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Sample records for ti based aluminides

  1. Influence of high-strain rate and temperature on the mechanical behavior of Nl-, Fe-, and Ti- based aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, G.T. III

    1996-09-01

    The majority of the strength characterization studies on ordered intermetallics have concentrated on the assessment of strength and work-hardening at conventional strain rates. Although the influence of strain rate on the structure/property relationships of pure nickel, iron, and titanium and a variety of their alloys have been extensively studied, the effect of strain rate on the stress-strain response of Ni-, Fe-, and Ti-based aluminides remains poorly understood. Dynamic constitutive behavior is however relevant to high speed impact performance of these materials such as during foreign object damage in aerospace applications, high-rate forging, and localized deformation behavior during machining. The influence of strain rate, varied between 0.001 and 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}, and temperatures, between 77 & 800K, on the compressive mechanical behavior of Ni{sub 3}A1, NiAl, Fe{sub 3}Al, Fe-40Al-0.1B, Ti-24Al-11Nb, and Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb will be presented. In this paper the influence of strain rate on the anomalous temperature dependency of the flow stresses in these aluminides will be reviewed and compared between aluminides. The rate sensitivity and work hardening of each aluminide will be discussed as a function of strain rate and temperature and contrasted to each other and to the values typical for their respective disordered base metals. 66 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Formation of electrically insulating coatings on aluminided vanadium-base alloys in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, G.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminide coatings were produced on vanadium and vanadium-base alloys by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium that contained 3-5 at.% dissolved aluminum in sealed capsules at temperatures between 775 and 880 degrees C. Reaction of the aluminide layer with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium provides a means of developing an in-situ electrical insulator coating on the surface of the alloys. The electrical resistivity of A1N coatings on aluminided V and V-20 wt.% Ti was determined in-situ

  3. Processing and application properties of silicon-doped titanium aluminides; Formgebungs- und Anwendungseigenschaften silizidhaltiger TiAl-Legierungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanta, G. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    2001-07-01

    Submicrocrystalline intermetallic/ceramic composites based on the system Ti-Al-Si are prepared by mechanical alloying and subsequent powder consolidation. Finely dispersed silicides prevent coarsening of the {gamma}-TiAl matrix during hot-forming. Therefore, the deformation temperatures can be reduced by about 200 C compared to conventional titanium aluminides. After a subsequent coarsening heat treatment, creep properties comparable to those of conventional TiAl based alloys (1.10{sup -9} s{sup -1} at 700 C) are achieved. This study demonstrates that microstructure design allows for favorable processing properties without compromises regarding the desired application properties. (orig.) [German] Zur Untersuchung des technischen Anwendungspotenzials submikrokristalliner Werkstoffe werden silizidhaltige {gamma}-TiAl-Basislegierungen durch Hochenergiemahlen und heissisostatisches Pressen hergestellt. Bei der industriellen Formgebung ermoeglicht die durch Silizide stabilisierte feine Mikrostruktur eine deutliche Temperaturabsenkung von 200 C im Vergleich zu den fuer Titanaluminide ueblichen Prozesstemperaturen. Nach einer anschliessend durchgefuehrten Gefuegeumwandlung werden Kriechgeschwindigkeiten gemessen, die mit 1.10{sup -9} s{sup -1} bei 700 C im Bereich der Werte schmelzmetallurgisch hergestellter TiAl-Legierungen liegen. Eine gezielte Mikrostrukturgestaltung ermoeglicht somit eine deutliche Verbesserung der Umformeigenschaften unter Beibehaltung der guenstigen Eigenschaften fuer Hochtemperaturanwendungen. (orig.)

  4. Effects of stress concentrations on the fatigue life of a gamma based titanium aluminide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trail, S.J.; Bowen, P.

    1995-01-01

    S-N curves for a gamma based titanium aluminide alloy of composition Ti-47.2Al-2.1Mn-1.9Nb(at.%)+2TiB 2 (wt.%) have been used to define fatigue life. Effects of residual stress, stressed volume, loading ratio, loading mode, elevated temperature and surface roughness have been considered. Residual tensile stresses and micro-cracking are introduced by Electro Discharge Machining and the fatigue life is reduced slightly compared with polished samples. Notched fatigue tests show a significant notch strengthening effect which increases with increasing stress concentration factor. The fracture surfaces of specimens tested at room temperature reveal fully brittle failure mechanisms and no evidence of stable crack growth is observed. The fatigue life appears, therefore, to be determined predominantly by the number of cycles to crack initiation. At the elevated temperature of 830 C, evidence for some stable fatigue crack growth has been found. Probable sites for crack initiation are addressed

  5. Microstructural effects on the creep and crack propagation behaviors of γ-Ti aluminide alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupinc, V.; Onofrio, G.; Nazmy, M.; Staubli, M.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma titanium aluminides class of materials possess several unique physical and mechanical properties. These characteristics can be attractive for specific industrial applications. By applying different heat treatment schedules one can change the microstructural features of this class of materials. In the present investigation, two heat treatment schedules were used to produce two different microstructures, duplex (D) and nearly lamellar (NL) in the cast and HIP'ed Ti-47Al-2W-0.5Si alloy. The tensile strength and creep behavior, in the 700--850 C temperature range, of this alloy have been determined and correlated to the corresponding microstructures. In addition, the fatigue crack propagation behavior in this alloy has been studied at different temperatures. The results on the creep behavior showed that the alloy with nearly lamellar microstructure has a strongly improved creep strength as compared with that of the duplex microstructure

  6. Corrosion of carbon-alloyed iron aluminides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    alloyed intermetallics were susceptible to galvanic corrosion, due to the presence of carbides. Keywords. Corrosion; iron aluminides; Fe3Al; potentiodynamic polarization. 1. Introduction. Ordered intermetallic alloys based on iron aluminides of.

  7. Fabrication and mechanical properties of Fe sub 3 Al-based iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; McKamey, C.G.; Howell, C.R.; Baldwin, R.H.

    1990-03-01

    Iron aluminides based on Fe{sub 3}Al are ordered intermetallic alloys that offer good oxidation resistance, excellent sulfidation resistance, and lower material cost than many stainless steels. These materials also conserve strategic elements such as chromium and have a lower density than stainless steels. However, limited ductility at ambient temperature and a sharp drop in strength have been major deterrents to their acceptance for structural applications. This report presents results on iron aluminides with room-temperature elongations of 15 to 20%. Ductility values were improved by a combination of thermomechanical processing and heat-treatment control. This method of ductility improvement has been demonstrated for a range of compositions. Melting, casting, and processing of 7-kg (15-lb) heats produced at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and 70-kg (150-lb) commercial heats are described. Vacuum melting and other refining processes such as electroslag remelting are recommended for commercial heats. The Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides are hot workable by forging or extruding at temperatures in the range of 850 to 1100{degree}C. rolling at 800{degree}C is recommended with a final 50% reduction at 650{degree}C. Tensile and creep properties of 7- and 70-kg (15- and 150-lb) heats are presented. The presence of impurities such as manganese an silicon played an important role in reducing the ductility of commercially melted heats. 7 refs., 60 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. A comparative study on laser processing of commercially available titanium aluminide (TI-48AL-2CR-2NB) and in-situ alloying of titanium aluminide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hoosain, Shaik E

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available -phase composition of Ti-48Al [4,5,6,8]. The best ductility observed in Ti-48Al was hypothesised to be governed by an optimum volume ratio of the alpha and gamma phases, below which grain growth becomes pronounced when heat treated in the α+ γ phase field..., and above which the brittle alpha-2 phase eliminates the beneficial effect of the refined microstructure [7,9,10]. Additions of chromium increase the ductility of two phase gamma alloys but have no obvious effect in single-phase alloys containing more than...

  9. Constitution of Ni-Al-Ti system studied by scanning electron microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršík, Jiří; Brož, P.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 17, - (2009), s. 591-595 ISSN 0966-9795 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : nickel aluminides based on NiAl * titanium aluminides based on TiAl * phase diagram Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.231, year: 2009

  10. Environmental effect of S02-bearing atmosphere on the creep fatigue failure of aluminide-coated MM-002 nickel-base superalloy at 870°C

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aghion, E

    1995-04-15

    Full Text Available High-temperature low-cycle fatigue (HTLCF) failure mechanisms of aluminide-coated MAR-M002 nickel-base superalloy in air, argon and Ar+5% SO2 atmospheres were investigated at 870°C. The loading conditions were constant and consisted of creep tension...

  11. Titanium Aluminide Casting Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bünck, Matthias; Stoyanov, Todor; Schievenbusch, Jan; Michels, Heiner; Gußfeld, Alexander

    2017-12-01

    Titanium aluminide alloys have been successfully introduced into civil aircraft engine technology in recent years, and a significant order volume increase is expected in the near future. Due to its beneficial buy-to-fly ratio, investment casting bears the highest potential for cost reduction of all competing production technologies for TiAl-LPTB. However, highest mechanical properties can be achieved by TiAl forging. In view of this, Access e.V. has developed technologies for the production of TiAl investment cast parts and TiAl die cast billets for forging purposes. While these parts meet the highest requirements, establishing series production and further optimizing resource and economic efficiency are present challenges. In order to meet these goals, Access has recently been certified according to aircraft standards, aiming at qualifying parts for production on technology readiness level 6. The present work gives an overview of the phases of development and certification.

  12. Making iron aluminides out of scrap

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Doris Feijó Leão; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano; Schön, Cláudio Geraldo

    2014-01-01

    The abundance of iron and aluminum raw materials is often quoted as a strategic advantage of iron aluminides against other competing materials (not only stainless steels, but also nickel and titanium aluminides). These raw materials, however, are not only abundant in the form of ores in earth's crust, but also as scrap produced in the extensive technological activity associated with these base metals. The present work reports results of two prospective experiments designed for obtaining iron ...

  13. Microstructure and wear resistance of a laser clad TiC reinforced nickel aluminides matrix composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.; Wang, H.M.

    2004-01-01

    Wear resistant TiC/(NiAl-Ni 3 Al) composite coating was fabricated on a substrate of electrolyzed nickel by laser cladding using Ni-Al-Ti-C alloy powders. The laser clad coating is metallurgically bonded to the substrate and has a homogenous fine microstructure consisting of the flower-like equiaxed TiC dendrite and the dual phase matrix of NiAl and Ni 3 Al. The intermetallic matrix composite coating exhibits excellent wear resistance under both room- and high-temperature sliding wear test conditions due to the high hardness of TiC coupled with the strong atomic bonds of intermetallic matrix

  14. Relationship of interaction of titanium aluminides with alloying elements as a basis for design of high-temperature alloys and composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povarova, K.B.; Bannykh, O.A.; Antonova, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    One analyzed the available ternary phase diagrams of Ti-Al-AE where AE - alloying metal or metalloid. Nature of interaction of titanium aluminides, in particular, α 2 -Ti 3 Al, γ-TiAl and TiAl 3 with alloying elements (AE) in the uninvestigated systems was hypothesized with regard to the available binary and ternary phase diagrams and data on electron structure of AE. One determined that structure of Ti-Al-AE ternary phase diagrams, namely, position of domains of γ-TiAl and α 2 -Ti 3 Al base solid solutions, nature of substitution for AE positions in Ti or Al sublattices and position of (α 2 +γ)/γ domain boundary were governed by likeness or difference of electron structure of AE and of the substituted metal (Ti or Al) in titanium aluminide lattice and by value of dimension factor (difference of atomic radii of Al and Ti or Al). One analyzed promises offered by application of solid solution alloying and microalloying of aluminides by I-VIII group metals of the Periodic System [ru

  15. Characterization of new aluminides found in the ThT2Al20 alloys (where T = Ti, V, Mn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bram, Avraham I.; Venkert, Arie; Meshi, Louisa

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New ThV 2 Al 20 , ThTi 2 Al 20 , ThMn 2 Al 10 and pseudo-binary Th 3 Al 11 phases were revealed. • ThV 2 Al 20 and ThTi 2 Al 20 phases belong to the Cr 2 Mg 3 Al 18 structure type. • ThMn 2 Al 10 phase possesses the YbFe 2 Al 10 -type structure. • The Th 3 Al 11 phase was found to be isostructural to La 3 Al 11 . • It was proposed that metastable Th 3 Al 11 phase is stabilized by small amount of V. - Abstract: During the investigations on the Al-rich corner of the Th–T–Al system (where T = Ti, V, Mn), new intermetallic phases were revealed: ternary ThV 2 Al 20 , ThTi 2 Al 20 , ThMn 2 Al 10 and pseudo-binary Th 3 Al 11 (containing traces of vanadium). Their structure was investigated by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction methods. Refinement of these structures was performed applying Rietveld analysis on X-ray diffraction data. It was established that ThV 2 Al 20 and ThTi 2 Al 20 phases can be ascribed to the CeCr 2 Al 20 structure type, while ThMn 2 Al 10 possesses the YbFe 2 Al 10 -type structure. The pseudo-binary (Th 1−x V x ) 3 Al 11 phase was found to be orthorhombic (Immm; a = 4.4354(8) Å, b = 13.8394(9) Å and c = 10.3486(5) Å), isostructural to La 3 Al 11 . It was proposed that metastable Th 3 Al 11 phase can be stabilized by small amount of vanadium, which was found in its content

  16. Two phase titanium aluminide alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deevi, Seetharama C. (Midlothian, VA); Liu, C. T. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A two-phase titanic aluminide alloy having a lamellar microstructure with little intercolony structures. The alloy can include fine particles such as boride particles at colony boundaries and/or grain boundary equiaxed structures. The alloy can include alloying additions such as .ltoreq.10 at % W, Nb and/or Mo. The alloy can be free of Cr, V, Mn, Cu and/or Ni and can include, in atomic %, 45 to 55% Ti, 40 to 50% Al, 1 to 5% Nb, 0.3 to 2% W, up to 1% Mo and 0.1 to 0.3% B. In weight %, the alloy can include 57 to 60% Ti, 30 to 32% Al, 4 to 9% Nb, up to 2% Mo, 2 to 8% W and 0.02 to 0.08% B.

  17. Corrosion performance of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1993-03-01

    Iron aluminides are being developed for use as structural materials and/or cladding alloys in fossil energy systems. Extensive development has been in progress on Fe[sub 3]Al-based alloys to improve the engineering ductility of these alloys. This paper describes results from the ongoing program to evaluate the corrosion performance of these alloys. The experimental program at Argonne National Laboratory involvesthermogravimetric analyses of alloys exposed to environments that simulate coal gasification and fluidized-bed combustion. Experiments were conducted at 650--1000[degrees]C in simulated oxygen/sulfur gas mixtures. In addition, oxidation/sulfidation behavior of several alumina-forming Fe-Al and Fe-Cr-Ni-Al alloys was determined for comparison with the corrosion rates obtained on iron aluminides. Other aspects of the program are corrosion evaluation of the aluminides in the presence of HC1-containing gases and in the presence of slag from a slogging gasifier. Results are used to establish threshold Al levels in the alloys for development of protective alumina scales. Thermal cycling tests are used to examine the spalling resistance of the scales.

  18. Corrosion performance of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.

    1993-03-01

    Iron aluminides are being developed for use as structural materials and/or cladding alloys in fossil energy systems. Extensive development has been in progress on Fe{sub 3}Al-based alloys to improve the engineering ductility of these alloys. This paper describes results from the ongoing program to evaluate the corrosion performance of these alloys. The experimental program at Argonne National Laboratory involvesthermogravimetric analyses of alloys exposed to environments that simulate coal gasification and fluidized-bed combustion. Experiments were conducted at 650--1000{degrees}C in simulated oxygen/sulfur gas mixtures. In addition, oxidation/sulfidation behavior of several alumina-forming Fe-Al and Fe-Cr-Ni-Al alloys was determined for comparison with the corrosion rates obtained on iron aluminides. Other aspects of the program are corrosion evaluation of the aluminides in the presence of HC1-containing gases and in the presence of slag from a slogging gasifier. Results are used to establish threshold Al levels in the alloys for development of protective alumina scales. Thermal cycling tests are used to examine the spalling resistance of the scales.

  19. Hydrostatic Compression Behavior and High-Pressure Stabilized β-Phase in γ-Based Titanium Aluminide Intermetallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus-Dieter Liss

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Titanium aluminides find application in modern light-weight, high-temperature turbines, such as aircraft engines, but suffer from poor plasticity during manufacturing and processing. Huge forging presses enable materials processing in the 10-GPa range, and hence, it is necessary to investigate the phase diagrams of candidate materials under these extreme conditions. Here, we report on an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction study in a large-volume press of a modern (α2 + γ two-phase material, Ti-45Al-7.5Nb-0.25C, under pressures up to 9.6 GPa and temperatures up to 1686 K. At room temperature, the volume response to pressure is accommodated by the transformation γ → α2, rather than volumetric strain, expressed by the apparently high bulk moduli of both constituent phases. Crystallographic aspects, specifically lattice strain and atomic order, are discussed in detail. It is interesting to note that this transformation takes place despite an increase in atomic volume, which is due to the high ordering energy of γ. Upon heating under high pressure, both the eutectoid and γ-solvus transition temperatures are elevated, and a third, cubic β-phase is stabilized above 1350 K. Earlier research has shown that this β-phase is very ductile during plastic deformation, essential in near-conventional forging processes. Here, we were able to identify an ideal processing window for near-conventional forging, while the presence of the detrimental β-phase is not present under operating conditions. Novel processing routes can be defined from these findings.

  20. Cost-Effective Powder Metallurgy TiAl-Based Components For Aerospace Use Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) alloys with their low density (~3.9g/cm3), good elevated temperature strength, stiffness, creep resistance and acceptable burn and...

  1. Cost-Effective Powder Metallurgy TiAl-Based Components For Aerospace Use, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) alloys with their low density (~3.9g/cm3), good elevated temperature strength, stiffness, creep resistance and acceptable burn and...

  2. Development of ion-plated aluminide diffusion coatings for thermal cyclic oxidation and hot corrosion protection of a nickel-based superalloy and a stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsawy, Abdel Raouf

    This project was carried out at the University of Toronto and Cametoid Ltd of Whitby, Ontario. Ohno continuous casting; a novel net shape casting technique, was used to generate, Al-Y, Al-Ce, Al-La, and Al-Si-Y, in form of 1.6 to 1.7 mm diameter alloy wires. These alloy wires exhibited suitable properties for use as feed materials to an Ion Vapor Deposition facility. The deposition parameters were optimized to provide coatings with a compact and cohesive columnar structure with reduced porosity and diffusion barriers that were essential to ensure the success of the diffusion process in the subsequent stage. Solid-state diffusion heat treatment processes were developed in order to form the stable aluminide phases, AlNi and FeAl, on IN738 and S310 substrates, respectively. Experiments simulating the coating service conditions and environments encountered during the prospective aerospace and fuel cell applications were conducted to evaluate the performance of each aluminide coating developed during this study. Thermal cyclic oxidation and molten sulfate corrosion studies were performed on coated IN738 pins at 1050°C and 900°C, respectively, simulating the service environment of turbine engine blades and other hot section components. Molten carbonate corrosion behavior was investigated for coated S310 coupons that were immersed in, or covered with a thin film of molten carbonate, at 650°C, in air plus 30%CO2, to simulate the operating conditions of the cathode-side separator plates of molten carbonate fuel cells. The behavior of the reactive elements, yttrium, cerium, lanthanum, and silicon in enhancing the adhesion of the protective aluminum oxide scale was determined by weight variation experiments, structural examination and compositional analysis. The influence of the base material elements, nickel, chromium, and iron, on the formation of protective oxides was investigated. All coatings were found to provide significant improvement for thermal cyclic oxidation

  3. Aqueous Corrosion Characteristics of Nickel Aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jung Gu

    1996-01-01

    The aqueous corrosion characteristics of three nickel aluminides were studied by using (a) immersion corrosion test and (b) cyclic anodic polarization measurements. The immersion tests were conducted in 15 different solutions at 25 .deg. C and 95 .deg. C. The nickel aluminides were found to have good corrosion resistance in inorganic acids, organic acids and basic solutions 25 .deg. C except at a higher concentration of hydrochloric acid in ferric chloride solution at the temperature. All three nickel aluminides were suitably resistant to corrosion in the organic acids (oxalic acid, acetic acid), sodium chloride solution, and bases (sodium hydoxide, ammonium hydroxide) at 95 .deg. C. The cyclic anodic polarization curves were developed in N 2 -deaerated solution at 25 .deg. C and 95 .deg. C. In addition, open-circuit corrosion potentials were determined for the solutions in the aerated condition at 25 .deg. C to compare with the anodic curves. At 25 .deg. C, although all materials exhibited active-passive behavior in all solutions except the hydrofluoric acid, at E corr (aerated), passive corrosion was only indicated for the acetic acid, sodium hydroxide, and sodium chloride solutions. Nevertheless, in all cases, the predicted dissolution rates were consistent with immersion test results. Hysteresis loops indicating susceptibility to localized corrosion were observed in 0.6M sodium chloride(pH=7) solution. At 95 .deg. C, active-passive behavior was demonstrated in the acetic acid, sodium chloride, and to a limited extent in the nitric acid: but only active behavior was shown in the sulfuric and hydrofluoric acids. From the above results, it was noted that anodic dissolution of nickel aluminides significantly increased with increasing temperature and that the Cr-containing compositions had better corrosion resistance in several solutions than the Cr-free composition. Prior manufacturing procedures, i.e., casting and powder metallurgy processes did not appear to

  4. Microstructure and phase morphology during thermochemical processing of {alpha}{sub 2}-based titanium aluminide castings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqib, M. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Apgar, L.S. [Dayton Univ., OH (United States). Graduate Materials Engineering; Eylon, D. [Dayton Univ., OH (United States). Graduate Materials Engineering; Weiss, I. [Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Changes in the microstructure, volume fraction and distribution of phases during different stages of thermochemical processing of Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo (at.%) castings were investigated. Up to 14.5 at.% (0.35 wt.%) of hydrogen was introduced into the material by gas charging at temperatures between 650 and 980 C for times up to 20 h. The material was subsequently dehydrogenated by vacuum annealing at 650 C for 48 h. Investment cast Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo alloy, hot isostatically pressed (HIP) at 1175 C at 260 MPa for 6 h, was used as the starting material. The microstructure of the as-HIP material consists of {alpha}{sub 2}, B2 and orthorhombic phases. The {alpha}{sub 2} phase exists in equiaxed, Widmanstaeten and cellular morphologies. The B2 phase is observed mainly along {alpha}{sub 2}/{alpha}{sub 2} boundaries. Some {alpha}{sub 2} Widmanstaeten also contain very fine orthorhombic phase in a plate-like morphology. Hydrogenation of the material modified the microstructure; however, the morphology of the {alpha}{sub 2} and B2 phases did not change. Furthermore, hydride precipitation and a higher volume fraction of the orthorhombic phase were observed compared with the as-HIP material. Following dehydrogenation, the hydrogen level in the material was found to be less than 0.1 at.% (0.0025wt.%). Transmission electron microscopy of the dehydrogenated material did not reveal the presence of hydride precipitates; however, the high volume fraction of the orthorhombic phase was found to persist following dehydrogenation. (orig.)

