressure effect on the oxidation processes in the converter bath was evaluated in accordance with the Van’t Hoff formula. Results. The thermodynamic features of oxidation processes in the 160-ton BOF bath using a three-tier lance are presented. Primary reaction zone is characterized by the occurrence of oxidation of manganese, silicon, carbon, and iron by gaseous oxygen. In the secondary reaction zone there are chemical reactions of the oxidation of silicon and carbon dissolved in the metal by oxygen, as well as the reduction of iron oxide by carbon. The presence or absence of a slag phase on the melt surface practically does not affect the occurrence probability of chemical transformations within the boundary of primary and secondary reaction zones. The additional

  7. Two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining several alternatives for identification of eye irritation potential of chemicals including insoluble or volatile substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Mori, Taeko; Abo, Takayuki; Ooshima, Kenichi; Hayashi, Takumi; Komano, Tomoko; Takahashi, Yutaka; Sakaguchi, Hitoshi; Takatsu, Akihiko; Nishiyama, Naohiro

    2012-10-01

    For the assessment of eye irritation, one alternative test may not completely replace the rabbit Draize test. In the present study, we examined the predictive potential of a tiered approach analyzing the results from several alternatives (i.e., the Short Time Exposure (STE) test, the EpiOcular assay, the Hen's Egg Test-Chorioallantoic Membrane (HET-CAM) assay and the Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) assay) for assessing Globally Harmonized System (GHS) eye irritation categories. Fifty-six chemicals including alcohols, surfactants, and esters were selected with a balanced GHS category and a wide range of chemical classes. From a standpoint of both assessable sample numbers and predictive accuracy, the more favorable tiered approach was considered to be the two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining the STE test, the EpiOcular assay followed by the BCOP assay (accuracy 69.6%, under prediction rate 8.9%). Moreover, a more favorable predictive capacity (accuracy 71.4%, under prediction rate 3.6%) was obtained when high volatile alcohols/esters with vapor pressures >6 kilopascal (kPa) at 25°C were evaluated with EpiOcular assay instead of the STE test. From these results, the two-stage bottom-up tiered approach combining the STE test, the EpiOcular assay followed by the BCOP assay might be a promising method for the classification of GHS eye irritation category (Not classified (NC), Category 2 (Cat. 2), and Category 1 (Cat. 1)) for a wide range of test chemicals regardless of solubility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM based on local CD4 testing demands can improve turn-around times and save costs whilst ensuring accessible and scalable CD4 services across a national programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah K Glencross

    Full Text Available The South African National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS responded to HIV treatment initiatives with two-tiered CD4 laboratory services in 2004. Increasing programmatic burden, as more patients access anti-retroviral therapy (ART, has demanded extending CD4 services to meet increasing clinical needs. The aim of this study was to review existing services and develop a service-model that integrated laboratory-based and point-of-care testing (POCT, to extend national coverage, improve local turn-around/(TAT and contain programmatic costs.NHLS Corporate Data Warehouse CD4 data, from 60-70 laboratories and 4756 referring health facilities was reviewed for referral laboratory workload, respective referring facility volumes and related TAT, from 2009-2012.An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM is proposed. Tier-1/POCT delivers CD4 testing at single health-clinics providing ART in hard-to-reach areas (350-1500 tests/day, serving ≥ 200 health-clinics. Tier-6 provides national support for standardisation, harmonization and quality across the organization.The ITSDM offers improved local TAT by extending CD4 services into rural/remote areas with new Tier-3 or Tier-2/POC-Hub services installed in existing community laboratories, most with developed infrastructure. The advantage of lower laboratory CD4 costs and use of existing infrastructure enables subsidization of delivery of more expensive POC services, into hard-to-reach districts without reasonable access to a local CD4 laboratory. Full ITSDM implementation across 5 service tiers (as opposed to widespread implementation of POC testing to extend service can facilitate sustainable 'full service coverage' across South Africa, and save>than R125 million in HIV/AIDS programmatic costs. ITSDM hierarchical parental-support also assures laboratory/POC management, equipment maintenance, quality control and on-going training between tiers.

  9. An Integrated Tiered Service Delivery Model (ITSDM) Based on Local CD4 Testing Demands Can Improve Turn-Around Times and Save Costs whilst Ensuring Accessible and Scalable CD4 Services across a National Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glencross, Deborah K.; Coetzee, Lindi M.; Cassim, Naseem

    2014-01-01

    Background The South African National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) responded to HIV treatment initiatives with two-tiered CD4 laboratory services in 2004. Increasing programmatic burden, as more patients access anti-retroviral therapy (ART), has demanded extending CD4 services to meet increasing clinical needs. The aim of this study was to review existing services and develop a service-model that integrated laboratory-based and point-of-care testing (POCT), to extend national coverage, improve local turn-around/(TAT) and contain programmatic costs. Methods NHLS Corporate Data Warehouse CD4 data, from 60–70 laboratories and 4756 referring health facilities was reviewed for referral laboratory workload, respective referring facility volumes and related TAT, from 2009–2012. Results An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM) is proposed. Tier-1/POCT delivers CD4 testing at single health-clinics providing ART in hard-to-reach areas (350–1500 tests/day, serving ≥200 health-clinics). Tier-6 provides national support for standardisation, harmonization and quality across the organization. Conclusion The ITSDM offers improved local TAT by extending CD4 services into rural/remote areas with new Tier-3 or Tier-2/POC-Hub services installed in existing community laboratories, most with developed infrastructure. The advantage of lower laboratory CD4 costs and use of existing infrastructure enables subsidization of delivery of more expensive POC services, into hard-to-reach districts without reasonable access to a local CD4 laboratory. Full ITSDM implementation across 5 service tiers (as opposed to widespread implementation of POC testing to extend service) can facilitate sustainable ‘full service coverage’ across South Africa, and save>than R125 million in HIV/AIDS programmatic costs. ITSDM hierarchical parental-support also assures laboratory/POC management, equipment maintenance, quality control and on-going training between tiers. PMID:25490718

  10. N2 production and fixation in deep-tier burrows of Squilla empusa in muddy sediments of Great Peconic Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Stuart; Aller, Robert C.

    2017-11-01

    Global marine N budgets often show deficits due to dominance of benthic N2 production relative to pelagic N2 fixation. Recent studies have argued that benthic N2 fixation in shallow water environments has been underestimated. In particular, N2 fixation associated with animal burrows may be significant as indicated by high rates of N2 fixation reported in muddy sands populated by the ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis (Bertics et al., 2010). We investigated whether N2 fixation occurs at higher rates in the burrow-walls of the deep-burrowing ( 0.5-4 m) mantis shrimp, Squilla empusa, compared to ambient, estuarine muds and measured seasonal in-situ N2 concentrations in burrow-water relative to bottom-water. Acetylene reduction assays showed lower N2 fixation in burrow-walls than in un-populated sediments, likely due to inhibitory effects of O2 on ethylene production. Dissolved N2 was higher in burrow-water than proximate bottom-water at all seasons, demonstrating a consistent balance of net N2 production relative to fixation in deep-tier biogenic structures.

  11. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: eye irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Pauline; Hibatallah, Jalila; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Goebel, Carsten; Araki, Daisuke; Dufour, Eric; Hewitt, Nicola J; Jones, Penny; Kirst, Annette; Le Varlet, Béatrice; Macfarlane, Martin; Marrec-Fairley, Monique; Rowland, Joanna; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    The need for alternative approaches to replace the in vivo rabbit Draize eye test for evaluation of eye irritation of cosmetic ingredients has been recognised by the cosmetics industry for many years. Extensive research has lead to the development of several assays, some of which have undergone formal validation. Even though, to date, no single in vitro assay has been validated as a full replacement for the rabbit Draize eye test, organotypic assays are accepted for specific and limited regulatory purposes. Although not formally validated, several other in vitro models have been used for over a decade by the cosmetics industry as valuable tools in a weight of evidence approach for the safety assessment of ingredients and finished products. In light of the deadlines established in the EU Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision-tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. Furthermore, recommendations are given on how remaining data gaps and research needs can be addressed.

  12. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: skin irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfarlane, Martin; Jones, Penny; Goebel, Carsten; Dufour, Eric; Rowland, Joanna; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Kirst, Annette; McNamee, Pauline; Schellauf, Florian; Scheel, Julia

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of the skin irritancy and corrosivity potential of an ingredient is a necessity in the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients. To date, there are two formally validated alternatives to the rabbit Draize test for skin corrosivity in place, namely the rat skin transcutaneous electrical resistance (TER) assay and the Human Skin Model Test using EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic reconstructed human epidermal equivalents. For skin irritation, EpiSkin, EpiDerm and SkinEthic are validated as stand-alone test replacements for the rabbit Draize test. Data from these tests are rarely considered in isolation and are evaluated in combination with other factors to establish the overall irritating or corrosive potential of an ingredient. In light of the deadlines established in the Cosmetics Directive for cessation of animal testing for cosmetic ingredients, a COLIPA scientific meeting was held in Brussels on 30th January, 2008 to review the use of alternative approaches and to set up a decision tree approach for their integration into tiered testing strategies for hazard and safety assessment of cosmetic ingredients and their use in products. In conclusion, the safety assessments for skin irritation/corrosion of new chemicals for use in cosmetics can be confidently accomplished using exclusively alternative methods.

  13. Organ Donation Among Tiers of Health Workers: Expanding Resources to Optimize Organ Availability in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluyombo, Rotimi; Fawale, Bimbo Michael; Busari, Olusegun Adesola; Ogunmola, Jeffery Olarinde; Olanrewaju, Timothy Olusegun; Akinleye, Callistus Adewale; Ojewola, Rufus Wale; Yusuf, Musah; Obajolowo, Omotola; Soje, Michael; Gbadegesin, Babajide

    2016-01-01

    The global increase in end organ failure but disproportional shortage of organ donation calls for attention. Expanding the organ pool by assessing and improving health workers' attitude at all levels of care may be a worthwhile initiative. A questionnaire-based cross sectional study involving tertiary, secondary, and primary health institutions in Southwestern Nigeria was conducted. Age range was 18 to 62 (36.7 ± 9.2) years. Only 13.5%, 11.7%, and 11.2% from primary, secondary, and tertiary health centers, respectively, would definitely donate despite high level of awareness (>90%) at each level of care. Participants from primary health care are of low income (P organ donation (P donate organs influenced positive attitudes (willingness to donate, readiness to counsel families of potential donors, and signing of organ donation cards) toward organ donation. Good knowledge of organ donation only significantly influenced readiness to counsel donors (P donate (P > 0.05). At each level of health care, young health care workers (P 0.05) would be willing to donate, whereas men show positive attitude in signing of organ donor cards (P 0.05). Knowledge and willingness to donate organs among health care levels were not different. Considering the potential advantage of community placement of other tiers of health care (primary and secondary) in Nigeria, integrating them would be strategically beneficial to organ donation.

  14. Service Migration from Cloud to Multi-tier Fog Nodes for Multimedia Dissemination with QoE Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Denis; Schimuneck, Matias; Camargo, João; Nobre, Jéferson; Both, Cristiano; Rochol, Juergen; Gerla, Mario

    2018-01-24

    A wide range of multimedia services is expected to be offered for mobile users via various wireless access networks. Even the integration of Cloud Computing in such networks does not support an adequate Quality of Experience (QoE) in areas with high demands for multimedia contents. Fog computing has been conceptualized to facilitate the deployment of new services that cloud computing cannot provide, particularly those demanding QoE guarantees. These services are provided using fog nodes located at the network edge, which is capable of virtualizing their functions/applications. Service migration from the cloud to fog nodes can be actuated by request patterns and the timing issues. To the best of our knowledge, existing works on fog computing focus on architecture and fog node deployment issues. In this article, we describe the operational impacts and benefits associated with service migration from the cloud to multi-tier fog computing for video distribution with QoE support. Besides that, we perform the evaluation of such service migration of video services. Finally, we present potential research challenges and trends.

  15. Metal-clad switchgear with large capacity vacuum circuit breaker in two-tier arrangement for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Isao; Watanabe, Hideo; Sugitani, Shinji

    1982-01-01

    Accompanying the increase of main machinery capacity in nuclear power stations, the short-circuit capacity for 6.9 kV in-house auxiliary machinery circuit has increased, and a 63 kA circuit breaker has become necessary. Although magnetic breakers have been used as large capacity breakers so far, vacuum breakers which are more suitable for the recent environmental conditions of power stations have become employed. Hitachi Ltd. has developed the metal-clad switchboard with vacuum breakers of 7.2 kV, 1,200 to 3,000 A, and breaking current of 63 kA in two-tier arrangement. The main features of this breaker are small size, light weight, long life, labour-saving in maintenance and inspection, simple construction, easy handling, high reliability and safety. In addition, in this paper, the construction of the breaker and switchboard, aseismic property, and test results are described. The tests include the withstand voltage test, elevated temperature test, short period current test, short-circuit test, low current breaking test, continuous on-off test, on-off surge combination test and short-circuit breaking test under the condition of vacuum failure in one phase. The aseismic property is guaranteed by analyzing the vibration characteristics and the strength using computer-aided finite element method so that the performance required is satisfied. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Two-tiered control of epithelial growth and autophagy by the insulin receptor and the ret-like receptor, stitcher.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal O'Farrell

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Body size in Drosophila larvae, like in other animals, is controlled by nutrition. Nutrient restriction leads to catabolic responses in the majority of tissues, but the Drosophila mitotic imaginal discs continue growing. The nature of these differential control mechanisms that spare distinct tissues from starvation are poorly understood. Here, we reveal that the Ret-like receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK, Stitcher (Stit, is required for cell growth and proliferation through the PI3K-I/TORC1 pathway in the Drosophila wing disc. Both Stit and insulin receptor (InR signaling activate PI3K-I and drive cellular proliferation and tissue growth. However, whereas optimal growth requires signaling from both InR and Stit, catabolic changes manifested by autophagy only occur when both signaling pathways are compromised. The combined activities of Stit and InR in ectodermal epithelial tissues provide an RTK-mediated, two-tiered reaction threshold to varying nutritional conditions that promote epithelial organ growth even at low levels of InR signaling.

  17. An optimization of the ALICE XRootD storage cluster at the Tier-2 site in Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamova, D; Horky, J

    2012-01-01

    ALICE, as well as the other experiments at the CERN LHC, has been building a distributed data management infrastructure since 2002. Experience gained during years of operations with different types of storage managers deployed over this infrastructure has shown, that the most adequate storage solution for ALICE is the native XRootD manager developed within a CERN - SLAC collaboration. The XRootD storage clusters exhibit higher stability and availability in comparison with other storage solutions and demonstrate a number of other advantages, like support of high speed WAN data access or no need for maintaining complex databases. Two of the operational characteristics of XRootD data servers are a relatively high number of open sockets and a high Unix load. In this article, we would like to describe our experience with the tuning/optimization of machines hosting the XRootD servers, which are part of the ALICE storage cluster at the Tier-2 WLCG site in Prague, Czech Republic. The optimization procedure, in addition to boosting the read/write performance of the servers, also resulted in a reduction of the Unix load.

