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Sample records for tick ornithodoros moubata

  1. Cell lines from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bell-Sakyi, L.; Růžek, Daniel; Gould, E. A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 3 (2009), s. 209-219 ISSN 0168-8162 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/1509; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ornithodoros moubata * soft tick * tick-borne encephalitis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.391, year: 2009

  2. Acaricidal activity of fluralaner against Ornithodoros moubata and Ornithodoros erraticus argasid ticks evaluated through in vitro feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sánchez, R; Oleaga, A

    2017-08-30

    Ornithodoros erraticus and Ornithodoros moubata are argasid tick vectors that transmit severe diseases such as African swine fever and human relapsing fever. Elimination of the synanthropic populations of these vectors would facilitate the control of these diseases. Fluralaner is a novel isoxazoline that selectively blocks the GABA- and glutamate-gated channels, providing potent insecticidal and acaricidal activity. The aim of the current study was to provide quantitative data on the susceptibility of males, females and third nymphal instar of O. erraticus and O. moubata to fluralaner through in vitro feeding exposure. Fluralaner activity against these developmental stages and species was assessed by feeding the ticks on ovine blood medicated with decreasing fluralaner concentrations between 1 and 10 -8 μg/mL. Tick mortality was measured at 4, 24 and 48h and 1, 2 and 3 weeks post-feeding. Tests included solvent-treated and untreated blood controls. Fluralaner was extremely active against O. erraticus, with mean lethal concentrations 50 (LC 50 ) and 95 (LC 95 ) of 2.0×10 -8 and 5.4×10 -8 μg/mL, respectively. Fluralaner was also highly active against O. moubata, showing a mean LC 50 of 1.5×10 -6 μg/mL and a mean LC 95 of 1.8×10 -3 μg/mL. In the latter species, the most susceptible life stages were the females (LC 95 1.4×10 -4 μg/mL). Fluralaner demonstrated potent acaricidal activity against all developmental stages of O. erraticus and O. moubata tested, in the first 48h after in vitro feeding. Therefore, fluralaner has the potential to provide very high acaricidal efficacy to multiple argasid tick species via feeding exposure and could be included as an acaricidal agent in integrated programmes for the control of argasid tick vectors and argasid tick-borne diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular characterization and oligosaccharide-binding properties of a galectin from the argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaohong; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Nakamura-Tsuruta, Sachiko; Hirabayashi, Jun; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2007-03-01

    The argasid tick Ornithodoros moubata is a vector of various viral and borrelian diseases in animals and humans. We report here molecular characterization and oligosaccharide-binding properties of a novel galectin (OmGalec) from this tick. OmGalec consisted of 333 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 37.4 kDa. Its amino acid sequence did not contain a signal peptide or transmembrane domain. It possessed tandem-repeated carbohydrate recognition domains, in which the typical motifs important for carbohydrate affinity were conserved. OmGalec was expressed both transcriptionally and translationally at all stages of the tick life cycle and in multiple organs and was abundant in hemocytes, midguts, and reproductive organs, which are of importance in immunity, interaction with pathogens, and development, respectively, suggesting that OmGalec is a multifunctional molecule. The oligosaccharide affinity profile analyzed by applying an automated frontal affinity chromatography system revealed that rOmGalec showed a general feature of the galectin family, i.e. significant affinity for lactosamine-type disaccharides, Galbeta1-3(4)Glc(NAc), via recognition of 4-OH and 6-OH of galactose and 3 (4)-OH of Glc(NAc). Its preference for type I saccharides and alpha1-3GalNAc-containing oligosaccharides might provide clues for identifying its ligands and its potential multiple functions. Our results may contribute to the elucidation of galectin functions in the development and immunity of arthropods and/or vector and pathogen interaction and provide valuable information for the development of novel tick control strategies.

  4. Crystal structure and functional characterization of an immunomodulatory salivary cystatin from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salát, Jiří; Paesen, G.C.; Řezáčová, Pavlína; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Kovářová, Zuzana; Šanda, Miloslav; Majtán, J.; Grunclová, Lenka; Horká, Helena; Andersen, J. F.; Brynda, Jiří; Horn, Martin; Nunn, M. A.; Kopáček, Petr; Kopecký, Jan; Mareš, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 429, č. 1 (2010), s. 103-112 ISSN 0264-6021 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB500960702; GA AV ČR IAA600960811; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cathepsin * cystatin * Ornithodoros moubata * parasite * peptidase inhibitor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.016, year: 2010

  5. Fluralaner activity against life stages of ticks using Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Ornithodoros moubata IN in vitro contact and feeding assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Heike; Zoller, Hartmut; Roepke, Rainer K A; Zschiesche, Eva; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2015-02-08

    Fluralaner is a novel isoxazoline eliciting both acaricidal and insecticidal activity through potent blockage of GABA- and glutamate-gated chloride channels. The aim of the study was to investigate the susceptibility of juvenile stages of common tick species exposed to fluralaner through either contact (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) or contact and feeding routes (Ornithodoros moubata). Fluralaner acaricidal activity through both contact and feeding exposure was measured in vitro using two separate testing protocols. Acaricidal contact activity against Rhipicephalus sanguineus life stages was assessed using three minute immersion in fluralaner concentrations between 50 and 0.05 μg/mL (larvae) or between 1000 and 0.2 μg/mL (nymphs and adults). Contact and feeding activity against Ornithodoros moubata nymphs was assessed using fluralaner concentrations between 1000 to 10(-4) μg/mL (contact test) and 0.1 to 10(-10) μg/mL (feeding test). Activity was assessed 48 hours after exposure and all tests included vehicle and untreated negative control groups. Fluralaner lethal concentrations (LC₅₀, LC₉₀/₉₅) were defined as concentrations with either 50%, 90% or 95% killing effect in the tested sample population. After contact exposure of R. sanguineus life stages lethal concentrations were (μg/mL): larvae - LC₅₀ 0.7, LC₉₀ 2.4; nymphs - LC₅₀ 1.4, LC₉₀ 2.6; and adults - LC₅₀ 278, LC₉₀ 1973. After exposure of O. moubata nymphs to fluralaner lethal concentrations were (μg/mL): contact exposure - LC₅₀ 720, LC₉₅ 1133; and feeding exposure- LC₅₀ 0.00007, LC₉₅ 0.09. Fluralaner demonstrates potent in vitro acaricidal activity against all life stages of the brown dog tick, R.sanguineus. The testing of fluralaner contact and feeding routes using O. moubata nymphs demonstrates a high acaricidal activity in both exposure routes.

  6. Lysozyme from the gut of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata: the sequence, phylogeny and post-feeding regulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grunclová, L.; Fouquier, H.; Hypša, Václav; Kopáček, Petr

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 8 (2003), s. 651-660 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0266 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909; CEZ:MSM 123100003 Keywords : Ornithodoros moubata * lysozyme * innate immunity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.390, year: 2003

  7. Molecular cloning, expression and isolation of ferritins from two tick species - Ornithodoros moubata and Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Petr; Ždychová, J.; Yoshiga, T.; Weise, C.; Rudenko, Natalia; Law, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 1 (2003), s. 103-113 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/0266 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909; CEZ:MSM 123100003 Keywords : ferritin * iron metabolism * tick Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.358, year: 2003

  8. Two secreted cystatins of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata: differential expression pattern and inhibitory specificity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grunclová, L.; Horn, Martin; Vancová, Marie; Sojka, D.; Franta, Z.; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 387, č. 12 (2006), s. 1635-1644 ISSN 1431-6730 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6022307; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/0865; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Grant - others:FRVŠ(CZ) 524/03/H133 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cystatin * tick * midgut Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.752, year: 2006

  9. A comparison of Chryseobacterium indologenes pathogenicity to the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata and hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burešová, V.; Franta, Z.; Kopáček, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 2 (2006), s. 96-104 ISSN 0022-2011 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6022307; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600220603 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Chryseobacterium indologenes * tick * pathogenicity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.235, year: 2006

  10. Pathogenicity of endophytic entomopathogenic fungi to Ornithodoros erraticus and Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalgogeazcoa, Iñigo; Oleaga, Ana; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo

    2008-12-20

    The argasid ticks O. erraticus and O. moubata are of great medical and veterinary importance because they are vectors of the African swine fever virus and several species of human relapsing fever borreliae. Biocontrol of these ticks using entomopathogenic fungi has not been previously reported. We examined the pathogenicity to different developmental stages of these two argasids of six strains of the fungal species Beauveria bassiana (strains Bb1764 and Bb2157), Lecanicillium lecanii (strains Ll586, Ll618 and Ll3047) and Tolypocladium cylindrosporum (strain Tc3398). Three strains, Bb1764, Bb2157, and Tc3398, caused in Spanish O. erraticus mean mortality rates between 34.4% and 62% in 14-28 days post-inoculation. Additionally, Bb2157 also induced in African O. moubata mean mortality rates of 31.9%. The remaining strains caused lower mortality rates and were not considered effective. This is the first study in which some strains of entomopathogenic fungi are found to be effective against argasid ticks of the genus Ornithodoros, and its results might justify further efforts towards the application of entomopathogenic fungal strains as anti-argasid biocontrol agents.

  11. A survey on tick species infesting domestic birds sold at Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Out of the 61 ticks identified from chickens 38(62.2%) were of Argas persicus, 20 (32.7%) A.walkerae and 3 (4.9%) were Ornithodoros moubata. Out of the 28 ticks isolated from guinea fowls, 16(57.2%) were A. persicus, 06 (21.4%) A.walkerae, 04 (14.3%) were O. moubata and only 02(7.1%) were O. savignyi. The study on ...

  12. Borrelia crocidurae in Ornithodoros ticks from northwestern Morocco: a range extension in relation to climatic change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souidi, Yassine; Boudebouch, Najma; Ezikouri, Sayeh; Belghyti, Driss; Trape, Jean-François; Sarih, M'hammed

    2014-12-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by Borrelia spirochetes transmitted to humans by Argasid soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. We investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in nine sites of the Gharb region of northwestern Morocco where we recently documented a high incidence of TBRF in humans. We assessed the Borrelia infection rate by nested PCR and sequencing. All sites investigated were colonized by ticks of the Ornithodoros marocanus complex and a high proportion of burrows (38.4%) were found to be infested. Borrelia infections were observed in 6.8% of the ticks tested. Two Borrelia species were identified by sequencing: B. hispanica and B. crocidurae. The discovery in northwestern Morocco of Ornithodoros ticks infected by B. crocidurae represents a 350 km range extension of this Sahelo-Saharan spirochete in North Africa. The spread of B. crocidurae may be related to the increasing aridity of northwestern Morocco in relation to climate change. © 2014 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  13. Borrelia crocidurae infection of Ornithodoros erraticus (Lucas, 1849) ticks in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouattour, Ali; Garnier, Martine; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Sarih, M'hammed; Gern, Lise; Ferquel, Elisabeth; Postic, Danièle; Cornet, Muriel

    2010-11-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is caused by Borrelia species transmitted to humans by infected Ornithodoros sp. ticks. The disease has been rarely described in North Africa, and in Tunisia the local transmission of TBRF seems to have disappeared or is undiagnosed. A longitudinal study was conducted in 14 sites located in four different bioclimatic zones of Tunisia to assess both the distribution of Ornithodoros sp. and their infection rate with the relapsing fever Borrelia sp. Three polymerase chain reaction methods targeting the 16S rRNA, the intergenic spacer, and the fla (flagellin) genes were used and phylogenetic analyses were carried out. Three hundred and fifty-eight specimens of Ornithodoros were collected: O. erraticus (previously termed "small variety") (n = 190) and O. normandi (n = 168). Borrelia crocidurae DNA was detected in 15.1% of O. erraticus (small variety) (24 out of the 159 randomly selected for testing) collected in rodent burrows situated in the arid and Saharan areas in southern Tunisia. Molecular analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the noncoding intergenic spacer domain showed good resolution for this Borrelia sp., although no molecular polymorphism was evidenced according to location. In contrast, none of the 133 O. normandi, also randomly selected for testing, was infected by Borrelia sp. and these ticks were restricted to the subhumid and semiarid zones in northern Tunisia. Both O. erraticus (small variety) and O. normandi were found in Tunisia and the high B. crocidurae infection rate found in O. erraticus highlights the risk of TBRF transmission in the southern part of the country.

  14. RNA-seq analyses of the midgut from blood- and serum-fed Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perner, Jan; Provazník, Jan; Schrenková, Jana; Urbanová, Veronika; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Kopáček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, NOV 8 (2016), č. článku 36695. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : glutathione peroxidase gene * Boophilus microplus * salivary glands * cattle tick * molecular cloning * Aedes aegypti * lyme disease * hard tick * Ornithodoros moubata Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  15. The Epidemiology and Geographic Distribution of Relapsing Fever Borreliosis in West and North Africa, with a Review of the Ornithodoros erraticus Complex (Acari: Ixodida)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trape, Jean-François; Diatta, Georges; Arnathau, Céline; Bitam, Idir; Sarih, M’hammed; Belghyti, Driss; Bouattour, Ali; Elguero, Eric; Vial, Laurence; Mané, Youssouph; Baldé, Cellou; Pugnolle, Franck; Chauvancy, Gilles; Mahé, Gil; Granjon, Laurent; Duplantier, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Background Relapsing fever is the most frequent bacterial disease in Africa. Four main vector / pathogen complexes are classically recognized, with the louse Pediculus humanus acting as vector for B. recurrentis and the soft ticks Ornithodoros sonrai, O. erraticus and O. moubata acting as vectors for Borrelia crocidurae, B. hispanica and B. duttonii, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the epidemiology of the disease in West, North and Central Africa. Methods And Findings From 2002 to 2012, we conducted field surveys in 17 African countries and in Spain. We investigated the occurrence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 282 study sites. We collected 1,629 small mammals that may act as reservoir for Borrelia infections. Using molecular methods we studied genetic diversity among Ornithodoros ticks and Borrelia infections in ticks and small mammals. Of 9,870 burrows investigated, 1,196 (12.1%) were inhabited by Ornithodoros ticks. In West Africa, the southern and eastern limits of the vectors and Borrelia infections in ticks and small mammals were 13°N and 01°E, respectively. Molecular studies revealed the occurrence of nine different Ornithodoros species, including five species new for science, with six of them harboring Borrelia infections. Only B. crocidurae was found in West Africa and three Borrelia species were identified in North Africa: B. crocidurae, B. hispanica, and B. merionesi. Conclusions Borrelia Spirochetes responsible for relapsing fever in humans are highly prevalent both in Ornithodoros ticks and small mammals in North and West Africa but Ornithodoros ticks seem absent south of 13°N and small mammals are not infected in these regions. The number of Ornithodoros species acting as vector of relapsing fever is much higher than previously known. PMID:24223812

  16. First detection of African Swine Fever Virus in Ornithodoros porcinus in Madagascar and new insights into tick distribution and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaomanana, Julie; Michaud, Vincent; Jori, Ferran; Andriatsimahavandy, Abel; Roger, François; Albina, Emmanuel; Vial, Laurence

    2010-11-30

    African Swine Fever Virus has devastated more than the half of the domestic pig population in Madagascar since its introduction, probably in 1997-1998. One of the hypotheses to explain its persistence on the island is its establishment in local Ornithodoros soft ticks, whose presence has been reported in the past from the north-western coast to the Central Highlands. The aim of the present study was to verify such hypothesis by conducting tick examinations in three distinct zones of pig production in Madagascar where African Swine Fever outbreaks have been regularly reported over the past decade and then to improve our knowledge on the tick distribution and taxonomy. Ornithodoros ticks were only found in one pig farm in the village of Mahitsy, north-west of Antananarivo in the Central Highlands, whereas the tick seemed to be absent from the two other study zones near Ambatondrazaka and Marovoay. Using 16SrDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, it was confirmed that the collected ticks belonged to the O. porcinus species and is closely related to the O. p. domesticus sub-species Walton, 1962. ASFV was detected in 7.14% (13/182) of the field ticks through the amplification of part of the viral VP72 gene, and their ability to maintain long-term infections was confirmed since all the ticks came from a pig building where no pigs or any other potential vertebrate hosts had been introduced for at least four years. Considering these results, O. porcinus is a reservoir for ASFV and most likely acts as vector for ASFV in Madagascar, but its apparent restricted distribution may limit its role in the epidemiology of the disease in domestic pigs.

  17. First detection of African Swine Fever Virus in Ornithodoros porcinus in Madagascar and new insights into tick distribution and taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albina Emmanuel

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Swine Fever Virus has devastated more than the half of the domestic pig population in Madagascar since its introduction, probably in 1997-1998. One of the hypotheses to explain its persistence on the island is its establishment in local Ornithodoros soft ticks, whose presence has been reported in the past from the north-western coast to the Central Highlands. The aim of the present study was to verify such hypothesis by conducting tick examinations in three distinct zones of pig production in Madagascar where African Swine Fever outbreaks have been regularly reported over the past decade and then to improve our knowledge on the tick distribution and taxonomy. Results Ornithodoros ticks were only found in one pig farm in the village of Mahitsy, north-west of Antananarivo in the Central Highlands, whereas the tick seemed to be absent from the two other study zones near Ambatondrazaka and Marovoay. Using 16SrDNA PCR amplification and sequencing, it was confirmed that the collected ticks belonged to the O. porcinus species and is closely related to the O. p. domesticus sub-species Walton, 1962. ASFV was detected in 7.14% (13/182 of the field ticks through the amplification of part of the viral VP72 gene, and their ability to maintain long-term infections was confirmed since all the ticks came from a pig building where no pigs or any other potential vertebrate hosts had been introduced for at least four years. Conclusions Considering these results, O. porcinus is a reservoir for ASFV and most likely acts as vector for ASFV in Madagascar, but its apparent restricted distribution may limit its role in the epidemiology of the disease in domestic pigs.

  18. Ecological niche modeling and distribution of Ornithodoros hermsi associated with tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Kylie M; Johnson, Tammi L; Teglas, Michael B; Nieto, Nathan C; Schwan, Tom G

    2017-10-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is a zoonosis caused by the spirochete bacterium, Borrelia hermsii, which is transmitted by the bite of infected Ornithodoros hermsi ticks. The pathogen is maintained in natural cycles involving small rodent hosts such as chipmunks and tree squirrels, as well as the tick vector. In order for these ticks to establish sustained and viable populations, a narrow set of environmental parameters must exist, primarily moderate temperatures and moderate to high amounts of precipitation. Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Modeling (Maxent) was used to predict the species distribution of O. hermsi and B. hermsii through time and space based on current climatic trends and future projected climate changes. From this modeling process, we found that the projected current distributions of both the tick and spirochete align with known endemic foci for the disease. Further, global climate models predict a shift in the distribution of suitable habitat for the tick vector to higher elevations. Our predictions are useful for targeting surveillance efforts in areas of high risk in western North America, increasing the efficiency and accuracy of public health investigations and vector control efforts.

  19. Fibrinogen-related proteins in ixodid ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěrba, J.; Dupejová, J.; Fišer, M.; Vancová, Marie; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 4, - (2011), e127 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR KJB600960906; GA ČR GA206/09/1782 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : AMERICAN DOG TICK * INNATE IMMUNITY * DORIN-M * RHIPICEPHALUS-APPENDICULATUS * MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION * DERMACENTOR-VARIABILIS * ORNITHODOROS-MOUBATA * LECTINS * HEMOLYMPH * BINDING Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.937, year: 2011 http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/pdf/1756-3305-4-127.pdf

  20. Molecular cloning and comparative analysis of fibrinogen-related proteins from the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata and the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rego, Ryan O. M.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kovář, Vojtěch; Kopáček, Petr; Grubhoffer, Libor; Hypša, Václav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 9 (2005), s. 991-1004 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1323 Grant - others:ASCR x NRC Canada S & T Cooperation(CA) Z60220518-58/8500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : innate immunity * hemocytes * lectin s Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.733, year: 2005

  1. Coxiella-like endosymbiont in argasid ticks (Ornithodoros muesebecki) from a Socotra Cormorant colony in Umm Al Quwain, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Deeb, Mohammad A; Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Walter, Mathias C; Kömpf, Daniela; Fischer, Silke F; Petney, Trevor; Muzaffar, Sabir Bin

    2016-02-01

    Coxiella burnetii is a pathogen causing Q fever in domestic animals and humans. Seabirds have been implicated as possible reservoirs of this bacterium in the Arabian Gulf and in the Western Indian Ocean. Recently, Coxiella species closely related to C. burnetii was detected from ticks collected from oil rigs used as roosting areas by Socotra Cormorants (Phalacrocorax nigrogularis) in the western Arabian Gulf. We collected ticks from the largest breeding colony of Socotra Cormorants in the United Arab Emirates on the eastern extreme of the species' breeding range to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii and evaluate its role as a wild reservoir. All ticks were identified as Ornithodoros muesebecki and genomic DNA was extracted from larval and nymph/adult tick pools. Multiplex PCR tests were performed targeting three C. burnetii specific genes. C. burnetii was not detected although a Coxiella-like endosymbiont was identified that was closely related to Coxiella symbionts from Ornithodoros capensis ticks. Because domestic and wild ungulates are the primary source of C. burnetii, we suggest that the presence of free-ranging, native and non-native ungulates in some off-shore islands in the Arabian Gulf could disseminate C. burnetii to seabirds. More comprehensive studies on seabird colonies are needed to better understand the diversity and prevalence of Coxiella symbionts and to establish if C. burnetii is endemic on some of these islands. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. African swine fever virus transmission cycles in Central Europe: Evaluation of wild boar-soft tick contacts through detection of antibodies against Ornithodoros erraticus saliva antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietschmann, Jana; Mur, Lina; Blome, Sandra; Beer, Martin; Pérez-Sánchez, Ricardo; Oleaga, Ana; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, José Manuel

    2016-01-04

    African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most complex viral diseases affecting both domestic and wild pigs. It is caused by ASF virus (ASFV), the only DNA virus which can be efficiently transmitted by an arthropod vector, soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. These ticks can be part of ASFV-transmission cycles, and in Europe, O. erraticus was shown to be responsible for long-term maintenance of ASFV in Spain and Portugal. In 2014, the disease has been reintroduced into the European Union, affecting domestic pigs and, importantly, also the Eurasian wild boar population. In a first attempt to assess the risk of a tick-wild boar transmission cycle in Central Europe that would further complicate eradication of the disease, over 700 pre-existing serum samples from wild boar hunted in four representative German Federal States were investigated for the presence of antibodies directed against salivary antigen of Ornithodoros erraticus ticks using an indirect ELISA format. Out of these samples, 16 reacted with moderate to high optical densities that could be indicative of tick bites in sampled wild boar. However, these samples did not show a spatial clustering (they were collected from distant geographical regions) and were of bad quality (hemolysis/impurities). Furthermore, all positive samples came from areas with suboptimal climate for soft ticks. For this reason, false positive reactions are likely. In conclusion, the study did not provide stringent evidence for soft tick-wild boar contact in the investigated German Federal States and thus, a relevant involvement in the epidemiology of ASF in German wild boar is unlikely. This fact would facilitate the eradication of ASF in the area, although other complex relations (wild boar biology and interactions with domestic pigs) need to be considered.

  3. Population structure of the soft tick Ornithodoros maritimus and its associated infectious agents within a colony of its seabird host Larus michahellis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Dupraz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of vector-borne zoonoses depends on the movement of both hosts and vectors, which can differ greatly in intensity across spatial scales. Because of their life history traits and small size, vector dispersal may be frequent, but limited in distance. However, little information is available on vector movement patterns at local spatial scales, and particularly for ticks, transmitting the greatest diversity of recognized infectious agents. To test the degree to which ticks can disperse and disseminate pathogens at local scales, we investigated the temporal dynamics and population structure of the soft tick Ornithodoros maritimus within a colony of its seabird host, the Yellow-legged gull Larus michahellis. Ticks were repeatedly sampled at a series of nests during the host breeding season. In half of the nests, ticks were collected (removal sampling, in the other half, ticks were counted and returned to the nest. A subsample of ticks was screened for known bacteria, viruses and parasites using a high throughput real-time PCR system to examine their distribution within the colony. The results indicate a temporal dynamic in the presence of tick life stages over the season, with the simultaneous appearance of juvenile ticks and hatched chicks, but no among-nest spatial structure in tick abundance. Removal sampling significantly reduced tick numbers, but only from the fourth visit onward. Seven bacterial isolates, one parasite species and one viral isolate were detected but no spatial structure in their presence within the colony was found. These results suggest weak isolation among nests and that tick dispersal is likely frequent enough to quickly recolonize locally-emptied patches and disseminate pathogens across the colony. Vector-mediated movements at local scales may therefore play a key role in pathogen emergence and needs to be considered in conjunction with host movements for predicting pathogen circulation and for establishing

  4. An In Vitro Blood-Feeding Method Revealed Differential Borrelia turicatae (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) Gene Expression After Spirochete Acquisition and Colonization in the Soft Tick Ornithodoros turicata (Acari: Argasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakanta, Girish; Sultana, Hameeda; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Marconi, Richard T

    2017-03-01

    In the Midwestern, Southwestern, and Southern part of the United States, the soft tick Ornithodoros turicata transmits the spirochete Borrelia turicatae, the causative agent of relapsing fever in humans. In this study, we report a simplified and an efficient method of in vitro feeding to evaluate O. turicata-B. turicatae interactions. Both nymphal and adult female ticks successfully acquired spirochetes upon in vitro feeding on the B. turicatae-infected blood. We also noted transstadial transmission of spirochetes to adult ticks that were molted from nymphs fed on B. turicatae-infected blood. A differential expression pattern for some of the B. turicatae genes was evident after acquisition and colonization of the vector. The levels of arthropod-associated lipoprotein Alp-mRNA were significantly upregulated and the mRNA levels of factor H binding protein FhbA and immunogenic protein BipA were significantly downregulated in the spirochetes after acquisition into ticks in comparison with spirochetes grown in culture medium. In addition, genes such as bta124 and bta116 were significantly upregulated in spirochetes in unfed ticks in comparison with the levels noted in spirochetes after acquisition. These findings represent an efficient in vitro blood-feeding method to study B. turicatae gene expression after acquisition and colonization in these ticks. In summary, we report that B. turicatae survive and develop in the tick host when acquired by in vitro feeding. We also report that B. turicatae genes are differentially expressed in ticks in comparison with the in vitro-grown cultures, indicating influence of tick environment on spirochete gene expression. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Novel Babesia and Hepatozoon agents infecting non-volant small mammals in the Brazilian Pantanal, with the first record of the tick Ornithodoros guaporensis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Rafael William; Aragona, Mônica; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Pinto, Leticia Borges; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Braga, Isis Assis; Costa, Jackeliny dos Santos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Marcili, Arlei; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the diversity of small terrestrial mammals of the Pantanal, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of infection by Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and parasitism by ticks in non-volant small mammals collected in the Brazilian Pantanal. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected from 64 captured animals, 22 marsupials and 42 rodents. Pathogen detection was performed by the use of genus-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Ticks collected from the animals consisted of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma triste nymphs, and Ornithodoros guaporensis larvae. None of the vertebrate samples (blood, liver, or spleen) yielded detectable DNA of Rickettsia spp. or Ehrlichia spp. The blood of the rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus yielded an Anaplasma sp. genotype (partial 16S rRNA gene) 99% similar to multiple Anaplasma spp. genotypes around the world. The blood of three rodents of the species Calomys callosus were positive for a novel Hepatozoon sp. agent, phylogenetically related (18S rDNA gene) to distinct Hepatozoon genotypes that have been detected in rodents from different parts of the world. One marsupial (Monodelphis domestica) and three rodents (Thrichomys pachyurus) were positive to novel piroplasmid genotypes, phylogenetically (18S rDNA gene) related to Theileria bicornis, Cytauxzoon manul, and Cytauxzoon felis. The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil. Additionally, we expanded the distribution of O. guaporensis to Brazil, since this tick species was previously known to occur only in Bolivia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple Acquisitions of Pathogen-Derived Francisella Endosymbionts in Soft Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhart, Jonathan G; Auguste Dutcher, H; Brenner, Amanda E; Moses, Abraham S; Grubhoffer, Libor; Raghavan, Rahul

    2018-02-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts of ticks are of interest due to their close evolutionary relationships with tick-vectored pathogens. For instance, whereas many ticks contain Francisella-like endosymbionts (FLEs), others transmit the mammalian pathogen Francisella tularensis. We recently sequenced the genome of an FLE present in the hard tick Amblyomma maculatum (FLE-Am) and showed that it likely evolved from a pathogenic ancestor. In order to expand our understanding of FLEs, in the current study we sequenced the genome of an FLE in the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata and compared it to the genomes of FLE-Am, Francisella persica-an FLE in the soft tick Argus (Persicargas) arboreus, Francisella sp. MA067296-a clinical isolate responsible for an opportunistic human infection, and F. tularensis, the established human pathogen. We determined that FLEs and MA067296 belonged to a sister taxon of mammalian pathogens, and contained inactivated versions of virulence genes present in F. tularensis, indicating that the most recent common ancestor shared by FLEs and F. tularensis was a potential mammalian pathogen. Our analyses also revealed that the two soft ticks (O. moubata and A. arboreus) probably acquired their FLEs separately, suggesting that the virulence attenuation observed in FLEs are not the consequence of a single acquisition event followed by speciation, but probably due to independent transitions of pathogenic francisellae into nonpathogenic FLEs within separate tick lineages. Additionally, we show that FLEs encode intact pathways for the production of several B vitamins and cofactors, denoting that they could function as nutrient-provisioning endosymbionts in ticks. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  7. Characterization of Gut-associated Cathepsin D Hemoglobinase from Tick Ixodes ricinus (IrCD1)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, Daniel; Franta, Zdeněk; Frantová, Helena; Bartošová, Pavla; Horn, Martin; Váchová, Jana; O’Donoghue, A. J.; Eroy-Reveles, A. A.; Craik, C. S.; Knudsen, G. M.; Caffrey, C. R.; McKerrow, J. H.; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 25 (2012), s. 21152-21163 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR KJB600960911; GA ČR GPP502/11/P682; GA AV ČR IAA400550705; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : RHIPICEPHALUS BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS * HARD TICK * ORNITHODOROS-MOUBATA * ASPARTIC PROTEINASE * RECOGNITION DOMAIN * MOLECULAR- CLONING * ACTIVE-SITE * EXPRESSION * INHIBITOR * PROTEASE Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.651, year: 2012

  8. Ornithodoros faccinii n. sp. (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae) parasitizing the frog Thoropa miliaris (Amphibia: Anura: Cycloramphidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Landulfo, Gabriel Alves; Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Marcili, Arlei; Onofrio, Valeria Castilho; Famadas, Kátia Maria

    2015-05-13

    Most argasid ticks from the Neotropical region are parasites of mammals and birds, with a few records from reptiles. Many species of the genus Ornithodoros are known only through larval descriptions, and their chaetotaxy and morphological characteristics have been used to separate the taxa. In the present study, we describe the larva and the nymph of first instar of a new species of the genus Ornithodoros that was collected from frogs of the species Thoropa miliaris. Larvae of Ornithodoros were collected from frogs of the species T. miliaris at waterfalls in the state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The larval and nymphal description was based on optical and scanning electron microscopy. Molecular analysis using the argasid 16S rRNA sequences available in GenBank was also conducted. Ornithodoros faccinii sp. n. is closely related to Ornithodoros clarki Jones & Clifford, Ornithodoros marinkellei Kohls, Clifford & Jones, Ornithodoros capensis Neumann and Ornithodoros sawaii Kitaoka & Susuki. However, the larval morphology of the new species is unique. The mitochondrial 16S rDNA partial sequence of O. faccinii generated in the present study was deposited in GenBank under the number KP861242. The larvae collected from Thoropa miliaris are a new species, Ornithodoros faccinii n. sp. This is the first report of argasid ticks on frogs in Brazil, the second on frogs and the third on Amphibia in the Neotropical region.

  9. No evidence of African swine fever virus replication in hard ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Carvalho Ferreira, Helena C; Tudela Zúquete, Sara; Wijnveld, Michiel; Weesendorp, Eefke; Jongejan, Frans; Stegeman, Arjan; Loeffen, Willie L A

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), a tick-borne DNA virus. Soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros are the only biological vectors of ASFV recognized so far. Although other hard ticks have been tested for vector competence, two commonly found tick species in

  10. Ticks parasitizing bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermes Ribeiro Luz

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012 and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013. Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1, Nothoaspis (n = 1 and Ornithodoros (n = 407. Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.

  11. Ticks parasitizing bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Caatinga Biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Hermes Ribeiro; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Almeida, Juliana Cardoso de; Faccini, João Luiz Horacio; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the authors report ticks parasitizing bats from the Serra das Almas Natural Reserve (RPPN) located in the municipality of Crateús, state of Ceará, in the semiarid Caatinga biome of northeastern Brazil. The study was carried out during nine nights in the dry season (July 2012) and 10 nights in the rainy season (February 2013). Only bats of the Phyllostomidae and Mormoopidae families were parasitized by ticks. The species Artibeus planirostris and Carolia perspicillata were the most parasitized. A total of 409 larvae were collected and classified into three genera: Antricola (n = 1), Nothoaspis (n = 1) and Ornithodoros (n = 407). Four species were morphologically identified as Nothoaspis amazoniensis, Ornithodoros cavernicolous, Ornithodoros fonsecai, Ornithodoros hasei, and Ornithodoros marinkellei. Ornithodoros hasei was the most common tick associated with bats in the current study. The present study expand the distributional ranges of at least three soft ticks into the Caatinga biome, and highlight an unexpected richness of argasid ticks inhabiting this arid ecosystem.

  12. The tick plasma lectin, Dorin M, is a fibrinogen-related molecule

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rego, Ryan O. M.; Kovář, Vojtěch; Kopáček, Petr; Weise, C.; Man, Petr; Šauman, Ivo; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 4 (2006), s. 291-299 ISSN 0965-1748 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6022307; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6022001; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6022701; GA ČR(CZ) GA206/00/0266 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510; CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : lectin * Ornithodoros moubata * hemolymph Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.711, year: 2006

  13. Rickettsia lusitaniae associated with Ornithodoros yumatensis (Acari: Argasidae) from two caves in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Montes, Sokani; Guzmán-Cornejo, Carmen; Martínez-Nájera, Yecenia; Becker, Ingeborg; Venzal, José M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-10-01

    The genus Rickettsia includes obligate intracellular bacteria transmitted by several hematophagous arthropods such as ticks, fleas and sucking lice. In particular hard ticks (Ixodidae) have been cited as the main vectors of pathogenic rickettsiae in Mexico. However, there have been only two records of a single Rickettsia species associated with Mexican soft ticks (Argasidae). In this study, we searched for rickettsial DNA in argasid ticks (13 adults and eight nymphs of Ornithodoros yumatensis) from two bat caves in the state of Yucatan, Mexico. Additionally one larva collected in a cave from Chiapas, Mexico, and associated with Desmodus rotundus was used to corroborate the tick taxonomic determination. Of these, nine ticks (43%) yielded expected PCR products for the rickettsial gltA gene. These PCR-positive ticks were tested with additional PCR protocols targeting the rickettsial genes gltA, ompA and ompB. DNA partial sequences from these genes showed 99-100% identities with Rickettsia lusitaniae, an agent isolated from O. erraticus in Portugal, and closely related to R. felis and R. hoogstraalii. Based on the results from this study, the inventory of rickettsiae distributed in Mexico increases from six to seven species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. The tick (Acari: Ixodidae) fauna of Herald's Beacon Islet, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Mackenzie L; Mintram, Kate

    2017-01-01

    A rare opportunity to travel to Herald's Beacon Islet with permission from the Australian government to collect ticks allowed for a survey of the tick fauna of the island to be undertaken for the first time. The avian fauna of the island, which serve as hosts, was also recorded and includes one new species record for the island. The seabird soft tick Ornithodoros capensis Neumann and the seabird hard tick Amblyomma loculosum Neumann were found to be present on the island. Images of the ticks present on the island are presented along with morphological characters for their identification.

  15. Canis familiaris, UN NUEVO HOSPEDERO DE Ornithodoros (A. puertoricensis FOX, 1947 (ACARI: IXODIDA EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS E. PATERNINA

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Las garrapatas revisten gran importancia en el campo biomédico por sus hábitos hematófagos y asociación con la transmisión de agentes patógenos a humanos y animales. El objetivo de esta investigación fue establecer las especies de garrapatas que parasitan perros en tres poblaciones del área rural del Caribe colombiano. Durante los meses de agosto y diciembre del año 2006 se realizó búsqueda activa de garrapatas sobre caninos domésticos de las localidades de El Campín, Sabanas del Potrero y Escobar Arriba, departamento de Sucre. Las garrapatas recolectadas fueron almacenadas en viales con etanol al 70% e identificadas empleando claves morfológicas de referencia para cada familia. Para la determinación de especie en la familia Argasidae se realizaron estimaciones morfométricas de estructuras externas. Se recolectaron 420 garrapatas a partir de 50 caninos infestados, de un total de 134 perros examinados, que corresponde a una tasa de infestación del 37,3%. Las garrapatas fueron identificadas como Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus y Amblyomma ovale pertenecientes a la familia Ixodidae, y Ornithodoros (Alectorobius puertoricensis de la familia Argasidae. La especie predominante fue R. sanguineus (92,1% en los estados de larva, ninfa y adulto, seguida por larvas de O. puertoricensis, que fueron halladas en menor número sobre caninos de las tres localidades. Se registra, por primera vez en América, el parasitismo de O. puertoricensis sobre caninos domésticos y se confirma su presencia en Colombia. Palabras clave: garrapatas, perros, Ornithodoros puertoricensis, Ixodida, Colombia. ABSTRACT Ticks are very important from the biomedical point of view, by their hematophagic activity and their role in the transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to man and animals. The main goal of this work was to establish the tick species parasiting dogs in three rural localities of the Colombian Caribbean. From

  16. Seasonal Activity of Ticks and their Importance in Tick-Borne Infectious Diseases in West Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salari Lak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: West Azerbaijan is considered as a main region for domestic animal breeding. Due to importance of herd as a main host and ticks as a vector of relapsing fever and CCHF, a comprehensive study was undertaken in the region."nMethods: Outdoor, indoor collection as well as ticks stick to the animals' body were collected and identified. The study was conducted during the whole seasons in 2004-2005."nResults: During four seasons a total of 2728 ticks of two families (Ixodidae and Argasidae were collected compris­ing 7 genera of 5 hard ticks and two genera of soft ticks including Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Rhipicepha­lus, Boophilus and Dermacentor. The soft ticks were Ornithodoros and Argas. These 7 genera included 18 species. The main species were Haemaphysalis inermis, H. punctata, H. sulcata, H. numidiana, H. concinna, Hyalomma mar­gi­natum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. detritum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. schulzei, H. aegyptium, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sangiuneus, Dermacentor marginatus, Boophilus annulatus, Ornithodoros lahorensis, and Argas persicus. Fre­quency of ticks during different seasons was different. A pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin, which is widely used for tick control was tested against soft ticks. The test method was based on WHO recommendation. At the LD50 level A. persicus needs more concentration than O. lahorensis."nConclusion: Ornithodoros and Argas are the more prevalent soft ticks in the region. Distribution and prevalence of hard ticks was varied in different seasons. Results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of tick control.

  17. Seasonal Activity of Ticks and their Importance in Tick-Borne Infectious Diseases in West Azerbaijan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Salari Lak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: West Azerbaijan is considered as a main region for domestic animal breeding. Due to importance of herd as a main host and ticks as a vector of relapsing fever and CCHF, a comprehensive study was undertaken in the region.Methods: Outdoor, indoor collection as well as ticks stick to the animals' body were collected and identified. The study was conducted during the whole seasons in 2004-2005.Results: During four seasons a total of 2728 ticks of two families (Ixodidae and Argasidae were collected compris­ing 7 genera of 5 hard ticks and two genera of soft ticks including Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Rhipicepha­lus, Boophilus and Dermacentor. The soft ticks were Ornithodoros and Argas. These 7 genera included 18 species. The main species were Haemaphysalis inermis, H. punctata, H. sulcata, H. numidiana, H. concinna, Hyalomma mar­gi­natum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. detritum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. schulzei, H. aegyptium, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. sangiuneus, Dermacentor marginatus, Boophilus annulatus, Ornithodoros lahorensis, and Argas persicus. Fre­quency of ticks during different seasons was different. A pyrethroid insecticide, cypermethrin, which is widely used for tick control was tested against soft ticks. The test method was based on WHO recommendation. At the LD50 level A. persicus needs more concentration than O. lahorensis.Conclusion: Ornithodoros and Argas are the more prevalent soft ticks in the region. Distribution and prevalence of hard ticks was varied in different seasons. Results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of tick control.

  18. Blood feeding of Ornithodoros turicata larvae using an artificial membrane system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Filatov, S; Lopez, J E; Pérez DE León, A A; Teel, P D

    2017-06-01

    An artificial membrane system was adapted to feed Ornithodoros turicata (Ixodida: Argasidae) larvae from a laboratory colony using defibrinated swine blood. Aspects related to larval feeding and moulting to the first nymphal instar were evaluated. A total of 55.6% of all larvae exposed to the artificial membrane in two experimental groups fed to repletion and 98.0% of all fed larvae moulted. Mortality rates of first instar nymphs differed significantly depending on the sorting tools used to handle engorged larvae (χ 2  = 35.578, P artificial membrane feeding system. Applications of the artificial membrane feeding system to fill gaps in current knowledge of soft tick biology and the study of soft tick-pathogen interactions are discussed. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Tick Paralysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tick Paralysis: Deer tick, dog tick, Rocky Mtn. wood tick, Lone Star tick What is Tick Paralysis? ... Medical Malpractice Center Contact Us Phillip J. Baker, Ph.D., Executive Director, P.O. Box 466, Lyme, ...

  20. Imaging of Borrelia turicatae Producing the Green Fluorescent Protein Reveals Persistent Colonization of the Ornithodoros turicata Midgut and Salivary Glands from Nymphal Acquisition through Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnavajhala, Aparna; Wilder, Hannah K; Boyle, William K; Damania, Ashish; Thornton, Justin A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Teel, Pete D; Lopez, Job E

    2017-03-01

    Relapsing fever (RF) spirochetes colonize and are transmitted to mammals primarily by Ornithodoros ticks, and little is known regarding the pathogen's life cycle in the vector. To further understand vector colonization and transmission of RF spirochetes, Borrelia turicatae expressing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker ( B. turicatae-gfp ) was generated. The transformants were evaluated during the tick-mammal infectious cycle, from the third nymphal instar to adult stage. B. turicatae-gfp remained viable for at least 18 months in starved fourth-stage nymphal ticks, and the studies indicated that spirochete populations persistently colonized the tick midgut and salivary glands. Our generation of B. turicatae-gfp also revealed that within the salivary glands, spirochetes are localized in the ducts and lumen of acini, and after tick feeding, the tissues remained populated with spirochetes. The B. turicatae-gfp generated in this study is an important tool to further understand and define the mechanisms of vector colonization and transmission. IMPORTANCE In order to interrupt the infectious cycle of tick-borne relapsing fever spirochetes, it is important to enhance our understanding of vector colonization and transmission. Toward this, we generated a strain of Borrelia turicatae that constitutively produced the green fluorescent protein, and we evaluated fluorescing spirochetes during the entire infectious cycle. We determined that the midgut and salivary glands of Ornithodoros turicata ticks maintain the pathogens throughout the vector's life cycle and remain colonized with the spirochetes for at least 18 months. We also determined that the tick's salivary glands were not depleted after a transmission blood feeding. These findings set the framework to further understand the mechanisms of midgut and salivary gland colonization. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. 'Candidatus Rickettsia nicoyana': A novel Rickettsia species isolated from Ornithodoros knoxjonesi in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Soto, Rolando D; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Calderón-Arguedas, Ólger; Troyo, Adriana

    2017-06-01

    Rickettsiae are intracellular bacteria commonly associated with hematophagous arthropods. Most of them have been described in hard ticks, but some have been found in soft ticks. Here we report the detection and isolation of a new Rickettsia from Ornithodoros knoxjonesi larvae collected from Balantiopteryx plicata (Emballonuridae) in Nicoya, Costa Rica. Two ticks were processed to detect Rickettsia spp. genes gltA, ompA, ompB, and htrA by PCR. Part of the macerate was also inoculated into Vero E6 and C6/36 cell lines, and cells were evaluated by Giménez stain, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and PCR. Both ticks were positive by PCR and rickettsial growth was successful in Vero E6 cells. Amplification and sequencing of near full length rrs, gltA, sca4 genes, and fragments of ompA and ompB showed that the Rickettsia sp. was different from described species. The highest homologies were with 'Candidatus Rickettsia wissemanii' and Rickettsia peacockii: 99.70% (1321/1325) with both sequences for rrs, 99.58% (1172/1177) and 99.76% (1246/1249) for gltA, 99.26% with both sequences (2948/2970 and 2957/2979) for sca4, 98.78% (485/491) and 98.39% (2069/2115) for ompA, and 98.58 (1453/1474) and 98.92% (1459/1475) for ompB; respectively. Bat blood, spleen, liver, and lung samples analyzed for Rickettsia detection were negative. Results demonstrate that the Rickettsia isolated from O. knoxjonesi is probably an undescribed species that belongs to the spotted fever group, for which 'Candidatus Rickettsia nicoyana' is proposed. Considering that B. plicata inhabits areas where contact with humans may occur and that human parasitism by Ornithodoros has been reported in the country, it will be important to continue with the characterization of this species and its pathogenic potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Hemelipoglycoprotein from the ornate sheep tick, Dermacentor marginatus: structural and functional characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dupejová, J.; Štěrba, Ján; Vancová, Marie; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 4, January (2011), s. 4 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA AV ČR KJB600960906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ORNITHODOROS PARKERI * BOOPHILUS MICROPLUS * MASS-SPECTROMETRY * CATTLE TICK * SOFT TICK * DORIN M * PROTEINS * HEMOLYMPH * VITELLOGENIN * LIPOPROTEIN Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.937, year: 2011

  3. Transmission-Blocking Vaccines: Focus on Anti-Vector Vaccines against Tick-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakanta, Girish; Sultana, Hameeda

    2015-06-01

    Tick-borne diseases are a potential threat that account for significant morbidity and mortality in human population worldwide. Vaccines are not available to treat several of the tick-borne diseases. With the emergence and resurgence of several tick-borne diseases, emphasis on the development of transmission-blocking vaccines remains increasing. In this review, we provide a snap shot on some of the potential candidates for the development of anti-vector vaccines (a form of transmission-blocking vaccines) against wide range of hard and soft ticks that include Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus and Ornithodoros species.

  4. Tick bite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Lyme disease, erythema migrans Lyme disease organism, Borrelia burgdorferi Deer ticks Ticks Tick, deer engorged on the skin Lyme disease - Borrelia burgdorferi organism Tick, deer - adult female Deer and ...

  5. Susceptibility of different life stages of Ornithodoros lahorensis to entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoli, Mousa; Malekifard, Farnaz; Soleimanzadeh, Ali; Pourseyed, Seyed Hassan; Bernousi, Iraj; Mardani, Karim

    2012-10-01

    The use of chemicals for the control of arthropod pests can be problematic due to the potential for both environmental contamination and resistance development. As a result, there is an increasing interest in nonchemical alternatives, such as biocontrol by entomopathogenic fungi. In the present study, three strains of Metarhizium anisopliae (V245, 3247, and 4456) and one strain of Beauveria bassiana (LM 3.2) were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their virulence towards three life stages of Ornithodoros lahorensis. Groups of eggs, larvae, and adult ticks were treated by immersion in two different suspensions (10(5) and 10(7) conidia/ml) of each fungal strain. All treatment and control groups were observed during a 3-week period, and the hatchability of eggs and mortality percentage of larvae and adult ticks were assessed. The effect of fungal strains on egg hatchability and larva and adult mortality was significant and dose dependent compared to the control groups (P fungi potential biological control agents of O. lahorensis reducing the use of chemical acaricides.

  6. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Lafri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Argasid ticks (soft ticks are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks.Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus.The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  7. Detection of relapsing fever Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp. and Anaplasmataceae bacteria in argasid ticks in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafri, Ismail; El Hamzaoui, Basma; Bitam, Idir; Leulmi, Hamza; Lalout, Reda; Mediannikov, Oleg; Chergui, Mohamed; Karakellah, Mohamed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-11-01

    Argasid ticks (soft ticks) are blood-feeding arthropods that can parasitize rodents, birds, humans, livestock and companion animals. Ticks of the Ornithodoros genus are known to be vectors of relapsing fever borreliosis in humans. In Algeria, little is known about relapsing fever borreliosis and other bacterial pathogens transmitted by argasid ticks. Between May 2013 and October 2015, we investigated the presence of soft ticks in 20 rodent burrows, 10 yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) nests and animal shelters in six locations in two different bioclimatic zones in Algeria. Six species of argasid ticks were identified morphologically and through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The presence and prevalence of Borrelia spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp. and Anaplasmataceae was assessed by qPCR template assays in each specimen. All qPCR-positive samples were confirmed by standard PCR, followed by sequencing the amplified fragments. Two Borrelia species were identified: Borrelia hispanica in Ornithodoros occidentalis in Mostaganem, and Borrelia cf. turicatae in Carios capensis in Algiers. One new Bartonella genotype and one new Anaplasmataceae genotype were also identified in Argas persicus. The present study highlights the presence of relapsing fever borreliosis agents, although this disease is rarely diagnosed in Algeria. Other bacteria of unknown pathogenicity detected in argasid ticks which may bite humans deserve further investigation.

  8. Current Status of Tick Fauna in North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Shayan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The distribution and ecological preferences of ticks of domestic animals in North of Iran were studied four times a year from 2002 to 2005. Methods: A total of 1720 tick specimens were collected from cattle, sheep and goats from different localities of Caspian Sea areas consisting of Guilan, Mazandaran, Golestan and Ardebil provinces, Iran. Results: Fourteen tick species were identified as Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum (5.23%, H.marginatum (20.34%, H.detritum (3.48%, Haemaphysalis punctata (12.79%, Haem. Parva (0.58%, Haem.concinna (0.58%, Haem.choldokovsky (6.97%, Ixodes ricinus (2.32%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (19.76%, Rh.bursa (4.65%, Boophilus annulatus (9.88%, Dermacentor niveus (6.39%, D. marginatus (1.74% and Ornithodoros lahorensis (5.23%. Both Dermacentor and Ornithodoros were found only in Ardebil with cold climatic conditions and high altitude. The only ticks, which were found in forest area, were Boophilus annulatus and Ixodes ricinus. Conclusion: The veterinary and public health importance of the above species should be emphasized.

  9. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  10. Association patterns of ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae, Argasidae) of small mammals in Cerrado fragments, western Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponchiado, Jonas; Melo, Geruza L; Martins, Thiago F; Krawczak, Felipe S; Labruna, Marcelo B; Cáceres, Nilton C

    2015-03-01

    The present study describes ticks associated with small mammals and analyzes the aggregation patterns according to seasonal and host variations in the Cerrado biome, central-western Brazil. Small mammals were systematically captured in 54 woodland fragments from February 2012 to July 2013. A total of 1,040 animals belonging to eight marsupial and 12 rodent species were captured; 265 animals were parasitized by eight tick species (in decreasing order of abundance): Ornithodoros mimon, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma parvum, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma parkeri, and Ixodes amarali. With few exceptions, collected ticks were larvae and nymphs. Among the more abundant animals, the marsupial Didelphis albiventris showed the highest tick prevalence (84.4 %), mean abundance (19.2), mean intensity (22.8), richness of ticks species (n = 7), and total abundance of ticks (n = 2,457). Amblyomma sculptum and O. mimon were the most generalist species, collected on four host species. Fifteen new tick-host associations are reported for the first time. Most ticks showed higher prevalence and mean intensity in the dry season, regardless of host species. Overall, tick prevalence and mean intensity of infestation were significantly associated with host gender. Finally, the importance of the large number of records of the argasid O. mimon is discussed.

  11. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastropaolo, Mariano; Beltrán-Saavedra, L Fabián; Guglielmone, Alberto A

    2014-03-01

    The tick species reported in Bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: Ornithodoros echimys, O. guaporensis, O. hasei, O. kohlsi, O. mimon, O. peropteryx, O. rostratus, Otobius megnini, Amblyomma auricularium, A. cajennense, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, A. humerale, A. incisum, A. longirostre, A. naponense, A. nodosum, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. parvitarsum, A. parvum, A. pecarium, A. pseudoconcolor, A. rotundatum, A. scalpturatum, A. tigrinum, A. triste, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, H. leporispalustris, I. boliviensis, I. cooleyi, I. luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, R. sanguineus, and (2) erroneously reported: Ornithodoros puertoricensis, O. talaje, O. turicata, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, A. multipunctum, Ixodes ricinus, I. scapularis, Rhipicephalus annulatus. Many of these records are lacking locality and/or host, and some of them need new findings for confirmation. Some of the species recorded may represent a threat for human and animal health, therefore would be of great value to make a countrywide survey of ticks in order to update the information presented in this work. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. The high genetic variation of viruses of the genus Nairovirus reflects the diversity of their predominant tick hosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, Jessica E.; Osborne, Jane C.; Nichol, Stuart T.

    2004-01-01

    The genus Nairovirus (family Bunyaviridae) contains seven serogroups consisting of 34 predominantly tick-borne viruses, including several associated with severe human and livestock diseases [e.g., Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Nairobi sheep disease (NSD), respectively]. Before this report, no comparative genetic studies or molecular detection assays had been developed for this virus genus. To characterize at least one representative from each of the seven serogroups, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) primers targeting the L polymerase-encoding region of the RNA genome of these viruses were successfully designed based on conserved amino acid motifs present in the predicted catalytic core region. Sequence analysis showed the nairoviruses to be a highly diverse group, exhibiting up to 39.4% and 46.0% nucleotide and amino acid identity differences, respectively. Virus genetic relationships correlated well with serologic groupings and with tick host associations. Hosts of these viruses include both the hard (family Ixodidae) and soft (family Argasidae) ticks. Virus phylogenetic analysis reveals two major monophyletic groups: hard tick and soft tick-vectored viruses. In addition, viruses vectored by Ornithodoros, Carios, and Argas genera ticks also form three separate monophyletic lineages. The striking similarities between tick and nairovirus phylogenies are consistent with possible coevolution of the viruses and their tick hosts. Fossil and phylogenetic data placing the hard tick-soft tick divergence between 120 and 92 million years ago suggest an ancient origin for viruses of the genus Nairovirus

  13. A newly identified tick-borne Borrelia species and relapsing fever in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisinza, William N; McCall, P J; Mitani, Harumi; Talbert, Alison; Fukunaga, Masahito

    2003-10-18

    Tick-borne relapsing fever caused by the spirochaete Borrelia duttonii is a common cause of serious illness in central Tanzania. Screening of Ornithodoros sp ticks from infested houses for the presence of B duttonii had detected a previously unidentified species of Borrelia. We investigated whether this species infected the human population in a central Tanzanian village, by use of blood slide examination and PCR. PCR was twice as sensitive in detection of infections, showing Borrelia sp in six (11%) of 54 children with fever, and in 13 (4%) of 307 otherwise healthy children. Genotyping Borrelia from 17 infections identified Borrelia duttonii and an unnamed species. Our findings show that the newly discovered species is a causal agent of tick-borne relapsing fever.

  14. Life cycle of Ornithodoros rostratus (Acari: Argasidae) under experimental conditions and comments on the host-parasite relationship in the Pantanal wetland region, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carla Carolina Dias Uzedo; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Piranda, Eliane Mattos; Barros-Battesti, Darci Moraes; Leite, Romário Cerqueira

    2013-09-01

    The genus Ornithodoros is represented by 15 species in Brazil, on which no detailed life cycle studies have been published, except for O. talaje and O. mimon. The aim of the present study was to evaluate life cycle parameters of O. rostratus based on ticks collected in the Pantanal wetland region of the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, using domestic rabbits as experimental hosts. The periods of pre-attachment and feeding of the larvae lasted an average of 39 min (range 15-76 min). Five or six nymphal instars were found. The emergence of adults started with N3 in the following sequence: N3-two males; N4-13 males; N5-three males and 16 females; and N6-two females. Mean weight of N4 that molted to males was 31.7 ± 13.6 mg, whereas mean weight of N5 that molted to females was 100.1 ± 36.2 mg. The overall sex ratio was 1:1. Oviposition lasted 14 days, with a sharp decline beginning with the 7th day. The overall duration of the life cycle of O. rostratus ranged from approximately 66 to 136 days. Comments on the tick-host relationship in the Pantanal region are offered.

  15. Pesky Ticks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-09

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about the dangers of ticks and how to protect yourself from them.  Created: 4/9/2013 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/9/2013.