  5. In-situ neutron diffraction study of thermal phase stability in a gamma-TiAl based alloy doped with Mo and/or C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beran, Přemysl; Petrenec, M.; Heczko, Milan; Smetana, B.; Žaludová, M.; Šmíd, Miroslav; Kruml, Tomáš; Keller, L.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 54, NOV (2014), s. 28-38 ISSN 0966-9795 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/11/0704 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : Titanium aluminides based on TiAl * order / disorder transformations * phase diagrams * site occupancy * diffraction * aero-engine components Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics (UFM-A) Impact factor: 2.131, year: 2014

  6. Effect of microstructures on the hydrogen attack to gamma titanium aluminide at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamzah, E.; Suardi, K.; Ourdjini, A.

    2005-01-01

    Intermetallic alloys based on gamma titanium aluminide are now regarded as promising candidates for high temperature applications such as for aerospace, marine and automotive engine components, due to their high specific strength and modulus. Their oxidation resistance is good, especially at intermediate and high temperature; oxidation resistance can be obtained up to 800 deg. C. One critical area of application is in combustion engines in aerospace vehicles such as hypersonic airplanes and high-speed civil transport airplanes. This entails the use of hydrogen as a fuel component and it has been widely reported by researchers that these materials exhibit corrosion in the form of environment embrittlement in the presence of hydrogen. A fair amount of research has been carried out to investigate the influence of hydrogen in γ-titanium aluminide. Some researchers reported that α 2 and lamellar phases had major influence in the susceptible of hydrogen to alloys, while hydrogen is too low to penetrate the γ-phases. This research focused on the effect of different microstructures of γ-titanium aluminide to the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen (D) and the corrosion product after hydrogen attack. Modification of γ-titanium aluminide can be achieved by heat treatment of as-cast binary samples Ti-45% Al and Ti-48% Al. All samples were then subjected to corrosion attack under cathodically charged with galvanostatic mode for 6 h. The potential variation with time was monitored from these data the values of the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen (D) to γ-titanium aluminide was obtained. D was calculated based on Fick's second Law. These results were compared with that obtained from micro-Vickers hardness profiling, which was measured at cross-section area per depth from the top corroded surface. The hardness values were calculated using the error function equation. An image analyzer; X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron microscope (SEM) and secondary ion mass

  7. Effect of microstructures on the hydrogen attack to gamma titanium aluminide at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamzah, E. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Technologi Malaysia 81310, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)]. E-mail: esah@fkm.utm.my; Suardi, K. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Technologi Malaysia 81310, Johor Bahru (Malaysia); Ourdjini, A. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Technologi Malaysia 81310, Johor Bahru (Malaysia)

    2005-04-25

    Intermetallic alloys based on gamma titanium aluminide are now regarded as promising candidates for high temperature applications such as for aerospace, marine and automotive engine components, due to their high specific strength and modulus. Their oxidation resistance is good, especially at intermediate and high temperature; oxidation resistance can be obtained up to 800 deg. C. One critical area of application is in combustion engines in aerospace vehicles such as hypersonic airplanes and high-speed civil transport airplanes. This entails the use of hydrogen as a fuel component and it has been widely reported by researchers that these materials exhibit corrosion in the form of environment embrittlement in the presence of hydrogen. A fair amount of research has been carried out to investigate the influence of hydrogen in {gamma}-titanium aluminide. Some researchers reported that {alpha}{sub 2} and lamellar phases had major influence in the susceptible of hydrogen to alloys, while hydrogen is too low to penetrate the {gamma}-phases. This research focused on the effect of different microstructures of {gamma}-titanium aluminide to the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen (D) and the corrosion product after hydrogen attack. Modification of {gamma}-titanium aluminide can be achieved by heat treatment of as-cast binary samples Ti-45% Al and Ti-48% Al. All samples were then subjected to corrosion attack under cathodically charged with galvanostatic mode for 6 h. The potential variation with time was monitored from these data the values of the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen (D) to {gamma}-titanium aluminide was obtained. D was calculated based on Fick's second Law. These results were compared with that obtained from micro-Vickers hardness profiling, which was measured at cross-section area per depth from the top corroded surface. The hardness values were calculated using the error function equation. An image analyzer; X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron

  8. Structural formation of aluminide phases on titanium alloy during annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamaeva, A.A.; Romankov, S.E.; Sagdoldina, Zh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The aluminum layer on the surface of titanium alloy has been formed by thermal deposition. The structural formation of aluminide phases on the surface has been studied. The sequence of structural transformations at the Ti/Al interface is limited by the reaction temperature and time. The sequence of aluminide phase formation is occurred in compliance with Ti-Al equilibrium phase diagram. At the initial stages at the Ti/Al interface the Al3Ti alloy starts forming as a result of interdiffusion, and gradually the whole aluminum films is spent on the formation of this layer. The Al3Ti layer decomposes with the increase of temperature (>600C). At 800C the two-phase (Ti3Al+TiAl) layer is formed on the titanium surface. The TiAl compound is unstable and later on with the increase of the exposure time at 800C gradually transforms into the Ti3Al. The chain of these successive transformations leads to the formation of the continuous homogeneous layer consisting of the Ti3Al compound on the surface. At temperatures exceeding the allotropic transformation temperature (>900C) the Ti3Al compound starts decomposing. All structural changes taking place at the Ti/Al interface are accompanied by considerable changes in micro hardness. The structure of initial substrate influences on kinetics of phase transformation and microstructure development. (author)

  9. Development of a dynamic recrystallization model for a β-solidifying titanium aluminide alloy using Kocks-Mecking plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, Markus; Sizova, Irina; Bolz, Sebastian; Weiß, Sabine

    2016-10-01

    Intermetallic titanium aluminide alloys are of growing interest for aerospace and automotive industries due to their remarkable mechanical properties at elevated temperature. The present study focusses on the investigation of the high-temperature deformation behavior of an intermetallic alloy with the nominal composition Ti-44.5Al-6.25Nb-0.8Mo-0.1B. Isothermal compression tests were conducted on a Gleeble 3500 simulator. The flow curves were transformed into Kocks-Mecking plots, where remarkable features such as the absence of stage-III hardening and an inflection point marking the onset of dynamic recrystallization were observed. Based on these observations, a phenomenological flow stress model was devised which incorporates the observations revealed through the Kocks-Mecking plots and reproduces the course of flow stress up to the peak stress and towards the steady-state well. The model may hence be used in finite element simulations of isothermal forging of titanium aluminides.

  10. Texture of uniaxial compressed two-phase titanium-aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermig, G.; Tobisch, J.; Brokmeier, H.G.; Wurzwallner, K.

    1993-01-01

    Texture is, among others, an essential parameter to document the different states of a polycrystalline material from production to application. Therefore, texture studies were carried out in γ-base titanium aluminide series, Ti-48at%Al and Ti-48at%Al-2at%Cr, in order to describe their microstructural changes during uniaxial compression. The fabrication of the material started by casting an ingot of the desired composition. After hot isostatic pressing (HIP) the specimens were deformed up to 77% with a compression rate of ∼ 10mm/s, X-ray diffraction and microscopical investigations confirm the expected two-phase material composition of tetragonal γ-Tial and hexagonal α 2 -Ti 3 Al respectively. The texture measurements were carried out by X-ray as well as by neutron diffraction. A comparison of both techniques is necessary in order to document that only a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction allows to obtain the whole texture information of all samples. Finally, the determined textures are discussed in correlation with deformation. (orig.)

  11. The effects of HIP processing on microstructure and phase relations in. alpha. sub 2 -base titanium aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saqib, M. (Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States)); Apgar, L.S.; Eylon, D. (Graduate Materials Engineering, Univ. of Dayton, OH (United States)); Weiss, I. (Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Wright State Univ., Dayton, OH (United States))

    1992-05-30

    Cast {alpha}{sub 2}-base alloy (Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo, at.%) underwent hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at temperatures ranging from 925 to 1125degC and pressures of 100-270 MPa. Effects of temperature and pressure during HIP, on microstructure and volume fraction of the phases present, were investigated. Microstructural characterization was carried out using optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The phases present were identified using selected area and convergent beam electron diffraction. Volume fraction of the phases was determined using X-ray diffraction. Optimum refinement in the microstructure was obtained following HIP at 1020degC/262 MPa/6 h. The volume fraction of the B2 phase increased from 12% in the as-cast condition to 45% following HIP at 982degC/262 MPa/6 h. Experiments on forged Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo alloy demonstrated that changes in volume fraction of the phases owing to HIP was applicable for cast as well as forged material. Sharp decrease in the volume fraction of the B2 phase was observed when as-HIP materials were aged at elevated temperature. Possible mechanisms of these changes in the phase stability and microstructure are discussed. (orig.).

  12. As-cast titanium aluminides microstructure modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Duarte

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Two cast g titanium aluminides, Ti47Al and Ti50Al (at. %, were obtained by arc melting under an argon atmosphere. The as-cast microstructure modification by annealing under protective argon atmosphere and hot isostatic pressing (HIP was analysed by optical and scanning electron microscopy with microanalysis facilities. As-cast structures presented strong microsegregations, being composed of primary a dendrites (with low Al content, which transformed into lamellar a2 + g during solid state cooling, and interdendritic g phase (with high Al content. Annealing in the a + g field was responsible for a partial reduction of microsegregation, a decreasing of the volume fraction of a2 + g lamellar dendrites, an increasing of g volume fraction and the occurrence of a small fraction of a2 particles and plates in some of the g grains. Annealing in the a field at 1400 °C for one hour was insufficient to eliminate the as-cast microstructure in the Ti50Al alloy and produced large equiaxed lamellar colonies of a2+g in the Ti47Al alloy. HIP in the a + g field (to avoid excessive grain growth was responsible for microstructure modifications similar to the ones obtained by heat treating under similar soaking conditions.

  13. High-temperature oxidation of silicide-aluminide layer on the TiAl6V4 alloy prepared by liquid-phase siliconizing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2016), s. 257-261 ISSN 1580-2949 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : TiAl6V4 * silicides * high-temperature oxidation * liquid-phase silicon izing Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.436, year: 2016

  14. Thermal and Irradiation Creep Behavior of a Titanium Aluminide in Advanced Nuclear Plant Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Per; Chen, Jiachao; Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Titanium aluminides are well-accepted elevated temperature materials. In conventional applications, their poor oxidation resistance limits the maximum operating temperature. Advanced reactors operate in nonoxidizing environments. This could enlarge the applicability of these materials to higher temperatures. The behavior of a cast gamma-alpha-2 TiAl was investigated under thermal and irradiation conditions. Irradiation creep was studied in beam using helium implantation. Dog-bone samples of dimensions 10 × 2 × 0.2 mm3 were investigated in a temperature range of 300 °C to 500 °C under irradiation, and significant creep strains were detected. At temperatures above 500 °C, thermal creep becomes the predominant mechanism. Thermal creep was investigated at temperatures up to 900 °C without irradiation with samples of the same geometry. The results are compared with other materials considered for advanced fission applications. These are a ferritic oxide-dispersion-strengthened material (PM2000) and the nickel-base superalloy IN617. A better thermal creep behavior than IN617 was found in the entire temperature range. Up to 900 °C, the expected 104 hour stress rupture properties exceeded even those of the ODS alloy. The irradiation creep performance of the titanium aluminide was comparable with the ODS steels. For IN617, no irradiation creep experiments were performed due to the expected low irradiation resistance (swelling, helium embrittlement) of nickel-base alloys.

  15. Microstructures and superplasticity in near-gamma titanium aluminide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bampton, C.C.; Martin, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    Microstructure control by thermomechanical processing in near-gamma titanium aluminide alloys has recently progressed to a point where the authors are able to reliably produce a wide range of microstructures in a single alloy. The authors are now studying the basic superplastic deformation microstructures. Correlations are made between microstructural details and flow stress, strain hardening, strain-rate hardening, necking, cavitation and failure. Special emphasis is given to the cavitation behavior since this phenomenon may constitute a major limitation to the useful application of superplastic forming for gamma TiAl structures

  16. Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jian; Qi, Junlei; Song, Xiaoguo; Feng, Jicai

    2014-01-01

    Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing–microstructure–property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials. PMID:28788113

  17. Welding and Joining of Titanium Aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Cao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Welding and joining of titanium aluminides is the key to making them more attractive in industrial fields. The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of recent progress in welding and joining of titanium aluminides, as well as to introduce current research and application. The possible methods available for titanium aluminides involve brazing, diffusion bonding, fusion welding, friction welding and reactive joining. Of the numerous methods, solid-state diffusion bonding and vacuum brazing have been most heavily investigated for producing reliable joints. The current state of understanding and development of every welding and joining method for titanium aluminides is addressed respectively. The focus is on the fundamental understanding of microstructure characteristics and processing–microstructure–property relationships in the welding and joining of titanium aluminides to themselves and to other materials.

  18. Microstructure and hot corrosion behaviors of two Co modified aluminide coatings on a Ni-based superalloy at 700 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Q. X.; Jiang, S. M.; Yu, H. J.; Gong, J.; Sun, C.

    2014-08-01

    Two Co modified aluminide coatings with different Co contents were prepared by pack cementation process and above-the-pack process. The hot corrosion tests of the two coatings were performed in mixed salts of 75 wt.% Na2SO4 + 25 wt.% K2SO4 and 75 wt.% Na2SO4 + 25 wt.% NaCl at 700 °C, with a simple aluminide coating as the reference coating. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) were used to characterize the coatings and the corrosion scales. Results indicate that the addition of Co improves the hot corrosion resistance of the simple aluminide coating in the mixed sulfate salts, for the sulfide as well as its eutectic of cobalt are more stable, and possess higher melting points than those of nickel. While in the mixed salt containing chloride, the coating with medium Co content possesses the best corrosion resistance, primarily because the nitrides formed in the deposition process deteriorate the corrosion resistance of the coating with highest Co content.

  19. Design and properties of advanced γ(TiAl) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appel, F.; Clemens, H.; Oehring, M.

    2001-01-01

    Intermetallic titanium aluminides are one of the few classes of emerging materials that have the potential to be used in demanding high-temperature structural applications whenever specific strength and stiffness are of major concern. However, in order to effectively replace the heavier nickel-base superalloys currently use, titanium aluminides must combine a wide range of mechanical property capabilities. Advanced alloy designs are tailored for strength, toughness, creep resistance, and environmental stability. Some of these concerns are addressed in the present paper through global commentary on the physical metallurgy and technology of gamma TiAl-base alloys. Particular emphasis is paid on recent developments of TiAl alloys with enhanced high-temperature capability. (author)

  20. Isothermal deformation of gamma titanium aluminide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, R.; Singh, J.P.; Tuval, E.; Weiss, I.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma titanium aluminide has received considerable attention in recent years from the automotive industry as a potential material for making rotating and reciprocating components to produce a quieter and more efficient engine. The objectives of this study were to identify processing routes for the manufacture of automobile valves from gamma titanium aluminide. The issues considered were microstructure and composition of the material, and processing parameters such as deformation rates, temperatures, and total deformation. This paper examines isothermal deformation of gamma titanium aluminide in order to develop a processing window for this type of material

  1. Microstructure and hot corrosion behaviors of two Co modified aluminide coatings on a Ni-based superalloy at 700 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Q.X., E-mail: qxfan@imr.ac.cn; Jiang, S.M., E-mail: smjiang@imr.ac.cn; Yu, H.J.; Gong, J.; Sun, C.

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Microstructures of two Co modified NiAl coatings have been studied. • The addition of Co improves the corrosion resistance in sulfate salts at 700 °C. • For the sulfide and its eutectic of Co are more stable than those of Ni. • In chloride salts coating with medium Co content has best corrosion resistance. - Abstract: Two Co modified aluminide coatings with different Co contents were prepared by pack cementation process and above-the-pack process. The hot corrosion tests of the two coatings were performed in mixed salts of 75 wt.% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 25 wt.% K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 75 wt.% Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 25 wt.% NaCl at 700 °C, with a simple aluminide coating as the reference coating. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) were used to characterize the coatings and the corrosion scales. Results indicate that the addition of Co improves the hot corrosion resistance of the simple aluminide coating in the mixed sulfate salts, for the sulfide as well as its eutectic of cobalt are more stable, and possess higher melting points than those of nickel. While in the mixed salt containing chloride, the coating with medium Co content possesses the best corrosion resistance, primarily because the nitrides formed in the deposition process deteriorate the corrosion resistance of the coating with highest Co content.

  2. Microstructure evaluation and mechanical behavior of high-niobium containing titanium aluminides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Glenn Estep, Jr.

    Ti-Al-Nb-based alloys with gamma(TiAl)+sigma(Nb2Al) microstructure have shown promise for potential high temperature applications due to their high specific strength. Recent research has been aimed towards increasing strength and operating temperatures through microstructural refinement and control. Alloys with 10 - 30% sigma-phase have been investigated, exploring relationships between chemistry, microstructure development, and flow behavior. Alloys with composition Ti-45Al-xNb-5Cr-1Mo (where x = 15, 20, 25 at%) have been produced, characterized, and tested at high temperature under compression. Processing, microstructure and mechanical property relationships are thoroughly investigated to reveal a significant connection between phase stability, morphology and their resultant effects on mechanical properties. Phase transformation temperatures and stability ranges were predicted using the ThermoCalc software program and a titanium aluminide database, investigated through thermal analysis, and alloys were heat treated to develop an ultrafine gamma+sigma microstructure. It has been demonstrated that microstructural development in these alloys is sensitive to composition and processing parameters, and heating and cooling rates are vital to the modification of gamma+sigma microstructure in these alloys. Towards the goal of designing a high-Nb titanium aluminide with ultrafine, disconnected gamma+sigma morphology, it has been established that microstructural control can be accomplished in alloys containing 15-25at% Nb through targeted chemistry and processing controls. The strength and flow softening characteristics show strain rate sensitivity that is also affected by temperature. From the standpoint of microstructure development and mechanical behavior at elevated temperature, the most favorable results are obtained with the 20 at% Nb alloy, which produces a combination of high strength and fine disconnected gamma+sigma microstructure. Microstructural analysis reveals

  3. Development and Processing of Nickel Aluminide-Carbide Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, Timothy Scott

    1996-01-01

    With the upper temperature limit of the Ni-based superalloys attained, a new class of materials is required. Intermetallics appear as likely candidates because of their attractive physical properties. With a relatively low density, high thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance, high melting point, and simple crystal structure, nickel aluminide (NiAl) appears to be a potential candidate. However, NiAl is limited in structural applications due to its low room temperature fracture toughness and poor elevated temperature strength. One approach to improving these properties has been through the application of eutectic composites. Researchers have shown that containerless directional solidification of NiAl-based eutectic alloys can provide improvement in both the creep strength and fracture toughness. Although these systems have shown improvements in the mechanical properties, the presence of refractory metals increases the density significantly in some alloys. Lower density systems, such as the carbides, nitrides, and borides, may provide NiAl-based eutectic structure. With little or no information available on these systems, experimental investigation is required. The objective of this research was to locate and develop NiAl-carbide eutectic alloys. Exploratory arc-melts were performed in NiAl-refractory metal-C systems. Refractory metal systems investigated included Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, and Zr. Systems containing carbides with excellent stability (i.e.,HfC, NbC, TaC, TiC, and ZrC) produced large blocky cubic carbides in an NiAl matrix. The carbides appeared to have formed in the liquid state and were randomly distributed throughout the polycrystalline NiAl. The Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and W systems contained NiAl dendrites with a two-phase interdendritic microconstituent present. Of these systems, the NiAl-Mo-C system had the most promising microstructure for in-situ composites. Three processing techniques were used to evaluate the NiAl-Mo-C system

  4. Structure and Properties of the Aluminide Coatings on the Inconel 625 Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamiak, Stanisław; Bochnowski, Wojciech; Dziedzic, Andrzej; Filip, Ryszard; Szeregij, Eugeniusz

    2016-01-01

    The research samples used in this study were based on the Inconel 625 alloy; the examined samples were coated with aluminide films deposited in a low-activity chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The samples' microstructure was investigated with optical and electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Hardness measurements were performed using Vickers and Berkovich test methods. The adhesion of the aluminide coating was determined by fractography. It was shown that the fracture mechanism was different for the respective zones of the aluminide coating and the substrate material. The outer zone of the aluminide coating is characterized by an intercrystalline fracture, with a small contribution of transcrystalline fracture within individual grains (large crystallites in the bottom of the zone, composed of smaller crystallites, also show an intercrystalline fracture). The substrate material exhibited a ductile intercrystalline fracture. Based on this investigation, an increase of the microhardness of the material occurring at loads below 0.2 N was observed. When determining microhardness of aluminide coating it is necessary to take into account the optimal choice of the indentation tip.