  18. Development and application of a two-tier diagnostic instrument to assess middle-years students' proportional reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Annette; Hilton, Geoff; Dole, Shelley; Goos, Merrilyn

    2013-12-01

    Proportional reasoning involves the use of ratios in the comparison of quantities. While it is a key aspect of numeracy, particularly in the middle years of schooling, students do not always develop proportional reasoning naturally. Research suggests that many students do not apply proportional methods appropriately and that they often erroneously apply both multiplicative and additive thinking. Further, students cannot always distinguish non-proportional situations from those that are proportional. Understanding the situations in which students mistakenly use additive or multiplicative thinking and the nature of the proportional reasoning that students apply to different problem types is important for teachers seeking to support their students to develop proportional reasoning in the classroom. This paper describes the development and use of a two-tier diagnostic instrument to identify situations in which students could and could not apply proportional reasoning and the types of reasoning they used. It presents data from an Australian study involving over 2000 middle-years students (Years 5 to 9) as a means of illustrating the use of the instrument for diagnosing students' reasoning in different situations. The findings showed that the instrument was useful for identifying problem types in which students of different ages were able to apply correct reasoning. It also allowed identification of the types of incorrect reasoning used by students. The paper also describes useful applications of the instrument, including its use as a diagnostic instrument by classroom teachers and its use in the design of classroom activities included in teacher professional learning workshops.

  19. Random Secure Comparator Selection Based Privacy-Preserving MAX/MIN Query Processing in Two-Tiered Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Privacy-preserving data queries for wireless sensor networks (WSNs have drawn much attention recently. This paper proposes a privacy-preserving MAX/MIN query processing approach based on random secure comparator selection in two-tiered sensor network, which is denoted by RSCS-PMQ. The secret comparison model is built on the basis of the secure comparator which is defined by 0-1 encoding and HMAC. And the minimal set of highest secure comparators generating algorithm MaxRSC is proposed, which is the key to realize RSCS-PMQ. In the data collection procedures, the sensor node randomly selects a generated secure comparator of the maximum data into ciphertext which is submitted to the nearby master node. In the query processing procedures, the master node utilizes the MaxRSC algorithm to determine the corresponding minimal set of candidate ciphertexts containing the query results and returns it to the base station. And the base station obtains the plaintext query result through decryption. The theoretical analysis and experimental result indicate that RSCS-PMQ can preserve the privacy of sensor data and query result from master nodes even if they are compromised, and it has a better performance on the network communication cost than the existing approaches.

  20. A Bivalent Anthrax–Plague Vaccine That Can Protect against Two Tier-1 Bioterror Pathogens, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Tao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioterrorism remains as one of the biggest challenges to global security and public health. Since the deadly anthrax attacks of 2001 in the United States, Bacillus anthracis and Yersinia pestis, the causative agents of anthrax and plague, respectively, gained notoriety and were listed by the CDC as Tier-1 biothreat agents. Currently, there is no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccine against either of these threats for mass vaccination to protect general public, let alone a bivalent vaccine. Here, we report the development of a single recombinant vaccine, a triple antigen consisting of all three target antigens, F1 and V from Y. pestis and PA from B. anthracis, in a structurally stable context. Properly folded and soluble, the triple antigen retained the functional and immunogenicity properties of all three antigens. Remarkably, two doses of this immunogen adjuvanted with Alhydrogel® elicited robust antibody responses in mice, rats, and rabbits and conferred complete protection against inhalational anthrax and pneumonic plague. No significant antigenic interference was observed. Furthermore, we report, for the first time, complete protection of animals against simultaneous challenge with Y. pestis and the lethal toxin of B. anthracis, demonstrating that a single biodefense vaccine can protect against a bioterror attack with weaponized B. anthracis and/or Y. pestis. This bivalent anthrax–plague vaccine is, therefore, a strong candidate for stockpiling, after demonstration of its safety and immunogenicity in human clinical trials, as part of national preparedness against two of the deadliest bioterror threats.

  1. VIPRAM_L1CMS: a 2-Tier 3D Architecture for Pattern Recognition for Track Finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, J. R. [Fermilab; Joshi, Joshi,S. [Northwestern U.; Liu, Liu, [Fermilab; Olsen, J. [Fermilab; Shenai, A. [Fermilab

    2017-06-15

    In HEP tracking trigger applications, flagging an individual detector hit is not important. Rather, the path of a charged particle through many detector layers is what must be found. Moreover, given the increased luminosity projected for future LHC experiments, this type of track finding will be required within the Level 1 Trigger system. This means that future LHC experiments require not just a chip capable of high-speed track finding but also one with a high-speed readout architecture. VIPRAM_L1CMS is 2-Tier Vertically Integrated chip designed to fulfill these requirements. It is a complete pipelined Pattern Recognition Associative Memory (PRAM) architecture including pattern recognition, result sparsification, and readout for Level 1 trigger applications in CMS with 15-bit wide detector addresses and eight detector layers included in the track finding. Pattern recognition is based on classic Content Addressable Memories with a Current Race Scheme to reduce timing complexity and a 4-bit Selective Precharge to minimize power consumption. VIPRAM_L1CMS uses a pipelined set of priority-encoded binary readout structures to sparsify and readout active road flags at frequencies of at least 100MHz. VIPRAM_L1CMS is designed to work directly with the Pulsar2b Architecture.

  2. Hiding the Complexity: Building a Distributed ATLAS Tier-2 with a Single Resource Interface using ARC Middleware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, S; Stewart, G; Skipsey, S; Washbrook, A; Bhimji, W; Filipcic, A; Kenyon, M

    2011-01-01

    Since their inception, Grids for high energy physics have found management of data to be the most challenging aspect of operations. This problem has generally been tackled by the experiment's data management framework controlling in fine detail the distribution of data around the grid and the careful brokering of jobs to sites with co-located data. This approach, however, presents experiments with a difficult and complex system to manage as well as introducing a rigidity into the framework which is very far from the original conception of the grid. In this paper we describe how the ScotGrid distributed Tier-2, which has sites in Glasgow, Edinburgh and Durham, was presented to ATLAS as a single, unified resource using the ARC middleware stack. In this model the ScotGrid 'data store' is hosted at Glasgow and presented as a single ATLAS storage resource. As jobs are taken from the ATLAS PanDA framework, they are dispatched to the computing cluster with the fastest response time. An ARC compute element at each site then asynchronously stages the data from the data store into a local cache hosted at each site. The job is then launched in the batch system and accesses data locally. We discuss the merits of this system compared to other operational models and consider, from the point of view of the resource providers (sites), and from the resource consumers (experiments); and consider issues involved in transitions to this model.

  3. Performance modeling of a two-tier primary-secondary network with IEEE 802.11 broadcast scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Khabazian, Mehdi

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, we study the performance of a two-tier primary-secondary network based on IEEE 802.11 broadcast scheme. We assume that a number of primary and secondary users coexist in the radio environment and share a single band. To protect the primary users\\' priority, the secondary users are allowed to contend for the channel only if they sense it idle for a certain sensing time. Considering an exponential packet inter-arrival time for the primary network, we model each primary user as an independent M/G/1 queue. Subsequently, we determine the primary users\\' average medium access delay in the presence of secondary users as well as the hybrid network\\'s throughput. Numerical results and discussions show the effects of parameters pertaining to the secondary users, such as as sensing time, packet payload size and population size, on the performance of the primary network. Furthermore, we provide simulation results which confirm the accuracy of the proposed analysis. © 2011 IEEE.

  4. Tier-scalable reconnaissance: the future in autonomous C4ISR systems has arrived: progress towards an outdoor testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Wolfgang; Brooks, Alexander J.-W.; Tarbell, Mark A.; Dohm, James M.

    2017-05-01

    Autonomous reconnaissance missions are called for in extreme environments, as well as in potentially hazardous (e.g., the theatre, disaster-stricken areas, etc.) or inaccessible operational areas (e.g., planetary surfaces, space). Such future missions will require increasing degrees of operational autonomy, especially when following up on transient events. Operational autonomy encompasses: (1) Automatic characterization of operational areas from different vantages (i.e., spaceborne, airborne, surface, subsurface); (2) automatic sensor deployment and data gathering; (3) automatic feature extraction including anomaly detection and region-of-interest identification; (4) automatic target prediction and prioritization; (5) and subsequent automatic (re-)deployment and navigation of robotic agents. This paper reports on progress towards several aspects of autonomous C4ISR systems, including: Caltech-patented and NASA award-winning multi-tiered mission paradigm, robotic platform development (air, ground, water-based), robotic behavior motifs as the building blocks for autonomous tele-commanding, and autonomous decision making based on a Caltech-patented framework comprising sensor-data-fusion (feature-vectors), anomaly detection (clustering and principal component analysis), and target prioritization (hypothetical probing).

  5. Interim Evaluation of the Tier 1 Program (Secondary 1 Curriculum of the Project P.A.T.H.S.: First Year of the Full Implementation Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the implementation quality of the Tier 1 Program (Secondary 1 Curriculum of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes in the full implementation phase, 100 schools were randomly selected to participate in personal and/or telephone interviews regarding the quality of the implementation process of the Tier 1 Program. In the interviews, the participants described the responses of the students to the program, the perceived benefits of the program, the perceived good aspects of the program, and the areas requiring improvement, difficulties encountered in the implementation process, and perceived attributes of the worker-support scheme (“Co-Walker Scheme”. Results showed that most workers perceived that the students had positive responses to the program and the program was beneficial to the students. They also identified several good aspects in the program, although negative comments on the program design and difficulties in the implementation process were also recorded. Roughly half of the respondents had positive comments on the “Co-Walker Scheme”. In sum, the respondents generally regarded the program as beneficial to the students and they were satisfied with the Tier 1 Program (Secondary 1 Curriculum in the full implementation phase, although some implementation difficulties were also expressed.

  6. Effectiveness of the Tier 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S.: Objective Outcome Evaluation Based on a Randomized Group Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two tiers of programs in the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programs. In the Tier 1 Program, teaching units based on different positive youth development constructs are covered. A total of 24 experimental schools (N = 4,121 students and 24 control schools (N = 3,854 students were randomly selected to participate in a randomized group trial. Analyses of covariance and linear mixed models controlling for differences between the two groups in terms of pretest scores, personal variables, and random effects of schools showed that participants in the experimental schools had significantly higher positive youth development levels than did participants in the control schools at post-test based on different indicators derived from the Chinese Positive Youth Development Scale. In conjunction with other evaluation findings reported previously, the present study suggests that the Tier 1 Program of P.A.T.H.S. promotes the positive development of Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

  7. Introduction of non-invasive prenatal testing as a first-tier aneuploidy screening test: A survey among Dutch midwives about their role as counsellors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Linda; Gitsels-van der Wal, Janneke T; de Boer, Marjon A; Vanstone, Meredith; Henneman, Lidewij

    2018-01-01

    In 2014, non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 was added to the Dutch prenatal screening program as part of the TRIDENT study. Most (85%) pregnant Dutch women are counselled for prenatal aneuploidy screening by primary care midwives. This will remain when NIPT is implemented as a first-tier screening test. We therefore investigated midwife counsellors': 1) Knowledge about NIPT; 2) Attitudes towards NIPT as first-tier screening test; and 3) Experiences with informing clients about NIPT. Between April-June 2015, an online questionnaire to assess knowledge about NIPT, attitudes towards NIPT, and experiences with NIPT was completed by 436 Dutch primary care midwives. We found that 59% midwives answered ≥7 of 8 knowledge questions correctly. Continuing professional education attendance and more positive attitudes towards prenatal screening for Down syndrome were positively associated with the total knowledge score (β = 0.261; p = 0.007 and β = 0.204; p = 0.015, respectively). The majority (67%) were in favor of replacing First trimester Combined Test with NIPT, although 41% preferred to maintain a nuchal translucency measurement alongside NIPT. We conclude that midwives demonstrated solid knowledge about NIPT that may still be improved in some areas. Dutch midwives overwhelmingly support the integration of NIPT as a first-tier screening test. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tiered approach for identification of a human fecal pollution source at a recreational beach: case study at Avalon Bay, Catalina Island, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Alexandria B; Fuhrman, Jed A; Mrse, Robert D; Grant, Stanley B

    2003-02-15

    Recreational marine beaches in California are posted as unfit for swimming when the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) exceeds any of seven concentration standards. Finding and mitigating sources of shoreline FIB is complicated by the many potential human and nonhuman sources of these organisms and the complex fate and transport processes that control their concentrations. In this study, a three-tiered approach is used to identify human and nonhuman sources of FIB in Avalon Bay, a popular resort community on Catalina Island in southern California. The first and second tiers utilize standard FIB tests to spatially isolate the FIB signal, to characterize the variability of FIB over a range of temporal scales, and to measure FIB concentrations in potential sources of these organisms. In the third tier, water samples from FIB "hot spots" and sources are tested for human-specific bacteria Bacteroides/Prevotella and enterovirus to determine whether the FIB are from human sewage or from nonhuman sources such as bird feces. FIB in Avalon Bay appear to be from multiple, primarily land-based, sources including bird droppings, contaminated subsurface water, leaking drains, and runoff from street wash-down actvities. Multiple shoreline samples and two subsurface water samples tested positive for human-specific bacteria and enterovirus, suggesting that at least a portion of the FIB contamination is from human sewage.

  9. Evaluation of the Tier 1 Program of Project P.A.T.H.S.: Secondary Data Analyses of Conclusions Drawn by the Program Implementers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tier 1 Program of the Project P.A.T.H.S. (Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes is a curricula-based positive youth development program. In the experimental implementation phase, 52 schools participated in the program. Based on subjective outcome evaluation data collected from the program participants (Form A and program implementers (Form B in each school, the program implementers were invited to write down five conclusions based on an integration of the evaluation findings (N = 52. The conclusions stated in the 52 evaluation reports were further analyzed via secondary data analyses in this paper. Results showed that most of the conclusions concerning perceptions of the Tier 1 Program, instructors, and effectiveness of the programs were positive in nature. There were also conclusions reflecting the respondents’ appreciation of the program. Finally, responses on the difficulties encountered and suggestions for improvements were observed. In conjunction with the previous evaluation findings, the present study suggests that the Tier 1 Program was well received by the stakeholders and the program was beneficial to the development of the program participants.

  10. Multi-tiered S-SOA, Parameter-Driven New Islamic Syariah Products of Holistic Islamic Banking System (HiCORE): Virtual Banking Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halimah, B. Z.; Azlina, A.; Sembok, T. M.; Sufian, I.; Sharul Azman, M. N.; Azuraliza, A. B.; Zulaiha, A. O.; Nazlia, O.; Salwani, A.; Sanep, A.; Hailani, M. T.; Zaher, M. Z.; Azizah, J.; Nor Faezah, M. Y.; Choo, W. O.; Abdullah, Chew; Sopian, B.