  16. Mevalonate-Farnesal Biosynthesis in Ticks: Comparative Synganglion Transcriptomics and a New Perspective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiwei Zhu

    Full Text Available Juvenile hormone (JH controls the growth, development, metamorphosis, and reproduction of insects. For many years, the general assumption has been that JH regulates tick and other acarine development and reproduction the same as in insects. Although researchers have not been able to find the common insect JHs in hard and soft tick species and JH applications appear to have no effect on tick development, it is difficult to prove the negative or to determine whether precursors to JH are made in ticks. The tick synganglion contains regions which are homologous to the corpora allata, the biosynthetic source for JH in insects. Next-gen sequencing of the tick synganglion transcriptome was conducted separately in adults of the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, the deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, and the relapsing fever tick, Ornithodoros turicata as a new approach to determine whether ticks can make JH or a JH precursor. All of the enzymes that make up the mevalonate pathway from acetyl-CoA to farnesyl diphosphate (acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase, HMG-S, HMG-R, mevalonate kinase, phosphomevalonate kinase, diphosphomevalonate decarboxylase, and farnesyl diphosphate synthase were found in at least one of the ticks studied but most were found in all three species. Sequence analysis of the last enzyme in the mevalonate pathway, farnesyl diphosphate synthase, demonstrated conservation of the seven prenyltransferase regions and the aspartate rich motifs within those regions typical of this enzyme. In the JH branch from farnesyl diphosphate to JH III, we found a putative farnesol oxidase used for the conversion of farnesol to farnesal in the synganglion transcriptome of I. scapularis and D. variabilis. Methyltransferases (MTs that add a methyl group to farnesoic acid to make methyl farnesoate were present in all of the ticks studied with similarities as high as 36% at the amino acid level to insect JH acid methyltransferase (JHAMT. However, when the tick MTs

  17. Análisis de la saliva de Ornithodoros moubata y producción de antígenos recombinantes para el desarrollo de test serológicos y vacunas antigarrapata

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Martín, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    VI, 208 páginas. -- Bibliografía: p. 189-208. -- Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Salamanca. Facultad de Biología. Departamento de Biología animal, Parasitología, Ecología, Edafología y Química agrícola. Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiología de Salamanca-CSIC. Leída, 27-06-2014

  18. Detection of a Borrelia species in questing Gulf Coast ticks, Amblyomma maculatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Keun; Smith, Whitney Crow; McIntosh, Chelsea; Ferrari, Flavia Girao; Moore-Henderson, Brittany; Varela-Stokes, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Borrelia spp. are agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, diseases which use Ixodes hard ticks and Ornithodoros soft ticks, respectively, as primary vectors. Some relapsing fever spirochetes, such as B. miyamotoi, are also found in hard ticks. To date, no Borrelia sp. is known to use the hard tick, Amblyomma maculatum, as a vector. However, both B. burgdorferi and B. lonestari were recently detected in A. maculatum removed from hosts. In our study, DNA extracts from 306 questing adult A. maculatum collected in Mississippi in 2009 and 2010 were tested for Borrelia spp. DNA by PCR amplification of flaB and 16S rRNA gene targets. An additional 97 A. maculatum collected in 2013 were tested by amplification of 16S rRNA gene target. Two ticks, one collected in 2009 and the other in 2010, were positive by PCR of the flaB and 16S rRNA gene targets; both were collected from the same location in central Mississippi. Interestingly, 16S rRNA gene amplicons from these two tick extracts were 98% identical to twelve Borrelia spp. including the reptile-associated spirochete B. turcica and Borrelia sp. "tAG158M"; flaB amplicons from these two ticks shared closest identity (89%) to the reptile-associated spirochete, B. turcica. These results demonstrate a Borrelia sp. in unfed A. maculatum ticks that is unique from other species in the NCBI database and in a clade with reptile-associated Borrelia species. Detection of a previously unrecognized Borrelia in a hard tick species generates additional questions regarding the bacterial fauna in these arthropods and warrants further studies to better understand this fauna. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Rickettsial infection in ticks from wild birds from Cerrado and the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso, midwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Dirceu G de S; Melo, Andréia L T; Martins, Thiago F; Alves, Alvair da S; Pacheco, Thábata dos A; Pinto, Letícia B; Pinho, João B; Labruna, Marcelo B; Dutra, Valéria; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C

    2015-09-01

    The involvement of different species of ticks and wild animals, such as birds, play an important role in the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. Birds may serve as reservoirs for some tick-borne diseases, and may carry and spread hematophagous ectoparasites mechanically. This study aimed to show the diversity of ticks on birds and molecular detection of rickettsial infection in ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, two similar Brazilian biomes characterized by hydrological seasons. During two years, August 2012 to May 2014, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in total of 14 visits for collecting samples, distributed in all hydrological seasons. A total of 674 birds were captured representing 113 species from 26 families. In total, 71 birds were parasitized (10.5%), and 155 ticks of the following 7 tick species (in decreasing order of prevalence) were identified: Amblyomma longirostre Koch, Amblyomma nodosum Neumann, Amblyomma cajennense Fabricius sensu lato (s.l.), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones, Amblyomma ovale Koch, and Amblyomma triste Koch. Among free-living ticks collected in the environment, A. cajennense s.l. was the most common. This is the first occurrence of O. mimon on birds, and of A. triste on Passeriformes in Brazil. Molecular analyses revealed that 6 A. longirostre ticks were infected by 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', whereas 1 A. nodosum was infected by a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent, previously reported as Rickettsia sp. strain NOD. Spotted fever group (SFG) agents were, for the first time, reported in ticks from birds captured in Pantanal biome, and the potential involvement of these agents as human pathogens should be considered in further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Tick-borne relapsing fever in a new highland endemic focus of western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemenbellah-Fard, M D; Benafshi, O; Rafinejad, J; Ashraf, H

    2009-09-01

    Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a neglected zoonotic disease caused by infection with spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia. Humans usually contract it from the bite of infected soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros. In Iran, where the disease is endemic in the mountainous north-western provinces, reports of over 200 cases annually probably under-estimate the true incidence. The species, distribution and infection of ticks that are potential vectors of Borrelia and the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the local TBRF cases were recently investigated in the villages in and around the county town of Bijar, in north-western Iran. A blood sample from each suspected case of TBRF was checked for B. persica by dark-field microscopy, data were collected on the demographics and clinical manifestations of each confirmed case, and the prevalence of tick infection with borreliae and the monthly incidence of TBRF were evaluated. Between 2000 and 2007, 148 cases of TBRF (each with fever, chills and headache) were passively detected in the town. Most (115) of these were confirmed by microscopy, with the other subjects categorized as probable (21) or suspected cases (12) of TBRF. Most (91%) of the 148 subjects were young people, and most came from rural areas and lived in large households in the old mud-and-thatch houses of Bijar. Most (82%) of the cases occurred during the summer or early autumn. Overall, 8543 soft ticks (Ornithodoros tholozani, O. lahorensis, Argas persicus and A. reflexus) were collected by clustered random sampling. When a random sample of the O. tholozani ticks (96 of the 577 collected) was checked for B. persica infection, by being crushed and then inoculated intraperitoneally into a mouse or suckling Syrian hamster, 19 were found infected. Peaks in the monthly incidence of TBRF occurred as the numbers of O. tholozani in the tick collections peaked, and it seems likely that most of the cases were caused by B. persica transmitted by O

  1. Distribution of endemic and introduced tick species in Free State Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, Ivan G; Jordaan, Adri J; Nel, Pierre J; van Heerden, Joseph; Heyne, Heloise; van Dalen, Ellie M

    2015-06-09

    The distributions of endemic tick vector species as well as the presence of species not endemic to Free State Province, South Africa, were determined during surveys or opportunistic collections from livestock, wildlife and vegetation. Amongst endemic ticks, the presence of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was confirmed in the north of the province, whilst Rhipicephalus decoloratus was collected at 31 localities mostly in the centre and east, and Ixodes rubicundus at 11 localities in the south, south-west and centre of the province. Amongst the non-endemic species adult Amblyomma hebraeum were collected from white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) on four privately owned farms, whilst the adults of Rhipicephalus microplus were collected from cattle and a larva from vegetation at four localities in the east of the province. The collection of Rhipicephalus evertsi mimeticus from a sheep in the west of the province is the second record of its presence in the Free State, whereas the presence of Haemaphysalis silacea on helmeted guineafowl (Numida meleagris) and vegetation in the centre of the province represents a first record for this species in the Free State. The first collection of the argasid tick, Ornithodoros savignyi, in the Free State was made from a domestic cow and from soil in the west of the province. The localities at which the ticks were collected have been plotted and the ticks' role in the transmission or cause of disease in domestic livestock and wildlife is discussed.

  2. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVII. Ticks of tortoises and other reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; McKay, I J; Henen, B T; Heyne, Heloise; Hofmeyr, Margaretha D; De Villiers, A L

    2006-09-01

    A total of 586 reptiles, belonging to 35 species and five subspecies, were examined in surveys aimed at determining the species spectrum and geographic distribution of ticks that infest them. Of these reptiles 509 were tortoises, 28 monitor or other lizards, and 49 snakes. Nine ixodid tick species, of which seven belonged to the genus Amblyomma, and one argasid tick, Ornithodoros compactus were recovered. Seven of the ten tick species are parasites of reptiles. Amongst these seven species Amblyomma marmoreum was most prevalent and numerous on leopard tortoises, Geochelone pardalis; Amblyomma nuttalliwas present only on Bell's hinged tortoises, Kinixys belliana; and most Amblyomma sylvaticum were collected from angulate tortoises, Chersina angulata. Amblyomma exornatum (formerly Aponomma exornatum) was only recovered from monitor lizards, Varanus spp.; most Amblyomma latum (formerly Aponomma latum) were from snakes; and a single nymph of Amblyomma transversale (formerly Aponomma transversale) was collected from a southern African python, Python natalensis. All 30 Namaqualand speckled padloper tortoises, Homopus signatus signatus, examined were infested with O. compactus. The seasonal occurrence of A. sylvaticum and the geographic distribution of this tick and of A. marmoreum, A. nuttalli, A. exornatum, A. latum and O. compactus are illustrated.

  3. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLVII. Ticks of tortoises and other reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 586 reptiles, belonging to 35 species and five subspecies, were examined in surveys aimed at determining the species spectrum and geographic distribution of ticks that infest them. Of these reptiles 509 were tortoises, 28 monitor or other lizards, and 49 snakes. Nine ixodid tick species, of which seven belonged to the genus Amblyomma, and one argasid tick, Ornithodoros compactus were recovered. Seven of the ten tick species are parasites of reptiles. Amongst these seven species Amblyomma marmoreum was most prevalent and numerous on leopard tortoises, Geochelone pardalis; Amblyomma nuttalli was present only on Bell's hinged tortoises, Kinixys belliana; and most Amblyomma sylvaticum were collected from angulate tortoises, Chersina angulata. Amblyomma exornatum (formerly Aponomma exornatum was only recovered from monitor lizards, Varanus spp.; most Amblyomma latum (formerly Aponomma latum were from snakes; and a single nymph of Amblyomma transversale (formerly Aponomma transversale was collected from a southern African python, Python natalensis. All 30 Namaqualand speckled padloper tortoises, Homopus signatus signatus, examined were infested with O. compactus. The seasonal occurrence of A. sylvaticum and the geographic distribution of this tick and of A. marmoreum, A. nuttalli, A. exornatum, A. latum and O. compactus are illustrated.

  4. Incidence of tick-borne relapsing fever in west Africa: longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vial, Laurence; Diatta, Georges; Tall, Adama; Ba, El Hadj; Bouganali, Hilaire; Durand, Patrick; Sokhna, Cheikh; Rogier, Christophe; Renaud, François; Trape, Jean-François

    2006-07-01

    The ongoing drought in sub-Saharan countries has led to the colonisation of west African Savanna by Ornithodoros sonrai; this tick acts as a vector for Borrelia crocidurae, which causes tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF). Our aim was to ascertain the incidence of TBRF in west Africa. From 1990 to 2003, we monitored the incidence of TBRF in Dielmo, Senegal, by daily clinical surveillance and by blood testing of individuals with a fever. From 2002 to 2005, we investigated the presence of O sonrai in 30 villages in Senegal, Mauritania, and Mali, and measured by PCR the prevalence of B crocidurae. The average incidence of TBRF over 14 years was 11 per 100 person-years (range from 4 in 1990 to 25 in 1997). All age-groups presented a high incidence of the disease. In addition to relapses, repeated infections in the same individuals were common, with some affected by up to six distinct infections during the study period. Epidemiological studies indicated that 26 of the 30 studied villages (87%) were colonised by the vector tick O sonrai and that the average B crocidurae infection rate of the vector was 31%. The incidence of TBRF at the community level is the highest described in Africa for any bacterial disease. The presence of the vector tick in most villages investigated and its high infection rate suggest that TBRF is a common cause of fever in most rural areas of Senegal, Mauritania, and Mali.

  5. Ticks and tick paralysis: imaging findings on cranial MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Michael S.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley; Hamrick, Harvey J.

    2005-01-01

    Tick paralysis is an acute, progressive, and potentially fatal muscle paralysis secondary to a toxin secreted by a pregnant tick during a bite. Although tick bites can occur anywhere on the body, ticks are frequently overlooked on the scalp because of overlying hair. Children with acute neurologic symptoms frequently undergo MR scanning that may incidentally reveal the offending tick. Timely identification and removal of the tick leads to rapid recovery from tick paralysis. We report the MRI findings at 1.5 T of tick paralysis with an attached tick. (orig.)

  6. Ticks and tick paralysis: imaging findings on cranial MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Michael S.; Fordham, Lynn Ansley [University of North Carolina Chapel Hill, UNC School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, NC (United States); Hamrick, Harvey J. [University of North Carolina Hospitals, Department of Pediatrics, Chapel Hill (United States)

    2005-02-01

    Tick paralysis is an acute, progressive, and potentially fatal muscle paralysis secondary to a toxin secreted by a pregnant tick during a bite. Although tick bites can occur anywhere on the body, ticks are frequently overlooked on the scalp because of overlying hair. Children with acute neurologic symptoms frequently undergo MR scanning that may incidentally reveal the offending tick. Timely identification and removal of the tick leads to rapid recovery from tick paralysis. We report the MRI findings at 1.5 T of tick paralysis with an attached tick. (orig.)

  7. High infection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. among tick species collected from different geographical locations of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Tajedin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To ascertain the prevalence of the Anaplasma/Ehrlichia infections in tick population within four provinces of Iran. Methods: A total of 384 tick specimens were collected from domestic animals inhabiting in four provinces (East Azerbaijan, Gilan, South Khorasan and Yazd. Specimens were identified based on morphological analysis. The detection of Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp. within tick samples was carried out by nested PCR amplification of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene accompanied by DNA sequencing and analysis for verification. Results: A total of 10 tick species were identified as follows: Ornithodoros lahorensis (O. lahorensis (44.8%, Hyalomma dromedarii (15.6%, Dermacentor marginatus (13.5%, Hyalomma anatolicum (11.2%, Hyalomma asiaticum (5.7%, Hyalomma marginatum (4.9%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2.3%, Hyalomma detritum (1.0%, Dermacentor niveus (0.5% and Argas persicus (0.3%. The percentage distribution of Anaplasma/Ehrlichia was 55.5% (213 across 384 studied ticks. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasma ovis infection in O. lahorensis in Iran. We also conjecture the prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. in Yazd Province based on sequencing results; also, it is suggested that O. lahorensis is a potential vector in the studied area. This survey highlights the importance of Argasidae family to verify and correlate their threat in causing anaplasmosis and other diseases in animals.

  8. Molecular methods routinely used to detect Coxiella burnetii in ticks cross-react with Coxiella-like bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jourdain Elsa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Q fever is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. Ticks may act as vectors, and many epidemiological studies aim to assess C. burnetii prevalence in ticks. Because ticks may also be infected with Coxiella-like bacteria, screening tools that differentiate between C. burnetii and Coxiella-like bacteria are essential. Methods: In this study, we screened tick specimens from 10 species (Ornithodoros rostratus, O. peruvianus, O. capensis, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. decoloratus, R. geigy, O. sonrai, O. occidentalis, and Amblyomma cajennense known to harbor specific Coxiella-like bacteria, by using quantitative PCR primers usually considered to be specific for C. burnetii and targeting, respectively, the IS1111, icd, scvA, p1, and GroEL/htpB genes. Results: We found that some Coxiella-like bacteria, belonging to clades A and C, yield positive PCR results when screened with primers initially believed to be C. burnetii-specific. Conclusions: These results suggest that PCR-based surveys that aim to detect C. burnetii in ticks by using currently available methods must be interpreted with caution if the amplified products cannot be sequenced. Future molecular methods that aim at detecting C. burnetii need to take into account the possibility that cross-reactions may exist with Coxiella-like bacteria.

  9. Structure, Function, and Evolution of Biogenic Amine-binding Proteins in Soft Ticks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mans, Ben J.; Ribeiro, Jose M.C.; Andersen, John F. (NIH)

    2008-08-19

    Two highly abundant lipocalins, monomine and monotonin, have been isolated from the salivary gland of the soft tick Argas monolakensis and shown to bind histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), respectively. The crystal structures of monomine and a paralog of monotonin were determined in the presence of ligands to compare the determinants of ligand binding. Both the structures and binding measurements indicate that the proteins have a single binding site rather than the two sites previously described for the female-specific histamine-binding protein (FS-HBP), the histamine-binding lipocalin of the tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. The binding sites of monomine and monotonin are similar to the lower, low affinity site of FS-HBP. The interaction of the protein with the aliphatic amine group of the ligand is very similar for the all of the proteins, whereas specificity is determined by interactions with the aromatic portion of the ligand. Interestingly, protein interaction with the imidazole ring of histamine differs significantly between the low affinity binding site of FS-HBP and monomine, suggesting that histamine binding has evolved independently in the two lineages. From the conserved features of these proteins, a tick lipocalin biogenic amine-binding motif could be derived that was used to predict biogenic amine-binding function in other tick lipocalins. Heterologous expression of genes from salivary gland libraries led to the discovery of biogenic amine-binding proteins in soft (Ornithodoros) and hard (Ixodes) tick genera. The data generated were used to reconstruct the most probable evolutionary pathway for the evolution of biogenic amine-binding in tick lipocalins.

  10. Preventing Ticks on Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fipronil Pyrethroids (permethrin, etc.) Amitraz Repel Ticks on Dogs A repellent product may prevent the tick from coming into contact with an animal at all or have anti-feeding effects once the tick comes into contact with ...

  11. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cançado, P H D; Faccini, J L H; Herrera, H M; Tavares, L E R; Mourão, G M; Piranda, E M; Paes, R C S; Ribeiro, C C D U; Borghesan, T C; Piacenti, A K; Kinas, M A; Santos, C C; Ono, T M; Paiva, F

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population.

  12. [Protection against tick bites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, N; Lipsker, Dan

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous tick-borne infections, which include viral (TBE), parasitic (babesiosis) and bacterial diseases. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is the most common tick-borne disease in France. In temperate climates such as in France, ticks bite humans between March and October. Prevention relies on adequate clothing and on repellents. The latter are reviewed in this work. Repellents may be natural, made from eucalyptus, tomato and coconut, or synthetic, among which the most widely used is DEET (N,N,-Diethyl-m-toluamide). Newer, synthetic repellents exist such as IR3535 which, as well as being less toxic, also exhibits greater efficacy against ticks. Some repellents are used on the skin, while others, like permethrin, which is actually an insecticide, may be applied to clothing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. [Tick borne diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, B R

    2005-11-01

    It is known for many years that tick-borne diseases have worldwide a high economical impact on farming industry and veterinary medicine. But only in the last twenty years the importance of such diseases were notified in human medicine by the medical community and the public with emerging of the tick borne encephalitis virus and the description of Borrelia burgdorferi. It is often forgotten that many other infectious agents as bacteria, virus, Rickettsia or protozoa can be transmitted by ticks. Such diseases are rarely diagnosed in Europe either they are overlooked and misdiagnosed or they are connected with special professional activities. The development of new regions for tourism with different out door activities (adventure trips, trekking, hunting) leads to an exposure to different tick borne diseases, which are often misdiagnosed.

  14. Vaccination against ticks and the control of ticks and tick-borne disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willadsen, P.

    2005-01-01

    Economic losses due to ticks and tick-borne disease of livestock fall disproportionately on developing countries. Currently, tick control relies mostly on pesticides and parasite-resistant cattle. Release of a commercial recombinant vaccine against Boophilus microplus in Australia in 1994 showed that anti-tick vaccines are a feasible alternative. For vaccines, it is important to understand the efficacy needed for a beneficial outcome. In this, it is relevant that some tick antigens affect multiple tick species; that existing vaccines could be improved by the inclusion of additional tick antigens; and that vaccination against ticks can have an impact on tick-borne disease. Practically, although recombinant vaccine manufacture involves relatively few steps, issues of intellectual property rights (IPR) and requirements for registration of a product may affect economic viability of manufacture. Hence practical vaccines for the developing world will require both successful science and a creative 'business solution' for delivery in a cost-effective way. (author)

  15. Anti-histamine effect of Rubia tibetica, used to treat anaphylaxis caused by tick bites in the Pamir Mountains, Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Anne S.; Kristiansen, Uffe; Soelberg, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: The roots of Rubia tibetica are chewed as an antidote to anaphylaxis caused by bites of the tick Ornithodoros lahorensis by the Wakhi people in Afghanistan. Aims of the study: To test whether Rubia tibetica possess anti-histamine effect. Materials and methods: Water...... and ethanol extracts of roots of Rubia tibetica were tested for anti-histamine effect on the H 1-receptor in the guinea pig ileum assay. Fixed concentrations of plant extract with increasing concentrations of histamine were examined. Mepyramine was used as control. Results and conclusion: The ethanol extract...... of Rubia tibetica showed dose-dependent anti-histamine effect, whereas the water extract had little activity. The chewing of Rubia tibetica roots may alleviate the fatal swelling of the tongue during anaphylaxis....

  16. Anti-histamine effect of Rubia tibetica, used to treat anaphylaxis caused by tick bites in the Pamir Mountains, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Anne S; Kristiansen, Uffe; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2012-06-14

    The roots of Rubia tibetica are chewed as an antidote to anaphylaxis caused by bites of the tick Ornithodoros lahorensis by the Wakhi people in Afghanistan. To test whether Rubia tibetica possess anti-histamine effect. Water and ethanol extracts of roots of Rubia tibetica were tested for anti-histamine effect on the H1-receptor in the guinea pig ileum assay. Fixed concentrations of plant extract with increasing concentrations of histamine were examined. Mepyramine was used as control. The ethanol extract of Rubia tibetica showed dose-dependent anti-histamine effect, whereas the water extract had little activity. The chewing of Rubia tibetica roots may alleviate the fatal swelling of the tongue during anaphylaxis.

  17. Tick Talk: Block Tick Bites and Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of tick-borne diseases. Use fine-tipped tweezers. Grab the tick close to the skin and gently ... D. Illustrator: Alan Defibaugh Attention Editors: Reprint our articles and illustrations in your own publication. Our material ...

  18. Developing Anti-tick Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Mallon, Alina

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are responsible for the transmission of viral, bacterial, and protozoal diseases of man and animals and also produce significant economic losses to cattle industry. The use of acaricides constitutes a major component of integrated tick control strategies. However, this is accompanied by the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and contamination of environment and milk and meat products with drug residues. These issues highlight the need for alternative approaches to control tick infestations and have triggered the search for tick protective antigens for vaccine development. Vaccination as a tick control method has been practiced since the introduction of TickGARD and Gavac that were developed using the midgut glycoprotein Bm86 as antigen. Gavac within integrated tick management systems has proven to reduce the number of acaricidal applications per year that are required to control some strains of R. microplus ticks in different geographical regions. Nevertheless, it has limited or no efficacy against other tick species. These issues have stimulated research for additional tick protective antigens with critical functions in the tick. This chapter presents methodologies for the design and test of molecules as antigens against ticks. Considerations about different methods for the tick control compared to the immunological methods, the desirable characteristics for an anti-tick vaccine and the obstacles encountered for developing this kind of vaccines are discussed. Detailed methodologies for the establishment of a biological model to test new molecules as immunogens against ticks and to perform challenge trials with this model are presented. General considerations in the efficacy calculation for any anti-tick vaccine are also discussed.

  19. Molecular biology of tick acetylcholinesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temeyer, Kevin Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Ticks vector many pathogens with major health and economic impacts and have developed resistance to most acaricides used for tick control. Organophosphate (OP) acaricides target acetylcholinesterase (AChE) critical to tick central nervous system function. Mutations producing tick AChEs resistant to OPs were characterized; but tick OP-resistance is not fully elucidated, due to remarkable complexity of tick cholinergic systems. Three paralogous tick AChEs exhibiting differences in primary structure and biochemical kinetics are encoded by amplified genes with developmentally regulated expression. Gene silencing data suggest tick AChEs are functional complements in vivo, and transcriptomic and genomic data suggest existence of additional tick AChEs. Cholinergic systems are crucial in neural transmission and are also regulators of vertebrate immune function. Ticks exhibit prolonged intimate host contact, suggesting adaptive functions for tick cholinergic system complexity. AChE was recently reported in tick saliva and a role in manipulation of host immune responses was hypothesized. Physiological roles and genetic control of multiple tick AChEs requires further elucidation and may provide unique opportunities to understand and manipulate cholinergic involvement in biological systems.

  20. Approaches towards tick and tick-borne diseases control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Domingos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a control measure with serious drawbacks, as responsible for the contamination of milk and meat products, as a selective factor for acaricide-resistant ticks and as an environmental contaminant. Research on alternatives to the use of acaricides is strongly represented by tick vaccines considered a more cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy. Vaccines based on the Bm86 tick antigen were used in the first commercially available cattle tick vaccines and showed good results in reducing tick numbers, affecting weight and reproductive performance of female ticks which resulted in reduction of cattle tick populations over time and consequently lower reduction of the pathogen agents they carry.

  1. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... remove an attached tick, use fine tweezers to grab the tick firmly by the head (or as ... 15, 2005) Last Updated: May 1, 2014 This article was contributed by: familydoctor.org editorial staff Categories: ...

  2. Tips to Prevent Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using the right insect repellent and other preventive actions can discourage ticks, mosquitoes, and other biting insects from landing on you. Tips include avoiding tick habitats and minimizing exposed skin.

  3. Tick-Borne Relapsing Fever Outbreak Among a High School Football Team at an Outdoor Education Camping Trip, Arizona, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson M; Hranac, Carter R; Schumacher, Mare; Horn, Kim; Lee, Darlene M; Terriquez, Joel; Engelthaler, David M; Peoples, Marie; Corrigan, Jennifer; Replogle, Adam; Souders, Nina; Komatsu, Kenneth K; Nieto, Nathan C

    2016-09-07

    During August 2014, five high school students who had attended an outdoor education camp were hospitalized with a febrile illness, prompting further investigation. Ten total cases of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) were identified-six cases confirmed by culture or visualization of spirochetes on blood smear and four probable cases with compatible symptoms (attack rate: 23%). All patients had slept in the campsite's only cabin. Before the camp, a professional pest control company had rodent proofed the cabin, but no acaricides had been applied. Cabin inspection after the camp found rodents and Ornithodoros ticks, the vector of TBRF. Blood samples from a chipmunk trapped near the cabin and from patients contained Borrelia hermsii with identical gene sequences (100% over 630 base pairs). Health departments in TBRF endemic areas should consider educating cabin owners and pest control companies to apply acaricides during or following rodent proofing, because ticks that lack rodents for a blood meal might feed on humans. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  4. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vienna R. Brown

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV, which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation.

  5. A Review of African Swine Fever and the Potential for Introduction into the United States and the Possibility of Subsequent Establishment in Feral Swine and Native Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Vienna R.; Bevins, Sarah N.

    2018-01-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is caused by African swine fever virus (ASFV), which can cause substantial morbidity and mortality events in swine. The virus can be transmitted via direct and indirect contacts with infected swine, their products, or competent vector species, especially Ornithodoros ticks. Africa and much of Eastern Europe are endemic for ASF; a viral introduction to countries that are currently ASF free could have severe economic consequences due to the loss of production from infected animals and the trade restrictions that would likely be imposed as a result of an outbreak. We identified vulnerabilities that could lead to ASFV introduction or persistence in the United States or other ASF-free regions. Both legal and illegal movements of live animals, as well as the importation of animal products, byproducts, and animal feed, pose a risk of virus introduction. Each route is described, and current regulations designed to prevent ASFV and other pathogens from entering the United States are outlined. Furthermore, existing ASFV research gaps are highlighted. Laboratory experiments to evaluate multiple species of Ornithodoros ticks that have yet to be characterized would be useful to understand vector competence, host preferences, and distribution of competent soft tick vectors in relation to high pig production areas as well as regions with high feral swine (wild boar or similar) densities. Knowledge relative to antigenic viral proteins that contribute to host response and determination of immune mechanisms that lead to protection are foundational in the quest for a vaccine. Finally, sampling of illegally imported and confiscated wild suid products for ASFV could shed light on the types of products being imported and provide a more informed perspective relative to the risk of ASFV importation. PMID:29468165

  6. It's Open Season on Ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    It’s Open Season on Ticks Protect yourself from tickborne disease this hunting season Ticks feed on the blood of animals (such as rodents, rabbits, deer, and birds), but will bite humans too. Ticks live in grassy or wooded areas, or on the animals themselves. Hunting brings you ...

  7. Tick Talk: Tick-borne Diseases of South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Mark K; Allison, Jay

    2017-09-01

    In addition to being a nuisance, ticks can carry disease. This article presents a brief review of ticks and associated tick-borne disease relevant to South Dakota and surrounding regions. Tick-borne diseases of special relevance in South Dakota include tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and Lyme disease. A number of others may also be encountered in the state as well. Prompt treatment of suspected cases is important to ensure a successful recovery, and tick-avoidance measures can reduce the risks of acquiring them. Most of these conditions are nationally reportable infectious diseases. Copyright© South Dakota State Medical Association.

  8. Pigeon tick bite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolla, G; Heffler, E; Boita, M

    2018-01-01

    Anaphylaxis is a serious systemic allergic reaction with rapid onset and potentially life-threatening. We report in detail a case of severe nocturnal anaphylaxis due to pigeon tick bite showing the diagnostic value of the extract and the recombinant allergen in the diagnostic procedures (basophil...... reagents. Because of the growing number of pigeons in Middle and Southern Europe cities, some cases of idiopathic anaphylaxis could potentially be caused by A. reflexus in those countries. The identification of pigeon ticks as a trigger of anaphylaxis would greatly improve medical care and advice...

  9. Tick Innate Immunity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Petr; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Burešová, Veronika; Daffre, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 708, - (2010), 137-162 ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick * pathogen transmission * innate immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.379, year: 2010

  10. Are ticks venomous animals?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, JUL 2014 (2014), s. 47 ISSN 1742-9994 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : ticks * venom * secreted proteins * toxicoses * pathogens * convergence Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.051, year: 2014

  11. More Trouble from Ticks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-18

    Dr. Chris Paddock, a rickettsiologist and infectious disease pathologist discusses a tick-transmitted bacterium, Rickettsia parkeri.  Created: 8/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/18/2011.

  12. African tick bite fever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jakob Aaquist; Thybo, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The incident of spotted fever imported to Denmark is unknown. We present a classic case of African Tick Bite Fever (ATBF) to highlight a disease, which frequently infects wildlife enthusiasts and hunters on vacation in South Africa. ATBF has a good prognosis and is easily treated with doxycyclin...

  13. Primer reporte de parasitismo de una garrapata blanda del género Ornithodoros (Ixodida: Argasidae sobre Rhinella arenarum (Anura: Bufonidae en el departamento de Valle Fértil, San Juan, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acosta, Juan Carlos

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente comunicación es reportar por primera vez un caso de parasitismo en Rhinella arenarum y a la vez mencionar el primer registro del género Ornithodoros en el departamento de Valle Fértil, San Juan, Argentina. Siendo el primer registro de parasitismo de anfibios por Ornithodoros en la Argentina y el segundo para el neotrópico.

  14. Tick-borne encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumpis, U; Crook, D; Oksi, J

    1999-04-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic arbovirus infection endemic to Russia and Eastern and Central Europe. Despite being a common and serious life-threatening disease for which a mass vaccination program was implemented in Austria, there is only limited reference to this disease in the English-language literature. TBE is transmitted to humans usually by the bite of a tick (either Ixodes persulcatus or Ixodes ricinus); occasionally, cases occur following consumption of infected unpasteurized milk. Transmission is seasonal and occurs in spring and summer, particularly in rural areas favored by the vector. TBE is a serious cause of acute central nervous system disease, which may result in death or long-term neurological sequelae. Effective vaccines are available in a few countries. The risk for travelers of acquiring TBE is increasing with the recent rise in tourism to areas of endemicity during spring and summer.

  15. Comparative efficacy of commercial preparation of deltamethrin and cypermethrin againstOrnithodorosspp. of North Gujarat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Veer; Shyma, K P; Parsani, H R

    2017-12-01

    Ticks have massive capacity of acting as vectors of numerous pathogens that affect human, livestock and pets, which owes to their medical and veterinary importance. In animals, tick infestations are much more severe than in humans. Animals can be parasitized by hundreds or even thousands of ticks, which then proliferates the effect on the host. In almost all tropical and subtropical countries like India not only the hard ticks (Ixodidae) but also the soft ticks (Agrasidae) are responsible for economic losses either by direct injuries or disease transmission. Presently used control measure for ticks is only the use of commercially available acaricide compounds which are not much satisfactory and therefore a check on efficacy of these compounds is necessary for effective control. Commercially available preparations of deltamethrin (Butox, 1.25% E.C.) and cypermethrin (Ectomin, 10% E.C.) were compared for the acaricidal activity against soft ticks, Ornithodoros moubata by using Larval Packet Test. Larval mortality was higher with Butox as compared to Ectomin. Butox elicits 70% larval mortality, at the manufacturer's recommended dosage (25 ppm) while for Ectomin, larval mortality was 38.46% at the manufacturer's recommended dosage (200 ppm). This illustrates that deltamethrin (Butox) is more effective then cypermethrin (Ectomin).

  16. Borrelia persica: In vitro cultivation and characterization via conventional PCR and multilocus sequence analysis of two strains isolated from a cat and ticks from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Sandra; Margos, Gabriele; Overzier, Evelyn; Fingerle, Volker; Baneth, Gad; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2015-09-01

    Borrelia persica, one of the pathogenic agents of tick-borne relapsing fever, is transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani. It causes infections in humans as well as in animals. In this study, we developed a medium, termed Pettenkofer/LMU Bp, for reliable in vitro cultivation. Cell densities up to 5.2×10(7) viable cells/ml were achieved over at least 40 passages. The cultivable B. persica strain isolated from a cat was further analyzed by amplification of the flaB gene using conventional PCR. In addition, seven housekeeping genes (clpA, clpX, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB and uvrA) of this B. persica strain and a second strain isolated out of pooled ticks from Israel were amplified and the phylogenetic relationships among Borrelia species were analyzed. The results of the conventional PCR and the multilocus sequence analysis confirmed our isolates as B. persica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Tick proteins in Borrelia transmission and tick feeding: t(r)ick or treat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    The data described in this thesis contribute to the understanding of the role of tick proteins in tick feeding and transmission of Borrelia. Targeting tick proteins that play a crucial role in tick feeding and/or Borrelia transmission are interesting candidates for anti-tick vaccines to prevent Lyme

  18. A Tick on the Move?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-04

    CDC’s tick expert, Dr. Christopher Paddock, discusses ticks found in a new location.  Created: 8/4/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/4/2016.

  19. Rhipicephulus sanguineus (Brown Dog Tick)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leishmania infantimi the etiological agent of visceral leishmaniasis (Coutinho er £11., 2005). The role of R. sangau'ne:is ticks in the transmission of pathogens to humans has been documented (Palmas eraf, 2001 ). Additionally,. R. sanguineus ticks are vectors 01" Rf(fJl'.€H.S'tfl rickerrs:':'. the etiological agent of Rocky.

  20. Transport of Ixodid ticks and tick-borne pathogens by migratory birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar eHasle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Birds, particularly passerines, can be parasitized by Ixodid ticks, which may be infected with tick-borne pathogens, like Borrelia spp., Babesia spp., Anaplasma, Rickettsia/Coxiella, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. The prevalence of ticks on birds varies over years, season, locality and different bird species. The prevalence of ticks on different species depends mainly on the degree of feeding on the ground. In Europe, the Turdus spp., especially the blackbird, Turdus merula, appears to be most important for harboring ticks. Birds can easily cross barriers, like fences, mountains, glaciers, desserts and oceans, which would stop mammals, and they can move much faster than the wingless hosts. Birds can potentially transport tick-borne pathogens by transporting infected ticks, by being infected with tick-borne pathogens and transmit the pathogens to the ticks, and possibly act as hosts for transfer of pathogens between ticks through co-feeding. Knowledge of the bird migration routes and of the spatial distribution of tick species and tick-borne pathogens is crucial for understanding the possible impact of birds as spreaders of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Successful colonization of new tick species or introduction of new tick-borne pathogens will depend on suitable climate, vegetation and hosts. Although it has never been demonstrated that a new tick species, or a new tick pathogen, actually has been established in a new locality after being seeded there by birds, evidence strongly suggests that this could occur.

  1. Serine Protease Inhibitors in Ticks: An Overview of Their Role in Tick Biology and Tick-Borne Pathogen Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien A. Blisnick

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available New tick and tick-borne pathogen control approaches that are both environmentally sustainable and which provide broad protection are urgently needed. Their development, however, will rely on a greater understanding of tick biology, tick-pathogen, and tick-host interactions. The recent advances in new generation technologies to study genomes, transcriptomes, and proteomes has resulted in a plethora of tick biomacromolecular studies. Among these, many enzyme inhibitors have been described, notably serine protease inhibitors (SPIs, whose importance in various tick biological processes is only just beginning to be fully appreciated. Among the multiple active substances secreted during tick feeding, SPIs have been shown to be directly involved in regulation of inflammation, blood clotting, wound healing, vasoconstriction and the modulation of host defense mechanisms. In light of these activities, several SPIs were examined and were experimentally confirmed to facilitate tick pathogen transmission. In addition, to prevent coagulation of the ingested blood meal within the tick alimentary canal, SPIs are also involved in blood digestion and nutrient extraction from the meal. The presence of SPIs in tick hemocytes and their involvement in tick innate immune defenses have also been demonstrated, as well as their implication in hemolymph coagulation and egg development. Considering the involvement of SPIs in multiple crucial aspects of tick-host-pathogen interactions, as well as in various aspects of the tick parasitic lifestyle, these molecules represent highly suitable and attractive targets for the development of effective tick control strategies. Here we review the current knowledge regarding this class of inhibitors in tick biology and tick-borne pathogen transmission, and their potential as targets for future tick control trials.

  2. Entomopathogenic fungi associated with Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsbeek, Vibeke; Frandsen, F.; Steenberg, Tove

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the tick stage, engorgement and season. Ticks were collected from the vegetation, from small rodents and from deer. All entomopathogenic fungi found belonged to the Hypho......The objective of this study was to demonstrate the occurrence of entomopathogenic fungi on Ixodes ricinus ticks in relation to the tick stage, engorgement and season. Ticks were collected from the vegetation, from small rodents and from deer. All entomopathogenic fungi found belonged....... ricinus population, since females were the most frequently infected stage....

  3. A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of Brazil, their hosts and geographic distribution - 1. The State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans DE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the ticks (Acari, Ixodida of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, was completed as a step towards a definitive list (currently indicated as 12 of such species, their hosts and distribution. The ticks: Argas miniatus (poultry, Ixodes loricatus (opossums, Amblyomma aureolatum (dogs, A. calcaratum (anteaters, A. cooperi (capybaras, A. nodosum (anteaters, A. tigrinum (dogs (Neotropical and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (dogs (introduced, cosmopolitan, Afrotropical were confirmed as present, in addition to the predominant, Boophilus microplus (cattle (introduced, pan-tropical, Oriental. Of the further 18 species thus far reported in the literature as present in the state, but unavailable for examination: only Ornithodoros brasiliensis (humans and their habitations (Neotropical, Ixodes affinis (deer (Nearctic/Neotropical and I. auritulus (birds (Nearctic/Neotropical/Afrotropical/ Australasian are considered likely; 13 species would benefit from corroborative local data but the majority appear unlikely; reports of A. maculatum (Nearctic/Neotropical, but circum-Caribbean are considered erroneous; the validity of A. fuscum is in doubt. The very recent, first known report of the tropical Anocentor nitens (horses(Nearctic/Neotropical, but still apparent absence of the tropical A. cajennense (catholic (Nearctic/Neotropical and the sub-tropical/temperate Ixodes pararicinus (cattle (Neotropical in Rio Grande do Sul are important for considerations on their current biogeographical distribution and its dynamics in South America. The state has relatively long established, introduced ("exotic", Old World tick species (B. microplus, R. sanguineus that continue to represent significant pests and disease vectors to their traditional, introduced domestic animal hosts, cattle and urban dogs. There are also indigenous, New World ticks (A. miniatus, O. brasiliensis, A. aureolatum, A. nitens, as both long established and possibly newly locally

  4. Tick-Borne Pathogens in Ticks Feeding on Migratory Passerines in Western Part of Estonia

    OpenAIRE

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-01-01

    During southward migration in the years 2006–2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathog...

  5. Vaccinomics, the new road to tick vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, José; Merino, Octavio

    2013-12-05

    Ticks are a threat to human and animal health worldwide. Ticks are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases, the most important vectors of diseases that affect cattle industry worldwide and important vectors of diseases affecting pets. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to protect against tick-borne diseases through the control of vector infestations and reducing pathogen infection and transmission. These premises stress the need for developing improved tick vaccines in a more efficient way. In this context, development of improved vaccines for tick-borne diseases will be greatly enhanced by vaccinomics approaches starting from the study of tick–host–pathogen molecular interactions and ending in the characterization and validation of vaccine formulations. The discovery of new candidate vaccine antigens for the control of tick infestations and pathogen infection and transmission requires the development of effective screening platforms and algorithms that allow the analysis and validation of data produced by systems biology approaches to tick research. Tick vaccines that affect both tick infestations and pathogen transmission could be used to vaccinate human and animal populations at risk and reservoir species to reduce host exposure to ticks while reducing the number of infected ticks and their vectorial capacity for pathogens that affect human and animal health worldwide.

  6. A study of ticks and tick-borne livestock pathogens in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budachetri, Khemraj; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Williams, Jaclyn; Kausar, Asma; Hassan, Muhammad Jawadul; Adamson, Steven; Dowd, Scot E.; Apanskevich, Dmitry; Arijo, Abdullah; Sindhu, Zia Uddin; Kakar, Muhammad Azam; Khan, Raja Muhammad Dilpazir; Ullah, Shafiq; Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Ali, Abid; Iqbal, Zafar

    2017-01-01

    Background As obligate blood-feeding arthropods, ticks transmit pathogens to humans and domestic animals more often than other arthropod vectors. Livestock farming plays a vital role in the rural economy of Pakistan, and tick infestation causes serious problems with it. However, research on tick species diversity and tick-borne pathogens has rarely been conducted in Pakistan. In this study, a systematic investigation of the tick species infesting livestock in different ecological regions of Pakistan was conducted to determine the microbiome and pathobiome diversity in the indigenous ticks. Methodology/Principal findings A total of 3,866 tick specimens were morphologically identified as 19 different tick species representing three important hard ticks, Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Hyalomma, and two soft ticks, Ornithodorus and Argas. The bacterial diversity across these tick species was assessed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing using a 454-sequencing platform on 10 of the different tick species infesting livestock. The notable genera detected include Ralstonia, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Rickettsia, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Corynebacterium, Enterobacter, and Enterococcus. A survey of Spotted fever group rickettsia from 514 samples from the 13 different tick species generated rickettsial-specific amplicons in 10% (54) of total ticks tested. Only three tick species Rhipicephalus microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum, and H. dromedarii had evidence of infection with “Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii” a result further verified using a rompB gene-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay. The Hyalomma ticks also tested positive for the piroplasm, Theileria annulata, using a qPCR assay. Conclusions/Significance This study provides information about tick diversity in Pakistan, and pathogenic bacteria in different tick species. Our results showed evidence for Candidatus R. amblyommii infection in Rhipicephalus microplus, H. anatolicum, and H. dromedarii ticks, which

  7. A study of ticks and tick-borne livestock pathogens in Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Karim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As obligate blood-feeding arthropods, ticks transmit pathogens to humans and domestic animals more often than other arthropod vectors. Livestock farming plays a vital role in the rural economy of Pakistan, and tick infestation causes serious problems with it. However, research on tick species diversity and tick-borne pathogens has rarely been conducted in Pakistan. In this study, a systematic investigation of the tick species infesting livestock in different ecological regions of Pakistan was conducted to determine the microbiome and pathobiome diversity in the indigenous ticks.A total of 3,866 tick specimens were morphologically identified as 19 different tick species representing three important hard ticks, Rhipicephalus, Haemaphysalis and Hyalomma, and two soft ticks, Ornithodorus and Argas. The bacterial diversity across these tick species was assessed by bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequencing using a 454-sequencing platform on 10 of the different tick species infesting livestock. The notable genera detected include Ralstonia, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Rickettsia, Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Corynebacterium, Enterobacter, and Enterococcus. A survey of Spotted fever group rickettsia from 514 samples from the 13 different tick species generated rickettsial-specific amplicons in 10% (54 of total ticks tested. Only three tick species Rhipicephalus microplus, Hyalomma anatolicum, and H. dromedarii had evidence of infection with "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" a result further verified using a rompB gene-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR assay. The Hyalomma ticks also tested positive for the piroplasm, Theileria annulata, using a qPCR assay.This study provides information about tick diversity in Pakistan, and pathogenic bacteria in different tick species. Our results showed evidence for Candidatus R. amblyommii infection in Rhipicephalus microplus, H. anatolicum, and H. dromedarii ticks, which also carried T. annulata.

  8. The ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae, Ixodidae) of Paraguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Naranja-y 26u009S, 57u009W Paraguarı́ 25u379S, 57u099W Quindy 25u589S, 57u139W Sapucai 25u409S, 56u579W PRESIDENTE HAYES Chaco Experimental Station...Ecuador, Panama, Peru and Venezuela. Ornithodoros talaje (Guérin-Méneville)/ Ornithodoros puertoricensis Fox. Cordero et al. (1928) found adults of Orn...the armadillos Dasypus novemcinctus in Caaguazú, Euphractes sex- cinctus in General Dı́az and Puerto Rı́o Negro, Dasypus semptemcinctus in Presidente

  9. Strategies for new and improved vaccines against ticks and tick-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J; Kopáček, P; Lew-Tabor, A; Maritz-Olivier, C

    2016-12-01

    Ticks infest a variety of animal species and transmit pathogens causing disease in both humans and animals worldwide. Tick-host-pathogen interactions have evolved through dynamic processes that accommodated the genetic traits of the hosts, pathogens transmitted and the vector tick species that mediate their development and survival. New approaches for tick control are dependent on defining molecular interactions between hosts, ticks and pathogens to allow for discovery of key molecules that could be tested in vaccines or new generation therapeutics for intervention of tick-pathogen cycles. Currently, tick vaccines constitute an effective and environmentally sound approach for the control of ticks and the transmission of the associated tick-borne diseases. New candidate protective antigens will most likely be identified by focusing on proteins with relevant biological function in the feeding, reproduction, development, immune response, subversion of host immunity of the tick vector and/or molecules vital for pathogen infection and transmission. This review addresses different approaches and strategies used for the discovery of protective antigens, including focusing on relevant tick biological functions and proteins, reverse genetics, vaccinomics and tick protein evolution and interactomics. New and improved tick vaccines will most likely contain multiple antigens to control tick infestations and pathogen infection and transmission. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Tick-borne infectious diseases in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Stephen R; Stenos, John

    2017-04-17

    Tick bites in Australia can lead to a variety of illnesses in patients. These include infection, allergies, paralysis, autoimmune disease, post-infection fatigue and Australian multisystem disorder. Rickettsial (Rickettsia spp.) infections (Queensland tick typhus, Flinders Island spotted fever and Australian spotted fever) and Q fever (Coxiella burnetii) are the only systemic bacterial infections that are known to be transmitted by tick bites in Australia. Three species of local ticks transmit bacterial infection following a tick bite: the paralysis tick (Ixodes holocyclus) is endemic on the east coast of Australia and causes Queensland tick typhus due to R. australis and Q fever due to C. burnetii; the ornate kangaroo tick (Amblyomma triguttatum) occurs throughout much of northern, central and western Australia and causes Q fever; and the southern reptile tick (Bothriocroton hydrosauri) is found mainly in south-eastern Australia and causes Flinders Island spotted fever due to R. honei. Much about Australian ticks and the medical outcomes following tick bites remains unknown. Further research is required to increase understanding of these areas.

  11. Short communication Prevalence and infestation load of ixodid ticks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted to identify major tick genera, prevalence and assess tick infestation load on cattle in Dassenech district, ... to identify tick genera and observe cattle infestation load by the ticks and its prevalence in Dassenech district, .... It is found in sub-Saharan Africa and rift valley and as far as. South Africa. This tick is also ...

  12. Tick size and stock returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Töyli, Juuso; Kaski, Kimmo

    2009-02-01

    Tick size is an important aspect of the micro-structural level organization of financial markets. It is the smallest institutionally allowed price increment, has a direct bearing on the bid-ask spread, influences the strategy of trading order placement in electronic markets, affects the price formation mechanism, and appears to be related to the long-term memory of volatility clustering. In this paper we investigate the impact of tick size on stock returns. We start with a simple simulation to demonstrate how continuous returns become distorted after confining the price to a discrete grid governed by the tick size. We then move on to a novel experimental set-up that combines decimalization pilot programs and cross-listed stocks in New York and Toronto. This allows us to observe a set of stocks traded simultaneously under two different ticks while holding all security-specific characteristics fixed. We then study the normality of the return distributions and carry out fits to the chosen distribution models. Our empirical findings are somewhat mixed and in some cases appear to challenge the simulation results.

  13. Predicting tick presence by environmental risk mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eSwart

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Public health statistics recorded an increasing trend in the incidence of tick bites and erythema migrans in the Netherlands. We investigated whether the disease incidence could be predicted by a spatially explicit categorization model, based on environmental factors and a training set of tick absence-presence data. Presence and absence of Ixodes ricinus were determined by the blanket-dragging method at numerous sites spread over the Netherlands. The probability of tick presence on a 1 km by 1 km square grid was estimated from the field data using a satellite-based methodology. Expert elicitation was conducted to provide a Bayesian prior per landscape type. We applied a linear model to test a correlation between incidence of erythema migrans consultations by general practitioners in the Netherlands and the estimated probability of tick presence. Ticks were present at 252 distinct sampling coordinates and absent at 425. Tick presence was estimated for 54% percent of the total land cover. Our model has predictive power for tick presence in the Netherlands, tick bite incidence per municipality correlated significantly with the average probability of tick presence per grid. The estimated intercept of the linear model was positive and significant. This indicates that a significant fraction of the tick bite consultations could be attributed to the Ixodes ricinus population outside the resident municipality.

  14. Saliva, Salivary Gland, and Hemolymph Collection from Ixodes scapularis Ticks

    OpenAIRE

    Patton, Toni G.; Dietrich, Gabrielle; Brandt, Kevin; Dolan, Marc C.; Piesman, Joseph; Gilmore, Robert D.

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are found worldwide and afflict humans with many tick-borne illnesses. Ticks are vectors for pathogens that cause Lyme disease and tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia spp.), Rocky Mountain Spotted fever (Rickettsia rickettsii), ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. equi), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), encephalitis (tick-borne encephalitis virus), babesiosis (Babesia spp.), Colorado tick fever (Coltivirus), and tularemia (Francisella tularensis) 1-8. To be properly tran...

  15. Ticks on livestock in St. Lucia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garris, G I; Scotland, K

    1985-12-01

    Cattle, sheep, goats and horses were examined for ticks. Over 95% of Holstein cross-breeds, 28% of sheep (local mixed breeds) and 18% of goats (local mixed breeds) examined from 18 August to 4 September 1983 were infested with the southern cattle tick, Boophilus microplus Canestrini. About 90 and 17% of the horses examined were infested with the tropical horse tick, Anocentor nitens Neumann, and the tropical bont tick, Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius, respectively. The tropical bont tick was found infesting 10% of cattle in the Gros Islet area of St. Lucia. The tropical bont tick was also found associated with a severe skin disease, dermatophilosis, caused by the bacterium Dermatophilus congolensis, in 54% of the cattle infested by A. variegatum in the Gros Islet and Dauphin areas of St. Lucia.

  16. Entomopathogenic fungi against South American tick species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Everton Kort Kamp; Bittencourt, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro

    2008-12-01

    Ticks are parasites of serious concern for humans, domesticated animals and wild animals. Despite scientific advances, in South America the principal control method for ticks is the use of chemical acaricides. Indiscriminate use of these products causes environmental pollution, food contamination and development of tick resistance to acaricides. In vitro studies and field trials have demonstrated that pathogenic fungal isolates not only cause mortality of many tick species, but also reduce subsequent generations due to effects on their reproductive efficacy. Accordingly, this review presents results of several studies which were conducted in South America. Furthermore, it outlines current information on fungal pathogens of ticks and discusses the need to develop and implement effective strategies for use of entomopathogenic fungi to control ticks in the near future.

  17. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from birds in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chien Kuo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of human diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors, including ticks, are emerging around the globe. Birds are known to be hosts of ticks and can disperse exotic ticks and tick-borne pathogens. In Taiwan, previous studies have focused predominantly on mammals, leaving the role of birds in the maintenance of ticks and dissemination of tick-borne pathogens undetermined. Methods Ticks were collected opportunistically when birds were studied from 1995 to 2013. Furthermore, to improve knowledge on the prevalence and mean load of tick infestation on birds in Taiwan, ticks were thoroughly searched for when birds were mist-netted at seven sites between September 2014 and April 2016 in eastern Taiwan. Ticks were identified based on both morphological and molecular information and were screened for potential tick-borne pathogens, including the genera Anaplasma, Babesia, Borrelia, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia. Finally, a list of hard tick species collected from birds in Taiwan was compiled based on past work and the current study. Results Nineteen ticks (all larvae were recovered from four of the 3096 unique mist-netted bird individuals, yielding a mean load of 0.006 ticks/individual and an overall prevalence of 0.13%. A total of 139 ticks from birds, comprising 48 larvae, 35 nymphs, 55 adults and one individual of unknown life stage, were collected from 1995 to 2016, and 11 species of four genera were identified, including three newly recorded species (Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Ixodes columnae and Ixodes turdus. A total of eight tick-borne pathogens were detected, with five species (Borrelia turdi, Anaplasma sp. clone BJ01, Ehrlichia sp. BL157-9, Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis not previously isolated in Taiwan. Overall, 16 tick species of five genera have been recorded feeding on birds, including nine species first discovered in this study. Conclusion Our study demonstrates the paucity of information on ticks of

  18. Research on the ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens - methodological principles and caveats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín eEstrada-Peña

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Interest in tick-transmitted pathogens has experienced an upsurge in the past few decades. Routine application of tools for the detection of fragments of foreign DNA in ticks, together with a high degree of interest in the quantification of disease risk for humans, has led to a marked increase in the number of reports on the eco-epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. However, procedural errors continue to accumulate in the scientific literature, resulting in misleading information. For example, unreliable identification of ticks and pathogens, erroneous interpretations of short-term field studies, and the hasty acceptance of some tick species as vectors have led to ambiguities regarding the vector role of these arthropods. In this review, we focus on the ecological features driving the life cycle of ticks and the resulting effects on the eco-epidemiology of tick-transmitted pathogens. We review the factors affecting field collections of ticks, and we describe the biologically and ecologically appropriate procedures for describing tick host-seeking activity and its correlation with environmental traits. We detail the climatic variables that have biological importance on ticks and explain how they should be properly measured and analyzed. We also provide evidence to critically reject the use of some environmental traits that are being increasingly reported as the drivers of the behavior of ticks. With the aim of standardization, we propose unambiguous definitions of the status of hosts and ticks regarding their ability to maintain and spread a given pathogen. We also describe laboratory procedures and standards for evaluating the vectorial status of a tick or the reservoir role of a host. Such harmonization in protocols and terms should provide a coherent framework for the reporting of research findings concerning ticks and tick-borne diseases.

  19. Metabolomics of the tick-Borrelia interaction during the nymphal tick blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxmeier, J Charles; Fleshman, Amy C; Broeckling, Corey D; Prenni, Jessica E; Dolan, Marc C; Gage, Kenneth L; Eisen, Lars

    2017-03-13

    The causal agents of Lyme disease in North America, Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii, are transmitted primarily by Ixodes scapularis ticks. Due to their limited metabolic capacity, spirochetes rely on the tick blood meal for nutrients and metabolic intermediates while residing in the tick vector, competing with the tick for nutrients in the blood meal. Metabolomics is an effective methodology to explore dynamics of spirochete survival and multiplication in tick vectors before transmission to a vertebrate host via tick saliva. Using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, we identified statistically significant differences in the metabolic profile among uninfected I. scapularis nymphal ticks, B. burgdorferi-infected nymphal ticks and B. mayonii-infected nymphal ticks by measuring metabolism every 24 hours over the course of their up to 96 hour blood meals. Specifically, differences in the abundance of purines, amino acids, carbohydrates, and fatty acids during the blood meal among the three groups of nymphal ticks suggest that B. mayonii and B. burgdorferi may have different metabolic capabilities, especially during later stages of nymphal feeding. Understanding mechanisms underlying variable metabolic requirements of different Lyme disease spirochetes within tick vectors could potentially aid development of novel methods to control spirochete transmission.