  5. Synthesis of alpha-aluminum oxide and hafnium-doped beta-nickel aluminide coatings on single crystal nickel-based superalloy by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Limin

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are widely used for air-cooled turbine components in advanced aircraft engines and power generation systems. The dominant failure mode observed in TBCs is progressive fracture of the metal-oxide interface upon oxidation and thermal cycling. Two potential coating methods for improving TBC performance were studied: (1) preparing a high-quality alpha-Al 2O3 coating layer on the surface of a single crystal Ni-based superalloy (Rene N5) to extend the oxidative stability of the interface and (2) doping beta-NiAl bond coating with a small amount of Hf to improve the adhesion of thermally grown oxide (TGO) at the interface. In the first coating method, a novel chemical vapor deposition (CVD) procedure was developed using AlCl3, CO2 and H 2 as precursors. A critical part of this procedure was a short-time pre-oxidation step (1 min) with CO2 and H2 in the CVD chamber, prior to introducing the AlCl3, vapor. Without this pre-oxidation step, extensive whisker formation was observed on the alloy surface. Characterization results showed that the pre-oxidation step resulted in the formation of a continuous oxide layer (˜50 nm) on the alloy surface. The outer part of this layer (˜20 nm) appeared to contain mixed oxides whereas the inner part (˜30 nm) consisted of alpha-Al2O3 as a dominant major phase and theta-Al2O3 as a minor phase. It appeared that the preferential nucleation of beta-Al2O3 in the pre-oxidized layer was promoted by: (1) rapid heating (˜10 sec) of the alloy surface to the temperature region, where alpha-Al 2O3 was expected to nucleate instead of metastable Al 2O3 phases, (2) the low oxygen pressure environment of the pre-oxidation step which kept the rate of oxidation low, and (3) contamination of the CVD chamber with HfCl4. It appeared that the role of HfCl 4 was to enhance the preferential nucleation of alpha-Al2O 3 in the pre-oxidized layer. In our second coating method, we utilized the dynamic versatility of CVD as an avenue

  6. Current status of research and development on nickel and iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; George, E.P.; McKamey, C.G.

    1993-12-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of current status of research and development on nickel and iron aluminides based on Ni{sub 3}Al, NiAl, Fe{sub 3}Al and FeAl. These aluminides possess attractive properties for elevated-temperature structural use; however, brittle fracture and poor fracture resistance have limited their use as engineering materials in many cases. in recent years, considerable effort has been devoted to the study of the brittle fracture behavior of these aluminides; as a result, both intrinsic and extrinsic factors governing brittle fracture have been identified. Surprisingly, moisture-induced hydrogen embrittlement has been recognized as one of the major causes of low ductility and brittle fracture in Ni{sub 3}Al, Fe{sub 3}Al and FeAl at ambient temperatures. These efforts have led to the development of ductile and strong aluminide alloys for structural applications. Industrial interest in these aluminide alloys is high, and several examples of industrial involvement are mentioned.

  7. Material Removal and Specific Energy in the Dynamic Scratching of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.; Lin, H.-T.; Wereszczak, A.A.

    2006-11-30

    Mechanical responses of three gamma titanium aluminides (TiAls) (denoted as Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) subjected to dynamic scratching were studied by using a single-grit pendulum (rotating) scratch tester. The maximum depth of groove was {approx} 0.07 mm, and the scratch velocity was {approx} 1.0 m/s. Normal and tangential forces were monitored. The material removal mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scratches were measured by using a laser profilometer. The mechanical properties of the tested TiAls were characterized by the instantaneous specific energy, scratch resistance and scratch hardness as related to the groove depth. Extensive thermal softening was observed in the dynamic scratch test of the TiAls, which facilitated both the detachment of developing chips and pile-up of material on side ridges. Sizable fractures were observed in the transverse direction in the tested TiAls; these fractures tended to participate in the chip formation, depending on the microstructure of the TiAl and the size of the scratch groove. Specific energy and scratch hardness are depth-dependent to various degrees for the TiAls tested. The material removal might be subjected to different mechanisms, but the overall material response can be effectively characterized by the HEM (Hwang, Evans and Malkin) model and the PSR (proportional specimen resistance) model. The depth-independent specific energy and scratch hardness can be used to screen candidate materials for the applications that are scratch-dominated versus impact-dominated. Among the three tested TiAls, the TiAl with larger colony or grain size exhibits a stronger capability of energy dissipation during material removal (higher depth-independent specific energy), while the TiAl with smaller colony size shows a higher resistance to indentation (higher depth-independent scratch hardness). The observations and conclusions in this study can serve as a base line for the further

  8. Material Removal and Specific Energy in the Dynamic Scratching of Gamma Titanium Aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hong [ORNL; Lin, Hua-Tay [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL

    2006-11-01

    Mechanical responses of three gamma titanium aluminides (TiAls) (denoted as Alloy A, Alloy B and Alloy C) subjected to dynamic scratching were studied by using a single-grit pendulum (rotating) scratch tester. The maximum depth of groove was ~ 0.07 mm, and the scratch velocity used was ~ 1.0 m/s. Normal and tangential forces were monitored. The material removal mechanisms were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and the scratches were measured by using a laser profilometer. The mechanical properties of the tested TiAls were characterized by the instantaneous specific energy, scratch resistance and scratch hardness as related to the depth of groove. Extensive thermal softening was observed in the dynamic scratch of the tested TiAls, which facilitated both the detachments of developing chips and the pile-ups of materials on side ridges. Sizable fractures were observed in the transverse direction on the tested TiAls; these fractures tended to participate in the chip formation, depending on the microstructure of the TiAl and the size of the scratch groove. Specific energy and scratch hardness are depth-dependent to various degrees for the tested TiAls. The materiel removal might be subjected to different mechanisms, but the overall response of materials can be effectively characterized by the HEM (Hwang, Evans and Malkin) model and the PSR (proportional specimen resistance) model. The obtained depth-independent specific energy and scratch hardness can be used to screen the candidate materials for the specific purpose depending on whether the application is scratch-dominant or impact-dominant. Among the three tested TiAls, the TiAl with larger colony or grain size exhibits a stronger capability of energy dissipation in the material loss or material removal (higher depth-independent specific energy), while the TiAl with smaller colony size show a higher resistance against the indentation (higher depth-independent scratch hardness). The observations and

  9. Properties and electronic structures of titanium aluminides-alumina composites from in-situ SHS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.F., E-mail: dinahyfsh@hotmail.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530000 (China); Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Nonferrous Metals and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Zou, Z.G., E-mail: zouzg@glite.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Nonferrous Metals and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Xiao, Z.G.; Liu, K.; Long, F.; Wu, Y. [Key Laboratory of New Processing Technology for Nonferrous Metals and Materials, Ministry of Education, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

    2011-02-25

    Research highlights: {yields} In-situ SHS processing method plus vacuum hot-pressing process were applied. {yields} Mechanical and electronic properties and microscopic structures were studied. {yields} First principle pseudopotential plane-wave-based DFT calculations were performed. - Abstract: Titanium aluminides-alumina composite was synthesized by in-situ self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method, followed by hot-pressing process. To understand the fundamental differences between the composite and A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic, a comparative study was carried out using first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential method based on density functional theory (DFT). XRD analysis of final products confirmed the formation of TiAl, A1{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a small amount of Ti{sub 3}Al phases in the composites and the reaction mechanisms of the process were proposed. SEM observation revealed that a two-phase ({gamma} + {alpha}{sub 2}) TiAl-Ti{sub 3}Al lamellar structure was formed, and the composites exhibited a homogeneous microstructure. Moreover, density of states (DOS), band structure, charge density difference and Mulliken population analysis showed that metallic, covalent and ionic bonding were produced at the interfaces of the composite. O-Al interface bonds showed more covalent character with respect to pure Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Therefore, interface combination of the composite was improved, making the composite tougher (a toughness as high as 7.9 MPa m{sup 1/2}) than monophase Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic.

  10. Method for producing titanium aluminide weld rod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jeffrey S.; Turner, Paul C.; Argetsinger, Edward R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for producing titanium aluminide weld rod comprising: attaching one end of a metal tube to a vacuum line; placing a means between said vacuum line and a junction of the metal tube to prevent powder from entering the vacuum line; inducing a vacuum within the tube; placing a mixture of titanium and aluminum powder in the tube and employing means to impact the powder in the tube to a filled tube; heating the tube in the vacuum at a temperature sufficient to initiate a high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction between the titanium and aluminum; and lowering the temperature to ambient temperature to obtain a intermetallic titanium aluminide alloy weld rod.

  11. Zirconium influence on microstructure of aluminide coatings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 6. Zirconium influence on microstructure of aluminide coatings deposited on nickel substrate by CVD method. Jolanta Romanowska Maryana ... The coatings with and without zirconium were deposited by CVD method. The cross-section chemical composition ...

  12. Making iron aluminides out of scrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Feijó Leão Borges

    2014-04-01

    Oxidation tests at the temperature range of 800–1100 °C under air were performed to demonstrate that these alloys show similar behavior as the ones obtained using conventional processing routes. The results are discussed concerning the viability of this low-cost processing route for the industrial production of iron aluminides.

  13. Large Scale Evaluation fo Nickel Aluminide Rolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This completed project was a joint effort between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Bethlehem Steel (now Mittal Steel) to demonstrate the effectiveness of using nickel aluminide intermetallic alloy rolls as part of an updated, energy-efficient, commercial annealing furnace system.

  14. Zirconium influence on microstructure of aluminide coatings ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Influence of Zr on the microstructure and phase characteristics of aluminide diffusion coatings deposited on the nickel substrate has been investigated in this study. The coatings with and without zirconium were deposited by CVD method. The cross-section chemical composition investigations revealed that during ...

  15. Devising Strain Hardening Models Using Kocks–Mecking Plots—A Comparison of Model Development for Titanium Aluminides and Case Hardening Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Bambach

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the development of strain hardening models taking into account the peculiarities of titanium aluminides. In comparison to steels, whose behavior has been studied extensively in the past, titanium aluminides possess a much larger initial work hardening rate, a sharp peak stress and pronounced softening. The work hardening behavior of a TNB-V4 (Ti–44.5Al–6.25Nb–0.8Mo–0.1B alloy is studied using isothermal hot compression tests conducted on a Gleeble 3500 simulator, and compared to the typical case hardening steel 25MoCrS4. The behavior is analyzed with the help of the Kocks-Mecking plots. In contrast to steel the TNB-V4 alloy shows a non-linear course of θ (i.e., no stage-III hardening initially and exhibits neither a plateau (stage IV hardening nor an inflection point at all deformation conditions. The present paper describes the development and application of a methodology for the design of strain hardening models for the TNB-V4 alloy and the 25CrMoS4 steel by taking the course of the Kocks-Mecking plots into account. Both models use different approaches for the hardening and softening mechanisms and accurately predict the flow stress over a wide range of deformation conditions. The methodology may hence assist in further developments of more sophisticated physically-based strain hardening models for TiAl-alloys.

  16. Physical metallurgy of nickel aluminides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    become incorporated within the NiAl lattice in an ordered fashion. 5.2 Line defects. Deformation in Ni3Al occurs by 〈110〉{111} slip at low temperatures ..... 1992)· This was followed by the appearance of the Nb2Al phase in alloys containing still higher amounts of Ti and Nb as in the alloy Ni45Al45Nb5Ti5. In an alloy having ...

  17. Comparison of Cu and Ti-52A1 in creep at the same homologous temperature and minimum creep rate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orlová, Alena

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 9, - (2001), s. 529-534 ISSN 0966-9795 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/98/1369; GA AV ČR IBS2041001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : titanium aluminides based on TiAl * creep * dislocation geometry and arrangement Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.239, year: 2001

  18. FeAl-TiC and FeAl-WC composites - melt infiltration processing, microstructure and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, R.; Schneibel, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    TiC-based and WC-based cermets were processed with iron aluminide, an intermetallic, as a binder by pressureless melt infiltration to near full density (> 97 % theoretical density). Phase equilibria calculations in the quaternary Fe-Al-Ti-C and Fe-Al-W-C systems at 145{degrees}C were performed to determine the solubility of the carbide phases in liquid iron aluminide. This was done by using Thermocalc{trademark} and the results show that molten Fe-40 at.% Al in equilibrium with Ti{sub 0.512}C{sub 0.488} and graphite, dissolves 4.9 at% carbon and 64 atomic ppm titanium. In the Fe-Al-W-C system, liquid Fe-40 at.% Al in equilibrium with graphite dissolves about 5 at.% carbon and 1 at.% tungsten. Due to the low values for the solubility of the carbide phases in liquid iron aluminide, liquid phase sintering of mixed powders does not yield a dense, homogeneous microstructure for carbide volume fractions greater than 0.70. Melt infiltration of molten FeAl into TiC and WC preforms serves as a successful approach to process cermets with carbide contents ranging from 70 to 90 vol. %, to greater than 97% of theoretical density. Also, the microstructures of cermets prepared by melt infiltration were very homogeneous. Typical properties such as hardness, bend strength and fracture toughness are reported. SEM observations of fracture surfaces suggest the improved fracture toughness to result from the ductility of the intermetallic phase. Preliminary experiments for the evaluation of the oxidation resistance of iron aluminide bonded cermets indicate that they are more resistant than WC-Co cermets.

  19. Method of manufacturing iron aluminide by thermomechanical processing of elemental powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deevi, Seetharama C.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; Sikka, Vinod K.; Hajaligol, Mohammed R.

    2000-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 20 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1 % rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a mixture of aluminum powder and iron powder, shaping the mixture into an article such as by cold rolling the mixture into a sheet, and sintering the article at a temperature sufficient to react the iron and aluminum powders and form iron aluminide. The sintering can be followed by hot or cold rolling to reduce porosity created during the sintering step and optional annealing steps in a vacuum or inert atmosphere.

  20. Weldability of polycrystalline aluminides. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fasching, A.A.; Burt, R.P.; Edwards, G.R.; David, S.A.

    1996-07-01

    When gas-tungsten arc welded, iron aluminides form a coarse fusion zone microstructure which is susceptible to hydrogen cracking. Magnetic arc oscillation and weld pool inoculation were implemented to refine the fusion zone microstructure in iron aluminide alloy FA-129 weldments. Magnetic arc oscillation effectively refined the fusion zone microstructure, and slow strain rate tensile tests showed fine-grained microstructures to be less susceptible to hydrogen cracking. However, magnetic arc oscillation was found to be suitable only for well-controlled fabrication environments. Weld pool inoculation offers a potentially more robust refinement method. Titanium inoculation was also shown to effectively refined the fusion zone microstructure, but weldment properties were not improved using this refinement method. The effect of titanium on the size, shape and distribution of the second phase particles in the fusion zone appears to be the cause of the observed decrease in weldment properties.

  1. Microstructure/processing relationships in high-energy high-rate consolidated powder composites of Nb-stabilized Ti3Al+TiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persad, C.; Lee, B.; Hou, C.; Eliezer, Z.; Marcus, H.L.

    1989-01-01

    A new approach to powder processing is employed in forming titanium aluminide composites. The processing consists of internal heating of a customized powder blend by a fast electrical discharge of a homopolar generator. The high-energy high-rate '1MJ in 1s' pulse permits rapid heating of an electrically conducting powder mixture in a cold wall die. This short time at temperature approach offers the opportunity to control phase transformations and the degree of microstructural coarsening not readily possible with standard powder-processing approaches. This paper describes the consolidation results of titanium aluminide-based powder-composite materials. The focus of this study was the definition of microstructure/processing relationships for each of the composite constituents, first as monoliths and then in composite forms. Non-equilibrium phases present in rapidly solidified TiAl powders are transformed to metastable intermediates en route to the equilibrium gamma phase.

  2. In Situ Characterization Techniques Based on Synchrotron Radiation and Neutrons Applied for the Development of an Engineering Intermetallic Titanium Aluminide Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Erdely

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenging issues concerning energy efficiency and environmental politics require novel approaches to materials design. A recent example with regard to structural materials is the emergence of lightweight intermetallic TiAl alloys. Their excellent high-temperature mechanical properties, low density and high stiffness constitute a profile perfectly suitable for their application as advanced aero-engine turbine blades or as turbocharger turbine wheels in next-generation automotive engines. As the properties of TiAl alloys during processing as well as during service are dependent on the phases occurring, detailed knowledge of their volume fractions and distribution within the microstructure is of paramount importance. Furthermore, the behavior of the individual phases during hot deformation and subsequent heat treatments is of interest to define reliable and cost-effective industrial production processes. In situ high-energy X-ray diffraction methods allow tracing the evolution of phase fractions over a large temperature range. Neutron diffraction unveils information on order-disorder transformations in TiAl alloys. Small-angle scattering experiments offer insights into the materials’ precipitation behavior. This review attempts to shine a light on selected in situ diffraction and scattering techniques and the ways in which they promoted the development of an advanced engineering TiAl alloy.

  3. My Experience with Ti-Ni-Based and Ti-Based Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2017-12-01

    The present author has been studying shape memory alloys including Cu-Al-Ni, Ti-Ni-based, and Ni-free Ti-based alloys since 1979. This paper reviews the present author's research results for the latter two materials since 1981. The topics on the Ti-Ni-based alloys include the achievement of superelasticity in Ti-Ni alloys through understanding of the role of microstructures consisting of dislocations and precipitates, followed by the contribution to the development of application market of shape memory effect and superelasticity, characterization of the R-phase and monoclinic martensitic transformations, clarification of the basic characteristics of fatigue properties, development of sputter-deposited shape memory thin films and fabrication of prototypes of microactuators utilizing thin films, development of high temperature shape memory alloys, and so on. The topics of Ni-free Ti-based shape memory alloys include the characterization of the orthorhombic phase martensitic transformation and related shape memory effect and superelasticity, the effects of texture, omega phase and adding elements on the martensitic transformation and shape memory properties, clarification of the unique effects of oxygen addition to induce non-linear large elasticity, Invar effect and heating-induced martensitic transformation, and so on.

  4. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Haidong; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications. PMID:28788539

  5. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhua Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of aluminide coatings on iron, nickel and superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, John T.; De, P.K.; Dubey, Vivekanand; Srinivasa, Raman

    2009-08-01

    Aluminide coatings are a class of intermetallic coatings applied on nickel and cobalt base superalloys and steels to protect them from different forms of environmental degradation at high temperatures. In this report a CVD system that can produce the aluminide coatings on iron, nickel and nickel base alloys has been described and the result of chemical vapor deposition of aluminide coatings on iron specimens, their characterization, and property evaluation have been presented. The CVD system consists of an AlCl 3 bath, a stainless steel retort as a hot-wall reacto, cold traps and vacuum system. Aluminium chloride vapor was carried in a stream of hydrogen gas at a flow rate of 150 SCCM (standard cubic centimeter per minute) into the CVD reactor maintained in the temperature range of 1173 - 1373 K and at a pressure of 1.33 kPa (10 Torr). Aluminum deposition takes place from aluminium subchlorides produced by reaction between AlCl 3 and pure aluminum kept in the CVD reactor. The aluminum diffuses into the iron samples and iron aluminide phases are formed at the surface. The coatings were shining bright and showed good adherence to the substrate. The coatings consisted of FeAl phase over a wide range of experimental conditions. The growth kinetics of the coating followed a parabolic rate law and the mean activation energy was 212 ±16 kJ/mol. Optical microscopic studies on the transverse section of the coating showed that the aluminide coating on iron consisted of two layers. The top layer had a thickness in the range of 20-50 μm, and the under layer had thickness ranging from 35 to 250 μm depending on coating temperature in two hours. The thickness of the aluminide layer increased with coating duration and temperature. Electron microprobe studies (EPMA) showed that the aluminum concentration decreased steadily as distance from the surface increased. TEM studies showed that the outer most layer had a B2 order (of the FeAl phase), which extended even into the under

  7. In-situ alloyed LENS additively manufactured TiAl-Nb structure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Titanium aluminides (TiAl) are interesting intermetallic materials to study due to their enhanced high temperature and light weight properties. They are necessary as structural materials, but brittle to form with conventional methods. Hence big...

  8. Titanium aluminide intermetallic alloys with improved wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jun; Lin, Hua-Tay; Blau, Peter J.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    2014-07-08

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy composition having an improved wear resistance, the method comprising heating a titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy material in an oxygen-containing environment at a temperature and for a time sufficient to produce a top oxide layer and underlying oxygen-diffused layer, followed by removal of the top oxide layer such that the oxygen-diffused layer is exposed. The invention is also directed to the resulting oxygen-diffused titanium aluminide intermetallic alloy, as well as mechanical components or devices containing the improved alloy composition.

  9. Effect of Mo2C content on the properties of TiC/TiB2 base cermets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Ken-ichi; Osada, Ken; Koike, Wataru; Fujima, Takuya

    2009-01-01

    The effects of Mo 2 C content on the microstructure and mechanical properties of TiC/TiB 2 base cermets were studied using the model cermets with the compositions of TiC/TiB 2 -(11-17)Mo 2 C-24Ni (mass%). TiC and TiB 2 ratio is set to molar ratio of 59:41 that is near quasi-eutectic composition. As a result, both transverse rupture strength and hardness of the cermets showed maxima for the cermet containing 13% Mo 2 C. The cermet achieved remarkable microstructural refinement and still maintained characteristic core-rim structure of the TiC base cermets. TiC/TiB 2 cermets, in addition to TiCN base cermets, are a good alternative material to cemented carbides.

  10. Structure Formation Mechanisms during Solid Ti with Molten Al Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, L; Pronichev, D; Trunov, M

    2016-01-01

    The study discuses advantages and disadvantages of previously proposed mechanisms of the formation of structure between solid Ti and molten Al and presents a new mechanism based on the reviewed and experimental data. The previously proposed mechanisms were classified into three groups: mechanisms of precipitation, mechanisms of destruction and mechanisms of chemical interaction between intermetallics and melt. The reviewed mechanisms did not explain the formation of heterogeneous interlayer with globular aluminide particles and thin layers of pure Al, while the present study reveals variation in the solid Ti/molten Al reaction kinetics during various phases of laminated metal-intermetallic composite formation. The proposed mechanism considers formed during composite fabrication thin oxide interlayers between Ti and Al evolution and its impact on the intermetallic compound formation and explains the initial slow rate of intermetallic interlayer formation and its subsequent acceleration when the oxide foils are ruptured. (paper)

  11. Dynamic recrystallization in TiAl and Ti3Al intermetallic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salishchev, G.A.; Imayev, R.M.; Imayev, V.M.; Gabdullin, N.K.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanical behaviour and microstructure evolution during hot deformation were investigated in TiAl and Ti 3 Al intermetallic compounds. The features of development of dynamic recrystallization in the both titanium aluminides were established. It is shown that we can use the dynamic recrystallization to obtain the micro- ( anti d∼1 μm) and submicrocrystalline ( anti d∼0,1 μm) structures in the TiAl and Ti 3 Al intermetallic compounds. (orig.)