    The Holistic Islamic Banking System (HiCORE), a banking system suitable for virtual banking environment, created based on universityindustry collaboration initiative between Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) and Fuziq Software Sdn Bhd. HiCORE was modeled on a multitiered Simple - Services Oriented Architecture (S-SOA), using the parameterbased semantic approach. HiCORE's existence is timely as the financial world is looking for a new approach to creating banking and financial products that are interest free or based on the Islamic Syariah principles and jurisprudence. An interest free banking system has currently caught the interest of bankers and financiers all over the world. HiCORE's Parameter-based module houses the Customer-information file (CIF), Deposit and Financing components. The Parameter based module represents the third tier of the multi-tiered Simple SOA approach. This paper highlights the multi-tiered parameter- driven approach to the creation of new Islamiic products based on the 'dalil' (Quran), 'syarat' (rules) and 'rukun' (procedures) as required by the syariah principles and jurisprudence reflected by the semantic ontology embedded in the parameter module of the system.

  11. Les métiers du conseil : une « profession consultante » ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Orianne

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Les métiers du conseil se développent, en Belgique, depuis une dizaine d’années, dans différents champs d’intervention publique. Leur apparition récente est directement liée à la mise en œuvre de nouvelles politiques publiques. Ce texte met en perspective deux de ces groupes professionnels : les conseillers en accompagnement professionnel du service public d’emploi et les conseillers pédagogiques dans le champ de l’enseignement. L’analyse comparative porte sur la genèse des groupes professionnels, sur les licences, mandats et identités professionnelles, ainsi que sur la spécificité du travail avec le public. Les auteurs montrent que ces nouveaux métiers du conseil se développent principalement sur le modèle de la profession consultante, au sein de laquelle le diagnostic et le traitement constituent les deux actes fondamentaux.Counseling occupations: a “consulting profession”?Since ten years counseling occupations are growing in various fields of public intervention in Belgium. Their recent emergence is directly related to the implementation of new public policies. This text puts two of these occupational groups into perspective: the counselor in vocational accompaniment from the public-service of employment and the education counselor in the field of teaching. The comparative analysis concerns the genesis of the occupational groups, the licenses, mandates and professional identities, as well as the specificity of their work with the public. The authors show that these new counseling occupations mainly develop on the model of the consulting profession, within which the diagnosis and the treatment constitute the two fundamental acts.El sector del asesoramiento profesional: modelo profesional del consultor?El sector del asesoramiento profesional se esta desarrollando, en Bélgica desde hace unos diez años, en distintas áreas de intervención pública. Esa reciente aparición está directamente ligada a la

  12. Designing green derivatives of β-blocker Metoprolol: a tiered approach for green and sustainable pharmacy and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Tushar; Leder, Christoph; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2014-09-01

    The presences of micro-pollutants (active pharmaceutical ingredients, APIs) are increasingly seen as a challenge of the sustainable management of water resources worldwide due to ineffective effluent treatment and other measures for their input prevention. Therefore, novel approaches are needed like designing greener pharmaceuticals, i.e. better biodegradability in the environment. This study addresses a tiered approach of implementing green and sustainable chemistry principles for theoretically designing better biodegradable and pharmacologically improved pharmaceuticals. Photodegradation process coupled with LC-MS(n) analysis and in silico tools such as quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) analysis and molecular docking proved to be a very significant approach for the preliminary stages of designing chemical structures that would fit into the "benign by design" concept in the direction of green and sustainable pharmacy. Metoprolol (MTL) was used as an example, which itself is not readily biodegradable under conditions found in sewage treatment and the aquatic environment. The study provides the theoretical design of new derivatives of MTL which might have the same or improved pharmacological activity and are more degradable in the environment than MTL. However, the in silico toxicity prediction by QSAR of those photo-TPs indicated few of them might be possibly mutagenic and require further testing. This novel approach of theoretically designing 'green' pharmaceuticals can be considered as a step forward towards the green and sustainable pharmacy field. However, more knowledge and further experience have to be collected on the full scope, opportunities and limitations of this approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comprehensive target capture/next-generation sequencing as a second-tier diagnostic approach for congenital muscular dystrophy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wen-Chen; Tian, Xia; Yuo, Chung-Yee; Chen, Wan-Zi; Kan, Tsu-Min; Su, Yi-Ning; Nishino, Ichizo; Wong, Lee-Jun C; Jong, Yuh-Jyh

    2017-01-01

    Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) is a heterogeneous disease entity. The detailed clinical manifestation and causative gene for each subgroup of CMD are quite variable. This study aims to analyze the phenotypes and genotypes of Taiwanese patients with CMD as the epidemiology of CMD varies among populations and has been scantly described in Asia. A total of 48 patients suspected to have CMD were screened and categorized by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry studies. Different genetic analyses, including next-generation sequencing (NGS), were selected, based on the clinical and pathological findings. We identified 17 patients with sarcolemma-specific collagen VI deficiency (SSCD), 6 patients with merosin deficiency, two with reduced alpha-dystroglycan staining, and two with striking lymphocyte infiltration in addition to dystrophic change on muscle pathology. Fourteen in 15 patients with SSCD, were shown to have COL6A1, COL6A2 or COL6A3 mutations by NGS analysis; all showed marked distal hyperlaxity and normal intelligence but the overall severity was less than in previously reported patients from other populations. All six patients with merosin deficiency had mutations in LAMA2. They showed relatively uniform phenotype that were compatible with previous studies, except for higher proportion of mental retardation with epilepsy. With reduced alpha-dystroglycan staining, one patient was found to carry mutations in POMT1 while another patient carried mutations in TRAPPC11. LMNA mutations were found in the two patients with inflammatory change on muscle pathology. They were clinically characterized by neck flexion limitation and early joint contracture, but no cardiac problem had developed yet. Muscle pathology remains helpful in guiding further molecular analyses by direct sequencing of certain genes or by target capture/NGS as a second-tier diagnostic tool, and is crucial for establishing the genotype-phenotype correlation. We also determined the frequencies of

  14. [Evaluation of two-tier grading system and significance of p53 protein over-expression in ovarian serous carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jie; Du, Juan; Zhang, Chun-yu; Xie, Qiao-ting; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Cong-rong

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the two-tier MDACC grading system for ovarian serous carcinoma by comparing with the WHO grading system, and to investigate the role of p53 immunostaining in ovarian serous carcinoma grading. 72 cases ovarian serous carcinoma of ovary were graded basing on the MDACC and WHO grading systems, respectively. Statistic analyses were made for the relationship between the data obtained from two grading systems and their clinical significance. All the cases were examined immunohistochemically by using antibody against p53 protein and the immunohistochemistry findings were analyzed with the two grading systems and clinical parameters. There was a good correlation between the MDACC and WHO grading system (r=0.543, P=0.000). Neither system has a definite relationship with the disease-free survival time (P=0.170 vs. P=0.075), cytoreduction (P=0.478 vs. P=0.120), and the curative effect of platinum-based chemotherapy (P=0.418 vs. P=0.403). However, compared with the WHO grading system, MDACC grading system has a better correlation with tumor stage (P=0.041 vs. P=0.002), 3-year disease-free survival rate (P=0.077 vs. P=0.004), overall survival time (P=0.080 vs. P=0.046), and p53 immunohistochemistry results (P=0.334 vs. P=0.035). No significant difference was found between p53 immunohistochemistry results with other clinical characteristics and prognostic factors. Compared with the WHO system, the MDACC system showed a better prognostic value and was more likely correlated with the novel dualistic model for ovarian serous carcinogenesis. Although p53 immunostaining was valuable in assisting MDACC grading, it should be cautious to use it alone as an independent indicator in predicting the prognosis of ovarian serous carcinoma.

  15. Quantitative weight of evidence assessment of higher tier studies on the toxicity and risks of neonicotinoids in honeybees. 3. Clothianidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Stephenson, Gladys L

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) methodology was used to assess higher tier studies on the effects of clothianidin (CTD) on honeybees. Assessment endpoints were population size and viability of commercially managed bees and quantity of hive products. A colony-level no-observed-adverse effect concentration (NOAEC) of 25 µg CTD/kg syrup, equivalent to an oral no-observed-adverse effect-dose (NOAED) of 7.3 ng/bee/d for all responses measured. Based on a NOAEC of 19.7 µg/kg pollen, the NOAED for honeybee larvae was 2.4 ng/bee larva/d. For exposures via dust, a no-observed-adverse effect rate of 4 g CTD/ha was used to assess relevance of exposures via deposition of dust. The overall weight of evidence suggested that there is minimal risk to honeybees from exposure to CTD from its use as a seed treatment. For exposures via dust, dust/seed and dust/foliar applications, there were no exposures greater than the NOAED for CTD in nectar and pollen, indicating a de minimis risk to honeybees when the route of exposure was via uptake in plants. Analysis of effect studies in the field indicated a consistent lack of relevant effects, regardless of the way CTD was applied. For exposures via dust, there were no adverse effects because of these applications and there were no exposures greater than the NOAED for CTD in nectar and pollen. The overall weight of evidence based on many studies indicated no adverse effects on colony viability or survival of the colony. Thus, the overall conclusion is that clothianidin, as currently used in good agricultural practices, does not present a significant risk to honeybees at the level of the colony.

  16. Potential for MERLIN-Expo, an advanced tool for higher tier exposure assessment, within the EU chemical legislative frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suciu, Nicoleta, E-mail: nicoleta.suciu@unicatt.it [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy); Tediosi, Alice [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Ciffroy, Philippe [Electricité de France (EDF) R& D, National Hydraulic and Environment Laboratory, 6 quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France); Altenpohl, Annette [Österreichisches Normungsinstitut/Austrian Standards Institute, Heinestraße 38, 1020 Wien (Austria); Brochot, Céline [INERIS, Parc ALATA, BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); Verdonck, Frederik [ARCHE cvba, Liefkensstraat 35d, 9032 Gent-Wondelgem (Belgium); Ferrari, Federico [Aeiforia Srl, 29027 Gariga di Podenzano (PC) (Italy); Giubilato, Elisa [University Ca Foscari Venice, Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, via Torino 155, 30172 Mestre-Venice (Italy); Capri, Ettore [Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 29122 Piacenza (Italy); Fait, Gabriella [EFSA, via Carlo Magno 1/a, 43126 Parma (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    MERLIN-Expo merges and integrates advanced exposure assessment methodologies, allowing the building of complex scenarios involving several pollution sources and targets. The assessment of exposure and risks to human health from chemicals is of major concern for policy and ultimately benefits all citizens. The development and operational fusion of the advanced exposure assessment methodologies envisaged in the MERLIN-Expo tool will have a significant impact in the long term on several policies dealing with chemical safety management. There are more than 30 agencies in Europe related to exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals, which have an important role in implementing EU policies, having especially tasks of technical, scientific, operational and/or regulatory nature. The main purpose of the present paper is to introduce MERLIN-Expo and to highlight its potential for being effectively integrated within the group of tools available to assess the risk and exposure of chemicals for EU policy. The main results show that the tool is highly suitable for use in site-specific or local impact assessment, with minor modifications it can also be used for Plant Protection Products (PPPs), biocides and REACH, while major additions would be required for a comprehensive application in the field of consumer and worker exposure assessment. - Highlights: • Exposure and risk evaluation of chemicals • Coupling environmental exposure and pharmacokinetic models • MERLIN-expo as a higher tier exposure tool • MERLIN-expo potential application in EU chemical regulations • EU legislations and policies related to risk assessment and management of chemicals.

  17. Pervasive Brain Monitoring and Data Sharing based on Multi-tier Distributed Computing and Linked Data Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kar-Kin Zao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available EEG-based Brain-computer interfaces (BCI are facing grant challenges in their real-world applications. The technical difficulties in developing truly wearable multi-modal BCI systems that are capable of making reliable real-time prediction of users’ cognitive states under dynamic real-life situations may appear at times almost insurmountable. Fortunately, recent advances in miniature sensors, wireless communication and distributed computing technologies offered promising ways to bridge these chasms. In this paper, we report our attempt to develop a pervasive on-line BCI system by employing state-of-art technologies such as multi-tier fog and cloud computing, semantic Linked Data search and adaptive prediction/classification models. To verify our approach, we implement a pilot system using wireless dry-electrode EEG headsets and MEMS motion sensors as the front-end devices, Android mobile phones as the personal user interfaces, compact personal computers as the near-end fog servers and the computer clusters hosted by the Taiwan National Center for High-performance Computing (NCHC as the far-end cloud servers. We succeeded in conducting synchronous multi-modal global data streaming in March and then running a multi-player on-line BCI game in September, 2013. We are currently working with the ARL Translational Neuroscience Branch and the UCSD Movement Disorder Center to use our system in real-life personal stress and in-home Parkinson’s disease patient monitoring experiments. We shall proceed to develop a necessary BCI ontology and add automatic semantic annotation and progressive model refinement capability to our system.

  18. Automated Processing of Imaging Data through Multi-tiered Classification of Biological Structures Illustrated Using Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Zhan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative imaging has become a vital technique in biological discovery and clinical diagnostics; a plethora of tools have recently been developed to enable new and accelerated forms of biological investigation. Increasingly, the capacity for high-throughput experimentation provided by new imaging modalities, contrast techniques, microscopy tools, microfluidics and computer controlled systems shifts the experimental bottleneck from the level of physical manipulation and raw data collection to automated recognition and data processing. Yet, despite their broad importance, image analysis solutions to address these needs have been narrowly tailored. Here, we present a generalizable formulation for autonomous identification of specific biological structures that is applicable for many problems. The process flow architecture we present here utilizes standard image processing techniques and the multi-tiered application of classification models such as support vector machines (SVM. These low-level functions are readily available in a large array of image processing software packages and programming languages. Our framework is thus both easy to implement at the modular level and provides specific high-level architecture to guide the solution of more complicated image-processing problems. We demonstrate the utility of the classification routine by developing two specific classifiers as a toolset for automation and cell identification in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. To serve a common need for automated high-resolution imaging and behavior applications in the C. elegans research community, we contribute a ready-to-use classifier for the identification of the head of the animal under bright field imaging. Furthermore, we extend our framework to address the pervasive problem of cell-specific identification under fluorescent imaging, which is critical for biological investigation in multicellular organisms or tissues. Using these examples as a

  19. Pervasive brain monitoring and data sharing based on multi-tier distributed computing and linked data technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zao, John K; Gan, Tchin-Tze; You, Chun-Kai; Chung, Cheng-En; Wang, Yu-Te; Rodríguez Méndez, Sergio José; Mullen, Tim; Yu, Chieh; Kothe, Christian; Hsiao, Ching-Teng; Chu, San-Liang; Shieh, Ce-Kuen; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    EEG-based Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are facing basic challenges in real-world applications. The technical difficulties in developing truly wearable BCI systems that are capable of making reliable real-time prediction of users' cognitive states in dynamic real-life situations may seem almost insurmountable at times. Fortunately, recent advances in miniature sensors, wireless communication and distributed computing technologies offered promising ways to bridge these chasms. In this paper, we report an attempt to develop a pervasive on-line EEG-BCI system using state-of-art technologies including multi-tier Fog and Cloud Computing, semantic Linked Data search, and adaptive prediction/classification models. To verify our approach, we implement a pilot system by employing wireless dry-electrode EEG headsets and MEMS motion sensors as the front-end devices, Android mobile phones as the personal user interfaces, compact personal computers as the near-end Fog Servers and the computer clusters hosted by the Taiwan National Center for High-performance Computing (NCHC) as the far-end Cloud Servers. We succeeded in conducting synchronous multi-modal global data streaming in March and then running a multi-player on-line EEG-BCI game in September, 2013. We are currently working with the ARL Translational Neuroscience Branch to use our system in real-life personal stress monitoring and the UCSD Movement Disorder Center to conduct in-home Parkinson's disease patient monitoring experiments. We shall proceed to develop the necessary BCI ontology and introduce automatic semantic annotation and progressive model refinement capability to our system.