  20. Tick-proof ceramics. Bo dani ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimono, F. (Ishizuka Glass Co. Ltd., Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-07-01

    Ishizuka Glass has developed SiO2-B2O3-R2O(RO) based tick-proof ceramics (trade name; Segrocera) in cooperation with Yamato Chemical Industry, insecticide maker. This article is a report on effectiveness of this ceramics. Ticks living indoors are roughly divided into two kinds, namely ticks living in a house itself and ticks which enter the house by parasitizing on animals and plants, and Segrocera has been developed aiming at the former ticks which, irrespective of its kind, need the temperature of 20-30[degree]C and the moisture of 60% or more as its breeding conditions. The tick-proof effect of Segrocera is as excellent as 90-99% and even after keeping its specimen at 75RH for 12 months, it has shown the ratio of inhibiting ticks' breeding of 98-99%. In comparison with that the effect of other tick-proof agent, pyrethroids-based aerosol is limited up to 24 hours, it is the feature of Segrocera that its life is considerably longer. Safety of Segrocera is also very high. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  1. Talking to Patients about Preventing Tick Bites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-02-14

    This podcast will help health care providers identify patients who are at increased risk of getting tick bites and provide these patients with tick bite prevention and removal tips.  Created: 2/14/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 2/14/2012.

  2. Tick-borne encephalitis virus, Kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Benjamin J; Atkinson, Barry; Czechowski, Donna M; Larsen, Peter A; Meeks, Heather N; Carrera, Juan P; Duplechin, Ryan M; Hewson, Roger; Junushov, Asankadyr T; Gavrilova, Olga N; Breininger, Irena; Phillips, Carleton J; Baker, Robert J; Hay, John

    2011-05-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an emerging pathogen in Europe and Asia. We investigated TBEV in Kyrgyzstan by collecting small mammals and ticks from diverse localities and analyzing them for evidence of TBEV infection. We found TBEV circulating in Kyrgyzstan much farther south and at higher altitudes than previously reported.

  3. Prevalence of ticks infesting grasscutters ( Thryonomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion and application of results: Farm grasscutters in Côte d'Ivoire do not carry some ticks. But five species were found on wild grasscutters. Ticks and pathogenic agents that they transmit and for which some are responsible for zoonosis, could constitute a major obstacle for the development of grasscutters' farming ...

  4. Tick paralysis: development of a vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masina, S; Broady, K W

    1999-04-01

    The paralysis tick of Australia, Ixodes holocyclus, causes a severe toxicosis in domestic animals such as dogs and cats, livestock, and in some cases, humans. It is characterised by a rapidly ascending flaccid paralysis. The causative agent of the toxicosis is a neurotoxin(s) produced in the tick salivary glands. The current treatment for tick paralysis is in the form of a polyclonal dog antiserum. This antiserum treatment is expensive and effective only in the early stages of paralysis. The aim of current research is to develop a recombinant veterinary vaccine based on the tick neurotoxin peptide sequence. A successful vaccine would provide cost-effective, long-term protective immunity against tick-induced paralysis.

  5. A contribution to the development of anti-tick vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Ticks and tick-borne diseases seriously affect animal and human health worldwide with the highest economic losses occurring in livestock production in the developing world. The control of ticks and the diseases they transmit depends mainly on chemical tick control using acaricides. The development

  6. Prevention of tick bites: an evaluation of a smartphone app.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonise-Kamp, L; Beaujean, D J M A; Crutzen, R; van Steenbergen, J E; Ruwaard, D

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common reported tick-borne infection in Europe, and involves transmission of Borrelia by ticks. As long as a vaccine is not available and effective measures for controlling tick populations are insufficient, LB control is focused on preventive measures to avoid tick

  7. Prevention of tick bites: an evaluation of a smartphone app

    OpenAIRE

    Antonise-Kamp, L.; Beaujean, D. J. M. A.; Crutzen, R.; van Steenbergen, J. E.; Ruwaard, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common reported tick-borne infection in Europe, and involves transmission of Borrelia by ticks. As long as a vaccine is not available and effective measures for controlling tick populations are insufficient, LB control is focused on preventive measures to avoid tick bites. To inform citizens about the risk of ticks, motivate them to check for tick bites, and encourage them to remove any attached tick as quickly as possible, a mobile app called ‘Tek...

  8. An attempt of rationalization of tick-borne disease prevention using a multifunctional container for Tick Twister ®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Oczko-Grzesik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are reservoir and transmission vectors of many bacteria, viruses and parasites, which are pathogenic for humans. Early and correct tick removal is crucial as prevention of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study is an attempt at rationalization of tick-borne disease prevention using a multifunctional container for Tick Twister®. In practice, it should enable people to use Tick Twister® in all circumstances contributing to the improvement of efficiency in tick-borne diseases prevention, and as a result, to a decrease in their frequency and after effects.

  9. Prevalence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens: Babesia and Borrelia species in ticks infesting cats of Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Saran; Abdullah, Swaid; Helps, Chris; Tasker, Séverine; Newbury, Hannah; Wall, Richard

    2017-09-15

    In a study of tick and tick-borne pathogen prevalence, between May and October 2016, 278 veterinary practices in Great Britain examined 1855 cats. Six-hundred and one cats were found to have attached ticks. The most frequently recorded tick species was Ixodes ricinus (57.1%), followed by Ixodes hexagonus (41.4%) and Ixodes trianguliceps (1.5%). Male cats, 4-6 years of age living in rural areas were most likely to be carrying a tick; hair length and tick treatment history had no significant association with attachment. For cats that were parasitized by ticks in large urban areas, I. hexagonus was the most frequent species recorded. Molecular analysis was possible for 541 individual tick samples, others were too damaged for analysis; Babesia spp., and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were identified in 1.1% (n=6) and 1.8% (n=10) of these, respectively. Babesia spp. included Babesia vulpes sp. nov./Babesia microti-like (n=4) in I. hexagonus and Babesia venatorum (n=2) in I. ricinus. Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. species included Borrelia garinii (n=6) and Borrelia afzelii (n=4). The majority of B. burgorferi s.l. cases were found in I. ricinus, with B. afzelii in one I. hexagonus nymph. No Borrelia or Babesia spp. were present in I. trianguliceps. To determine a true prevalence for ticks on cats, practices that only submitted questionnaires from cats with ticks and practices that submitted fewer than 5 returns per week were removed; amongst those considered to have adhered strictly to the collection protocol, feline tick prevalence amongst cats that had access to the outdoors was 6.6%. These results show that ticks can be found on cats throughout Great Britain, which harbour a range of species of Babesia and B. burgdorferi s.l. and that cats, particularly in green spaces within urban areas, may form an important host for I. hexagonus, a known vector of pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Delay differential systems for tick population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Guihong; Thieme, Horst R; Zhu, Huaiping

    2015-11-01

    Ticks play a critical role as vectors in the transmission and spread of Lyme disease, an emerging infectious disease which can cause severe illness in humans or animals. To understand the transmission dynamics of Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases, it is necessary to investigate the population dynamics of ticks. Here, we formulate a system of delay differential equations which models the stage structure of the tick population. Temperature can alter the length of time delays in each developmental stage, and so the time delays can vary geographically (and seasonally which we do not consider). We define the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] of stage structured tick populations. The tick population is uniformly persistent if [Formula: see text] and dies out if [Formula: see text]. We present sufficient conditions under which the unique positive equilibrium point is globally asymptotically stable. In general, the positive equilibrium can be unstable and the system show oscillatory behavior. These oscillations are primarily due to negative feedback within the tick system, but can be enhanced by the time delays of the different developmental stages.

  11. Coendangered hard-ticks: threatened or threatening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cozma Vasile

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The overwhelming majority of animal conservation projects are focused on vertebrates, despite most of the species on Earth being invertebrates. Estimates state that about half of all named species of invertebrates are parasitic in at least one stage of their development. The dilemma of viewing parasites as biodiversity or pest has been discussed by several authors. However, ticks were omitted. The latest taxonomic synopses of non-fossil Ixodidae consider valid 700 species. Though, how many of them are still extant is almost impossible to tell, as many of them are known only from type specimens in museums and were never collected since their original description. Moreover, many hosts are endangered and as part of conservation efforts of threatened vertebrates, a common practice is the removal of, and treatment for external parasites, with devastating impact on tick populations. There are several known cases when the host became extinct with subsequent coextinction of their ectoparasites. For our synoptic approach we have used the IUCN status of the host in order to evaluate the status of specifically associated hard-ticks. As a result, we propose a number of 63 coendangered and one extinct hard-tick species. On the other side of the coin, the most important issue regarding tick-host associations is vectorial transmission of microbial pathogens (i.e. viruses, bacteria, protozoans. Tick-borne diseases of threatened vertebrates are sometimes fatal to their hosts. Mortality associated with pathogens acquired from ticks has been documented in several cases, mostly after translocations. Are ticks a real threat to their coendangered host and should they be eliminated? Up to date, there are no reliable proofs that ticks listed by us as coendangered are competent vectors for pathogens of endangered animals.

  12. Breeding strategies for tick resistance in tropical cattle: a sustainable approach for tick control

    OpenAIRE

    Shyma, K. P.; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer

    2013-01-01

    About 80 % of world cattle population is under the risk of ticks and tick borne diseases (TTBDs). Losses caused by bovine tick burdens in tropical countries have a tremendous economic impact on production systems. Chemical control of disease has been found to be ineffective and also involving large cost. To reduce our reliance on these chemical products, it is necessary to embark on programs that include habitat management, genetic selection of hosts, and development of a strain capable of in...

  13. ACTUAL TICK-BORNE INFECTIONS IN CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Gorovenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean Peninsula is located in the Northern part of the Black sea, from the East it is washed by the Sea of Azov, to the South and West by the Black Sea. The unique geographical and climatic conditions facilitate leptospirosis, tularemia, tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, intestinal yersiniosis, pseudotuberculosis, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Mediterranean fever, Q-fever and other infectious diseases natural foci formation on the territory of Crimea Republic. Tick-borne natural focal infections have the most significance due to favorable epidemiologic conditions especially on the background of high raid ticks attacks on people. A leading role in the epizootology and epidemiology of tick-borne natural-focal infections of the Crimea are playing Ixodidae that occur in different landscape-climatic zones, with the greatest their species diversity is observed in mountain-foothill, forest and forest-steppe regions. There are about 30 species in Ixodidae fauna of the Crimean Peninsula. Ticks species composition identification shows that over 50% of people attacks episodes in the Crimea on recent years is caused by Ixodes ricinus ticks species, the remaining are associated with Haemophisalis punctata, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, Dermacentor marginatus and other. Refusal of treatment in medical institutions of the people affected by tick bites, and the possibility of an attack on people subtle phases of mites are lubricates the real picture of the frequency of contacts of the population with ticks and complicates the forecasting of the epidemiological situation. This review summarizes the available information about spreading of tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, Mediterranean and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fevers on the territory of Crimea Republic and demonstrates the modern trends and manifestations of epidemic process of these nosological forms. The results

  14. Microbial Invasion vs. Tick Immune Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenshine, Daniel E; Macaluso, Kevin R

    2017-01-01

    Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents that cause disease in humans and animals than any other haematophagous arthropod, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean Congo haemorhagic fever, and many others (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Although diverse explanations have been proposed to explain their remarkable vectorial capacity, among the most important are their blood feeding habit, their long term off-host survival, the diverse array of bioactive molecules that disrupt the host's natural hemostatic mechanisms, facilitate blood flow, pain inhibitors, and minimize inflammation to prevent immune rejection (Hajdušek et al., 2013). Moreover, the tick's unique intracellular digestive processes allow the midgut to provide a relatively permissive microenvironment for survival of invading microbes. Although tick-host-pathogen interactions have evolved over more than 300 million years (Barker and Murrell, 2008), few microbes have been able to overcome the tick's innate immune system, comprising both humoral and cellular processes that reject them. Similar to most eukaryotes, the signaling pathways that regulate the innate immune response, i.e., the Toll, IMD (Immunodeficiency) and JAK-STAT (Janus Kinase/ Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) also occur in ticks (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016). Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on the microbial surface triggers one or the other of these pathways. Consequently, ticks are able to mount an impressive array of humoral and cellular responses to microbial challenge, including anti-microbial peptides (AMPs), e.g., defensins, lysozymes, microplusins, etc., that directly kill, entrap or inhibit the invaders. Equally important are cellular processes, primarily phagocytosis, that capture, ingest, or encapsulate invading microbes, regulated by a primordial system of thioester-containing proteins

  15. Microbial Invasion vs. Tick Immune Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Sonenshine

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents that cause disease in humans and animals than any other haematophagous arthropod, including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis, tick-borne encephalitis, Crimean Congo haemorhagic fever, and many others (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016. Although diverse explanations have been proposed to explain their remarkable vectorial capacity, among the most important are their blood feeding habit, their long term off-host survival, the diverse array of bioactive molecules that disrupt the host's natural hemostatic mechanisms, facilitate blood flow, pain inhibitors, and minimize inflammation to prevent immune rejection (Hajdušek et al., 2013. Moreover, the tick's unique intracellular digestive processes allow the midgut to provide a relatively permissive microenvironment for survival of invading microbes. Although tick-host-pathogen interactions have evolved over more than 300 million years (Barker and Murrell, 2008, few microbes have been able to overcome the tick's innate immune system, comprising both humoral and cellular processes that reject them. Similar to most eukaryotes, the signaling pathways that regulate the innate immune response, i.e., the Toll, IMD (Immunodeficiency and JAK-STAT (Janus Kinase/ Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription also occur in ticks (Gulia-Nuss et al., 2016. Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs on the microbial surface triggers one or the other of these pathways. Consequently, ticks are able to mount an impressive array of humoral and cellular responses to microbial challenge, including anti-microbial peptides (AMPs, e.g., defensins, lysozymes, microplusins, etc., that directly kill, entrap or inhibit the invaders. Equally important are cellular processes, primarily phagocytosis, that capture, ingest, or encapsulate invading microbes, regulated by a primordial system of thioester

  16. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from migratory birds in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capligina, Valentina; Salmane, Ineta; Keišs, Oskars; Vilks, Karlis; Japina, Kristine; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate

    2014-02-01

    Migratory birds act as hosts and long-distance vectors for several tick-borne infectious agents. Here, feeding Ixodes ticks were collected from migratory birds during the autumn migration period in Latvia and screened for the presence of epidemiologically important non-viral pathogens. A total of 93 DNA samples of ticks (37 larvae and 56 nymphs) removed from 41 birds (order Passeriformes, 9 species) was tested for Lyme borreliosis spirochaetes, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia spp., and Babesia spp. Borrelia burgdorferi DNA was detected in 18% of the tick samples, and a majority of infected ticks were from thrush (Turdus spp.) birds. Among the infected ticks, Borrelia valaisiana was detected in 41% of cases, Borrelia garinii in 35%, and mixed Bo. valaisiana and Bo. garinii infection in 24%. Anaplasma phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 2% of ticks, R. helvetica in 12%, and Babesia spp. pathogens in 4% of ticks. Among these samples, 3 Babesia species were identified: Ba. divergens, Ba. microti, and Ba. venatorum. Coinfection with different pathogens that included mixed infections with different Borrelia genospecies was found in 20% of nymphal and 3% of larval Ixodes ticks. These results suggest that migratory birds may support the circulation and spread of medically significant zoonoses in Europe. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on humans in Turkey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Orkun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. The tick-borne disease outbreaks reported in recent years and the abundance of tick species and the existence of suitable habitats increase the importance of studies related to the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of and to determine the infection rates of some tick-borne pathogens, including Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in the ticks removed from humans in different parts of Ankara.A total of 169 ticks belonging to the genus Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus were collected by removing from humans in different parts of Ankara. Ticks were molecularly screened for Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR and sequencing analysis. We detected 4 Babesia spp.; B. crassa, B. major, B. occultans and B. rossi, one Borrelia spp.; B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae; R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca and R. hoogstraalii in the tick specimens analyzed. This is the report showing the presence of B. rossi in a region that is out of Africa and in the host species Ha. parva. In addition, B. crassa, for which limited information is available on its distribution and vector species, and B. occultans, for which no conclusive information is available on its presence in Turkey, were identified in Ha. parva and H. marginatum, respectively. Two human pathogenic rickettsia species (R. aeschlimannii and R. slovaca were detected with a high prevalence in ticks. Additionally, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in unusual tick species (H. marginatum, H. excavatum, Hyalomma spp. (nymph and Ha. parva.This study investigates both the distribution of several tick-borne pathogens affecting humans and animals, and the presence of new tick-borne pathogens in Turkey

  18. Identification of tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on humans in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkun, Ömer; Karaer, Zafer; Çakmak, Ayşe; Nalbantoğlu, Serpil

    2014-08-01

    The importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including Turkey. The tick-borne disease outbreaks reported in recent years and the abundance of tick species and the existence of suitable habitats increase the importance of studies related to the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of and to determine the infection rates of some tick-borne pathogens, including Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae in the ticks removed from humans in different parts of Ankara. A total of 169 ticks belonging to the genus Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus were collected by removing from humans in different parts of Ankara. Ticks were molecularly screened for Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and spotted fever group rickettsiae by PCR and sequencing analysis. We detected 4 Babesia spp.; B. crassa, B. major, B. occultans and B. rossi, one Borrelia spp.; B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae; R. aeschlimannii, R. slovaca and R. hoogstraalii in the tick specimens analyzed. This is the report showing the presence of B. rossi in a region that is out of Africa and in the host species Ha. parva. In addition, B. crassa, for which limited information is available on its distribution and vector species, and B. occultans, for which no conclusive information is available on its presence in Turkey, were identified in Ha. parva and H. marginatum, respectively. Two human pathogenic rickettsia species (R. aeschlimannii and R. slovaca) were detected with a high prevalence in ticks. Additionally, B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in unusual tick species (H. marginatum, H. excavatum, Hyalomma spp. (nymph) and Ha. parva). This study investigates both the distribution of several tick-borne pathogens affecting humans and animals, and the presence of new tick-borne pathogens in Turkey. More

  19. Interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondrej eHajdusek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. The tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. Tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune responses. The direct antimicrobial defense in ticks is accomplished by a variety of small molecules such as defensins, lysozymes or by tick-specific antimicrobial compounds such as microplusin/hebraein or 5.3-kDa family proteins. Phagocytosis of the invading microbes by tick hemocytes seems to be mediated by the primordial complement-like system composed of thioester-containing proteins, fibrinogen-related lectins and convertase-like factors. Moreover, an important role in survival of the ingested microbes seems to be played by host proteins and redox balance maintenance in the tick midgut. Here, we summarize recent knowledge about the major components of tick immune system and focus on their interaction with the relevant tick-transmitted pathogens, represented by spirochetes (Borrelia, rickettsiae (Anaplasma, and protozoans (Babesia. Availability of the tick genomic database and feasibility of functional genomics based on RNA interference greatly contribute to the understanding of molecular and cellular interplay at the tick-pathogen interface and may provide new targets for blocking the transmission of tick pathogens.

  20. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J; Esser, Helen J; Loaiza, Jose R; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the dynamics of

  1. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird-Tick Interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Miller

    Full Text Available In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds' role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually-sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna. Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical-Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically-identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly-discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology

  2. Tick control: trapping, biocontrol, host management and other alternative strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Edited by Sonenshine, Daniel E.; Roe, R. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Biology of Ticks is the most comprehensive work on tick biology and tick-borne diseases. This second edition is a multi-authored work, featuring the research and analyses of renowned experts across the globe. Spanning two volumes, the book examines the systematics, biology, structure, ecological adaptations, evolution, genomics and the molecular processes that underpin the growth, development and survival of these important disease-transmitting parasites. Also discussed is the remarkable array of diseases transmitted (or caused) by ticks, as well as modern methods for their control. This book should serve as a modern reference for students, scientists, physicians, veterinarians and other specialists. Volume I covers the biology of the tick and features chapters on tick systematics, tick life cycles, external and internal anatomy, and others dedicated to specific organ systems, specifically, the tick integument, mouthparts and digestive system, salivary glands, waste removal, salivary glands, respiratory system, circulatory system and hemolymph, fat body, the nervous and sensory systems and reproductive systems. Volume II includes chapters on the ecology of non-nidicolous and nidicolous ticks, genetics and genomics (including the genome of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis) and immunity, including host immune responses to tick feeding and tick-host interactions, as well as the tick's innate immune system that prevents and/or controls microbial infections. Six chapters cover in depth the many diseases caused by the major tick-borne pathogens, including tick-borne protozoa, viruses, rickettsiae of all types, other types of bacteria (e.g., the Lyme disease agent) and diseases related to tick paralytic agents and toxins. The remaining chapters are devoted to tick control using vaccines, acaricides, repellents, biocontrol, and, finally, techniques for breeding ticks in order to develop tick colonies for scientific study.

  3. Molecular Ecological Insights into Neotropical Bird–Tick Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Helen J.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In contrast, immature Neotropical ticks are often found on wild birds, yet difficulties in identifying immatures hinder studies of birds’ role in tropical tick ecology and tick-borne disease transmission. In Panama, we found immature ticks on 227 out of 3,498 individually–sampled birds representing 93 host species (24% of the bird species sampled, and 13% of the Panamanian land bird fauna). Tick parasitism rates did not vary with rainfall or temperature, but did vary significantly with several host ecological traits. Likewise, Neotropical–Nearctic migratory birds were significantly less likely to be infested than resident species. Using a molecular library developed from morphologically–identified adult ticks specifically for this study, we identified eleven tick species parasitizing birds, indicating that a substantial portion of the Panamanian avian species pool is parasitized by a diversity of tick species. Tick species that most commonly parasitized birds had the widest diversity of avian hosts, suggesting that immature tick species are opportunistic bird parasites. Although certain avian ecological traits are positively associated with parasitism, we found no evidence that individual tick species show specificity to particular avian host ecological traits. Finally, our data suggest that the four principal vectors of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever in the Neotropics rarely, if ever, parasitize Panamanian birds. However, other tick species that harbor newly–discovered rickettsial parasites of unknown pathogenicity are frequently found on these birds. Given our discovery of broad interaction between Panamanian tick and avian biodiversity, future work on tick ecology and the

  4. Tick Bite Alopecia: A Report and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Michael C; Milchak, Marissa A; Parnes, Herbert; Ioffreda, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    Tick bites can cause a number of local inflammatory reactions, which are often difficult to differentiate from those induced by other arthropod bites or stings. These include erythematous nodular or pustular lesions, erosive plaques, annular lesions of erythema chronicum migrans, and both scarring and nonscarring inflammatory alopecia. We report a case of nonscarring alopecia in a 21-year-old male who reported a recent history of tick bite to the scalp. The biopsy demonstrated a dense pseudolymphomatous inflammatory infiltrate with numerous eosinophils associated with hair follicle miniaturization and an elevated catagen-telogen count. Signs of external rubbing, including lichen simplex chronicus and the "hamburger sign", were also visualized and are indicative of the associated pruritus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the fifth report of nonscarring tick bite alopecia in the literature and the first in an adult patient. This text will review the classic clinical presentation, histologic findings, and proposed mechanism of tick bite alopecia.

  5. Biological control of cattle fever ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle fever ticks (CFT) Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus annulatus are invasive livestock pests that are endemic to Mexico and invasive along the Texas – Mexico border. Acaricide resistance, alternate wildlife hosts, and pathogenic landscape forming weeds present challenges for sustainable...

  6. Scouts, forests, and ticks: Impact of landscapes on human-tick contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Keukeleire, Mathilde; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Somassè, Elysée; Kabamba, Benoît; Luyasu, Victor; Robert, Annie

    2015-07-01

    Just as with forest workers or people practicing outdoor recreational activities, scouts are at high risk for tick bites and tick-borne infections. The risk of a tick bite is shaped not only by environmental and climatic factors but also by land management. The aim of this study was to assess which environmental conditions favour scout-tick contacts, and thus to better understand how these factors and their interactions influence the two components of risk: hazard (related to vector and host ecology) and exposure of humans to disease vectors. A survey was conducted in the summer of 2009 on the incidence of tick bites in scout camps taking place in southern Belgium. Joint effects of landscape composition and configuration, weather, climate, forest and wildlife management were examined using a multiple gamma regression with a log link. The landscape was characterized by buffers of varying sizes around the camps using a detailed land use map, and accounting for climate and weather variables. Landscape composition and configuration had a significant influence on scout-tick contacts: the risk was high when the camp was surrounded by a low proportion of arable land and situated in a complex and fragmented landscape. The distance to the nearest forest patch, the composition of the forest ecotone as well as weather and climatic factors were all significantly associated with scout-tick contacts. Both hazard- and exposure-related variables significantly contributed to the frequency of scout-tick contact. Our results show that environmental conditions favour scout-tick contacts. For example, we emphasize the impact of accessibility of environments suitable for ticks on the risk of contact. We also highlight the significant effect of both hazard and exposure. Our results are consistent with current knowledge, but further investigations on the effect of forest management, e.g. through its impact on forest structure, on the tick-host-pathogen system, and on humans exposure, is

  7. Small risk of developing symptomatic tick-borne diseases following a tick bite in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofhuis Agnetha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In The Netherlands, the incidence of Lyme borreliosis is on the rise. Besides its causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., other potential pathogens like Rickettsia, Babesia and Ehrlichia species are present in Ixodes ricinus ticks. The risk of disease associated with these microorganisms after tick-bites remains, however, largely unclear. A prospective study was performed to investigate how many persons with tick-bites develop localized or systemic symptoms and whether these are associated with tick-borne microorganisms. Results In total, 297 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from 246 study participants who consulted a general practitioner on the island of Ameland for tick bites. Ticks were subjected to PCR to detect DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp. or Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp.. Sixteen percent of the collected ticks were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., 19% for Rickettsia spp., 12% for Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp. and 10% for Babesia spp.. At least six months after the tick bite, study participants were interviewed on symptoms by means of a standard questionnaire. 14 out of 193 participants (8.3% reported reddening at the bite site and 6 participants (4.1% reported systemic symptoms. No association between symptoms and tick-borne microorganisms was found. Attachment duration ≥24 h was positively associated with reddening at the bite site and systemic symptoms. Using logistic regression techniques, reddening was positively correlated with presence of Borrelia afzelii, and having 'any symptoms' was positively associated with attachment duration. Conclusion The risk of contracting acute Lyme borreliosis, rickettsiosis, babesiosis or ehrlichiosis from a single tick bite was

  8. Prevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Hard Ticks That Attacked Human Hosts in Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim A. Khasnatinov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of tick-borne infections in humans. The prevalence of 4 tick-borne pathogens was studied in the population of Ixodid ticks attacking human hosts in Irkutsk city and neighbouring territories from 2007 to 2017. Methods and Results: In total, 46,357 tick specimens detached from bitten people were analyzed. The antigen of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV was detected in each tick individually by ELISA assay using a commercial kit for the envelope protein E of TBEV. Total RNA and DNA were extracted from ticks using a RiboPrep kit. Reverse transcription was performed using a Reverta-L kit and RNA\\DNA of TBEV; B. burgdorferi sensu lato, A. phagocytophylum and Ehrlichia muris\\E. chaffeensis were detected using a real-time multiplex PCR kit. In total, during 8 years of observations, I. persulcatus caused approximately 86% of bites, Dermacentor sp. 13.95 %, and H. concinna 0.05 %. The most prevalent tick-borne pathogen in I. persulcatus ticks was Lyme disease agent B. burgdorferi sensu lato, which was detected in 12±6.5% of specimens annually. A. phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia sp. were detected in 7.8±2.7% and 4.6±1.5% of specimens, respectively. TBEV was present in 1±0.7% of I. persulcatus. Conclusion: I. persulcatus remains the most important vector of tick-borne diseases to humans in Eastern Siberia. D. nuttalli and D. silvarum are much less aggressive to humans and are less infected with major tick-borne pathogens. H. concinna does not play any significant role as a disease vector. However, a rigorous analysis of TBEV spread in the Dermacentor sp. population is necessary.

  9. 76 FR 8709 - Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed Cattle Fever Tick Control Barrier in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... ticks (collectively referred to as ``fever ticks'') carry protozoan parasites that cause babesiosis. The...] Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed Cattle Fever Tick Control Barrier in South Texas AGENCY: Animal and... tick control barrier using game fencing to keep cattle fever ticks and southern cattle ticks out of...

  10. Ticks imported to Europe with exotic reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-09-30

    It is known that traded exotic animals carry with them an immense number of associated symbionts, including parasites. Reptiles are no exception. Most of the imported reptiles originate from tropical countries and their possibility to carry potentially dangerous pathogens is high. According to CITES, Europe is currently the main reptile importer in the world. Despite this, there is no review or analysis available for the risk related to the importation of tick-borne diseases with traded reptile to the EU. The main aim of the manuscript is to provide a review on the available literature on ticks introduced to and exchanged between European countries via the live reptile trade. So far, the published reports of ticks imported on reptiles are limited to few European countries: Italy, Poland, Spain, Netherlands, Belgium, Slovenia and UK. The following species have been reported: Hyalomma aegyptium, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma exornatum, Amblyomma flavomaculatum, Amblyomma fuscolineatum, Amblyomma latum, Amblyomma quadricavum, Amblyomma marmoreum, Amblyomma nuttalli, Amblyomma sparsum, Amblyomma sphenodonti, Amblyomma transversale and Amblyomma varanense. The majority of species are of African origin, followed by American and Asian species. All groups of reptiles (chelonians, snakes, lizards, crocodiles, tuataras) were involved. However, it seems that certain groups (i.e. tortoises of genus Testudo, monitor lizards of genus Varanus, snakes of genus Python) are more important as host for imported ticks, but this may be related to higher levels of international trade. Even fewer are the reports of tick-borne pathogens associated with imported reptile ticks. Despite the diversity of tick species reported on imported reptiles, the situations of truly invasive species are atypical and are limited in natural environments to maximum two cases where H. aegyptium was involved. Otherwise, the risk associated with reptile trade for introduction of invasive tick to Europe is low

  11. Risk of Lyme disease development after a tick bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Jovan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Despite numerous research of Lyme disease (LD, there are still many concerns about environmental of infectious agent of LD, as well as its prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment. The aim of this work was to determine the risk of LD in relation to the way of removing ticks and duration of tick attachment. Methods. In the period from 2000 to 2007 a prospective study was conducted including persons with tick bite referred to the Institute of Epidemiology, Military Medical Academy, and followed for the occurrence of early Lyme disease up to six months after a tick bite. Epidemiological questionnaire was used to collect relevant information about the place and time of tick bites, the way of a removing tick, duration of tick attachment, remnants of a tick left in the skin (parts of the mouth device and the signs of clinical manifestations of LD. Duration of tick attachment was determined on the basis of size of engorged tick and epidemiological data. Removed ticks were determined by the key of Pomerancev. Professional removing of attached tick was considered to be removing of tick with mechanical means by healthcare personnel. Fisher's exact test, Chi squares test and calculation of the relative risk (RR were used for data analysis. Results. Of 3 126 patients with tick bite, clinical manifestations of LD were demonstrated in 19 (0.61%. In the group of subjects (n = 829 in which a tick was not removed professionally there were 17 (2.05% cases with LD, while in the group of respondents (n=2 297 in who a tick was removed professionally there were 2 (0.09% cases with LD after tick bite (RR, 23.55; p < 0.0001. The disease was most frequent in the group of respondents with incompletely and unprofessionally removed ticks (2.46%. In the groups of patients with unprofessionally but completely removed ticks LD occurred in 0.89%, while in the group of subjects with a tick removed by an expert, but incompletely in 0.78% cases. The disease occurred

  12. Cattle tick vaccine researchers join forces in CATVAC

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schetters, T

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available grooming (e.g., with a short halter) for the duration of tick feeding to minimize grooming. Because ticks of the Boophilus group are one-host ticks, larvae will develop to nymphs and subsequently adults on the same animal. Fully engorged ticks that drop off... that the fact that in the natural situation there are usually fewer ticks feeding on the flank than for instance on the neck of the animals is likely due to the fact that cattle groom themselves, and remove ticks from those areas. An experimental trial...

  13. Advances in disease control of tick and tick-borne diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by Cowdria ruminatium. These diseases are transmitted by Rhipicephalus appemliculatus, Boopltilus decoloratus and Amblyomma variegatum, respectively which are widespread throughout the country and lack seasonality. The control of ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBD) has been one of the most important emphases of ...

  14. Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Gray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity of  I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and a retrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics and pattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick population becoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability models predict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northern permanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complex ecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are required that take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-borne disease scenarios.

  15. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Ticks and Roe Deer, the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Setareh; de Vries, Ankje; Rijks, Jolianne M; Van Gucht, Steven; Vennema, Harry; Sprong, Hein; Rockx, Barry

    2017-06-01

    We report the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in the Netherlands. Serologic screening of roe deer found TBEV-neutralizing antibodies with a seroprevalence of 2%, and TBEV RNA was detected in 2 ticks from the same location. Enhanced surveillance and awareness among medical professionals has led to the identification of autochthonous cases.

  16. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Ticks and Roe Deer, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, Setareh; de Vries, Ankje; Rijks, Jolianne M; Van Gucht, Steven; Vennema, Harry; Sprong, Hein; Rockx, Barry

    We report the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in the Netherlands. Serologic screening of roe deer found TBEV-neutralizing antibodies with a seroprevalence of 2%, and TBEV RNA was detected in 2 ticks from the same location. Enhanced surveillance and awareness among medical

  17. Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus in Ticks and Roe Deer, the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahfari, Setareh; de Vries, Ankje; Rijks, Jolianne M; Van Gucht, Steven; Vennema, Harry; Sprong, Hein; Rockx, Barry

    We report the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) in the Netherlands. Serologic screening of roe deer found TBEV-neutralizing antibodies with a seroprevalence of 2%, and TBEV RNA was detected in 2 ticks from the same location. Enhanced surveillance and awareness among medical

  18. Ixodes ricinus tick saliva modulates tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 7 (2010), s. 580-585 ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010

  19. Breeding strategies for tick resistance in tropical cattle: a sustainable approach for tick control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyma, K P; Gupta, Jay Prakash; Singh, Veer

    2015-03-01

    About 80 % of world cattle population is under the risk of ticks and tick borne diseases (TTBDs). Losses caused by bovine tick burdens in tropical countries have a tremendous economic impact on production systems. Chemical control of disease has been found to be ineffective and also involving large cost. To reduce our reliance on these chemical products, it is necessary to embark on programs that include habitat management, genetic selection of hosts, and development of a strain capable of inducing host resistance to ticks. Selection for disease resistance provide alternate method for sustainable control of TTBDs. Domestic livestock manifests tick-resistance by skin thickness, coat type, coat color, hair density and skin secretions etc. Zebu cattle have, on average, greater tick resistance than either European cattle or African cattle. Heritability for tick burden in cattle has been shown to range about 0.30, which is sufficient to result in the success of some programs of selection for tick resistance in cattle. To select animals at younger age, to reduce generation interval and to increase genetic gain, marker assisted selection is an important tool. There are also various MHC molecules which are associated with resistance to TTBDs.

  20. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in wild birds in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Norte, Ana Cláudia; Lopes de Carvalho, Isabel; Núncio, Sofia; Nováková, Markéta; Kautman, Matej; Alivizatos, Haralambos; Kazantzidis, Savas; Sychra, Oldřich; Literák, Ivan

    2016-05-01

    Wild birds are common hosts of ticks and can transport them for long distances, contributing to the spreading of tick-borne pathogens. The information about ticks on birds and tick-borne pathogens in Greece is limited. The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and species of ticks infesting wild resident birds (mostly small passerines) in Greece, and to assess Borrelia and Rickettsia infection in the collected ticks. Detection of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. was performed by nested PCR targeting the flaB gene. Rickettsia spp. were detected by PCR targeting the gltA and ompA genes. Seven (2 %) out of 403 birds examined in northern Greece in 2013 were infested with 15 ticks, identified as Ixodes frontalis, Ixodes acuminatus, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma aegyptium and Hyalomma sp. All ticks were negative for Borrelia spp. while four of them were positive for rickettsiae (Rickettsia aeschlimannii in H. aegyptium and Rickettsia sp. in I. frontalis, H. aegyptium and H. marginatum). Ixodes acuminatus is reported for the first time in Greece and Sylvia borin is reported as a new host record for I. acuminatus.

  1. Reducing tick bite risk in Finland - combining citizen science and GIS for predictive modelling of tick occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sormunen, Jani; Kulha, Niko; Klemola, Tero

    2017-04-01

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne diseases constitute a growing welfare problem in northern Europe and Russia. Surveys conducted in Russia, Sweden and Norway have revealed a northwards shift in distribution and an increase in tick abundance over the past few decades. In southwestern Finland, surveys have revealed a similar increase in tick abundance, as well as the presence of novel tick-borne pathogens. As avoiding risk areas and removing attached ticks as quickly as possible are the best available methods for preventing tick-borne diseases, accessible and up-to-date data on tick occurrence is essential. However, consistently tracking the nationwide distribution of ticks is impossible using traditional collection methods. Therefore, GIS-based predictive modelling for tick occurrence is required. In May 2015, a national tick collection campaign was launched by the University of Turku tick project, with the objective of mapping the current geographical distribution of the two tick species responsible for tick-borne infections in Finland, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus. During the collection campaign, citizens were asked to send any ticks they found to the University of Turku by letter, along with information on the collection locality. The campaign ended in September 2015 and was a great success, with nearly 7000 letters delivered to the University. These letters contained more than 20 000 individual ticks from all around Finland. The geographic data from the letters was converted into coordinate points after the campaign was concluded. Data from the national tick collection campaign revealed not only a northwards shift in the distribution of I. ricinus, but also novel foci for I. persulcatus in Finland. Strikingly, while they were otherwise found throughout Finland, I. persulcatus were absent from the south-southwestern coast, where I. ricinus is nevertheless abundant. The exact cause for this phenomenon is unclear, as I. persulcatus are found further

  2. Prevention and control strategies for ticks and pathogen transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente, J; Kocan, K M; Contreras, M

    2015-04-01

    Ticks and tick-borne pathogens have evolved together, resulting in a complex relationship in which the pathogen's life cycle is perfectly coordinated with the tick's feeding cycle, and the tick can harbour high pathogen levels without affecting its biology. Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) continue to emerge and/or spread, and pose an increasing threatto human and animal health. The disruptive impacts of global change have resulted in ecosystem instability and the future outcomes of management and control programmes for ticks and TBDs are difficult to predict. In particular, the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks has reduced the value of acaricides as a sole means of tick control. Vaccines provide an alternative control method, but the use of tick vaccines has not advanced since the first vaccines were registered in the early 1990s. An understanding of the complex molecular relationship between hosts, ticks and pathogens and the use of systems biology and vaccinomics approaches are needed to discover proteins with the relevant biological function in tick feeding, reproduction, development, immune response, the subversion of host immunity and pathogen transmission, all of which mediate tick and pathogen success. The same approaches will also be required to characterise candidate protective antigens and to validate vaccine formulations. Tick vaccines with a dual effect on tick infestations and pathogen transmission could reduce both tick infestations and their vector capacity for humans, animals and reservoir hosts. The development of integrated tick control strategies, including vaccines and synthetic and botanical acaricides, in combination with managing drug resistance and educating producers, should lead to the sustainable control of ticks and TBDs.

  3. Attachment site selection of ticks on roe deer, Capreolus capreolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, C; Lödige, C; Alings, M; Vor, T; Rühe, F

    2011-01-01

    The spatio-temporal attachment site patterns of ticks feeding on their hosts can be of significance if co-feeding transmission (i.e. from tick to tick without a systemic infection of the host) of pathogens affects the persistence of a given disease. Using tick infestation data on roe deer, we analysed preferred attachment sites and niche width of Ixodes ticks (larvae, nymphs, males, females) and investigated the degree of inter- and intrastadial aggregation. The different development stages showed rather consistent attachment site patterns and relative narrow feeding site niches. Larvae were mostly found on the head and on the front legs of roe deer, nymphs reached highest densities on the head and highest adult densities were found on the neck of roe deer. The tick stages feeding (larvae, nymphs, females) on roe deer showed high degrees of intrastadial spatial aggregation, whereas males did not. Male ticks showed large feeding site overlap with female ticks. Feeding site overlap between larval-female and larval-nymphal ticks did occur especially during the months May-August on the head and front legs of roe deer and might allow pathogen transmission via co-feeding. Tick density, niche width and niche overlap on roe deer are mainly affected by seasonality, reflecting seasonal activity and abundance patterns of ticks. Since different tick development stages occur spatially and temporally clustered on roe deer, transmission experiments of tick-borne pathogens are urgently needed.

  4. Deorphanization and target validation of cross-tick species conserved novel Amblyomma americanum tick saliva protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulenga, Albert; Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mércia Guaratini

    2013-05-01

    We previously identified a cross-tick species conserved tick feeding stimuli responsive Amblyomma americanum (Aam) AV422 gene. This study demonstrates that AamAV422 belongs to a novel group of arthropod proteins that is characterized by 14 cysteine amino acid residues: C(23)-X7/9-C(33)-X23/24-C(58)-X8-C(67)-X7-C(75)-X23-C(99)-X15-C(115)-X10-C(126)-X24/25/33-C(150)C(151)-X7-C(159)-X8-C(168)-X23/24-C(192)-X9/10-C(202) predicted to form seven disulfide bonds. We show that AamAV422 protein is a ubiquitously expressed protein that is injected into the host within the first 24h of the tick attaching onto the host as revealed by Western blotting analyses of recombinant (r)AamAV422, tick saliva and dissected tick organ protein extracts using antibodies to 24 and 48 h tick saliva proteins. Native AamAV422 is apparently involved with mediating tick anti-hemostasis and anti-complement functions in that rAamAV422 delayed plasma clotting time in a dose responsive manner by up to ≈ 160 s, prevented platelet aggregation by up to ≈ 16% and caused ≈ 24% reduction in production of terminal complement complexes. Target validation analysis revealed that rAamAV422 is a potential candidate for a cocktail or multivalent tick vaccine preparation in that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of AamAV422 mRNA caused a statistically significant (≈ 44%) reduction in tick engorgement weights, which is proxy for amounts of ingested blood. We speculate that AamAV422 is a potential target antigen for development of the highly desired universal tick vaccine in that consistent with high conservation among ticks, antibodies to 24h Ixodes scapularis tick saliva proteins specifically bound rAamAV422. We discuss data in this study in the context of advancing the biology of tick feeding physiology and discovery of potential target antigens for tick vaccine development. Copyright © 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Avian migrants facilitate invasions of neotropical ticks and tick-borne pathogens into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Emily B; Auckland, Lisa D; Marra, Peter P; Hamer, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    Migratory birds have the potential to transport exotic vectors and pathogens of human and animal health importance across vast distances. We systematically examined birds that recently migrated to the United States from the Neotropics for ticks. We screened both ticks and birds for tick-borne pathogens, including Rickettsia species and Borrelia burgdorferi. Over two spring seasons (2013 and 2014), 3.56% of birds (n = 3,844) representing 42.35% of the species examined (n = 85) were infested by ticks. Ground-foraging birds with reduced fuel stores were most commonly infested. Eight tick species were identified, including seven in the genus Amblyomma, of which only Amblyomma maculatum/Amblyomma triste is known to be established in the United States. Most ticks on birds (67%) were neotropical species with ranges in Central and South America. Additionally, a single Ixodes genus tick was detected. A total of 29% of the ticks (n = 137) and no avian blood samples (n = 100) were positive for infection with Rickettsia species, including Rickettsia parkeri, an emerging cause of spotted fever in humans in the southern United States, a species in the group of Rickettsia monacensis, and uncharacterized species and endosymbionts of unknown pathogenicity. No avian tick or blood samples tested positive for B. burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease. An extrapolation of our findings suggests that anywhere from 4 to 39 million exotic neotropical ticks are transported to the United States annually on migratory songbirds, with uncertain consequences for human and animal health if the current barriers to their establishment and spread are overcome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Identification of tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks collected in southeastern Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintér, Réka; Madai, Mónika; Vadkerti, Edit; Németh, Viktória; Oldal, Miklós; Kemenesi, Gábor; Dallos, Bianka; Gyuranecz, Miklós; Kiss, Gábor; Bányai, Krisztián; Jakab, Ferenc

    2013-09-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an arthropod-borne viral pathogen causing infections in Europe and is responsible for most arbovirus central nervous system infections in Hungary. Assessing the TBEV prevalence in ticks through detection of genomic RNA is a broadly accepted approach to estimate the transmission risk from a tick bite. For this purpose, 2731 ticks were collected from the neighboring area of the town of Dévaványa, located in southeastern Hungary, which is considered a low-risk-transmission area for TBEV. Altogether, 2300 ticks were collected from the vegetation, while 431 were collected from rodents. Samples were pooled and then screened for TBEV with a newly designed semi-nested RT-PCR (RT-snPCR) targeting the NS1 genomic region. PCR results were confirmed by direct sequencing of the second round amplicons. Among the 3 different collected tick species (Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis concinna, Dermacentor marginatus), I. ricinus was the only species that tested positive for TBEV. TBEV-positive ticks were collected from small mammals or from the vegetation. One nymphal pool and 4 larval pools tested positive for TBEV. The only positive nymphal pool was unfed and came from vegetation, while ticks of the 4 positive larval pools were collected from rodents. Minimal TBEV prevalence in ticks was 0.08% for unfed nymphs and 0.78% for feeding larvae. Our results indicate that further long-term investigations on the occurrence of TBEV are needed to better describe the geographic distribution and the prevalence of infected ticks in Hungary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens at the cutaneous interface: host defenses, tick countermeasures, and a suitable environment for pathogen establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eWikel

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are unique among hematophagous arthropods by continuous attachment to host skin and blood feeding for days; complexity and diversity of biologically active molecules differentially expressed in saliva of tick species; their ability to modulate the host defenses of pain and itch, hemostasis, inflammation, innate and adaptive immunity, and wound healing; and, the diverse array of infectious agents they transmit. All of these interactions occur at the cutaneous interface in a complex sequence of carefully choreographed host defense responses and tick countermeasures resulting in an environment that facilitates successful blood feeding and establishment of tick-borne infectious agents within the host. Here, we examine diverse patterns of tick attachment to host skin, blood feeding mechanisms, salivary gland transcriptomes, bioactive molecules in tick saliva, timing of pathogen transmission, and host responses to tick bite. Ticks engage and modulate cutaneous and systemic immune defenses involving keratinocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, T cell subpopulations (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg , B cells, neutrophils, mast cells, basophils, endothelial cells, cytokines, chemokines, complement, and extracellular matrix. A framework is proposed that integrates tick induced changes of skin immune effectors with their ability to respond to tick-borne pathogens. Implications of these changes are addressed. What are the consequences of tick modulation of host cutaneous defenses? Does diversity of salivary gland transcriptomes determine differential modulation of host inflammation and immune defenses and therefore, in part, the clades of pathogens effectively transmitted by different tick species? Do ticks create an immunologically modified cutaneous environment that enhances specific pathogen establishment? Can tick saliva molecules be used to develop vaccines that block pathogen transmission?

  8. The microbiome of neotropical ticks parasitizing on passerine migratory birds

    OpenAIRE

    Budachetri, Khemraj; Williams, Jaclyn; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Sellers, Michael; Moore, Frank; Karim, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal migration of passerine birds between temperate North America and tropical Central and South America is an ecological phenomenon. Migration of birds has been associated with the introduction of ectoparasites like ticks or tick-borne pathogens across the avian migration routes. In this study, the microbial diversity was determined in the ticks and bird DNA samples using 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Tick DNA samples showed the dominance of genera Lactococcus, Francisel...

  9. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; R?he, Ferdinand

    2010-01-01

    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that acc...

  10. Methods of tick removal: A systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Nikki

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background An increase in tick borne diseases in Australia has seen an interest in appropriate removal of ticks (order Ixodida in order to prevent anaphylaxis, allergy and transmission of tick borne diseases. Aims A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature to determine what method of tick removal should be promoted in terms of preventing future health complications. Methods Thematic synthesis was used in two stages: – tick removal studies conducted on animals and humans were examined and the conclusions from all of these studies were compared, in order to ascertain the best tick removal method in relation to prevention of future medical problems (including tick bite allergy and transmission of infection. Conclusion This systematic review documents the best method of tick removal based on scientific and medical studies between 1985 and 2016. It concludes that the best method is to remove the tick as soon as possible after it is detected, using either fine-tipped tweezers or a reputable commercially produced tick removal tool to pull the tick away from the site of attachment. Some methods of removal, such as applying chemicals like petroleum jelly, alcohol, or nail polish to the tick, have been discredited. Other methods of removal, such as freezing, while promising, have not yet been scientifically validated

  11. Modelling and mapping tick dynamics using volunteered observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martí, Irene; Zurita-Milla, Raúl; Vliet, van Arnold J.H.; Takken, Willem

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to

  12. Molecular biology of tick Acetylcholinesterases – a minireview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticks are important hematophagous arthropod ectoparasites and like mosquitoes, are vectors for a wide variety of human and animal pathogens. Ticks have significant world-wide health and economic impacts. In the U.S., major impacts include the ability of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, to tr...

  13. Genetic parameter estimates for tick resistance in Bonsmara cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were to estimate genetic parameters for tick resistance and to evaluate the effect of the level of tick infestation on the estimates of genetic parameters for South African Bonsmara cattle. Field data of repeated tick count records (n = 11 280) on 1 176 animals were collected between 1993 and 2005 ...

  14. Infestation of Royal Python (Python regius) with ticks Amblyomma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Python/Boa Family is found in most part of tropics. It is a highly domesticated pet and can easily be handled (Cansdale 1962). Snakes are commonly infected by ticks more importantly the hand bodied ticks (Fowler, 1986).However, under captive condition, ticks usually exert a lot of burden on their hosts being carriers of ...

  15. Survey of Hard Ticks (Ixodidae) Infesting Camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the prevalence and abundance of hard ticks infesting camels, 414 nomadic one - humped camels in Kano State, northwestern Nigeria were selected by random sampling and examined for the presence of ticks on their bodies between January and December 2007. Three species of ticks, Amblyomma ...

  16. Ixodidae ticks in the megapolis of Kyiv, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ixodidae include the most common tick species encountered in Europe. The ticks transmit a variety of bacterial and protozoan agents of medical and veterinary significance. The aim of the current work was to investigate distribution of Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor reticulatus ticks in Kyiv, the...

  17. Molecular ecological insights into neotropical bird-tick interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Esser, Helen J.; Loaiza, Jose R.; Herre, Edward Allen; Aguilar, Celestino; Quintero, Diomedes; Alvarez, Eric; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2016-01-01

    In the tropics, ticks parasitize many classes of vertebrate hosts. However, because many tropical tick species are only identifiable in the adult stage, and these adults usually parasitize mammals, most attention on the ecology of tick-host interactions has focused on mammalian hosts. In

  18. Ticks associated with domestic dogs and cats in Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voluntary collections of ticks from domestic dogs and cats by veterinary practitioners across Florida were conducted over a 10 month period. Of the 1,337 ticks submitted, five species of ixodid ticks were identified and included Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacen...

  19. A Review of Methods for Detecting Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection in Tick, Animal, and Human Specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ergunay, K.; Tkachev, S.; Kozlova, I.; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 4-12 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * serology * PCR * tick(s) * rodents Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016

  20. Detection of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), in questing ticks (Ixodes ricinus), and in ticks infesting roe deer in southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overzier, Evelyn; Pfister, Kurt; Herb, Ingrid; Mahling, Monia; Böck, Georg; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2013-06-01

    The hard tick Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick in Central Europe and plays an important role as a vector of several pathogens. In the complex life cycles of these pathogens, the role of wild animals as natural reservoirs has been discussed. The aims of this study were to investigate the role of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) as a potential reservoir host for Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. Therefore, we explored the differences in the infection rates of roe deer and engorged and questing ticks with these pathogens from a single forest site with special attention to coinfection. Blood, spleen, and skin samples of a total of 95 roe deer individuals were screened by molecular methods for these pathogens from September 2010 to January 2012 in the 'Angelberger Forst' (Bavaria, Germany). Moreover, 331 engorged ticks from 44 roe deer individuals and 199 host-seeking ticks from the same area were screened. Altogether, the following prevalence rates and a high diversity of species were detected for the respective pathogens in individual animals and ticks: (i) Babesia spp.: roe deer, 89.5%; engorged ticks, 7.3%; questing ticks: adults, 2.5%, nymphs, 3.3%. Sequencing revealed B. venatorum, B. capreoli, and B. microti. (ii) A. phagocytophilum: roe deer 98.9%; engorged ticks, 86.1%; questing ticks: adults, 8.9%, nymphs, 0.8%. (iii) Rickettsia spp.: roe deer, 0%; engorged ticks, 16.6%; questing ticks: adults, 13.9%, nymphs, 17.5%. Sequencing revealed R. helvetica. Furthermore, several coinfections were detected in both roe deer and ticks. The high prevalence rates of B. capreoli and A. phagocytophilum in roe deer support their role as reservoir hosts for these pathogens, but no evidence for a role of roe deer in the life cycle of R. helvetica could be provided. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and tick-borne pathogens in North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russart, Nathan M; Dougherty, Michael W; Vaughan, Jefferson A

    2014-09-01

    Ticks were sampled at nine locations throughout North Dakota during early summer of 2010, using flagging techniques and small mammals trapping. In total, 1,762 ticks were collected from eight of the nine locations. The dominant species were Dermacentor variabilis (Say) (82%), found throughout the state, and Ixodes scapularis Say (17%), found in northeastern counties. A few nymphal and adult I. scapularis tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi (3%) and Anaplasma phagocytophilum (8%). This is the first report of I. scapularis and associated pathogens occurring in North Dakota and provides evidence for continued westward expansion of this important vector tick species in the United States.

  2. Integrated tick and tick-borne disease control trials in crossbred dairy cattle in Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Whiteland, A. P.; Mfitilodze, M. W.

    1996-01-01

    , but there were no incidents of tick-borne disease in the immunised group. In a second trial, which tested a strategic dipping regimen, 107 animals were dipped 9 times over a 6 month period. Despite heavy challenge by B. bovis and moderate challenge by B. bigemina and Anaplasma spp, demonstrated serologically......, there was only a single clinical case of babesiosis. The observations provide encouragement for the introduction of integrated tick and tick-borne disease control programmes in improved cattle in ECF endemic areas....

  3. Ticks, ivermectin, and experimental Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Pinto Dias

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an infestation of dogticks in kennels housing dogs used for long-term studies of the pathogenesis of Chagas disease, we examined the effect of ivermectin treatment on the dogs, ticks, trypanosome parasites, and also on triatomine vectors of Chagas disease. Ivermectin treatment was highly effective in eliminating the ticks, but showed no apparent effect on the dogs nor on their trypanosome infection. Triatominae fed on the dogs soon after ivermectin treatment showed high mortality, but this effect quickly declined for bugs fed at successive intervals after treatment. In conclusion, although ivermectin treatment may have a transient effect on peridomestic populations of Triatominae, it is not the treatment of choice for this situation. The study also showed that although the dogticks could become infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, this only occurred when feeding on dogs in the acute phase of infection, and there was no evidence of subsequent parasite development in the ticks.

  4. Removing a tick: proper technique in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Rueda Pérez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is medical consensus on the need to remove the tick within 24 hours the mite parasites to the human host, to avoid possible complications. The preferred way is by gently traction the mite, aided by forceps without twisting or chokes with toxic agents, because of the possibility that the mite excretes bacteria mixed with substances. The average time of extraction is estimated between one or three minutes. In children parasitized by ticks this amount of time can be excessive when it’s necessary restraint without the consent of the minor. Using this technique we reduce the time to seconds and the damage caused to the skin is minimal.

  5. Ticks, Borrelia Burgdorferi and Lyme Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işın Sinem Bağcı

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, which is caused by spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, is a tick-transmitted, multisystem infectious disease. It occurs in stages, with different clinical manifestations at each stage. Erythema migrans is the most frequent manifestation which occurs at the site of the tick bite. Borrelial lymphocytoma and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans are late-stage cutaneous manifestations. Extracutaneous signs of infection most often involve the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Serologic assays remain the mainstay of diagnosis. All stages of the disease are curable with appropriate antibiotic therapy.

  6. Status of tick distribution in Bangladesh, India and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Srikant; Bansal, Gyan Chand; Gupta, Suresh Chandra; Ray, Debdatta; Khan, Muhammad Qasim; Irshad, Hamid; Shahiduzzaman, Md; Seitzer, Ulrike; Ahmed, Jabbar S

    2007-09-01

    On a global basis, ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic microorganisms, protozoa, rickettsiae, spirochaets, and viruses than any other arthropods and are among the most important vectors of diseases affecting livestock, humans, and companion animals. Ticks and tick-borne diseases (TTBDs) affect 80% of the world cattle population and are widely distributed throughout the world, particularly in tropical and subtropical countries including India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Ticks and tick-transmitted infections have coevolved with various wild animal hosts, which constitute the reservoir hosts for ticks and tick-borne pathogens of livestock, pets, and humans. In this region, the livestock sector is suffering from a number of disease problems caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Among the parasitological problems, the damage caused by TTBDs is considered very high, and the control of TTBDs has been given priority.