  12. Effect of Ti/TiN multilayer protective nanocoatings on Zr-based metallic glasses mechanical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tekaya, A.; Benameur, T.; Labdi, S.; Aubert, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ti/TiN multilayer and monolithic TiN nanocoatings have been deposited on Zr-based metallic glass substrates by means of RF sputtering technique at room temperature. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests are used to characterise the mechanical and tribological properties of coated samples. In addition, a Vickers indentation tests and scanning electron microscopy observation have been carried out to explore the deformation mechanism. When coated with the TiN and Ti/TiN multilayers, Zr 60 Ni 10 Cu 20 Al 10 bulk metallic glass shows a significant enhancement of both apparent hardness and elastic modulus with a decrease of the friction coefficient. The Vickers indentation shows a fragile behaviour of TiN coatings compared to the Ti/TiN multilayer one. Based on Bhowmick model description, experimental nanoindentation approach is taken to determine the variation of shear stress as function of the penetration depth. It is found that the shear stress developed in the TiN coatings is higher than that observed in the Ti/TiN multilayer. A correlation between finite-element analysis results and experimental data has been proposed. The monolithic or multilayer type of coatings is found to have an influence on the stress and plastic deformation distributions. - Highlights: • Nanocoating enhances the apparent mechanical performance of bulk metallic glass. • Fragile deformation of TiN coatings comparing with Ti/TiN multilayer coatings • Accommodation of the stress is between the layers and at the film/substrate interface. • Shear stress is higher in TiN coating comparing with Ti/TiN multilayer coatings. • Multilayer coatings exhibit an important influence on the stress distribution

  13. Compatibility of aluminide-coated Hastelloy x and Inconel 617 in a simulated gas-cooled reactor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, J.; Johnson, W.R.; Chen, K.

    1982-03-01

    Commercially prepared aluminide coatings on Hastelloy X and Inconel 617 substrates were exposed to controlled-impurity helium at 850 0 and 950 0 C for 3000 h. Optical and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy, electron microprobe profiles, and SEM X-ray mapping were used to evaluate and compare exposed and unexposed control samples. Four coatings were evaluated: aluminide, aluminide with platinum, aluminide with chromium, and aluminide with rhodium. With extended time at elevated temperature, nickel diffused into the aluminide coatings to form epsilon-phase (Ni 3 Al). This diffusion was the primary cause of porosity formation at the aluminide/alloy interface

  14. Microstructure control and engineering characterization of super-α2 titanium aluminide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wego; Wells, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Various microstructures evolved during four different heat treatments and the engineering characteristics of respective microstructure of a super-α 2 titanium aluminide alloy were studied. This alloy was consolidated by the rapid omnidirectional compaction (ROC) process of prealloyed Ti-25Al-10Nb-3V-1Mo. The process-microstructure-property relationships of this alloy and five other similar super-α 2 alloys were investigated, reviewed and compared. The constituent phase morphology has profound effects on the mechanical properties. Three rules regarding these effects are discussed. However, the crack nucleation and propagation during the fracture deformation are constituent phase morphology independent. High-temperature fracture mechanisms are discussed. The ROC'ed alloy has better mechanical properties than that of a hot-isostatically pressed alloy

  15. Extended life aluminide fuel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    As the price of fuel fabrication, shipment of both new and spent fuel, and fuel reprocessing continue to rise at a rapid rate, researchers look for alternate methods to keep reactor fuel costs within their limited funding. Extended fuel element lifetimes, without jeopardizing reactor safety, can reduce fuel costs by up to a factor of two. The Extended Life Aluminide (ELAF) program was started at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) as a joint project of the United States Department of Energy (DOE), the University of Missouri, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology research reactors. Fuel plates of Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) type construction were fabricated at Atomics International and irradiated in the ATR at the INEL. Four fuel matrix compositions were tested (i.e., 50 vol% UAl/sub x/ cores for reference, and 40, 45 and 50 vol% UAl 2 cores). The 50 vol% UAl 2 cores contained up to 3 grams U-235 per cm 3 of core. Three plates of each composition were irradiated to peak burnup levels of 3 x 10 21 fission/cm 3 of core. The only observed damage was due to external corrosion at similar rates experienced by UAl/sub x/ fuel elements in test reactors

  16. Phase equilibria among α-Fe(Al, Cr, Ti), liquid and TiC and the formation of TiC in Fe3Al-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Satoru; Schneider, Andre; Zaefferer, Stefan; Frommeyer, Georg; Raabe, Dierk

    2005-01-01

    In the context of the development of high-strength Fe 3 Al-based alloys, phase equilibria among α-Fe(Al, Cr, Ti), liquid and TiC phases in the Fe-Al-Cr-Ti-C quinary system and the formation of TiC were determined. A pseudo-eutectic trough (L α + L + TiC) exists at 1470 deg C at around Fe-26Al-5Cr-2Ti-1.7C on the vertical section between Fe-26Al-5Cr (α) and Ti-46C (TiC) in at.%. Large faceted TiC precipitates form from the melt after the formation of primary α phase even in hypoeutectic alloys. The TiC formation is thought to be due to the composition change of the liquid towards the hypereutectic compositions by solidification of the primary α. In order to remove the faceted TiC, which are unfavourable for strengthening the material, two different processing routes have been successfully tested: (i) solidification with an increased rate to reduce the composition variation of the liquid during solidification, and (ii) unidirectional solidification to separate the light TiC precipitates from the melt

  17. Plasticity Effects in Dynamically Loaded Nickel Aluminide Bicrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, E; Swift, D; McNaney, J; Lorenzana, H; Peralta, P

    2008-12-02

    Elastic and plastic anisotropy are believed to play large roles in the dynamic deformation of many materials at the grain-level. More importantly to polycrystalline materials is how velocity and stress perturbations are transmitted across interfaces in anisotropic materials. Very little work has been done in this area even though it is important for understanding shock/grain boundary interactions. Therefore, experiments have been performed using nanosecond laser shocks of grown Nickel Aluminide bicrystals at tens of GPa. Velocity histories were measured along a line on the back (free) surface of the bicrystals and used to characterize the material behavior. Unstable plastic flow in <100> grains was seen to occur when loaded above 700 m/s free surface velocity. Flow stresses in <111> and <100> grains were measured to be 2.9 and 3.3 GPa, respectively. Calculations were performed based on anisotropic elasticity and dislocation motion on primary slip systems to measure plastic flow properties where plastic strain-rates on the order of 10{sup 6} s{sup -1} were calculated using the experimental velocity histories. Definitive evidence of plastic wave scattering at the grain boundary was not observed experimentally; however, behavior across the grain boundary has been measured. The observations show that a smooth transition occurs between the elastic precursors in both grains as well as the plastic waves (when plastic flow is evident). An anisotropic elastic-plastic wave scattering model has been developed to explain the mechanisms affecting shock/grain boundary interactions.

  18. Design of Fatigue Resistant Heusler-strengthened PdTi-based Shape Memory Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Dana J.

    The development of non-surgical transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) techniques, which utilize collapsible artificial heart valves with shape memory alloy (SMA)-based frames, pushes performance requirements for biomedical SMAs beyond those for well-established vascular stent applications. Fatigue life for these devices must extend into the ultra-high cycle fatigue (UHCF) regime (>600M cycles) with zero probability of failure predicted at applied strain levels. High rates of Ni-hypersensitivity raise biocompatibility concerns, driving the development of low-Ni and Ni-free SMAs. This work focuses on the development of biocompatible, precipitation-strengthened, fatigue-resistant PdTi-based SMAs for biomedical applications. Functional and structural fatigue are both manifestations of cyclic instability resulting in accumulation of slip and eventual structural damage. While functional fatigue is easily experimentally evaluated, structural fatigue is more difficult to measure without the proper equipment. Therefore, in this work a theoretical approach using a model well validated in steels is utilized to investigate structural fatigue behavior in NiTi in the UHCF regime, while low cycle functional fatigue is evaluated in order to monitor the core phenomena of the cyclic instability. Results from fatigue simulations modeling crack nucleation at non-metallic inclusions in commercial NiTi underscore the importance of increasing yield strength for UHCF performance. Controlled precipitation of nanoscale, low-misfit, L21 Heusler aluminides can provide effective strengthening. Phase relations, precipitation kinetics, transformation temperature, transformation strain, cyclic stability, and mechanical properties are characterized in both Ni-free (Pd,Fe)(Ti,Al) and low-Ni high-strength "hybrid" (Pd,Ni)(Ti,Zr,Al) systems. Atom probe tomography is employed to measure phase compositions and particle sizes used to calibrate LSW models for coarsening kinetics and Gibbs

  19. TiO2/polymer nanocomposite based inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, F.; Grimaldi, I. A.; De Girolamo Del Mauro, A.; Villani, F.; D'Amato, R.; Minarini, C.

    2010-06-01

    We report the development and characterization of dielectric inks based on dispersions of TiO2 in poly(ethylenimine)/ethanol solutions having physicochemical properties suitable to ink-jet printing process. In order to study the effect of polymer dispersant on the printability and stability of inks, we carried out dynamic light scattering analysis of different inks made with and without polymer. Moreover, we compare the curve of distribution of TiO2 particles size at different aging times. For TiO2polymerwe optimize the inkjet parameters (amplitude and duration of jetting impulse, jetting frequency, substrate velocity) to obtain thin lines based on TiO2/ poly(ethylenimine) nanocomposite on silicon substrate. Finally, the morphology of films was also investigated.

  20. Sintering Behavior and Microstructure Formation of Titanium Aluminide Alloys Processed by Metal Injection Molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyama, Juliano; Oehring, Michael; Ebel, Thomas; Kainer, Karl Ulrich; Pyczak, Florian

    2017-04-01

    The sintering behavior of metal injection molded titanium aluminide alloys, their microstructure formation and resulting mechanical properties were investigated. As reference material, the alloy Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.2B-0.2C at.% (TNB-V5) was selected. Additionally, two other variations with Mo and Mo + Si additions were prepared: Ti-45Al-3Nb-1Mo-0.2B-0.2C at.% and Ti-45Al-3Nb-1Mo-1Si-0.2B-0.2C at.%. The results indicate that the optimum sintering temperature was slightly above the solidus line. With proper sintering parameters, very low porosities (<0.5%) and fine microstructures with a colony size <85 µm could be achieved. Considering the sintering temperatures applied, the phase transformations upon cooling could be described as L + β → β → α + β → α → α + γ → α2 + γ, which was in agreement with the microstructures observed. The effects of Mo and Si were opposite regarding the sintering behavior. Mo addition led to an increase in the optimum sintering temperature, whereas Si caused a significant decrease.

  1. High temperature oxidation behavior of TiAl-based intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroosnijder, M.F.; Sunderkoetter, J.D.; Haanappel, V.A.C.

    1996-01-01

    TiAl-based intermetallic compounds have attracted considerable interest as structural materials for high-temperature applications due to their low density and substantial mechanical strength at high temperatures. However, one major drawback hindering industrial application arises from the insufficient oxidation resistance at temperatures beyond 700 C. In the present contribution some general aspects of high temperature oxidation of TiAl-based intermetallics will be presented. This will be followed by a discussion of the influence of alloying elements, in particular niobium, and of the effect of nitrogen in the oxidizing environment on the high temperature oxidation behavior of such materials

  2. Microstructure and wear property of the Ti5Si3/TiC reinforced Co-based coatings fabricated by laser cladding on Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Fei; Yu, Huijun; Liu, Jianli; Chen, Chuanzhong; Dai, Jingjie; Zhao, Zhihuan

    2017-07-01

    Ti5Si3/TiC reinforced Co-based composite coatings were fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy by laser cladding with Co42 and SiC mixture. Microstructure and wear property of the cladding coatings with different content of SiC were investigated. During the cladding process, the original SiC dissolved and reacted with Ti forming Ti5Si3 and TiC. The complex in situ formed phases were found beneficial to the improvement of the coating property. Results indicated that the microhardness of the composite coatings was enhanced to over 3 times the substrate. The wear resistance of the coatings also showed distinct improvement (18.4-57.4 times). More SiC gave rise to better wear resistance within certain limits. However, too much SiC (20 wt%) was not good for the further improvement of the wear property.

  3. Bringing Radiotracing to Titanium-Based Antineoplastics: Solid Phase Radiosynthesis, PET and ex Vivo Evaluation of Antitumor Agent [45Ti](salan)Ti(dipic)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory; Nielsen, Carsten H.; Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel solid-phase based 45Ti radiolabeling methodology and the implementation of 45Ti-PET in titanium-based antineoplastics using the showcase compound [45Ti](salan)Ti(dipic). This development is intended to allow elucidation of the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of promising n...

  4. Analysis of weld solidification cracking in cast nickel aluminide alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santella, M.L.; Feng, Z.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the response of several nickel aluminide alloys to SigmaJig testing was done to examine their weld solidification cracking behavior and the effect of Zr concentration. The alloys were based on the Ni-8Al-7.7Cr-1.5Mo-0.003B wt% composition and contained Zr concentrations of 3, 4.5, and 6 wt%. Vacuum induction melted ingots with a diameter of 2.7 in and weight about 18 lb were made of each alloy, and were used to make 2 x 2 x 0.030 in specimens for the Sigmajig test. The gas tungsten arc welds were made at travel speeds of 10, 20, and 30 ipm with heat inputs of 2--2.5 kJ/in. When an arc was established before traveling onto the test specimen centerline cracking was always observed. This problem was overcome by initiating the arc directly on the specimens. Using this approach, the 3 wt% Zr alloy withstood an applied stress of 24 ksi without cracking at a welding speed of 10 ipm. This alloy cracked at 4 ksi applied at 20 ipm, and with no applied load at 30 ipm. Only limited testing was done on the remaining alloys, but the results indicate that resistance to solidification cracking increases with Zr concentration. Zirconium has limited solid solubility and segregates strongly to interdendritic regions during solidification where it forms a Ni solid solution-Ni 5 Zr eutectic. The volume fraction of the eutectic increases with Zr concentration. The solidification cracking behavior of these alloys is consistent with phenomenological theory, and is discussed in this context. The results from SigmaJig testing are analyzed using finite element modeling of the development of mechanical strains during solidification of welds. Experimental data from the test substantially agree with recent analysis results

  5. Microstructural Study on Oxidation Resistance of Nonmodified and Platinum Modified Aluminide Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagula-Yavorska, Maryana; Sieniawski, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Platinum electroplating layers (3 and 7 μm thick) were deposited on the surface of the Inconel 713 LC, CMSX 4, and Inconel 625 Ni-base superalloys. Diffusion treatment at 1050°C for 2 h under argon atmosphere was performed after electroplating. Diffusion treated samples were aluminized according to the low activity CVD process at 1050°C for 8 h. The nonmodified aluminide coatings consist of NiAl phase. Platinum modification let to obtain the (Ni,Pt)Al phase in coatings. The coated samples were subjected to cyclic oxidation testing at 1100°C. It was discovered that increase of the platinum electroplating thickness from 3 to 7 μm provides the improvement of oxidation resistance of aluminide coatings. Increase of the platinum thickness causes decreases in weight change and decreases in parabolic constant during oxidation. The platinum provides the pure Al2O3 oxide formation, slow growth oxide layer, and delay the oxide spalling during heating-cooling thermal cycles.

  6. Investigation of the microtructure of platinum-modified aluminide coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pedraza, F.; Kennedy, A.D.; Kopeček, Jaromír; Moretto, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 200, - (2007), s. 4032-4039 ISSN 0257-8972 Grant - others:Marie Curie Fellowship (ORDICO)(XE) G4TR-CT-2000-0042 and G4RD-CT-2000-00319 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : single crystal nickel superalloy * out-of pack platinum-modified aluminide coating * single phase Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.678, year: 2007

  7. Microstructural characterization of the γ-TiAl alloy samples ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 25; Issue 7. Microstructural characterization of the -TiAl alloy samples fabricated by direct laser fabrication rapid prototype technique. D Srivastava. Alloys and Steels Volume 25 ... Keywords. Titanium aluminide; microstructure; direct laser fabrication; rapid prototyping.

  8. In situ high-energy X-ray diffraction study and quantitative phase analysis in the α + γ phase field of titanium aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeoh, LaReine A.; Liss, Klaus-Dieter; Bartels, Arno; Chladil, Harald; Avdeev, Maxim; Clemens, Helmut; Gerling, Rainer; Buslaps, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative atomic structure and phase analysis in the titanium aluminide intermetallic system of composition Ti-45Al-7.5Nb-0.5C (at.%) was conducted in situ by use of high-energy X-ray diffraction from a synchrotron and evaluated using the Rietveld method, implementing a model for atomic order in the α-phase which describes the order to disorder transition α 2 → α at the eutectoid temperature. The order parameter exhibits unexpected behavior and is entangled with the competition of different kinetic processes

  9. Acoustic properties of TiNiMoFe base alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyunter, V.Eh.; Chernyshev, V.I.; Chekalkin, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    The regularity of changing the acoustic properties of the TiNi base alloys in dependence on the alloy composition and impact temperature is studied. It is shown that the oscillations of the TiNiMoFe base alloys within the temperature range of the B2 phase existence and possible appearance of the martensite under the load differ from the traditional materials oscillations. After excitation of spontaneous oscillations within the range of M f ≤ T ≤ M d there exists the area of long-term and low-amplitude low-frequency acoustic oscillations. It is established that free low-frequency oscillations of the TH-10 alloy sample are characterized by the low damping level in the given temperature range [ru

  10. Pattern recognition with TiOx-based memristive devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Zahari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development of TiOx-based memristive devices for bio-inspired neuromorphic systems. In particular, capacitor like structures of Al/AlOx/TiOx/Al with, respectively 20 nm and 50 nm thick TiOx-layers were fabricated and analyzed in terms of their use in neural network circuits. Therefore, an equivalent circuit model is presented which mimics the observed device properties on a qualitative level and relies on mobile oxygen ions by taking electronic transport through local conducting filaments and hopping between TiOx defect states into account. The model also comprises back diffusion of oxygen ions and allows for a realistic description of the experimental recorded device characteristics. The in Refs. [1-3] reported computing paradigms for pattern recognition have been used as guidelines for a device performance investigation at the network level. In particular, simulations of a spiking neural network are presented which allows for pattern recognition. As input patterns hand written digits taken from the MNIST Data base have been used. Within the network the memristive devices are arranged in a cross-bar array connected by 196 input neurons and ten output neurons. While, each input neuron corresponds to a specific pixel of the image of the input pattern, the output neurons were implemented as spiking neurons. In addition, the output neurons were inhibitory linked within an winner-take-it-all network and consist of a homeostasis-like behavior for their spiking thresholds. Based on the network simulation essential requirements for the development of optimal memristive device for neuromorphic circuits are discussed.

  11. In-situ formation of Ni4Ti3 precipitate and its effect on pseudoelasticity in selective laser melting additive manufactured NiTi-based composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Dongdong; Ma, Chenglong

    2018-05-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technology was applied to synthesize NiTi-based composites via using ball-milled Ti, Ni, and TiC mixed powder. By transmission electron microscope (TEM) characterization, it indicated that the B2 (NiTi) matrix was obtained during SLM processing. In spite of more Ti content (the Ti/Ni ratio >1), a mass of Ni-rich intermetallic compounds containing Ni4Ti3 with nanostructure features and eutectic Ni3Ti around in-situ Ti6C3.75 dendrites were precipitated. Influence of the applied laser volume energy density (VED) on the morphology and content of Ni4Ti3 precipitate was investigated. Besides, nanoindentation test of the matrix was performed in order to assess pseudoelastic recovery behavior of SLM processed NiTi-based composites. At a relatively high VED of 533 J/mm3, the maximum pseudoelastic recovery was obtained due to the lowest content of Ni4Ti3 precipitates. Furthermore, the precipitation mechanism of in-situ Ni4Ti3 was present based on the redistribution of titanium element and thermodynamics analysis, and then the relationship of Ni4Ti3 precipitate, VED and pseudoelastic recovery behavior was also revealed.

  12. Microstructure and mechanical properties of TiAl castings produced by zirconia ceramic mould

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jing

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their low density and attractive high-temperature properties, gamma titanium aluminide alloys (TiAl alloys, hereafter have significant potential application in the aerospace and automobile industries, in which these materials may replace the heavier nickel-based superalloys at service temperatures of 600 – 900℃. Investment casting of TiAl alloys has become the most promising cost-effective technique for the manufacturing of TiAl components. Ceramic moulds are fundamental to fabricating the TiAl casting components. In the present work, ceramic mould with a zirconia primary coat was designed and fabricated successfully. Investment casting of TiAl blades and tensile test of specimens was carried out to verify the correctness and feasibility of the proposed method. The tensile test results indicate that, at room temperature, the tensile strength and the elongation are about 450 MPa and 0.8%, respectively. At 700℃, the tensile strength decreases to about 410 MPa and the elongation increases to 2.7%. Microstructure and mechanical properties of investment cast TiAl alloy are discussed.