  20. Breakdown of NAO reproducibility into internal versus externally-forced components: a two-tier pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douville, Hervé; Ribes, A.; Tyteca, S.

    2018-03-01

    Assessing the ability of atmospheric models to capture observed climate variations when driven by observed sea surface temperature (SST), sea ice concentration (SIC) and radiative forcings is a prerequisite for the feasibility of near term climate predictions. Here we achieve ensembles of global atmospheric simulations to assess and attribute the reproducibility of the boreal winter atmospheric circulation against the European Centre for Medium Range Forecasts (ECMWF) twentieth century reanalysis (ERA20C). Our control experiment is driven by the observed SST/SIC from the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project. It is compared to a similar ensemble performed with the ECMWF model as a first step toward ERA20C. Moreover, a two-tier methodology is used to disentangle externally-forced versus internal variations in the observed SST/SIC boundary conditions and run additional ensembles allowing us to attribute the observed atmospheric variability. The focus is mainly on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) variability which is more reproducible in our model than in the ECMWF model. This result is partly due to the simulation of a positive NAO trend across the full 1920-2014 integration period. In line with former studies, this trend might be mediated by a circumglobal teleconnection mechanism triggered by increasing precipitation over the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO). Surprisingly, this response is mainly related to the internal SST variability and is not found in the ECMWF model driven by an alternative SST dataset showing a weaker TIO warming in the first half of the twentieth century. Our results may reconcile the twentieth century observations with the twenty-first century projections of the NAO. They should be however considered with caution given the limited size of our ensembles, the possible influence of other sources of NAO variability, and the uncertainties in the tropical SST trend and breakdown between internal versus externally-forced variability.

  1. A three-tier QSAR modeling strategy for estimating eye irritation potential of diverse chemicals in rabbit for regulatory purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basant, Nikita; Gupta, Shikha; Singh, Kunwar P

    2016-06-01

    Experimental determination of the eye irritation potential (EIP) of chemicals is not only tedious, time and resource intensive, it involves cruelty to test animals. In this study, we have established a three-tier QSAR modeling strategy for estimating the EIP of chemicals for the use of pharmaceutical industry and regulatory agencies. Accordingly, a qualitative (binary classification: irritating, non-irritating), semi-quantitative (four-category classification), and quantitative (regression) QSAR models employing the SDT, DTF, and DTB methods were developed for predicting the EIP of chemicals in accordance with the OECD guidelines. Structural features of chemicals responsible for eye irritation were extracted and used in QSAR analysis. The external predictive power of the developed QSAR models were evaluated through the internal and external validation procedures recommended in QSAR literature. In test data, the two and four category classification QSAR models (DTF, DTB) rendered accuracy of >93%, while the regression QSAR models (DTF, DTB) yielded correlation (R(2)) of >0.92 between the measured and predicted EIPs. Values of various statistical validation coefficients derived for the test data were above their respective threshold limits (except rm(2) in DTF), thus put a high confidence in this analysis. The applicability domain of the constructed QSAR models were defined using the descriptors range and leverage approaches. The QSAR models in this study performed better than any of the previous studies. The results suggest that the developed QSAR models can reliably predict the EIP of diverse chemicals and can be useful tools for screening of candidate molecules in the drug development process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nachweis und Differenzierung von Campylobacter jejuni, C. coli und C. lari in Lebensmitteln mittels Quadruplex real-time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Anja Maria

    2009-01-01

    Es wurde ein Quadruplex real-time PCR-Verfahren zum parallelen Nachweis und zur Differenzierung der lebensmittelrelevanten thermophilen Campylobacter spp. Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli und Campylobacter lari in Geflügel, Fleisch, Fisch und Muscheln etabliert. Das Nachweissystem wurde hinsichtlich seiner Selektivität, Sensitivität, Effizienz, Präzision und Robustheit überprüft und im Vergleich zur konventionellen Diagnostik (kultureller Nachweis) anhand von 464 Feldproben validiert....

  3. Basal ganglia and thalamic input from neurons located within the ventral tier cell cluster region of the substantia nigra pars compacta in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrián, Carolina; Prensa, Lucía

    2010-04-15

    The most caudally located dopaminergic (DA) ventral tier neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) form typical cell clusters that are deeply embedded in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr). Here we examine the efferent projections of 35 neurons located in the SNr region where these SNc cell clusters reside. The neuronal cell body was injected with biotinylated dextran amine so as to trace each complete axon in the sagittal or the coronal plane. Electrophysiological guidance guaranteed that the tracer was ejected among neurons displaying a typical SNc discharge pattern. Furthermore, double immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical labeling ensured that the tracer deposits were placed within the DA cell clusters. Three types of projection neurons occurred in the SNc ventral tier cell cluster region: type I neurons, projecting to basal ganglia; type II neurons, targeting both the basal ganglia and thalamus; and type III neurons, projecting only to the thalamus. The striatum was targeted by most of the type I and II neurons and the innervation reached both the striosome/subcallosal streak and matrix compartments. Many nigrostriatal fibers provided collaterals to the globus pallidus and, less frequently, to the subthalamic nucleus. At a thalamic level, type II and III neurons preferentially targeted the reticular, ventral posterolateral, and ventral medial nuclei. Our results reveal that the SNr region where DA ventral tier cell clusters reside harbors neurons projecting to the basal ganglia and/or the thalamus, thus suggesting that neurodegeneration of nigral neurons in Parkinson's disease might affect various extrastriatal basal ganglia structures and multiple thalamic nuclei. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Advancing Methods for Estimating Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions by Incorporating Freeze-Thaw Cycles into a Tier 3 Model-Based Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, S. M.; DelGrosso, S.; Parton, W. J.

    2017-12-01

    Soil nitrous oxide emissions from agricultural management are a key source of greenhouse gas emissions in many countries due to the widespread use of nitrogen fertilizers, manure amendments from livestock production, planting legumes and other practices that affect N dynamics in soils. In the United States, soil nitrous oxide emissions have ranged from 250 to 280 Tg CO2 equivalent from 1990 to 2015, with uncertainties around 20-30 percent. A Tier 3 method has been used to estimate the emissions with the DayCent ecosystem model. While the Tier 3 approach is considerably more accurate than IPCC Tier 1 methods, there is still the possibility of biases in emission estimates if there are processes and drivers that are not represented in the modeling framework. Furthermore, a key principle of IPCC guidance is that inventory compilers estimate emissions as accurately as possible. Freeze-thaw cycles and associated hot moments of nitrous oxide emissions are one of key drivers influencing emissions in colder climates, such as the cold temperate climates of the upper Midwest and New England regions of the United States. Freeze-thaw activity interacts with management practices that are increasing N availability in the plant-soil system, leading to greater nitrous oxide emissions during transition periods from winter to spring. Given the importance of this driver, the DayCent model has been revised to incorproate freeze-thaw cycles, and the results suggests that including this driver can significantly modify the emissions estimates in cold temperate climate regions. Consequently, future methodological development to improve estimation of nitrous oxide emissions from soils would benefit from incorporating freeze-thaw cycles into the modeling framework for national territories with a cold climate.

  5. Renewable energy resource and technology assessment: Southern Tier Central Region, New York, New York. Renewable Energy Resource Inventory; renewable energy technology handbook; technology assessment workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Resource Inventory contains regional maps that record the location of renewable energy resources such as insolation, wind, biomass, and hydropower in the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State. It contains an outline of a process by which communities can prepare local renewable energy resource inventories using maps and overlays. The process starts with the mapping of the resources at a regional scale and telescopes to an analysis of resources at a site-specific scale. The resource inventory presents a site analysis of Sullivan Street Industrial Park, Elmira, New York.

  6. Comprehensive target capture/next-generation sequencing as a second-tier diagnostic approach for congenital muscular dystrophy in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chen Liang

    Full Text Available Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD is a heterogeneous disease entity. The detailed clinical manifestation and causative gene for each subgroup of CMD are quite variable. This study aims to analyze the phenotypes and genotypes of Taiwanese patients with CMD as the epidemiology of CMD varies among populations and has been scantly described in Asia.A total of 48 patients suspected to have CMD were screened and categorized by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry studies. Different genetic analyses, including next-generation sequencing (NGS, were selected, based on the clinical and pathological findings.We identified 17 patients with sarcolemma-specific collagen VI deficiency (SSCD, 6 patients with merosin deficiency, two with reduced alpha-dystroglycan staining, and two with striking lymphocyte infiltration in addition to dystrophic change on muscle pathology. Fourteen in 15 patients with SSCD, were shown to have COL6A1, COL6A2 or COL6A3 mutations by NGS analysis; all showed marked distal hyperlaxity and normal intelligence but the overall severity was less than in previously reported patients from other populations. All six patients with merosin deficiency had mutations in LAMA2. They showed relatively uniform phenotype that were compatible with previous studies, except for higher proportion of mental retardation with epilepsy. With reduced alpha-dystroglycan staining, one patient was found to carry mutations in POMT1 while another patient carried mutations in TRAPPC11. LMNA mutations were found in the two patients with inflammatory change on muscle pathology. They were clinically characterized by neck flexion limitation and early joint contracture, but no cardiac problem had developed yet.Muscle pathology remains helpful in guiding further molecular analyses by direct sequencing of certain genes or by target capture/NGS as a second-tier diagnostic tool, and is crucial for establishing the genotype-phenotype correlation. We also determined the

  7. A Tier-I leaching risk assessment of three anticoagulant compounds in the forested areas of Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessio, Matteo; Wang, Tiejun; Swift, Catherine E; Shanmungam, Mohana Sundaram; Ray, Chittaranjan

    2018-02-27

    The anticoagulant rodenticides brodifacoum, chlorophacinone, and diphacinone have been proposed for broadcast application in some forested areas in Hawai'i to protect rare and endangered native bird species from introduced mice and rats. Groundwater resources in Hawai'i are prone to contamination due to the intrinsic aquifer vulnerability to leaching from the land surface. Because of the hydrogeologic complexity, Hawai'i uses a Tier-I leaching assessment tool, CLERS, to make registration decisions for new or existing chemicals. The CLERS tool uses soil and pesticide properties as well as water recharge through the soil profile in a GIS framework to estimate mass attenuation of the chemicals at a given depth and compares against this attenuation factor against those of a known leacher and a non-leacher. Disturbed soil samples were collected across the state of Hawai'i, including the islands of Hawai'i, Kaho'olawe, Kaua'i, Lana'i, Maui, Moloka'i, and O'ahu, with two sampling locations per island, except for Kaua'i which had three. As only limited information on chemical properties of these anticoagulants in soils is available, laboratory experiments were performed to determine the sorption capacity (K d ) and the degradation rate (T 1/2 ) of brodifacoum, chlorophacinone, and diphacinone to construct a proper chemical database. Depending on the soil type, T 1/2 values ranged between 37 and 248days for diphacinone, between 39 and 1000days for chlorophacinone, and between 72 and 462days for brodifacoum. These data were used in the CLERS tool to estimate leaching risks for these chemicals primarily in forested areas of the state where the chemicals are likely to be applied. The results from the CLERS tool indicate low risks of leaching of these three compounds into aquifers in five out of six major Hawaiian Islands. Diphacinone showed medium risk of leaching in a few remote areas in Maui. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Periglacial complexes in Utopia Planitia: rimless, tiered depressions, (clastically) sorted and unsorted polygonised terrain and an ice-rich mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, Richard; Conway, Susan; Gallagher, Colman; Dohm, James; Clifford, Stephen M.; Williams, Jean-pierre

    2016-10-01

    We report the spatial and possible genetic-relationship at the mid-latitudes of Utopia Planitia (45-500N 115-1200E), Mars, of: (a) metre to decametre deep, rimless, tiered depressions; terrain that exhibits (b) (clastically) sorted and (c) unsorted (small-sized) polygons; and, (d) a very youthful, ice-rich mantle. We show that these individual landscape features are separated stratigraphically, this being presented to the Mars community for the first time, and suggest that the stratigraphical separation of these features could be the result of boundary conditions and formation processes that have varied much more widely than has been thought hitherto. In cold-climate and non-glacial regions such as the Yamal Peninsula of eastern Russia and the Tuktoyaktuk Coastlands of northern Canada, landscape assemblages comprised of similar features are referenced as "ice complexes" and are indicative of periglacialism on two fronts: first, the presence of "ice-rich" permafrost or permafrost comprised of "excess ice", i.e. "permafrost" whose pore space is exceeded by the "water ice" within that body of sediment; and, second, antecedently or currently active freeze-thaw cycling, minimally, to the full depth of the "ice-complex" depressions. In the Dry Valleys of the Antarctic, where the atmospheric aridity and cold-temperatures approach those of Mars, ice-vapour diffusion and adsorption cycles are cited as the means by which the near-surface, permafrost, i.e. ≤1m deep, has become ice-cemented. However, the metre to decametre depths of the "ice-complex" depressions on Earth and the morphologically-similar ones on Mars lie beyond the vertical reach of the Antarctic diffusion and adsorption cycles, both empirically and theoretically. By deduction, this points to the freeze-thaw cycling of water to depth, fostered either by exogenic or endogenic means, perhaps playing a more important role in the formation of the possible Martian "ice complexes" than might be expected were

  9. Three Tiers of CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggerholm, Helle Kryger; Trapp, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Heightened concern with global issues has led to shifts in corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs. To capture the distinct nature of this global focus, researchers have developed a three-generation CSR typology. In this paper we first evaluate the usefulness of this typology...... for understanding corporate approaches to CSR by examining how several companies position themselves thematically in CEO introductions to sustainability reports. On the basis of this, we then evaluate the practical value of this typology for assisting those who work with CSR strategy. The analysis revealed...