  7. Borrelia, Rickettsia, and Ehrlichia species in bat ticks, France, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolovschi, Cristina; Kernif, Tahar; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Argas vespertilionis, an argasid tick associated with bats and bat habitats in Europe, Africa, and Asia has been reported to bite humans; however, studies investigating the presence of vector-borne pathogens in these ticks are lacking. Using molecular tools, we tested 5 A. vespertilionis ticks collected in 2010 from the floor of a bat-infested attic in southwestern France that had been converted into bedrooms. Rickettsia sp. AvBat, a new genotype of spotted fever group rickettsiae, was detected and cultivated from 3 of the 5 ticks. A new species of the Ehrlichia canis group, Ehrlichia sp. AvBat, was also detected in 3 ticks. Four ticks were infected with Borrelia sp. CPB1, a relapsing fever agent of the Borrelia group that caused fatal borreliosis in a bat in the United Kingdom. Further studies are needed to characterize these new agents and determine if the A. vespertilionis tick is a vector and/or reservoir of these agents.

  8. Detection of tick-borne encephalitis virus in I. ricinus ticks collected from autumn migratory birds in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarina, Alisa; Japiņa, Kristīne; Keišs, Oskars; Salmane, Ineta; Bandere, Dace; Capligina, Valentina; Ranka, Renāte

    2015-03-01

    Birds have a potential of spreading ticks via bird migration routes. In this study, we screened 170 ticks removed during autumn 2010 from 55 birds belonging to 10 species for the presence of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). In total, TBEV RNA was detected in 14% of I. ricinus tick samples obtained from different birds species. The results of this study indicate the possible role of migrating birds in the dispersal of TBEV-infected ticks along the southward migration route. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on migratory passerines in Western part of Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Julia; Nazarova, Lidia; Katargina, Olga; Leivits, Agu; Järvekülg, Lilian; Golovljova, Irina

    2013-07-01

    During southward migration in the years 2006-2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in Western Estonia. In total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. The majority of ticks were collected from Acrocephalus (58%), Turdus (13%), Sylvia (8%), and Parus (6%) bird species. Tick-borne pathogens were detected in nymphs removed from Acrocephalus, Turdus, and Parus bird species. TBEV of the European subtype was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph removed from A. palustris. B. burgdorferi s.l. DNA was found in 11 ticks (4.4%) collected from Turdus and Parus species. Bird-associated B. garinii and B. valaisiana were detected in I. ricinus nymphs removed from T. merula. Rodent-associated B. afzelii was detected in 3 I. ricinus nymphs from 2 P. major birds. One of the B. afzelii-positive nymphs was infected with a mix of 2 B. afzelii strains, whereas 1 of these strains was also detected in another nymph feeding on the same great tit. The sharing of the same B. afzelii strain by 2 nymphs indicates a possible transmission of B. afzelii by co-feeding on a bird. A. phagocytophilum DNA was detected in 1 I. ricinus nymph feeding on a T. iliacus. The results of the study confirm the possible role of migratory birds in the dispersal of ticks infected with tick-borne pathogens along the southward migration route via Estonia.

  10. Partial Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Isolates from Ticks of Southern Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, Oksana O; Dubina, Dmytro O; Vynograd, Nataliya O; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul

    2017-08-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is the most common tick-borne viral infection in Eurasia; thousands of human cases are annually reported from several European countries. Several tick species are vectors of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), while TBE appears to be spreading from the Eurasian continent westward to Europe. Fifteen study sites were chosen from five territories of southern Ukraine, including Odessa, Mykolaiv, Kherson Oblast, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and Sevastopol. Tick collection was performed in spring season of three consecutive years (1988-1990) using either flagging technique or direct collection of specimens feeding on cattle. A total of 15,243 tick imagoes and nymphs were collected from nine species, including Dermacentor marginatus, D. reticulatus, Haemaphysalis parva, H. punctata, Hyalomma marginatum, Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus bursa, R. rossicus, and R. sanguineus, pooled in 282 monospecific samples. Supernatant of grinded pool was used for inoculation to suckling mice for virus isolation. Eight TBEV isolates were identified from ticks among six study sites. Ticks showed a minimum infection rate from 0.11% to 0.81%. Phylogenetic analysis of the envelope (E) protein gene of seven isolates, assigned all to the European subtype (TBEV-Eu) showing a maximum identity of 97.17% to the "Pan" TBEV-Eu reference strain. Compared to 104 TBEV-Eu isolates they clustered within the same clade as the Pan reference strain and distinguished from other TBEV-Eu isolates. Amino acid sequence analysis of the South Ukrainian TBEV-Eu isolates revealed the presence of four amino acid substitutions 67 (N), 266 (R), 306 (V), and 407 (R), in the ectodomains II and III and in the stem-anchor region of the E protein gene. This study confirmed TBEV-Eu subtype distribution in the southern region of Ukraine, which eventually overlaps with TBEV-FE (Far Eastern subtype) and TBEV-Sib (Siberian subtype) domains, showing the heterogeneity of TBEV circulating in

  11. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Humans with Tick Bites and Erythema Migrans, in the Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setareh Jahfari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated.Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008. The presence of several tick-borne pathogens in 314 ticks and 626 blood samples of this cohort were analyzed using PCR-based methods. Using multivariate logistic regression, associations were explored between pathogens detected in blood and self-reported symptoms at enrolment and during a three-month follow-up period.Half of the ticks removed from humans tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Borrelia miyamotoi and several Babesia species. Among 92 Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. positive ticks, 33% carried another pathogen from a different genus. In blood of sixteen out of 626 persons with tick bites or erythema migrans, DNA was detected from Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (n = 7, Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5, Babesia divergens (n = 3, Borrelia miyamotoi (n = 1 and Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. (n = 1. None of these sixteen individuals reported any overt symptoms that would indicate a corresponding illness during the three-month follow-up period. No associations were found between the presence of pathogen DNA in blood and; self-reported symptoms, with pathogen DNA in the corresponding ticks (n = 8, reported tick attachment duration, tick engorgement, or antibiotic treatment at enrolment.Based on molecular detection techniques, the

  12. Molecular Detection of Tick-Borne Pathogens in Humans with Tick Bites and Erythema Migrans, in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Setareh; Hofhuis, Agnetha; Fonville, Manoj; van der Giessen, Joke; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Sprong, Hein

    2016-10-01

    Tick-borne diseases are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases in Europe. Knowledge on the incidence and clinical presentation of other tick-borne diseases than Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis is minimal, despite the high human exposure to these pathogens through tick bites. Using molecular detection techniques, the frequency of tick-borne infections after exposure through tick bites was estimated. Ticks, blood samples and questionnaires on health status were collected from patients that visited their general practitioner with a tick bite or erythema migrans in 2007 and 2008. The presence of several tick-borne pathogens in 314 ticks and 626 blood samples of this cohort were analyzed using PCR-based methods. Using multivariate logistic regression, associations were explored between pathogens detected in blood and self-reported symptoms at enrolment and during a three-month follow-up period. Half of the ticks removed from humans tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, Rickettsia helvetica, Rickettsia monacensis, Borrelia miyamotoi and several Babesia species. Among 92 Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. positive ticks, 33% carried another pathogen from a different genus. In blood of sixteen out of 626 persons with tick bites or erythema migrans, DNA was detected from Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (n = 7), Anaplasma phagocytophilum (n = 5), Babesia divergens (n = 3), Borrelia miyamotoi (n = 1) and Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. (n = 1). None of these sixteen individuals reported any overt symptoms that would indicate a corresponding illness during the three-month follow-up period. No associations were found between the presence of pathogen DNA in blood and; self-reported symptoms, with pathogen DNA in the corresponding ticks (n = 8), reported tick attachment duration, tick engorgement, or antibiotic treatment at enrolment. Based on molecular detection techniques, the probability of

  13. Modulation of host immunity by tick saliva

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kotál, Jan; Langhansová, H.; Lieskovská, J.; Andersen, J. F.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Chavakis, T.; Kopecký, J.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Chmelař, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 128, OCT 14 2015 (2015), s. 58-68 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Adaptive immunity * Innate immunity * Saliva * Salivary glands * Tick Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015

  14. Ixodid ticks parasitizing wild carnivores in Romania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    D'Amico, G.; Dumitrache, M.O.; Matei, I.A.; Ionică, A.M.; Gherman, C.M.; Sándor, A.D.; Modrý, David; Mihalca, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 139-149 ISSN 0168-8162 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Dermacentor spp. * Haemaphysalis spp. * Ixodes spp. * Rhipicephalus spp. * wildlife * tick-host associations Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 1.760, year: 2016

  15. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of the state of Amazonas, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianizella, Sergio L; Martins, Thiago F; Onofrio, Valeria C; Aguiar, Nair O; Gravena, Waleska; do Nascimento, Carlos A R; Neto, Laérzio C; Faria, Diogo L; Lima, Natália A S; Solorio, Monica R; Maranhão, Louise; Lima, Ivan J; Cobra, Iury V D; Santos, Tamily; Lopes, Gerson P; Ramalho, Emiliano E; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2018-02-01

    The tick fauna of Brazil is currently composed by 72 species. The state of Amazonas is the largest of Brazil, with an area of ≈ 19% of the Brazilian land. Besides its vast geographic area, only 19 tick species have been reported for Amazonas. Herein, lots containing ticks from the state of Amazonas were examined in three major tick collections from Brazil. A total of 5933 tick specimens were examined and recorded, comprising 2693 males, 1247 females, 1509 nymphs, and 484 larvae. These ticks were identified into the following 22 species: Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato, Amblyomma calcaratum, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dissimile, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma geayi, Amblyomma goeldii, Amblyomma humerale, Amblyomma latepunctatun, Amblyomma longirostre, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma rotundatum, Amblyomma scalpturatum, Amblyomma varium, Dermacentor nitens, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Ixodes cf. Ixodes fuscipes, Ixodes luciae, Rhipicephalus microplus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. Ticks were collected from 17 (27.4%) out of the 62 municipalities that currently compose the state of Amazonas. The following four species are reported for the first time in the state of Amazonas: A. coelebs, A. dubitatum, H. juxtakochi, and Ixodes cf. I. fuscipes. The only tick species previously reported for Amazonas and not found in the present study is Amblyomma parvum. This study provides a great expansion of geographical and host records of ticks for the state of Amazonas, which is now considered to have a tick fauna composed by 23 species. It is noteworthy that we report 1391 Amblyomma nymphs that were identified to 13 different species.

  16. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vor, Torsten; Kiffner, Christian; Hagedorn, Peter; Niedrig, Matthias; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-08-01

    In our study we assessed the tick burden on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) in relation to age, physical condition, sex, deer density and season. The main objective was to find predictive parameters for tick burden. In September 2007, May, July, and September 2008, and in May and July 2009 we collected ticks on 142 culled roe deer from nine forest departments in Southern Hesse, Germany. To correlate tick burden and deer density we estimated deer density using line transect sampling that accounts for different detectability in March 2008 and 2009, respectively. We collected more than 8,600 ticks from roe deer heads and necks, 92.6% of which were Ixodes spp., 7.4% Dermacentor spp. Among Ixodes, 3.3% were larvae, 50.5% nymphs, 34.8% females and 11.4% males, with significant seasonal deviation. Total tick infestation was high, with considerable individual variation (from 0 to 270 ticks/deer). Adult tick burden was positively correlated with roe deer body indices (body mass, age, hind foot length). Significantly more nymphs were found on deer from forest departments with high roe deer density indices, indicating a positive correlation with deer abundance. Overall, tick burden was highly variable. Seasonality and large scale spatial characteristics appeared to be the most important factors affecting tick burden on roe deer.

  17. Cattle and rainfall affect tick abundance in central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, Felicia; Ostfeld, Richard S; Young, Truman P; Allan, Brian F

    2018-03-01

    East Africa is a global hot spot for the diversity of ixodid ticks. As ectoparasites and as vectors of pathogens, ticks negatively affect the well-being of humans, livestock and wildlife. To prevent tick infestations, livestock owners and managers typically treat livestock with acaricides that kill ticks when they attempt to feed on livestock hosts. Because of the costs of preventing and mitigating tick parasitism, predicting where and when ticks will be abundant is an important challenge in this region. We used a 7-year monthly record of tick abundance on large experimental plots to assess the effects of rainfall, wildlife and cattle on larvae, nymphs and adults of two common tick species, Rhipicephalus pulchellus and Rhipicephalus praetextatus. Nymphal and adult ticks were more abundant when there had been high cumulative rainfall in the prior months. They were less abundant when cattle were present than when only large wild mammals were. Larval abundance was not affected by the presence of cattle, and larvae did not appear to be sensitive to rainfall in prior months, though they were less abundant in our surveys when rainfall was high in the sampling month. The challenges of managing ticks in this region are being exacerbated rapidly by changes in rainfall patterns wrought by climate change, and by overall increases in livestock, making efforts to predict the impacts of these drivers all the more pressing.

  18. Molecular detection and characterization of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Kamani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of vector borne and zoonotic pathogens in dogs and ticks in Nigeria. The aim of this study was to use molecular techniques to detect and characterize vector borne pathogens in dogs and ticks from Nigeria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples and ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus turanicus and Heamaphysalis leachi collected from 181 dogs from Nigeria were molecularly screened for human and animal vector-borne pathogens by PCR and sequencing. DNA of Hepatozoon canis (41.4%, Ehrlichia canis (12.7%, Rickettsia spp. (8.8%, Babesia rossi (6.6%, Anaplasma platys (6.6%, Babesia vogeli (0.6% and Theileria sp. (0.6% was detected in the blood samples. DNA of E. canis (23.7%, H. canis (21.1%, Rickettsia spp. (10.5%, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (5.3% and A. platys (1.9% was detected in 258 ticks collected from 42 of the 181 dogs. Co- infections with two pathogens were present in 37% of the dogs examined and one dog was co-infected with 3 pathogens. DNA of Rickettsia conorii israelensis was detected in one dog and Rhipicephalus sanguineus tick. DNA of another human pathogen, Candidatus N. mikurensis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Heamaphysalis leachi ticks, and is the first description of Candidatus N. mikurensis in Africa. The Theileria sp. DNA detected in a local dog in this study had 98% sequence identity to Theileria ovis from sheep. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study indicate that human and animal pathogens are abundant in dogs and their ticks in Nigeria and portray the potential high risk of human exposure to infection with these agents.

  19. Climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: The butterfly effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2015-12-01

    We have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. Nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. The impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. On the occasion of the Impact of Environmental Changes on Infectious Diseases (IECID) meeting, held in the 2015 in Sitges, Spain, I was invited to give a keynote talk on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. The aim of the present article is to logically extend my rationale presented on the occasion of the IECID meeting. This article is not intended to be an exhaustive review, but an essay on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. It may be anticipated that warmer winters and extended autumn and spring seasons will continue to drive the expansion of the distribution of some tick species (e.g., Ixodes ricinus) to northern latitudes and to higher altitudes. Nonetheless, further studies are advocated to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between landscape, climate, host communities (biodiversity), tick demography, pathogen diversity, human demography, human behaviour, economics, and politics, also considering all ecological processes (e.g., trophic cascades) and other possible interacting effects (e.g., mutual effects of increased greenhouse gas emissions and increased deforestation rates). The multitude of variables and interacting factors involved, and their complexity and dynamism, make tick-borne transmission systems beyond (current) human comprehension. That is, perhaps, the main reason for our inability to precisely predict new epidemics of vector-borne diseases in general.

  20. Phylogeographic Characterization of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus from Patients, Rodents and Ticks in Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajs, Luka; Durmiši, Emina; Knap, Nataša; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is the most important arboviral agent causing infections of the central nervous system in central Europe. Previous studies have shown that TBEV exhibits pronounced genetic variability, which is often correlated to the geographical origin of TBEV. Genetic variability of TBEV has previously been studied predominantly in rodents and ticks, while information about the variability in patients is scarce. In order to understand the molecular relationships of TBEV between natural hosts, vectors and humans, as well as correlation between phylogenetic and geographical clustering, sequences of TBEV E and NS5 protein genes, were obtained by direct sequencing of RT-PCR products from TBE-confirmed patients as well as from rodents and ticks collected from TBE-endemic regions in Slovenia. A total of 27 partial E protein gene sequences representing 15 human, 4 rodent and 8 tick samples and 30 partial NS5 protein gene sequences representing 17 human, 5 rodent and 8 tick samples were obtained. The complete genome sequence of TBEV strain Ljubljana I was simultaneously obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 protein gene sequences revealed a high degree of TBEV variability in patients, ticks and rodents. Furthermore, an evident correlation between geographical and phylogenetic clustering was shown that was independent of the TBEV host. Moreover, we show the presence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome obtained from a patient sample, which was supported with multiple recombination event detection methods. This is the first study that simultaneously analyzed the genetic relationships of directly sequenced TBEV samples from patients, ticks and rodents and provides the largest set of patient-derived TBEV sequences up to date. In addition, we have confirmed the geographical clustering of TBEV sequences in Slovenia and have provided evidence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome, obtained from a patient. PMID

  1. Phylogeographic characterization of tick-borne encephalitis virus from patients, rodents and ticks in Slovenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Fajs

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV is the most important arboviral agent causing infections of the central nervous system in central Europe. Previous studies have shown that TBEV exhibits pronounced genetic variability, which is often correlated to the geographical origin of TBEV. Genetic variability of TBEV has previously been studied predominantly in rodents and ticks, while information about the variability in patients is scarce. In order to understand the molecular relationships of TBEV between natural hosts, vectors and humans, as well as correlation between phylogenetic and geographical clustering, sequences of TBEV E and NS5 protein genes, were obtained by direct sequencing of RT-PCR products from TBE-confirmed patients as well as from rodents and ticks collected from TBE-endemic regions in Slovenia. A total of 27 partial E protein gene sequences representing 15 human, 4 rodent and 8 tick samples and 30 partial NS5 protein gene sequences representing 17 human, 5 rodent and 8 tick samples were obtained. The complete genome sequence of TBEV strain Ljubljana I was simultaneously obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the E and NS5 protein gene sequences revealed a high degree of TBEV variability in patients, ticks and rodents. Furthermore, an evident correlation between geographical and phylogenetic clustering was shown that was independent of the TBEV host. Moreover, we show the presence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome obtained from a patient sample, which was supported with multiple recombination event detection methods. This is the first study that simultaneously analyzed the genetic relationships of directly sequenced TBEV samples from patients, ticks and rodents and provides the largest set of patient-derived TBEV sequences up to date. In addition, we have confirmed the geographical clustering of TBEV sequences in Slovenia and have provided evidence of a possible recombination event in the TBEV genome, obtained from a

  2. Climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases: The butterfly effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Dantas-Torres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have killed wild animals for obtaining food and decimated forests for many reasons. Nowadays, we are burning fossil fuels as never before and even exploring petroleum in deep waters. The impact of these activities on our planet is now visible to the naked eye and the debate on climate change is warming up in scientific meetings and becoming a priority on the agenda of both scientists and policy decision makers. On the occasion of the Impact of Environmental Changes on Infectious Diseases (IECID meeting, held in the 2015 in Sitges, Spain, I was invited to give a keynote talk on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. The aim of the present article is to logically extend my rationale presented on the occasion of the IECID meeting. This article is not intended to be an exhaustive review, but an essay on climate change, biodiversity, ticks and tick-borne diseases. It may be anticipated that warmer winters and extended autumn and spring seasons will continue to drive the expansion of the distribution of some tick species (e.g., Ixodes ricinus to northern latitudes and to higher altitudes. Nonetheless, further studies are advocated to improve our understanding of the complex interactions between landscape, climate, host communities (biodiversity, tick demography, pathogen diversity, human demography, human behaviour, economics, and politics, also considering all ecological processes (e.g., trophic cascades and other possible interacting effects (e.g., mutual effects of increased greenhouse gas emissions and increased deforestation rates. The multitude of variables and interacting factors involved, and their complexity and dynamism, make tick-borne transmission systems beyond (current human comprehension. That is, perhaps, the main reason for our inability to precisely predict new epidemics of vector-borne diseases in general.

  3. A survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, A L T; Witter, R; Martins, T F; Pacheco, T A; Alves, A S; Chitarra, C S; Dutra, V; Nakazato, L; Pacheco, R C; Labruna, M B; Aguiar, D M

    2016-03-01

    Tick and blood samples collected from domestic dogs in the Brazilian Pantanal were tested by molecular methods for the presence of tick-borne protozoa and bacteria. Among 320 sampled dogs, 3.13% were infected by Babesia vogeli (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae), 8.75% by Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae), 7.19% by Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 0.94% by an unclassified Anaplasma sp. In three tick species collected from dogs, the following tick-borne agents were detected: (a) B. vogeli, An. platys and Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks; (b) H. canis, an unclassified Anaplasma sp. and Rickettsia amblyommii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), infecting Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks, and (c) Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, an emerging human pathogen, infecting Amblyomma ovale ticks. Molecular analysis, based on a mitochondrial gene, revealed that the Am. cajennense s.l. ticks of the present study corresponded to Amblyomma sculptum, a member of the Am. cajennense species complex, and that Rh. sanguineus s.l. belonged to the tropical lineage. Whereas dogs are exposed to a number of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan agents in the Pantanal biome, humans are potentially exposed to infection by spotted fever group rickettsiae (e.g. R. amblyommii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) because both Am. sculptum and Am. ovale are among the most important human-biting ticks in Brazil. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  4. Confirmation of Tick Bite by Detection of Antibody to Ixodes Calreticulin Salivary Protein▿

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcon-Chaidez, Francisco; Ryan, Raymond; Wikel, Stephen; Dardick, Kenneth; Lawler, Caroline; Foppa, Ivo M.; Tomas, Patricio; Cushman, Alexis; Hsieh, Ann; Spielman, Andrew; Bouchard, Keith R.; Dias, Filiciano; Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Krause, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Ticks introduce a variety of pharmacologically active molecules into their host during attachment and feeding in order to obtain a blood meal. People who are repeatedly exposed to ticks may develop an immune response to tick salivary proteins. Despite this response, people usually are unaware of having been bitten, especially if they are not repeatedly exposed to ticks. In order to develop a laboratory marker of tick exposure that would be useful in understanding the epidemiology of tick-born...

  5. Tick microbiome and pathogen acquisition altered by host blood meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swei, Andrea; Kwan, Jessica Y

    2017-03-01

    Lyme disease, a zoonotic disease, is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere. Diversity of the vector (tick) microbiome can impact pathogen transmission, yet the biotic and abiotic factors that drive microbiome diversity are largely unresolved, especially under natural, field conditions. We describe the microbiome of Ixodes pacificus ticks, the vector for Lyme disease in the western United States, and show a strong impact of host blood meal identity on tick microbiome species richness and composition. Western fence lizards, a host that is refractory to the Lyme disease pathogen, significantly reduces microbiome diversity in ticks relative to ticks that feed on a mammalian reservoir host. Host blood meal-driven reduction of tick microbiome diversity may have lifelong repercussions on I. pacificus vector competency and ultimately disease dynamics.

  6. Biology, treatment, and control of flea and tick infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagburn, Byron L; Dryden, Michael W

    2009-11-01

    Flea and tick infestations are common and elimination can be expensive and time consuming. Many advances in control of fleas can be directly linked to improved knowledge of the intricacies of flea host associations, reproduction, and survival in the premises. Understanding tick biology and ecology is far more difficult than with fleas, because North America can have up to 9 different tick species infesting cats and dogs compared to 1 primary flea species. Effective tick control is more difficult to achieve than effective flea control, because of the abundance of potential alternative hosts in the tick life cycle. Many effective host-targeted tick control agents exist, several of which also possess activity against adult or immature fleas and other parasites.

  7. Rickettsia Species in Ticks Removed from Humans in Istanbul, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargili, Aysen; Palomar, Ana M.; Midilli, Kenan; Portillo, Aránzazu; Kar, Sırrı

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A total of 167 ticks collected from humans in Istanbul (Turkey) in 2006 were screened for Rickettsia species, and nested PCRs targeting gltA and ompA rickettsial fragment genes were carried out. Rickettsia monacensis (51), R. aeschlimannii (8), R. conorii subsp. conorii (3), R. helvetica (2), R. raoultii (1), R. africae (1), R. felis (1), and other Rickettsia spp. (2), were detected. To our knowledge, these Rickettsia species (except R. conorii) had never been reported in ticks removed from humans in Turkey. The presence of R. africae also had not been previously described, either in Hyalomma ticks or in any European tick species. In addition, R. aeschlimannii and R. felis had not been found associated with Rhipicephalus bursa specimens. The presence of human pathogenic Rickettsia in ticks removed from humans provides information about the risk of tick-borne rickettsioses in Turkey. PMID:22925016

  8. Ticks and spotted fever group rickettsiae of southeastern Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadolny, Robyn M; Wright, Chelsea L; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Hynes, Wayne L; Gaff, Holly D

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of tick-borne rickettsial disease in the southeastern United States has been rising steadily through the past decade, and the range expansions of tick species and tick-borne infectious agents, new and old, has resulted in an unprecedented mix of vectors and pathogens. The results of an ongoing 4-year surveillance project describe the relative abundance of questing tick populations in southeastern Virginia. Since 2009, more than 66,000 questing ticks of 7 species have been collected from vegetation in a variety of habitats, with Amblyomma americanum constituting over 95% of ticks collected. Other species represented included Ixodes scapularis, Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma maculatum, Ixodes affinis, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, and Ixodes brunneus. We found that 26.9-54.9% of A. americanum ticks tested were positive for Rickettsia amblyommii, a non-pathogenic symbiont of this tick species. We also found no evidence of R. rickettsii in D. variabilis ticks, although they did show low infection rates of R. montanensis (1.5-2.0%). Rickettsia parkeri and Candidatus R. andeanae were found in 41.8-55.7% and 0-1.5% A. maculatum ticks, respectively. The rate of R. parkeri in A. maculatum ticks is among the highest in the literature and has increased in the 2 years since R. parkeri and A. maculatum were first reported in southeastern Virginia. We conclude that tick populations in southeastern Virginia have recently undergone dramatic changes in species and abundance and that these populations support a variety of rickettsial agents with the potential for increased risk to human health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana; Cvjetković Dejan; Patić Aleksandra; Radovanov Jelena; Kovačević Gordana; Milošević Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tick-borne meningoencephalitis virus is a flavivirus that causes the most important vector-borne central nervous system infection in many countries of Europe and Asia. There are three subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus: European, Siberian and the Far-Eastern subtype. Transmission. In endemic areas, the virus remains in transmissive cycles between Ixodes ticks and small rodents. Clinical picture. In most cases (70−98%) infection goes asy...

  10. The microbiome of neotropical ticks parasitizing on passerine migratory birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budachetri, Khemraj; Williams, Jaclyn; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Sellers, Michael; Moore, Frank; Karim, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal migration of passerine birds between temperate North America and tropical Central and South America is an ecological phenomenon. Migration of birds has been associated with the introduction of ectoparasites like ticks or tick-borne pathogens across the avian migration routes. In this study, the microbial diversity was determined in the ticks and bird DNA samples using 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Tick DNA samples showed the dominance of genera Lactococcus, Francisella, Raoultella, Wolbachia and Rickettsia across all the ticks, but birds DNA did not share common microbial diversity with ticks. Furthermore, "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" infection in the 91 ticks collected off the songbirds was also quantified by qPCR assay. Interestingly, "Candidatus R. amblyommii" was tested positive in 24 ticks (26% infection), and infection varied from as low as three copies to thousands of copies, but bird blood samples showed no amplification. Our results provide evidence that songbirds serve as transport carrier for immature ticks, and less likely to be a reservoir for "Candidatus R. amblyommii". Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling tick abundance using machine learning techniques and satellite imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Lene Jung; Korslund, L.; Kjelland, V.

    satellite images to run Boosted Regression Tree machine learning algorithms to predict overall distribution (presence/absence of ticks) and relative tick abundance of nymphs and larvae in southern Scandinavia. For nymphs, the predicted abundance had a positive correlation with observed abundance...... the predicted distribution of larvae was mostly even throughout Denmark, it was primarily around the coastlines in Norway and Sweden. Abundance was fairly low overall except in some fragmented patches corresponding to forested habitats in the region. Machine learning techniques allow us to predict for larger...... the collected ticks for pathogens and using the same machine learning techniques to develop prevalence maps of the ScandTick region....

  12. Pet ownership increases human risk of encountering ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E H; Hinckley, A F; Hook, S A; Meek, J I; Backenson, B; Kugeler, K J; Feldman, K A

    2018-02-01

    We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1.49 times the risk (95% CI = 1.20, 1.84) of finding ticks attached to household members compared to households without pets. This large evaluation of pet ownership, human tick encounters and tickborne diseases shows that pet owners, whether of cats or dogs, are at increased risk of encountering ticks and suggests that pet owners are at an increased risk of developing tickborne disease. Pet owners should be made aware of this risk and be reminded to conduct daily tick checks of all household members, including the pets, and to consult their veterinarian regarding effective tick control products. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Persistent Ehrlichia ewingii Infection in Dogs after Natural Tick Infestation

    OpenAIRE

    Starkey, L.A.; Barrett, A.W.; Beall, M.J.; Chandrashekar, R.; Thatcher, B.; Tyrrell, P.; Little, S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ehrlichia ewingii, which causes disease in dogs and people, is the most common Ehrlichia spp. infecting dogs in the United States, but little is known about how long E.?ewingii infection persists in dogs. Hypothesis/Objectives To evaluate the persistence of natural infection with E.?ewingii in dogs. Animals Four Class A Beagles; no previous exposure to ticks or tick?borne infectious agents. Methods Dogs were exposed to ticks by weekly walks through tick habitat in north central Okl...

  14. Biological and ecological aspects of hard ticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Nayibe Polanco Echeverry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hard ticks are blood-sucking ectoparasites of Ixodidae family. These mites have been always considered disrupting agents of livestock systems, where they are recognized as the cause of economic and production losses. However, their ecological role is important for the dynamic equilibrium of the production systems bovine meat or milk. Knowing their biolog y and ecolog y can shed light on the sanitary decisions made in relation to these organisms. This review article presents issues related to classification, characteristics, and life cycle of hard ticks and relations vector-parasite-host. In addition, it addresses the control of ectoparasites on conventional livestock systems and the implica-tions that these models of intervention might have on agro-ecosystem.

  15. Extension of Ixodes ricinus ticks and agents of tick-borne diseases to mountain areas in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielová, V.; Rudenko, Natalia; Daniel, M.; Holubová, J.; Materna, J.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Schwarzová, L.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 296, Suppl. 1 (2006), s. 48-53 ISSN 1438-4221. [International Potsdam Symposium on Tick-borne Diseases /8./. Potsdam, 10.03.2005-12.03.2005] Grant - others:WHO/EC(CZ) cCASHh-EVK2-2000-0070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : ticks * tick-borne pathogens * mountain areas Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology , Virology Impact factor: 2.760, year: 2006

  16. Deer tick masquerading as pigmented conjunctival lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin K. Kuriakose

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions and importance: Despite the low risk for Lyme disease, which is endemic to the Adirondack region where the patient was affected, doxycycline was prescribed for prophylaxis. In any case of suspected tick penetration to the ocular surface, immediate ophthalmologic consultation and prompt removal via the method mentioned above is recommended, as well as attention paid to the Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines regarding prophylaxis.

  17. Ticks and Tickborne Diseases Affecting Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    vitamin C, garlic , sulfur powder, panty hose, and others have been reported to me as "great tick repellents." While these efforts may possibly...tickborne diseases in the U.S.) are usually successfully treated with antibiotics in their initial stages; 2 31 therefore, early diagnosis is imperative. For...convulsions, coma, and death (Burgdorfer, 1975). Although treatable with broad spectrum antibiotics , about 5% of cases reported in the U.S. are fatal

  18. Changing distributions of ticks: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Léger, Elsa; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Vial, Laurence; Chevillon, Christine; McCoy, Karen D

    2013-02-01

    Today, we are witnessing changes in the spatial distribution and abundance of many species, including ticks and their associated pathogens. Evidence that these changes are primarily due to climate change, habitat modifications, and the globalisation of human activities are accumulating. Changes in the distribution of ticks and their invasion into new regions can have numerous consequences including modifications in their ecological characteristics and those of endemic species, impacts on the dynamics of local host populations and the emergence of human and livestock disease. Here, we review the principal causes for distributional shifts in tick populations and their consequences in terms of the ecological attributes of the species in question (i.e. phenotypic and genetic responses), pathogen transmission and disease epidemiology. We also describe different methodological approaches currently used to assess and predict such changes and their consequences. We finish with a discussion of new research avenues to develop in order to improve our understanding of these host-vector-pathogen interactions in the context of a changing world.

  19. Tick (Amblyomma chabaudi) infestation of endemic tortoises in southwest Madagascar and investigation of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Julian; Ganzhorn, Jörg U; Silaghi, Cornelia; Krüger, Andreas; Pothmann, Daniela; Ratovonamana, R Yedidya; Veit, Alexandra; Keller, Christian; Poppert, Sven

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the role of endemic ticks as vectors for bacterial and protozoan pathogens for animals and humans in Madagascar and their interaction in anthropogenic habitats where humans, their livestock and native Malagasy species (vectors and hosts) come into more frequent contact than in natural forest ecosystems. The aims of the study were (1) to test whether habitat degradation is associated with increased infestation of tortoises by ticks and (2) to investigate whether ticks carried Babesia, Borrelia or Rickettsia species that might be pathogenic for humans and livestock. We studied hard ticks of two endemic Malagasy tortoises, Astrochelys radiata and Pyxis arachnoides in March and April 2013 in southwest Madagascar. Two tortoise habitats were compared, the National Park of Tsimanampetsotsa and the adjacent degraded pasture and agricultural land at the end of the wet season. Ticks were screened for protozoan and bacterial pathogens via PCR on DNA isolated from ticks using genus-specific primers. Only one out of 42 A. radiata collected from both habitats had ticks. The low prevalence did not allow further analyses of the effect of habitat degradation. Forty-two P. arachnoides were found in the anthropogenic habitat and 36 individuals in the national park. Tick infestation rates of P. arachnoides differed significantly between the two study sites. Tortoises inside the park had lower tick prevalence than outside (8 of 36 (22%) versus 32 of 42 individuals (76%)) and infected animals tended to have fewer ticks inside than outside the park. All ticks collected in both habitats were adults of the ixodid tick Amblyomma chabaudi, which is supposed to be a host-specific tick of P. arachnoides. Screening for Borrelia sp. and Babesia sp. was negative in all ticks. But all A. chabaudi ticks were infected with Rickettsia africae, known to cause spotted fever in humans. Thus, habitat degradation seems to be linked to higher infestation of tortoises with ticks with

  20. Range Expansion of Tick Disease Vectors in North America: Implications for Spread of Tick-Borne Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E. Sonenshine

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are the major vectors of most disease-causing agents to humans, companion animals and wildlife. Moreover, ticks transmit a greater variety of pathogenic agents than any other blood-feeding arthropod. Ticks have been expanding their geographic ranges in recent decades largely due to climate change. Furthermore, tick populations in many areas of their past and even newly established localities have increased in abundance. These dynamic changes present new and increasing severe public health threats to humans, livestock and companion animals in areas where they were previously unknown or were considered to be of minor importance. Here in this review, the geographic status of four representative tick species are discussed in relation to these public health concerns, namely, the American dog tick, Dermacentor variabilis, the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum, the Gulf Coast Tick, Amblyomma maculatum and the black-legged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Both biotic and abiotic factors that may influence future range expansion and successful colony formation in new habitats are discussed.

  1. Seasonal Dynamics and Distribution of Ticks in Rwanda: Implications for Tick Control Strategy in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Mutandwa; Nshimiyimana Juvenal

    2010-01-01

    The broad objective of this study was to examine the dynamics and seasonal distribution of tick species in Rwanda in three agro-ecological zones namely high altitude (Gishwati), the mid altitude (Huye) and the lower altitude zones (Nyagatare). Ten cows per zone were identified and used for collecting ticks m onthly on a period covering the short dry season and long rainy season from December 2002 to June 2003. These animals were not treated and remained on pasture land. The results revealed t...

  2. Immunization of Cattle with Tick Salivary Gland Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nikpay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhipicephalus (Boophilus annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. Re­cently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle.Methods: Fourteen more dominant protein bands identified as immunogenic by Western-blot analysis were eluted from polyacrylamide gel. Test and control groups were injected three times with eluted proteins and sterile PBS (pH= 7.2 respectively with equivalent amount of adjuvant. After four weeks a tick challenge was performed. Fi­nally, biological parameters of collected engorged female ticks were recorded and humoral immune responses to immunization measured by ELISA.Results: The results indicated immunization of cattle resulted in reduction in mean tick counts, attachment, en­gorgement weights, feeding index, egg mass weight, hatchability and fertility index (respectively 63.1%, 62.6%, 30.2%, 36.4%, 40%, 78.7% and 13.3% and increased duration of feeding, pre-oviposition and incubation period of eggs (respectively 8.6%, 45 and 31.34%. All changes were statistically significant (P< 0.05. Results showed an increase in antibody production of test group from the first week after immunization. The antibody level was boosted following tick infestation.Conclusion: This investigation indicates that immunization of cattle with these antigens could induce a protective immune response against Rh. (B. annulatus tick that would be expected to provide a safe non-chemical means of tick control.

  3. Strategic control of ticks with synthetic pyrethroids in Theileria parva ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of tick control by strategic dipping in synthetic pyrethroids on growth and survival rates of calves in Eastern Tanzania where Theileria parva and other tick borne infections (babesiosis, anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis) are endemic was measured. One day to five months old Tanganyika short horn zebu (Bos indicus) ...

  4. The application of lambda-cyhalothrin in tick control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurisic, Aleksandar D; Petrovic, Aleksandra P; Rajkovic, Dragana V; Nicin, Slobodan Dj

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, in urban areas of Novi Sad, unique ecological conditions, specific floristic and faunistic composition and poor habits of citizens in sense of public health, facilitate the development and maintenance of ticks. Regarding the importance of ticks as vectors of severe human and animal diseases, complex and detailed studies are conducted with an aim to find the most efficient methods for tick control. Two tick species, Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus, were identified during a 3-year period on the territory of Municipality of Novi Sad. During 2006, the efficacy of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin in tick control varied from 60.7 to 100%. The highest efficacy recorded in 2007 was 92.3%. The efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin in 2008 varied from 39.1 to 100%. Lambda-cyhalothrin showed high efficacy in tick control at localities which were improved before the application (mowed, litter removed, abundance control and euthanasia of abandoned cats and dogs). The results of this research indicate that lambda-cyhalothrin has a toxic effect on ticks and could be used as efficient acaricide for tick control, although its efficacy depends on formulation, terrain features and methods of application.

  5. Relative abundance of hard tick on reared cattle (Family: Bovidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out among cattle reared in Idah LGA of Kogi State, for tick infestations for a period of four months (May – August, 2009). A total of 294 cattle were sampled, 181 were infested with three species of hard ticks (Family: Ixodidae), comprising of Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, and ...

  6. Effects of Vegetation Microclimate on Larval Cattle Fever Tick Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle Fever Ticks (CFT), Rhipicephalus annulatus and R. microplus, have been a threat to the livestock industry for many years. These ticks are vectors of cattle fever, a disease produced by the hemoparasite Babesia bovis and B. bigemina. Laboratory research on CFT larval survival has shown that co...

  7. Tick-borne encephalitis: Pathogenesis and clinical implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Dobler, G.; Mantke, O. D.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 4 (2010), s. 223-232 ISSN 1477-8939 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP302/10/P438; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Pathogenesis * Clinical data Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. Tick resistance to diazinon: a case report | Samuel | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of a heavy tick infestation of dogs in a private kennel that resisted treatment with diazinon is reported. Application is by the conventional acaricidal tick dips and subsequent acaricidal spraying of the premises on three consecutive occasions which yielded no result. However a change of drug from diazinon to ...

  9. Effects of anti-tick vaccines, recombinant serine protease inhibitors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary trial of a cocktail of recombinant RAS-1-2 and RIM 36 antigens was conducted in Uganda to assess the effects of ant-tick vaccines against Rhipicephalus appendiculatus tick feeding on Zebu cattle under both experimental and natural conditions. Under experimental conditions, over a period of 28 days, the ...

  10. Equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the emergence and establishment of equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands, with particular attention to their diagnosis, clinical relevance and treatment. Four tick-borne agents (Borrelia burgdorferi, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum)

  11. Diversity and distribution of ticks from domestic ruminants in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabaja, Mayssaa Fawaz; Tempesta, Maria; Bayan, Ali; Vesco, Gesualdo; Vesco, Gesualdo; Greco, Grazia; Torina, Alessandra; Blanda, Valeria; La Russa, Francesco; Scimeca, Salvatore; Ezzedine, Mohamad; Mortada, Hussein; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre Edouard; Mortada, Mohamad

    2017-06-30

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are ectoparasites infesting livestock in every geographic area in the world and they are vectors of several viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens to animals and humans worldwide. A deep knowledge of the geographical distribution of these arthropods would have a key role in the control of tick-borne diseases. Few data are available about tick presence in domestic ruminants in Lebanon. The study aimed at providing an analysis of tick presence and distribution in Lebanon. Ticks were collected from cattle, sheep, and goats farms distributed in 6 Lebanese provinces between June and September 2014. A total of 272 adult hard ticks were randomly collected from domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) located at 37 Lebanese farms, distributed among 30 villages. Ticks belonged to 4 Ixodidae genera: Rhipicephalus (72.4%), Haemaphysalis (11.4%), Dermacentor (8.1%), and Hyalomma (8.1%). They included the following species: Rhipicephalus annulatus (50.7%), Rhipicephalus turanicus (18.8%), Hyalomma anatolicum (8.1%), Haemaphylasis punctata (11.4%), Dermacentor marginatus (8.1%), Rhipicephalus sanguineus (2.5%), and Rhipicephalus bursa (0.4%). Rhipicephalus turanicus and H. anatolicum were found on cattle, sheep, and goats, R. annulatus on cattle and sheep, R. sanguineus, D. marginatus and Hea. punctata on sheep and goats, while R. bursa was collected only on sheep. Tick species involved in pathogen transmission were found and some of the identi ed species were recorded in Lebanon for the rst time.

  12. Dual control of ticks and tsetse flies using deltamethrin through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    The baseline survey was carried out in three parishes to establish the initial tsetse density, tick burdens, level of tick control and prevalence of trypanosomosis and TBDs in cattle. Initially, samples were taken from 200 head of cattle and were ear tagged for future monitoring. Stained blood smears were examined for TBDs.

  13. Electromagnetic radiation and behavioural response of ticks: an experimental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargová, Blažena; Majláth, Igor; Kurimský, Juraj; Cimbala, Roman; Kosterec, Michal; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Jankowiak, Łukasz; Raši, Tomáš; Majláthová, Viktória

    2018-05-01

    Factors associated with the increased usage of electronic devices, wireless technologies and mobile phones nowadays are present in increasing amounts in our environment. All living organisms are constantly affected by electromagnetic radiation which causes serious environmental pollution. The distribution and density of ticks in natural habitats is influenced by a complex of abiotic and biotic factors. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) constitutes a potential cause altering the presence and distribution of ticks in the environment. Our main objective was to determine the affinity of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks towards RF-EMF exposure. Originally designed and constructed radiation-shielded tube (RST) test was used to test the affinity of ticks under controlled laboratory conditions. All test were performed in an electromagnetic compatibility laboratory in an anechoic chamber. Ticks were irradiated using a Double-Ridged Waveguide Horn Antenna to RF-EMF at 900 and 5000 MHz, 0 MHz was used as control. The RF-EMF exposure to 900 MHz induced a higher concentration of ticks on irradiated arm of RST as opposed to the RF-EMF at 5000 MHz, which caused an escape of ticks to the shielded arm. This study represents the first experimental evidence of RF-EMF preference in D. reticulatus. The projection of obtained results to the natural environment could help assess the risk of tick borne diseases and could be a tool of preventive medicine.

  14. Quantifying the availability of vertebrate hosts to ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Tim R.; Marcus Rowcliffe, J.; Jansen, Patrick A.

    2017-01-01

    The availability of vertebrate hosts is a major determinant of the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne zoonoses in natural and anthropogenic ecosystems and thus drives disease risk for wildlife, livestock, and humans. However, it remains challenging to quantify the availability of vertebrate hosts in

  15. Beware of Ticks (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-14

    Lyme disease is transmitted by the bite of blacklegged ticks and affects up to 300,000 Americans each year. This podcast discusses ways to prevent tick bites.  Created: 5/14/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/14/2015.

  16. Characterization of ferritin 2 for the control of tick infestations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajdušek, Ondřej; Almazán, C.; Loosová, Gabriela; Villar, M.; Canales, M.; Grubhoffer, L.; Kopáček, Petr; de la Fuente, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 17 (2010), s. 2993-2998 ISSN 0264-410X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick ferritin 2 * tick-protective vaccine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.572, year: 2010

  17. Participatory impact assessment of ticks on cattle milk production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rain and bush burning practice by the abba gada period mentioned. They further said that there ... which as they believe used to reduce tick infestation while they were practicing earlier. There was “Diima ... Figure 1: Relationships between tick burden and climate change in five Abba Gada leadership's periods (Each Abba ...

  18. Some Factors Affecting the Sustainability of Tick and Tick-Borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implications for development of acaricide resistance in ticks. In some cases, acaricides are mixed with the bare hand, thus posing serious health hazards to the users. Table 1. The types of acaricides currently in use in the countr. Formulation. Chemical group. Single. Organophosphate. Formamidine. Synthetic pyrethroids.

  19. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.

    2013-01-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts’ function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. Our structural dynamic observations suggest that the process of insertion and attachment occurs via a ratchet-like mechanism with two distinct stages. Initially, the two telescoping chelicerae pierce the skin and, by moving alternately, generate a toehold. Subsequently, a breaststroke-like motion, effected by simultaneous flexure and retraction of both chelicerae, pulls in the barbed hypostome. This combination of a flexible, dynamic mechanical ratchet and a static holdfast thus allows the tick to solve the problem of how to penetrate skin and also remain stuck for long periods of time. PMID:24174106

  20. Tick-Pathogen Interactions and Vector Competence: Identification of Molecular Drivers for Tick-Borne Diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de la Fuente, J.; Antunes, S.; Bonnet, S.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Domingos, A.G.; Estrada-Peňa, A.; Johnson, N.; Kocan, K.M.; Mansfield, K. L.; Nijhof, A.M.; Papa, A.; Rudenko, Natalia; Villar, M.; Alberdi, P.; Torina, A.; Ayllón, N.; Vancová, Marie; Golovchenko, Maryna; Grubhoffer, Libor; Caracappa, S.; Fooks, A. R.; Gortazar, C.; Rego, Ryan O. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, APR 7 (2017), č. článku 114. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Anaplasma * flavivirus * Babesia * Borrelia * Microbiome * immunology * vaccine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  1. ANTIDotE: anti-tick vaccines to prevent tick-borne diseases in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, Hein; Trentelman, Jos; Seemann, Ingar; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr; Šíma, Radek; Nijhof, Ard M.; Anguita, Juan; Winter, Peter; Rotter, Bjorn; Havlíková, Sabina; Klempa, Boris; Schetters, Theo P.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2014-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus transmits bacterial, protozoal and viral pathogens, causing disease and forming an increasing health concern in Europe. ANTIDotE is an European Commission funded consortium of seven institutes, which aims to identify and characterize tick proteins involved in feeding and pathogen

  2. Strategies for new and improved vaccines against ticks and tick-borne diseases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de la Fuente, J.; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, A.; Maritz-Olivier, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 12 (2016), s. 754-769 ISSN 0141-9838 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : interactomics * reverse genetics * systems biology * tick * vaccine * vaccinology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.493, year: 2016

  3. ANTIDotE: anti-tick vaccines to prevent tick-borne diseases in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sprong, H.; Trentelman, J.; Seemann, I.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr; Šíma, Radek; Nijhof, A.M.; Anguita, J.; Winter, P.; Rotter, B.; Havlíková, S.; Klempa, B.; Schetters, T.P.; Hovius, J.W.R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, FEB 2014 (2014), s. 77 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * vaccine * Lyme borreliosis * tick-borne encephalitis * babesiosis * public health Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  4. Identification and Characterization of Ixodes scapularis Antigens That Elicit Tick Immunity Using Yeast Surface Display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, T.J.; Narasimhan, S.; Daffre, S.; Deponte, K.; Hovius, J.W.R.; van 't Veer, C.; van der Poll, T.; Bakhtiari, K.; Meijers, J.C.M.; Boder, E.T.; van Dam, A.P.; Fikrig, E.

    2011-01-01

    Repeated exposure of rabbits and other animals to ticks results in acquired resistance or immunity to subsequent tick bites and is partially elicited by antibodies directed against tick antigens. In this study we demonstrate the utility of a yeast surface display approach to identify tick salivary

  5. Identifying Environmental and Human Factors Associated With Tick Bites using Volunteered Reports and Frequent Pattern Mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Martí, Irene; Zurita-Milla, Raul; Swart, Arno; Wijngaard, van den Kees C.; Vliet, van Arnold J.H.; Bennema, Sita; Harms, Margriet

    2017-01-01

    Tick populations and tick-borne diseases like Lyme borreliosis have been steadily increasing since the mid-1990s. Realizing the threat that ticks pose to public health, two Dutch citizen science projects have collected tick bite reports since 2006. This unique volunteered geographical dataset,

  6. Prevalence of ticks on local and crossbred cattle in and around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identify the favorable predilection sites of ticks and to measure the tick burden within breeds, different age groups and ... Study period, tick collection and identification methods. Ticks were collected from half body .... reported in many parts of Ethiopia, such as in Rift Valley Solomon Gebre et al., (2001), Hararghe Gulilat Asrat ...

  7. Immunological control of ticks and tick-borne diseases that impact cattle health and production in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cattle industry is one of the most important agroeconomic activities in Mexico. The national herd is estimated to include approximately 33.5 million head of cattle. Ticks and tick-borne diseases are principal factors with a negative impact on cattle health and production in Mexico. The most econ...

  8. Variable spikes in tick-borne encephalitis incidence in 2006 independent of variable tick abundance but related to weather

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Randolph, S. E.; Asokliene, L.; Avsic-Zupanc, T.; Bormane, A.; Burri, C.; Gern, L.; Golovljova, I.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Knap, N.; Kondrusik, M.; Kupca, A.; Pejčoch, Milan; Vasilenko, V.; Žygutiene, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 44 (2008), s. 1-18 ISSN 1756-3305 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * epidemiology * weather conditions * ixodid ticks * outdoor activity * mushroom harvest * berry harvest Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology , Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology

  9. Quantification of brown dog tick repellents, 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde, and release from tick-resistant beagles, Canis lupus familiaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have recently shown that repellency of the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato by the tick resistant dog breed Beagle is mediated by volatile organic compounds 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde present in Beagle dog odour. Ectoparasite location on animal hosts is affected by variation in odour com...

  10. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne P. Oechslin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout Europe, Ixodes ricinus transmits numerous pathogens. Its widespread distribution is not limited to rural but also includes urbanized areas. To date, comprehensive data on pathogen carrier rates of I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Switzerland is lacking. Results Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled at 18 (sub- urban collection sites throughout Switzerland showed carrier rates of 0% for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 18.0% for Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato, 2.5% for Borrelia miyamotoi, 13.5% for Rickettsia spp., 1.4% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 6.2% for "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and 0.8% for Babesia venatorum (Babesia sp., EU1. Site-specific prevalence at collection sites with n > 45 ticks (n = 9 significantly differed for B. burgdorferi (s.l., Rickettsia spp., and "Ca. N. mikurensis", but were not related to the habitat type. Three hundred fifty eight out of 1078 I. ricinus ticks (33.2% tested positive for at least one pathogen. Thereof, about 20% (71/358 were carrying two or three different potentially disease-causing agents. Using next generation sequencing, we could detect true pathogens, tick symbionts and organisms of environmental or human origin in ten selected samples. Conclusions Our data document the presence of pathogens in the (sub- urban I. ricinus tick population in Switzerland, with carrier rates as high as those in rural regions. Carriage of multiple pathogens was repeatedly observed, demonstrating the risk of acquiring multiple infections as a consequence of a tick bite.

  11. Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens of the Caribbean: Current Understanding and Future Directions for More Comprehensive Surveillance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gondard, M.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Charles, R. A.; Vayssier-Taussat, M.; Albina, E.; Moutailler, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 29 (2017), č. článku 490. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne pathogens * ticks * Caribbean * epidemiology * newhigh-throughput technologies * surveillance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  12. Ticks threatening lineage of Anatolian wild sheep (Ovis gmelinii anatolica) and determination of their tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkun, Ömer; Emir, Hasan; Karaer, Zafer

    2016-09-15

    We aimed to determine the ticks of the Anatolian wild sheep and to define their tick-borne pathogens while molecularly studying their relationships with those of the domestic sheep. Furthermore, another aim of this study is to investigate tick paralysis resulting in the death of the Anatolian wild sheep. Ticks and blood samples were collected from the wild sheep whilst tick samples were also collected from hares, guinea fowls, chickens, and a turkey living in the Anatolian wild sheep breeding area. While PCR amplification was carried out for the detection of Babesia spp., Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in blood samples, CCHF virus was screened in the tick samples in addition to the above-mentioned pathogens. Theileria spp. was detected in blood samples of 45 wild sheep. A total of 3494 ticks were collected from 52 Anatolian wild sheep, 5 hares, 5 guinea fowls, 2 chickens, and 1 turkey whereas 98 ticks were collected from the ground. B. ovis and T. ovis were detected in tick pools (Rh. bursa and H. excavatum) that were collected from the wild sheep. The paralysis was diagnosed in both of the hind legs of the newborn lambs infested with a great number of ticks. We also report that the tick species (H. excavatum and Rh. bursa) are determined to cause tick paralysis and tick toxicosis, which are associated with mortality especially in lambs. T. ovis and B. ovis were detected and studied for the first time in Anatolian wild sheep and in their ticks. The results of phylogenetic analyses showed that T. ovis and B. ovis isolates are genetically very close to the isolates that were previously obtained from the domestic small ruminants. We show that the Anatolian wild sheep can play the role of a reservoir for T. ovis. The presence of the CCHF virus has also been clearly shown and it has been observed that this virus, which is very pathogenic for humans, is anywise circulating in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic. Part I. Ixodes ricinus ticks and tick-borne encephalitis virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daniel, M.; Danielová, V.; Kříž, B.; Růžek, Daniel; Fialová, A.; Malý, M.; Materna, J.; Pejčoch, M.; Erhart, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2016), s. 118-128 ISSN 1210-7913 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * tick-borne encephalitis virus * occurence * altitude * region * season Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016

  14. Ecological factors characterizing the prevalence of bacterial tick-borne pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks in pastures and woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halos, Lénaïg; Bord, Séverine; Cotté, Violaine; Gasqui, Patrick; Abrial, David; Barnouin, Jacques; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Vourc'h, Gwenaël

    2010-07-01

    Ecological changes are recognized as an important driver behind the emergence of infectious diseases. The prevalence of infection in ticks depends upon ecological factors that are rarely taken into account simultaneously. Our objective was to investigate the influences of forest fragmentation, vegetation, adult tick hosts, and habitat on the infection prevalence of three tick-borne bacteria, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia sp. of the spotted fever group, in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks, taking into account tick characteristics. Samples of questing nymphs and adults were taken from 61 pastures and neighboring woodlands in central France. The ticks were tested by PCR of pools of nymphs and individual adults. The individual infection prevalence was modeled using multivariate regression. The highest infection prevalences were found in adult females collected in woodland sites for B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum (16.1% and 10.7%, respectively) and in pasture sites for Rickettsia sp. (8.7%). The infection prevalence in nymphs was lower than 6%. B. burgdorferi sensu lato was more prevalent in woodlands than in pastures. Forest fragmentation favored B. burgdorferi sensu lato and A. phagocytophilum prevalence in woodlands, and in pastures, the B. burgdorferi sensu lato prevalence was favored by shrubby vegetation. Both results are probably because large amounts of edges or shrubs increase the abundance of small vertebrates as reservoir hosts. The Rickettsia sp. prevalence was maximal on pasture with medium forest fragmentation. Female ticks were more infected by B. burgdorferi sensu lato than males and nymphs in woodland sites, which suggests an interaction between the ticks and the bacteria. This study confirms the complexity of the tick-borne pathogen ecology. The findings support the importance of small vertebrates as reservoir hosts and make a case for further studies in Europe on the link between the

  15. Tick-Borne Transmission of Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Hajnická

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses are a large group of DNA viruses infecting mainly vertebrates. Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 is often used as a model in studies of the pathogenesis of clinically important human gammaherpesviruses such as Epstein-Barr virus and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. This rodent virus appears to be geographically widespread; however, its natural transmission cycle is unknown. Following detection of MHV68 in field-collected ticks, including isolation of the virus from tick salivary glands and ovaries, we investigated whether MHV68 is a tick-borne virus. Uninfected Ixodes ricinus ticks were shown to acquire the virus by feeding on experimentally infected laboratory mice. The virus survived tick molting, and the molted ticks transmitted the virus to uninfected laboratory mice on which they subsequently fed. MHV68 was isolated from the tick salivary glands, consistent with transmission via tick saliva. The virus survived in ticks without loss of infectivity for at least 120 days, and subsequently was transmitted vertically from one tick generation to the next, surviving more than 500 days. Furthermore, the F1 generation (derived from F0 infected females transmitted MHV68 to uninfected mice on which they fed, with MHV68 M3 gene transcripts detected in blood, lung, and spleen tissue of mice on which F1 nymphs and F1 adults engorged. These experimental data fulfill the transmission criteria that define an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus, the largest biological group of viruses. Currently, African swine fever virus (ASFV is the only DNA virus recognized as an arbovirus. Like ASFV, MHV68 showed evidence of pathogenesis in ticks. Previous studies have reported MHV68 in free-living ticks and in mammals commonly infested with I. ricinus, and neutralizing antibodies to MHV68 have been detected in large mammals (e.g., deer including humans. Further studies are needed to determine if these reports are the result of tick-borne transmission

  16. Proteomics Approach to the Study of Cattle Tick Adaptation to White Tailed Deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Popara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, are a serious threat to animal health and production. Some ticks feed on a single host species while others such as R. microplus infest multiple hosts. White tailed deer (WTD play a role in the maintenance and expansion of cattle tick populations. However, cattle ticks fed on WTD show lower weight and reproductive performance when compared to ticks fed on cattle, suggesting the existence of host factors that affect tick feeding and reproduction. To elucidate these factors, a proteomics approach was used to characterize tick and host proteins in R. microplus ticks fed on cattle and WTD. The results showed that R. microplus ticks fed on cattle have overrepresented tick proteins involved in blood digestion and reproduction when compared to ticks fed on WTD, while host proteins were differentially represented in ticks fed on cattle or WTD. Although a direct connection cannot be made between differentially represented tick and host proteins, these results suggested that differentially represented host proteins together with other host factors could be associated with higher R. microplus tick feeding and reproduction observed in ticks fed on cattle.