  13. Integration of adsorption and reduction for uranium uptake based on SrTiO3/TiO2 electrospun nanofibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lin; Yan, Xue-Wu; Zhang, Xue-Ji; Shan, Dan

    2018-01-01

    The integration of adsorption and reduction for uranium uptake via photoelectrochemical method was conducted based on hetero-structure SrTiO3/TiO2 electrospun nanofibers. The SrTiO3/TiO2 was fabricated by two steps. First, TiO2 nanofibers were prepared via electrospinning, and then the SrTiO3 cubes grew on the surface of TiO2 nanofibers to form heterostructure by in situ hydrothermal treatment. For the uranium uptake based on photoelectrochemical method, the FTO electrodes modified by SrTiO3/TiO2 electrospun nanofibers removed uranium concentration by 81 ppm, higher than TiO2 nanoparticles, SrTiO3 nanoparticles and TiO2 electrospun nanofibers (59 ppm, 40 ppm and 70 ppm respectively). Besides, the photocurrent of these materials was also measured through photoelectrochemical measurements. Meanwhile, surface analyses using various techniques (Scanning electron microscopic, Transmission electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) was also performed. Finally, the mechanism of electron transfer between SrTiO3/TiO2 and uranium was proposed.

  14. Hydrogen enhanced thermal fatigue of y-titanium aluminide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunfee, William; Gao, Ming; Wei, Robert P.; Wei, W.

    1995-01-01

    A study of hydrogen enhanced thermal fatigue cracking was carried out for a gamma-based Ti-48Al-2Cr alloy by cycling between room temperature and 750 or 900 °C. The results showed that hydrogen can severely attack the gamma alloy, with resulting lifetimes as low as three cycles, while no failures

  15. Effect of in-situ formed Al3Ti particles on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 6061 Al alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rahul; Chaudhari, G. P.; Daniel, B. S. S.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, in situ Titanium-tri-aluminide (Al3Ti) particles reinforced Al 6061 alloy matrix composites were fabricated by the reaction of potassium hexafluorotitanate (K2TiF6) inorganic salt with molten Al 6061 alloy via liquid metallurgy route. The development of in-situ Al3Ti particles and their effects on the mechanical properties such as yield strength (YS), ductility, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness, and microstructure of Al 6061 alloy were studied. It was observed from the results that in-situ formed Al3Ti particles were blocky in morphology whose average size was around 2.6 ± 1.1 μm. Microstructure studies showed that grain size of Al matrix was reduced due to the nucleating effect of Al3Ti particles. It was observed from the mechanical properties analysis that when the volume fraction of Al3Ti particles was increased, the hardness, UTS and YS of the composites were also increased as compared to that of Al 6061 alloy. An improvement in ductility was observed with the dispersion of Al3Ti particles in base alloy which is contrary to many other composites.

  16. TiAu-based micro-calorimeters for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirks, B.P.F.; Popescu, M.; Bruijn, M.; Gottardi, L.; Hoevers, H.F.C.; Korte, P.A.J. de; Kuur, J. van der; Ridder, M.; Takei, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We present the latest results of the performance of micro-calorimeters based on transition edge sensors (TESs) for space applications. Sensors based on TiAu superconductive layers with Cu/Bi absorbers are discussed and have been characterized. Different coupling schemes between absorber and TES have been tested leading to an optimal (preferred) design for a new batch of arrays. We discuss the progress on array development for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) in terms of pixel uniformity and filling factor. Inter-pixel cross-talk is discussed as well.

  17. A Review on the Properties of Iron Aluminide Intermetallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zamanzade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron aluminides have been among the most studied intermetallics since the 1930s, when their excellent oxidation resistance was first noticed. Their low cost of production, low density, high strength-to-weight ratios, good wear resistance, ease of fabrication and resistance to high temperature oxidation and sulfurization make them very attractive as a substitute for routine stainless steel in industrial applications. Furthermore, iron aluminides allow for the conservation of less accessible and expensive elements such as nickel and molybdenum. These advantages have led to the consideration of many applications, such as brake disks for windmills and trucks, filtration systems in refineries and fossil power plants, transfer rolls for hot-rolled steel strips, and ethylene crackers and air deflectors for burning high-sulfur coal. A wide application for iron aluminides in industry strictly depends on the fundamental understanding of the influence of (i alloy composition; (ii microstructure; and (iii number (type of defects on the thermo-mechanical properties. Additionally, environmental degradation of the alloys, consisting of hydrogen embrittlement, anodic or cathodic dissolution, localized corrosion and oxidation resistance, in different environments should be well known. Recently, some progress in the development of new micro- and nano-mechanical testing methods in addition to the fabrication techniques of micro- and nano-scaled samples has enabled scientists to resolve more clearly the effects of alloying elements, environmental items and crystal structure on the deformation behavior of alloys. In this paper, we will review the extensive work which has been done during the last decades to address each of the points mentioned above.

  18. Electrochemical reduction induced self-doping of Ti3+ for efficient water splitting performance on TiO2 based photoelectrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhonghai

    2013-01-01

    Hetero-element doping (e.g., N, F, C) of TiO2 is inevitably accompanied by significantly increased structural defects due to the dopants\\' nature being foreign impurities. Very recently, in situ self-doping with homo-species (e.g., Ti3+) has been emerging as a rational solution to enhance TiO2 photoactivity within both UV and visible light regions. Herein we demonstrate that conventional electrochemical reduction is indeed a facile and effective strategy to induce in situ self-doping of Ti3+ into TiO2 and the self-doped TiO2 photoelectrodes showed remarkably improved and very stable water splitting performance. In this study, hierarchical TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiO2 NTs) were chosen as TiO2 substrates and then electrochemically reduced under varying conditions to produce Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 NTs (ECR-TiO2 NTs). The optimized saturation photocurrent density and photoconversion efficiency on the ECR-TiO2 NTs under simulated AM 1.5G illumination were identified to be 2.8 mA cm-2 at 1.23 V vs. RHE and 1.27% respectively, which are the highest values ever reported for TiO 2 based photoelectrodes. The electrochemical impedance spectra measurement confirms that the electrochemical induced Ti3+ self-doping improved the electrical conductivity of the ECR-TiO2 NTs. The versatility and effectiveness of the electrochemical reduction method for Ti3+ self-doping in P25 based TiO2 was also examined and confirmed. This journal is © 2013 the Owner Societies.

  19. Use of gamma titanium aluminide for automotive engine valves

    OpenAIRE

    Chandley, D.

    2013-01-01

    Titanium aluminade is considered an interesting material for the automotive industry when applied to light hot components because of their peculiar properties.In particular the tensile strenght which is higher in the 700-800 °C range there at room temperature.Compared with special steel used at high temperature (21-2N) the titanium aluminide is 50% lower in density and the termal expansion is also interestihgly lower.A suitable casting technology has been developed with the goal of having a l...

  20. Filler metal alloy for welding cast nickel aluminide alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Michael L.; Sikka, Vinod K.

    1998-01-01

    A filler metal alloy used as a filler for welding east nickel aluminide alloys contains from about 15 to about 17 wt. % chromium, from about 4 to about 5 wt. % aluminum, equal to or less than about 1.5 wt. % molybdenum, from about 1 to about 4.5 wt. % zirconium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % yttrium, equal to or less than about 0.01 wt. % boron and the balance nickel. The filler metal alloy is made by melting and casting techniques such as are melting the components of the filler metal alloy and east in copper chill molds.

  1. Wet-Chemical Preparation of TiO₂-Based Composites with Different Morphologies and Photocatalytic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Liqin; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2017-10-09

    TiO₂-based composites have been paid significant attention in the photocatalysis field. The size, crystallinity and nanomorphology of TiO₂ materials have an important effect on the photocatalytic efficiency. The synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO₂-based materials have been widely investigated in past decades. Based on our group's research works on TiO₂ materials, this review introduces several methods for the fabrication of TiO₂, rare-earth-doped TiO₂ and noble-metal-decorated TiO₂ particles with different morphologies. We focused on the preparation and the formation mechanism of TiO₂-based materials with unique structures including spheres, hollow spheres, porous spheres, hollow porous spheres and urchin-like spheres. The photocatalytical activity of urchin-like TiO₂, noble metal nanoparticle-decorated 3D (three-dimensional) urchin-like TiO₂ and bimetallic core/shell nanoparticle-decorated urchin-like hierarchical TiO₂ are briefly discussed.

  2. Characterization of Sputtered Nickel-Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi Shape Memory Alloy (SMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    ARL-TR-7526 ● NOV 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Sputtered Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally...ARL-TR-7526 ● NOV 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Characterization of Sputtered Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally...10/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterization of Sputtered Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) Stress and Thermally Actuated Cantilever Bimorphs Based on NiTi

  3. Core-multishell globular oxidation in a new TiAlNbCr alloy at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, S Q; Qu, S J; Feng, A H; Feng, C; Shen, J; Chen, D L

    2017-06-14

    Oxidation resistance is one of key properties of titanium aluminide (TiAl) based alloys for high-temperature applications such as in advanced aero-engines and gas turbines. A new TiAlNbCr alloy with micro-addition of yttrium has been developed, but its oxidation behavior is unknown. To provide some fundamental insights, high-temperature oxidation characteristics of this alloy are examined via scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, and X-ray diffraction. We show that distinctive core-multishell globular oxidation and "daisy" flower-like oxidation occur exclusively around Y 2 O 3 particles. Globular oxides exhibit multi-layered Y 2 O 3 /TiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 -rich/TiO 2 -rich shell structures from the inside to outside. Flower-like inner oxides consist of core Y 2 O 3 particles surrounded by divergent Al 2 O 3 and oxygen-rich α 2 -Ti 3 Al in the near-scale substrate. As the scale-substrate interface moves inward, the inner oxide structures suffer deeper oxidation and transform into the globular oxide structures. Our results demonstrate that the unique oxidation characteristics and the understanding of formation mechanisms pave the way for the exploration and development of advanced oxidation-resistant TiAl-based materials.

  4. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  5. PROTECTIVE LAYERS OF IRON AND NICKEL ALUMINIDES ON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Voděrová

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Intermediary phases Ni-Al and Fe-Al are promising materials due to their superior properties such as hardness and good resistance against oxidation at high temperatures. Moreover, Fe-Al phases are resistant in sulphur - containing atmospheres. Because of these characteristics, the above mentioned intermetallic phases seem to be prospective for the use in many technical applications such as energetics, chemical or automotive industry in a form of a bulk material or coatings. Presently, the protective aluminide layer is usually prepared by thermal spraying. Nevertheless, this method is not suitable for complex-shaped components. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find an alternative way to prepare layers consisting of nickel or iron aluminides by other technique than thermal spraying. At first, carbon steel samples were coated using galvanic or electroless nickel plating. Coated samples were subsequently submerged into molten aluminium at various temperatures and process durations. The influence of the temperature and duration on the intermetallic phase growth was studied by scanning electron and light microscopy. Thickness and microhardness of the intermetallic layer was also measured.

  6. PROTECTIVE LAYERS OF IRON AND NICKEL ALUMINIDES ON STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Voderova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Intermediary phases Ni-Al and Fe-Al are promising materials due to their superior properties such as hardness and good resistance against oxidation at high temperatures. Moreover, Fe-Al phases are resistant in sulphur - containing atmospheres. Because of these characteristics, the above mentioned intermetallic phases seem to be prospective for the use in many technical applications such as energetics, chemical or automotive industry in a form of a bulk material or coatings. Presently, the protective aluminide layer is usually prepared by thermal spraying. Nevertheless, this method is not suitable for complex-shaped components. Therefore, the aim of this work was to find an alternative way to prepare layers consisting of nickel or iron aluminides by other technique than thermal spraying. At first, carbon steel samples were coated using galvanic or electroless nickel plating. Coated samples were subsequently submerged into molten aluminium at various temperatures and process durations. The influence of the temperature and duration on the intermetallic phase growth was studied by scanning electron and light microscopy. Thickness and microhardness of the intermetallic layer was also measured.

  7. A Stochastic Reliability Model for Application in a Multidisciplinary Optimization of a Low Pressure Turbine Blade Made of Titanium Aluminide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Dresbach

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, there are a lot of research activities dealing with gamma titanium aluminide (γ-TiAl alloys as new materials for low pressure turbine (LPT blades. Even though the scatter in mechanical properties of such intermetallic alloys is more distinctive as in conventional metallic alloys, stochastic investigations on γ -TiAl alloys are very rare. For this reason, we analyzed the scatter in static and dynamic mechanical properties of the cast alloy Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb. It was found that this alloy shows a size effect in strength which is less pronounced than the size effect of brittle materials. A weakest-link approach is enhanced for describing a scalable size effect under multiaxial stress states and implemented in a post processing tool for reliability analysis of real components. The presented approach is a first applicable reliability model for semi-brittle materials. The developed reliability tool was integrated into a multidisciplinary optimization of the geometry of a LPT blade. Some processes of the optimization were distributed in a wide area network, so that specialized tools for each discipline could be employed. The optimization results show that it is possible to increase the aerodynamic efficiency and the structural mechanics reliability at the same time, while ensuring the blade can be manufactured in an investment casting process.

  8. Thermo-mechanical fatigue behaviour of the near-{gamma}-titanium aluminide alloy TNB-V5 under uniaxial and multiaxial loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, Stephen Peter

    2009-12-19

    With increasing environmental awareness and the general need to economise on the use of fossil fuels, there is growing pressure for industry to produce lighter, more efficient, gas turbine engines. One such material that will help to achieve these improvements is the intermetallic gamma titanium aluminide ({gamma}-TiAl) alloy. At only half the density of current nickel-based superalloys its weight saving capability is highly desirable, however, its mechanical properties have not yet been fully explored especially, when it is to be considered for structural components in aeronautical gas turbine engines. Critical components in these engines typically experience large variations in temperatures and multiaxial states of stress under non-isothermal conditions. These stress states are known as tri-axial thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). The work presented here investigates the effects these multi-axial stresses, have on a {gamma}-TiAl, (Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.2B-0.2C) alloy under TMF conditions. The uniaxial, torsional and axialtorsional TMF behaviour of this {gamma}-TiAl alloy have been examined at 400 - 800 C with strain amplitudes ranging from 0.15% to 0.7%. The tests were conducted at both thermomechanical in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP). Selected tests additionally contained a 180 seconds hold period. Fatigue lifetimes are strongly influenced by the strain amplitude, a small increase in amplitude reduces the lifetime considerably. The uniaxial IP tests showed significantly longer fatigue lifetimes than of all the tests performed. Torsional loading although have shorter fatigue lifetimes than the uniaxial IP loading they have longer fatigue lifetimes than the uniaxial OP loading. The non-proportional axial-torsional 90 degree OP test is most damaging which resulted in a shorter lifetime than the uniaxial OP test with the same Mises equivalent mechanical strain amplitude. A hold period at maximum temperatures reduced the lifetime for all tests regardless of the temperature

  9. TiO-Based Organic Hybrid Solar Cells with Mn+ Doping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zühal Alparslan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid solar cell is designed and proposed as a feasible and reasonable alternative, according to acquired efficiency with the employment of TiO2 (titanium dioxide and Mn-doped TiO2 thin films. In the scope of this work, TiO2 (titanium dioxide and Mn:TiO2 hybrid organic thin films are proposed as charge transporter layer in polymer solar cells. Poly(3-hexylthiophene:phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT: PCBM is used as active layer. When the Mn-doped TiO2 solar cells were compared with pure TiO2 cells, Mn-doped samples revealed a noteworthy efficiency enhancement with respect to undoped-TiO2-based cells. The highest conversion efficiency was obtained to be 2.44% at the ratio of 3.5% (wt/wt Mn doping.

  10. Conductivity of SrTiO3 based oxides in the reducing atmosphere at high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashimoto, Shin-Ichi; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2007-01-01

    The conductivities of several donor-doped SrTiO3 based oxides, which were prepared in air, were studied in a reducing atmosphere at high temperature. The conductivities of all specimens increased slowly with time at 1000 degrees C in 9% H-2/N-2, even after 100 h. Nb-doped SrTiO3 showed relatively...... at 500-800 degrees C, while that of La-doped SrTiO3 dropped immediately on exposure to air. The conduction behavior of Nb-doped SrTiO3 was explained by reduction of Ti4+ and/or Nb5+ and the relatively slow oxygen diffusibility. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.......The conductivities of several donor-doped SrTiO3 based oxides, which were prepared in air, were studied in a reducing atmosphere at high temperature. The conductivities of all specimens increased slowly with time at 1000 degrees C in 9% H-2/N-2, even after 100 h. Nb-doped SrTiO3 showed relatively...... fast reduction and high conductivity compared with the other SrTiO3 based oxides. The conductivity of Nb-doped SrTiO3 was ca. 50 S cm(-1) at 500 degrees C after reduction at 1200 degrees C. After strong reduction, the conductivity of Nb-doped SrTiO3 was almost independent of the oxygen partial pressure...

  11. Gamma titanium aluminide production using the Induction Skull Melting (ISM) process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1985, more than 2,000 titanium aluminide heats have been produced using the Induction Skull Melting (ISM) process. The history of ISM/Gamma production will be discussed in this paper. Gamma titanium aluminide processing with Induction Skull Melting offers many advantages over other types of reactive alloy melting methods. These advantages will be discussed as well as drawbacks. Also, potential markets and applications for ISM/Gamma will be presented

  12. Advances in the Systems and Processes for the Production of Gamma Titanium Aluminide Bars and Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Robert E.

    2017-12-01

    A historical look at the melt processing of gamma titanium aluminides is presented first, followed by recent advances in melting equipment design by Retech to produce 50-mm and 100-mm-diameter ingots up to 1000 mm long. Equipment design for the economical production of gamma titanium aluminide powder is then discussed. The focus in industry has shifted away from basic research to cost-effective production of these titanium alloys for aerospace and automotive engine applications.

  13. Sliding wear resistance of iron aluminides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    severe wear and erosion applications include cobalt- based alloys, high manganese stainless steels, and other chromium containing alloys. There is considerable inte- rest in replacing cobalt-based alloys for erosion resistance in nuclear power applications because of the problems with exposure of maintenance workers to ...

  14. Near-surface microstructural modification of (Ti,W)(C,N)-based compacts with nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucakar, V.; Kral, C.; Lengauer, W.

    2001-01-01

    For developing of functional-gradient hardmetals the interaction of nitrogen with (Ti,W)(C,N)-based compacts was investigated. Hot-pressed (Ti,W)(C,N) compacts as well as sintered compacts of (Ti,W)(C,N)+Co were subjected to sintering and heat treatment at 1200-1500 o C and up to 30 bar N 2 . In (Ti,W)(C,N) compacts four microstructure types were obtained upon reaction with nitrogen. A uniform single-phase (Ti,W)(C,N) forms in samples with a low WC and high TiN content. If medium WC and high TiN/TiC ratio is present a core-rim type structure forms during Ar annealing which remains the same when nitrogen in-diffusion occurs. The third type of microstructure shows sub-micron lamellae of nitrogen-rich fcc phase and WC. This structure forms at increased WC and/or TiC content. If the WC content is increased again a WC layer forms at the outermost surface. Compressive stresses introduced by phase formation/decomposition were obtained for the nitrogen in-diffusion. Sintered (Ti,W)(C,N)+Co compacts were heat treated above and below the eutectic temperature. Above the eutectic temperature compact Ti(C,N) top-layers independent an sample composition were observed. Below the eutectic temperature the microstructure formation is mainly influenced by the sample composition. A Ti(C,N) top-layer forms in materials with a high Ti(C,N) content. Contrary, interaction zones without a layer were obtained in compacts with high WC/Ti(C,N) ratio. Some of these surface modified compacts show surfaces and particle sizes favorable for a cutting tool. (author)

  15. Microstructure and mechanical properties of LENS fabricated TiAl structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to produce titanium aluminides (TiAl) components because these materials lack ductility and when used as high temperature structures they fail prematurely due to the inability to self-oxidise. In this study, a 20 by 20 mm cube part...

  16. Fabrication of Functionally Graded Ti and γ-TiAl by Laser Metal Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lei; Chen, Xueyang; Zhang, Yunlu; Newkirk, Joseph W.; Liou, Frank

    2017-12-01

    TiAl alloys have become a popular choice in the aerospace and automotive industries, owing to their high specific yield strength, specific modulus, and oxidation resistance over titanium alloys and Ni-based super alloys at elevated temperatures. Although laser metal deposition (LMD) techniques have been available for manufacturing metal alloys for a decade, limited research has been focused on joining intermetallic materials with dissimilar materials using LMD. Here, LMD was used to join titanium aluminide Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb and commercially pure titanium with an innovative transition path. The theorized transition was implemented by fabricating functionally graded material (FGM). Porosity- and crack-free deposits were successfully fabricated. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis revealed the final composition was very close to the design composition. X-ray diffraction showed the expected phases were formed. The Vickers hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and coefficient of thermal expansion were evaluated to characterize the FGM's mechanical and physical properties. The properties of the material were comparable to those of as-cast material as reported in the literature.

  17. Plasma-spray synthesis and characterization of ti-based nitride and oxide nanogranules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipas, Georgios S.E., E-mail: gantipas@metal.ntua.gr [School of Mining Engineering and Metallurgy, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2014-09-15

    The synthesis of nanosized Ti-based nanogranules via plasma spraying is reported. The synthesis route involved use of both nitrogen and oxygen gases with varying results. In the case of nitrogen, a mixture of titanium nitrides were produced, yielding both the Ti2N and the sub-stoichiometric TiN0.61 compounds. In the case of oxygen, both the stoichiometric rutile and TiO ceramic phases were indexed. Based on EDS analysis, even fractional oxygen concentrations caused tungsten impurities which originated from the cathode electrode. The method yielded particle mass median sizes of the order of 15nm and the smallest particles detected were 5nm. (author)

  18. Corrosion of carbon-alloyed iron aluminides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Corrosion rates were also obtained by immersion testing. The variation of corrosion rate as a function of time was similar for both the intermetallics. The variation in corrosion rate as a function of time has been explained based on the observed potentiodynamic polarization behaviour. Scanning electron microscopy of ...