  10. Using a tiered approach based on ecotoxicological techniques to assess the ecological risks of contamination in a subtropical estuarine protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, B G; Cruz, A C F; Buruaem, L M; Rodrigues, A P C; Machado, W T V; Abessa, D M S

    2016-02-15

    This study sought to assess the ecological risks of sediments from the northern portion of an estuarine protected area (Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe Protected Area--CIP-PA). The CIP-PA is located on the southern coast of São Paulo State, Brazil and is influenced by former mining activities along the Ribeira de Iguape River (RIR). We used a tiered approach based on multiple lines of evidence (geochemical analyses, toxicity tests, and whole sediment toxicity identification and evaluation) in order to assess environmental quality. The sediments presented a heterogeneous composition, but the samples collected close to the RIR exhibited higher concentrations of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb) and toxicity. Multivariate analysis showed that toxicity was associated with metals, mud, organic matter, and CaCO3 quantities. The whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation approach indicated that ammonia and metals were responsible for sediment toxicity. Overall, we concluded that the sediments collected at depositional areas from the northern portion of the CIP-PA presented high levels of metals, which originated from former mining areas located in the upper RIR basin, and that this contamination had toxic effects on aquatic invertebrates. The tiered approach was useful for identifying the degradation of sediment quality and also for indicating the causes of toxicity. Because the CIP-PA is an important estuarine protected area that is ecologically at risk, large-scale measures are required to control the sources of contamination.

  11. The Four-Tier Continuum of Academic and Behavioral Support (4T-CABS) Model: An Integrated Model for Medical Student Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P N

    2017-11-01

    Not all students cope successfully with the demands of medical school, and students' struggles may result in study delay or dropout. To prevent these outcomes, medical schools need to identify students who are experiencing academic difficul ties and provide them with timely interventions through access to support programs. Although the importance of early identification and intervention is well recognized, less is known about successful strategies for identifying and supporting struggling students.Building on the literature and their own empirical findings, the authors propose an integrated, school-wide model for medical student success comprising a continuum of academic and behavioral support. This Four-Tier Continuum of Academic and Behavioral Support (4T-CABS) model focuses on improving both academic and behavioral outcomes by offering support for students at four levels, which range from adequate instruction for all, to targeted small-group interventions, to individualized support, and also include exit support for students who might be better off in another degree program. Additionally, medical schools should provide both academic and behavioral support; set high, yet realistic expectations and clearly communicate these to students; and intervene early, which requires timely identification of at-risk students who would benefit from the different types and tiers of support. Finally, interventions should be evidence based and fit the needs of the identified groups of students. The authors argue that adopting the core principles of the 4T-CABS model will enable medical schools to maximize academic engagement and performance for all students.

  12. Corporate Social Responsibility in Buyer-Supplier Relationships: Is it Beneficial for Top-Tier Suppliers to Market their Capability to Ensure a Responsible Supply Chain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Leppelt

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses how top-tier suppliers market their capabilities to ensure a responsible upstream supply chain to their downstream buyers, and how the marketing of corporate social responsibility (CSR-related supply management practices affects the reputation of top-tier suppliers in business-to-business (B2B markets. In a cross-functional multiple-case study involving marketing, purchasing, and sustainability executives of five supplier organizations in Central Europe, we explored four distinct approaches for marketing superior CSR management abilities in B2B markets that potentially foster long-term comparative advantages: (1 Fact-based communication of measurable CSR capabilities, (2 targeting of indirect customers and influencers, (3 marketing through education, and (4 marketing of CSR as a service. Moreover, our inductive results provide evidence that the effective marketing of CSR capabilities enhances a supplier’s reputation only if it sends consistent signals to the market. Therefore, a close integration of marketing and purchasing is crucial for achieving signaling consistency. Building on an established framework of purchasing-marketing integration in the particular context of CSR we developed a crossfunctional theory on the link between marketing, supply chain alignment and reputation, which is expressed in four sets of testable research propositions.

  13. L’orientation des filles vers des métiers non traditionnels en sciences et en technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoenne Langlois

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La lutte pour l’égalité entre les hommes et les femmes s’est manifestée dans tous les espaces sociaux, dont ceux de l’éducation et de l’emploi. Dans cette lutte, une stratégie déployée par le mouvement féministe et par les pouvoirs publics de nombreux pays fut de favoriser la présence des femmes dans les emplois dits non traditionnels. Malgré les luttes sociales et les interventions publiques visant à ouvrir l’horizon professionnel des femmes, il reste que les ghettos d’emplois sont encore fort présents. Notre objectif est de mieux comprendre le maintien de ces ghettos en abordant la question par un angle particulier : celui de l’orientation professionnelle d’étudiantes dans l’enseignement postsecondaire. Notre analyse s’appuie sur les parcours d’étudiantes qui, à un moment ou un autre de leur scolarité, ont envisagé de s’orienter vers des métiers ou des professions non-traditionnels. L’analyse dégage un premier constat, soit le faible nombre de filles qui envisagent poursuivre des études dans des domaines non traditionnels avant l’entrée dans l’enseignement postsecondaire (dans des programmes techniques ou scientifiques. Un second est le poids de l’expérience scolaire qui conduit de nombreuses filles à revoir leur orientation, notamment en reprenant des chemins plus traditionnels. A cet égard, il faut constater que l’expérience scolaire joue souvent comme un élément de désillusion professionnelle, qui devient une source de redéfinition des projets professionnels.The struggle for equality between men and women has appeared in every social field, including those of education and work. In this struggle, one of the strategies adopted by the feminist movement and by the governments of many countries has been to foster the participation of women in so-called non-traditional occupations. Despite social struggles and government interventions aiming at widening women’s professional

  14. Quels indicateurs pour mesurer le développement professionnel dans les métiers adressés à autrui ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Piot

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cet article propose des indicateurs destinés à mesurer le développement professionnel dans les métiers adressés à autrui. La première partie s’intéresse à la genèse de la notion de développement professionnel, issue de la rationalisation induite par la seconde modernité ; elle indique que les métiers adressés à autrui sont tenus d’articuler une rationalisation forte et une rationalisation faible. Puis, nous présentons le cadre de la didactique professionnelle, particulièrement pertinent pour s’intéresser à l’analyse du travail d’interaction humaine et mettre au jour ses dilemmes. À partir d’une recherche empirique concernant des formateurs d’une école d’aides-soignants, nous proposons, à partir d’une lecture plurielle qui prend en compte les compétences et l’identité professionnelle, cinq indicateurs qui sont l’objet d’un traitement afin d’être comparables, car c’est la cohérence entre les informations recueillies qui nous paraît rendre le mieux compte, malgré les limites, de la notion de développement professionnel dans les métiers adressés à autrui.What indicators should be used to measure professional development in non-teaching support occupations? This article proposes the use of indicators in these occupations. The first part considers the origin of the concept of professional development, coming from the rationalisation caused by the “second modernity”. This part indicates that these occupations are linked to both a strong and a weak rationalisation. The second part presents the framework for professional development that is particularly relevant to the analysis of social interaction and the updating its dilemmas. Starting from empirical research involving the trainers at a school for care assistants, five indicators are proposed for the competencies and professional identity that are sufficiently comparable for the best generalisations, despite all limitations, to support

  15. HPV E6/E7 RNA in situ hybridization signal patterns as biomarkers of three-tier cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark F Evans

    Full Text Available Cervical lesion grading is critical for effective patient management. A three-tier classification (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 1, 2 or 3 based on H&E slide review is widely used. However, for reasons of considerable inter-observer variation in CIN grade assignment and for want of a biomarker validating a three-fold stratification, CAP-ASCCP LAST consensus guidelines recommend a two-tier system: low- or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL or HSIL. In this study, high-risk HPV E6/E7 and p16 mRNA expression patterns in eighty-six CIN lesions were investigated by RNAscope chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH. Specimens were also screened by immunohistochemistry for p16INK4a (clone E6H4, and by tyramide-based CISH for HPV DNA. HPV genotyping was performed by GP5+/6+ PCR combined with cycle-sequencing. Abundant high-risk HPV RNA CISH signals were detected in 26/32 (81.3% CIN 1, 22/22 (100% CIN 2 and in 32/32 (100% CIN 3 lesions. CIN 1 staining patterns were typified (67.7% specimens by abundant diffusely staining nuclei in the upper epithelial layers; CIN 2 lesions mostly (66.7% showed a combination of superficial diffuse-stained nuclei and multiple dot-like nuclear and cytoplasmic signals throughout the epithelium; CIN 3 lesions were characterized (87.5% by multiple dot-like nuclear and cytoplasmic signals throughout the epithelial thickness and absence/scarcity of diffusely staining nuclei (trend across CIN grades: P<0.0001. These data are consistent with productive phase HPV infections exemplifying CIN 1, transformative phase infections CIN 3, whereas CIN 2 shows both productive and transformative phase elements. Three-tier data correlation was not found for the other assays examined. The dual discernment of diffuse and/or dot-like signals together with the assay's high sensitivity for HPV support the use of HPV E6/E7 RNA CISH as an adjunct test for deciding lesion grade when CIN 2 grading may be beneficial (e

  16. Development and Application of a Novel Rasch-Based Methodology for Evaluating Multi-Tiered Assessment Instruments: Validation and Utilization of an Undergraduate Diagnostic Test of the Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Schaffer, Dane L.; Barrow, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    We describe the development and validation of a three-tiered diagnostic test of the water cycle (DTWC) and use it to evaluate the impact of prior learning experiences on undergraduates' misconceptions. While most approaches to instrument validation take a positivist perspective using singular criteria such as reliability and fit with a measurement…

  17. Why does Danish TV Drama Travel? A Three-Tier Seven-Country Audience Study on the Rise of Denmark’s Transnational TV Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    Part of the panel 'Challenging America in the realm of quality TV drama: The international success of Danish TV drama series' This paper, which is part of the ‘Challenging America in the realm of quality TV drama’ panel, introduces the audience study methodology designed for the collaborative...... research project What Makes Danish TV Drama Travel?. For the audience research, conducted in Australia, Brazil, Germany, Japan, Turkey, UK and the USA, I have developed a three-tier audience model. The three types of audiences believed to be important in the recent and unprecedented global success...... of Danish TV drama series are (1) buyers, (2) TV critics and (3) ordinary viewers. By investigating these different types of international audiences, the project aims to understand the transnational qualities of the Danish TV series. In the process it will elaborate and challenge preeminent theories...

  18. Parole et silence pour l’expression de l’éthique dans La mort est mon métier de Robert Merle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Badiola Dorronsoro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to a daring and original exercise of focusing the narrative in first person, Robert Merle makes a historical Nazi the hero and narrator of his novel La mort est mon métier. Adding to this fact a careful choice of what is said and what is omitted, the author shows that the “final solution to the Jewish problem” by Hitler was not a massacre organized by some bloodthirsty or revengeful individuals, but a «hard task» accomplished by a group of de¬humanized beings for whom the honor –and morals– consisted of total dedication to blind obe¬dience to their superiors.

  19. Three-tiered support: Individual, school and institution-wide initiatives through a first year advisor network through a first year advisor network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kemp

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The First Year Advisor Network (FYAN at Murdoch University has a three-tiered approach offering (i individual, (ii school-based and (iii institution-wide student access to support that addresses the diverse needs of the contemporary student population. The programs, campaigns and open-door policy of the FYAN, along with the unique structure of the network, have been developed to provide these varied points of access to student support. Importantly, First Year Advisors (FYAs act as a generalised support for all students and as a hub to accessing specialised support at the University. This paper highlights the range of initiatives developed by the FYAN and emphasises that while outreach contact is a successful way to promote access to support, many students still self identify as at-risk and will access FYAs for direct and referral advice.

  20. Scaling up a CMS tier-3 site with campus resources and a 100 Gb/s network connection: what could go wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Li, Wenzhao; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Tovar, Benjamin; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    The University of Notre Dame (ND) CMS group operates a modest-sized Tier-3 site suitable for local, final-stage analysis of CMS data. However, through the ND Center for Research Computing (CRC), Notre Dame researchers have opportunistic access to roughly 25k CPU cores of computing and a 100 Gb/s WAN network link. To understand the limits of what might be possible in this scenario, we undertook to use these resources for a wide range of CMS computing tasks from user analysis through large-scale Monte Carlo production (including both detector simulation and data reconstruction.) We will discuss the challenges inherent in effectively utilizing CRC resources for these tasks and the solutions deployed to overcome them.

  1. Créativité et renommée dans un métier sans réseau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall Collins

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Un ouvrage antérieur de Bernard Lahire (2006 arrivait à la conclusion, majeure, que les écrivains exercent pour la plupart un second métier. La grande majorité ne gagne pas sa vie avec ses écrits, mais consacre l'essentiel de ses heures de travail à une autre activité. Écrire quelque chose de sérieux – avec attention, réflexion et auto-correction répétées, persévérance soutenue – suppose que l'écrivain adopte des mœurs monacales : auto-discipline et rejet des plaisirs, des loisirs, de la soc...

  2. An investigation of the impact/potential impact of a four-tier profession on the practice of radiography - A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodford, Amanda J.

    2006-01-01

    Increased demands for radiology services and a shortage of radiologists and radiography staff have been factors driving skills mix and radiographer role development. The blurring of professional boundaries, greater workforce flexibility and a team approach contribute to the provision of high quality patient service. The government introduced the 'four-tier' model (based on a College of Radiographers initiative) to help do this and to provide structured career pathways, improve life long learning and address recruitment/retention issues of radiography staff. This review examined the extent of radiographer role development, the effect on patient services, the attitudes of radiologists and other health care professionals, work quality and accountability and recruitment and retention issues. Many studies revealed improvements to patient services, good work quality but mixed results with recruitment issues. Radiologists were found to be supportive generally, although some studies disagreed on the effects of radiographer role development and junior radiologists' training. Areas were identified where more research was required

  3. Challenges and opportunities for fleet- and métier-based approaches for fisheries management under the European Common Fishery Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Clara; Wilson, Douglas C.K.; Nielsen, J. Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    in the management system has been slow and difficult, being hampered by a number of intrinsic issues. Mixed fisheries are an ongoing “governance headache” combining management complexity, scientific uncertainty and political sensitivity. This paper summarises the current state of play for fleet-based approaches...... in EU fisheries management, and highlights our views on both their potential and the challenges they face in the context of the future CFP. As a convenient layer between the current single-stock level and the level of the individual vessel, fleet/metier- approaches could potentially address a wide range......The inconsistency of single-species objectives in a mixed-fisheries context has repeatedly been highlighted as a key issue in the current European Common Fishery Policy, and it has long been suggested that this issue would be better addressed through fleet (group of vessels) and métier (type...