  17. Ticks on humans in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Osava, Carolina F; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias P J

    2014-09-01

    Information on ticks biting humans in Brazil is very restricted. In fact, many times when human tick-borne diseases are diagnosed, the involved vector tick is not identified, although this may be clinically helpful. Pantanal is one of the world's largest floodplains, has an exuberant wildlife, and is place of extensive cattle ranching, ecotourism, and fishing. We herein report tick species found on humans in a 13-month survey in a region with both cattle and wildlife handling in the Brazilian Pantanal. From February 2012 to February 2013, a total of 280 ticks was collected from humans (n=22), 121 of which were attached. Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato nymphs were the main tick species and stage found attached to humans (n=93) especially during the dry months (winter). In the wet season (summer), Amblyomma parvum adults were the main ticks found attached to humans (n=19) followed by A. cajennense s.l. adults (n=9). Only one unattached nymph of A. parvum was collected in this study. These results reinforce that A. cajennense s.l. nymphs are an important parasite of humans (and vectors) in Brazil and draw also attention to A. parvum adults as frequent human parasites as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Tick Haller’s Organ, a New Paradigm for Arthropod Olfaction: How Ticks Differ from Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann L. Carr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are the vector of many human and animal diseases; and host detection is critical to this process. Ticks have a unique sensory structure located exclusively on the 1st pairs of legs; the fore-tarsal Haller’s organ, not found in any other animals, presumed to function like the insect antennae in chemosensation but morphologically very different. The mechanism of tick chemoreception is unknown. Utilizing next-generation sequencing and comparative transcriptomics between the 1st and 4th legs (the latter without the Haller’s organ, we characterized 1st leg specific and putative Haller’s organ specific transcripts from adult American dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis. The analysis suggested that the Haller’s organ is involved in olfaction, not gustation. No known odorant binding proteins like those found in insects, chemosensory lipocalins or typical insect olfactory mechanisms were identified; with the transcriptomic data only supporting a possible olfactory G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR signal cascade unique to the Haller’s organ. Each component of the olfactory GPCR signal cascade was identified and characterized. The expression of GPCR, Gαo and β-arrestin transcripts identified exclusively in the 1st leg transcriptome, and putatively Haller’s organ specific, were examined in unfed and blood-fed adult female and male D. variabilis. Blood feeding to repletion in adult females down-regulated the expression of all three chemosensory transcripts in females but not in males; consistent with differences in post-feeding tick behavior between sexes and an expected reduced chemosensory function in females as they leave the host. Data are presented for the first time of the potential hormonal regulation of tick chemosensation; behavioral assays confirmed the role of the Haller’s organ in N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET repellency but showed no role for the Haller’s organ in host attachment. Further research is needed to understand

  19. Prevention of tick bites: an evaluation of a smartphone app.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonise-Kamp, L; Beaujean, D J M A; Crutzen, R; van Steenbergen, J E; Ruwaard, D

    2017-12-04

    Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common reported tick-borne infection in Europe, and involves transmission of Borrelia by ticks. As long as a vaccine is not available and effective measures for controlling tick populations are insufficient, LB control is focused on preventive measures to avoid tick bites. To inform citizens about the risk of ticks, motivate them to check for tick bites, and encourage them to remove any attached tick as quickly as possible, a mobile app called 'Tekenbeet' (Dutch for 'tick bite') was developed and released. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usage and user satisfaction of the 'Tekenbeet' app and to investigate whether it affects users' knowledge, perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, response efficacy, current behavior and intention to comply with preventive measures. Usage of the app was evaluated with data obtained from Google Analytics. A survey among the Dutch general adult population with two data collection periods evaluated the usage, user satisfaction and its influence on abovementioned outcomes. Data obtained from Google Analytics showed the app was downloaded almost 40,000 in the 20 months following the launch. The 'tick radar' and 'tick diary' screens were viewed most often. In addition, a total of 554 respondents completed an online survey. The mean user satisfaction score was 7.44 (on a scale of 1-10) and 90.9% of respondents would recommend the app to others. On average, survey respondents who downloaded the app (n = 243) recorded significantly more often higher knowledge scores (OR 3.37; 95% CI 2.02-5.09) and had a higher intention to comply with preventive measures (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.22-5.85) compared to respondents who did not download the app (n = 311). The 'Tekenbeet' app is a frequently used and well-appreciated educational tool to increase public knowledge of ticks and tick bites. It also helps to improve the user's intention to apply preventive measures. The use of

  20. New Borrelia species detected in ixodid ticks in Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about Borrelia species transmitted by hard ticks in Ethiopia. The present study was conducted from November 2011 through March 2014 to address the occurrence and molecular identity of these bacteria in ixodid ticks infesting domestic animals in Oromia, Ethiopia. A total of 767 ixodid ticks collected from domestic animals were screened for Borrelia DNA by quantitative (q) real-time PCR followed by standard PCR and sequencing to identify the species. Overall, 3.8% (29/767) of the tested ticks were positive for Borrelia DNA, including 8/119 (6.7%) Amblyomma cohaerens, 1/42 (2.4%) Am. gemma, 3/53 (5.7%) Am. variegatum, 5/22 (22.7%) Amblyomma larvae, 3/60 (5%) Amblyomma nymphs, 2/139 (1.4%) Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, 2/31 (6.4%) Rh. decoloratus nymphs, and 5/118 (4.2%) Rh. pulchellus using 16S genus-specific qPCR. The prevalence of Borrelia DNA was significantly higher in genus Amblyomma (20/298, 6.7%) than in the genus Rhipicephalus (9/417, 2.1%) ticks (P=0.001). Sequencing of PCR products from the flaB and 16S rRNA genes of Borrelia spp. from Amblyomma ticks showed the presence of a new species between the relapsing fever and Lyme disease groups. However, Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks clustered with B. theileri/B. lonestari. The human pathogenicity of the Borrelia sp. detected in Amblyomma ticks from Ethiopia has not yet been investigated, whereas the Borrelia sp. detected in Rhipicephalus ticks in our study is the causative agent of bovine borreliosis in cattle and may have veterinary importance in different parts of Ethiopia. Furthermore, the detection of previously unrecognized Borrelia species in Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus ticks in Ethiopia generates additional questions concerning the bacterial fauna in hard ticks and will prompt researchers to perform detailed studies for better understanding of ixodid ticks associated bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbé Sandelin, Lisa; Tolf, Conny; Larsson, Sara; Wilhelmsson, Peter; Salaneck, Erik; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Lindgren, Per-Eric; Olsen, Björn; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM; family Anaplasmataceae) was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. The presence of CNM in mammals, in host-seeking Ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. We investigated the presence of CNM in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. A total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females) collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern Sweden was screened for CNM by molecular methods. The birds represented 65 different species, of which 35 species were infested with one or more ticks. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular species identification, the majority of the ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus. Samples were initially screened by real-time PCR targeting the CNM 16S rRNA gene, and confirmed by a second real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. For positive samples, a 1260 base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Based upon bacterial gene sequence identification, 2.1% (24/1150) of the analysed samples were CNM-positive. Twenty-two out of 24 CNM-positive ticks were molecularly identified as I. ricinus nymphs, and the remaining two were identified as I. ricinus based on morphology. The overall CNM prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs was 4.2%. None of the 548 tested larvae was positive. CNM-positive ticks were collected from 10 different bird species. The highest CNM-prevalences were recorded in nymphs collected from common redpoll (Carduelis flammea, 3/7), thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia, 2/29) and dunnock (Prunella modularis, 1/17). The 16S rRNA sequences obtained in this study were all identical to each other and to three previously reported European strains, two of which were obtained from humans. It is concluded that ornithophagous ticks may be infected with CNM and that birds most likely can disperse CNM-infected ticks over large geographical areas.

  2. Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ticks from Migrating Birds in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Labbé Sandelin

    Full Text Available Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis (CNM; family Anaplasmataceae was recently recognized as a potential tick-borne human pathogen. The presence of CNM in mammals, in host-seeking Ixodes ticks and in ticks attached to mammals and birds has been reported recently. We investigated the presence of CNM in ornithophagous ticks from migrating birds. A total of 1,150 ticks (582 nymphs, 548 larvae, 18 undetermined ticks and two adult females collected from 5,365 birds captured in south-eastern Sweden was screened for CNM by molecular methods. The birds represented 65 different species, of which 35 species were infested with one or more ticks. Based on a combination of morphological and molecular species identification, the majority of the ticks were identified as Ixodes ricinus. Samples were initially screened by real-time PCR targeting the CNM 16S rRNA gene, and confirmed by a second real-time PCR targeting the groEL gene. For positive samples, a 1260 base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Based upon bacterial gene sequence identification, 2.1% (24/1150 of the analysed samples were CNM-positive. Twenty-two out of 24 CNM-positive ticks were molecularly identified as I. ricinus nymphs, and the remaining two were identified as I. ricinus based on morphology. The overall CNM prevalence in I. ricinus nymphs was 4.2%. None of the 548 tested larvae was positive. CNM-positive ticks were collected from 10 different bird species. The highest CNM-prevalences were recorded in nymphs collected from common redpoll (Carduelis flammea, 3/7, thrush nightingale (Luscinia luscinia, 2/29 and dunnock (Prunella modularis, 1/17. The 16S rRNA sequences obtained in this study were all identical to each other and to three previously reported European strains, two of which were obtained from humans. It is concluded that ornithophagous ticks may be infected with CNM and that birds most likely can disperse CNM-infected ticks over large geographical areas.

  3. Preventing tick attachment to dogs using essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Penelope; Ellse, Lauren; Wall, Richard

    2018-03-27

    Preventing tick bites using repellents could make a valuable contribution to an integrated tick management programme for dogs. Here, the ability of a range of essential oils or active ingredients of commercially available repellents, to abolish the orientation and taxis of the tick Ixodes ricinus towards sebum extracted from dog hair was examined in laboratory bioassays. Substantial differences between oils were observed, but turmeric oil was both able to prevent a climbing response by ticks and had a longer residual activity than other oils. A blanket-drag field assay was then used to compare the attachment of ticks to blankets impregnated with one of: turmeric oil, DEET (positive control), orange-oil or excipient only (negative controls). In total, 899 ticks were counted, with an average of 23.3 (SD ± 21.3) ticks per blanket drag for excipient-only (n = 16), 26.9 (SD ± 28.6) for orange oil (n = 16), 2.6 (SD ± 2.0) for turmeric oil (n = 16) and 3.4 (SD ± 3.7) for DEET (n = 16). Finally, in a participatory in vivo trial, tick acquisition by 15 untreated control dogs was compared with 24 dogs sprayed with turmeric-oil and 16 dogs sprayed with orange oil (both 2.5% v/v diluted in water with a 1% coco glucoside excipient) before each walk in known tick infested areas. The percentage of dogs with ticks attached to the legs or belly of dogs sprayed with turmeric oil suspension (15% ± 19.4%) was significantly lower than that of ticks attached to the same areas of dogs sprayed with orange oil suspension (85% ± 19.4%) and unsprayed dogs (73% ± 26.2%) (P < 0.05). The data indicate that turmeric-oil may form a valuable component of a tick management programme for domestic dogs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting some small mammals from Northern Turkey with new tick-host associations and locality records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Adem; Selçuk, Ahmet Yesari; Kefelioğlu, Haluk

    2017-12-01

    Ticks are obligate ectoparasites of a vast range of terrestrial vertebrates which may play an important role in the transmission of many zoonotic pathogens to humans and animals. In the current study, we performed an investigation on ticks infesting some small mammals captured from Samsun and Tokat provinces, Northern Turkey. One hundred forty-five mammalian samples belonging to four species, namely Cricetulus migratorius (n = 1), Apodemus flavicollis (n = 17), Crocidura suaveolens (n = 102) and Sorex volnuchini (n = 25), were examined for the presence of tick infestations. A total of 273 (74 larvae, 194 nymphs, 5 females) hard ticks were collected from 88 mammalian samples. Ticks were identified as Ixodes laguri (1 nymph), I. redikorzevi (22 larvae, 186 nymphs, 5 females), I. ricinus (52 larvae, 4 nymphs) and Rhipicephalus turanicus (3 nymphs). Here, we also provided new tick mammalian host associations for Turkey. In addition, I. laguri and I. redikorzevi ticks were recorded for the first time in Samsun province of Turkey.

  5. Surveillance of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredsson, Matthias; Olafsson, Erling; Eydal, Matthias; Unnsteinsdottir, Ester Rut; Hansford, Kayleigh; Wint, William; Alexander, Neil; Medlock, Jolyon M

    2017-10-10

    Ixodes ricinus is a three-host tick, a principal vector of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) and one of the main vectors of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus. Iceland is located in the North Atlantic Ocean with subpolar oceanic climate. During the past 3-4 decades, average temperature has increased, supporting more favourable conditions for ticks. Reports of I. ricinus have increased in recent years. If these ticks were able to establish in a changing climate, Iceland may face new threats posed by tick-borne diseases. Active field surveillance by tick flagging was conducted at 111 sites around Iceland from August 2015 to September 2016. Longworth mammal traps were used to trap Apodemus sylvaticus in southwestern and southern Iceland. Surveillance on tick importation by migratory birds was conducted in southeastern Iceland, using bird nets and a Heligoland trap. Vulpes lagopus carcasses from all regions of the country were inspected for ticks. In addition, existing and new passive surveillance data from two institutes have been merged and are presented. Continental probability of presence models were produced. Boosted Regression Trees spatial modelling methods and its predictions were assessed against reported presence. By field sampling 26 questing I. ricinus ticks (7 males, 3 females and 16 nymphs) were collected from vegetation from three locations in southern and southeastern Iceland. Four ticks were found on migratory birds at their arrival in May 2016. A total of 52 A. sylvaticus were live-trapped but no ticks were found nor on 315 V. lagopus carcasses. Passive surveillance data collected since 1976, reports further 214 I. ricinus ticks from 202 records, with an increase of submissions in recent years. The continental probability of presence model correctly predicts approximately 75% of the recorded presences, but fails to predict a fairly specific category of recorded presence in areas where the records are probably opportunistic and not likely to lead to

  6. Efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox against ticks on cattle and ticks and fleas on dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Fourie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of orally administered powdered aloe juice (Aloe ferox was evaluated against ticks on cattle and against ticks and fleas on dogs. Twelve calves were each infested over a 25-day period with approximately 4000 larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus and allocated to 3 groups of 4 calves each. Three days after the last larval infestation and daily for 22 days thereafter, the calves in 1 group were fed 5 mg / kg body weight and those in another 25 mg / kg body weight of powdered aloe juice incorporated in game maintenance pellets, while the animals in the 3rd group received only pellets. Detached female ticks were collected daily and counted and the weights and the fertility of groups of 50 engorged female ticks collected from the animals were ascertained. The powdered aloe juice in the game maintenance pellets had no effect on the tick burdens of the calves or on the fertility of the ticks. Six dogs, in each of 2 groups, were treated daily for 15 consecutive days, commencing on Day -5 before the 1st tick infestation, with either 0.39 g or 0.74 g of powdered aloe juice, administered orally in gelatin capsules, while a 3rd group of 6 dogs served as untreated controls. All the dogs were challenged with Haemaphysalis leachi on Days 0 and +7, and with Ctenocephalides felis on Days+1and +8, and efficacy assessments were made 1 day after flea and 2 days after tick challenge, respectively. Treatment was not effective against ticks or fleas on the dogs.

  7. Sialomes and Mialomes: A Systems-Biology View of Tick Tissues and Tick-Host Interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelař, J.; Kotál, Jan; Karim, S.; Kopáček, Petr; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 3 (2016), s. 242-254 ISSN 1471-4922 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409; GA ČR GA13-11043S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 268177 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : next- gene ration sequencing * sialomes * systems biology * tick-borne pathogens Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.333, year: 2016

  8. Tick iron and heme metabolism – New target for an anti-tick intervention

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajdušek, Ondřej; Šíma, Radek; Perner, Jan; Loosová, Gabriela; Harcubová, Adéla; Kopáček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2016), s. 565-572 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * iron * heme * RNAi * vaccine Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  9. Prevalence of Anaplasma marginale in different tick species from Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyumagwa, Robert D; Simmler, Pascale; Meli, Marina L; Hoare, Richard; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Lutz, Hans

    2009-04-06

    In 2001, Ngorongoro Crater was infested with high density of ticks on grassland, livestock and wildlife which was also associated with high mortality. Adult ticks were collected, identified, processed for nucleic acids extraction and a molecular analysis was performed to determine the range of tick species harboring Anaplasma marginale. The real-time PCR was used in the amplification of rickettsia DNA in tick pools (n=527) from 11 identified tick species. Six tick species were detected with A. marginale DNA including Amblyomma gemma, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, R. compositus, R.decoloratus, R. praetextatus and R. pulchellus. The detection rate in each tick species was 3%, 0.7%, 2%, 13%, 1.8%, and 6.2%, respectively. Five of the positive tick species excluding R.decoloratus have previously not been described to transmit A. marginale. High diversity of tick species detected with A. marginale in Ngorongoro Crater is likely to increase a risk to susceptible animals of contracting the infection.

  10. Genetic characterization of tick-borne flaviviruses: new insights into evolution, pathogenetic determinants and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grard, Gilda; Moureau, Grégory; Charrel, Rémi N; Lemasson, Jean-Jacques; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Gallian, Pierre; Gritsun, Tamara S; Holmes, Edward C; Gould, Ernest A; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2007-04-25

    Here, we analyze the complete coding sequences of all recognized tick-borne flavivirus species, including Gadgets Gully, Royal Farm and Karshi virus, seabird-associated flaviviruses, Kadam virus and previously uncharacterized isolates of Kyasanur Forest disease virus and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus. Significant taxonomic improvements are proposed, e.g. the identification of three major groups (mammalian, seabird and Kadam tick-borne flavivirus groups), the creation of a new species (Karshi virus) and the assignment of Tick-borne encephalitis and Louping ill viruses to a unique species (Tick-borne encephalitis virus) including four viral types (i.e. Western Tick-borne encephalitis virus, Eastern Tick-borne encephalitis virus, Turkish sheep Tick-borne encephalitis virus and Louping ill Tick-borne encephalitis virus). The analyses also suggest a complex relationship between viruses infecting birds and those infecting mammals. Ticks that feed on both categories of vertebrates may constitute the evolutionary bridge between the three distinct identified lineages.

  11. Vaccination with BM86, subolesin and akirin protective antigens for the control of tick infestations in white tailed deer and red deer

    OpenAIRE

    Carreón, Diana; Pérez de Lastra, José Manuel; Pérez de Lastra, José Manuel; Canales, Mario; Ruiz Fons, Francisco; Boadella, Mariana; Moreno-Cid, Juan A.; Villar, Margarita; Gortázar, Christian; Reglero, Manuel; Fuente, José de la

    2012-01-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus) and white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are hosts for different tick species and tick-borne pathogens and play a role in tick dispersal and maintenance in some regions. These factors stress the importance of controlling tick infestations in deer and several methods such as culling and acaricide treatment have been used. Tick vaccines are a cost-effective alternative for tick control that reduced cattle tick infestations and tick-borne pathogens prevalence whil...

  12. [EFFECT OF PYRETHROIDS ON TAIGA TICKS (IXODES PERSULCATUS IXODIDAE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germant, O M; Shashina, N I

    2016-01-01

    Nonspecific prevention of infections, the agents of which are transmitted by Ixodes ticks, is aimed at stopping the suction of the ticks to humans and is substantially based one the use of acaricides. The most interesting group of compounds to be used to individually protect humans is pyrethroids that cause different nerve conduction disturbances in the ticks, which result in their paralysis and death more significantly rapidly than the compounds from other chemical groups. The effect of 8 pyrethroids was investigated when the taiga ticks were in contact with the tissue treated with the compounds. The relationship of the chemical structure of pyrethroids with their acaricidal activity was analyzed from motor activity values and knockdown time. The test pyreithroids, in order of decreasing acaricidal activity, are imiprothrin cyphenothrin, cyfluthrin, alpha-cyperamethrin, zeta-cyperimethrin fenothrin, flumethrin.

  13. Efficacy of afoxolaner against Dermacentor variabilis ticks in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Elizabeth B; Dorr, Paul; Everett, William R; Chester, Theodore S; Larsen, Diane

    2014-04-02

    Efficacy of afoxolaner, a novel isoxazoline insecticide/acaricide, against Dermacentor variabilis ticks was confirmed in two laboratory studies. Each study utilized a controlled, randomized block design. One day prior to treatment, beagle dogs were infested with 50 unfed adult ticks. Repeat infestations were performed weekly for four weeks. The number of live ticks remaining on each dog was determined 48 h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation. A single oral treatment with a dose approaching the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner (2.5mg/kg) eliminated the pre-existing infestations by D. variabilis ticks and controlled weekly re-infestations with 99.7-100% efficacy up to Day 23 and >97% efficacy at Day 30. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cattle tick vaccine researchers join forces in CATVAC

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schetters, T.P.; Bishop, R.; Crampton, M.; Kopáček, Petr; Lew-Tabor, A.; Maritz-Olivier, C.; Miller, R.; Mosqueda, J.; Patarroyo, J.; Rodriguez-Valle, M.; Scoles, G.A.; de la Fuente, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, FEB 24 (2016), s. 105 ISSN 1756-3305 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : CATVAC * vaccine * cattle * tick * Rhipicephalus microplus Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 3.080, year: 2016

  15. Cattle tick vaccine researchers join forces in CATVAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    A meeting sponsored by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation was held at the Avanti Hotel, Mohammedia, Morocco, July 14–15, 2015. The meeting resulted in the formation of the Cattle Tick Vaccine Consortium (CATVAC)....

  16. Risk of Disease from Mosquito and Tick Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect repellents help reduce the risk of mosquito and tick bites, which can transmit diseases including West Nile Virus, malaria, encephalitis, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and ehrlichiosis.

  17. Does Host Complement Kill Borrelia burgdorferi within Ticks?

    OpenAIRE

    Rathinavelu, Sivaprakash; Broadwater, Anne; de Silva, Aravinda M.

    2003-01-01

    The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, inhabits the gut lumen of the tick vector. At this location the spirochete is exposed to host blood when a tick feeds. We report here on studies that were done with normal and complement-deficient (C3-knockout) mice to determine if the host complement system killed spirochetes within the vector. We found that spirochete numbers within feeding nymphs were not influenced by complement, most likely because host complement was inactivated within ...

  18. Climate change and Ixodes tick-borne diseases of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostfeld, Richard S; Brunner, Jesse L

    2015-04-05

    The evidence that climate warming is changing the distribution of Ixodes ticks and the pathogens they transmit is reviewed and evaluated. The primary approaches are either phenomenological, which typically assume that climate alone limits current and future distributions, or mechanistic, asking which tick-demographic parameters are affected by specific abiotic conditions. Both approaches have promise but are severely limited when applied separately. For instance, phenomenological approaches (e.g. climate envelope models) often select abiotic variables arbitrarily and produce results that can be hard to interpret biologically. On the other hand, although laboratory studies demonstrate strict temperature and humidity thresholds for tick survival, these limits rarely apply to field situations. Similarly, no studies address the influence of abiotic conditions on more than a few life stages, transitions or demographic processes, preventing comprehensive assessments. Nevertheless, despite their divergent approaches, both mechanistic and phenomenological models suggest dramatic range expansions of Ixodes ticks and tick-borne disease as the climate warms. The predicted distributions, however, vary strongly with the models' assumptions, which are rarely tested against reasonable alternatives. These inconsistencies, limited data about key tick-demographic and climatic processes and only limited incorporation of non-climatic processes have weakened the application of this rich area of research to public health policy or actions. We urge further investigation of the influence of climate on vertebrate hosts and tick-borne pathogen dynamics. In addition, testing model assumptions and mechanisms in a range of natural contexts and comparing their relative importance as competing models in a rigorous statistical framework will significantly advance our understanding of how climate change will alter the distribution, dynamics and risk of tick-borne disease.

  19. Amblyomma americanum tick calreticulin binds C1q but does not inhibit activation of the classical complement cascade

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae Kwon; Ibelli, Adriana Mércia Guaratini; Mulenga, Albert

    2015-01-01

    In this study we characterized Amblyomma americanum (Aam) tick calreticulin (CRT) homolog in tick feeding physiology. In nature, different tick species can be found feeding on the same animal host. This suggests that different tick species found feeding on the same host can modulate the same host anti-tick defense pathways to successfully feed. From this perspective it’s plausible that different tick species can utilize universally conserved proteins such as CRT to regulate and facilitate fee...

  20. A tiny tick can cause a big health problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are tiny crawling bugs in the spider family that feed by sucking blood from animals. They are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of human disease, both infectious and toxic. Infected ticks spread over a hundred diseases, some of which are fatal if undetected. They spread the spirochete (which multiplies in the insect's gut with a subsequent bite to the next host. We describe the only reported cases of peri ocular tick bite from India that presented to us within a span of 3 days and its management. Due suspicion and magnification of the lesions revealed the ticks which otherwise masqueraded as small skin tags/moles on gross examination. The ticks were firmly latched on to the skin and careful removal prevented incarceration of the mouth parts. Rickettsial diseases that were believed to have disappeared from India are reemerging and their presence has recently been documented in at least 11 states in the country. Among vector borne diseases, the most common, Lyme disease, also known as the great mimicker, can present with rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, multiple sclerosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, cardiac manifestations, encephalitis, and mental illness, to name some of the many associations. Common ocular symptoms and signs include conjunctivitis, keratitis, uveitis, and retinitis. Early detection and treatment of tick borne diseases is important to prevent multi system complications that can develop later in life.

  1. Economic importance of ticks and their effective control strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haranahalli Vasanthachar Manjunathachar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Role of livestock in improvement of a country ’s economy is inevitable. Livestock contributes a lion ’s share in agricultural sector of developing countries. Several developing countries have adopted the use of exotic germplasm to improve the productivity of their native breeds, which has brought down the disease resistance. Among various problems hindering the growth and productivity of livestock, parasite related problem plays a major role. Tick and tick borne diseases are prevalent in 80% of the cattle population around the globe. They cause various worries to the farmers by transmitting major disease causing pathogens and jeopardize animal health leading to poor production. Ticks transmit various pathogenic agents like virus, bacteria, protozoa and other parasites as well. Many of them are dangerous for the livestock health and some are also zoonotic hence, need to be checked at the initial stages. Control of ticks is the major concern in the present situation as the use of anti-parasitic drugs has led to the current trend of resistance development. Search for an effective alternative method has begun; vaccination will be a better alternative and promising tool for protecting livestock from the tick infestations and thereby tick borne diseases.

  2. An Immunosuppressant Peptide from the Hard Tick Amblyomma variegatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Tian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ixodid ticks are well known for spreading transmitted tick-borne pathogens while being attached to their hosts for almost 1–2 weeks to obtain blood meals. Thus, they must secrete many immunosuppressant factors to combat the hosts’ immune system. In the present work, we investigated an immunosuppressant peptide of the hard tick Amblyomma variegatum. This peptide, named amregulin, is composed of 40 residues with an amino acid sequence of HLHMHGNGATQVFKPRLVLKCPNAAQLIQPGKLQRQLLLQ. A cDNA of the precursor peptide was obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI, Bethesda, MD, USA. In rat splenocytes, amregulin exerts significant anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the secretion of inflammatory factors in vitro, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1, interleukin-8 (IL-8 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ. In rat splenocytes, treated with amregulin, compared to lipopolysaccharide (LPS alone, the inhibition of the above inflammatory factors was significant at all tested concentrations (2, 4 and 8 µg/mL. Amregulin shows strong free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities (5, 10 and 20 µg/mL in vitro. Amregulin also significantly inhibits adjuvant-induced paw inflammation in mouse models in vivo. This peptide may facilitate the ticks’ successful blood feeding and may lead to host immunotolerance of the tick. These findings have important implications for the understanding of tick-host interactions and the co-evolution between ticks and the viruses that they bear.

  3. Transstadial transmission of Borrelia turcica in Hyalomma aegyptium ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Cozma, Vasile; Sprong, Hein; Jahfari, Setareh; D'Amico, Gianluca; Mărcuțan, Daniel I; Ionică, Angela M; Magdaş, Cristian; Modrý, David; Mihalca, Andrei D

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia turcica comprises the third major group of arthropod-transmitted borreliae and is phylogenetically divergent from other Borrelia groups. The novel group of Borrelia was initially isolated from Hyalomma aegyptium ticks in Turkey and it was recently found in blood and multiple organs of tortoises exported from Jordan to Japan. However, the ecology of these spirochetes and their development in ticks or the vertebrate hosts were not investigated in detail; our aims were to isolate the pathogen and to evaluate the possibility of transstadial transmission of Borrelia turcica by H. aegyptium ticks. Ticks were collected from Testudo graeca tortoises during the summer of 2013 from southeastern Romania. Engorged nymphs were successfully molted to the adult stage. Alive B. turcica was isolated from molted ticks by using Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) II medium. Four pure cultures of spirochetes were obtained and analyzed by PCR and sequencing. Sequence analysis of glpQ, gyrB and flaB revealed 98%-100% similarities with B. turcica. H. aegyptium ticks collected from T. graeca tortoises were able to pass the infection with B. turcica via transstadial route, suggesting its vectorial capacity.

  4. Immune responses against recombinant tick antigen, Bm95, for the control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Garg, Rajat; Yadav, C L; Vatsya, Stuti; Kumar, R R; Sugumar, Parthasarthy; Chandran, Dev; Mangamoorib, Lakshmi Narasu; Bedarkar, S N

    2009-10-28

    Immune responses against Bm95 recombinant cattle tick antigen and its protective efficacy for control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were determined in experimental crossbred cow calves. Anti-Bm95 antibody titers, as assessed by indirect ELISA, in immunized calves ranged from 196.1+/-13.7 on day 0 to 7979.9+/-312.5 on day 110 post-primary immunization. The rise in antibody titer was statistically significant (pticks, mean percentage of dead ticks, and decrease in engorgement weight were recorded in immunized animals. Also, there were significant differences (pcontrol calves. The percent reduction in number of adult females in vaccinated calves, reduction in mean weight of egg masses, percent reduction in mean weight and reduction in fertility of engorged females collected from vaccinated calves were determined and the efficacy of Bm95 recombinant cattle tick antigen was 81.27%.

  5. Prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Ixodes ricinus ticks in northern Europe with particular reference to Southern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background In northern Europe, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) of the European subtype is usually transmitted to humans by the common tick Ixodes ricinus. The aims of the present study are (i) to obtain up-to-date information on the TBEV prevalence in host-seeking I. ricinus in southern and central Sweden; (ii) to compile and review all relevant published records on the prevalence of TBEV in ticks in northern Europe; and (iii) to analyse and try to explain how the TBE virus can be maintained in natural foci despite an apparently low TBEV infection prevalence in the vector population. Methods To estimate the mean minimum infection rate (MIR) of TBEV in I. ricinus in northern Europe (i.e. Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland) we reviewed all published TBEV prevalence data for host-seeking I. ricinus collected during 1958–2011. Moreover, we collected 2,074 nymphs and 906 adults of I. ricinus from 29 localities in Sweden during 2008. These ticks were screened for TBEV by RT-PCR. Results The MIR for TBEV in nymphal and adult I. ricinus was 0.28% for northern Europe and 0.23% for southern Sweden. The infection prevalence of TBEV was significantly lower in nymphs (0.10%) than in adult ticks (0.55%). At a well-known TBEV-endemic locality, Torö island south-east of Stockholm, the TBEV prevalence (MIR) was 0.51% in nymphs and 4.48% in adults of I. ricinus. Conclusions If the ratio of nymphs to adult ticks in the TBEV-analysed sample differs from that in the I. ricinus population in the field, the MIR obtained will not necessarily reflect the TBEV prevalence in the field. The relatively low TBEV prevalence in the potential vector population recorded in most studies may partly be due to: (i) inclusion of uninfected ticks from the ‘uninfected areas’ surrounding the TBEV endemic foci; (ii) inclusion of an unrepresentative, too large proportion of immature ticks, compared to adult ticks, in the analysed tick pools; and (iii) shortcomings in the laboratory

  6. Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale Elicit Different Gene Expression Responses in Cultured Tick Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Zivkovic

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae includes obligate tick-transmitted intracellular organisms, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Anaplasma marginale that multiply in both vertebrate and tick host cells. Recently, we showed that A. marginale affects the expression of tick genes that are involved in tick survival and pathogen infection and multiplication. However, the gene expression profile in A. phagocytophilum-infected tick cells is currently poorly characterized. The objectives of this study were to characterize tick gene expression profile in Ixodes scapularis ticks and cultured ISE6 cells in response to infection with A. phagocypthilum and to compare tick gene expression responses in A. phagocytophilum- and A. marginale-infected tick cells by microarray and real-time RT-PCR analyses. The results of these studies demonstrated modulation of tick gene expression by A. phagocytophilum and provided evidence of different gene expression responses in tick cells infected with A. phagocytophilum and A. marginale. These differences in Anaplasma-tick interactions may reflect differences in pathogen life cycle in the tick cells.

  7. Tick infestation on roe deer in relation to geographic and remotely sensed climatic variables in a tick-borne encephalitis endemic area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, G; Cagnacci, F; Neteler, M; Rizzoli, A

    2008-10-01

    Roe deer Capreolus capreolus are among the most important feeding hosts for the sheep tick Ixodes ricinus, thus contributing to the occurrence of tick-borne diseases in Europe. Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), which is transmitted by co-feeding of larvae and nymphs on rodents, requires precise climatic conditions to occur. We used roe deer as sentinels for potential circulation of TBE virus in Northern Italy, by examining the association between tick infestation, occurrence of TBE human cases, geographical and climatic parameters. Tick infestation on roe deer, and particularly frequency of co-feeding, was clearly associated with the geographic location and the autumnal cooling rate. Consistently, TBE occurrence in humans was geographically related to co-feeding tick abundance. The surveillance of tick infestation on roe deer, combined with remotely sensed climatic data, could therefore be used as an inexpensive early risk assessment tool of favourable conditions for TBE emergence and persistence in humans.

  8. Molecular identification of tick-borne pathogens in ticks collected from dogs and small ruminants from Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaligiannis, Ιlias; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Papa, Anna; Sotiraki, Smaragda; de la Fuente, José

    2018-03-07

    Ticks are vectors for a variety of human and animal pathogens (bacteria, protozoa and viruses). In order to investigate the pathogens carried by ticks in Greece, a total of 179 adult ticks (114 female and 65 male) were collected from domestic animals (sheep, goats and dogs) from 14 prefectures of six regions of Greece. Among them, 40 were Dermacentor marginatus, 25 Haemaphysalis parva, 22 H. sulcata, one H. punctata, 13 Ixodes gibbosus, 77 Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and one R. bursa. All ticks were tested for the presence of DNA of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp., Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia spp. and Theileria spp. The collected ticks were examined by PCR and reverse line blot (RLB) assay. A prevalence of 20.1% for Anaplasma spp., 15.6% for Babesia spp. (identifying B. bigemina, B. divergens, B. ovis and B. crassa), 17.9% for C. burnetii, 15.1% for Rickettsia spp., and 21.2% for Theileria spp. (identifying T. annulata, T. buffeli/orientalis, T. ovis and T. lestoquardi) was found. The results of this study demonstrate the variety of tick-borne pathogens of animal and human importance circulating in Greece, and that awareness is needed to minimize the risk of infection, especially among farmers and pet owners.

  9. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  10. Reducing the Risk of Tick-Borne Diseases through Smart, Safe and Sustainable Pest Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Each year PestWise programs form new partnerships to address ongoing and emerging issues. Reducing the risk from ticks and tick-borne disease is an issue of importance and EPA is contributing to a larger federal effort.

  11. Experimental infection of the bat tick Carios fonsecai (Acari: Ixodidae with the rabies virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Regina Favoretto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study assessed the viability of the rabies virus in the argasid tick Carios fonsecai following experimental infection. Methods The mouse inoculation test (MIT, fluorescent antibody test (FAT and polymerase chain reaction (PCR were used. The rabies virus was administered to ticks via the intra-coelomic route, and the ticks were sacrificed at different time points. Results The inoculated ticks were negative for rabies according to the MIT. Ticks macerated with rabies virus were positive according to the MIT and FAT. All of the tick lots tested by PCR were positive. Conclusions The rabies virus became unviable shortly after its inoculation into tick bodies. Ticks are not likely to play an important role in the epidemiology of rabies.

  12. The novel isoxazoline ectoparasiticide fluralaner: selective inhibition of arthropod γ-aminobutyric acid- and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels and insecticidal/acaricidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassel, Michael; Wolf, Christian; Noack, Sandra; Williams, Heike; Ilg, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Isoxazolines are a novel class of parasiticides that are potent inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channels (GABACls) and L-glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls). In this study, the effects of the isoxazoline drug fluralaner on insect and acarid GABACl (RDL) and GluCl and its parasiticidal potency were investigated. We report the identification and cDNA cloning of Rhipicephalus (R.) microplus RDL and GluCl genes, and their functional expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The generation of six clonal HEK293 cell lines expressing Rhipicephalus microplus RDL and GluCl, Ctenocephalides felis RDL-A285 and RDL-S285, as well as Drosophila melanogaster RDLCl-A302 and RDL-S302, combined with the development of a membrane potential fluorescence dye assay allowed the comparison of ion channel inhibition by fluralaner with that of established insecticides addressing RDL and GluCl as targets. In these assays fluralaner was several orders of magnitude more potent than picrotoxinin and dieldrin, and performed 5-236 fold better than fipronil on the arthropod RDLs, while a rat GABACl remained unaffected. Comparative studies showed that R. microplus RDL is 52-fold more sensitive than R. microplus GluCl to fluralaner inhibition, confirming that the GABA-gated chloride channel is the primary target of this new parasiticide. In agreement with the superior RDL on-target activity, fluralaner outperformed dieldrin and fipronil in insecticidal screens on cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis), yellow fever mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti) and sheep blowfly larvae (Lucilia cuprina), as well as in acaricidal screens on cattle tick (R. microplus) adult females, brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) adult females and Ornithodoros moubata nymphs. These findings highlight the potential of fluralaner as a novel ectoparasiticide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Molecular characterization of novel sulfotransferases from the tick, Ixodes scapularis

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    King Roberta S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes scapularis, commonly known as the blacklegged or deer tick, is the main vector of Lyme disease in the United States. Recent progress in transcriptome research has uncovered hundreds of different proteins expressed in the salivary glands of hard ticks, the majority of which have no known function, and include many novel protein families. We recently identified transcripts coding for two putative cytosolic sulfotransferases in these ticks which recognized phenolic monoamines as their substrates. In this current study, we characterize the genetic expression of these two cytosolic sulfotransferases throughout the tick life cycle as well as the enzymatic properties of the corresponding recombinant proteins. Interestingly, the resultant recombinant proteins showed sulfotransferase activity against both neurotransmitters dopamine and octopamine. Results The two sulfotransferase genes were coded as Ixosc SULT 1 & 2 and corresponding proteins were referred as Ixosc Sult 1 and 2. Using gene-specific primers, the sulfotransferase transcripts were detected throughout the blacklegged tick life cycle, including eggs, larvae, nymphs, adult salivary glands and adult midgut. Notably, the mRNA and protein levels were altered upon feeding during both the larval and nymphal life stages. Quantitative PCR results confirm that Ixosc SULT1 was statistically increased upon blood feeding while Ixosc SULT 2 was decreased. This altered expression led us to further characterize the function of these proteins in the Ixodid tick. The sulfotransferase genes were cloned and expressed in a bacterial expression system, and purified recombinant proteins Ixosc Sult 1(R and 2(R showed sulfotransferase activity against neurotransmitters dopamine and octopamine as well as the common sulfotransferase substrate p-nitrophenol. Thus, dopamine- or octopamine-sulfonation may be involved in altering the biological signal for salivary secretion in I. scapularis

  14. Host body size and the diversity of tick assemblages on Neotropical vertebrates

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    Helen J. Esser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the factors that influence the species diversity and distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodida across vertebrate host taxa is of fundamental ecological and medical importance. Host body size is considered one of the most important determinants of tick abundance, with larger hosts having higher tick burdens. The species diversity of tick assemblages should also be greater on larger-bodied host species, but empirical studies testing this hypothesis are lacking. Here, we evaluate this relationship using a comparative dataset of feeding associations from Panama between 45 tick species and 171 host species that range in body size by three orders of magnitude. We found that tick species diversity increased with host body size for adult ticks but not for immature ticks. We also found that closely related host species tended to have similar tick species diversity, but correcting for host phylogeny did not alter the relationships between host body size and tick species diversity. The distribution of tick species was highly aggregated, with approximately 20% of the host species harboring 80% of all tick species, following the Pareto principle or 20/80 Rule. Thus, the aggregated pattern commonly observed for tick burdens and disease transmission also holds for patterns of tick species richness. Our finding that the adult ticks in this system preferentially parasitize large-bodied host species suggests that the ongoing anthropogenic loss of large-bodied vertebrates is likely to result in host-tick coextinction events, even when immature stages feed opportunistically. As parasites play critical roles in ecological and evolutionary processes, such losses may profoundly affect ecosystem functioning and services.

  15. In-vitro Acaricidal efficacy evaluation trial of Ixodid ticks at Borana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perceptions on acaricide (usage, delivery and methods of tick control practice). Acaricide treatment is the only .... These ticks were placed individually in different plastic flasks prelabeled with time, date, place of collection .... Ticks affects livestock in general and cattle in particular by reducing milk production, growth and birth.

  16. Precise identification of different stages of a tick, Ixodes granulatus Supino, 1897 (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernieenor Faraliana Che Lah

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: These findings demonstrated for the first time the establishment of COI gene for identifying I. granulatus nymphal tick which is of paramount importance to the control of potential tick-borne infections in Malaysia. Moreover, this study provides evidence that a combination of morphology and molecular data was corroborated as an accurate tool for tick identification.

  17. Confirmation of Tick Bite by Detection of Antibody to Ixodes Calreticulin Salivary Protein▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Chaidez, Francisco; Ryan, Raymond; Wikel, Stephen; Dardick, Kenneth; Lawler, Caroline; Foppa, Ivo M.; Tomas, Patricio; Cushman, Alexis; Hsieh, Ann; Spielman, Andrew; Bouchard, Keith R.; Dias, Filiciano; Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Krause, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Ticks introduce a variety of pharmacologically active molecules into their host during attachment and feeding in order to obtain a blood meal. People who are repeatedly exposed to ticks may develop an immune response to tick salivary proteins. Despite this response, people usually are unaware of having been bitten, especially if they are not repeatedly exposed to ticks. In order to develop a laboratory marker of tick exposure that would be useful in understanding the epidemiology of tick-borne infection and the immune response to tick bite, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibody to a recombinant form of calreticulin protein found in the salivary glands of Ixodes scapularis, a member of a complex of Ixodes ticks that serve as the vectors for Lyme disease, human babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Using this assay, we tested sera obtained from C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice before and after experimental deer tick infestation. These mice developed antibody to Ixodes calreticulin antigen after infestation. We then used the same assay to test sera obtained from people before and after they experienced deer tick bite(s). People experiencing deer tick bite(s) developed Ixodes calreticulin-specific antibody responses that persisted for up to 17 months. This Ixodes recombinant calreticulin ELISA provides objective evidence of deer tick exposure in people. PMID:16928887

  18. Confirmation of tick bite by detection of antibody to Ixodes calreticulin salivary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Chaidez, Francisco; Ryan, Raymond; Wikel, Stephen; Dardick, Kenneth; Lawler, Caroline; Foppa, Ivo M; Tomas, Patricio; Cushman, Alexis; Hsieh, Ann; Spielman, Andrew; Bouchard, Keith R; Dias, Filiciano; Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Krause, Peter J

    2006-11-01

    Ticks introduce a variety of pharmacologically active molecules into their host during attachment and feeding in order to obtain a blood meal. People who are repeatedly exposed to ticks may develop an immune response to tick salivary proteins. Despite this response, people usually are unaware of having been bitten, especially if they are not repeatedly exposed to ticks. In order to develop a laboratory marker of tick exposure that would be useful in understanding the epidemiology of tick-borne infection and the immune response to tick bite, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibody to a recombinant form of calreticulin protein found in the salivary glands of Ixodes scapularis, a member of a complex of Ixodes ticks that serve as the vectors for Lyme disease, human babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Using this assay, we tested sera obtained from C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice before and after experimental deer tick infestation. These mice developed antibody to Ixodes calreticulin antigen after infestation. We then used the same assay to test sera obtained from people before and after they experienced deer tick bite(s). People experiencing deer tick bite(s) developed Ixodes calreticulin-specific antibody responses that persisted for up to 17 months. This Ixodes recombinant calreticulin ELISA provides objective evidence of deer tick exposure in people.

  19. 78 FR 44521 - Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed Cattle Fever Tick Control Barrier in South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ...'') carry protozoan parasites that cause babesiosis. The disease and the cattle fever ticks were officially...] Environmental Impact Statement; Proposed Cattle Fever Tick Control Barrier in South Texas AGENCY: Animal and... result from installing game fencing as a barrier to keep animals that carry cattle fever ticks and...

  20. Maternal care in the soft tick Antricola marginatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labruna, M B; Nava, S; Guzmán-Cornejo, C; Venzal, J M

    2012-08-01

    Among spiders, scorpions, and whip spiders, a common type of maternal care consists of females carrying newly hatched offspring on their body for a few days until they are able to live independently. While this maternal care has been suggested to occur in different argasid tick species, it has been recorded only once, for Antricola marginatus in Cuba; however, this earlier record only superficially mentioned the occurrence of this behavior, with no further details. Here we report the occurrence of maternal care in the argasid tick A. marginatus under natural conditions in a cave at Yucatan, Mexico, where 8 A. marginatus females, while walking on bat guano, had their body entirely covered by a mean number of 305 ± 112 conspecific unfed larvae (range: 105-466). Larvae covered the entire idiosoma of the female tick, where they were motionless or displayed just slight movement. This result substantially expands the number of unique characters that have been found only in Antricola spp. ticks, when compared to the other tick genera. Our findings also indicate that maternal care evolved independently in different taxa of Arachnida, since it has been reported for species of Araneae, Scorpiones, and Amblypygi, and here for an Acari species.

  1. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Brites-Neto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations.

  2. Plant products and secondary metabolites with acaricide activity against ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Arjona-Cambranes, K; Torres-Acosta, J F J; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Bolio-González, M E; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Alzina-López, A; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, E J; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Aguilar-Caballero, A J

    2017-04-30

    The present review documents the results of studies evaluating the acaricidal activity of different plant products and secondary metabolites against ticks that are resistant and susceptible to conventional acaricides. Studies published from 1998 to 2016 were included. The acaricidal activity of plant extracts, essential oils and secondary compounds from plants have been evaluated using bioassays with ticks in the larval and adult stages. There is variable effectiveness according to the species of plant and the concentrations used, with observed mortalities ranging from 5 to 100% against the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus), Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, and Argas genera. A number of plants have been reported to cause high mortalities and/or affect the reproductive capacity of ticks in the adult phase. In the majority of these trials, the main species of plants evaluated correspond to the families Lamiaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Verbenaceae, and Poaceae. Different secondary metabolites such as thymol, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol and n-hexanal, have been found to be primarily responsible for the acaricidal activity of different essential oils against different species of ticks, while nicotine, dibenzyldisulfide and dibenzyltrisulfide have been evaluated for plant extracts. Only thymol, carvacrol and 1,8-cineol have been evaluated for acaricidal activity under in vivo conditions. The information in the present review allows the conclusion that the secondary metabolites contained in plant products could be used as an alternative for the control of ticks that are susceptible or resistant to commercial acaricides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Tick-borne encephalitis: a disease neglected by travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haditsch, Martin; Kunze, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a vector-borne disease that is primarily transmitted to humans by infected ticks and causes infection of the central nervous system. Clinical presentations range from meningitis to encephalitis with or without myelitis, and infection may result in death or long-term neurological sequelae. TBE is endemic in regions of at least 27 European as well as in some Asian countries. Infection and disease, however, can be averted successfully by tick-bite prevention and active vaccination. The risk of infection has shifted from daily life and occupational exposure to leisure-time activities, including travelling. Outdoor activities during the tick season with contact with nature increase the risk of tick bites. Although the number of travel-associated cases is unknown, it is certainly under-estimated because there is hardly any awareness of TBE in non-endemic countries. Therefore, the majority of cases remain undiagnosed, also because of the lack of diagnostic serology, as there is no routine screening for TBE in non-endemic regions. Because of the increasing number of travellers from TBE non-endemic to endemic regions, and in view of the fact that TBE was included in the list of notifiable diseases in the European Union in September 2012, this disease needs to become an important issue in travel medicine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS INFECTION IN HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrnjaković Cvjetković, Ivana; Cvjetković, Dejan; Patić, Aleksandra; Radovanov, Jelena; Kovacević, Gordana; Milosević, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne meningoencephalitis virus is a flavivirus that causes the most important vector-borne central nervous system infection in many countries of Europe and Asia. There are three subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus: European, Siberian and the Far-Eastern subtype. In endemic areas, the virus remains in transmissive cycles between Ixodes ticks and small rodents. In most cases (70-98%) infection goes asymptomatically. In about one-third of meningitis cases, meningoencephalitis or meningomyelitis is developed. Postencephalytic syndrome may be the complication of the infection, presenting with neurological symptoms. Etiologic diagnosis of tick-borne meningoencephalitis is only made on basis of laboratory analyses. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction is used for determining the presence of virus in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid can be detected by serological tests. The most efficient way to control this potentially severe disease with possible serious long-term consequences is vaccination. It should be recommended to persons who live or travel to endemic areas. In Serbia, tick-borne encephalitis virus infection belongs to the list of reportable diseases; however, there are no reported cases because the diagnostics is not performed routinely. We believe that the significance of this zoonosis must be examined in our country and some of its parts because of preliminary positive serological findings found out in Vojvodina as well as because of reported cases in neighboring countries such as Hungary and Croatia and its worldwide distribution.

  5. Management of tick infestation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somasani Ayodhya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out during the month of January 2014 when a total of 148 dogs with history of various diseases were presented to the Campus Veterinary Hospital, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Science, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, India. Out of 148 dogs that were presented to the hospital, 48 dogs had the clinical signs of loss of hair, itching, and reduced food intake. The dogs were restless and continuously rubbed their bodies against the walls in the houses, and scratching with their legs. Clinical examination of the dogs revealed presence of alopecia, pruritus, and the formation of small crusts. All 48 dogs were treated with ivermectin by subcutaneous injection dosed at 0.02 mL/kg body weight at a weekly interval for 2 to 3 weeks. All dogs were bathed with cypermethrin shampoo weekly once for 2-3 weeks. In the present study, it was observed that ivermectin/cypermethrin combination therapy was effective for the management of tick infestation in dogs.

  6. Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens of the Caribbean: Current Understanding and Future Directions for More Comprehensive Surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondard, Mathilde; Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro; Charles, Roxanne A; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Albina, Emmanuel; Moutailler, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods of significant importance to human and veterinary medicine. They transmit a vast array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths. Most epidemiological data on ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in the West Indies are limited to common livestock pathogens such as Ehrlichia ruminantium, Babesia spp. (i.e., B. bovis and B. bigemina ), and Anaplasma marginale , and less information is available on companion animal pathogens. Of note, human tick-borne diseases (TBDs) remain almost completely uncharacterized in the West Indies. Information on TBP presence in wildlife is also missing. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the ticks and TBPs affecting human and animal health in the Caribbean, and introduce the challenges associated with understanding TBD epidemiology and implementing successful TBD management in this region. In particular, we stress the need for innovative and versatile surveillance tools using high-throughput pathogen detection (e.g., high-throughput real-time microfluidic PCR). The use of such tools in large epidemiological surveys will likely improve TBD prevention and control programs in the Caribbean.

  7. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens and putative symbionts of black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) from Georgia and Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Nims, Todd N; Savage, Mason Y; Durden, Lance A

    2009-10-01

    Ticks were collected from 38 black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus) from northwestern Florida (n = 18) from 2003 to 2005 and southern Georgia (n = 20) in 2006. Five species (Amblyomma americanum, A. maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and I. affinis) were collected from Florida bears, and 4 species (A. americanum, A. maculatum, D. variabilis, I. scapularis) were collected from bears in Georgia. Ixodes scapularis was the most frequently collected tick, followed by D. variabilis, A. americanum, A. maculatum, and I. affinis. The collection of I. affinis from a Florida bear represents a new host record. A subset of ticks was screened for pathogens and putative symbionts by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The zoonotic tick-borne pathogens Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Rickettsia parkeri were detected in 1 of 23 (4.3%) A. americanum and 1 of 12 (8.3%) A. maculatum, respectively. The putative zoonotic pathogen "Rickettsia amblyommii" was detected in 4 (17.4%) A. americanum and 1 (8.3%) A. maculatum. Other putative symbiotic rickettsiae detected included R. bellii and R. montanensis in D. variabilis, a Rickettsia cooleyi-like sp. and Rickettsia sp. Is-1 in I. scapularis, and Rickettsia TR39-like sp. in I. scapularis and A. americanum. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Panola Mountain Ehrlichia sp., E. ewingii, Francisella tularensis, and Borrelia spp.

  8. Ticks and Tick-Borne Pathogens of the Caribbean: Current Understanding and Future Directions for More Comprehensive Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Gondard

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are obligate hematophagous arthropods of significant importance to human and veterinary medicine. They transmit a vast array of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and helminths. Most epidemiological data on ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs in the West Indies are limited to common livestock pathogens such as Ehrlichia ruminantium, Babesia spp. (i.e., B. bovis and B. bigemina, and Anaplasma marginale, and less information is available on companion animal pathogens. Of note, human tick-borne diseases (TBDs remain almost completely uncharacterized in the West Indies. Information on TBP presence in wildlife is also missing. Herein, we provide a comprehensive review of the ticks and TBPs affecting human and animal health in the Caribbean, and introduce the challenges associated with understanding TBD epidemiology and implementing successful TBD management in this region. In particular, we stress the need for innovative and versatile surveillance tools using high-throughput pathogen detection (e.g., high-throughput real-time microfluidic PCR. The use of such tools in large epidemiological surveys will likely improve TBD prevention and control programs in the Caribbean.

  9. Investigations into Ixodidae ticks in cattle in Lahore, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2 160 cattle, comprising adults and calves of exotic, crossbred and indigenous breeds, were examined for tick infestation between 1996 and 2000. Of these, 1 417 (65.6% were infested with ticks, with a total of 220 (61% from exotic breeds, 262 (72% were crossbred and 172 (48% were indigenous adult cattle. Calves of exotic, crossbred and indigenous breeds were infested with ticks at the following rates: 246 (68%, 294 (82% and 223 (62%, respectively. Higher infestation levels were noted with Rhipicephalus microplus which affected 912 (64.3% animals, in comparison to Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum which affected 302 (21.3%. Rhipicephalus infestation was more extensive than that with genus Hyalomma.