  19. Surface grinding of intermetallic titanium aluminides

    CERN Document Server

    Gröning, Holger Andreas

    2014-01-01

    A deductive kinematic model of creep-feed and speed-stroke grinding processes is developed to identify possibilities to reduce the energy introduced into the workpiece. By computer tomography analysis and tactile measurements of the grinding wheel the pore volume and the static cutting edge number are determined and included in the model. Based on the kinematic model and the grinding wheel characteristics an analytical evaluation of the specific grinding energy for speed-stroke and creep-feed grinding is carried out. The deducted process design is evaluated in experimental investigations. The

  20. Combustion synthesis of TiC-based materials: Mechanisms, densification, and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaSalvia, J.C.; Meyers, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The micromechanisms involved in the combustion synthesis of a Ti-C-Ni-Mo mixture resulting in the formation of a TiC-based composite were examined using the combustion wave quenching technique developed by Rogachev et al. At the micron level, the main reaction occurs at the interface between a Ti-Ni-C melt and C particles, resulting in the formation of a solid TiC x layer on the C particles. This layer undergoes a successive process of rapid growth and decomposition into TiC x spherules until all of the C particle is consumed. This mechanism is consistent with the apparent activation energy (E = 100 kJ/mol) for the process obtained from a macrokinetic investigation of the system. The apparent uniformity in size (d = 1 μm) of the TiC x spherules upon formation indicates a critical condition in the stability of the energetics involved in the process. These TiC x spherules undergo growth due to Ostwald ripening and coalescence mechanisms resulting in a final apparent size of 2.5 μm. For the compositions investigated, the addition of Mo did not affect either the micromechanisms or macrokinetics of the combustion synthesis process. Densification of the porous body after the combustion synthesis process can be carried out while it is still in a easily deformable state. The highly porous body is densified by a combination of fracture (communition), plastic deformation, and sintering. The mechanisms are identified for the case of combustion synthesized TiC. Mechanical properties and microstructures of a number of materials (e.g. TiC, TiB 2 , Al 2 O 3 -TiB 2 , TiB 2 -SiC, TiC-Ni-Mo) produced by combustion synthesis combined with a high-velocity forging step are reviewed

  1. Ruthenium Aluminides: Deformation Mechanisms and Substructure Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tresa M. Pollock

    2005-05-11

    Structural and functional materials that can operate in severe, high temperature environments are key to the operation of a wide range of energy generation systems. Because continued improvements in the energy efficiency of these systems is critical, the need for new materials with higher temperature capabilities is inevitable. Intermetallic compounds, with strong bonding and generally high melting points offer this possibility for a broad array of components such as coatings, electrode materials, actuators and/or structural elements. RuAl is a very unusual intermetallic compound among the large number of B2compounds that have been identified and investigated to date. This material has a very high melting temperature of 2050?C, low thermal expansion, high thermal conductivity and good corrosion resistance. Unlike most other high temperature B2 intermetallics, RuAl possesses good intrinsic deformability at low temperatures. In this program fundamental aspects of low and high temperature mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms in binary and higher order RuAl-based systems have been investigated. Alloying additions of interest included platinum, boron and niobium. Additionally, preliminary studies on high temperature oxidation behavior of these materials have been conducted.

  2. Controllable SET process in O-Ti-Sb-Te based phase change memory for synaptic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kun; Li, Ruiheng; Chen, Xin; Wang, Yong; Shen, Jiabin; Xia, Mengjiao; Lv, Shilong; Ji, Zhenguo; Song, Zhitang

    2018-02-01

    The nonlinear resistance change and small bit resolution of phase change memory (PCM) under identical operation pulses will limit its performance as a synaptic device. The octahedral Ti-Te units in Ti-Sb-Te, regarded as nucleation seeds, are degenerated when Ti is bonded with O, causing a slower crystallization and a controllable SET process in PCM cells. A linear resistance change under identical pulses, a resolution of ˜8 bits, and an ON/OFF ratio of ˜102 has been achieved in O-Ti-Sb-Te based PCM, showing its potential application as a synaptic device to improve recognition performance of the neural network.

  3. A Novel Low-Temperature Fiffusion Aluminide Coating for Ultrasupercritical Coal-Fried Boiler Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ying

    2009-12-31

    An ultrasupercritical (USC) boiler with higher steam temperature and pressure is expected to increase the efficiency of the coal-fired power plant and also decrease emissions of air pollutants. Ferritic/martensitic alloys have been developed with good creep strength for the key components in coal-fired USC plants. However, they typically suffer excessive steam-side oxidation, which contributes to one of main degradation mechanisms along with the fire-side corrosion in coal-fired boilers. As the steam temperature further increases in USC boilers, oxidation of the tube internals becomes an increasing concern, and protective coatings such as aluminide-based diffusion coatings need to be considered. However, conventional aluminizing processes via pack cementation or chemical vapor deposition are typically carried out at elevated temperatures (1000-1150 C). Thermochemical treatment of ferritic/martensitic alloys at such high temperatures could severely degrade their mechanical properties, particularly the alloy's creep resistance. The research focus of this project was to develop an aluminide coating with good oxidation resistance at temperatures {le} 700 C so that the coating processing would not detrimentally alter the creep performance of the ferritic/martensitic alloys. Nevertheless, when the aluminizing temperature is lowered, brittle Al-rich intermetallic phases, such as Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl{sub 3}, tend to form in the coating, which may reduce the resistance to fatigue cracking. Al-containing binary masteralloys were selected based on thermodynamic calculations to reduce the Al activity in the pack cementation process and thus to prevent the formation of brittle Al-rich intermetallic phases. Thermodynamic computations were carried out using commercial software HSC 5.0 for a series of packs containing various Cr-Al binary masteralloys. The calculation results indicate that the equilibrium partial pressures of Al halides at 700 C were a function of Al

  4. Surface morphology and chemical composition of TiTa-based surface alloy formed on TiNi by electron beam additive technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudimova, E. Yu.; Meisner, L. L.; Meisner, S. N.; Yakovlev, E. V.; Shabalina, O. I.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents research results on the physiochemical and topographic surface properties of a NiTi alloy and their changes after different surface treatments: mechanical polishing, electron beam cleaning, and TiTa-based surface alloying. The possibility of using electron beam treatment for surface preparation with no additional methods is shown. Experiments demonstrate that the TiTa-based alloy surface formed by multiple magnetron deposition of TiTa film and subsequent pulsed electron beam melting of the film/substrate system is chemically and morphologically homogeneous.

  5. TiO2-Based Advanced Oxidation Nanotechnologies For Water Purification And Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    TiO2 photocatalysis, one of the UV-based advanced oxidation technologies (AOTs) and nanotechnologies (AONs), has attracted great attention for the development of efficient water treatment and purification systems due to the effectiveness of TiO2 to generate ...

  6. TiO2 Based Photocatalyst: From Synthesis and Characterization to Optimization and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, Ren

    2012-01-01

    TiO2 based photocatalyst has attracted gerat attentions from both fundamental and an applied aspects in water/air purifications and energy production. In this thesis, series of well-defined TiO2 photocatalyst with various parameters (i.e., polymorph composition, shape, impurity concentration, sur...

  7. The effect of addition of various elements on properties of NiTi-based shape memory alloys for biomedical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kök, Mediha; Ateş, Gonca

    2017-04-01

    In biomedical applications, NiTi and NiTi-based alloys that show their shape memory effects at body temperature are preferred. In this study, the purpose is to produce NiTi and NiTi-based alloys with various chemical rates and electron concentrations and to examine their various physical properties. N45Ti55, Ni45Ti50Cr2.5Cu2.5, Ni48Ti51X (X=Mn, Sn, Co) alloys were produced in an arc melter furnace in this study. After the homogenization of these alloys, the martensitic phase transformation temperatures were determined with differential-scanner calorimeter. The transformation temperature was found to be below the 37 ° C (body temperature) in Ni45Ti50Cr2.5Cu2.5, Ni48Ti51X (X=Mn, Co) alloys; and the transformation temperature of the N45Ti55, Ni48Ti51Sn alloys was found to be over 37 ° C . Then, the micro and crystal structure analyses of the alloys were made, and it was determined that Ni45Ti50Cr2.5Cu2.5, Ni48Ti51X (X=Mn, Co) alloys, which were in austenite phase at room temperature, included B2 (NiTi) phase and Ti2Ni precipitation phase, and the alloys that were in the martensite phase at room temperature included B19ı (NiTi) phase and Ti2Ni phase. The common phase in both alloy groups is the Ti2Ni phase, and this type of phase is generally seen in NiTi alloys that are rich in titanium (Ti-rich).

  8. Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Cu-Sn-Ti-Based Active Braze Alloy Containing In Situ Formed Nano-Sized TiC Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinenbach, Christian; Transchel, Robert; Gorgievski, Klea; Kuster, Friedrich; Elsener, Hans Rudolf; Wegener, Konrad

    2015-05-01

    A Cu-Sn-Ti-based active brazing filler alloy was in situ reinforced with nanosized TiC particles by adding different amounts of a cellulose nitride-based binder. The TiC particles emanate from a reaction of the Ti within the filler alloy with the carbon from the binder that does not decompose completely during heating. The correlation between the microstructure and mechanical performance was studied. In addition, the effect of different binder amounts on the shear strength and cutting performance of brazed diamond grains was studied in shear tests and single grain cutting tests. The results clearly show that the mechanical performance of the brazed diamond grains can be improved by the formation of TiC particles. This is attributed to particle strengthening of the filler alloy matrix as well as to the decreasing grain size and more homogeneous distribution of the (Cu,Sn)3Ti5 phase with increasing amount of binder.

  9. Evaluation of microstructure and phase relations in a powder processed Ti-44Al-12Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.G.; Reddy, R.G.; Wu, J.; Holthus, J.

    1995-01-01

    Titanium aluminides based on the ordered face-centered tetragonal γTiAl phase possess attractive properties, such as low density, high melting point, good elevated temperature strength, modulus retention, and oxidation resistance, making these alloys potential high-temperature structural materials. These alloys can be processed by both ingot metallurgy and powder metallurgy routes. In the present study, three variations of the powder metallurgy route were studied to process a Ti-44Al-12Nb (at.%) alloy: (a) cold pressing followed by reaction sintering (CP process); (b) cold pressing, vacuum hot pressing, and then sintering (HP process); and (c) arc melting, hydride-dehydride process to make the alloy powder, cold isostatic pressing, and then sintering (AM process). Microstructural and phase relations were studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The phases identified were Ti 3 Al and TiAl; an additional Nb 2 Al phase was observed in the HP sample. The microstructures of CP and HP processed samples are porous and chemically inhomogeneous whereas the AM processed sample revealed fine equiaxed microstructure. This refinement of the microstructure is attributed to the fine, homogeneous powder produced by the hydride-dehydride process and the high compaction pressures

  10. TiO₂-Based Photocatalytic Geopolymers for Nitric Oxide Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strini, Alberto; Roviello, Giuseppina; Ricciotti, Laura; Ferone, Claudio; Messina, Francesco; Schiavi, Luca; Corsaro, Davide; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2016-06-24

    This study presents an experimental overview for the development of photocatalytic materials based on geopolymer binders as catalyst support matrices. Particularly, geopolymer matrices obtained from different solid precursors (fly ash and metakaolin), composite systems (siloxane-hybrid, foamed hybrid), and curing temperatures (room temperature and 60 °C) were investigated for the same photocatalyst content (i.e., 3% TiO₂ by weight of paste). The geopolymer matrices were previously designed for different applications, ranging from insulating (foam) to structural materials. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated as NO degradation in air, and the results were compared with an ordinary Portland cement reference. The studied matrices demonstrated highly variable photocatalytic performance depending on both matrix constituents and the curing temperature, with promising activity revealed by the geopolymers based on fly ash and metakaolin. Furthermore, microstructural features and titania dispersion in the matrices were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analyses. Particularly, EDS analyses of sample sections indicated segregation effects of titania in the surface layer, with consequent enhancement or depletion of the catalyst concentration in the active sample region, suggesting non-negligible transport phenomena during the curing process. The described results demonstrated that geopolymer binders can be interesting catalyst support matrices for the development of photocatalytic materials and indicated a large potential for the exploitation of their peculiar features.

  11. Mechanical behavior of Ti-Ta-based surface alloy fabricated on TiNi SMA by pulsed electron-beam melting of film/substrate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, S. N.; Yakovlev, E. V.; Semin, V. O.; Meisner, L. L.; Rotshtein, V. P.; Neiman, A. A.; D'yachenko, F.

    2018-04-01

    The physical-mechanical properties of the Ti-Ta based surface alloy with thickness up to ∼2 μm fabricated through the multiple (up to 20 cycles) alternation of magnetron deposition of Ti70Ta30 (at.%) thin (50 nm) films and their liquid-phase mixing with the NiTi substrate by microsecond low-energy, high current pulsed electron beam (LEHCPEB: ≤15 keV, ∼2 J/cm2) are presented. Two types of NiTi substrates (differing in the methods of melting alloys) were pretreated with LEHCPEB to improve the adhesion of thin-film coating and to protect it from local delimitation because of the surface cratering under pulsed melting. The methods used in the research include nanoindentation, transmission electron microscopy, and depth profile analysis of nanohardness, Vickers hardness, elastic modulus, depth recovery ratio, and plasticity characteristic as a function of indentation depth. For comparison, similar measurements were carried out with NiTi substrates in the initial state and after LEHCPEB pretreatment, as well as on "Ti70Ta30(1 μm) coating/NiTi substrate" system. It was shown that the upper surface layer in both NiTi substrates is the same in properties after LEHCPEB pretreatment. Our data suggest that the type of multilayer surface structure correlates with its physical-mechanical properties. For NiTi with the Ti-Ta based surface alloy ∼1 μm thick, the highest elasticity falls on the upper submicrocrystalline layer measuring ∼0.2 μm and consisting of two Ti-Ta based phases: α‧‧ martensite (a = 0.475 nm, b = 0.323 nm, c = 0.464 nm) and β austenite (a = 0.327 nm). Beneath the upper layer there is an amorphous sublayer followed by underlayers with coarse (>20 nm) and fine (mechanical parameters to the values of the NiTi substrate.

  12. A thyroid nodule classification method based on TI-RADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Yang, Yang; Peng, Bo; Chen, Qin

    2017-07-01

    Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System(TI-RADS) is a valuable tool for differentiating the benign and the malignant thyroid nodules. In clinic, doctors can determine the extent of being benign or malignant in terms of different classes by using TI-RADS. Classification represents the degree of malignancy of thyroid nodules. TI-RADS as a classification standard can be used to guide the ultrasonic doctor to examine thyroid nodules more accurately and reliably. In this paper, we aim to classify the thyroid nodules with the help of TI-RADS. To this end, four ultrasound signs, i.e., cystic and solid, echo pattern, boundary feature and calcification of thyroid nodules are extracted and converted into feature vectors. Then semi-supervised fuzzy C-means ensemble (SS-FCME) model is applied to obtain the classification results. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can help doctors diagnose the thyroid nodules effectively.

  13. The development of Ti6Al4V based anti bacterial dental implant modified with TiO2 nanotube arrays doped silver metal (Ag)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, Bachtiar, B. M.; Wulan, P. P. D. K.; Setiadi, Sari, D. P.

    2017-05-01

    The development of Ti6Al4V based anti bacterial dental implant, modified with dopanted silver metal (Ag) TiO2 nanotube arrays (TiNTAs), is studied in this research. The condition inside the mouth is less foton energy, the dental implant material need to be modified with silver metal (Ag) dopanted TiNTAs. Modified TiNTAs used silver metal dopanted with Photo Assisted Deposition (PAD) method can be used as an electron trapper and produced hydroxyl radical, therefore it has antibacterial properties. The verification of antibacterial properties developed with biofilm static test using Streptococcus mutans bacteria model within 3 and 16 hours incubation, was characterized with XRD and SEM-EDX. Properties test result that resisting the biofilm growth effectively is TiNTAs/Ag/0,15, with 97,62 % disinfection bacteria sampel.

  14. Effects of heat-treatment on the microstructure of TiAl-Nb produced with laser metal deposition technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ti and its intermetallic alloys are light-weight and have good creep properties. Materials of this nature are desired for the manufacturing of parts for the aerospace, automotive and power plants. Titanium aluminides, in particular, are preferred...

  15. Preparation and Photocatalytic Property of TiO2/Diatomite-Based Porous Ceramics Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuilin Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diatomite-based porous ceramics was made by low-temperature sintering. Then the nano-TiO2/diatomite-based porous ceramics composite materials were prepared by hydrolysis deposition method with titanium tetrachloride as the precursor of TiO2 and diatomite-based porous as the supporting body of the nano-TiO2. The structure and microscopic appearance of nano-TiO2/diatomite-based porous ceramics composite materials was characterized by XRD and SEM. The photocatalytic property of the composite was investigated by the degradation of malachite green. Results showed that, after calcination at 550°C, TiO2 thin film loaded on the diatomite-based porous ceramics is anatase TiO2 and average grain size of TiO2 is about 10 nm. The degradation ratio of the composite for 5 mg/L malachite green solution reached 86.2% after irradiation for 6 h under ultraviolet.

  16. Joining silicon nitride to FA-129 iron aluminide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochu, Mathieu

    Joints between dissimilar materials are characterized particularly by compositional gradients and microstructural changes, which yield large variations in chemical, physical and mechanical properties across the joint. The joining of dissimilar materials is therefore more complex than the joining of similar materials. In this project, the joining procedure, from the interaction between the different components in a joint to the determination of the mechanical properties was applied to the Si3N4/FA-129 system. This iron aluminide intermetallic alloy (FA-129), was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratories (ORNL) to have high temperature properties with good room temperature ductility. This intermetallic is replacing high strength ferritic stainless steel (SS) in moderate strength applications due to cost and property reasons. Joints between SS and Si3N4 are already used industrially and this project was to evaluate the potential to replace these Si3N 4/SS joints by those of Si3N4/FA-129. Broadly stated, the results obtained during this project are as follows: (I) The E2 energy for Si3N4 ceramic was calculated to be 3.01 keV. (II) The wetting of iron aluminide alloy by copper has been achieved and the spreading and reaction kinetics are influenced by the presence of Cr as alloying element. (III) The penetration and decohesion of the FA-129 microstructure is significantly reduced by the utilization of a Cu alloy containing a high titanium concentration. (IV) An active brazing alloy containing a high active element content can be fabricated by an electroless deposition technique. (V) The melting behavior of the powder was characterized and complete melting occurs in a multi-step process at different temperatures, which are a function of the heating rate. (VI) The strength of joint produced by brazing Si3N4 to itself using the composite powder reached 400 MPa. (VII) Direct brazing of Si 3N4 to FA-129 was shown to be unsuccessful and therefore a soft Cu interlayer was

  17. Wire-shaped perovskite solar cell based on TiO2 nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Kulkarni, Sneha A.; Li, Zhen; Xu, Wenjing; Batabyal, Sudip K.; Zhang, Sam; Cao, Anyuan; Wong, Lydia Helena

    2016-05-01

    In this work, a wire-shaped perovskite solar cell based on TiO2 nanotube (TNT) arrays is demonstrated for the first time by integrating a perovskite absorber on TNT-coated Ti wire. Anodization was adopted for the conformal growth of TNTs on Ti wire, together with the simultaneous formation of a compact TiO2 layer. A sequential step dipping process is employed to produce a uniform and compact perovskite layer on top of TNTs with conformal coverage as the efficient light absorber. Transparent carbon nanotube film is wrapped around Ti wire as the hole collector and counter electrode. The integrated perovskite solar cell wire by facile fabrication approaches shows a promising future in portable and wearable textile electronics.

  18. Iron aluminide useful as electrical resistance heating elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier S.; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton

    1997-01-01

    The invention relates generally to aluminum containing iron-base alloys useful as electrical resistance heating elements. The aluminum containing iron-base alloys have improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The alloy has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and includes, in weight %, over 4% Al, .ltoreq.1% Cr and either .gtoreq.0.05% Zr or ZrO.sub.2 stringers extending perpendicular to an exposed surface of the heating element or .gtoreq.0.1% oxide dispersoid particles. The alloy can contain 14-32% Al, .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Zr, .ltoreq.1% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.30% oxide dispersoid and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, .ltoreq.1% oxygen, .ltoreq.3% Cu, balance Fe.

  19. Rapid erasing of wettability patterns based on TiO2-PDMS composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, Kazuya; Udagawa, Keizo; Ochiai, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Hideki; Murakami, Taketoshi; Abe, Masahiko; Fujishima, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → TiO 2 -PDMS composite films are prepared using the sol-gel method. → The films show wettability conversion by irradiation with oxygen plasma. → Hydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterns based on the TiO 2 -PDMS films are fabricated. → The wettability patterns are rapidly erasable upon plasma irradiation for 1 s. - Abstract: TiO 2 -polydimethylsiloxane (TiO 2 -PDMS) composite films are prepared using the sol-gel method from a Ti(OBu) 4 -benzoylacetone solution containing PDMS. The prepared films are cured by irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light. Structural changes in the films after UV irradiation are confirmed by UV-vis absorption experiments, which show that an absorption band characteristic of the benzoylacetonate chelate rings disappears. This finding is ascribed to structural changes associated with the dissociation of the chelate rings. The IR spectra of the thin films exhibit a broad absorption band after UV irradiation, indicating that a Ti-O-Ti network forms in the thin film. Contact angles are measured for the TiO 2 -PDMS thin films, showing wettability conversion from hydrophobic to superhydrophilic states by irradiation with oxygen plasma for 1 s. This phenomenon is explained by XPS experiments which reveal that the number of carbon atoms decreases, whereas the number of oxygen atoms increases on the surface of the TiO 2 -PDMS composite films. Finally, hydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterns are fabricated based on a patterned TiO 2 -PDMS composite film. The film displays a rapid change to superhydrophilicity over the whole film surface upon plasma irradiation for 1 s, which means that the wettability patterns are rapidly erasable.