  4. To improve the efficiency of tools used to struggle against energy poverty. A requirement to avoid a two tier ecology transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike; Zeroual, Bouchra; Dubreuil, Danyel; Mery, Jane; Moisan, Marie; Cheron, Marie; Cochard, David; Mattiucci, Christian

    2017-08-01

    This publication proposes an analysis of existing tools which are used to struggle against energy poverty, and propositions made by an association (Reseau Action Climat) to improve them. These tools are the ANAH's 'Habiter mieux' (better housing), tools for building energy retrofit, energy saving certificates, the energy cheque, the energy component of the decency decree, the tier financing and guarantee fund for energy retrofit, local aids to households in an energy poverty situation, self-renovation, quantitative easing, and aids to households in a poverty situation related to mobility. Proposals notably concern a specific fuel aid, and the possibility for modest households to buy a hybrid or electric vehicle

  5. Structure et stabilité des bancs et agrégations de poissons pélagiques côtiers tropicaux : application halieutique

    OpenAIRE

    Soria, Marc

    1994-01-01

    Afin de cerner le rôle du comportement animal dans les problèmes rencontrés lors de l'estimation des stocks de poissons pélagiques en halieutique par les méthodes d'évaluation directes (acoustique) et indirectes, nous avons entrepris l'étude, en milieu naturel, de la structure et de la stabilité des bancs de petits poissons pélagiques côtiers tropicaux (Clupéidés, Engraulidés). Cette étude est basée sur des observations acoustiques et visuelles (aériennes et sous-marines) simultanées... Nous ...

  6. Quantitative weight of evidence assessment of higher-tier studies on the toxicity and risks of neonicotinoid insecticides in honeybees 1: Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Stephenson, Gladys L

    2017-01-01

    A quantitative weight of evidence (QWoE) methodology was developed and used to assess many higher-tier studies on the effects of three neonicotinoid insecticides: clothianidin (CTD), imidacloprid (IMI), and thiamethoxam (TMX) on honeybees. A general problem formulation, a conceptual model for exposures of honeybees, and an analysis plan were developed. A QWoE methodology was used to characterize the quality of the available studies from the literature and unpublished reports of studies conducted by or for the registrants. These higher-tier studies focused on the exposures of honeybees to neonicotinoids via several matrices as measured in the field as well as the effects in experimentally controlled field studies. Reports provided by Bayer Crop Protection and Syngenta Crop Protection and papers from the open literature were assessed in detail, using predefined criteria for quality and relevance to develop scores (on a relative scale of 0-4) to separate the higher-quality from lower-quality studies and those relevant from less-relevant results. The scores from the QWoEs were summarized graphically to illustrate the overall quality of the studies and their relevance. Through mean and standard errors, this method provided graphical and numerical indications of the quality and relevance of the responses observed in the studies and the uncertainty associated with these two metrics. All analyses were conducted transparently and the derivations of the scores were fully documented. The results of these analyses are presented in three companion papers and the QWoE analyses for each insecticide are presented in detailed supplemental information (SI) in these papers.

  7. HPV E6/E7 RNA In Situ Hybridization Signal Patterns as Biomarkers of Three-Tier Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark F.; Peng, Zhihua; Clark, Kelli M.; Adamson, Christine S.-C.; Ma, Xiao-Jun; Wu, Xingyong; Wang, Hongwei; Luo, Yuling; Cooper, Kumarasen

    2014-01-01

    Cervical lesion grading is critical for effective patient management. A three-tier classification (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] grade 1, 2 or 3) based on H&E slide review is widely used. However, for reasons of considerable inter-observer variation in CIN grade assignment and for want of a biomarker validating a three-fold stratification, CAP-ASCCP LAST consensus guidelines recommend a two-tier system: low- or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL or HSIL). In this study, high-risk HPV E6/E7 and p16 mRNA expression patterns in eighty-six CIN lesions were investigated by RNAscope chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH). Specimens were also screened by immunohistochemistry for p16INK4a (clone E6H4), and by tyramide-based CISH for HPV DNA. HPV genotyping was performed by GP5+/6+ PCR combined with cycle-sequencing. Abundant high-risk HPV RNA CISH signals were detected in 26/32 (81.3%) CIN 1, 22/22 (100%) CIN 2 and in 32/32 (100%) CIN 3 lesions. CIN 1 staining patterns were typified (67.7% specimens) by abundant diffusely staining nuclei in the upper epithelial layers; CIN 2 lesions mostly (66.7%) showed a combination of superficial diffuse-stained nuclei and multiple dot-like nuclear and cytoplasmic signals throughout the epithelium; CIN 3 lesions were characterized (87.5%) by multiple dot-like nuclear and cytoplasmic signals throughout the epithelial thickness and absence/scarcity of diffusely staining nuclei (trend across CIN grades: PCISH as an adjunct test for deciding lesion grade when CIN 2 grading may be beneficial (e.g. among young women) or when ‘LSIL vs. HSIL’ assignment is equivocal. PMID:24625757

  8. Is Funding Source Related to Study Reporting Quality in Obesity or Nutrition Randomized Control Trials (RCTs) in Top Tier Medical Journals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kathryn A.; Cofield, Stacey S.; Fontaine, Kevin R.; Glasser, Stephen P.; Thabane, Lehana; Chu, Rong; Ambrale, Samir; Dwary, Ashish D.; Kumar, Ashish; Nayyar, Gaurav; Affuso, Olivia; Beasley, Mark; Allison, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Faithful and complete reporting of trial results is essential to the validity of the scientific literature. An earlier systematic study of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) found that industry-funded RCTs appeared to be reported with greater quality than were non-industry funded RCTs. The aim of this study was to examine the association between systematic differences in reporting quality and funding status (i.e. industry-funding vs. non-industry funding) amongst recent obesity and nutrition RCTs published in top tier medical journals Methods Thirty eight obesity or nutrition intervention RCT articles were selected from high-profile, general medical journals (The Lancet, Annals of Internal Medicine, JAMA, and the British Medical Journal) published between 2000 and 2007. Paired papers were selected from the same journal published in the same year, one with and the other without industry funding. The following identifying information was redacted: journal, title, authors, funding source, and institution(s). Then three raters independently and blindly rated each paper according to the Chalmers Method and total reporting quality scores were calculated. Findings The inter-rater reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha) was 0.82 [95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) = 0.80 – 0.84]. The total mean (M) and standard deviation (SD) Chalmer’s Index quality score (out of a possible 100) for industry-funded studies were M = 84.5, SD = 7.04 and for non-industry funded studies they were, M = 79.4, SD = 13.00. A Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test indicates no significant rank difference in the distributions of total quality scores between funding sources, Z = −0.966, p = 0 .334 (two-tailed). Interpretation Recently published RCTs on nutrition and obesity that appear in top-tier journals seem to be equivalent in quality of reporting, regardless of funding source. This may be a result of recent reporting quality statements and efforts of journal editors to raise all papers

  9. Access to medicines and hepatitis C in Africa: can tiered pricing and voluntary licencing assure universal access, health equity and fairness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Yibeltal; Hill, Peter S; Ulikpan, Anar; Williams, Owain D

    2017-09-13

    The recent introduction of Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) for treating Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) can significantly assist in the world reaching the international target of elimination by 2030. Yet, the challenge facing many individuals and countries today lies with their ability to access these treatments due to their relatively high prices. Gilead Sciences applies differential pricing and licensing strategies arguing that this provides fairer and more equitable access to these life-saving medicines. This paper analyses the implications of Gilead's tiered pricing and voluntary licencing strategy for access to the DAAs. We examined seven countries in Africa (Egypt, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Democratic Republic of Congo, Cameroon, Rwanda and South Africa) to assess their financial capacity to provide DAAs for the treatment of HCV under present voluntary licensing and tiered-pricing arrangements. These countries have been selected to explore the experience of countries with a range of different burdens of HCV and shared eligibility for supply by licensed generic producers or from discounted Gilead prices. The cost of 12-weeks of generic DAA varies from $684 per patient treated in Egypt to $750 per patient treated in other countries. These countries can also procure the same DAA for 12-weeks of treatment from the originator, Gilead, at a cost of $1200 per patient. The current prices of DAAs (both from generic and originator manufacturers) are much more than the median annual income per capita and the annual health budget of most of these countries. If governments alone were to bear the costs of universal treatment coverage, then the required additional health expenditure from present rates would range from a 4% increase in South Africa to a staggering 403% in Cameroon. The current arrangements for increasing access to DAAs, towards elimination of HCV, are facing challenges that would require increases in expenditure that are either too burdensome to governments or potentially

  10. Action relative au projet "d'évolution des métiers de la restauration" en région Provence, Alpes, Côte d'Azur 15 avril-30Juin 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Efros, Dominique; Telles, Ana Luiza; Clar, Nathalie

    2007-01-01

    La transformation d'un catalogue d'emplois en référentiel de métiers et compétences n'est pas qu'une simple opération "technique", elle engage des changements dans l'organisation du travail, la répartition des tâches entre professionnels, la conception d'un métier etc. C'est ce que nous avons étudié et discuté avec les salariés de quatre restaurants de collectivité (restaurants méridiens et de centre de loisirs) de la CCAS d'EDF-GDF. La DG souhaitant consulter son personnel sur cette transfor...

  11. Request for Naval Reactors Comment on Proposed PROMETHEUS Space Flight Nuclear Reactor High Tier Reactor Safety Requirements and for Naval Reactors Approval to Transmit These Requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Kokkinos

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this letter is to request Naval Reactors comments on the nuclear reactor high tier requirements for the PROMETHEUS space flight reactor design, pre-launch operations, launch, ascent, operation, and disposal, and to request Naval Reactors approval to transmit these requirements to Jet Propulsion Laboratory to ensure consistency between the reactor safety requirements and the spacecraft safety requirements. The proposed PROMETHEUS nuclear reactor high tier safety requirements are consistent with the long standing safety culture of the Naval Reactors Program and its commitment to protecting the health and safety of the public and the environment. In addition, the philosophy on which these requirements are based is consistent with the Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group recommendations on space nuclear propulsion safety (Reference 1), DOE Nuclear Safety Criteria and Specifications for Space Nuclear Reactors (Reference 2), the Nuclear Space Power Safety and Facility Guidelines Study of the Applied Physics Laboratory

  12. Assessment of Pre-Service Teachers’ Misconceptions in Geometrical Optics via a Three-Tier Misconception Test (Öğretmen Adaylarının Geometrik Optik Konusundaki ...) Doi: 10.14686/BUEFAD.2015111057

    OpenAIRE

    TAŞLIDERE, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Erdal; ERYILMAZ, Doç. Dr. Ali

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to describe pre-service elementary teachers’ misconceptions about various aspects of light, shadow and mirror images before they learn the geometrical optics at the university level. The participants of the study were 317 junior and sophomore level students studying at the departments of science and computer education. Students’ misconceptions were assessed via a revised three-tier geometrical optics misconception test. Its’ validity and reliability evidences were re...

  13. Reliability of a Kid's Activity and Nutrition Questionnaire for School-Based SNAP-Ed Interventions as Part of a Tiered Development Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeGros, Theresa A; Hartz, Vern L; Jacobs, Laurel E

    2017-02-01

    To assess the reliability of the Kids' Activity and Nutrition Questionnaire (KAN-Q) as part of a tiered process for developing Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education tools. The KAN-Q was administered at 2 time points to assess internal consistency using standardized values of Cronbach α and test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient for continuous variables, Cohen's kappa (κ) statistic for categorical variables, and the weighted κ statistic for ordinal data. Data were collected from 119 fourth graders. Cronbach α was adequate for behavior (.71) and knowledge (.72) scales and nutrition behavior (.78) and nutrition knowledge (.75) subscales. Test-retest reliability was generally acceptable, with intraclass correlation coefficients from 0.40 to 0.75 and κ coefficients showing fair to substantial agreement (0.30 to 0.72). The KAN-Q is a practical and reliable questionnaire for school-based administration that aligns directly with Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education evaluation priorities. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: genotoxicity. A COLIPA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfuhler, Stefan; Kirst, Annette; Aardema, Marilyn; Banduhn, Norbert; Goebel, Carsten; Araki, Daisuke; Costabel-Farkas, Margit; Dufour, Eric; Fautz, Rolf; Harvey, James; Hewitt, Nicola J; Hibatallah, Jalila; Carmichael, Paul; Macfarlane, Martin; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rowland, Joanna; Schellauf, Florian; Schepky, Andreas; Scheel, Julia

    2010-01-01

    For the assessment of genotoxic effects of cosmetic ingredients, a number of well-established and regulatory accepted in vitro assays are in place. A caveat to the use of these assays is their relatively low specificity and high rate of false or misleading positive results. Due to the 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive ban on in vivo genotoxicity testing for cosmetics that was enacted March 2009, it is no longer possible to conduct follow-up in vivo genotoxicity tests for cosmetic ingredients positive in in vitro genotoxicity tests to further assess the relevance of the in vitro findings. COLIPA, the European Cosmetics Association, has initiated a research programme to improve existing and develop new in vitro methods. A COLIPA workshop was held in Brussels in April 2008 to analyse the best possible use of available methods and approaches to enable a sound assessment of the genotoxic hazard of cosmetic ingredients. Common approaches of cosmetic companies are described, with recommendations for evaluating in vitro genotoxins using non-animal approaches. A weight of evidence approach was employed to set up a decision-tree for the integration of alternative methods into tiered testing strategies. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations used as ingredients in food supplements: testing an European Food Safety Authority-tiered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speijers, Gerrit; Bottex, Bernard; Dusemund, Birgit; Lugasi, Andrea; Tóth, Jaroslav; Amberg-Müller, Judith; Galli, Corrado L; Silano, Vittorio; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M

    2010-02-01

    This article describes results obtained by testing the European Food Safety Authority-tiered guidance approach for safety assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food supplements. Main conclusions emerging are as follows. (i) Botanical ingredients must be identified by their scientific (binomial) name, in most cases down to the subspecies level or lower. (ii) Adequate characterization and description of the botanical parts and preparation methodology used is needed. Safety of a botanical ingredient cannot be assumed only relying on the long-term safe use of other preparations of the same botanical. (iii) Because of possible adulterations, misclassifications, replacements or falsifications, and restorations, establishment of adequate quality control is necessary. (iv) The strength of the evidence underlying concerns over a botanical ingredient should be included in the safety assessment. (v) The matrix effect should be taken into account in the safety assessment on a case-by-case basis. (vi) Adequate data and methods for appropriate exposure assessment are often missing. (vii) Safety regulations concerning toxic contaminants have to be complied with. The application of the guidance approach can result in the conclusion that safety can be presumed, that the botanical ingredient is of safety concern, or that further data are needed to assess safety.