  10. Efficacy of afoxolaner against Ixodes scapularis ticks in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Elizabeth B; McCall, John W; Theodore Chester, S; Larsen, Diane

    2014-04-02

    Efficacy of afoxolaner, a novel isoxazoline insecticide/acaricide, against Ixodes scapularis was evaluated in a laboratory study. One day prior to treatment, beagle dogs (n=16) were infested with 50 unfed wild adult ticks. Repeat infestations were performed weekly for four additional weeks. The number of live ticks remaining on each dog was determined 48 h after treatment and after each subsequent infestation. A single oral treatment with a dose approaching the minimum effective dose of afoxolaner (2.5mg/kg) eliminated the pre-existing infestations of I. scapularis ticks and controlled weekly re-infestations, with efficacy between 98% and 100% recorded until Day 23 and 94% at Day 30. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Increased mortality of black-browed albatross chicks at a colony heavily-infested with the tick Ixodes uriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, S; Haemig, P D; Olsen, B

    1999-09-01

    At Bird Island, South Georgia, we studied the effects of the tick Ixodes uriae on survival of chicks at two colonies of the black-browed albatross Diomedea melanophrys, one where most chicks were infested with ticks, the other where most chicks were tick-free. When the two colonies were compared, it was found that the colony heavily-infested with ticks had significantly greater chick mortality than the colony lightly-infested with ticks. However, within each of the two colonies, there was no significant difference in survival between chicks with ticks and those without ticks.

  12. Clinico-epidemiologichesky aspects of the mixed tick-borne infections in the endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Aleshkovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of clinico-epidemiological features of the mixed tick-borne infections – tick-borne Lyme disease and a human granulocytic anaplasmosis was the purpose of the conducted research. During the spring – summer period 146 patients with tick-borne borreliosis were surveyed. As a result at 45 (30,82% patients authentically diagnosed the mixed tick-borne infection. Features of clinical manifestations of a mixed tick-borne infection revealed: catarrhal phenomena (20%, liver defeats (33%, nephros (31, 7%, frequent secondary erythems (20%. Changes in haemogram defined: thrombocytopenia (42,2%, anemia (20%, leukopenia (13,3%.

  13. Diversity of Babesia in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Falęciak, R; Bajer, A; Paziewska-Harris, A; Baumann-Popczyk, A; Siński, E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to estimate Babesia prevalence in the most common species of tick in Poland, Ixodes ricinus, in two recreational areas (Urwitałt in the Mazury Lake District and Bielański Forest in Warsaw), and (2) to evaluate the molecular diversity of Babesia isolates in questing I. ricinus in Poland. Questing ticks were collected from vegetation in forest areas in Urwitałt near Mikołajki and in Bielański Forest (Warsaw). Purified genomic DNA was used with specific primers to amplify a fragment of the Babesia spp. 18S rRNA gene. Tick-drag indices for I. ricinus were high in both study areas, reaching somewhat higher values in Urwitałt than in Bielański Forest. The overall prevalence of Babesia spp. in examined ticks was 1.6%. In Urwitałt, two strains of B. microti were identified using rRNA sequences: the enzootic Munich strain and an isolate close to the zoonotic Jena strain. The proportion of infections due to these two strains in questing ticks reversed over a six-year period. During 3 years of study in Bielański Forest, all Babesia isolates obtained from I. ricinus were identical to Babesia sp. EU1 (B. venatorum), previously recognized as an agent of human babesiosis. This study has confirmed the presence of enzoonotic and zoonotic Babesia species/strains in the abundant human-biting tick I. ricinus in recreational areas in Poland. It has also shown that the distribution of different genotypes has changed over time, however the reasons for these fluctuations still remain to be investigated.

  14. [Ixodid ticks in the mountainous part of the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeshin, S Ia; Evstaf'ev, I L; Kovin, V V; Evstratov, Iu V

    1992-01-01

    About a hundred of patients with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) were recorded over the latest decade in the Crimea, and 60 TBE virus strains were isolated from the ticks collected on the peninsula. The results of studies carried out in 1986-1990 helped define the borders of 4 local natural foci of TBE, study their acarifauna, detect the principal TBE vector--Ixodes ricinus (with a mean virophority of 0.6%), and distinguish two foci with a combination of TBE and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

  15. Interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajdušek, Ondřej; Šíma, Radek; Ayllón, N.; Jalovecká, M.; Pernes, J.; de la Fuente, J.; Kopáček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, Jul 2013 (2013), a26 ISSN 2235-2988 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 - MODBIOLIN Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Anaplasma * Babesia * Borrelia * antimicrobial peptides * innate immunity * phagocytosis * tick * tick-borne diseases Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.620, year: 2013

  16. Emerging Tick-Borne Viruses in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L. Mansfield

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as a group, are second only to mosquitoes as vectors of pathogens to humans and are the primary vector for pathogens of livestock, companion animals, and wildlife. The role of ticks in the transmission of viruses has been known for over 100 years and yet new pathogenic viruses are still being detected and known viruses are continually spreading to new geographic locations. Partly as a result of their novelty, tick-virus interactions are at an early stage in understanding. For some viruses, even the principal tick-vector is not known. It is likely that tick-borne viruses will continue to emerge and challenge public and veterinary health long into the twenty-first century. However, studies focusing on tick saliva, a critical component of tick feeding, virus transmission, and a target for control of ticks and tick-borne diseases, point toward solutions to emerging viruses. The aim of this review is to describe some currently emerging tick-borne diseases, their causative viruses, and to discuss research on virus-tick interactions. Through focus on this area, future protein targets for intervention and vaccine development may be identified.

  17. Tick infestation on wild snakes in northern part of western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Pranav; Bandivdekar, Ruta; Geevarghese, G; Pande, Satish; Mandke, Omkar

    2011-05-01

    In total, 167 individuals of 30 species of snakes belonging to 22 genera and five families were examined for tick infestation from November 2008 to March 2010. Only two species of snakes, Ptyas mucosa (L., 1758) (Indian rat snake) and Naja naja (L., 1758) (spectacled cobra), were found infested by ticks. All ticks collected were identified to be Amblyomma gervaisi [previously Aponomma gervaisi (Lucas, 1847) 1. The average prevalence of these ticks on Indian rat snakes (n=48) was 29.16%, with abundance of 7.02 ticks per individual; on spectacled cobras (n=20), average prevalence was 30.00%, with abundance of 6.9 ticks per individual. The nymphs and males were predominant. All the ticks were found on the dorsal aspect of the body of the snake, and no ticks were recorded on the head, tail, or ventral body. The rate of tick infestation was highest in scrubland and was lowest in evergreen forests. Female Indian rat snakes showed higher tick infestation rates than male Indian rat snakes. Using Mann-Whitney U test, we found that longer snakes of both species had significantly higher rate of tick infestation in both the species of snakes.

  18. On the potential roles of ticks and migrating birds in the ecology of West Nile virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Hagman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mosquitoes are the primary vectors of West Nile virus (WNV. Ticks have, however, been suggested to be potential reservoirs of WNV. To investigate their role in the spread of the virus, ticks, which had been collected from birds migrating northward from Africa to Europe, were analyzed for the potential presence of WNV RNA. Methods: On the Mediterranean islands of Capri and Antikythira, a total of 14,824 birds were captured and investigated from which 747 ticks were collected. Results and conclusions: Most of the identified ticks (93% were nymphs and larvae of Hyalomma marginatum sensu lato (s.l., most of which were or appear to be Hyalomma rufipes. Of these ticks, 729 were individually screened for WNV RNA. None of the ticks was found to be WNV positive. Thus, there was no evidence that H. marginatum s.l. ticks play a role in the spread of WNV from Africa to Europe.

  19. Borrelia miyamotoi in host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansford, K M; Fonville, M; Jahfari, S; Sprong, H; Medlock, J M

    2015-04-01

    This paper reports the first detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in UK Ixodes ricinus ticks. It also reports on the presence and infection rates of I. ricinus for a number of other tick-borne pathogens of public health importance. Ticks from seven regions in southern England were screened for B. miyamotoi, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Neoehrlichia mikurensis using qPCR. A total of 954 I. ricinus ticks were tested, 40 were positive for B. burgdorferi s.l., 22 positive for A. phagocytophilum and three positive for B. miyamotoi, with no N. mikurensis detected. The three positive B. miyamotoi ticks came from three geographically distinct areas, suggesting a widespread distribution, and from two separate years, suggesting some degree of endemicity. Understanding the prevalence of Borrelia and other tick-borne pathogens in ticks is crucial for locating high-risk areas of disease transmission.

  20. To beat or not to beat a tick: comparison of DNA extraction methods for ticks (Ixodes scapularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa D. Ammazzalorso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis are important disease vectors in the United States, known to transmit a variety of pathogens to humans, including bacteria, protozoa, and viruses. Their importance as a disease vector necessitates reliable and comparable methods for extracting microbial DNA from ticks. Furthermore, to explore the population genetics or genomics of this tick, appropriate DNA extraction techniques are needed for both the vector and its microbes. Although a few studies have investigated different methods of DNA isolation from ticks, they are limited in the number and types of DNA extraction and lack species-specific quantification of DNA yield.Methods. Here we determined the most efficient and consistent method of DNA extraction from two different developmental stages of I. scapularis—nymph and adult—that are the most important for disease transmission. We used various methods of physical disruption of the hard, chitinous exoskeleton, as well as commercial and non-commercial DNA isolation kits. To gauge the effectiveness of these methods, we quantified the DNA yield and confirmed the DNA quality via PCR of both tick and microbial genetic material.Results. DNA extraction using the Thermo GeneJET Genomic DNA Purification Kit resulted in the highest DNA yields and the most consistent PCR amplification when combined with either cutting or bead beating with select matrices across life stages. DNA isolation methods using ammonium hydroxide as well as the MoBio PowerSoil kit also produced strong and successful PCR amplification, but only for females.Discussion. We contrasted a variety of readily available methods of DNA extraction from single individual blacklegged ticks and presented the results through a quantitative and qualitative assessment.

  1. Tick infestation risk for dogs in a peri-urban park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennett, Amy L; Smith, Faith D; Wall, Richard

    2013-12-17

    Increases in the abundance and distribution of ticks and tick borne disease (TBD) within Europe have been reported extensively over the last 10-20 years. Changes in climate, habitat management, economic patterns and changes in the abundance of hosts, particularly deer, may all have influenced this change to varying extents. Increasing abundances of tick populations in urban and peri-urban environments, such as parks, are of particular concern. In these sites, suitable habitat, wildlife hosts, tick populations, people and their pets may be brought into close proximity and hence may provide foci for tick infestation and, ultimately, disease transmission. The distribution and abundance of ticks were examined in an intensively used, peri-urban park. First the seasonal and spatial distribution and abundance of ticks in various habitat types were quantified by blanket dragging. Then the pattern of pet dog movement in the park was mapped by attaching GPS recorders to the collars of dogs brought to the park for exercise, allowing their walking routes to be tracked. Information about the dog, its park use and its history of tick attachment were obtained from the dog-owners. Ticks were found predominantly in woodland, woodland edge and deer park areas and were least abundant in mown grassland. Tick infestation of dogs was a relatively frequent occurrence with, on average, one case of tick attachment reported per year for a dog walked once per week, but for some dogs walked daily, infestation 4-5 times per week was reported. All dogs appeared to be at equal risk, regardless of walk route or duration and infestation was primarily influenced by the frequency of exposure. In peri-urban green spaces, tick-biting risk for dogs may be high and here was shown to be related primarily to exposure frequency. While tick-biting is of direct veterinary importance for dogs, dogs also represent useful sentinels for human tick-exposure.

  2. Cattle Tick Rhipicephalus microplus-Host Interface: A Review of Resistant and Susceptible Host Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala E. Tabor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are able to transmit tick-borne infectious agents to vertebrate hosts which cause major constraints to public and livestock health. The costs associated with mortality, relapse, treatments, and decreased production yields are economically significant. Ticks adapted to a hematophagous existence after the vertebrate hemostatic system evolved into a multi-layered defense system against foreign invasion (pathogens and ectoparasites, blood loss, and immune responses. Subsequently, ticks evolved by developing an ability to suppress the vertebrate host immune system with a devastating impact particularly for exotic and crossbred cattle. Host genetics defines the immune responsiveness against ticks and tick-borne pathogens. To gain an insight into the naturally acquired resistant and susceptible cattle breed against ticks, studies have been conducted comparing the incidence of tick infestation on bovine hosts from divergent genetic backgrounds. It is well-documented that purebred and crossbred Bos taurus indicus cattle are more resistant to ticks and tick-borne pathogens compared to purebred European Bos taurus taurus cattle. Genetic studies identifying Quantitative Trait Loci markers using microsatellites and SNPs have been inconsistent with very low percentages relating phenotypic variation with tick infestation. Several skin gene expression and immunological studies have been undertaken using different breeds, different samples (peripheral blood, skin with tick feeding, infestation protocols and geographic environments. Susceptible breeds were commonly found to be associated with the increased expression of toll like receptors, MHC Class II, calcium binding proteins, and complement factors with an increased presence of neutrophils in the skin following tick feeding. Resistant breeds had higher levels of T cells present in the skin prior to tick infestation and thus seem to respond to ticks more efficiently. The skin of resistant breeds also

  3. The majority of sialylated glycoproteins in adult Ixodes ricinus ticks originate in the host, not the tick

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěrba, Ján; Vancová, Marie; Štěrbová, Jarmila; Bell-Sakyi, L.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 389, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 93-99 ISSN 0008-6215 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1901; GA ČR GAP302/12/2490; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR GA206/09/1782 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Ixodes ricinus * sialic acid * tick cell line Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.929, year: 2014

  4. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) – Spatial variability in Ixodes ricinus abundance, Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis virus prevalence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hönig, Václav; Švec, P.; Halas, Petr; Vavrušková, Zuzana; Tykalová, Hana; Kilian, Patrik; Vetišková, Vendula; Dorňáková, Veronika; Štěrbová, Jarmila; Šimonová, Zuzana; Erhart, Jan; Štěrba, Ján; Golovchenko, Maryna; Rudenko, Natalia; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2015), s. 559-567 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * tick-borne encephalitis * ixodes ricinus * environmental factors * lyme borreliosis Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (BC-A) Impact factor: 2.690, year: 2015 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1877959X15000783/1-s2.0-S1877959X15000783-main.pdf?_tid=8785a702-8de3-11e5-bd28-00000aacb35f&acdnat=1447844587_a91b4e4d404a70fda98b06e4950edb11

  5. Tick-borne encephalitis virus in horses, Austria, 2011

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rushton, J. O.; Lecollinet, S.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Svobodová, Petra; Lussy, H.; Nowotny, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 4 (2013), s. 635-637 ISSN 1080-6040 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) * strains Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 7.327, year: 2013

  6. Pattern of tick infestation on one humped camels ( Camelus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pattern of tick infestation in one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) was assessed in Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, Sokoto State, Nigeria where an average of 10 to 15 camels were slaughtered per day on an open concrete slaughter slab. A total of 200 randomly selected camels made up of 124 males and 76 ...

  7. Molecular Evidence of Bartonella DNA in Ixodid Ticks in Czechia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hercík, Kamil; Hášová, V.; Janeček, Jiří; Branny, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2007), s. 503-509 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP204/02/D121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : bartonella dna * ixodid ticks * hybridization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2007

  8. Tick-host-pathogen interactions in Lyme borreliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, J.W.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since its discovery approximately 30 years ago, Lyme borreliosis has become the most important vector-borne disease in the Western world. This thesis describes in molecular detail novel tick-host-pathogen interactions in Lyme borreliosis, contributing to the understanding of the pathogenesis of this

  9. Transgene expression in tick cells using agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticks transmit infectious diseases to humans and other animals. Genetic manipulation of these arthropods would allow the development of alternative disease control strategies. Interestingly, Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At) mediated T-DNA transfer has been recently shown to promote the genetic modific...

  10. Tick infestation: a 200-patients' series | Guven | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Although non-of the patients of our study has been diagnosed with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever we informed all of them for the incubation period and call for observation during the time. Tick borne infections may present with vary of symptoms, the most sever of which is hemorrhagic diathesis and ...

  11. Hormonal-Pheromonal Interrelationships in Ticks and Parasitic Mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    variabilis (Say). J. Parasitol. 1981 Oliver, J.H., Jr. Sex chromosomes, parthenogenesis , and polyploidy in ticks. In Atchley,. W.R. and D.S. Woodruff...reproduces oisexually, although there is a tendency for parthenogenesis in some individual females. The genetics of parthenogenesis is not understood

  12. Dual control of ticks and tsetse flies using deltamethrin through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dual control of ticks and tsetse flies using deltamethrin through community participatory methods. M Ocaido, C P Otim, N M Okuna, C Ssekitto, D Kakaire, J Erume, R Z O Wafula, J Walubengo, G Musisi, Okello Bwangamoi, S Okure, W Ebiaru, G Monrad ...

  13. Development of a resistance management strategy for ixodid ticks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The strategy developed for managing resistance in ticks with the acaricidal products on the market was based on mode of action of the active ingredients. The strategy requires the rotaional use of the acaricidal products in ways that reduces the selection pressure of active ingredients of same chemistry on the target-site in ...

  14. Tick-borne agents in rodents, China, 2004-2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zhan (Lin); W.-C. Cao (Wu-Chun); C.Y. Chu (Chen); B.G. Jiang; F. Zhang (Fang); L.J. Liu (Wei); J.S. Dumler (Stephen); X-M. Wu (Xiao-Ming); S-Q. Zuo (Shu-Qing); H.N. Huang; Q.M. Zhao; N. Jia (Na); H. Yang (Hong); J.H. Richardus (Jan Hendrik); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA total of 705 rodents from 6 provinces and autonomous regions of mainland People's Republic of China were tested by PCRs for tick-borne agents (Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, spotted fever group rickettsiae, and Francisella tularensis). Infection rates were

  15. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices related to tick-borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tick-borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF) is a vector-borne disease of humans which causes serious illness, primarily for children under five years old and pregnant women. Understanding people's knowledge, attitude and practices on the disease is important in designing appropriate interventions. This study was conducted to ...

  16. The role of cystatins in tick physiology and blood feeding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Valdés, James J.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2012), s. 117-127 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cystatin * Cysteine proteases * Tick * Immunomodulators * Blood feeding * Midgut * Physiology Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012

  17. Tick paralysis in Australia caused by Ixodes holocyclus Neumann

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Mendelin, S; Craig, S B; Hall, R A

    2011-01-01

    Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of various animals, including humans, and are abundant in temperate and tropical zones around the world. They are the most important vectors for the pathogens causing disease in livestock and second only to mosquitoes as vectors of pathogens causing...

  18. Tick-Pathogen Ensembles: Do Molecular Interactions Lead Ecological Innovation?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Estrada-Peňa, A.; Rego, Ryan O. M.; de la Fuente, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, 13 March (2017), č. článku 74. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-pathogen interactions * transcriptional reprogramming * epigenetics * ecological adaptation * Anaplasma phagocytophilum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  19. Beware of Ticks (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-05-14

    Lyme disease is an infection caused by a bacteria that is transmitted by the bites of infected blacklegged ticks. In this podcast, Dr. Christina Nelson discusses ways to help prevent Lyme disease.  Created: 5/14/2015 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/14/2015.

  20. Molecular detection of protozoan parasites in ticks infesting cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a significant influx of cattle to Nigeria from neighbouring countries on daily basis along the transboundary areas without any form of veterinary inspection or quarantine. An assessment of protozoan parasite load in the ticks infesting cattle entering the country by hooves through a major trans-boundary route in Ogun ...

  1. The extensible alloscutal cuticle of the tick, Ixodes ricinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav; Roepstorff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The proteins in the distensible alloscutal cuticle of the blood-feeding tick, Ixodes ricinus, have been characterized by electrophoresis and chromatography, two of the proteins were purified and their total amino acid sequence determined. They show sequence similarity to cuticular proteins from...

  2. Rickettsia bellii infecting Amblyomma sabanerae ticks in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Amália R M; Romero, Luis; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2012-07-01

    Four Amblyomma sabanerae ticks collected from a turtle (Kinosternon sp.) in San Miguel, El Salvador, were found by molecular analysis to be infected by Rickettsia bellii. We provide the first report of Rickettsia bellii in Central America, and the first report of a Rickettsia species in El Salvador.

  3. Tick repellent substances in the essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pålsson, Katinka; Jaenson, Thomas G T; Baeckström, Peter; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2008-01-01

    The repellent effect of the essential oils of flower heads of the aromatic plant tansy, Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae), originating from Sweden, was tested against host-seeking nymphs of the common tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation (SD) and by using an online solvent extraction separation setup. Further fractionations of the SD oils were obtained by medium-pressure liquid chromatography on silica gel. The volatiles of the essential oils and the fractions that exhibited strong tick repellency (90-100%) were collected by solid phase microextraction and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chemical analyses of the oils show that the populations of T. vulgare from Uppsala and Stockholm may represent different chemotypes, but that they exhibited similar tick repellency. Main volatiles detected from oils of T. vulgare collected at Uppsala were alpha-pinene (27%), beta-pinene (11%), pinocamphone (11%), 1,3,3-trimethylcyclohex-1-ene-4-carboxaldehyde (11%), and 1,8-cineole (10%). In the sample collected in Stockholm, the main components were beta-thujone (39%) and camphor (23%) followed by alpha-thujone (11%) and 1,8-cineole (8%). When constituents in the oils, e.g., alpha-terpineol, 4-terpineol, alpha+beta-thujone, 1,8-cineol, verbenol, and verbenone, were tested separately (each diluted 0.5%, vol:vol), 64-72% tick repellency was obtained.

  4. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices related to tick-borne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sleeping arrangements, (ii) level of knowledge of the cause and transmission of TBRF, and (iii) perceptions and practices as regards to TBRF symptoms, prevention and health seeking behaviour. Community knowledge, attitudes and practices related to tick-borne relapsing fever in Dodoma Rural District, Central Tanzania.

  5. Borrelia miyamotoi: a widespread tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Staarink, Pieter J.; Sprong, Hein; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2015-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever spirochete that has only recently been identified as a human pathogen. Borrelia miyamotoi is genetically and ecologically distinct from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, while both are present in Ixodes ticks. Over 50 patients with an acute febrile illness have

  6. Menage a trois: Borrelia, dendritic cells, and tick saliva interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Lauren M. K.; Veerman, Christiaan C.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.

    2014-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis, is inoculated into the skin during an lxodes tick bite where it is recognised and captured by dendritic cells (DCs). However, considering the propensity of Borrelia to disseminate, it would appear that DCs fall short in

  7. Tick-Associated Diseases: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alice; Chaney, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are eleven tick-associated diseases prevalent in the United States. Most commonly diagnosed are Lyme disease, anaplasmosis (ehrlichiosis) and babeisois, with Lyme disease being the most common vector-borne disease in the country. In southeastern states, studies have shown the…

  8. A formulation to encapusulate nootkatone oil for tick control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nootkatone is a component of grapefruit oil that is toxic to the disease vectoring tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, but unfortunately causes phytotoxicity to treated plants and has a short residual activity due to volatility. We prepared an encapsulated formulation of nootkatone using lignin to compare...

  9. Babesial vector tick defensin against Babesia sp. parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Naotoshi; Battsetseg, Badgar; Boldbaatar, Damdinsuren; Miyoshi, Takeharu; Xuan, Xuenan; Oliver, James H; Fujisaki, Kozo

    2007-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are major components of host innate immunity, a well-conserved, evolutionarily ancient defensive mechanism. Infectious disease-bearing vector ticks are thought to possess specific defense molecules against the transmitted pathogens that have been acquired during their evolution. We found in the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis a novel parasiticidal peptide named longicin that may have evolved from a common ancestral peptide resembling spider and scorpion toxins. H. longicornis is the primary vector for Babesia sp. parasites in Japan. Longicin also displayed bactericidal and fungicidal properties that resemble those of defensin homologues from invertebrates and vertebrates. Longicin showed a remarkable ability to inhibit the proliferation of merozoites, an erythrocyte blood stage of equine Babesia equi, by killing the parasites. Longicin was localized at the surface of the Babesia sp. parasites, as demonstrated by confocal microscopic analysis. In an in vivo experiment, longicin induced significant reduction of parasitemia in animals infected with the zoonotic and murine B. microti. Moreover, RNA interference data demonstrated that endogenous longicin is able to directly kill the canine B. gibsoni, thus indicating that it may play a role in regulating the vectorial capacity in the vector tick H. longicornis. Theoretically, longicin may serve as a model for the development of chemotherapeutic compounds against tick-borne disease organisms.

  10. Wild Birds and the Urban Ecology of Ticks

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-21

    Dr. Sarah Hamer, Assistant Professor and Veterinary Ecologist with the College of Veterinary Medicine at Texas A&M University, discusses her investigation of ticks on wild birds in urban Chicago.  Created: 12/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/27/2012.

  11. Controlling Japanese barberry: Alternative methods and impact on tick populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey S. Ward; Scott C. Williams; Thomas E. Worthley

    2011-01-01

    Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii) is classified as invasive in 20 states and four Canadian provinces. It is also established in another 11 states. In addition to forming dense thickets that can inhibit forest regeneration and native herbaceous plant populations, barberry understories can harbor greatly enhanced levels of blacklegged ticks (

  12. Smell impairment after tick-borne encephalitis vaccination: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodicka, J; Jelínková, H; Chrobok, V

    2010-01-22

    We present a case of hyposmia following administration of a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine. The olfactory impairment did not recover during 1-year follow up. In the literature, there is no report of smell deterioration after vaccination against TBE. Physicians should be aware of this rare neurological complication.

  13. Morphological and molecular identification of the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii (Acari: Ixodidae vectors of Rickettsioses in Egypt

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    Hend H. A. M. Abdullah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Rickettsioses have an epidemiological importance that includes pathogens, vectors, and hosts. The dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus and the camel tick Hyalomma dromedarii play important roles as vectors and reservoirs of Rickettsiae. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Rickettsiae in ixodid ticks species infesting dogs and camels in Egypt, in addition to, the morphological and molecular identification of R. sanguineus and H. dromedarii. Materials and Methods: A total of 601 and 104 of ticks’ specimens were collected from dogs and camels, respectively, in Cairo, Giza and Sinai provinces. Hemolymph staining technique and OmpA and gltA genes amplification were performed to estimate the prevalence rate of Rickettsiae in ticks. For morphological identification of tick species, light microscope (LM and scanning electron microscope (SEM were used. In addition to the phylogenetic analyses of 18S rDNA, Second internal transcript spacer, 12S rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit-1, and 16S rDNA were performed for molecular identification of two tick species. Results: The prevalence rate of Rickettsiae in ticks was 11.6% using hemolymph staining technique and 6.17% by OmpA and gltA genes amplification. Morphological identification revealed that 100% of dogs were infested by R. sanguineus while 91.9% of camels had been infested by H. dromedarii. The phylogenetic analyses of five DNA markers confirmed morphological identification by LM and SEM. The two tick species sequences analyses proved 96-100% sequences identities when compared with the reference data in Genbank records. Conclusion: The present studies confirm the suitability of mitochondrial DNA markers for reliable identification of ticks at both intra- and inter-species level over the nuclear ones. In addition to, the detection of Rickettsiae in both ticks’ species and establishment of the phylogenetic status of R. sanguineus and H. dromedarii would be useful in

  14. Simulation of climate-tick-host-landscape interactions: Effects of shifts in the seasonality of host population fluctuations on tick densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Grant, W E; Teel, P D; Hamer, S A

    2015-12-01

    Tick vector systems are comprised of complex climate-tick-host-landscape interactions that are difficult to identify and estimate from empirical observations alone. We developed a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, parameterized to represent ecological conditions typical of the south-central United States, to examine effects of shifts in the seasonal occurrence of fluctuations of host densities on tick densities. Simulated shifts in the seasonal occurrence of periods of high and low host densities affected both the magnitude of unfed tick densities and the seasonality of tick development. When shifting the seasonal densities of all size classes of hosts (small, medium, and large) synchronously, densities of nymphs were affected more by smaller shifts away from the baseline host seasonality than were densities of larval and adult life stages. When shifting the seasonal densities of only a single size-class of hosts while holding other size classes at their baseline levels, densities of larval, nymph, and adult life stages responded differently. Shifting seasonal densities of any single host-class earlier resulted in a greater increase in adult tick density than when seasonal densities of all host classes were shifted earlier simultaneously. The mean densities of tick life stages associated with shifts in host densities resulted from system-level interactions of host availability with tick phenology. For example, shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks earlier resulted in an approximately 30% increase in the relative degree of temporal co-occurrence of actively host-seeking ticks and hosts compared to baseline, whereas shifting the seasonality of all hosts ten weeks later resulted in an approximately 70% decrease compared to baseline. Differences among scenarios in the overall presence of active host-seeking ticks in the system were due primarily to the degree of co-occurrence of periods of high densities of unfed ticks and periods of high densities

  15. Modelling and mapping tick dynamics using volunteered observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martí, Irene; Zurita-Milla, Raúl; van Vliet, Arnold J H; Takken, Willem

    2017-11-14

    Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands. We aimed at finding the main environmental drivers of AQT at multiple time-scales, and to devise daily AQT maps at the national level for 2014. Tick dynamics is a complex ecological problem driven by biotic (e.g. pathogens, wildlife, humans) and abiotic (e.g. weather, landscape) factors. We enriched the volunteered AQT collection with six types of weather variables (aggregated at 11 temporal scales), three types of satellite-derived vegetation indices, land cover, and mast years. Then, we applied a feature engineering process to derive a set of 101 features to characterize the conditions that yielded a particular count of AQT on a date and location. To devise models predicting the AQT, we use a time-aware Random Forest regression method, which is suitable to find non-linear relationships in complex ecological problems, and provides an estimation of the most important features to predict the AQT. We trained a model capable of fitting AQT with reduced statistical metrics. The multi-temporal study on the feature importance indicates that variables linked to water levels in the atmosphere (i.e. evapotranspiration, relative humidity) consistently showed a higher explanatory power than previous works using temperature. As a product of this study, we are able of mapping daily tick dynamics at the national level. This study paves the way towards the design of new applications in the fields of environmental research, nature management, and public

  16. Modelling and mapping tick dynamics using volunteered observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Garcia-Martí

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands. We aimed at finding the main environmental drivers of AQT at multiple time-scales, and to devise daily AQT maps at the national level for 2014. Method Tick dynamics is a complex ecological problem driven by biotic (e.g. pathogens, wildlife, humans and abiotic (e.g. weather, landscape factors. We enriched the volunteered AQT collection with six types of weather variables (aggregated at 11 temporal scales, three types of satellite-derived vegetation indices, land cover, and mast years. Then, we applied a feature engineering process to derive a set of 101 features to characterize the conditions that yielded a particular count of AQT on a date and location. To devise models predicting the AQT, we use a time-aware Random Forest regression method, which is suitable to find non-linear relationships in complex ecological problems, and provides an estimation of the most important features to predict the AQT. Results We trained a model capable of fitting AQT with reduced statistical metrics. The multi-temporal study on the feature importance indicates that variables linked to water levels in the atmosphere (i.e. evapotranspiration, relative humidity consistently showed a higher explanatory power than previous works using temperature. As a product of this study, we are able of mapping daily tick dynamics at the national level. Conclusions This study paves the way towards the design of new applications in the fields

  17. Persistent Ehrlichia ewingii infection in dogs after natural tick infestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, L A; Barrett, A W; Beall, M J; Chandrashekar, R; Thatcher, B; Tyrrell, P; Little, S E

    2015-01-01

    Ehrlichia ewingii, which causes disease in dogs and people, is the most common Ehrlichia spp. infecting dogs in the United States, but little is known about how long E. ewingii infection persists in dogs. To evaluate the persistence of natural infection with E. ewingii in dogs. Four Class A Beagles; no previous exposure to ticks or tick-borne infectious agents. Dogs were exposed to ticks by weekly walks through tick habitat in north central Oklahoma; dogs positive for infection with Ehrlichia spp. by sequence-confirmed PCR and peptide-specific serology were evaluated for 733 days (D). Whole blood was collected once weekly for PCR, and serum was collected once monthly for detection of antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (peptide p16), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (indirect fluorescence antibody [IFA] and variable-length PCR target [VLPT]), and E. ewingii (peptide p28). All dogs (4/4) became infected with Ehrlichia spp. as evidenced by seroconversion on IFA to E. chaffeensis (4/4); PCR detection of E. ewingii (4/4) and E. chaffeensis (2/4) DNA using both nested and real-time assays; and presence of specific antibodies to E. ewingii (4/4) and E. chaffeensis (2/4). Infection with E. chaffeensis was not detected after D55. Intermittent E. ewingii rickettsemia persisted in 3 of 4 dogs for as long as 733 days. Our data demonstrate that dogs infected with E. ewingii from tick feeding are capable of maintaining infection with this pathogen long-term, and may serve as a reservoir host for the maintenance of E. ewingii in nature. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Studies abound on how far north Ixodes scapularis ticks are transported by birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John D

    2016-03-01

    Several studies report migratory songbirds transporting ticks northward during spring migration in Canada. The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, has been documented on Neotropical songbirds as far as Slave Lake, Alberta during northbound spring migration. In addition, Ixodes ticks have been collected from passerine migrants as far north as Watson Lake, Yukon (north of 60th latitude). The presence of Amblyomma ticks parasitizing long-distance migrants, which are moving from wintering grounds in the Neotropics to breeding grounds in Canada, confirms Neotropical songbirds transport ixodid ticks into Canada. Our avian, tick-host studies document 22 species of ticks on wild birds in Canada, and the majority of these species are not indigenous in Canada. Some of these songbird-transported ticks originate from as far south as Brazil. Clearly, passerine migrants transport ticks long distances into Canada during northward spring migration. The importation of ticks into Canada by migratory songbirds is no longer a "hypothesis," it is a fact. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks, Greece, 2012-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Kontana, Anastasia; Tsioka, Katerina; Chaligiannis, Ilias; Sotiraki, Smaragda

    2017-11-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is transmitted to humans mainly through the bite of infected ticks. In Greece, only one clinical case has been observed, in 2008, but the seroprevalence in humans is relatively high (4.2%). To have a first insight into the circulation of CCHFV in Greece, 2000 ticks collected from livestock during 2012-2014 were tested. CCHFV was detected in 36 of the 1290 (2.8%) tick pools (1-5 ticks per pool). Two genetic lineages were identified: Europe 1 and Europe 2. Most Europe 1 sequences were obtained from Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato ticks, while most Europe 2 sequences were recovered from Rhipicephalus bursa ticks. The number of collected Hyalomma marginatum ticks (the principal vector of CCHFV) was low (0.5% of ticks) and all were CCHFV negative. Since it is not known how efficient ticks of the Rhipicephalus genus are as vectors of the virus, laboratory studies will be required to explore the role of Rhipicephalus spp. ticks in CCHFV maintenance and transmission.

  20. Microclimate and the zoonotic cycle of tick-borne encephalitis virus in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, C; Bastic, V; Maeder, G; Patalas, E; Gern, L

    2011-05-01

    The focal distribution of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) appears to depend mainly on cofeeding transmission between infected Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs and uninfected larvae. To better understand the role of cofeeding ticks in the transmission of TBEV, we investigated tick infestation of rodents and the influence of microclimate on the seasonality of questing I. ricinus ticks. A 3-yr study was carried out at four sites, including two confirmed TBEV foci. Free-living ticks and rodents were collected monthly, and microclimatic data were recorded. A decrease in questing nymph density was observed in 2007, associated with low relative humidity and high temperatures in spring. One site, Thun, did not show this decrease, probably because of microclimatic conditions in spring that favored the questing nymph population. During the same year, the proportion of rodents carrying cofeeding ticks was lower at sites where the questing nymph density decreased, although the proportion of infested hosts was similar among years. TBEV was detected in 0.1% of questing ticks, and in 8.6 and 50.0% of larval ticks feeding on two rodents. TBEV was detected at all but one site, where the proportion of hosts with cofeeding ticks was the lowest. The proportion of hosts with cofeeding ticks seemed to be one of the factors that distinguished a TBEV focus from a non-TBEV focus. The enzootic cycle of TBEV might be disrupted when dry and hot springs occur during consecutive years.

  1. Molecular and morphological identification of a human biting tick, Amblyomma testudinarium (Acari: Ixodidae), in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li-Lian; Lu, Chun-Wei; Lin, Ying-Fang; Shih, Chien-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Genetic identity and morphological features of a human biting tick, Amblyomma testudinarium, were determined for the first time in Taiwan. Morphological features of adult male and female ticks of Am. testudinarium were observed and photographed by a stereo- microscope. The genetic identity was analyzed by comparing the sequences of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA gene obtained from 18 strains of ticks representing 10 species of Amblyomma, and four outgroup species of Dermacentor and Rhipicephalus ticks. Nine major clades could be easily distinguished by neighbour-joining analysis and were congruent by maximum-parsimony method. All these Am. testudinarium ticks collected from Taiwan and Japan were genetically affiliated to a monophyletic group with highly homogeneous sequence (99.8-100% similarity), and can be discriminated from other species of Amblyomma and other genera of ticks (Dermacentor and Rhipicephalus) with a sequence divergence ranging from 6.9 to 23.9%. Moreover, intra- and inter-species analysis based on the genetic distance (GD) values indicated a lower level (GD Taiwan and Japan, as compared with other lineage groups (GD > 0.108) of Amblyomma ticks, as well as outgroup (GD > 0.172) species. Our results provide the first distinguished features of adult Am. testudinarium ticks and the first genetic identification of Am. testudinarium ticks collected from humans in Taiwan. Seasonal prevalence, host range, and vectorial capacity of this tick species in Taiwan need to be further clarified.

  2. Prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in two districts of lower Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Muhammad Sohail; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Muhammad Nisar; Muhammad, Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Kasib

    2009-12-01

    Bovine tick infestation is still a serious nuisance to livestock and the dairy industry of Pakistan. The current paper reports the prevalence and associated risk factors for bovine tick infestation in the districts Layyah and Muzaffargarh of lower Punjab, Pakistan. A questionnaire-based survey was conducted to identify and to quantify variation in the prevalence of bovine tick infestation with respect to host (age, species, sex, and breed) and environmental (geographical area and climate) determinants. Multiple stage cluster random sampling was used and 3500 cattle and buffaloes from the two districts were selected. Prevalence of bovine tick infestation was significantly higher (OR=1.95; p2025; 47.3%). Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum was the major tick species (33.5%; 1173/3500), followed by Rhipicephalus sanguineus (13%; 456/3500). The highest monthly prevalence in both the districts was found in July. Ticks were not found in Layyah from November to March and in Muzaffargarh from December to March. The average number of ticks was proportional to the prevalence of infestation. Also, tick infestation in a 7cmx7cm dewlap of the animal was proportional to that of the rest of body. Prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with district, host species and breed. In cattle, prevalence of tick infestation was associated (p<0.05) with age and sex of host. The results of this study provide better understanding of disease epidemiology in the study districts, which will help for planning of control strategies.

  3. Citizen Science and Community Engagement in Tick Surveillance—A Canadian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Lewis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in North America and Europe, and on-going surveillance is required to monitor the spread of the tick vectors as their populations expand under the influence of climate change. Active surveillance involves teams of researchers collecting ticks from field locations with the potential to be sites of establishing tick populations. This process is labor- and time-intensive, limiting the number of sites monitored and the frequency of monitoring. Citizen science initiatives are ideally suited to address this logistical problem and generate high-density and complex data from sites of community importance. In 2014, the same region was monitored by academic researchers, public health workers, and citizen scientists, allowing a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of each type of surveillance effort. Four community members persisted with tick collections over several years, collectively recovering several hundred ticks. Although deviations from standard surveillance protocols and the choice of tick surveillance sites makes the incorporation of community-generated data into conventional surveillance analyses more complex, this citizen science data remains useful in providing high-density longitudinal tick surveillance of a small area in which detailed ecological observations can be made. Most importantly, partnership between community members and researchers has proven a powerful tool in educating communities about of the risk of tick-vectored diseases and in encouraging tick bite prevention.

  4. Isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soils and Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks: prevalence and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuininga, Amy R; Miller, Jessica L; Morath, Shannon U; Daniels, Thomas J; Falco, Richard C; Marchese, Michael; Sahabi, Sadia; Rosa, Dieshia; Stafford, Kirby C

    2009-05-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to Ixodes scapularis Say, the blacklegged tick. As a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an Eastern deciduous forest where I. scapularis is common. Several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf litter, and ticks were plated on two types of media; (2) soils were assayed for entomopathogenic fungi using the Galleria bait method; (3) DNA from internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal repeat was extracted from pure cultures obtained from soils, Galleria, and ticks and was amplified and sequenced; and (4) DNA was extracted directly from ticks, amplified, and sequenced. We conclude that (1) ticks encounter potentially entomopathogenic fungi more often in soil than in leaf litter, (2) many species of potentially entomopathogenic fungi found in the soil can readily be cultured, (3) the Galleria bait method is a sufficiently efficient method for isolation of these fungi from soils, and (4) although DNA extraction from ticks was not possible in this study because of small sample size, DNA extraction from fungi isolated from soils and from ticks was successful and provided clean sequences in 100 and 73% of samples, respectively. A combination of the above methods is clearly necessary for optimal characterization of entomopathogenic fungi associated with ticks in the environment.

  5. Perspectives on the potential of entomopathogenic fungi in biological control of ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Éverton K K; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P; Roberts, Donald W

    2012-03-01

    Ticks are serious health threats for humans, and both domestic and wild animals. Ticks are controlled mostly by application of chemical products; but these acaricides have several negative side effects, including toxicity to animals, environmental contamination, and induction of chemical resistance in some tick populations. Entomopathogenic fungi infect arthropods in nature and can occur at enzootic or epizootic levels in their host populations. Laboratory studies clearly demonstrate that these fungi can cause high mortality in all developmental stages of several tick species, and also reduce oviposition of infected engorged females. Tick mortality following application of fungi in the field, however, often is less than that suggested by laboratory tests. This is due to many negative biotic and climatic factors. To increase efficacy of fungal agents for biological control of ticks under natural conditions, several points need consideration: (1) select effective isolates (viz., high virulence; and tolerance to high temperature, ultraviolet radiation and desiccation); (2) understand the main factors that affect virulence of fungal isolates to their target arthropods including the role of toxic metabolites of the fungal isolates; and (3) define with more precision the immune response of ticks to infection by entomopathogenic fungi. The current study reviews recent literature on biological control of ticks, and comments on the relevance of these results to advancing the development of fungal biocontrol agents, including improving formulation of fungal spores for use in tick control, and using entomopathogenic fungi in integrated pest (tick) management programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Complementary data on four methods for sampling free-living ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Osava, Carolina Fonseca; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, four methods for sampling free-living ticks that are used in ecological and human tick-bite risk studies were evaluated. Cloth dragging, carbon dioxide traps and visual searches and inspection of plant litter on the ground were used in field and forest areas within the Brazilian Pantanal. Among the three tick species collected, Amblyomma sculptum predominated, followed by Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma ovale. Dragging, a cheap and simple technique, yielded the highest numbers of ticks, particularly nymphs. The visual search detected a high number of adult ticks and provided information on tick questing height. Even though laborious, plant litter examination showed that large numbers of ticks may use this stratum. Carbon dioxide (CO2) traps are expensive and difficult to handle, but they are highly efficient for adult ticks, especially A. parvum. These data indicate that one method alone is incapable of providing a representative sample of the tick fauna in a particular area and that multiple techniques should be used for tick population studies.

  7. Molecular detection of bacterial and parasitic pathogens in hard ticks from Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Ferreira, Andreia; Nunes, Mónica; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Campino, Lenea; Cardoso, Luís

    2014-06-01

    Ticks are important vector arthropods of human and animal pathogens. As information about agents of disease circulating in vectors in Portugal is limited, the aim of the present study was to detect bacteria and parasites with veterinary and zoonotic importance in ticks collected from dogs, cats, and field vegetation. A total of 925 ticks, comprising 888 (96.0%) adults, 8 (0.9%) nymphs, and 29 (3.1%) larvae, were collected in 4 geographic areas (districts) of Portugal. Among those, 620 (67.0%) were removed from naturally infested dogs, 42 (4.5%) from cats, and 263 (28.4%) were questing ticks obtained from field vegetation. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the predominant tick species, and the only one collected from dogs and vegetation, while all Ixodes ricinus specimens (n=6) were recovered from cats. Rickettsia massiliae and Rickettsia conorii were identified in 35 ticks collected from cats and dogs and in 3 ticks collected from dogs. Among ticks collected from cats or dogs, 4 Rh. sanguineus specimens were detected with Hepatozoon felis, 3 with Anaplasma platys, 2 with Hepatozoon canis, one with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, one with Babesia vogeli, one with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and one with Cercopithifilaria spp. Rickettsia helvetica was detected in one I. ricinus tick collected from a cat. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first time that Cercopithifilaria spp., Ba. vogeli, H. canis, and H. felis have been detected in ticks from Portugal. The wide range of tick-borne pathogens identified, some of zoonotic concern, suggests a risk for the emergence of tick-borne diseases in domestic animals and humans in Portugal. Further studies on these and other tick-borne agents should be performed to better understand their epidemiological and clinical importance, and to support the implementation of effective control measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Ticks infesting wild and domestic animals and humans of Sri Lanka with new host records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liyanaarachchi, D R; Rajakaruna, R S; Dikkumbura, A W; Rajapakse, R P V J

    2015-02-01

    An island-wide collection of tick species infesting humans, domesticated and wild animals and questing ticks in domestic and peridomestic environments was carried out during 2009-2011. A total of 30,461 ticks were collected from 30 different hosts and free living stages from the ground. The collection consisted of 22 tick species from 30 different hosts recording 12 tick species from humans, 19 from domesticated animals and 21 from wild animals, with a total of 97 new host records. The most common tick species on humans were Dermacentor auratus and Amblyomma testudinairum, while Haemaphysalis intermedia, Rhipicephalus microplus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were common in domesticated and wild animals sharing 20 host species. Among the questing ticks, immature D. auratus was the most abundant. Humans and domesticated animals were mostly infested by the nymphal stages while adult ticks were found on wild animals. High number of new host records could be due to domestic animals picking tick species from wildlife and vise versa at the human/animal interface. Habitat destruction due to forest fragmentation has lead to wild animals roaming in urban and semi-urban neighbourhoods increasing the interactions of wild animals with domesticated animals. Wild animals play a significant role as a reservoir of many tick borne infections which can easily be spread to domesticated animals and then to humans via tick infestations. Data in this paper are useful for those interested in tick infesting wild and domestic animals and humans in describing the zoonotic potential of tick borne infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Roadmap for Tick-Borne Flavivirus Research in the “Omics” Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Grabowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFs affect human health globally. Human vaccines provide protection against some TBFs, and antivirals are available, yet TBF-specific control strategies are limited. Advances in genomics offer hope to understand the viral complement transmitted by ticks, and to develop disruptive, data-driven technologies for virus detection, treatment, and control. The genome assemblies of Ixodes scapularis, the North American tick vector of the TBF, Powassan virus, and other tick vectors, are providing insights into tick biology and pathogen transmission and serve as nucleation points for expanded genomic research. Systems biology has yielded insights to the response of tick cells to viral infection at the transcript and protein level, and new protein targets for vaccines to limit virus transmission. Reverse vaccinology approaches have moved candidate tick antigenic epitopes into vaccine development pipelines. Traditional drug and in silico screening have identified candidate antivirals, and target-based approaches have been developed to identify novel acaricides. Yet, additional genomic resources are required to expand TBF research. Priorities include genome assemblies for tick vectors, “omic” studies involving high consequence pathogens and vectors, and emphasizing viral metagenomics, tick-virus metabolomics, and structural genomics of TBF and tick proteins. Also required are resources for forward genetics, including the development of tick strains with quantifiable traits, genetic markers and linkage maps. Here we review the current state of genomic research on ticks and tick-borne viruses with an emphasis on TBFs. We outline an ambitious 10-year roadmap for research in the “omics era,” and explore key milestones needed to accomplish the goal of delivering three new vaccines, antivirals and acaricides for TBF control by 2030.

  10. Tick-borne zoonotic pathogens in ticks feeding on the common nightingale including a novel strain of Rickettsia sp

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubská, L.; Literák, I.; Kverek, P.; Roubalová, Eva; Kocianova, E.; Taragelova, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 4 (2012), s. 265-268 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia garinii * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsia helvetica * Babesia sp. EU1 * Common nightingale Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1877959X12000556

  11. Protease Inhibitors in Tick Saliva: The Role of Serpins and Cystatins in Tick-host-Pathogen Interaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelař, J.; Kotál, Jan; Langhansová, Helena; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAY 29 (2017), č. článku 276. ISSN 2235-2988 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-host interaction * immunomodulation * protease inhibitors * serpins * cystatins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology OBOR OECD: Immunology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  12. Tick histamine release factor is critical for Ixodes scapularis engorgement and transmission of the lyme disease agent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Dai

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are distributed worldwide and affect human and animal health by transmitting diverse infectious agents. Effective vaccines against most tick-borne pathogens are not currently available. In this study, we characterized a tick histamine release factor (tHRF from Ixodes scapularis and addressed the vaccine potential of this antigen in the context of tick engorgement and B. burgdorferi transmission. Results from western blotting and quantitative Reverse Transcription-PCR showed that tHRF is secreted in tick saliva, and upregulated in Borrelia burgdorferi-infected ticks. Further, the expression of tHRF was coincident with the rapid feeding phase of the tick, suggesting a role for tHRF in tick engorgement and concomitantly, for efficient B. burgdorferi transmission. Silencing tHRF by RNA interference (RNAi significantly impaired tick feeding and decreased B. burgdorferi burden in mice. Interfering with tHRF by actively immunizing mice with recombinant tHRF, or passively transferring tHRF antiserum, also markedly reduced the efficiency of tick feeding and B. burgdorferi burden in mice. Recombinant tHRF was able to bind to host basophils and stimulate histamine release. Therefore, we speculate that tHRF might function in vivo to modulate vascular permeability and increase blood flow to the tick bite-site, facilitating tick engorgement. These findings suggest that blocking tHRF might offer a viable strategy to complement ongoing efforts to develop vaccines to block tick feeding and transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  13. Longitudinal analysis of tick densities and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia infections of Ixodes ricinus ticks in different habitat areas in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielinga, P.R.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Fonville, M.; Boer, de A.G.; Vries, de A.; Dimmers, W.J.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G.A.J.M.; Schouls, L.M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.

    2006-01-01

    From 2000 to 2004, ticks were collected by dragging a blanket in four habitat areas in The Netherlands: dunes, heather, forest, and a city park. Tick densities were calculated, and infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species was investigated by reverse line blot analysis.

  14. Skin CD4+ Memory T Cells Play an Essential Role in Acquired Anti-Tick Immunity through Interleukin-3-Mediated Basophil Recruitment to Tick-Feeding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Ohta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, blood-sucking arthropods, serve as vectors for transmission of infectious diseases including Lyme borreliosis. After tick infestation, several animal species can develop resistance to subsequent infestations, reducing the risk of transmission. In a mouse model, basophils reportedly infiltrate tick-feeding sites during the second but not first infestation and play a crucial role in the expression of acquired tick resistance. However, the mechanism underlying basophil recruitment to the second tick-feeding site remains ill-defined. Here, we investigated cells and their products responsible for the basophil recruitment. Little or no basophil infiltration was detected in T-cell-deficient mice, and adoptive transfer of CD4+ but not CD8+ T cells reconstituted it. Il3 gene expression was highly upregulated at the second tick-feeding site, and adoptive transfer of interleukin-3 (IL-3-sufficient but not IL-3-deficient CD4+ T cells conferred the basophil infiltration on T-cell-deficient mice, indicating that the CD4+ T-cell-derived IL-3 is essential for the basophil recruitment. Notably, IL-3+ resident CD4+ memory T cells were detected even before the second infestation in previously uninfested skin distant from the first tick-feeding site. Taken together, IL-3 produced locally by skin CD4+ memory T cells appears to play a crucial role in basophil recruitment to the second tick-feeding site.

  15. Skin CD4+Memory T Cells Play an Essential Role in Acquired Anti-Tick Immunity through Interleukin-3-Mediated Basophil Recruitment to Tick-Feeding Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Takuya; Yoshikawa, Soichiro; Tabakawa, Yuya; Yamaji, Kayoko; Ishiwata, Kenji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Taya, Choji; Oh-Hora, Masatsugu; Kawano, Yohei; Miyake, Kensuke; Yamanishi, Yoshinori; Yonekawa, Hiromichi; Watanabe, Naohiro; Kanuka, Hirotaka; Karasuyama, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Ticks, blood-sucking arthropods, serve as vectors for transmission of infectious diseases including Lyme borreliosis. After tick infestation, several animal species can develop resistance to subsequent infestations, reducing the risk of transmission. In a mouse model, basophils reportedly infiltrate tick-feeding sites during the second but not first infestation and play a crucial role in the expression of acquired tick resistance. However, the mechanism underlying basophil recruitment to the second tick-feeding site remains ill-defined. Here, we investigated cells and their products responsible for the basophil recruitment. Little or no basophil infiltration was detected in T-cell-deficient mice, and adoptive transfer of CD4 + but not CD8 + T cells reconstituted it. Il3 gene expression was highly upregulated at the second tick-feeding site, and adoptive transfer of interleukin-3 (IL-3)-sufficient but not IL-3-deficient CD4 + T cells conferred the basophil infiltration on T-cell-deficient mice, indicating that the CD4 + T-cell-derived IL-3 is essential for the basophil recruitment. Notably, IL-3 + resident CD4 + memory T cells were detected even before the second infestation in previously uninfested skin distant from the first tick-feeding site. Taken together, IL-3 produced locally by skin CD4 + memory T cells appears to play a crucial role in basophil recruitment to the second tick-feeding site.

  16. Translating ecology, physiology, biochemistry and population genetics research to meet the challenge of tick and tick-borne diseases in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging and re-emerging tick-borne diseases threaten public health and the wellbeing of domestic animals and wildlife globally. The adoption of an evolutionary ecology framework aimed to diminish the impact of tick-borne diseases needs to be part of strategies to protect human and animal population...

  17. Translating ecology, physiology, biochemistry and molecular biology research to meet grand challenge of tick and tick-borne diseases in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging and re-emerging tick-borne diseases threaten public health and the wellbeing of domestic animals and wildlife globally. The use of science-based technology to diminish the impact of tick-borne diseases should be an active research effort aimed to protect human and animal populations. Here, ...