  20. Current Advances in TiO2-Based Nanostructure Electrodes for High Performance Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Madian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The lithium ion battery (LIB has proven to be a very reliably used system to store electrical energy, for either mobile or stationary applications. Among others, TiO2-based anodes are the most attractive candidates for building safe and durable lithium ion batteries with high energy density. A variety of TiO2 nanostructures has been thoroughly investigated as anodes in LIBs, e.g., nanoparticles, nanorods, nanoneedles, nanowires, and nanotubes discussed either in their pure form or in composites. In this review, we present the recent developments and breakthroughs demonstrated to synthesize safe, high power, and low cost nanostructured titania-based anodes. The reader is provided with an in-depth review of well-oriented TiO2-based nanotubes fabricated by anodic oxidation. Other strategies for modification of TiO2-based anodes with other elements or materials are also highlighted in this report.

  1. Halo Formation During Solidification of Refractory Metal Aluminide Ternary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, N.; Feitosa, L. M.; West, G. D.; Dong, H. B.

    2018-02-01

    The evolution of eutectic morphologies following primary solidification has been studied in the refractory metal aluminide (Ta-Al-Fe, Nb-Al-Co, and Nb-Al-Fe) ternary systems. The undercooling accompanying solid growth, as related to the extended solute solubility in the primary and secondary phases can be used to account for the evolution of phase morphologies during ternary eutectic solidification. For small undercooling, the conditions of interfacial equilibrium remain valid, while in the case of significant undercooling when nucleation constraints occur, there is a departure from equilibrium leading to unexpected phases. In Ta-Al-Fe, an extended solubility of Fe in σ was observed, which was consistent with the formation of a halo of μ phase on primary σ. In Nb-Al-Co, a halo of C14 is formed on primary CoAl, but very limited vice versa. However, in the absence of a solidus projection it was not possible to definitively determine the extended solute solubility in the primary phase. In Nb-Al-Fe when nucleation constraints arise, the inability to initiate coupled growth of NbAl3 + C14 leads to the occurrence of a two-phase halo of C14 + Nb2Al, indicating a large undercooling and departure from equilibrium.

  2. Properties of TiO{sub 2}-based transparent conducting oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitosugi, Taro [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 213-0012 Kawasaki (Japan); Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 980-8577 Sendai (Japan); Yamada, Naoomi; Nakao, Shoichiro [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 213-0012 Kawasaki (Japan); Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 213-0012 Kawasaki (Japan); Department of Chemistry, University of Tokyo, 113-0033 Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    The development and properties of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})-based transparent conducting oxides (TCO), which exhibit properties comparable to those of In{sub 2-x}Sn{sub x}O{sub 3} (ITO), are reviewed in this article. An epitaxial thin film of anatase Ti{sub 0.94}Nb{sub 0.06}O{sub 2} exhibited a resistivity ({rho}) of 2.3 x 10{sup -4}{omega} cm and internal transmittance of {proportional_to}95% in the visible light region. Furthermore, we prepared polycrystalline films with {rho} of 6.4 x 10{sup -4}{omega} cm at room temperature on glass substrates by using sputtering. We focus on characteristics unique to TiO{sub 2}-based TCO, such as a high refractive index, high transmittance in infrared, and high stability in reducing atmospheres. Possible applications of TiO{sub 2}-based TCOs, as well as the mechanism of the transparent conducting properties found in this d-electron-based TCO, are discussed in this review. Photograph showing TiO{sub 2}-based TCO on a transparent plastic film. Note that the film appears greenish due to interference in the film originating from its high refractive index. This high refractive index is one of the unique characteristics of TiO{sub 2}-based TCO. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. Synthesis of Water-Based Dispersions of Polymer/TiO2 Hybrid Nanospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We develop a strategy for preparing water-based dispersions of polymer/TiO2 nanospheres that can be used to form composite materials applicable in various fields. The formed hybrid nanospheres are monodisperse and possess a hierarchical structure. It starts with the primary TiO2 nanoparticles of about 5 nm, which first assemble to nanoclusters of about 30 nm and then are integrated into monomer droplets. After emulsion polymerization, one obtains the water-based dispersions of polymer/TiO2 nanospheres. To achieve universal size, it is necessary to have treatments with intense turbulent shear generated in a microchannel device at different stages. In addition, a procedure combining synergistic actions of steric and anionic surfactants has been designed to warrant the colloidal stability of the process. Since the formed polymer/TiO2 nanospheres are stable aqueous dispersions, they can be easily mixed with TiO2-free polymeric nanoparticle dispersions to form new dispersions, where TiO2-containing nanospheres are homogeneously distributed in the dispersions at the nanoscale, thus leading to various applications. As an example, the proposed strategy has been applied to generate polystyrene/TiO2 nanospheres of about 100 nm in diameter.

  4. TiOx-based thin-film transistors prepared by femtosecond laser pre-annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Fei; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2018-02-01

    We report on thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on titanium oxide (TiOx) prepared using femtosecond laser pre-annealing for electrical application of n-type channel oxide transparent TFTs. Amorphous TFTs using TiOx semiconductors as an active layer have a low-temperature process and show remarkable electrical performance. And the femtosecond laser pre-annealing process has greater flexibility and development space for semiconductor production activity, with a fast preparation method. TFTs with a TiOx semiconductor pre-annealed via femtosecond laser at 3 W have a pinhole-free and smooth surface without crystal grains.

  5. Neutron in situ crystallization studies of Ti-based BMGs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubeyroux, J.L.; Mei, J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The phase evolution upon heating of Ti 40 Zr 25 Cu 9 Ni 8 Be 18 BMG was investigated by in situ neutron diffraction studies and compared to Differential scanning calorimetry measurements performed at the same heating rate. When the experiment is performed at the constant speed of 2 K/min, the amorphous to crystallization process proceeds by two complicated crystallization reactions: firstly, the precipitation of a cubic Ti(Zr)Be 2 phase at 608 K (a = 6.603 A), this phase then disappears at 810 K, secondly, by the formation at 749 K of two phases which have been determined by neutron diffraction to be a C14 hexagonal Laves phase and a big cube (Zr,Ti) 2 Ni phase. When the sample is heated at 2 K/min, then hold at T g + 158 = 713 K (before T x2 = 749 K) the (Ti,Zr)Be 2 phase develops. After 60 min, the big cube phase starts to appear, an important amorphous bump being still present. These in situ diffraction experiments and the different phases formed are presented and discussed.

  6. Synthesis of nanocomposite coating based on TiO2/ZnAl layer double hydroxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanov, V.; Rudic, O.; Ranogajec, J.; Fidanchevska, E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was the synthesis of nanocomposite coatings based on Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (Zn-Al LDH) and TiO2. The Zn-Al LDH material, which acted as the catalyst support of the active TiO2 component (in the content of 3 and 10 wt. %), was synthesized by a low super saturation co-precipitation method. The interaction between the Zn-Al LDH and the active TiO2 component was accomplished by using vacuum evaporation prior to the mechanical activation and only by mechanical activation. The final suspension based on Zn-Al LDH and 10wt. % TiO2, impregnated only by mechanical activation, showed the optimal characteristics from the aspect of particle size distribution and XRD analysis. These properties had a positive effect on the functional properties of the coatings (photocatalytic activity and self-cleaning efficiency) after the water rinsing procedure. [es

  7. High-performance thermoelectric materials based on ternary TiO2/CNT/PANI composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erden, Fuat; Li, Hui; Wang, Xizu; Wang, FuKe; He, Chaobin

    2018-04-04

    In the present work, we report the fabrication of high-performance thermoelectric materials using TiO2/CNT/PANI ternary composites. We showed that a conductivity of ∼2730 S cm-1 can be achieved for the binary CNT (70%)/PANI (30%) composite, which is the highest recorded value for the reported CNT/PANI composites. We further demonstrated that the Seebeck coefficient of CNT/PANI composites could be enhanced by incorporating TiO2 nanoparticles into the binary CNT/PANI composites, which could be attributed to lower carrier density and the energy scattering of low-energy carriers at the interfaces of TiO2/a-CNT and TiO2/PANI. The resulting TiO2/a-CNT/PANI ternary system exhibits a higher Seebeck coefficient and enhanced thermoelectric power. Further optimization of the thermoelectric power was achieved by water treatment and by tuning the processing temperature. A high thermoelectric power factor of 114.5 μW mK-2 was obtained for the ternary composite of 30% TiO2/70% (a-CNT (70%)/PANI (30%)), which is the highest reported value among the reported PANI based ternary composites. The improvement of thermoelectric performance by incorporation of TiO2 suggests a promising approach to enhance power factor of organic thermoelectric materials by judicial tuning of the carrier concentration and electrical conductivity.

  8. Struktura i svojstva plazma sprej Aps - Nikal - Aluminid prevlake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo Rade Mrdak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cilj ovog istraživanja je da se optimizacijom parametara deponovanja dobiju optimalne strukturne i mehaničke karakteristike Ni20Al slojeva, koji će se primeniti na delu za radarsku stanicu. Prah je deponovan atmosferskim plazma sprej (APS postupkom sa plazma sprej (PS odstojanjem 80, 90 i 100 mm. Prevlaka sa najboljim karakteristikama deponovana je na utvrđivaču  turbo- gasnog motora GTD 2PV8 za radarsku stanicu, da bi se smanjio uticaj oksidacije  i vibracija na habanje na 450–500°C. Procene Ni20Al slojeva prevlake urađene su na osnovu njihovih mikrostruktura, mikrotvrdoća i zatezne čvrstoće. Najbolju strukturu i mehaničke  karakteristike pokazali su slojevi deponovani sa plazma sprej odstojanjem od 80 mm. Morfologija površine deponovane prevlake i morfologija loma najboljih slojeva ispitana je na SEM-u (skening elektronskom mikroskopu. Mikrostruktura slojeva deponovanih prevlaka ispitana je na svetlosnom mikroskopu. Mikrostrukturna analiza deponovanih slojevima urađena je u skladu sa standardom Pratt-Whitney. Procena mehaničkih karakteristika slojeva urađena je ispitivanjem mikrotvrdoće metodom HV0.3 i čvrstoće spoja ispitivanjem na zatezanje. Istraživanja su pokazala da plazma sprej odstojanje bitno utiče na mehaničke osobine i mikrostrukture prevlaka. Efekat primene Ni20Al prevlake ispitan je na utvrđivaču  turbogasnog motora GTD 2PV8 na radarskoj stanici.   Uvod   Kompozitni nikal-aluminid prah Ni20Al razvijen je za potrebe vazduhoplovne industrije. Važna karakteristika je dobro deponovanje praha plazma sprejom na atmosferskom pritisku (APS. Ovaj materijal ima dobru otpornost na oksidaciju,  koroziju i eroziju. Materijal se može proizvoditi kao legura ili kao  kompozitni prah. Najvažnija karakteristika nikal-aluminida je velika čvrstoća i žilavost  sa odličnom otpornošću na visoke temperature. NiAl prevlake deponovane plazma sprejom našle su široku primenu za zaštitu delova koji su izlo

  9. Characteristics of laser In-situ alloyed titanium aluminides coatings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tlotleng, Monnamme

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available to study the in-situ alloying of the elemental Ti and Al using laser metal deposition (LMD) process. The effects of laser power on the microstructure evolution, composition and micro-hardness were evaluated on the as-produced TiAl coatings. The results...

  10. Interface microstructure of the brazed zirconia and Ti-6Al-4V using Ti-based amorphous filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The polycrystalline ZrO2−3mol.%Y2O3 was brazed to Ti-6Al-4V using a Ti47Zr28Cu14Ni11 (at.% amorphous ribbon at 1123 K in a high vacuum. The microstructure of the interface and evolution mechanism of the joint was investigated. The experimental result showed that the typical interfacial microstructures of the joints consisted of ZrO2/TiO+TiO2+Cu2Ti4O+Ni2Ti4O/α-Ti+(Ti,Zr2(Cu,Ni eutectic/(Ti,Zr2(Cu,Ni/acicular Widmanstäten structure/Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The microstructure of the brazed joint was related to the solution and chemical reaction among atoms during brazing. According to the mechanical property tests the joint brazed at 1123 K for 30 min obtained the maximum shear strength 63 MPa. Both the white block intermetallic compound (Ti,Zr2(Cu,Ni and the coarse α-Ti+(Ti,Zr2(Cu,Ni eutectic structure should be avoided forming in the brazed joint.

  11. The precipitation of {eta} phase in an Fe-Ni-based superalloy with different Ti/Al ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifollahi, Masoumeh; Razavi, Seyed Hossein [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology IUST, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; Kheirandish, Shahram [Iran Univ. of Science and Technology IUST, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering; IUST, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Centre of Excellence for High Strength Alloys Technology; Abbasi, Seyed Mahdi [K.N. Toosi Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Metallic Materials Research Center

    2013-04-15

    In this research, the formation and transformation mechanisms of {eta} (Ni{sub 3}Ti) phase in an Fe-Ni-based superalloy at different Ti/Al ratios were investigated. In addition to Ti content, Ti/Al ratio also affects the {eta} phase. So alloys with different Ti/Al ratios were prepared and the microstructures were analysed using optical and scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The alloy with lower Ti but higher Ti/Al ratio has a higher {eta} volume fraction. Time-temperature-precipitation diagrams of {eta} phase in the superalloys with different Ti/Al ratios are also presented. Based on the experimental results, when the Ti/Al ratio was decreased from 20 to 3, the time and temperature of {eta} precipitation shifted to longer and higher values, respectively, and the {eta} volume fraction decreased. Ti/Al of 3 could significantly retard the formation of {eta} phase. Depending on the Ti/Al ratio, and the time and temperature of ageing, {eta} was precipitated at twin and grain boundaries or inside the grains, either by {gamma}' {yields} {eta} transformation or directly by formation of austenite. It was also shown that a high Ti/Al ratio in the alloy would reduce the fraction of twin boundaries after solution annealing which affects the {eta} phase nucleation.

  12. Solution based approaches for the morphology control of BaTiO3 particulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Maxim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the action COST 539 - ELENA our contribution was aimed at studying solution based approaches for the morphology control of BaTiO3 particulates. Initially, our kinetic analysis and systematic structural and morphological studies, demonstrated that during hydrothermal synthesis from layered titanate nanotubes (TiNTS, BaTiO3 forms via two mechanisms depending on the temperature and time. At low temperatures (90°C, “wild” type BaTiO3 dendritic particles with cubic structure were formed through a phase boundary topotactic reaction. At higher temperatures and/or for longer times time, the reaction is controlled by a dissolution precipitation mechanism and “seaweed” type BaTiO3 dendrites are formed. Our results unambiguously elucidated why TiNTs do not routinely act as templates for the formation of 1D BaTiO3.In our subsequent investigations, the effect of additives on the aqueous and hydrothermal synthesis of BaTiO3 was assessed. We reported that although the tested additives influenced the growth of BaTiO3, their behaviour varied; poly(acrylic acid (PAA adsorbed on specific crystallographic faces changing the growth kinetics and inducing the oriented attachment of the particles; poly(vinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC act as growth inhibitors rather than crystal habit modifiers; and DFructose appeared to increase the activation energy for nucleation, resulting in small crystals (26 nm. Our work clearly indicates that the synthesis of 1D nanostructures of complex oxides by chemical methods is non trivial.

  13. Coercivity and nanostructure of melt-spun Ti-Fe-Co-B-based alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanocrystalline Ti-Fe-Co-B-based alloys, prepared by melt spinning and subsequent annealing, have been characterized structurally and magnetically. X-ray diffraction and thermomagnetic measurements show that the ribbons consist of tetragonal Ti3(Fe,Co5B2, FeCo-rich bcc, and NiAl-rich L21 phases; Ti3(Fe,Co5B2, is a new substitutional alloy series whose end members Ti3Co5B2 and Ti3Fe5B2 have never been investigated magnetically and may not even exist, respectively. Two compositions are considered, namely Ti11+xFe37.5-0.5xCo37.5−0.5xB14 (x = 0, 4 and alnico-like Ti11Fe26Co26Ni10Al11Cu2B14, the latter also containing an L21-type alloy. The volume fraction of the Ti3(Fe,Co5B2 phase increases with x, which leads to a coercivity increase from 221 Oe for x = 0 to 452 Oe for x = 4. Since the grains are nearly equiaxed, there is little or no shape anisotropy, and the coercivity is largely due to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the tetragonal Ti3(Fe,Co5B2 phase. The alloy containing Ni, Al, and Cu exhibits a magnetization of 10.6 kG and a remanence ratio of 0.59. Our results indicate that magnetocrystalline anisotropy can be introduced in alnico-like magnets, adding to shape anisotropy that may be induced by field annealing.

  14. Wet-Chemical Preparation of TiO2-Based Composites with Different Morphologies and Photocatalytic Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Xiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-based composites have been paid significant attention in the photocatalysis field. The size, crystallinity and nanomorphology of TiO2 materials have an important effect on the photocatalytic efficiency. The synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO2-based materials have been widely investigated in past decades. Based on our group’s research works on TiO2 materials, this review introduces several methods for the fabrication of TiO2, rare-earth-doped TiO2 and noble-metal-decorated TiO2 particles with different morphologies. We focused on the preparation and the formation mechanism of TiO2-based materials with unique structures including spheres, hollow spheres, porous spheres, hollow porous spheres and urchin-like spheres. The photocatalytical activity of urchin-like TiO2, noble metal nanoparticle-decorated 3D (three-dimensional urchin-like TiO2 and bimetallic core/shell nanoparticle-decorated urchin-like hierarchical TiO2 are briefly discussed.

  15. Rhodium and Hafnium Influence on the Microstructure, Phase Composition, and Oxidation Resistance of Aluminide Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryana Zagula-Yavorska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 0.5 μm thick layer of rhodium was deposited on the CMSX 4 superalloy by the electroplating method. The rhodium-coated superalloy was hafnized and aluminized or only aluminized using the Chemical vapour deposition method. A comparison was made of the microstructure, phase composition, and oxidation resistance of three aluminide coatings: nonmodified (a, rhodium-modified (b, and rhodium- and hafnium-modified (c. All three coatings consisted of two layers: the additive layer and the interdiffusion layer. Rhodium-doped (rhodium- and hafnium-doped β-NiAl phase was found in the additive layer of the rhodium-modified (rhodium- and hafnium-modified aluminide coating. Topologically Closed-Pack (μ and σ phases precipitated in the matrix of the interdiffusion layer. Rhodium also dissolved in the β-NiAl phase between the additive and interdiffusion layers, whereas Hf-rich particles precipitated in the (Ni,RhAl phase at the additive/interdiffusion layer interface in the rhodium- and hafnium-modified coating (c. The rhodium-modified aluminide coating (b has better oxidation resistance than the nonmodified one (a, whereas the rhodium- and hafnium-modified aluminide coating (c has better oxidation resistance than the rhodium-modified (b and nonmodified (a ones.

  16. Optimization of laboratory hot rolling of brittle Fe-40at.%Al-Zr-B aluminide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schindler, I.; Hadasik, E.; Kopeček, Jaromír; Kawulok, P.; Fabík, R.; Opěla, P.; Rusz, S.; Kawulok, R.; Jabłońska, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 3 (2015), s. 1693-1701 ISSN 1733-3490 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP107/10/0438 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : iron aluminides * EBSD * textures * modelling Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.090, year: 2014

  17. Solid-state (49/47)Ti NMR of titanium-based MCM-41 hybrid materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Ruth; Fajardo, Mariano; Sierra, Isabel; Force, Carmen; del Hierro, Isabel

    2009-11-03

    Titanium solid-state NMR spectroscopy data for a series of organic-inorganic titanium MCM-41 based materials have been collected. These materials have been synthesized by first modifying the mesoporous silica MCM-41 in one step with a mixture of silanes: a triazine propyl triethoxysilane acting as functional linker and methyltrimethoxysilane or hexamethyldisilizane as capped agents to mask the remaining silanol groups. Second, the appropiate titanium precursor Ti(OPr(i))(4), [{Ti(OPr(i))(3)(OMent)}(2)] (OMent = 1R,2S,5R-(-)-menthoxo), Ti(OPr(i))(4), or [Ti(eta(5)-C(5)HMe(4))Cl(3)], has been immobilized by reaction with the modified MCM-41. Finally, after Ti(OPr(i))(4) immobilization onto the organomodified support the reaction with the chiral (+)-diethyl-l-tartrate was accomplished. The materials without functional linker have been also prepared by reaction in one step of the capped agent and the titanium precursor with the mesoporous silica. Relevant correlations of titanium NMR resonance chemical shifts and line widths can be inferred depending on different factors. The immobilization procedure used to prepare titanium-based MCM-41 hybrid materials and the choice of the silylating reagents employed to mask the silanol groups present on the silica surfaces produce significant differences in the Ti NMR spectra. Furthermore, depending on the electronic and sterical influence of the substituents directly attached to the titanium center, chemical shifts and line widths are modified providing novel information about titanium structure.

  18. Mechanisms of improving the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao He; Wang Weiguo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The corrosion resistance of V-based phase is much lower than that of C14 Laves phase of V-Ti-based alloys. → The addition of Cr which mostly distributes in V-based phase can effectively increase the anti-corrosion ability of V-Ti-based alloys. → The addition of Cr which mostly distributes in V-based phase can effectively increase the anti-corrosion ability of V-Ti-based alloys. - Abstract: In this work, the mechanisms of improving the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys were investigated systemically. Several key factors for example corrosion resistance, pulverization resistance and oxidation resistance were evaluated individually. The V-based solid solution phase has much lower anti-corrosion ability than C14 Laves phase in KOH solution, and the addition of Cr in V-Ti-based alloys can suppress the dissolution of the main hydrogen absorption elements of the V-based phase in the alkaline solution. During the charge/discharge cycling, the alloy particles crack or break into several pieces, which accelerates their corrosion/oxidation and increases the contact resistance of the alloy electrodes. Proper decreasing the Vickers hardness and enhancing the fracture toughness can increase the pulverization resistance of the alloy particles. The oxidation layer thickness on the alloy particle surface obviously increases during charge/discharge cycling. This deteriorates their electro-catalyst activation to the electrochemical reaction, and leads to a quick degradation. Therefore, enhancing the oxide resistance can obviously improve the cyclic stability of V-Ti-based hydrogen storage electrode alloys.