  16. A Novel Two-Tier Cooperative Caching Mechanism for the Optimization of Multi-Attribute Periodic Queries in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, ZhangBing; Zhao, Deng; Shu, Lei; Tsang, Kim-Fung

    2015-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks, serving as an important interface between physical environments and computational systems, have been used extensively for supporting domain applications, where multiple-attribute sensory data are queried from the network continuously and periodically. Usually, certain sensory data may not vary significantly within a certain time duration for certain applications. In this setting, sensory data gathered at a certain time slot can be used for answering concurrent queries and may be reused for answering the forthcoming queries when the variation of these data is within a certain threshold. To address this challenge, a popularity-based cooperative caching mechanism is proposed in this article, where the popularity of sensory data is calculated according to the queries issued in recent time slots. This popularity reflects the possibility that sensory data are interested in the forthcoming queries. Generally, sensory data with the highest popularity are cached at the sink node, while sensory data that may not be interested in the forthcoming queries are cached in the head nodes of divided grid cells. Leveraging these cooperatively cached sensory data, queries are answered through composing these two-tier cached data. Experimental evaluation shows that this approach can reduce the network communication cost significantly and increase the network capability. PMID:26131665

  17. A two-tiered on-line server-side bandwidth reservation framework for the real-time delivery of multiple video streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño, Jorge M.; Bestavros, Azer

    2009-01-01

    The advent of virtualization and cloud computing technologies necessitates the development of effective mechanisms for the estimation and reservation of resources needed by content providers to deliver large numbers of video-on-demand (VOD) streams through the cloud. Unfortunately, capacity planning for the QoS-constrained delivery of a large number of VOD streams is inherently difficult as VBR encoding schemes exhibit significant bandwidth variability. In this paper, we present a novel resource management scheme to make such allocation decisions using a mixture of per-stream reservations and an aggregate reservation, shared across all streams to accommodate peak demands. The shared reservation provides capacity slack that enables statistical multiplexing of peak rates, while assuring analytically bounded frame-drop probabilities, which can be adjusted by trading off buffer space (and consequently delay) and bandwidth. Our two-tiered bandwidth allocation scheme enables the delivery of any set of streams with less bandwidth (or equivalently with higher link utilization) than state-of-the-art deterministic smoothing approaches. The algorithm underlying our proposed framework uses three per-stream parameters and is linear in the number of servers, making it particularly well suited for use in an on-line setting. We present results from extensive trace-driven simulations, which confirm the efficiency of our scheme especially for small buffer sizes and delay bounds, and which underscore the significant realizable bandwidth savings, typically yielding losses that are an order of magnitude or more below our analytically derived bounds.

  18. The Grid Enabled Mass Storage System (GEMMS): the Storage and Data management system used at the INFN Tier1 at CNAF.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The storage solution currently used in production at the INFN Tier-1 at CNAF, is the result of several years of case studies, software development and tests. This solution, called the Grid Enabled Mass Storage System (GEMSS), is based on a custom integration between a fast and reliable parallel filesystem (IBM GPFS), with a complete integrated tape backend based on TIVOLI TSM Hierarchical storage management (HSM) and the Storage Resource Manager (StoRM), providing access to grid users through a standard SRM interface. Since the start of the operations of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), all the LHC experiments have been using GEMMS at CNAF for both the fast access to data on disk and the long-term tape archive. Moreover, during the last year, GEMSS has become the standard solution for all the other experiments hosted at CNAF, allowing the definitive consolidation of the data storage layer. Our choice has proved to be successful in the last two years of production with constant enhancements in the software re...

  19. Development of Tier 1 screening tool for soil and groundwater vulnerability assessment in Korea using classification algorithm in a neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, K. H.; Kim, K. H.; Ki, S. J.; Lee, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    The vulnerability assessment tool at a Tier 1 level, although not often used for regulatory purposes, helps establish pollution prevention and management strategies in the areas of potential environmental concern such as soil and ground water. In this study, the Neural Network Pattern Recognition Tool embedded in MATLAB was used to allow the initial screening of soil and groundwater pollution based on data compiled across about 1000 previously contaminated sites in Korea. The input variables included a series of parameters which were tightly related to downward movement of water and contaminants through soil and ground water, whereas multiple classes were assigned to the sum of concentrations of major pollutants detected. Results showed that in accordance with diverse pollution indices for soil and ground water, pollution levels in both media were strongly modulated by site-specific characteristics such as intrinsic soil and other geologic properties, in addition to pollution sources and rainfall. However, classification accuracy was very sensitive to the number of classes defined as well as the types of the variables incorporated, requiring careful selection of input variables and output categories. Therefore, we believe that the proposed methodology is used not only to modify existing pollution indices so that they are more suitable for addressing local vulnerability, but also to develop a unique assessment tool to support decision making based on locally or nationally available data. This study was funded by a grant from the GAIA project(2016000560002), Korea Environmental Industry & Technology Institute, Republic of Korea.

  20. iPreny-PseAAC: Identify C-terminal Cysteine Prenylation Sites in Proteins by Incorporating Two Tiers of Sequence Couplings into PseAAC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Zu; Li, Chunhui; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Occurring at the cysteine residue in the C-terminal of a protein, prenylation is a special kind of post-translational modification (PTM), which may play a key role for statin in altering immune function. Therefore, knowledge of the prenylation sites in proteins is important for drug development as well as for in-depth understanding the biological process concerned. Given a query protein whose C-terminal contains some cysteine residues, which one can be of prenylation or none of them can be prenylated? To address this problem, we have developed a new predictor, called "iPreny-PseAAC", by incorporating two tiers of sequence pair coupling effects into the general form of PseAAC (pseudo amino acid composition). It has been observed by four different cross-validation approaches that all the important indexes in reflecting its prediction quality are quite high and fully consistent to each other. It is anticipated that the iPreny-PseAAC predictor holds very high potential to become a useful high throughput tool in identifying protein C-terminal cysteine prenylation sites and the other relevant areas. To maximize the convenience for most experimental biologists, the webserver for the new predictor has been established at http://app.aporc.org/iPreny-PseAAC/, by which users can easily get their desired results without needing to go through the mathematical details involved in this paper. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. A Comparative Study on Two Typical Schemes for Securing Spatial-Temporal Top-k Queries in Two-Tiered Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingpo Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A novel network paradigm of mobile edge computing, namely TMWSNs (two-tiered mobile wireless sensor networks, has just been proposed by researchers in recent years for its high scalability and robustness. However, only a few works have considered the security of TMWSNs. In fact, the storage nodes, which are located at the upper layer of TMWSNs, are prone to being attacked by the adversaries because they play a key role in bridging both the sensor nodes and the sink, which may lead to the disclosure of all data stored on them as well as some other potentially devastating results. In this paper, we make a comparative study on two typical schemes, EVTopk and VTMSN, which have been proposed recently for securing Top-k queries in TMWSNs, through both theoretical analysis and extensive simulations, aiming at finding out their disadvantages and advancements. We find that both schemes unsatisfactorily raise communication costs. Specifically, the extra communication cost brought about by transmitting the proof information uses up more than 40% of the total communication cost between the sensor nodes and the storage nodes, and 80% of that between the storage nodes and the sink. We discuss the corresponding reasons and present our suggestions, hoping that it will inspire the researchers researching this subject.

  2. Tier 2 Language Intervention for Diverse Preschoolers: An Early-Stage Randomized Control Group Study Following an Analysis of Response to Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Trina D; Petersen, Douglas B; Adams, John L

    2015-11-01

    The first purpose of this study was to explore the use of a whole class, test-teach-test, dynamic assessment of narratives for identifying participants. The second purpose was to examine the efficacy of a Tier 2 narrative language intervention for culturally and linguistically diverse preschoolers. A dynamic assessment was conducted with students from 3 Head Start classrooms. On the basis of the results of the dynamic assessment, 22 children were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 12) and control (n = 10) groups for intervention. Participants received a small-group (4:1), differentiated, narrative intervention for 15-20 min, twice a week, for 9 weeks. Interventionists used weekly progress monitoring data to explicitly focus on individualized narrative and linguistic targets. The treatment group showed significant improvement over the control group on proximal and distal measures of narrative retells, with large effect sizes. Group differences on a measure of children's language in the context of personal stories were not statistically significant. This early-stage study provides evidence that narrative language intervention is an effective approach to improving the language skills of preschoolers with diverse language needs. Furthermore, the evidence supports the use of dynamic assessment for reducing overidentification and identifying candidates for small-group language intervention.

  3. Endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals - hazards to man and animal; Hormonell wirksame Umweltchemikalien - Gefahr fuer Mensch und Tier? Seminarband der Zentralen Informationsstelle Umweltberatung Bayern. Bd. 12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behling, G.; Koller, U.; Klemmer, A.; Haury, H.J. [comps.

    1998-08-01

    The spectrum of problems relating to endocrine-disrupting environmental chemicals was presented by competent experts from public authorities and scientific institutions. The lecturers described the current stage and future tasks of research. Their lectures focused on effects of hormone-like substances on humans and animals and an assessment of risk factors on the basis of data from scientific tests and current environmental exposure. There was also a contribution presenting the chemical industry`s view of the matter. [Deutsch] Kompetente Sachverstaendige aus Behoerden und wissenschaftlichen Einrichtungen stellten das Themenspektrum vor, fuehrten in den Forschungsstand ein und zeigten den Forschungsbedarf auf. Der Schwerpunkt lag in der Darstellung der der Auswirkungen hormonell wirksamer Substanzen, wie z.B. DDT, Dioxinen und PCBs, auf Mensch und Tier sowie in der Abschaetzung der Risikofaktoren anhand der bekannten Daten aus wissenschaftlichen Tests sowie der aktuellen Exposition in der Umwelt. Mit einem Beitrag der chemischen Industrie wurde auch deren Einschaetzung der Umweltproblematik aufgezeigt. (orig./MG) m9

  4. Newborn screening of inborn errors of metabolism by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry: a second-tier method with improved specificity and sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalcraft, Kenneth R; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2009-01-01

    The advent of electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has given rise to expanded newborn screening programs for the early detection of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM). Despite the benefit of high-throughput screening for disease prognosis, conventional ESI-MS methods are limited by inadequate specificity, complicated sample handling, and low positive predictive outcome that can contribute to a high rate of false-positives. Herein, we report a robust strategy for neonatal screening based on capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (CE-ESI-MS) that offers a convenient platform for the direct analysis of amino acids, acylcarnitines, and their stereoisomers from dried blood spot (DBS) extracts without chemical derivatization. On-line sample preconcentration with desalting by CE-ESI-MS allowed for improved concentration sensitivity when detecting poorly responsive metabolites in complex biological samples without ionization suppression or isomeric/isobaric interferences. Method validation demonstrated that accurate yet precise quantification can be achieved for 20 different amino acid and acylcarnitine biomarkers associated with IEMs when using a single non-deuterated internal standard. CE-ESI-MS represents a promising second-tier method in newborn screening programs that is compatible with ESI-MS/MS technology in cases when improved specificity and sensitivity is warranted for diagnosis confirmation and subsequent monitoring.

  5. A Comparative Study on Two Typical Schemes for Securing Spatial-Temporal Top-k Queries in Two-Tiered Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xingpo; Liu, Xingjian; Liang, Junbin; Li, Yin; Li, Ran; Ma, Wenpeng; Qi, Chuanda

    2018-03-15

    A novel network paradigm of mobile edge computing, namely TMWSNs (two-tiered mobile wireless sensor networks), has just been proposed by researchers in recent years for its high scalability and robustness. However, only a few works have considered the security of TMWSNs. In fact, the storage nodes, which are located at the upper layer of TMWSNs, are prone to being attacked by the adversaries because they play a key role in bridging both the sensor nodes and the sink, which may lead to the disclosure of all data stored on them as well as some other potentially devastating results. In this paper, we make a comparative study on two typical schemes, EVTopk and VTMSN, which have been proposed recently for securing Top- k queries in TMWSNs, through both theoretical analysis and extensive simulations, aiming at finding out their disadvantages and advancements. We find that both schemes unsatisfactorily raise communication costs. Specifically, the extra communication cost brought about by transmitting the proof information uses up more than 40% of the total communication cost between the sensor nodes and the storage nodes, and 80% of that between the storage nodes and the sink. We discuss the corresponding reasons and present our suggestions, hoping that it will inspire the researchers researching this subject.

  6. Modelling a two-tier tobacco excise tax policy to reduce smoking by focusing on the addictive component (nicotine) more than the tobacco weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesen, Murray

    2012-12-14

    To determine whether adding a low tax category for very-low nicotine content (denicotinised or Denic) cigarettes would facilitate higher excise and reduced consumption of addictive cigarettes (AddictiveCigs, defined as containing =2 mg nicotine per cigarette). Nicotine content was laboratory-tested to classify cigarettes into two tiers for excise. PubMed was searched for studies of low nicotine content cigarettes. Nicotine delivery studies and estimated current and future cigarette prices provided the basis for estimating the effect of smoking a mix of AddictiveCigs and Denics. The test results indicated that mean nicotine content per cigarette for the 22 most popular New Zealand brands was 8.7 mg (range 5.6-12.4 mg); only AddictiveCigs were sold. Annual 10% excise increases now legislated are estimated to increase price to $17.60 per 20s packet by 2016. A minority of smokers will quit, by abstaining from AddictiveCigs. Continuing smokers if able to buy lower-priced Denics ($11 a packet), could partly switch to these, which although no less toxic would relieve cravings, reduce nicotine inhaled by 68-86%, and contain smoking costs, without reducing total cigarettes smoked per day. Introducing a lower excise rate for Denics would: (1) allow smokers to select their own mix of AddictiveCigs and Denics; (2) make Denics available to reduce cravings, reduce addiction, and reduce smoking costs of continuing smokers; (3) increase the political feasibility of increasing excise on AddictiveCigs sufficiently to greatly reduce addictive smoking; and (4) enable smokers to reduce their addiction before they quit, and therefore probably become more likely to succeed when they do so.

  7. Neutralization of tier-2 viruses and epitope profiling of plasma antibodies from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected donors from India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raiees Andrabi

    Full Text Available Broadly cross neutralizing antibodies (NAbs are generated in a group of HIV-1 infected individuals during the natural infection, but little is known about their prevalence in patients infected with viral subtypes from different geographical regions. We tested here the neutralizing efficiency of plasma antibodies from 80 HIV-1 infected antiretroviral drug naive patients against a panel of subtype-B and C tier 2 viruses. We detected cross-neutralizing antibodies in approximately 19-27% of the plasma, however the subtype-C specific neutralization efficiency predominated (p = 0.004. The neutralizing activity was shown to be exclusively mediated by the immunoglobulin G (IgG fraction in the representative plasma samples. Epitope mapping of three, the most cross-neutralizing plasma (CNP AIIMS206, AIIMS239 and AIIMS249 with consensus-C overlapping envelope peptides revealed ten different binding specificities with only V3 and IDR being common. The V3 and IDR were highly antigenic regions but no correlation between their reciprocal Max50 binding titers and neutralization was observed. In addition, the neutralizing activity of CNP was not substantially reduced by V3 and gp41 peptides except a modest contribution of MPER peptide. The MPER was rarely recognized by plasma antibodies though antibody depletion and competition experiments demonstrated MPER dependent neutralization in two out of three CNP. Interestingly, the binding specificity of one of the CNP (AIIMS206 overlapped with broadly neutralizing mAb 2F5 epitope. Overall, the data suggest that, despite the low immunogenicity of HIV-1 MPER, the antibodies directed to this region may serve as crucial reagents for HIV-1 vaccine design.