  18. Melting pot of tick-borne zoonoses: the European hedgehog contributes to the maintenance of various tick-borne diseases in natural cycles urban and suburban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, Setareh; Ruyts, Sanne C; Frazer-Mendelewska, Ewa; Jaarsma, Ryanne; Verheyen, Kris; Sprong, Hein

    2017-03-07

    European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) are urban dwellers and host both Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes hexagonus. These ticks transmit several zoonotic pathogens like Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Borrelia miyamotoi and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis". It is unclear to what extent hedgehogs in (sub) urban areas contribute to the presence of infected ticks in these areas, which subsequently pose a risk for acquiring a tick-borne disease. Therefore, it is important to investigate to what extent hedgehogs contribute to the enzootic cycle of these tick-borne pathogens, and to shed more light at the mechanisms of the transmission cycles involving hedgehogs and both ixodid tick species. Engorged ticks from hedgehogs were collected from (sub) urban areas via rehabilitating centres in Belgium. Ticks were screened individually for presence of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato), Borrelia miyamotoi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica and "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" using PCR-based methods. Infection rates of the different pathogens in ticks were calculated and compared to infection rates in questing ticks. Both Ixodes hexagonus (n = 1132) and Ixodes ricinus (n = 73) of all life stages were found on the 54 investigated hedgehogs. Only a few hedgehogs carried most of the ticks, with 6 of the 54 hedgehogs carrying more than half of all ticks (624/1205). Borrelia miyamotoi, A. phagocytophilum, R. helvetica and B. burgdorferi genospecies (Borrelia afzelii, Borrelia bavariensis and Borrelia spielmanii) were detected in both I. hexagonus and I. ricinus. Anaplasma phagocytophilum, R. helvetica, B. afzelii, B. bavariensis and B. spielmanii were found significantly more in engorged ticks in comparison to questing I. ricinus. European hedgehogs seem to contribute to the spread and transmission of tick-borne pathogens in urban areas. The relatively high prevalence of B. bavariensis, B. spielmanii, B

  19. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Kwon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD, and spontaneously detached (SD. The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%, protease inhibitors (7.4%, unknown function proteins (22%, immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%, lipocalin (3.1%, heme/iron binding (2.6%, extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%, oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%, transporter/ receptor related (3.2%, cytoskeletal (5.5%, and housekeeping-like (39.7%. Notable observations include: (i tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii 13% (76/582 of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  20. Adverse moisture events predict seasonal abundance of Lyme disease vector ticks (Ixodes scapularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Kathryn A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Dugas, Katherine D.; Hamel, Lutz H.; Mather, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in north temperate regions worldwide, affecting an estimated 300,000 people annually in the United States alone. The incidence of LB is correlated with human exposure to its vector, the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis). To date, attempts to model tick encounter risk based on environmental parameters have been equivocal. Previous studies have not considered (1) the differences between relative humidity (RH) in leaf litter and at weather stations, (2) the RH threshold that affects nymphal blacklegged tick survival, and (3) the time required below the threshold to induce mortality. We clarify the association between environmental moisture and tick survival by presenting a significant relationship between the total number of tick adverse moisture events (TAMEs - calculated as microclimatic periods below a RH threshold) and tick abundance each year.Methods: We used a 14-year continuous statewide tick surveillance database and corresponding weather data from Rhode Island (RI), USA, to assess the effects of TAMEs on nymphal populations of I. scapularis. These TAMEs were defined as extended periods of time (>8 h below 82% RH in leaf litter). We fit a sigmoid curve comparing weather station data to those collected by loggers placed in tick habitats to estimate RH experienced by nymphal ticks, and compiled the number of historical TAMEs during the 14-year record.Results: The total number of TAMEs in June of each year was negatively related to total seasonal nymphal tick densities, suggesting that sub-threshold humidity episodes >8 h in duration naturally lowered nymphal blacklegged tick abundance. Furthermore, TAMEs were positively related to the ratio of tick abundance early in the season when compared to late season, suggesting that lower than average tick abundance for a given year resulted from tick mortality and not from other factors.Conclusions: Our results clarify the mechanism

  1. Ixodes scapularis Tick Saliva Proteins Sequentially Secreted Every 24 h during Blood Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Antônio F. M.; Moresco, James; Yates, John R.; da Silva Vaz, Itabajara; Mulenga, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the most medically important tick species and transmits five of the 14 reportable human tick borne disease (TBD) agents in the USA. This study describes LC-MS/MS identification of 582 tick- and 83 rabbit proteins in saliva of I. scapularis ticks that fed for 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h, as well as engorged but not detached (BD), and spontaneously detached (SD). The 582 tick proteins include proteases (5.7%), protease inhibitors (7.4%), unknown function proteins (22%), immunity/antimicrobial (2.6%), lipocalin (3.1%), heme/iron binding (2.6%), extracellular matrix/ cell adhesion (2.2%), oxidant metabolism/ detoxification (6%), transporter/ receptor related (3.2%), cytoskeletal (5.5%), and housekeeping-like (39.7%). Notable observations include: (i) tick saliva proteins of unknown function accounting for >33% of total protein content, (ii) 79% of proteases are metalloproteases, (iii) 13% (76/582) of proteins in this study were found in saliva of other tick species and, (iv) ticks apparently selectively inject functionally similar but unique proteins every 24 h, which we speculate is the tick's antigenic variation equivalent strategy to protect important tick feeding functions from host immune system. The host immune responses to proteins present in 24 h I. scapularis saliva will not be effective at later feeding stages. Rabbit proteins identified in our study suggest the tick's strategic use of host proteins to modulate the feeding site. Notably fibrinogen, which is central to blood clotting and wound healing, was detected in high abundance in BD and SD saliva, when the tick is preparing to terminate feeding and detach from the host. A remarkable tick adaptation is that the feeding lesion is completely healed when the tick detaches from the host. Does the tick concentrate fibrinogen at the feeding site to aide in promoting healing of the feeding lesion? Overall, these data provide broad insight into molecular mechanisms regulating different tick

  2. Birds and hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae, with discussions about hypotheses on tick evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUGLIELMONE AA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between birds (Aves and hard ticks (Ixodidae was analyzed for the 386 of 725 tick extant species whose larva, nymph and adults are known as well as their natural hosts. A total of 136 (54 Prostriata= Ixodes, 82 Metastriata= all other genera are frequently found on Aves, but only 32 species (1 associated with Palaeognathae, 31 with Neognathae have all parasitic stages feeding on birds: 25 Ixodes (19% of the species analyzed for this genus, 6 Haemaphysalis (7% and 1 species of Amblyomma (2%. The species of Amblyomma feeds on marine birds (MB, the six Haemaphysalis are parasites of non-marine birds (NMB, and 14 of the 25 Ixodes feed on NMB, one feeds on NMB and MB, and ten on MB. The Australasian Ixodes + I. uriae clade probably originated at an uncertain time from the late Triassic to the early Cretaceous. It is speculated that Prostriata first hosts were Gondwanan theropod dinosaurs in an undetermined place before Pangaea break up; alternatively, if ancestral monotromes were involved in its evolution an Australasian origin of Prostriata seems plausible. As for Prostriata the Motherland of Ixodida is probably Gondwana. RESUMEN. Aves y garrapatas duras (Ixodidae, con discusión sobre hipótesis sobre evolución de las garrapatas. En esta revisión se analizó la relación entre aves y garrapatas duras (Ixodidae para las 386 de 725 especies de garrapatas que utilizan aves como hospedadores para larvas, ninfas y adultos. Un total de 136 especies (54 Prostriata= Ixodes, 82 Metastriata= restantes géneros son frecuentemente encontradas sobre aves, pero solo 32 especies (1 asociada con Palaeognathae, 31 con Neognathae tienen ciclos donde todos los estadios se alimentan sobre aves: 25 Ixodes (19% de las especies analizadas para este género, 6 Haemaphysalis (7% del total y 1 especie de Amblyomma (2% del total. Las especies de Amblyomma se alimentan sobre aves marinas (MB, las seis de Haemaphysalis son parásitas de aves no-marinas (NMB

  3. Detection and identification of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Rickettsia helvetica in Danish Ixodes ricinus ticks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skarphédinsson, Sigurdur; Lyholm, Birgitte Fjendbo; Ljungberg, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Borreliosis is an endemic infection in Denmark. Recent serosurveys have indicated that human anaplasmosis may be equally common. The aim of this study was to look for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and related pathogens in Ixodes ricinus ticks and estimate their prevalence, compared to Borrelia, using...... Jutland and Funen, while 11% were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi. The Borrelia genotype B. afzelii was most prevalent, followed by B. valaisiana, B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. garinii.A. phagocytophilum was found in 14.5% of nymphs and 40.5% of adult ticks, while Borrelia was found in 13% of nymphs and 8......% of adult ticks. The difference in prevalence between Anaplasma and Borrelia in adult ticks supports the idea that their maintenance cycles in nature may be different. Ticks were also infected with Rickettsia helvetica. Our study indicates that A. phagocytophilum prevalence in ticks in Denmark is as high...

  4. A PATIENT WITH TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS POLYNEURITISES FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Васильевич Субботин

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the rare clinical case of chronic tick-borne encephalitis (CHTBE, characterized by atypical course of infectious process, developing on intensive humoral immunity background. Materials and methods. The patient B., 50 years old, living in Kemerovo region, TBE endemic area. Was bitten by tick. The patient was twice vaccinated by: vaccine-TBE «EnceVir». The scheme of vaccination: between the first and second vaccinations – the interval is 16 days. Was hospitalized in the Kemerovo Regional Clinical Hospital with a diagnosis of Chronical form of TBE, mixed form (TBE and Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis. The immunological analysis was performed on TBE and ixodes tick-borne borreliosis was performed on ELISA assay. Results. The patient B, 50 years old serum was identified IgG antibodies, titer 1 : 1700 with a gradual decrease and stabilization from 1 : 800 to 1 : 600. IgM TBE antibodies were detected from the first days of the disease. TBE IgM were determined in titer from 1 : 600 to 1 : 3200 (5-fold increase of antibodies in long-term observations. Throughout the infectious process, ixodes tick-borne borreliosis were not identified in the serum. In the neurological status was detected: a slight hypotrophy of the muscles of the first interdigital spaces, hypotrophy of shoulder girdle muscles, pain hypoesthesia at polyneuritis’s type. According to the results of the EMG study, the patient showed deceleration of excitation spread and neuropathy of the ulnar, median, peroneal and tibial nerves from both sides. According to MRI was detected the lack of accumulating contrast, presence of pathogenie pockets. The patient had no somatic symptoms of ixodes tick-borne borreliosis infection. Conclusion. The Diagnosis «Chronical TBE, polyneuritis form» based on the results of the EMG and ELISA studies in dynamic observations on the patient from 2016-2017.

  5. PCR-Detection of Coxiella burnetii in Ticks Collected from Sheep and Goats in Southeast Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Nourollahi Fard

    2011-06-01

    Results: Three pools, each consisting of five female of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum and one pool (6 ticks of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from goats and sheep were found to be positive by Trans-PCR. Conclusion: This paper documents the first molecular detection of C. burnetii in ticks, which shows their role as puta­tive vectors and reservoirs for this pathogenic agent.  

  6. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods: In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009–2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographi...

  7. AN ECONOMIC THRESHOLD FOR TICK CONTROL CONSIDERING MULTIPLE DAMAGES AND PROBABILITY-BASED DAMAGE FUNCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Douglas L.; Haantuba, Hyde H.

    1998-01-01

    The economic threshold for thick infestations on Zambian cattle was analyzed considering both direct production losses and mortality from transmitted diseases. Probability theory applied to mortality risks was used to derive the functional form for disease damage. With only noninfectious ticks, the economic threshold based on liveweight gain losses was three ticks per calf. The threshold recommended dipping calves whenever any disease-infectious ticks were present. Similar threshold results h...

  8. Temporal dynamics of the tick Ixodes ricinus in northern Europe: epidemiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayol, Claire; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Siukkola, Anja; Kallio, Eva R

    2017-03-31

    Tick-borne pathogens pose an increasing threat to human and veterinary health across the northern hemisphere. While the seasonal activity of ticks is largely determined by climatic conditions, host-population dynamics are also likely to affect tick abundance. Consequently, abundance fluctuations of rodents in northern Europe are expected to be translated into tick dynamics, and can hence potentially affect the circulation of tick-borne pathogens. We quantified and explained the temporal dynamics of the tick Ixodes ricinus in the northernmost part of its European geographical range, by estimating (i) abundance in vegetation and (ii) infestation load in the most common rodent species in the study area, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. Ixodes ricinus nymphs and adult females, the life stages responsible for the most of tick bites in humans, peaked in May-June and August-September. Larvae and nymphs were simultaneously active in June and abundance of questing larvae and nymphs in the vegetation showed a positive association with bank vole abundance. Moreover, infesting larvae and nymphs were aggregated on bank voles, and the infestation of bank voles with I. ricinus larvae and nymphs was positively associated with bank vole abundance. Our results indicate early summer and early autumn as periods of increased risk for humans to encounter I. ricinus ticks in boreal urban forests and suggest a 2 years life-cycle for I. ricinus with two cohorts of ticks during the same year. Moreover, we identified a simultaneous activity of larvae and nymphs which allows co-feeding on the rodent host, which in turn supports the transmission of several important zoonotic tick-borne pathogens. Finally, we showed that a high density of the rodent host may enhance the risk that ticks and, potentially, tick-borne pathogens pose to human health.

  9. Bacterial community in Haemaphysalis ticks of domesticated animals from the Orang Asli communities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Jing-Jing; Chen, Fezshin; Kho, Kai Ling; Ahmad Shanizza, Azzy Iyzati; Lim, Fang-Shiang; Tan, Kim-Kee; Chang, Li-Yen; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2016-07-01

    Ticks are vectors in the transmission of many important infectious diseases in human and animals. Ticks can be readily found in the semi-forested areas such as the settlements of the indigenous people in Malaysia, the Orang Asli. There is still minimal information available on the bacterial agents associated with ticks found in Malaysia. We performed a survey of the bacterial communities associated with ticks collected from domestic animals found in two Orang Asli villages in Malaysia. We collected 62 ticks, microscopically and molecularly identified as related to Haemaphysalis wellingtoni, Haemaphysalis hystricis and Haemaphysalis bispinosa. Bacterial 16s rRNA hypervariable region (V6) amplicon libraries prepared from the tick samples were sequenced on the Ion Torrent PGM platform. We detected a total of 392 possible bacterial genera after pooling and sequencing 20 samples, indicating a diverse bacterial community profile. Dominant taxa include the potential tick endosymbiont, Coxiella. Other dominant taxa include the tick-associated pathogen, Rickettsia, and environmental bacteria such as Bacillus, Mycobacterium, Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas. Other known tick-associated bacteria were also detected, including Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rickettsiella and Wolbachia, albeit at very low abundance. Specific PCR was performed on selected samples to identify Rickettsia and Coxiella. Sequence of Rickettsia felis, which causes spotted fever in human and cats, was identified in one sample. Coxiella endosymbionts were detected in three samples. This study provides the baseline knowledge of the microbiome of ticks in Malaysia, focusing on tick-associated bacteria affecting the Orang Asli communities. The role of the herein found Coxiella and Rickettsia in tick physiology or disease transmission merits further investigation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  10. Ticks Collected from Selected Mammalian Hosts Surveyed in the Republic of Korea During 2008-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    selected acaricides of ticks collected from domestic livestock (cows) from 35 cities and counties and 6 provinces from 1982 to 1984. Species col- lected...from wild mammals captured for necropsy under institutional approved animal use protocols (SNU, NIBR, and the NPRI). Ticks were removed from...tification of arthropod ectoparasites and isolation of patho- Table 1. Number of ticks and collection sites for each mammal species in the Republic of Korea

  11. Hard Ticks on Domestic Ruminants and their SeasonalPopulation Dynamics in Yazd Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Salim abadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ticks are the main vectors for transmission of different pathogens to human and animals. This survey was performed to find out distribution of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Yazd Province, central Iran during year 2008-2009.Methods: A total number of 30 villages from both mountainous (20% and plateau (80% regions of the province were selected randomly. Ticks were colleted from the body of infested animals and transported to the laboratory of Medical Entomology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences and then were identified to space level using valid identification key.Results: A total of 583 hard ticks were collected. The ticks were classified into three genera and 7 species including:  Hyalomma dromedarii (55.92%, Hy. marginatum (13.20%, Hy. anatolicum (9.78%, Hy. detritum (4.98%,  Hy. asiaticum (3.94%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (11.84%, and Dermacentor marginatus (0.34%. The highest seasonal activities occurred in summer. The prevalence of the Ixodidae ticks was more evident in plateaus area in Yazd Province. Among the hosts including: cow, goat, sheep and camel, the ticks that collected from camel was more prevalent. The ratio of male was more than female ticks. Hyalomma. dromedarii was the predominant tick species and accounted for 55.92% of the ticks.Conclusion: Some of the collected ticks may play an important role for transmission of vector borne disease to human; therefore, the results of this study will provide a clue for vectors of tick-borne diseases in the region for local authorities for implementation of disease control.

  12. Assessment of ticks on cattle entering Nigeria through a major trans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cattle entering Nigeria by hoof along a major trans-boundary route were assessed and found infested with a mean tick count of 66.3±35.8 per animal confirming that the trans-boundary areas are points of entry of parasites into the country. 57.7% of the animals had a very high level of tick infestation. Adult ticks identified ...

  13. Southern tick-associated rash illness: erythema migrans is not always Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Lucas; Keith, Brad; Brzezinski, Walter

    2008-07-01

    Southern tick-associated rash illness (STARI) is a rash occurring after a tick bite. It is a form of erythema migrans, an annular rash with central clearing that is almost identical with the erythema migrans seen in Lyme disease. The etiologic agent is not known but may be a Borrelia species. The tick vector is different in the two diseases. Serious systemic complications are not currently recognized with STARI but treatment with doxycycline is prudent. Differentiating STARI from Lyme disease is discussed.

  14. Variation in the Microbiota of Ixodes Ticks with Regard to Geography, Species, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Treuren, Will; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Brinkerhoff, R Jory; Gonzalez, Antonio; Parobek, Christian M; Juliano, Jonathan J; Andreadis, Theodore G; Falco, Richard C; Ziegler, Lorenza Beati; Hathaway, Nicholas; Keeler, Corinna; Emch, Michael; Bailey, Jeffrey A; Roe, R Michael; Apperson, Charles S; Knight, Rob; Meshnick, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    Ixodes scapularis is the principal vector of Lyme disease on the East Coast and in the upper Midwest regions of the United States, yet the tick is also present in the Southeast, where Lyme disease is absent or rare. A closely related species, I. affinis, also carries the pathogen in the South but does not seem to transmit it to humans. In order to better understand the geographic diversity of the tick, we analyzed the microbiota of 104 adult I. scapularis and 13 adult I. affinis ticks captured in 19 locations in South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia, Connecticut, and New York. Initially, ticks from 4 sites were analyzed by 454 pyrosequencing. Subsequently, ticks from these sites plus 15 others were analyzed by sequencing with an Illumina MiSeq machine. By both analyses, the microbiomes of female ticks were significantly less diverse than those of male ticks. The dissimilarity between tick microbiomes increased with distance between sites, and the state in which a tick was collected could be inferred from its microbiota. The genus Rickettsia was prominent in all locations. Borrelia was also present in most locations and was present at especially high levels in one site in western Virginia. In contrast, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae were very common in North Carolina I. scapularis ticks but uncommon in I. scapularis ticks from other sites and in North Carolina I. affinis ticks. These data suggest substantial variations in the Ixodes microbiota in association with geography, species, and sex. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Tick bite anaphylaxis: incidence and management in an Australian emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappo, Tristan B; Cottee, Alice M; Ratchford, Andrew M; Burns, Brian J

    2013-08-01

    Ticks are endemic to the eastern coastline of Australia. The aim of the present study is to describe the incidence of tick bites in such an area, the seasonal and geographical distribution, the incidence of anaphylaxis due to tick bite and its management. We retrospectively analysed emergency presentations of patients with tick bites to Mona Vale Hospital on Sydney's Northern Beaches over a 2 year period from 1 January 2007 to 1 January 2009. We recorded the geographical and seasonal distribution of tick bites as well as the symptoms from tick bite and its emergency management. We report over 500 cases of tick bites presenting to a single New South Wales hospital over a 2 year period, of which 34 resulted in anaphylaxis. Cutaneous symptoms were the most common feature associated with anaphylaxis (32/34, 94%). Forty per cent (13/34) of patients with tick bite anaphylaxis had a history of allergy or previous anaphylaxis. Seventy-six per cent (26/34) of patients were administered adrenaline either prior to presenting or in the ED, while 97% (33/34) were treated with steroids. Fifty-three per cent were referred to an immunologist and only one-quarter were discharged with an adrenaline auto-injector. We report 34 cases of tick bite anaphylaxis over a 2 year period at a single hospital in a tick endemic area. The variation in the presenting symptoms and signs, as well as in management highlights the need for increased awareness for tick bite management in tick endemic areas. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  16. Novel Borrelia species detected in echidna ticks, Bothriocroton concolor, in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Siew-May; Gofton, Alexander W.; Lo, Nathan; Gillett, Amber; Ryan, Una M.; Irwin, Peter J.; Oskam, Charlotte L.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, little has been documented about microorganisms harboured within Australian native ticks or their pathogenic potential. Recently, a Borrelia sp. related to the Relapsing Fever (RF) group was identified in a single tick removed from a wild echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus). The present study investigated the presence of Borrelia in 97 Bothriocroton concolor ticks parasitizing echidnas in Queensland, New South Wales, and Victoria, Australia, using nested PCR with Borrelia-spe...

  17. Babesia spp. in ticks and wildlife in different habitat types of Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Ham??kov?, Zuzana; Kazim?rov?, M?ria; Haru?tiakov?, Danka; Mahr?kov?, Lenka; Slov?k, Mirko; Berthov?, Lenka; Kocianov?, Elena; Schnittger, Leonhard

    2016-01-01

    Background Babesiosis is an emerging and potentially zoonotic disease caused by tick-borne piroplasmids of the Babesia genus. New genetic variants of piroplasmids with unknown associations to vectors and hosts are recognized. Data on the occurrence of Babesia spp. in ticks and wildlife widen the knowledge on the geographical distribution and circulation of piroplasmids in natural foci. Questing and rodent-attached ticks, rodents, and birds were screened for the presence of Babesia-specific DN...

  18. Tick loads in Bos taurus cattle grazing in two contrasting production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Salazar B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To relate the effect of biotic and abiotic factors on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick loads on cows grazing either in intensive silvopastoral systems (ISS (Lucerna or in grass pastures associated with sugarcane plantations (La Isabela. Materials and methods. Tick counts were performed on 27 Lucerne breed animals that were in different physiological states, six of which were grazing on forage grass paddocks associated with commercial sugarcane plantations and the remaining animals grazed in an ISS based on Leucaena leucocephala and Cynodon plectostachyus. The tick counts were made every 15 days. The data of temperature, humidity, and radiation were taken from a weather station that was inside the ISS. Results. There was a weak relationship between saturation deficit and tick load (R2=0.34 and another between UV radiation and tick load (R2=0.205 for animals grazing in ISS. There were differences in tick counts when comparing animals of similar productivity from both systems evaluated: in La Isabela (sugarcane grass paddocks average counts were 311 ticks perceptible to the touch (TPT and in Lucerna (ISS farm average counts were 206 TPT (p= 0.02. Additionally, there were greater tick counts in high productivity cows compared to low productivity cows. Conclusions. The abiotic and biotic factors of the ecosystem and animal productivity can affect the TPT counts. In ISS systems, tick counts can be lower than those observed in monoculture grazing systems.

  19. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

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    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  20. Preliminary survey of ticks (Acari : Ixodidae on cattle in northern Sudan

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    D.A. Salih

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In a cross sectional survey conducted during the period June 2001 to July 2002, the geographical distribution of ticks on cattle in the Sudan was determined. Seventeen locations were surveyed from Northern, Central, Eastern, Western, Blue Nile and White Nile Provinces. Total body collections of ticks were made from 20 cattle at each location. Four tick genera and 11 species were identified. The tick species collected included Amblyomma lepidum, Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma impeltatum, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes, Hyalomma truncatum, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and Rhipicephalus simus simus. Major ecological changes have occurred due to extensive animal movement, deforestation, desertification and establishment of large mechanized agricultural schemes. These factors have certainly affected the distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases in the Sudan. The absence of A. variegatum and A. lepidum in northern Sudan was not surprising, since these tick species are known to survive in humid areas and not in the desert and semi-desert areas of northern Sudan. The absence of B. annulatus in northern and central Sudan is in accordance with the finding that this tick species is restricted to the southern parts of the central Sudan. The presence of H. anatolicum anatolicum in Um Benin in relatively high abundance is an interesting finding. The present finding may indicate that the southern limit of this species has changed and moved southwards to latitude 13o N. It is concluded that major changes in tick distribution have taken place in the Sudan

  1. Tick as a model for the study of a primitive complement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacek, Petr; Hajdusek, Ondrej; Buresova, Veronika

    2012-01-01

    Ticks are blood feeding parasites transmitting a wide variety of pathogens to their vertebrate hosts. The transmitted pathogens apparently evolved efficient mechanisms enabling them to evade or withstand the cellular or humoral immune responses within the tick vector. Despite its importance, our knowledge of tick innate immunity still lags far beyond other well established invertebrate models, such as drosophila, horseshoe crab or mosquitoes. However, the recent release of the American deer tick, Ixodes scapularis, genome and feasibility of functional analysis based on RNA interference (RNAi) facilitate the development of this organism as a full-value model for deeper studies of vector-pathogen interactions.

  2. An unexpected advantage of insectivorism: insect moulting hormones ingested by song birds affect their ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornok, Sándor; Kováts, Dávid; Flaisz, Barbara; Csörgő, Tibor; Könczöl, Árpád; Balogh, György Tibor; Csorba, Attila; Hunyadi, Attila

    2016-03-21

    Ecdysteroids are important hormones that regulate moulting in arthropods. Three-host ixodid ticks normally moult to the next stage after finishing their blood meal, in the off-host environment. Presumably, three-host ticks that feed on the blood of insectivorous vertebrate hosts can be exposed to high levels of exogenous ecdysteroids causing them to initiate apolysis (the first step of moulting) on the vertebrate host. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether ticks undergo apolysis on insectivorous song birds, and if this phenomenon is associated with the seasonal variation in the availability of moths and with the presence of naturally acquired ecdysteroids in avian blood. During a triannual survey, 3330 hard tick larvae and nymphs were collected from 1164 insectivorous song birds of 46 species. A noteworthy proportion of ticks, 20.5%, showed apolysis. The occurrence of apolytic ticks on birds was correlated with the known seasonality of lepidopteran caterpillars. In addition, 18 blood samples of tick-infested birds were analysed with liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry. Eight samples contained ecdysteroids or their derivatives, frequently in high concentrations, and the presence of these was associated with tick apolysis. In conclusion, naturally acquired ecdysteroids may reach high levels in the blood of insectivorous passerine birds, and will affect ticks (feeding on such blood) by shortening their parasitism.

  3. Establishment of an Artificial Tick Feeding System to Study Theileria lestoquardi Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Tajeri

    Full Text Available The establishment of good experimental models for Theileria sp. infection is important for theileriosis research. Routinely, infection of ticks is accomplished by feeding on parasite-infected animals (sheep, cows and horses, which raises practical and ethical problems, driving the search for alternative methods of tick infection. Artificial tick feeding systems are based mainly on rearing ticks on host-derived or hand-made artificial membranes. We developed a modified feeding assay for infecting nymphal stages of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks with Theileria lestoquardi, a highly pathogenic parasite of sheep. We compared two different membranes: an artificial silicone membrane and a natural alternative using mouse skin. We observed high attachment rates with mouse skin, whereas in vitro feeding of H. anatolicum nymphs on silicone membranes was unsuccessful. We could infect H. anatolicum nymphs with T. lestoquardi and the emerging adult ticks transmitted infective parasites to sheep. In contrast, similar infections with Rhipicephalus bursa, a representative tick with short mouth-parts that was proposed as a vector for T. lestoquardi, appeared not to be a competent vector tick species. This is the first report of an experimentally controlled infection of H. anatolicum with T. lestoquardi and opens avenues to explore tick-parasite dynamics in detail.

  4. Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of Babesia spp. in Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus ticks in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capligina, Valentina; Berzina, Inese; Bormane, Antra; Salmane, Ineta; Vilks, Karlis; Kazarina, Alisa; Bandere, Dace; Baumanis, Viesturs; Ranka, Renate

    2016-03-01

    Babesia spp. are tick-borne protozoan parasites that have been reported in many European countries and are considered to be emerging pathogens. Several Babesia spp. have been identified in ticks in Latvia. Recently, canine babesiosis cases were diagnosed for the first time in Latvia; therefore, continued studies on the prevalence and occurrence of new species are warranted. In the present study, questing tick samples collected in 2005-2007 were screened for the presence of Babesia spp.; in total, 432 Ixodes ricinus and 693 Ixodes persulcatus ticks were analyzed. Babesia spp. were detected in 1.4% of the I. ricinus ticks and in 1.9% of I. persulcatus ticks. Sequencing revealed that ixodid ticks in Latvia contained Babesia microti, Babesia capreoli, and Babesia venatorum. Babesia microti was the most prevalent species, accounting for 58% of all positive samples; moreover, two distinct B. microti genotypes were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the full-length 18S rRNA gene of two B. capreoli/B. divergens isolates indicated a closer relationship to the B. capreoli clade than B. divergens. This is the first report of B. venatorum in I. persulcatus ticks in Latvia. Our results suggest that both I. ricinus and I. persulcatus ticks play important roles in the epidemiology of these zoonotic pathogens in Latvia.

  5. Current Limitations in the Control and Spread of Ticks that Affect Livestock: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Estrada-Peña

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are well-known parasites that affect livestock productivity. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding the spread of ticks with their impact in animal health and the limitations to achieve effective control measures. The forecasted trends in climate play an obvious role in promoting the spread of ticks in several regions. It appears that climate warming is pivotal in the spread and colonization of new territories by Rhipicephalus microplus in several regions of Africa. The reported increase in altitude of this tick species in the mountainous regions of Central and South America appears to be driven by such general trends in climate change. This factor, however, is not the only single contributor to the spread of ticks. The poor management of farms, uncontrolled movements of domestic animals, abundance of wild animals, and absence of an adequate framework to capture the ecological plasticity of certain ticks may explain the complexity of the control measures. In this paper, we review several details regarding the relationships of ticks with the environment, wild fauna and competition with other species of ticks. Our intention is to highlight these relationships with the aim to produce a coherent framework to explore tick ecology and its relationship with animal production systems.

  6. Ethnoveterinary practices and Potential Herbal Materials for the Treatment of Ticks in North Gondar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achenef Melaku

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Ticks are obligate blood feeding ectoparasites of vertebrates and induce huge production loss in livestock industry and creating serious public health problems in the world. This study was conducted to explore ethnoveterinary practices that are performed by livestock owners to control tick infestation in some districts of North Gondar, Ethiopia and to identify potential herbal materials used to control tick infestation in livestock. Materials and methods: Three districts of the zone were selected from each agroecological zones. The data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and field observation. Sixty randomly selected livestock owners were used as the source of information. Results: Tick infestation is prevalent in all districts. Loss of body condition, disease transmission and damage on the skin were most commonly mentioned effects of tick infestation on the animals. The most commonly used tick control methods were use of acaricides and manual removal, however, use of herbs, washing with soap and cutting with sharp materials were also mentioned by respondents. Nine potential medicinal plants were identified that could be used to kill or repel ticks. Conclusion: Tick infestation is the problem in the districts. Livestock owners use different techniques to remove tick from the animals and their effectiveness has to be evaluated. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2013; 2(2.000: 85-90

  7. Prevalence of tick infestation in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshaverinia, Ali; Moghaddas, Elham

    2015-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of tick infestation and identify tick species that parasitize dromedary camels. Since April 2012 through March 2013, a total of 400 camels that brought for slaughter in Mashhad abattoir were examined for tick infestation. Out of the total 400 camels examined, 237 were infested and annual prevalence of tick infestation 59.25 % (95 % CI 54-64) was calculated. The higher prevalence rates were found in the summer and spring, especially the summer that prevalence rate was the highest. A total of 1,122 ticks were collected from the infested camels and identified by stereomicroscopy. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick species and comprised 70.76 % of the collected ticks. The frequency of other species was as follows: H. excavatum (19.25 %), H. anatolicum (4.81 %), H. asiaticum (4.72 %), Rhipicephalus turanicus (0.17 %), H. detritum (0.09 %), H. impeltatum (0.09 %) and H. schulzei (0.09 %). Based on the results of present study, it is concluded that camels mostly harbor Hyalomma spp. The species of this genus are the most notorious ticks for transmission of human and animal diseases. Therefore, appropriate tick control measures need to be employed and pour-on method for acaricide application is suggested because this method is fast, easy and suitable for use by camel owners in deserts.

  8. First detection of murine herpesvirus 68 in adult Ixodes ricinus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kúdelová, Marcela; Jánošová, Monika; Belvončíková, Petra

    2018-01-19

    Murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) is a natural pathogen that infects murid rodents, which serves as hosts for Ixodes ricinus ticks. For the first time, MHV-68 was detected in immature I. ricinus ticks feeding on Lacerta viridis lizards trapped in Slovakia, which supports the idea that ticks can acquire the virus from feeding on infected hosts. The recent discovery of MHV-68 infection and MHV-68 M3 gene transcripts in Dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected in Slovakia also supports this suggestion. Here, for the first time, we report MHV-68 infection, which was detected by nested PCR, in I. ricinus adults collected from the vegetation, and the viral load in infected ticks was determined by quantitative PCR. The viral incidence in ticks was 38.1% (21/55), and the viral load varied from 1.5 × 10 3 to 2.85 × 10 4 genome copies per tick. These results suggest that the I. ricinus ticks became infected with MHV-68 from biting infected rodents; thus, I. ricinus ticks may play a role in the spread of this virus in nature.

  9. Trial of a minimal-risk botanical compound to control the vector tick of Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Peter W; Lacombe, Eleanor H; Elias, Susan P; Lubelczyk, Charles B; St Amand, Theodore; Smith, Robert P

    2010-07-01

    We compared the application of IC2, a minimal-risk (25B) botanical compound containing 10% rosemary oil, with bifenthrin, a commonly used synthetic compound, and with water for the control of Ixodes scapularis Say (= Ixodes dammini Spielman, Clifford, Piesman & Corwin), on tick-infested grids in Maine, in an area where Lyme disease is established and other tick-borne diseases are emerging. High-pressure sprays of IC2, bifenthrin, and water were applied during the peak nymphal (July) and adult (October) seasons of the vector tick. No ticks could be dragged on the IC2 grids within 2 wk of the July spray, and few adult ticks were found in October or the following April. Similarly, no adult ticks could be dragged 1.5 wk after the October IC2 spray, and few the following April. No ticks were found on the bifenthrin grids after either spray through the following April, whereas substantial numbers of ticks remained throughout on the grids sprayed with water. Thus, IC2 appears to be an effective, minimum-risk acaricide to control the vector tick of Lyme disease.

  10. Detection of Theileria and Babesia species in ticks collected from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ica, A; Vatansever, Z; Yildirim, A; Duzlu, O; Inci, A

    2007-09-01

    The present study was carried out to detect tick species that infest cattle, and Theileria and Babesia species transmitted by these ticks in Kayseri province (Turkey). A total of 300 cattle were examined for tick infestations. Of the 300 cattle, 117 (39%) were infested with ticks. A total of 1160 ticks belonging to 11 Ixodid genera were collected from the infested animals and their shelters. The most prevalent tick species was Boophilus annulatus 26.37% (306/1160) followed by Hyalomma marginatum marginatum 21.12% (245/1160) and Rhipicephalus turanicus 18.7% (217/1160). The collected ticks were separated into 43 tick pools, according to their species. These pools were examined for bovine Theileria and Babesia species (Theileria sp., Babesia sp., Theileria annulata, T. buffeli/orientalis, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and B. divergens) by using the reverse line blotting method (RLB). Of the 43 tick pools examined, 6 (14%) were infected with B. bigemina, 4 (9.3%) with T. annulata, and 1 (2.3%) with Babesia sp., whereas 1 (2.3%) displayed mixed infection with T. annulata + B. bigemina. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses of Babesia sp., which could not be identified to the species level by RLB, were performed. In the phylogenetic tree, Babesia sp. (Kayseri 1) grouped with Babesia sp. (Kashi 2), Babesia sp. (Kashi 1), Babesia sp. (Xinjiang) and B. orientalis with 96.8-100% identity.

  11. Effects of wildlife and cattle on tick abundance in central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, Felicia; Allan, Brian F; Young, Truman P; Ostfeld, Richard S

    2013-09-01

    In African savannas, large mammals, both wild and domestic, support an abundant and diverse population of tick ectoparasites. Because of the density of ticks and the many pathogens that they vector, cattle in East Africa are often treated with acaricides. While acaricides are known to be effective at reducing tick burdens on cattle, their effects on the overall abundance and community composition of ticks in savanna ecosystems are less well understood. It is also not known how well tick populations can be maintained in the absence of large mammals. We evaluated the effects of wildlife and of acaricide-treated cattle on host-seeking tick populations in a long-term, exclusion experiment in central Kenya. Over seven years, we sampled larval, nymphal, and adult ticks monthly on replicated treatment plots that controlled for the presence of cattle and for the presence of two guilds of large wild mammals: megaherbivores (giraffes and elephants) and all other large wild herbivores (> 15 kg). Two species of ticks were found in this habitat; across all surveys, 93% were Rhipicephalus pulchellus and 7% were R. praetextatus. The presence of acaricide-treated cattle dramatically reduced the abundance of host-seeking nymphal and adult ticks but did not affect the abundance of host-seeking larval ticks. The abundance of larval ticks was determined by the presence of large wild mammals, which appear to import gravid female ticks into the experimental plots. On plots with no large mammals, either wild or domestic, larval and nymphal ticks were rare. Adult R. pulchellus were most abundant in plots that allowed wildlife but excluded cattle. Adult R. praetextatus were relatively abundant in plots without any large mammals. These differences suggest that these ticks utilize different members of the host community. The reduction in ticks that results from the presence of acaricide-treated cattle has potential health benefits for humans and wildlife, but these benefits must be weighed

  12. Borrelia miyamotoi: a widespread tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Staarink, Pieter J; Sprong, Hein; Hovius, Joppe W R

    2015-06-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a relapsing fever spirochete that has only recently been identified as a human pathogen. Borrelia miyamotoi is genetically and ecologically distinct from Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, while both are present in Ixodes ticks. Over 50 patients with an acute febrile illness have been described with a B. miyamotoi infection, and two infected immunocompromised patients developed a meningoencephalitis. Seroprevalence studies indicate exposure in the general population and in specific risk groups, such as patients initially suspected of having human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Here, we review the available literature on B. miyamotoi, describing its presence in ticks, reservoir hosts, and humans, and discussing its potential impact on public health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tick salivary secretion as a source of antihemostatics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chmelař, Jindřich; Calvo, E.; Pedra, J. H. F.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 13 (2012), s. 3842-3854 ISSN 1874-3919 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Salivary gland * Hemostasis * Coagulation * Platelet aggregation * Thrombin Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.088, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187439191200245X

  14. Nucleoside Inhibitors of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eyer, L.; Valdés, James J.; Gil, V.A.; Nencka, Radim; Hřebabecký, Hubert; Šála, Michal; Salát, J.; Černý, Jiří; Palus, Martin; De Clercq, E.; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 9 (2015), s. 5483-5493 ISSN 0066-4804 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * infection * molecular analyses Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; CC - Organic Chemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 4.415, year: 2015

  15. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of cultured mouse macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahantarig, A.; Růžek, Daniel; Vancová, Marie; Janowitz, A.; Šťastná, Hana; Tesařová, Martina; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2009), s. 283-290 ISSN 0300-5526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/1479; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * macrophage s * electron microscopy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2009

  16. Multienzyme degradation of host serum albumin in ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, Daniel; Pytelková, Jana; Perner, Jan; Horn, Martin; Konvičková, Jitka; Schrenková, Jana; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2016), s. 604-613 ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR GA14-33693S; GA MŠk LO1302 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : albumin digestion * tick * proteolysis * gut Subject RIV: ED - Physiology; CE - Biochemistry (UOCHB-X) Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  17. New insights into the machinery of blood digestion by ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sojka, Daniel; Franta, Zdeněk; Horn, Martin; Caffrey, C. R.; Mareš, Michael; Kopáček, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2013), s. 276-285 ISSN 1471-4922 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/10/2183; GA ČR GPP502/11/P682; GA AV ČR IAA600960910 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : tick * Ixodes * hemoglobin * digestion * peptidase * cathepsin Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 6.217, year: 2013

  18. Ticks and haemoparasites of dogs from Praia, Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götsch, S; Leschnik, M; Duscher, G; Burgstaller, J P; Wille-Piazzai, W; Joachim, A

    2009-12-03

    In February 2008 an epidemiological field study on arthropod-borne infections in dogs was carried out in Praia, the capital city of Cape Verde. For this purpose 130 dogs were included in the study. Of these, 94.6% were infested with ticks. Altogether, 1293 ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus (in all evaluated cases R. sanguineus) were collected. Examination for haemotropic parasites was performed via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Lymph node fine-needle aspirates were screened by PCR for Leishmania infantum infections in 20 dogs with enlarged lymph nodes. Our investigation revealed two species of protozoa (Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis) and two species of rickettsiae (Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis). In 101 dogs (77.7%) DNA of one or more pathogens was detected. The PCR examination for H. canis was positive in 83 dogs (63.8%), for E. canis in 34 dogs (26.2%), for A. platys in 10 dogs (7.7%) and for B. canis in five dogs (3.8%), whereas neither B. gibsoni nor L. infantum DNA could be detected. Of the infected dogs, 71.3% had a monoinfection, 27.7% had infections with two pathogens and 1.0% with three pathogens. B. canis, H. canis, E. canis, A. platys and their vector tick R. sanguineus are endemic to Cape Verde and can be present in dogs in high prevalences. These results outline the risk of importing tropical canine diseases when Capeverdian stray dogs are taken to Europe.

  19. Stability of a tick-borne flavivirus in milk

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    Danielle K Offerdahl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV occur worldwide and the tick-borne encephalitis virus members of the group (TBEV often cause severe, debilitating neurological disease in humans. Although the primary route of infection is through the bite of an infected tick, alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some disease in endemic areas. Experimental infection of goats, cattle, and sheep with TBEV shows that virus can be excreted in the milk of infected animals. Additionally, the virus remains infectious after exposure to low pH levels, similar to those found in the stomach. To evaluate survival of virus in milk, we studied the stability of the BSL-2 TBFV, Langat virus, in unpasteurized goat milk over time and after different thermal treatments. Virus was stable in milk maintained under refrigeration conditions; however, there was a marked reduction in virus titer after incubation at room temperature. High temperature, short time pasteurization protocols completely inactivated the virus. Interestingly, simulation of a typical thermal regime utilized for cheese did not completely inactivate the virus in milk. These findings stress the importance of proper milk handling and pasteurization processes in areas endemic for TBEV.

  20. Stability of a Tick-Borne Flavivirus in Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerdahl, Danielle K; Clancy, Niall G; Bloom, Marshall E

    2016-01-01

    The tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV) occur worldwide and the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) members of the group often cause severe, debilitating neurological disease in humans. Although the primary route of infection is through the bite of an infected tick, alimentary infection through the consumption of TBEV-contaminated dairy products is also well-documented and is responsible for some disease in endemic areas. Experimental infection of goats, cattle, and sheep with TBEV shows that the virus can be excreted in the milk of infected animals. Additionally, the virus remains infectious after exposure to low pH levels, similar to those found in the stomach. To evaluate the survival of virus in milk, we studied the stability of the BSL-2 TBFV, Langat virus, in unpasteurized goat milk over time and after different thermal treatments. Virus was stable in milk maintained under refrigeration conditions; however, there was a marked reduction in virus titer after incubation at room temperature. High temperature, short time pasteurization protocols completely inactivated the virus. Interestingly, simulation of a typical thermal regime utilized for cheese did not completely inactivate the virus in milk. These findings stress the importance of proper milk handling and pasteurization processes in areas endemic for TBEV.

  1. Tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers and the effect of ticks on cattle in rural areas of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, B; Masika, P J

    2009-04-01

    A survey to document tick control methods used by resource-limited farmers in the control of cattle ticks in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa was conducted by interviewing 59 cattle farmers using structured questionnaires and general conversation. Information collected was on external parasites of cattle, their effects and their control methods. Ticks were reported to be a major problem causing diseases like anaplasmosis (89.8%), babesiosis (55.9%) and ehrlichiosis (16.9%), as well as wounds that predispose to screwworm infestation, tick worry and teat damage to cows troubling farmers in their farming enterprises. The main tick control methods were; acaricides provided by government, however 94.9% of the farmers interviewed were of the opinion that the dip wash is not effective in killing the ticks. As a result, farmers complement the government dipping service with their own initiatives like spraying with conventional acaricides (22%), household disinfectants such as Jeyes fluid (18.6%), used engine oil (10.2%), chickens (5.1%), manual removal (5.1%), and pouricides (1.7%). In addition, some farmers also use plants (6.8%), mainly the leaf of Aloe ferox and the bark of Ptaeroxylon obliquum. The study revealed ticks to be a major problem in the study area.

  2. Structural characterization of tick cement cones collected from in vivo and artificial membrane blood-fed Lone Star ticks (Amblyomma americanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, Rebekah; Allen, Paige; Chao, Chien-Chung; Douglas, Jessica; Das, Pradipta; Morgan, Sarah E; Ching, Wei-Mei; Karim, Shahid

    2016-07-01

    The Lone Star tick, Amblyomma americanum, is endemic to the southeastern United States and capable of transmitting pathogenic diseases and causing non-pathogenic conditions. To remain firmly attached to the host, the tick secretes a proteinaceous matrix termed the cement cone which hardens around the tick's mouthparts to assist in the attachment of the tick as well as to protect the mouthparts from the host immune system. Cement cones collected from ticks on a host are commonly contaminated with host skin and hair making analysis of the cone difficult. To reduce the contamination found in the cement cone, we have adapted an artificial membrane feeding system used to feed long mouthpart ticks. Cones collected from in vivo and membrane fed ticks are analyzed to determine changes in the cone morphology. Comparisons of the cement cones using light microscopy shows similar structures and color however using scanning electron microscopy the cones have drastically different structures. The in vivo cones contain fibrils, sheets, and are heavily textured whereas cones from membrane fed ticks are remarkably smooth with no distinct structures. Analysis of the secondary protein structures using FTIR-ATR show both in vivo and membrane fed cement cones contain β sheets but only in vivo cement cones contain helical protein structures. Additionally, proteomic analysis using LC-MS/MS identifies many proteins including glycine rich proteins, metalloproteases, and protease inhibitors. Proteomic analysis of the cones identified both secreted and non-secreted tick proteins. Artificial membrane feeding is a suitable model for increased collection of cement cones for proteomic analysis however, structurally there are significant differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Abundance estimation of Ixodes ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on roe deer (Capreolus capreolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiffner, Christian; Lödige, Christina; Alings, Matthias; Vor, Torsten; Rühe, Ferdinand

    2010-09-01

    Despite the importance of roe deer as a host for Ixodes ticks in central Europe, estimates of total tick burden on roe deer are not available to date. We aimed at providing (1) estimates of life stage and sex specific (larvae, nymphs, males and females, hereafter referred to as tick life stages) total Ixodes burden and (2) equations which can be used to predict the total life stage burden by counting the life stage on a selected body area. Within a period of 1(1/2) years, we conducted whole body counts of ticks from 80 hunter-killed roe deer originating from a beech dominated forest area in central Germany. Averaged over the entire study period (winter 2007-summer 2009), the mean tick burden per roe deer was 64.5 (SE +/- 10.6). Nymphs were the most numerous tick life stage per roe deer (23.9 +/- 3.2), followed by females (21.4 +/- 3.5), larvae (10.8 +/- 4.2) and males (8.4 +/- 1.5). The individual tick burden was highly aggregated (k = 0.46); levels of aggregation were highest in larvae (k = 0.08), followed by males (k = 0.40), females (k = 0.49) and nymphs (k = 0.71). To predict total life stage specific burdens based on counts on selected body parts, we provide linear equations. For estimating larvae abundance on the entire roe deer, counts can be restricted to the front legs. Tick counts restricted to the head are sufficient to estimate total nymph burden and counts on the neck are appropriate for estimating adult ticks (females and males). In order to estimate the combined tick burden, tick counts on the head can be used for extrapolation. The presented linear models are highly significant and explain 84.1, 77.3, 90.5, 91.3, and 65.3% (adjusted R (2)) of the observed variance, respectively. Thus, these models offer a robust basis for rapid tick abundance assessment. This can be useful for studies aiming at estimating effects of abiotic and biotic factors on tick abundance, modelling tick population dynamics, modelling tick-borne pathogen transmission dynamics

  4. Infections and Coinfections of Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks by Emerging Zoonotic Pathogens in Western Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommano, Elena; Bertaiola, Luce; Dupasquier, Christèle

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the vector of many pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance, among them Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus, which have been the subject of numerous investigations. Less is known about the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens like Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks. In this study, questing nymph and adult I. ricinus ticks were collected at 11 sites located in Western Switzerland. A total of 1,476 ticks were analyzed individually for the simultaneous presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and A. phagocytophilum. B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” were detected in ticks at all sites with global prevalences of 22.5%, 10.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. Babesia- and A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks showed a more restricted geographic distribution, and their prevalences were lower (1.9% and 1.5%, respectively). Species rarely reported in Switzerland, like Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Rickettsia monacensis, were identified. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia helvetica, were detected in 19.6% of infected ticks. Globally, 34.2% of ticks were infected with at least one pathogen. The diversity of tick-borne pathogens detected in I. ricinus in this study and the frequency of coinfections underline the need to take them seriously into consideration when evaluating the risks of infection following a tick bite. PMID:22522688

  5. American Black Bears as Hosts of Blacklegged Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolnik, Christine P; Makkay, Amanda M; Falco, Richard C; Daniels, Thomas J

    2015-09-01

    Ticks and whole blood were collected from American black bears (Ursus americanus Pallas) between October 2011 and October 2012 across four counties in northwestern New Jersey, an area where blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis Say) and their associated tick-borne pathogens are prevalent. Adult American dog ticks (Dermacentor variabilis Say) were the most frequently collected tick species in late spring, whereas adult and nymphal blacklegged ticks were found in both the late spring and fall months. Additionally, for blacklegged ticks, we determined the quality of bloodmeals that females acquired from black bears compared with bloodmeals from white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman), the most important host for the adult stage of this tick species. Measures of fecundity after feeding on each host species were not significantly different, suggesting that the bloodmeal a female blacklegged tick acquires from a black bear is of similar quality to that obtained from a white-tailed deer. These results establish the American black bear as both a host and quality bloodmeal source to I. scapularis. Thus, black bears may help support blacklegged tick populations in areas where they are both present. In addition, samples of black bear blood were tested for DNA presence of three tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma phagocytophilum Foggie and Babesia microti Franca were found in 9.2 and 32.3% of blood samples, respectively. All blood samples were quantitative polymerase chain reaction-negative for Borrelia burgdorferi Johnson, Schmid, Hyde, Steigerwalt, & Brenner. Although circulating pathogens were found in blood, the status of black bears as reservoirs for these pathogens remains unknown. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Ticks collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Apanaskevich, D A; Ojeda-Chi, M M; Trinidad-Martínez, I; Reyes-Novelo, E; Esteve-Gassent, M D; Pérez de León, A A

    2016-01-15

    Domestic animals and wildlife play important roles as reservoirs of zoonotic pathogens that are transmitted to humans by ticks. Besides their role as vectors of several classes of microorganisms of veterinary and public health relevance, ticks also burden human and animal populations through their obligate blood-feeding habit. It is estimated that in Mexico there are around 100 tick species belonging to the Ixodidae and Argasidae families. Information is lacking on tick species that affect humans, domestic animals, and wildlife through their life cycle. This study was conducted to bridge that knowledge gap by inventorying tick species that infest humans, domestic animals and wildlife in the State of Yucatan, Mexico. Amblyomma ticks were observed as euryxenous vertebrate parasites because they were found parasitizing 17 animal species and human. Amblyomma mixtum was the most eryxenous species found in 11 different animal species and humans. Both A. mixtum and A. parvum were found parasitizing humans. Ixodes near affinis was the second most abundant species parasitizing six animal species (dogs, cats, horses, white-nosed coati, white-tail deer and black vulture) and was found widely across the State of Yucatan. Ixodid tick populations may increase in the State of Yucatan with time due to animal production intensification, an increasing wildlife population near rural communities because of natural habitat reduction and fragmentation. The diversity of ticks across host taxa documented here highlights the relevance of ecological information to understand tick-host dynamics. This knowledge is critical to inform public health and veterinary programs for the sustainable control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Hard Tick Species of Livestock and their Bioecology in Golestan Province, North of Iran.

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    Aioub Sofizadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A survey on tick species composition was carried out in Golestan Province Iran during year 2010-2011.The aim was to determine tick species parasitizing domestic ruminants and their seasonal population dynamics.A total of 124 sheep, 92 goats, 84 cattle, 74 camels and 12 horses in several villages were inspected for tick infestation. The collected ticks preserved in 70% alcohol and then were identified.The overall 1059 ticks (453 female, 606 male were collected. The ticks occur on sheep, goats, cattle, camels and horses as 72.1%, 77.3%, 75.8%, 69.3%, and 50% respectively. The frequency of ticks in spring was more than other seasons and the least was observed in winter. In the spring and summer, infestation rate in domestic ruminants were calculated as 100%. Six genus and fourteen hard and soft tick species were identified including Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Haemaphysalis punctata, H. sulcata, H. erinacei, H. inermis, Hyalomma marginatum, Hy. asiaticum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. excavatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. detritum, Boophilus annulatus and Argas persicus. Rhipicephalus sanguineus was the most abundant species in the study area. The largest number of ticks was collected from animal ears and tails. Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus and Boophilus occurred in mountainous, forest and plateau areas of Golestan Province but Ixodes occurred only in mountainous and forest areas, whereas Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma were present in coastal areas of Golestan Province.The result of this study is a survey on tick species from domestic animals in Iran and implication of possible prevention measures for diseases transmitted by ticks.

  8. A survey of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) of companion animals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greay, Telleasha L; Oskam, Charlotte L; Gofton, Alexander W; Rees, Robert L; Ryan, Una M; Irwin, Peter J

    2016-05-10

    Ticks are among the most important vectors of pathogens affecting companion animals, and also cause health problems such as tick paralysis, anaemia, dermatitis, and secondary infections. Twenty ixodid species have previously been recorded on dogs, cats, and horses in Australia, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Ixodes holocyclus and Haemaphysalis longicornis, which transmit tick-borne diseases. A survey of hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) was conducted during 2012-2015 to investigate tick species that infest dogs, cats, and horses in Australia. Individual tick specimens were collected from dogs, cats and horses across Australia and sample collection locations were mapped using QGIS software. Ticks were morphologically examined to determine species, instar and sex. The companion animal owners responded to questionnaires and data collected were summarised with SPSS software. A total of 4765 individual ticks were identified in this study from 7/8 states and territories in Australia. Overall, 220 larvae, 805 nymphs, 1404 males, and 2336 females of 11 tick species were identified from 837 companion animal hosts. One novel host record was obtained during this study for Ixodes myrmecobii, which was found on Felis catus (domestic cat) in the town of Esperance, Western Australia. The most common tick species identified included R. sanguineus on dogs (73 %), I. holocyclus on cats (81 %) and H. longicornis on horses (60 %). This study is the first of its kind to be conducted in Australia and our results contribute to the understanding of the species and distribution of ticks that parasitise dogs, cats, and horses in Australia. Records of R. sanguineus outside of the recorded distribution range emphasise the need for a systematic study of the habitat range of this species. Several incomplete descriptions of ixodid species encountered in this study hindered morphological identification.

  9. A systems biology approach to the characterization of stress response in Dermacentor reticulatus tick unfed larvae.

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    Margarita Villar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dermacentor reticulatus (Fabricius, 1794 is distributed in Europe and Asia where it infests and transmits disease-causing pathogens to humans, pets and other domestic and wild animals. However, despite its role as a vector of emerging or re-emerging diseases, very little information is available on the genome, transcriptome and proteome of D. reticulatus. Tick larvae are the first developmental stage to infest hosts, acquire infection and transmit pathogens that are transovarially transmitted and are exposed to extremely stressing conditions. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to get an insight into the mechanisms active in D. reticulatus unfed larvae, with special emphasis on stress response. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results support the use of paired end RNA sequencing and proteomics informed by transcriptomics (PIT for the analysis of transcriptomics and proteomics data, particularly for organisms such as D. reticulatus with little sequence information available. The results showed that metabolic and cellular processes involved in protein synthesis were the most active in D. reticulatus unfed larvae, suggesting that ticks are very active during this life stage. The stress response was activated in D. reticulatus unfed larvae and a Rickettsia sp. similar to R. raoultii was identified in these ticks. SIGNIFICANCE: The activation of stress responses in D. reticulatus unfed larvae likely counteracts the negative effect of temperature and other stress conditions such as Rickettsia infection and favors tick adaptation to environmental conditions to increase tick survival. These results show mechanisms that have evolved in D. reticulatus ticks to survive under stress conditions and suggest that these mechanisms are conserved across hard tick species. Targeting some of these proteins by vaccination may increase tick susceptibility to natural stress conditions, which in turn reduce tick survival and reproduction, thus reducing

  10. Two kinds of ferritin protect ixodid ticks from iron overload and consequent oxidative stress.

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    Remil Linggatong Galay

    Full Text Available Ticks are obligate hematophagous parasites that have successfully developed counteractive means against their hosts' immune and hemostatic mechanisms, but their ability to cope with potentially toxic molecules in the blood remains unclear. Iron is important in various physiological processes but can be toxic to living cells when in excess. We previously reported that the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis has an intracellular (HlFER1 and a secretory (HlFER2 ferritin, and both are crucial in successful blood feeding and reproduction. Ferritin gene silencing by RNA interference caused reduced feeding capacity, low body weight and high mortality after blood meal, decreased fecundity and morphological abnormalities in the midgut cells. Similar findings were also previously reported after silencing of ferritin genes in another hard tick, Ixodes ricinus. Here we demonstrated the role of ferritin in protecting the hard ticks from oxidative stress. Evaluation of oxidative stress in Hlfer-silenced ticks was performed after blood feeding or injection of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC through detection of the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA and protein oxidation product, protein carbonyl. FAC injection in Hlfer-silenced ticks resulted in high mortality. Higher levels of MDA and protein carbonyl were detected in Hlfer-silenced ticks compared to Luciferase-injected (control ticks both after blood feeding and FAC injection. Ferric iron accumulation demonstrated by increased staining on native HlFER was observed from 72 h after iron injection in both the whole tick and the midgut. Furthermore, weak iron staining was observed after Hlfer knockdown. Taken together, these results show that tick ferritins are crucial antioxidant molecules that protect the hard tick from iron-mediated oxidative stress during blood feeding.

  11. LKR/SDH plays important roles throughout the tick life cycle including a long starvation period.

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    Banzragch Battur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lysine-ketoglutarate reductase/saccharopine dehydrogenase (LKR/SDH is a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing the first two steps of lysine catabolism in plants and mammals. However, to date, the properties of the lysine degradation pathway and biological functions of LKR/SDH have been very little described in arthropods such as ticks. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We isolated and characterized the gene encoding lysine-ketoglutarate reductase (LKR, EC 1.5.1.8 and saccharopine dehydrogenase (SDH, EC 1.5.1.9 from a tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis, cDNA library that encodes a bifunctional polypeptide bearing domains similar to the plant and mammalian LKR/SDH enzymes. Expression of LKR/SDH was detected in all developmental stages, indicating an important role throughout the tick life cycle, including a long period of starvation after detachment from the host. The LKR/SDH mRNA transcripts were more abundant in unfed and starved ticks than in fed and engorged ticks, suggesting that tick LKR/SDH are important for the starved tick. Gene silencing of LKR/SDH by RNAi indicated that the tick LKR/SDH plays an integral role in the osmotic regulation of water balance and development of eggs in ovary of engorged females. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Transcription analysis and gene silencing of LKR/SDH indicated that tick LKR/SDH enzyme plays not only important roles in egg production, reproduction and development of the tick, but also in carbon, nitrogen and water balance, crucial physiological processes for the survival of ticks. This is the first report on the role of LKR/SDH in osmotic regulation in animals including vertebrate and arthropods.