  8. Lateral gene expression in Drosophila early embryos is supported by Grainyhead-mediated activation and tiers of dorsally-localized repression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Garcia

    Full Text Available The general consensus in the field is that limiting amounts of the transcription factor Dorsal establish dorsal boundaries of genes expressed along the dorsal-ventral (DV axis of early Drosophila embryos, while repressors establish ventral boundaries. Yet recent studies have provided evidence that repressors act to specify the dorsal boundary of intermediate neuroblasts defective (ind, a gene expressed in a stripe along the DV axis in lateral regions of the embryo. Here we show that a short 12 base pair sequence ("the A-box" present twice within the ind CRM is both necessary and sufficient to support transcriptional repression in dorsal regions of embryos. To identify binding factors, we conducted affinity chromatography using the A-box element and found a number of DNA-binding proteins and chromatin-associated factors using mass spectroscopy. Only Grainyhead (Grh, a CP2 transcription factor with a unique DNA-binding domain, was found to bind the A-box sequence. Our results suggest that Grh acts as an activator to support expression of ind, which was surprising as we identified this factor using an element that mediates dorsally-localized repression. Grh and Dorsal both contribute to ind transcriptional activation. However, another recent study found that the repressor Capicua (Cic also binds to the A-box sequence. While Cic was not identified through our A-box affinity chromatography, utilization of the same site, the A-box, by both factors Grh (activator and Cic (repressor may also support a "switch-like" response that helps to sharpen the ind dorsal boundary. Furthermore, our results also demonstrate that TGF-β signaling acts to refine ind CRM expression in an A-box independent manner in dorsal-most regions, suggesting that tiers of repression act in dorsal regions of the embryo.

  9. A tiered approach for probabilistic ecological risk assessment of contaminated sites; Un approccio multilivello per l'analisi probabilistica di rischio ecologico di siti contaminati

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolezzi, M. [Fisia Italimpianti SpA, Genova (Italy); Nicolella, C. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dipartimento di ingegneria chimica, chimica industriale e scienza dei materiali; Tarazona, J.V. [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion y Tecnologia Agraria y Alimentaria, Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Laboratorio de toxicologia

    2005-09-15

    This paper presents a tiered methodology for probabilistic ecological risk assessment. The proposed approach starts from deterministic comparison (ratio) of single exposure concentration and threshold or safe level calculated from a dose-response relationship, goes through comparison of probabilistic distributions that describe exposure values and toxicological responses of organisms to the chemical of concern, and finally determines the so called distribution-based quotients (DBQs). In order to illustrate the proposed approach, soil concentrations of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4- TCB) measured in an industrial contaminated site were used for site-specific probabilistic ecological risks assessment. By using probabilistic distributions, the risk, which exceeds a level of concern for soil organisms with the deterministic approach, is associated to the presence of hot spots reaching concentrations able to affect acutely more than 50% of the soil species, while the large majority of the area presents 1,2,4- TCB concentrations below those reported as toxic. [Italian] Scopo del presente studio e fornire una procedura per l'analisi di rischio ecologico di siti contaminati basata su livelli successivi di approfondimento. L'approccio proposto, partendo dal semplice rapporto deterministico tra un livello di esposizione ed un valore di effetto che consenta la salvaguardia del maggior numero di specie dell'ecosistema considerato, procede attraverso il confronto tra le distribuzioni statistiche dei valori di esposizione e di sensitivita delle specie, per determinare infine la distribuzione probabilistica del quoziente di rischio. Ai fini di illustrare la metodologia proposta, le concentrazioni di 1,2,4-triclorobenzene determinate nel suolo di un sito industriale contaminato sono state utilizzate per condurre l'analisi di rischio per le specie terrestri. L'utilizzo delle distribuzioni probabilistiche ha permesso di associare il rischio, inizialmente

  10. A Prototype Two-tier Mentoring Program for Undergraduate Summer Interns from Minority-Serving Institutions at the University of Alaska Fairbanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, R.; Prakash, A.; Ozbay, G.; Sriharan, S.; Balazs, M. S.; Chittambakkam, A.; Starkenburg, D. P.; Waigl, C.; Cook, S.; Ferguson, A.; Foster, K.; Jones, E.; Kluge, A.; Stilson, K.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) is partnering with Delaware State University, Virginia State University, Elizabeth City State University, Bethune-Cookman University, and Morgan State University on a U.S. Department of Agriculture - National Institute for Food and Agriculture funded grant for ';Enhancing Geographic Information System Education and Delivery through Collaboration: Curricula Design, Faculty, Staff, and Student Training and Development, and Extension Services'. As a part of this grant, in summer 2013, UAF hosted a week long workshop followed by an intense two week undergraduate internship program. Six undergraduate students from partnering Universities worked with UAF graduate students as their direct mentors. This cohort of undergraduate mentees and graduate student mentors were in-turn counseled by the two UAF principal investigators who served as ';super-mentors'. The role of each person in the two-tier mentoring system was well defined. The super-mentors ensured that there was consistency in the way the internship was setup and resources were allocated. They also ensured that there were no technical glitches in the research projects and that there was healthy communication and interaction among participants. Mentors worked with the mentees ahead of time in outlining a project that aligned with the mentees research interest, provided basic reading material to the interns to get oriented, prepared the datasets required to start the project, and guided the undergraduates throughout the internship. Undergraduates gained hands-on experience in geospatial data collection and application of tools in their projects related to mapping geomorphology, landcover, geothermal sites, fires, and meteorological conditions. Further, they shared their research results and experiences with a broad university-wide audience at the end of the internship period. All participants met at lunch-time for a daily science talk from external speakers. The program offered

  11. Deer An tIers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The reindeer is the only deer species in which the females also sport antlers but these are much .... bone with density optimized in the direction of mechanical stress (not shown). Ultimately in mature bone ... by a thin spongy bone layer and the mechanical stress is borne by the compact bone that has the structure shown in F ...

  12. Two-tier relaxed heaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a data structure which provides efficient heap operations with respect to the number of element comparisons performed. Let n denote the size of the heap being manipulated. Our data structure guarantees the worst-case cost of O(1) for finding the minimum, inserting an element, extract...

  13. Deer An tIers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    characteristics, typically occurring only in males, and are func- tional only during the rutting (mating) season. The reindeer is the only deer species in which the females also sport antlers but these are much less impressive than those of the males. The horns of the giraffe are protuberaw;es of the skull covered by matted hair.

  14. Deer An tIers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 7. Deer Antlers - Rapid Growing Calcified Tissue. A Rajaram. General Article Volume 9 Issue 7 July 2004 pp 50-63. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/07/0050-0063. Keywords.

  15. Situation of platinum pollution (occurrence of platinum in air, soil, water, feedstuffs, food); Imissions-Situation fuer Platin (Vorkommen von Platin in Luft, Boden, Wasser, Futtermitteln, Lebensmitteln)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramel, P.; Lustig, S. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Oberschleissheim (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    On 14-15 October 1996 the GSF was the venue of the Third Meeting of Platinum Appliers. This paper communicates data from the latest research that were presented on the occasion as well as other, meanwhile largely accepted results. [Deutsch] Am 14.-15.10.1996 wurde in der GSF das 3. Platin-Anwendertreffen veranstaltet. Deshalb koennen hier einige Daten aus aktuellster Forschung praesentiert werden, bzw. auch andere, die bereits weitgehend anerkannt sind. (orig.)

  16. OnLineLectures - eLearning als Ergänzung der tierärztlichen Fortbildung [Online Lectures - continuing education in veterinary medicine assisted by e-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidl, Werner

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Practising veterinarians in Germany are obliged to take part in continuing education. Due to high expenses which are incurred while taking part in continuing education, such as replacement of personnel, travel costs, conference fees, etc., it is important that efforts toward achievement of learning objectives are maximized. Through the introduction of rapid e-learning techniques, several conferences have been digitised and made available via the internet including publication of CD-ROMs to give participants the possibility of repeated learning. The acceptability of this technique was tested via utilisation data and a survey of participants. It was found that 83.3% of lecturers provided their talks (i.e., a total of approximately 196 lectures for digital distribution. The website featuring the on-line lectures recorded an average of 22 visits per day during a 12-month period. The survey conducted on 82 participants showed a high level of acceptance toward the e-learning technique. In conclusion, there is evidence of a great demand for using new media in continuing education for practitioners of veterinary medicine. [german] Die Tierärztinnen und Tierärzte in Deutschland sind gesetzlich zur Fortbildung verpflichtet. Da die Gesamtkosten für die Fortbildung sehr hoch sind (Praxisvertreter, Reisekosten, Tagungsbeitrag, sollte der Lernerfolg möglichst ergiebig sein. Durch Rapid-eLearning wurden mehrere Vortragsveranstaltungen digitalisiert und per Internet und CD verbreitet, um die Möglichkeiten der Nacharbeitung zu verbessern. Anhand der Nutzungszahlen und einer Nutzerbefragung wurde die Akzeptanz dieser Technik überprüft. 83,3% der Referenten stellten ihre Vorträge für eine digitale Verbreitung zur Verfügung, sodass insgesamt 196 online-Vorträge entstanden sind. Die Internetseiten verzeichneten innerhalb von 12 Monaten durchschnittlich 22 Besuche (visits am Tag. In der Befragung von 82 Tagungsteilnehmern konnte eine hohe

  17. Simultaneous determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in dried blood spots: Second-tier LC-MS/MS assay for newborn screening of propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Monostori

    Full Text Available Increased propionylcarnitine levels in newborn screening are indicative for a group of potentially severe disorders including propionic acidemia (PA, methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders (MMACBL. This alteration is relatively non-specific, resulting in the necessity of confirmation and differential diagnosis in subsequent tests. Thus, we aimed to develop a multiplex approach for concurrent determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid from the same dried blood spot (DBS as in primary screening (second-tier test. We also set out to validate the method using newborn and follow-up samples of patients with confirmed PA or MMACBL.The assay was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and clinically validated with retrospective analysis of DBS samples from PA or MMACBL patients.Reliable determination of all three analytes in DBSs was achieved following simple and fast (<20 min sample preparation without laborious derivatization or any additional pipetting steps. The method clearly distinguished the pathological and normal samples and differentiated between PA and MMACBL in all stored newborn specimens. Methylcitric acid was elevated in all PA samples; 3-hydroxypropionic acid was also high in most cases. Methylmalonic acid was increased in all MMACBL specimens; mostly together with methylcitric acid.A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay allowing simultaneous determination of the biomarkers 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in DBSs has been developed. The assay can use the same specimen as in primary screening (second-tier test which may reduce the need for repeated blood sampling. The presented preliminary findings suggest that this method can reliably differentiate patients with PA and MMACBL in newborn screening. The validated assay is being evaluated prospectively in a pilot project for extension of the German newborn

  18. Simultaneous determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in dried blood spots: Second-tier LC-MS/MS assay for newborn screening of propionic acidemia, methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monostori, Péter; Klinke, Glynis; Richter, Sylvia; Baráth, Ákos; Fingerhut, Ralph; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Kölker, Stefan; Hoffmann, Georg F; Gramer, Gwendolyn; Okun, Jürgen G

    2017-01-01

    Increased propionylcarnitine levels in newborn screening are indicative for a group of potentially severe disorders including propionic acidemia (PA), methylmalonic acidemias and combined remethylation disorders (MMACBL). This alteration is relatively non-specific, resulting in the necessity of confirmation and differential diagnosis in subsequent tests. Thus, we aimed to develop a multiplex approach for concurrent determination of 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid from the same dried blood spot (DBS) as in primary screening (second-tier test). We also set out to validate the method using newborn and follow-up samples of patients with confirmed PA or MMACBL. The assay was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and clinically validated with retrospective analysis of DBS samples from PA or MMACBL patients. Reliable determination of all three analytes in DBSs was achieved following simple and fast (<20 min) sample preparation without laborious derivatization or any additional pipetting steps. The method clearly distinguished the pathological and normal samples and differentiated between PA and MMACBL in all stored newborn specimens. Methylcitric acid was elevated in all PA samples; 3-hydroxypropionic acid was also high in most cases. Methylmalonic acid was increased in all MMACBL specimens; mostly together with methylcitric acid. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay allowing simultaneous determination of the biomarkers 3-hydroxypropionic acid, methylmalonic acid and methylcitric acid in DBSs has been developed. The assay can use the same specimen as in primary screening (second-tier test) which may reduce the need for repeated blood sampling. The presented preliminary findings suggest that this method can reliably differentiate patients with PA and MMACBL in newborn screening. The validated assay is being evaluated prospectively in a pilot project for extension of the German newborn screening

  19. Einführung und Evaluierung des praktischen Jahres an der Tierärztlichen Hochschule Hannover [Introduction and evaluation of final-year practice-oriented education at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Hanover, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagels, Rolf

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] The introduction of a year of practice-oriented education should provide students of the University of Veterinary Medicine in Hanover greater integration in the clinical and scientific setting in order to gain “real-life” experience for their later profession before the end of their studies. This year replaces the old 9th and 10th semesters and builds a bridge between the well-organized and structured studies and the later profession. It includes internships outside the university in private practice, private clinics, slaughterhouses, etc., and a practical semester that can be completely at any time of the year in clinics and other institutes of the university. The online evaluation of this year has been positive. [german] Mit der Einführung des praktischen Jahres sollen die Studierenden der Tierärztlichen Hochschule Hannover (TiHo stärker in den klinischen und wissenschaftlichen Alltag eingebunden werden, um schon vor Ende des Studiums praxisnahe Erfahrungen zu sammeln. Das praktische Jahr ersetzt das bisherige 9. und 10. Semester und bildet so die Überleitung zwischen dem eng organisierten Studium und der anschließenden beruflichen Laufbahn. Es beinhaltet die Praktika außerhalb der TiHo in Tierarztpraxen, Privatkliniken, Schlachthöfen, etc. und ein internes praktisches Semester, welches das gesamte Jahr über in den Einrichtungen der TiHo abgeleistet werden kann. Die Online-Evaluierung dieses Jahres verlief positiv.

  20. Tiere im Text. Hundedarstellungen in der deutschsprachigen Literatur des frühen 20. Jahrhunderts im Spannungsfeld von ›Human-Animal Studies‹ und Erzählforschung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Jakob

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Die enorme Prosperität der Human-Animal Studies im letzten Jahrzehnt mündet häufig in die frustrierte Klage über die Un­­über­­­schau­­­bar­­­keit eines For­schungs­­ge­biets, an dem ganz unter­­schied­­liche Wis­sen­­schafts­­zweige be­tei­ligt sind. Der vorliegende Beitrag stützt sich auf die langen Tradi­tionen der Literatur- und Kultur­wissen­schaft bei der Erforschung von Tier-Bildern in Texten und visuellen Medien und plädiert dafür, ins­be­son­dere nar­ra­to­lo­gische Ins­tru­men­ta­rien für zu­künf­tige In­ves­ti­ga­tio­nen zu nut­zen. Als Be­ispie­l­feld dient das Hunde-Nar­ra­tiv, zur Spra­che kom­men exem­pla­rische Texte von Theodor Fontane, Thomas Mann, Franz Kafka und Robert Walser.