  12. A three-dimensional comparison of tick-borne flavivirus infection in mammalian and tick cell lines.

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    Danielle K Offerdahl

    Full Text Available Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV are sustained in nature through cycling between mammalian and tick hosts. In this study, we used African green monkey kidney cells (Vero and Ixodes scapularis tick cells (ISE6 to compare virus-induced changes in mammalian and arthropod cells. Using confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and electron tomography (ET, we examined viral protein distribution and the ultrastructural changes that occur during TBFV infection. Within host cells, flaviviruses cause complex rearrangement of cellular membranes for the purpose of virus replication. Virus infection was accompanied by a marked expansion in endoplasmic reticulum (ER staining and markers for TBFV replication were localized mainly to the ER in both cell lines. TEM of Vero cells showed membrane-bound vesicles enclosed in a network of dilated, anastomosing ER cisternae. Virions were seen within the ER and were sometimes in paracrystalline arrays. Tubular structures or elongated vesicles were occasionally noted. In acutely and persistently infected ISE6 cells, membrane proliferation and vesicles were also noted; however, the extent of membrane expansion and the abundance of vesicles were lower and no viral particles were observed. Tubular profiles were far more prevalent in persistently infected ISE6 cells than in acutely infected cells. By ET, tubular profiles, in persistently infected tick cells, had a cross-sectional diameter of 60-100 nm, reached up to 800 nm in length, were closed at the ends, and were often arranged in fascicle-like bundles, shrouded with ER membrane. Our experiments provide analysis of viral protein localization within the context of both mammalian and arthropod cell lines as well as both acute and persistent arthropod cell infection. Additionally, we show for the first time 3D flavivirus infection in a vector cell line and the first ET of persistent flavivirus infection.

  13. The identification of genus, species and distribution of hard and soft ticks collected from Khorramabad district, Lorestan province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    mahmod reza Taherian; mohamad hasan Kayedi; asadollah Hosseini; ahmad Behrahi

    2014-01-01

    Background : Hard ticks ( Ixodidae family) transmit Arboviruses, bacteria and parasites to human and animals. One of the most important viruses that ticks transmit from animals to human is Crimean-Congo haemorhagic fever virus, the fact that its importance has been proved. So the study of fauna of ticks in the area, for the control and prevention of the mentioned disease, is of great importance Materials and Methods: Ticks were collected from bodies of sheep, goats and cows in 40 villages ...

  14. Tick Surveillance of Small Mammals Captured in Gyeonggi and Gangwon Provinces, Republic of Korea, 2004-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    other outdoor activities where arthropod ectoparasites are found. The two primary methods of tick collection are removal of ticks from domestic and... animals would retain heat and associated ectoparasites (e.g., fleas, mites, and ticks). Traps positive for small mammals were numbered sequentially...approved animal use protocol, identified to species, and given a unique identification number. Ticks were carefully removed with a fine forceps, placed

  15. Tick-borne rickettsioses, neglected emerging diseases in rural Senegal.

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    Oleg Mediannikov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rickettsioses are one of the most important causes of systemic febrile illness among travelers from developed countries, but little is known about their incidence in indigenous populations, especially in West Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overall seroprevalence evaluated by immunofluorescence using six rickettsial antigens (spotted fever and typhus group in rural populations of two villages of the Sine-Saloum region of Senegal was found to be 21.4% and 51% for spotted fever group rickettsiae for Dielmo and Ndiop villages, respectively. We investigated the role of tick-borne rickettsiae as the cause of acute non-malarial febrile diseases in the same villages. The incidence of rickettsial DNA in 204 blood samples from 134 (62M and 72F febrile patients negative for malaria was studied. DNA extracted from whole blood was tested by two qPCR systems. Rickettsial DNA was found in nine patients, eight with Rickettsia felis (separately reported. For the first time in West Africa, Rickettsia conorii was diagnosed in one patient. We also tested 2,767 Ixodid ticks collected in two regions of Senegal (Niakhar and Sine-Saloum from domestic animals (cows, sheep, goats, donkeys and horses by qPCR and identified five different pathogenic rickettsiae. We found the following: Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (51.3% and 44.8% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively, in Hyalomma truncatum (6% and 6.8% and in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.5%, only in Niakhar; R. c. conorii in Rh. e. evertsi (0.4%, only in Sine-Saloum; Rickettsia massiliae in Rhipicephalus guilhoni (22.4%, only in Niakhar; Rickettsia sibirica mongolitimonae in Hyalomma truncatum (13.5%, only in Sine-Saloum; and Rickettsia africae in Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (0.7% and 0.4% in Niakhar and Sine-Saloum region, respectively as well as in Rhipicephalus annulatus (20%, only in Sine-Saloum. We isolated two rickettsial strains from H. truncatum: R. s

  16. Research and development of anti-tick vaccines for use in Texas and Puerto Rico Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus control programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This year marks the first time anti-tick vaccination will be used in the United States and Puerto Rico to control, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus. The 110-year-old Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program has eradicated the southern cattle fever tick from the majority of the Unite...

  17. Host specificity in a diverse Neotropical tick community: an assessment using quantitative network analysis and host phylogeny

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, Helen; Herre, Edward A.; Blüthgen, Nico; Loaiza, Jose R.; Bermúdez, Sergio E.; Jansen, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Host specificity is a fundamental determinant of tick population and pathogen transmission dynamics, and therefore has important implications for human health. Tick host specificity is expected to be particularly high in the tropics, where communities of ticks, hosts and pathogens are

  18. Cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae), and the quest for discovery of its natural enemies in the Balkan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle fever tick, Rhipicephalus annulatus (CFT), is a hard tick native to the Mediterranean region that is invasive in the southwestern USA. The tick is known to develop on cattle and white tailed deer, and it transmits two lethal diseases, piroplasmosis and babesiosis. Extensive use of acaricides...

  19. The tick salivary protein Salp15 inhibits the killing of serum-sensitive Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuijt, Tim J.; Hovius, Joppe W. R.; van Burgel, Nathalie D.; Ramamoorthi, Nandhini; Fikrig, Erol; van Dam, Alje P.

    2008-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, is transmitted by ticks. During transmission from the tick to the host, spirochetes are delivered with tick saliva, which contains the salivary protein Salp15. Salp15 has been shown to protect spirochetes against B. burgdorferi-specific antibodies. We

  20. First report of spinose ear tick, Otobius megnini (Acari, Argasidae), in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Anders; Lindström, Johanna

    2017-06-01

    A dog that had travelled to Sweden was inspected by a veterinarian. In one ear canal a tick was found. It was later identified as a spinose ear tick, Otobius megnini. In this case report we also review the previously known reports of O. megnini in Europe and the recent introduction and spread in Turkey.

  1. Overview of the U.S. Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program: History and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cattle Fever Tick Eradication Program (CFTEP) carried out by the Veterinary Services (VS) branch of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has been in continuous operation for 106 years. Through the efforts of this program cattle fever ticks...

  2. Ethnobotanicals for management of the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzala, W.W.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a study to assess the effect of ethnobotanical products on the behaviour of the brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, the main vector of East Coast fever in sub-Saharan Africa. Ethnoknowledge of the Bukusu people in western Kenya on tick control and

  3. High-throuhgput screening of tick-borne pathogens in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelet, L.; Delannoy, S.; Devillers, E.; Umhang, G.; Aspan, A.; Juremalm, M.; Chirico, J.; Wal, van der F.J.; Sprong, H.; Boye Pihl, T.P.; Klitgaard, K.; Bodker, R.; Fach, P.; Moutailler, S.

    2014-01-01

    Due to increased travel, climatic, and environmental changes, the incidence of tick-borne disease in both humans and animals is increasing throughout Europe. Therefore, extended surveillance tools are desirable. To accurately screen tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), a large scale epidemiological study

  4. The Current Status of Ticks in Turkey: A 100-Year Period Review from 1916 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İnci, Abdullah; Yıldırım, Alparslan; Düzlü, Önder

    2016-09-01

    Environmental and bio-ecological changes, some administrative and political mistakes, and global warming seriously affect the behaviors of ticks in Turkey and globally. The global public sensitivity toward tick infestations has increased along with increases in tick-borne diseases (TBDs). Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a new political concept, "One Health," for specific struggle strategies against tick infestations and TBDs. To highlight the importance of the issue, the WHO had declared the year 2015 for vector-borne diseases and adopted the slogan "small bites big threat". In global struggle strategies, the epidemiological aspects and dynamics of increasing tick populations and their effects on the incidence of the TBDs mainly with zoonotic characteristics have been specifically targeted. In Turkey, during the last century, approximately 47 tick species, including eight soft and 39 hard tick species in three and six genera belonging to Argasidae and Ixodidae, respectively, had already been reported. In this article, the recorded tick species, regional infestations, and medical and veterinary importance in Turkey were chronologically reviewed based on a 100-year period between 1916 and 2016.

  5. Antihistamine response: a dynamically refined function at the host-tick interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Valdés, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, OCT 31 2014 (2014), s. 491 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : dynamics * histamine * lipocalin * competitive binding * tick saliva * ticks Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  6. Differences in questing tick species distribution between Atlantic and continental climate regions in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandika, J F; Olmeda, S A; Casado-Nistal, M A; Hurtado, A; Juste, R A; Valcárcel, F; Anda, P; García-Pérez, A L

    2011-01-01

    Climate and vegetation in Spain vary from north to south, affecting tick distribution and consequently the presence of tick-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate throughout a 2-yr study the distribution of the different exophilic questing tick species present in 18 areas: eight located in central and 10 in northern Spain. The same methodology was used in both areas, sampling vegetation on a monthly basis by blanket dragging for 20- to 30-min intervals. A total of 12 species belonging to the genera Ixodes, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor, and Hyalomma was identified. Differences in species distribution and prevalence were dramatically different. The most frequent and abundant species in northern Spain were Ixodes ricinus (67% of adult ticks) and Haemaphysalis punctata (8%), whereas Hyalomma lusitanicum (86%) and Dermacentor marginatus (12%) were the most abundant in central Spain. There were important differences in the monthly seasonal patterns for the different tick species. These results highlight important differences in tick distribution in neighboring areas and underline the need for ongoing surveillance programs to monitor tick population dynamics and the prevalence of tick-borne pathogens.

  7. Epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis and other tick-borne diseases in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuis, Agnetha

    2017-01-01

    Lyme borreliosis is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato bacteria, and transmitted through tick bites. The disease most commonly manifests as erythema migrans, a slowly expanding skin lesion at the site of the tick bite. Disseminated Lyme borreliosis can develop when the infection spreads to

  8. Borrelia burgdorferi in ticks and dogs in the province of Vojvodina, Serbia*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić S.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is a tick borne zoonotic infection, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria. For the transmission of the disease, the presence of ticks is a prerequisite. Lyme borreliosis mostly occurs in people and dogs, but it may occur in other animals. Ticks which carry B. burgdorferi s.l. in Serbia are of the Ixodes ricinus specis. In Serbia, Lyme disease was detected for the first time in the late ‘80-es. In dogs, clinical symptoms may occur even months after a tick bite, and include weakness, lymphadenopathy, fever, lameness, arthritis, etc. In our survey, we have observed tick and dog populations in the province of Vojvodina (northern part of Serbia. I. ricinus ticks were collected and examined for the presence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in several chosen locations. In addition, blood samples were collected from house dogs and pets from the same locations, and analyzed for the presence of antibodies specific for B. burgdorferi s.l. The results showed a mean infection of ticks of 22.12 %, and a mean seroprevalence of Lyme disease in dogs of 25.81 %. We conclude that in Vojvodina there is an actual risk of Lyme borreliosis for other animals and humans, because of the persistence of B. burgdorferi s.l. in both tick and dog populations.

  9. Identification of Dermacentor reticulatus Ticks Carrying Rickettsia raoultii on Migrating Jackal, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard; Chriél, Mariann; Isbrand, Anastasia

    2017-01-01

    From a migrating golden jackal (Canis aureus), we retrieved 21 live male Dermacentor reticulatus ticks, a species not previously reported from wildlife in Denmark. We identified Rickettsia raoultii from 18 (86%) of the ticks. This bacterium is associated with scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy...

  10. Tick fauna of Malaysian red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus) in Bangi, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konto, M; Fufa, G I; Zakaria, A; Tukur, S M; Watanabe, M; Ola-Fadunsin, S D; Khan, M S; Shettima, Y M; Babjee, S M A

    2015-10-01

    The red jungle fowl is generally considered as one of the endangered Asian wild Galleopheasants due to man-made encroachment of their habitats, coupled with the effect of disease and disease causing organisms like ticks and tick-borne infections. This study aimed to determine the tick fauna of the red jungle fowl and their predilection sites based on developmental stages. A total of 33 jungle fowls were sampled for this study from Bangi area of Selangor State, Peninsular Malaysian. The birds were captured using a locally made trap made-up of loops and bites. Ticks present on their bodies were detached using fine forceps and identified morphologically under a dissecting microscope. 91% of the jungle fowls were infested with ticks, all of which belongs to the species Haemaphysalis wellingtoni. The ear region appeared to be the most common predilection site (63%) for all the developmental stages in which the larval stages are solely restricted to that region. Nymphal and adult stages were distributed on the comb, wattle, and facial region in addition to the ear region. This study was the first in its kind and showed a high prevalence of tick infestation among jungle fowls. H. wellingtoni was known to be a vector in transmission of many tick-borne pathogens. Therefore, there is the need for further investigation to identify the various pathogens associated with this tick.

  11. Tick-borne encephalitis: What travelers should know when visiting an endemic country

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrdle, A.; Chmelík, V.; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2016), s. 2694-2699 ISSN 2164-5515 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-34238A Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : endemic country * flavivirus * tick-borne encephalitis * tick-borne encephalitis virus * travel medicine * vaccination Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.157, year: 2016

  12. Genomic insights into the Ixodes scapularis tick vector of Lyme disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulia-Nuss, Monika; Nuss, Andrew B.; Meyer, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    Ticks transmit more pathogens to humans and animals than any other arthropod. We describe the 2.1 Gbp nuclear genome of the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Say), which vectors pathogens that cause Lyme disease, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, babesiosis and other diseases. The large genome reflects acc...

  13. Ticks (Ixodida) on humans from central Panama, Panama (2010-2011)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bermudez, S.E.; Castro, A.; Esser, H.J.; Liefting, Y.; Garcia, G.; Miranda, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    From January 2010 to December 2011, a total of 138 cases of ticks feeding on humans were reported from 11 locations in central Panama. Five of these locations were situated in forest environments, three in rural landscapes and three in urban areas. The ticks were submitted to the Gorgas Memorial

  14. Environmentally associated ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos Valério; Silva, Dayana Campelo da; Almeida, Robson Ferreira Cavalcante de; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Matias, Jaqueline; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalcante; Andreotti, Renato; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2013-01-01

    Herein, we report tick species found on wild and domestic animals and in the environment during a one-year sampling period at the Brazilian Farming Research Company beef cattle unit (Embrapa Beef Cattle), which is located within the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From 55 wild hosts including six different species (Nasua nasua, Cebus spp., Cerdocyon thous, Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla and Dasyprocta aguti), 323 ticks were collected. Amblyomma ovale ticks were found solely on coatis, and Amblyomma nodosum was identified solely on anteaters. No ticks were found on capuchin monkeys. However, Amblyomma cajennense was found on all parasitized host species with the exception of capuchin monkeys. Giant anteaters displayed the highest infestation abundance, with a mean of 53 ticks∕animal. Environmental sampling yielded 166 adult A. cajennense ticks. The tick species found on domestic animals (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, R. sanguineus, Dermacentor nitens and A. cajennense) were those typically found on these hosts in Brazil. The most prevalent tick species, A. cajennense, was found on both wild and domestic animals and was also prevalent in the environment. Thus, this tick species is the primary vector that allows pathogens to bridge wild and domestic animals in the Cerrado.

  15. The effect of excluding ungulates on the abundance of ixodid ticks on wild rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcárcel, F; González, J; Tercero-Jaime, J M; Olmeda, A S

    2017-08-01

    Tick abundance depends heavily on host density, so reducing access to the host should reduce tick populations in a determined area. In this study we compared the Parasitic Index (PI = average number of ticks per rabbit) of two wild rabbit populations separated 16 years ago by a fence keeping ungulates from moving freely. Two areas were selected (closed and open) wherein 50 wild rabbits per area were sampled for ticks. The PI in the open area (PI = 989.62) was significantly higher than in the closed area (PI = 515.40). Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch was globally the most abundant species, followed by Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, Haemaphysalis hispanica Gil Collado, Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. Latreille and Ixodes ventalloi Gil Collado. Differences between areas varied depending on the species. The number of H. hispanica, R. bursa and R. pusillus were significantly more abundant on rabbits in the closed area, whereas H. lusitanicum predominated in the open area. Ungulates in the open area may have played an important role as the main or alternative host for ticks and/or drawing some tick species away from rabbits. In the closed area other reasons such as inter-specific competition could have influenced the tick abundance. These results show a clear reduction in tick abundance for at least 16 years as well as influenced species distribution.

  16. Prevalence of ticks on local and crossbred cattle in and around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Amber Animal Health Department, East Gojjam Agricultural Office. 2College of Agriculture and Veterinary ... Adult ticks were collected from 384 local and crossbred cattle which were kept under extensive management ... Studying ticks on livestock under their natural conditions without any control measure is also useful for ...

  17. Observation of live ticks (Haemaphysalis flava by scanning electron microscopy under high vacuum pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhito Ishigaki

    Full Text Available Scanning electron microscopes (SEM, which image sample surfaces by scanning with an electron beam, are widely used for steric observations of resting samples in basic and applied biology. Various conventional methods exist for SEM sample preparation. However, conventional SEM is not a good tool to observe living organisms because of the associated exposure to high vacuum pressure and electron beam radiation. Here we attempted SEM observations of live ticks. During 1.5×10(-3 Pa vacuum pressure and electron beam irradiation with accelerated voltages (2-5 kV, many ticks remained alive and moved their legs. After 30-min observation, we removed the ticks from the SEM stage; they could walk actively under atmospheric pressure. When we tested 20 ticks (8 female adults and 12 nymphs, they survived for two days after SEM observation. These results indicate the resistance of ticks against SEM observation. Our second survival test showed that the electron beam, not vacuum conditions, results in tick death. Moreover, we describe the reaction of their legs to electron beam exposure. These findings open the new possibility of SEM observation of living organisms and showed the resistance of living ticks to vacuum condition in SEM. These data also indicate, for the first time, the usefulness of tick as a model system for biology under extreme condition.

  18. Observation of Live Ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) by Scanning Electron Microscopy under High Vacuum Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Yasuhito; Nakamura, Yuka; Oikawa, Yosaburo; Yano, Yasuhiro; Kuwabata, Susumu; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Tomosugi, Naohisa; Takegami, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopes (SEM), which image sample surfaces by scanning with an electron beam, are widely used for steric observations of resting samples in basic and applied biology. Various conventional methods exist for SEM sample preparation. However, conventional SEM is not a good tool to observe living organisms because of the associated exposure to high vacuum pressure and electron beam radiation. Here we attempted SEM observations of live ticks. During 1.5×10−3 Pa vacuum pressure and electron beam irradiation with accelerated voltages (2–5 kV), many ticks remained alive and moved their legs. After 30-min observation, we removed the ticks from the SEM stage; they could walk actively under atmospheric pressure. When we tested 20 ticks (8 female adults and 12 nymphs), they survived for two days after SEM observation. These results indicate the resistance of ticks against SEM observation. Our second survival test showed that the electron beam, not vacuum conditions, results in tick death. Moreover, we describe the reaction of their legs to electron beam exposure. These findings open the new possibility of SEM observation of living organisms and showed the resistance of living ticks to vacuum condition in SEM. These data also indicate, for the first time, the usefulness of tick as a model system for biology under extreme condition. PMID:22431980

  19. Transmission electron microscopy reveals distinct macrophage- and tick cell-specific morphological stages of Ehrlichia chaffeensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Dedonder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ehrlichia chaffeensis is an emerging tick-borne rickettsial pathogen responsible for human monocytic ehrlichiosis. Despite the induction of an active host immune response, the pathogen has evolved to persist in its vertebrate and tick hosts. Understanding how the organism progresses in tick and vertebrate host cells is critical in identifying effective strategies to block the pathogen transmission. Our recent molecular and proteomic studies revealed differences in numerous expressed proteins of the organism during its growth in different host environments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transmission electron microscopy analysis was performed to assess morphological changes in the bacterium within macrophages and tick cells. The stages of pathogen progression observed included the attachment of the organism to the host cells, its engulfment and replication within a morulae by binary fission and release of the organisms from infected host cells by complete host cell lysis or by exocytosis. E. chaffeensis grown in tick cells was highly pleomorphic and appears to replicate by both binary fission and filamentous type cell divisions. The presence of Ehrlichia-like inclusions was also observed within the nucleus of both macrophages and tick cells. This observation was confirmed by confocal microscopy and immunoblot analysis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Morphological differences in the pathogen's progression, replication, and processing within macrophages and tick cells provide further evidence that E. chaffeensis employs unique host-cell specific strategies in support of adaptation to vertebrate and tick cell environments.

  20. Detection of Babesia venatorum, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in Ixodes persulcatus ticks from Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnath, Carolin; Obiegala, Anna; Speck, Stephanie; Essbauer, Sandra; Derschum, Henri; Scholz, Holger; Kiefer, Daniel; Tserennorov, Damdindorj; Dashdavaa, Otgonbataar; Tsogbadrakh, Nyamdorj; Jigjav, Battsetseg; Pfeffer, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Information about the prevalence and geographical distribution of tick-borne pathogens Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis, and Babesia spp. is still rare in Mongolia. We tested 275 Ixodes persulcatus ticks for A. phagocytophilum, Cand. N. mikurensis and Babesia spp. and 125 Dermacentor nuttalli ticks especially for Babesia spp. using different PCR methods. Ticks were collected from three provinces (Selenge, Arkhangai, Khentii) in Mongolia. DNA of A. phagocytophilum, Cand. N. mikurensis and Babesia spp. were found with a prevalence of 6.2%, 1.5% and 3.3% in each case in I. persulcatus ticks. This is the first time Cand. N. mikurensis was found in ticks from Mongolia. Sequence analysis of Babesia spp.-positive amplicons showed exclusively B. venatorum, which had also not been mentioned in Mongolia before. On the contrary, all D. nuttalli ticks tested negatively for Babesia spp. This study demonstrates that all three zoonotic pathogens are present in I. persulcatus ticks in Mongolia, and justify the need for further investigations of a more detailed genetic characterization of these pathogens. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Molecular biology of amitraz resistance in cattle ticks of the genus Rhipicephalus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitraz is an important product for the control of cattle ticks around the world. In comparison with other products for the control of ticks, it is quite affordable and it has a rapid knock-down effect. It binds with, and activates adrenergic neuro-receptors of animals and it inhibits the action of ...

  2. Ixodid ticks of cattle in Borno and Yours truly, Obe states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ixodid ticks of cattle in Borno and Yours truly, Obe states of northeastern Nigeria: Breed and coat colour preference. ... The ticks observed infesting cattle in these states are of veterinary importance, because they are vectors of economically important blood protozoan parasites. Adequate control measures should therefore ...

  3. Sensitivity of a point of care tick-test for the development of Lyme borreliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, H.; Leeuwen, van A.D.; Fonville, M.; Harms, M.; Vliet, van A.J.H.; Pelt, van W.; Ferreira, J.A.; Wijngaard, van den C.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A commercially available self-test for the detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in ticks was evaluated for its ability to predict erythema migrans formation. Findings: The self-test was performed on 127 Ixodes ricinus from 122 humans that reported tick bites at enrolment and

  4. [Ticks--due to climatic changes, much more than just Ixodes ricinus, TBE and Lyme disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Thomas F

    2008-07-01

    Ectoparasitic arthropodes, like ticks, confer numerous pathogenic bacterial and viral germs upon human beings and/or animals. Since these vectors are poikilothermic, there is a strong dependence on environmental conditions. Climatic as well as microclimatic conditions play a major role. Against this background, it can be anticipated that climatic changes also influence the bionomics of ticks and of the pathogens conferred by them.

  5. First detection of tick-borne "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" in Denmark 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Mette Ely; Mølbak, Lars; Pihl, Thomas Peter Boye

    2012-01-01

    This is the first reporting of the tick-borne zoonotic bacterium "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" in Denmark. A total of 2,625 Ixodes ricinus ticks from 58 locations in Denmark were collected and analysed for "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis". A nested PCR revealed the presence of the bacterium...

  6. First detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks from northern Italy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravagnan, Silvia; Tomassone, Laura; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Krawczyk, Aleksandra Iwona; Mastrorilli, Eleonora; Sprong, Hein; Milani, Adelaide; Rossi, Luca; Capelli, Gioia

    2018-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete transmitted by several ixodid tick species. It causes a relapsing fever in humans and is currently considered as an emerging pathogen. In Europe, B. miyamotoi seems to occur at low prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks but has a wide distribution. Here we report the

  7. Vector competence of the tick Ixodes ricinus for transmission of Bartonella birtlesii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Reis

    Full Text Available Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites.

  8. Functional redundancy and ecological innovation shape the circulation of tick-transmitted pathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Estrada-Peña, A.; de la Fuente, J.; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, MAY (2017), č. článku 234. ISSN 2235-2988 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : communities * networks * tick-borne pathogens * ticks Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 4.300, year: 2016

  9. Antiplasmodial activity is an ancient and conserved feature of tick defensins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ancestral sequence reconstruction has been widely used to test evolution-based hypotheses. The genome of the European tick vector, Ixodes ricinus, encodes for defensin peptides with diverse antimicrobial activities against distantly related pathogens. These pathogens include fungi, Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, i.e., a wide antimicrobial spectrum. Ticks do not transmit these pathogens, suggesting that these defensins may act against a wide range of microbes encountered by ticks during blood feeding or off-host periods. As demonstrated here, these I. ricinus defensins are also effective against the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. To study the general evolution of antimicrobial activity in tick defensins, the ancestral amino acid sequence of chelicerate defensins, which existed approximately 444 million years ago, was reconstructed using publicly available scorpion and tick defensin sequences (named Scorpions-Ticks Defensins Ancestor, STiDA. The activity of STiDA was tested against P. falciparum and the same Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria that were used for the I. ricinus defensins. While some extant tick defensins exhibit a wide antimicrobial spectrum, the ancestral defensin showed moderate activity against one of the tested microbes, P. falciparum. This study suggests that amino acid variability and defensin family expansion increased the antimicrobial spectrum of ancestral tick defensins.

  10. Genome Sequence of Rickettsia hoogstraalii, a Geographically Widely Distributed Tick-Associated Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentausa, Erwin; El Karkouri, Khalid; Nguyen, Thi-Tien; Caputo, Aurélia; Raoult, Didier; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard

    2014-11-06

    Rickettsia hoogstraalii is a tick-associated member of the spotted fever group rickettsiae that is geographically widely distributed. We report here the draft genome of R. hoogstraalii strain Croatica(T) (=DSM 22243 = UTMB 00003), which was isolated from Haemaphysalis sulcata ticks collected in Croatia. Copyright © 2014 Sentausa et al.

  11. Metagenomic profile of the viral communities in Rhipicephalus spp. ticks from Yunnan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xia

    Full Text Available Besides mosquitoes, ticks are regarded as the primary source of vector-borne infectious diseases. Indeed, a wide variety of severe infectious human diseases, including those involving viruses, are transmitted by ticks in many parts of the world. To date, there are no published reports on the use of next-generation sequencing for studying viral diversity in ticks or discovering new viruses in these arthropods from China. Here, Ion-torrent sequencing was used to investigate the presence of viruses in three Rhipicephalus spp. tick pools (NY-11, NY-13, and MM-13 collected from the Menglian district of Yunnan, China. The sequencing run resulted in 3,641,088, 3,106,733, and 3,871,851 reads in each tick pool after trimming. Reads and assembled contiguous sequences (contigs were subject to basic local alignment search tool analysis against the GenBank database. Large numbers of reads and contigs related to known viral sequences corresponding to a broad range of viral families were identified. Some of the sequences originated from viruses that have not been described previously in ticks. Our findings will facilitate better understanding of the tick virome, and add to our current knowledge of disease-causing viruses in ticks living under natural conditions.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of ticks infesting cattle reared on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tick infestation is a major problem constraining animal production and pro- ductivity in Ethiopia showing the need for tackling the situation. A cross- sectional study was carried out to determine tick prevalence and associated risk factors among cattle reared on dairy, beef and free-range grazing farms of Haramaya University ...

  13. Cascading effects of predator activity on tick-borne disease risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Tim R; Jansen, Patrick A; Wijnen, Hendrikus J; Coipan, Elena C; Fonville, Manoj; Prins, Herbert H T; Sprong, Hein; van Wieren, Sipke E

    2017-01-01

    Predators and competitors of vertebrates can in theory reduce the density of infected nymphs (DIN)-an often-used measure of tick-borne disease risk-by lowering the density of reservoir-competent hosts and/or the tick burden on reservoir-competent hosts. We investigated this possible indirect effect

  14. Infectiousness of Ixodes Persulcatus Ticks with Pathogens of Various Diseases in Endemic Regions of European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.N. Lyubeznova

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion. Kirov region is an active natural focus of transmissible infections. Quite often tick contains two or three pathogens. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of the natural foci to develop more adequate preventive measures against tick-borne infections.

  15. Diversity of Ixodes ricinus tick-associated bacterial communities from different forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, van L.S.; Gassner, F.; Lombaers-van der Plas, C.H.; Kastelein, P.; Nunes da Rocha, U.; Takken, W.

    2008-01-01

    Nymphal Ixodes ricinus ticks (n=180) were collected from three different areas in the Netherlands to investigate the effect of forest composition on tick-associated microbial communities. Sampled habitats differed in thickness of leaf litter and humus layers and vegetation associations and were

  16. Survival strategy of tick-borne encephalitis virus: cellular basis and environmental determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuda, M; Randolph, S E

    1999-12-01

    Although TBE virus can be transmitted in the laboratory by a wide variety of ixodid tick species to a wide variety of vertebrate host species, nevertheless in nature endemic cycles of TBE virus depend principally on just two tick species, Ixodes ricinus in the western and I. persulcatus in the eastern Palaearctic. A complete transmission cycle, from tick to tick via vertebrates, occurs most efficiently between co-feeding ticks in the absence of a systemic viraemia. This non-systemic route depends on TBE virus replication within particular immunocompetent cells in the skin, and only certain vertebrate species, notably Apodemus mice, are susceptible to this. Amongst the potential tick vectors in Europe, only I. ricinus has the correct host relationships and appropriate natural life cycle to support such non-systemic transmission cycles. Within the wide European distribution of this tick-host relationship, only in certain places do larval and nymphal ticks feed together on the same hosts with sufficient coincidence to ensure TBE virus survival. The environmental factors that determine this seasonal coincidence are being identified with the help of remotely-sensed meteorological satellite imagery to create predictive risk maps of TBE foci.

  17. Ambush behavior of the tick Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense complex) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Osava, Carolina Fonseca; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2017-06-01

    We herein describe the ambush behavior of Amblyomma sculptum (Berlese 1888), a widespread and epidemiologically important tick in Brazil. Along two years of sampling by visual search in the Brazilian Pantanal, A. sculptum ticks were observed on the vegetation and in the leaf litter. Most of the ticks were observed between 10 and 50cm above ground level and less than five percent of the total were positioned below 10cm, indicating that they are seeking for middle or large-sized hosts. In both seasons, vapor saturation deficit was low during the morning. No significant relationship was found between questing ticks and daytime interval of observation or saturation deficit. However, questing tick numbers seem be higher in the end of the morning, when saturation deficit reaches its peak. Behavioral patterns of A. sculptum ticks observed in Pantanal underscore the occurrence of this tick and human contact at green anthropogenic sites. Considering A. sculptum questing behavior, inferences on human behavioral patterns that enhance or avoid contact with ticks are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  19. Characterization of dog repellent factor from cuticular secretion of female yellow dog tick, Haemaphysalis leachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Ben V; Marx, Brenda; Le Roux, Maritha; Oelofsen, Burger W

    2006-01-01

    During its natural life cycle, the yellow dog tick, Haemaphysalis leachi, has three hosts, and it has to spend enough time on each of them to complete a blood meal. When irritated, the females of this tick species produce a cuticular secretion that contains a dog-repelling allomone. This improves the tick's chances of survival by deterring the dog from biting the tick off its body. Employing response-guided isolation techniques in conjunction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, the defensive allomone of H. leachi was found to consist of the six homologous aliphatic aldehydes from hexanal to undecanal. A mixture of synthetic versions of these six aldehydes in quantities corresponding to those secreted by one tick elicited strong aversion reactions in the majority of dogs of various breeds.

  20. Feeding period required by Amblyomma aureolatum ticks for transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii to vertebrate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Danilo G; Soares, Herbert S; Soares, João Fábio; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is endemic to the São Paulo metropolitan area, Brazil, where the etiologic agent, Rickettsia rickettsii, is transmitted to humans by adult Amblyomma aureolatum ticks. We determined the minimal feeding period required by A. aureolatum nymphs and adults to transmit R. rickettsii to guinea pigs. Unfed nymphs and unfed adult ticks had to be attached to the host for >10 hours to transmit R. rickettsii. In contrast, fed ticks needed a minimum of 10 minutes of attachment to transmit R. rickettsii to hosts. Most confirmed infections of Rocky Mountain spotted fever in humans in the São Paulo metropolitan area have been associated with contact with domestic dogs, the main host of A. aureolatum adult ticks. The typical expectation that transmission of tickborne bacteria to humans as well as to dogs requires ≥2 hours of tick attachment may discourage persons from immediately removing them and result in transmission of this lethal bacterium.

  1. Ticks infesting animals in the Sudan and Southern Sudan: past and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elghali, Ahmed A; Hassan, Shawgi M

    2012-12-06

    In this review, we collate information about ticks identified in different parts of the Sudan and South Sudan since 1956 in order to identify gaps in tick prevalence and create a map of tick distribution. This will avail basic data for further research on ticks and policies for the control of tick-borne diseases. In this review, we discuss the situation in the Republic of South Sudan as well as Sudan. For this purpose we have divided Sudan into four regions, namely northern Sudan (Northern and River Nile states), central Sudan (Khartoum, Gazera, White Nile, Blue Nile and Sennar states), western Sudan (North and South Kordofan and North, South and West Darfour states) and eastern Sudan (Red Sea, Kassala and Gadarif states).

  2. Toxicity of Millettia ferruginea darasana (family: Fabaceae) against the larvae and adult ticks of Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius a three-host tick in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Manash Kumar; Shiferaw, Yoseph; Hussen, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    The in vitro toxicity of Millettia ferruginea darasana (family: Fabaceae) was tested against the larvae adult male and female of a three-host tick, Amblyomma variegatum Fabricius (family: Ixodidae or hard tick), known as 'tropical bont tick' parasitic mainly to cattle found in Ethiopia and other equatorial Africa. The 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 % concentrations of the seed oil extracted with petroleum ether were found to kill all (100 % mortality) larvae after 12, 9, 6, 3 and 1.5 h respectively. The results summarized in the Table 1 was found to be statistically significant at the probability level of p = 0.05. The 100 % concentration of the oil caused 100 % mortality of adult male, adult female and fully engorged female tick after 5, 7 and 12 h respectively. The root and root bark showed less toxicity. The leaves did not show any toxicity. [Table: see text].

  3. Prevention of infectious tick-borne diseases in humans: Comparative studies of the repellency of different dodecanoic acid-formulations against Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dautel Hans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks of the species Ixodes ricinus are the main vectors of Lyme Borreliosis and Tick-borne Encephalitis – two rapidly emerging diseases in Europe. Repellents provide a practical means of protection against tick bites and can therefore minimize the transmission of tick-borne diseases. We developed and tested seven different dodecanoic acid (DDA-formulations for their efficacy in repelling host-seeking nymphs of I. ricinus by laboratory screening. The ultimately selected formulation was then used for comparative investigations of commercially available tick repellents in humans. Methods Laboratory screening tests were performed using the Moving-object (MO bioassay. All test formulations contained 10% of the naturally occurring active substance DDA and differed only in terms of the quantitative and qualitative composition of inactive ingredients and fragrances. The test procedure used in the human bioassays is a modification of an assay described by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and recommended for regulatory affairs. Repellency was computed using the equation: R = 100 - NR/N × 100, where NR is the number of non-repelled ticks, and N is the respective number of control ticks. All investigations were conducted in a controlled laboratory environment offering standardized test conditions. Results All test formulations strongly repelled nymphs of I. ricinus (100-81% protection as shown by the MO-bioassay. The majority of ticks dropped off the treated surface of the heated rotating drum that served as the attractant (1 mg/cm2 repellent applied. The 10% DDA-based formulation, that produced the best results in laboratory screening, was as effective as the coconut oil-based reference product. The mean protection time of both preparations was generally similar and averaged 8 hours. Repellency investigations in humans showed that the most effective 10% DDA-based formulation (~1.67 mg/cm2 applied strongly avoided the

  4. Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes ricinus tick cell lines respond to infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus: transcriptomic and proteomic analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Weisheit, S.; Villar, M.; Tykalová, Hana; Popara, M.; Loecherbach, J.; Watson, M.; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; de la Fuente, J.; Fazakerley, J.K.; Bell-Sakyi, L.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, NOV 18 2015 (2015), s. 599 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03044S; GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 238511 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tisk * Ixodes * flavivirus * tick-borne encephalitis virus * tick cell line * innate immunity * antiviral response Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2015

  5. The introduction and subsequent extinction of the camel tick Hyalomma (Euhyalomma) dromedarii (Acari, Ixodidae) in Australia, with a review of the introduction of foreign ticks to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Mackenzie L

    2018-03-01

    Historically, several tick taxonomists have reported Hyalomma aegyptium within Australia due to misidentifications. This has resulted in confusion relating to the occurrence of the genus Hyalomma within Australia. Based on the recent discovery of museum specimens of Hyalomma dromedarii, misidentified as H. aegyptium, the historical occurrence of H. dromedarii is reported for the first time within Australia, along with its apparent subsequent extinction. The introduction and naturalisation of foreign tick species into Australia is also reviewed.

  6. Feeding electrogram studies on the African cattle brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus: evidence for an antifeeding effect of tick resistant serum

    OpenAIRE

    Lösel, P. M.; Guerin, Patrick M.; Diehl, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Feeding behaviour of partially engorged Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Neumann) (Acari: Ixodidae) on rabbit serum held in capillary tubes and placed over the tick mouthparts was studied using the feeding electrogram technique with simultaneous macro video photography. Correlation of electrical events with fluid movement in the vicinity of the tick's mouthparts and the capillary meniscus, permitted the characterization of an orderly sequence of signals, termed the ‘Feeding Complex’, associated ...

  7. Detection of human bacterial pathogens in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus luteolus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leydet, Brian F; Liang, Fang-Ting

    2013-04-01

    There are 4 major human-biting tick species in the northeastern United States, which include: Amblyomma americanum, Amblyomma maculatum, Dermacentor variabilis, and Ixodes scapularis. The black bear is a large mammal that has been shown to be parasitized by all the aforementioned ticks. We investigated the bacterial infections in ticks collected from Louisiana black bears (Ursus americanus subspecies luteolus). Eighty-six ticks were collected from 17 black bears in Louisiana from June 2010 to March 2011. All 4 common human-biting tick species were represented. Each tick was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting select bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Bacterial DNA was detected in 62% of ticks (n=53). Rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of an emerging spotted fever group rickettsiosis, was identified in 66% of A. maculatum, 28% of D. variabilis, and 11% of I. scapularis. The Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, was detected in 2 I. scapularis, while one A. americanum was positive for Borrelia bissettii, a putative human pathogen. The rickettsial endosymbionts Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, rickettsial endosymbiont of I. scapularis, and Rickettsia amblyommii were detected in their common tick hosts at 21%, 39%, and 60%, respectively. All ticks were PCR-negative for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia spp., and Babesia microti. This is the first reported detection of R. parkeri in vector ticks in Louisiana; we also report the novel association of R. parkeri with I. scapularis. Detection of both R. parkeri and B. burgdorferi in their respective vectors in Louisiana demands further investigation to determine potential for human exposure to these pathogens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Protective efficacy of permethrin-treated trousers against tick infestation in forestry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roßbach, Bernd; Kegel, Peter; Zier, Ulrike; Niemietz, Adrian; Letzel, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Prevention of tick borne diseases in forestry workers is essentially based on the use of appropriate clothing. The objective of this pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial was to assess the potential benefit of permethrin-treated working trousers for the prevention of tick infestation during forestry work. N=164 male forestry workers were equipped for a period of 16 weeks with permethrin-treated (intervention group-I) or untreated work trousers (control group-II). Subgroups, according to the use of trousers with (I-1, II-1) or without cut protection lining (I-2, II-2) were constituted. Tick infestation (quantity of ticks on the body surface) was assessed by questionnaire after 16 workdays. Control and intervention groups were compared by calculating the infestation rate (percentage of subjects with ticks) and the average number of ticks per workday. The infestation rate in the intervention group was significantly lower than in the control group (36.6 vs. 63.4%, p=0.001; Fisher-test). Further analysis revealed a significant reduction of tick infestation by permethrin treatment only for subjects wearing trousers without the cut protection lining (I-2: 34.2 vs. II-2: 80.0%, p<0.001), while users of cut protection trousers did not benefit from such treated trousers (I-1: 38.6 vs. II-1: 47.6%, n.s.). Similar results were found for comparisons based on the average number of ticks per workday. The use of permethrin-treated trousers does not completely prevent tick infestations. Improvement of tick protection has been shown only for some applications, but not in general. Additional prevention measures are therefore still indispensable.

  9. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in ticks by PCR and by PCR - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii, as an obligata intracellular bacterium, is the etiologic agent of Q-fever. It is widely distributed in nature and is responsible for infection in various animals (cattle, sheep, goat) and humans. C. burnetii has been isolated from milk, ticks and human patients with acute and chronic Q fever. Ticks are the principal vectors and reservoirs of C. burnetii. Since over 40 species of ticks have been found to be infected with C. burnetii, ticks can serve as indicators of infection in nature. In this study, total of 2472 ticks (1446 female, 1021 male and 5 nymphs) were collected from 38 provinces of Turkey. The ticks were gathered into groups of 1 to 7 ticks as to the provinces, species and gender for DNA extraction. Following DNA extraction, the groups were examined for the presence of C. burtii by using the CB1and CB2. The ticks collected from the province of Denizli (56 in total) were gathered into 13 groups according to the species and gender. From these groups, 6 were positive for C. burnetii. The ticks collected from Ankara province, total of 160 ticks, were grouped into 53 as to their species and gender, only one group was found to be positive for C. burnetii. The specificities of PCR products were evaluated by restriction analysis. The positive PCR products were digested with the enzyme Taq1 and for bands in order of 118, 57, 43 and 39 bp's were appeared such as seen in the positive control DNA (C. burnetii Nine Mile RSA493)

  10. Landscape level variation in tick abundance relative to seasonal migration in red deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Qviller

    Full Text Available Partial migration is common among northern ungulates, typically involving an altitudinal movement for seasonally migratory individuals. The main driving force behind migration is the benefit of an extended period of access to newly emerged, high quality forage along the green up gradient with increasing altitude; termed the forage maturation hypothesis. Any other limiting factor spatially correlated with this gradient may provide extra benefits or costs to migration, without necessarily being the cause of it. A common ectoparasite on cervids in Europe is the sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus, but it has not been tested whether migration may lead to the spatial separation from these parasites and thus potentially provide an additional benefit to migration. Further, if there is questing of ticks in winter ranges in May before spring migration, deer migration may also play a role for the distribution of ticks. We quantified the abundance of questing sheep tick within winter and summer home ranges of migratory (n=42 and resident red deer (Cervus elaphus individuals (n=32 in two populations in May and August 2009-2012. Consistent with predictions, there was markedly lower abundance of questing ticks in the summer areas of migrating red deer (0.6/20 m(2, both when compared to the annual home range of resident deer (4.9/20 m(2 and the winter home ranges of migrants (5.8/20 m(2. The reduced abundances within summer home ranges of migrants were explained by lower abundance of ticks with increasing altitude and distance from the coast. The lower abundance of ticks in summer home ranges of migratory deer does not imply that ticks are the main driver of migration (being most likely the benefits expected from forage maturation, but it suggests that ticks may add to the value of migration in some ecosystems and that it may act to spread ticks long distances in the landscape.

  11. Co-infection of Ticks: The Rule Rather Than the Exception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutailler, Sara; Valiente Moro, Claire; Vaumourin, Elise; Michelet, Lorraine; Tran, Florence Hélène; Devillers, Elodie; Cosson, Jean-François; Gasqui, Patrick; Van, Van Tran; Mavingui, Patrick; Vourc'h, Gwenaël; Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel

    2016-03-01

    Ticks are the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe, and the Ixodes ricinus tick species is able to transmit a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. Ticks may also be co-infected with several pathogens, with a subsequent high likelihood of co-transmission to humans or animals. However few data exist regarding co-infection prevalences, and these studies only focus on certain well-known pathogens. In addition to pathogens, ticks also carry symbionts that may play important roles in tick biology, and could interfere with pathogen maintenance and transmission. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of 38 pathogens and four symbionts and their co-infection levels as well as possible interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts. A total of 267 Ixodes ricinus female specimens were collected in the French Ardennes and analyzed by high-throughput real-time PCR for the presence of 37 pathogens (bacteria and parasites), by rRT-PCR to detect the presence of Tick-Borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and by nested PCR to detect four symbionts. Possible multipartite interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts were statistically evaluated. Among the infected ticks, 45% were co-infected, and carried up to five different pathogens. When adding symbiont prevalences, all ticks were infected by at least one microorganism, and up to eight microorganisms were identified in the same tick. When considering possible interactions between pathogens, the results suggested a strong association between Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii, whereas there were no significant interactions between symbionts and pathogens. Our study reveals high pathogen co-infection rates in ticks, raising questions about possible co-transmission of these agents to humans or animals, and their consequences to human and animal health. We also demonstrated high prevalence rates of symbionts co-existing with pathogens, opening new

  12. Co-infection of Ticks: The Rule Rather Than the Exception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Moutailler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are the most common arthropod vectors of both human and animal diseases in Europe, and the Ixodes ricinus tick species is able to transmit a large number of bacteria, viruses and parasites. Ticks may also be co-infected with several pathogens, with a subsequent high likelihood of co-transmission to humans or animals. However few data exist regarding co-infection prevalences, and these studies only focus on certain well-known pathogens. In addition to pathogens, ticks also carry symbionts that may play important roles in tick biology, and could interfere with pathogen maintenance and transmission. In this study we evaluated the prevalence of 38 pathogens and four symbionts and their co-infection levels as well as possible interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts.A total of 267 Ixodes ricinus female specimens were collected in the French Ardennes and analyzed by high-throughput real-time PCR for the presence of 37 pathogens (bacteria and parasites, by rRT-PCR to detect the presence of Tick-Borne encephalitis virus (TBEV and by nested PCR to detect four symbionts. Possible multipartite interactions between pathogens, or between pathogens and symbionts were statistically evaluated. Among the infected ticks, 45% were co-infected, and carried up to five different pathogens. When adding symbiont prevalences, all ticks were infected by at least one microorganism, and up to eight microorganisms were identified in the same tick. When considering possible interactions between pathogens, the results suggested a strong association between Borrelia garinii and B. afzelii, whereas there were no significant interactions between symbionts and pathogens.Our study reveals high pathogen co-infection rates in ticks, raising questions about possible co-transmission of these agents to humans or animals, and their consequences to human and animal health. We also demonstrated high prevalence rates of symbionts co-existing with pathogens

  13. Prevalence of Beauveria pseudobassiana among entomopathogenic fungi isolated from the hard tick, Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munteanu, Natalia V; Mitkovets, Polina V; Mitina, Galina V; Movila, Alexandru; Tokarev, Yuri S; Leclerque, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Human and animal disease-transmitting hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) are of great concern for public health and animal farming. Alternatives to tick control by chemical acaricides are urgently needed, and one intensively evaluated biocontrol strategy is based on the use of tick-pathogenic filamentous fungi. An indispensable prerequisite for the development of tick-derived fungal isolates into registered myco-acaricides is their sound taxonomic characterisation. A set of fungal strains isolated from ixodid ticks in the Republic of Moldova was genetically characterised at the genus and species level together with further tick-derived fungal isolates from different geographic locations in Europe and North America. In a previous study, the same isolates had been assigned to the species Beauveria bassiana. Using a recent molecular taxonomic approach based on phylogenetic reconstruction from both internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and protein-encoding gene sequences, all fungi investigated were conclusively assigned to one of the two "hyphomycete" genera, Beauveria or Isaria (Ascomycota; Hypocreales; Cordycipitaceae). Within the genus Isaria, two species, Isaria farinosa and Isaria fumosorosea, were equally represented. Within the genus Beauveria, the comparatively rare species Beauveria pseudobassiana was found to strongly prevail among the isolates from Moldova, and one of the two tick-derived Beauveria strains from North America could be assigned to this species as well. In particular, the previous classification as B. bassiana could not be confirmed for any of the characterised tick pathogens from Europe and North America. The data presented here lend support to the hypothesis that within the genus Beauveria specific adaptation to ticks might have occurred within the species B. pseudobassiana. To test this hypothesis, a more extensive molecular taxonomic survey carefully reconsidering previous taxonomic assignments of tick-derived fungal isolates is needed. Copyright

  14. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-24

    Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Tick species were identified based on morphologic and genetic criteria. Detection of tick-borne bacteria belonging to Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia genera was performed by PCRs. Our ticks included 91 Amblyomma multipunctum, 4 Amblyomma spp., 60 Rhipicephalus microplus, 5 Ixodes spp. and 1 Ixodes boliviensis. A potential Candidatus Rickettsia species closest to Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia tamurae (designated Rickettsia sp. 12G1) was detected in 3 R. microplus (3/57, 5.3%). In addition, Anaplasma spp., assigned at least to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (or closely related genotypes) and Anaplasma marginale, were found in 2 A. multipunctum (2/87, 2.3%) and 13 R. microplus (13/57, 22.8%). This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks.

  15. Identification of novel Coxiella burnetii genotypes from Ethiopian ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga M Sulyok

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coxiella burnetii, the etiologic agent of Q fever, is a highly infectious zoonotic bacterium. Genetic information about the strains of this worldwide distributed agent circulating on the African continent is limited. The aim of the present study was the genetic characterization of C. burnetii DNA samples detected in ticks collected from Ethiopian cattle and their comparison with other genotypes found previously in other parts of the world. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 296 tick samples were screened by real-time PCR targeting the IS1111 region of C. burnetii genome and from the 32 positive samples, 8 cases with sufficient C. burnetii DNA load (Amblyomma cohaerens, n = 6; A. variegatum, n = 2 were characterized by multispacer sequence typing (MST and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA. One novel sequence type (ST, the proposed ST52, was identified by MST. The MLVA-6 discriminated the proposed ST52 into two newly identified MLVA genotypes: type 24 or AH was detected in both Amblyomma species while type 26 or AI was found only in A. cohaerens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Both the MST and MLVA genotypes of the present work are closely related to previously described genotypes found primarily in cattle samples from different parts of the globe. This finding is congruent with the source hosts of the analyzed Ethiopian ticks, as these were also collected from cattle. The present study provides genotype information of C. burnetii from this seldom studied East-African region as well as further evidence for the presumed host-specific adaptation of this agent.

  16. Canine tick-borne diseases in pet dogs from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Martin O; Tolf, Conny; Tamba, Paula; Stefanache, Mircea; Waldenström, Jonas; Dobler, Gerhard; Chițimia-Dobler, Lidia

    2017-03-23

    Tick-borne diseases are of substantial concern worldwide for animals as well as humans. Dogs have been a human companion for millennia, and their significant impact on human life renders disease in dogs to be of great concern. Tick-borne diseases in dogs represent a substantial diagnostic challenge for veterinarians in that clinical signs are often diffuse and overlapping. In addition, co-infections with two or more pathogens enhance this problem further. Molecular methods are useful to disentangle co-infections and to accurately describe prevalence and geographical distribution of tick-borne diseases. At this point, this information is lacking in many areas worldwide. Romania is one such area, where prevalence and distribution of several important pathogens need to be further investigated. To address this, we screened blood samples from 96 sick dogs with molecular methods for eight different pathogens including Babesia spp., Theileria spp., Hepatozoon spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", Mycoplasma spp., and Borrelia spp. As many as 45% (43/96) of the dogs in the study were infected with protozoan parasites. Babesia canis was the most frequent of these (28 infected dogs), whereas Hepatozoon canis was detected in 15% (14/96) and Babesia gibsoni was found in a single sample. Bacterial infection with Mycoplasma spp. occurred in 18% (17/96) of the sampled dogs. Obtained bacterial sequences revealed the occurrence of two species: Mycoplasma canis and "Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum". In several cases co-infection with protozoan parasites and Mycoplasma sp. were detected. All dogs were negative for Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., "Ca. Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and for Borrelia spp. The results from the present study reinforce the notion that Babesia canis is an important pathogen in the Romanian dog population. However, more surprisingly, another protozoan species, H. canis, seems to be infecting dogs to a larger extent than

  17. Acquisition of exogenous haem is essential for tick reproduction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Perner, Jan; Sobotka, Roman; Šíma, Radek; Konvičková, Jitka; Sojka, Daniel; de Oliveira, P.L.; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, Mar 7 (2016), e12318 ISSN 2050-084X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-11043S; GA ČR GP13-12816P; GA ČR GA14-33693S; GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : biochemistry * haem auxotrophy * haem oxygenase * haematophagy * infectious disease * iron metabolism * microbiology * ticks Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.725, year: 2016

  18. Lyme borreliosis: insights into tick- / host-borrelia relations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grubhoffer, Libor; Golovchenko, Maryna; Vancová, Marie; Zacharovová, Klára; Rudenko, Natalia; Oliver, J. H., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2005), s. 279-294 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/1326; GA ČR GA206/03/1323 Grant - others:National Institutes of Health(US) R37 AI-24899; Science and Technology Collaboration AVCR-NRC Canada(CZ) Z60220518/58-8500 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia spirochetes * ticks * lectins * glycoproteins Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005

  19. A case of massive infestation of a male green lizard Lacerta viridis/bilineata by castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758):

    OpenAIRE

    Carretero, Miguel A.; Gomes, Veronika; Žagar, Anamarija

    2013-01-01

    Infestation by ticks affects several vertebrate groups, including reptiles. Castor bean tick Ixodes ricinus is the most widespread tick species. Here we report an impressive tick infestation of a male green lizard Lacerta viridis/bilineata found in 2012 in the vicinity of Bilpa cave in the Kolpa valley, Slovenia. Lizards as tick hosts can play an important role in the life cycle of I. ricinus and may also be potential vectors of Lyme disease. Zaprarazitiranost s klopi je pogost pojav pri v...

  20. The speed of kill of fluralaner (Bravecto™) against Ixodes ricinus ticks on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengenmayer, Christina; Williams, Heike; Zschiesche, Eva; Moritz, Andreas; Langenstein, Judith; Roepke, Rainer K A; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2014-11-18

    Pathogens that are transmitted by ticks to dogs, such as Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu, and Ehrlichia canis, are an increasing problem in the world. One method to prevent pathogen transmission to dogs is to kill the ticks before transmission occurs. Fluralaner (Bravecto™) is a novel isoxazoline insecticide and acaricide that provides long persistent antiparasitic activity following systemic administration. This study investigated the speed of kill of fluralaner against Ixodes ricinus ticks on dogs. A total of 48 dogs were randomized to 8 groups of 6 dogs and each dog was infested with 50 female and 10 male I. ricinus ticks. Two days later (day 0), 4 groups received a single treatment of 25 mg fluralaner/kg body weight as Bravecto™ chewable tablets; the dogs in the other 4 groups were left untreated. Separate control and treatment groups were paired at each time point (4, 8, 12, or 24 hours after treatment) for assessment of tick-killing efficacy. At 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment, all dogs were re-infested with 50 female I. ricinus ticks and subsequently assessed for live or dead ticks at either 4, 8, 12, or 24 hours after re-infestation. Efficacy was calculated for each assessment time point by comparison of the treatment group with the respective control group. Tick-killing efficacy was 89.6% at 4 hours, 97.9% at 8 hours, and 100% at 12 and 24 hours after treatment. Eight hours after re-infestation, efficacy was 96.8%, 83.5%, and 45.8% at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after treatment, respectively. At least 98.1% tick-killing efficacy was demonstrated 12 and 24 hours after re-infestation over the entire 12 week study period. Fluralaner kills ticks rapidly after treatment at 4 hours, and over its entire 12-week period of efficacy, it achieves an almost complete killing effect within 12 hours after tick infestation. The rapid tick-killing effect together with the long duration of efficacy enables fluralaner to aid