  19. Fabrication of chitosan/Au-TiO2nanotube-based dry electrodes for electroencephalography recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yanjuan; Li, Penghai; Li, Mingji; Li, Hongji; Li, Cuiping; Sun, Dazhi; Yang, Baohe

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we describe a method for fabricating dry electrodes for use in recording electroencephalograms (EEGs), which are based on the use of chitosan (Ch), gold (Au) particles, and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanotube arrays deposited on titanium (Ti) thin sheets. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and EEG signal collection. The TiO 2 nanotube arrays were grown on the Ti thin sheet by an electrochemical anodic oxidation method. The Au particles were deposited on the bottom and surface layers of the TiO 2 nanotube array using an electrochemistry-based multi-potential step technology. The fabricated dry Ch/Au-TiO 2 electrodes have an efficient conversion interface for ion current/electron current, a high biocompatible contact surface, and a fast electron transfer channel. To confirm that the Ch/Au-TiO 2 layer can be used in dry EEG electrodes, the impedance spectra of the electrodes in solution and skin were analyzed. The mean impedance values for skin were found to be approximately 169±33.0kΩ at 2.15Hz and 67.4±8.9kΩ at 100Hz. In addition, EEG signals from the forehead and sites with hair were collected using both the dry Ch/Au-TiO 2 electrode and a wet Ag/AgCl electrode for comparison purposes. It was found that high quality EEG signal recordings could be obtained using the dry electrodes. The fact that electrolytes are not required means that the electrodes are suitable for use in long-term bio-potential testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Formation of Ti-Ta-based surface alloy on TiNi SMA substrate from thin films by pulsed electron-beam melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, L. L.; Markov, A. B.; Ozur, G. E.; Rotshtein, V. P.; Yakovlev, E. V.; Meisner, S. N.; Poletika, T. M.; Girsova, S. L.; Semin, V. O.; Mironov, Yu P.

    2017-05-01

    TiNi shape memory alloys (SMAs) are unique metallic biomaterials due to combination of superelastisity and high corrosion resistance. Important factors limiting biomedical applications of TiNi SMAs are a danger of toxic Ni release into the adjacent tissues, as well as insufficient level of X-ray visibility. In this paper, the method for fabrication of protective Ni-free surface alloy of thickness ∼1 μm of near Ti70Ta30 composition on TiNi SMA substrate has been successfully realized. The method is based on multiple alternation of magnetron co-deposition of Ti70Ta30 thin (50 nm) films and their liquid-phase mixing with the TiNi substrate by microsecond low-energy, high current electron beam (≤15 keV, ∼2 J/cm2) using setup RITM-SP (Microsplav, Russia). It was found by AES, XRD, SEM/EDS and HRTEM/EDS examinations, that Ti-Ta surface alloy has an increased X-ray visibility and gradient multiphase amorphous-nanocrystalline structure containing nanopores.

  1. Application and Research Progress of Body-centered-cubic Ti-Mo Base Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIANG Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The application and research progress of β-type Ti-Mo base alloys were reviewed from aspects of aerospace, biomedical, offshore, new energy and other fields. The strengthening-toughening approach through the coupled deformation modes, namely martensitic phase transformation, twinning and dislocation slip was focused,and the control method of mechanical properties based on a combination of deformation microstructures and phase transformation was described. It was pointed out that high-performance and multifunctionality will be the development directions of Ti-Mo base alloys with multiple deformation modes.

  2. Progress, Challenge, and Perspective of Bimetallic TiO2-Based Photocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zielińska-Jurek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic TiO2-based photocatalysts have attracted considerable attention in recent years as a class of highly active catalysts and photocatalysts under both UV and Vis light irradiation. Bimetallic noble metal structures deposited on TiO2 possess the ability to absorb visible light, in a wide wavelength range (broad LSPR peak, and therefore reveal the highest level of activity as a result of utilization of a large amount of incident photons. On the other hand they can enhance the rate of trapping photoexcited electrons and inhibit the recombination process due to the capability of the storage of photoexcited electrons. Based on literature two groups of bimetallic photocatalysts were distinguished. The first group includes bimetallic TiO2 photocatalysts (BMOX, highly active under UV and Vis light irradiation in a variety of oxidation reactions, and the second group presents bimetallic photocatalysts (BMRED exceptionally active in hydrogenation reactions. This review summarizes recent advances in the preparation and environmental application of bimetallic TiO2-based photocatalysts. Moreover, the effects of various parameters such as particle shape, size, amount of metals, and calcination on the photocatalytic activity of bimetallic TiO2-based photocatalysts are also discussed.

  3. TiO2-Based Nanoheterostructures for Promoting Gas Sensitivity Performance: Designs, Developments, and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Wu, Tao; Zhou, Yun; Meng, Chuanmin; Zhu, Wenjun; Liu, Lixin

    2017-01-01

    Gas sensors based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) have attracted much public attention during the past decades due to their excellent potential for applications in environmental pollution remediation, transportation industries, personal safety, biology, and medicine. Numerous efforts have therefore been devoted to improving the sensing performance of TiO2. In those effects, the construct of nanoheterostructures is a promising tactic in gas sensing modification, which shows superior sensing performance to that of the single component-based sensors. In this review, we briefly summarize and highlight the development of TiO2-based heterostructure gas sensing materials with diverse models, including semiconductor/semiconductor nanoheterostructures, noble metal/semiconductor nanoheterostructures, carbon-group-materials/semiconductor nano- heterostructures, and organic/inorganic nanoheterostructures, which have been investigated for effective enhancement of gas sensing properties through the increase of sensitivity, selectivity, and stability, decrease of optimal work temperature and response/recovery time, and minimization of detectable levels. PMID:28846621

  4. BaTiO3-based piezoelectrics: Fundamentals, current status, and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M.; Novak, N.; Rojas, V.; Patel, S.; Vaish, R.; Koruza, J.; Rossetti, G. A.; Rödel, J.

    2017-12-01

    We present a critical review that encompasses the fundamentals and state-of-the-art knowledge of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics. First, the essential crystallography, thermodynamic relations, and concepts necessary to understand piezoelectricity and ferroelectricity in barium titanate are discussed. Strategies to optimize piezoelectric properties through microstructure control and chemical modification are also introduced. Thereafter, we systematically review the synthesis, microstructure, and phase diagrams of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics and provide a detailed compilation of their functional and mechanical properties. The most salient materials treated include the (Ba,Ca)(Zr,Ti)O3, (Ba,Ca)(Sn,Ti)O3, and (Ba,Ca)(Hf,Ti)O3 solid solution systems. The technological relevance of barium titanate-based piezoelectrics is also discussed and some potential market indicators are outlined. Finally, perspectives on productive lines of future research and promising areas for the applications of these materials are presented.

  5. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cell based on TiO{sub 2} photoanode with FTO glass and film both treated by TiCl{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jinlun [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center 100#, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Zhang, Haiyan, E-mail: hyzhang@gdut.edu.cn [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center 100#, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Functional Soft Condensed Matter, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Wang, Wenguang, E-mail: wenguangwang2005@163.com [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center 100#, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou, 510640 (China); Qian, Yannan; Li, Zhenghui [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Center 100#, Guangzhou, 510006 (China)

    2016-11-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on TiO{sub 2} photoanode with FTO glass and TiO{sub 2} film co-treated by TiCl{sub 4} were fabricated. The effects of TiCl{sub 4} treatment on the photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs were investigated. TiCl{sub 4} treatment of the FTO glass resulted in the formation of a compact TiO{sub 2} thin layer on its surface, which could increase the electron collection efficiency. Meanwhile, TiCl{sub 4} treatment of the TiO{sub 2} film could fill gaps between nanoparticles in the TiO{sub 2} film, leading to better electron transfer. These advantages make the DSSC exhibit a highest conversion efficiency of 3.34% under a simulated solar irradiation with an intensity of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} (1 sun), increased by 38% compared with that of the untreated DSSC.

  6. Charge transport and recombination in dye-sensitized solar cells based on hybrid films of TiO2 particles/TiO2 nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Peng; Que Wenxiu; Zhang Jin; Jia Qiaoying; Wang Wenjuan; Liao Yulong; Hu, X.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: → The electron lifetime increases with increasing the nanotube concentration. → The electron transport time is shortest at 10 wt% TiO 2 nanotubes. → The electron collection efficiency achieves maxima at 10 wt% nanotubes. → The energy conversion efficiency obtains the highest value at 10 wt% nanotubes. - Abstract: In this paper, anodic TiO 2 nanotubes are blended into the TiO 2 mesoporous films based on P25 nanoparticles to assemble a list of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with different nanotube concentrations. The electron properties of transport and recombination in the fabricated DSSCs are studied by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the open-circuit voltage decay technique under AM 1.5 illumination. Results indicate that the electron lifetime increases with increasing the concentration of the anodic TiO 2 nanotubes, the electron transport time at a blending level of 10 wt% TiO 2 nanotubes is short as compared to that at 0 wt%, and above 10 wt%, the electron transport time has a trend of becoming large. Due to the combining effects of the electron transport and recombination, the electron collecting efficiency and the electron diffusion length obtain maxima at a blending level of 10 wt% nanotubes, which results in a highest short circuit current and a maximum energy conversion efficiency at this point in the DSSCs. This study gives a clear explanation for the performance enhancement of TiO 2 particle-based DSSCs at a blending level of 10 wt% anodic TiO 2 nanotubes and for the performance decrease at a blending level over 10 wt% anodic TiO 2 nanotubes from the angle of the electron transport and recombination. This study also supplies a feasible and easy way to improve the performance of particle-based DSSCs by restraining electron recombination and accelerating electron transportation.

  7. Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Al-TiB2/TiC In Situ Aluminum-Based Composites during Accumulative Roll Bonding (ARB) Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jinfeng; Wang, Fang; Li, Yusheng; Cao, Yang; Liu, Xiangfa; Zhao, Yonghao; Zhu, Yuntian

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a kind of Al-TiB2/TiC in situ composite was successfully prepared using the melt reaction method and the accumulative roll-bonding (ARB) technique. The microstructure evolution of the composites with different deformation treatments was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The mechanical properties of the Al-TiB2/TiC in situ composite were also studied with tensile and microhardness tests. It was found that the distribution of reinforcement particles becomes more homogenous with an increasing ARB cycle. Meanwhile, the mechanical properties showed great improvement during the ARB process. The ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and microhardness of the composites were increased to 173.1 MPa and 63.3 Hv after two ARB cycles, respectively. Furthermore, the strengthening mechanism of the composite was analyzed based on its fracture morphologies. PMID:28772467

  8. Opto-electronic properties of a TiO{sub 2}/PS/mc-Si heterojunction based solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janene, N.; Ghrairi, N. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cédria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Allagui, A. [Center for Advanced Materials Research, University of Sharjah, PO Box 27272, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Dept. of Sustainable and Renewable Energy Engineering, University of Sharjah, PO Box 27272, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Alawadhi, H. [Center for Advanced Materials Research, University of Sharjah, PO Box 27272, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates); Khakani, M. A. El [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650, Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, QC, Canada J3X-1S2 (Canada); Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l’Energie, Technopole de Borj-Cédria, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Gaidi, M., E-mail: mkaidi@sharjah.ac.ae [Center for Advanced Materials Research, University of Sharjah, PO Box 27272, Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In this work solar cells based on Au/PS/mc-Si/Al and Au/TiO{sub 2}/PS/mc-Si/Al structures have prepared. • A novel double treatment passivation based on TiO2/Porous Si has been used. • An enhancement of the electrical properties of TiO{sub 2}/PS/mc-Si heterojunction was observed after TiO{sub 2} coating. • The solar cells efficiencies past from 1.4% for uncoated PS/mc-Si structure to 5% for TiO{sub 2} coated one. - Abstract: In this work, we show the results of our investigation on the photoelectric properties of heterojunction solar cells based on Au/PS/mc-Si/Al and Au/TiO{sub 2}/PS/mc-Si/Al structures. Porous silicon (PS) were prepared by an electrochemical etching process with different values of current density. The surface porosity was found to increase with the increase of current density. Pulsed laser deposition was used to deposit 80 nm TiO{sub 2} thin films. Surface morphology and structural properties of TiO{sub 2}/PS were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). An enhancement of the electrical properties of the TiO{sub 2}/PS/mc-Si heterojunction was observed after coating with TiO{sub 2}. As a consequence, the solar cell efficiencies increased from 1.4% for the uncoated PS/mc-Si structure to 5% for the TiO{sub 2} coated one. Impedance spectroscopy confirmed the passivation effect of TiO{sub 2} through the improvement of the elaborated cells’ electron lifetime and the formation of a TiO{sub 2}/PS/Au heterojunction with the appearance of a second semi-circle in the Nyquist plot.

  9. Theoretical studies of aluminum and aluminide alloys using CALPHAD and first-principles approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chao

    Heat-treatable aluminum alloys have been widely used in the automobile and aerospace industries as structural materials due to their light weight and high strength. To study the age-hardening process in heat-treatable aluminum alloys, the Gibbs energies of the strengthening metastable phases, e.g. theta ' and theta″, are critical. However, those data are not included in the existing thermodynamic databases for aluminum alloys due to the semi-empirical nature of the CALPHAD approach. In the present study, the thermodynamics of the Al-Cu system, the pivotal age-hardening system, is remodeled using a combined CALPHAD and first-principles approach. The formation enthalpies and vibrational formation entropies of the stable and metastable phases in the Al-Cu system are provided by first-principles calculations. Special Quasirandom Structures (SQS's) are applied to model the substitutionally random fee and bee alloys. SQS's for binary bee alloys are developed and tested in the present study. Finally, a self-consistent thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu system including the two metastable theta″ and theta' phases is obtained. During welding of heat-treatable aluminum alloys, a detrimental phenomenon called constitutional liquation, i.e. the local eutectic melting of second-phase particles in a matrix at temperatures above the eutectic temperature but below the solidus of the alloy, may occur in the heat-affected zone (HAZ). In the present study, diffusion code DICTRA coupled with realistic thermodynamic and kinetic databases is used to simulate the constitutional liquation in the model Al-Cu system. The simulated results are in quantitative agreement with experiments. The critical heating rate to avoid constitutional liquation is also determined through computer simulations. Besides the heat-treatable aluminum alloys, intermetallic compounds based on transition metal aluminides, e.g. NiAl and FeAl, are also promising candidates for the next-generation of high

  10. Physics of SrTiO3-based heterostructures and nanostructures: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun-Yi; Tylan-Tyler, Anthony; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy

    2018-03-01

    This review provides a summary of the rich physics expressed within SrTiO3-based heterostructures and nanostructures. The intended audience is researchers who are working in the field of oxides, but also those with different backgrounds (e.g., semiconductor nanostructures). After reviewing the relevant properties of SrTiO3 itself, we will then discuss the basics of SrTiO3-based heterostructures, how they can be grown, and how devices are typically fabricated. Next, we will cover the physics of these heterostructures, including their phase diagram and coupling between the various degrees of freedom. Finally, we will review the rich landscape of quantum transport phenomena, as well as the devices that elicit them.

  11. Thermo-mechanical processing (TMP) of Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, G.E.

    1995-02-01

    The effects of heat treatment and deformation processing on the microstructures and properties of γ-TiAl based alloys produced by ingot metallurgy (I/M) and powder metallurgy (P/M) techniques were examined. The alloy selected for this work is the second generation γ-TiAl based alloy -- Ti-48Al-2Nb-2Cr (at %). Homogenization of I/M samples was performed at a variety of temperatures, followed by hot working by isothermal forging. P/M samples were prepared from gas atomized powders, consolidated by both HIP and extrusion and some of the HIPed material was then hot worked by isothermal forging. The effects of processing, heat treatment and hot working on the microstructures and properties will be discussed

  12. The design, fabrication, and photocatalytic utility of nanostructured semiconductors: focus on TiO2-based nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arghya Narayan Banerjee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Arghya Narayan BanerjeeSchool of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, South KoreaAbstract: Recent advances in basic fabrication techniques of TiO2-based nanomaterials such as nanoparticles, nanowires, nanoplatelets, and both physical- and solution-based techniques have been adopted by various research groups around the world. Our research focus has been mainly on various deposition parameters used for fabricating nanostructured materials, including TiO2-organic/inorganic nanocomposite materials. Technically, TiO2 shows relatively high reactivity under ultraviolet light, the energy of which exceeds the band gap of TiO2. The development of photocatalysts exhibiting high reactivity under visible light allows the main part of the solar spectrum to be used. Visible light-activated TiO2 could be prepared by doping or sensitizing. As far as doping of TiO2 is concerned, in obtaining tailored material with improved properties, metal and nonmetal doping has been performed in the context of improved photoactivity. Nonmetal doping seems to be more promising than metal doping. TiO2 represents an effective photocatalyst for water and air purification and for self-cleaning surfaces. Additionally, it can be used as an antibacterial agent because of its strong oxidation activity and superhydrophilicity. Therefore, applications of TiO2 in terms of photocatalytic activities are discussed here. The basic mechanisms of the photoactivities of TiO2 and nanostructures are considered alongside band structure engineering and surface modification in nanostructured TiO2 in the context of doping. The article reviews the basic structural, optical, and electrical properties of TiO2, followed by detailed fabrication techniques of 0-, 1-, and quasi-2-dimensional TiO2 nanomaterials. Applications and future directions of nanostructured TiO2 are considered in the context of various photoinduced phenomena such as hydrogen production, electricity generation via

  13. Ti{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x} electrodes deposited on polymer based sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, S.M., E-mail: mariana.marques@fisica.uminho.pt [GRF-CFUM, Physics Department, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Manninen, N.K. [SEG-CEMUC Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferdov, Stanislav [GRF-CFUM, Physics Department, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); Lanceros-Mendez, S. [Physics Department, University of Minho, 4700-057 Braga (Portugal); Carvalho, S. [GRF-CFUM, Physics Department, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães (Portugal); SEG-CEMUC Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ti{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x} thin films with diverse Ag/Ti ratios were deposited by sputtering on piezoelectric PVDF. • The deposition conditions do not promote changes on the polymer structure. • The coatings do not change the piezoelectric properties of the polymer. • Sheet resistivity values show a typical behavior of a binary alloy system. • The deposited films are suitable for the development of functional electrodes. - Abstract: Piezoelectric materials are interesting for the development of sensors and actuators for biomedical applications in areas such as smart prosthesis, implantable biosensors and biomechanical signal monitoring, among others. For acquiring or applying the electrical signal from/to the piezoelectric material, suitable electrodes can be produced from Ti based coatings with tailored multifunctional properties: conductivity and antibacterial characteristics through Ag inclusions. This work reports on Ti{sub 1−x}Ag{sub x} electrodes with different Ag/Ti atomic ratios deposited by dc and pulsed magnetron sputtering at room temperature on poly(vinylidene fluoride), PVDF. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that the deposition conditions preserve the polymer structure and suggested the presence of crystalline Tiβ phase in pure titanium coating and fcc-Ag phase in pure silver coating. According to the results obtained from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, the coatings are homogeneous and no clusters were found; since β-PVDF is anisotropic, the deposited coatings replicate the underlying substrate surface. Sheet resistivity values show a typical behavior of a binary alloy system, with low resistivity values for coatings of zone 1 (Ti rich) and zone 3 (Ag rich) and a slightly higher resistivity values in zone 2. The piezoelectricity of the different samples show similar values.

  14. Microstructure, mechanical and functional properties of NiTi-based shape memory ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrabi, K.; Bruncko, M.; Kneissl, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Melt-spun samples exhibited martensite structure and shape memory effects immediately after processing at room temperature. ► Using a new etchant and interference contrast, it is possible to reveal the fine microstructures and grain boundaries. ► The martensite structure in NiTi is very fine, and nano-sized twin boundaries could be revealed using TEM only. ► Two-way effects have been successfully introduced by different thermomechanical training methods in NiTi, NiTiCu and NiTiW alloys, which can be used for several applications, e.g. microsensors and microactuators. - Abstract: The present work has been aimed to study the microstructures, functional properties and the influence of different thermomechanical training methods on the two-way shape memory effect in NiTi-based melt-spun ribbons. In order to get small-dimensioned shape memory alloys (SMAs) with good functional and mechanical properties, a rapid solidification technique was employed. Their fracture and elasticity characteristics have been determined, as well as shape memory properties by thermomechanical cycling. The ribbons were trained under tensile and bending deformation by thermal cycling through the phase transformation temperature range. The results displayed that all different training methods were effective in developing a two-way shape memory effect (TWSME). The influence of copper (5–25 at.% Cu) and tungsten (2 at.% W) on the microstructure, and the functional and mechanical behavior of NiTi thin ribbons was also investigated. All samples show a shape memory effect immediately after processing without further heat treatment. The melt-spun ribbons were trained under constant strain (bending and tensile deformation) by thermal cycling through the phase transformation temperature range. The addition of copper was effective to narrow the transformation hysteresis. The W addition has improved the TWSME stability of the NiTi alloys and mechanical properties. Results about

  15. Effect of heat treatment on residual stress and wear behaviors of the TiNi/Ti2Ni based laser cladding composite coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang-Feng; Li, Jun; Lv, Ying-Hao; Hu, Lie-Feng

    2017-12-01

    The TiNi/Ti2Ni based composite coatings reinforced by TiC and TiB2 were prepared on Ti6Al4V at different circumstance temperatures (25 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C, and 800 °C) by laser cladding, then were preserved for 3 h. Macromorphologies and microstructures of the coatings were examined through an optical microscope (OM), an X-ray diffractometer (XRD), a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). Residual stresses along the depth direction of the coatings were measured by the nanoindentation method, and wear behaviors of the coatings were also investigated using an ultra-functional wear testing machine. Results showed that the coatings were mainly composed of TiNi/Ti2Ni as the matrix and TiC/TiB2 as the reinforcement. A small amount of Cr2Ti was formed in the coatings prepared at 400 °C and 600 °C. Besides that, Ti3Al was also observed in the coating prepared at 800 °C. The tensile stress existed in the coatings prepared at 25 °C, 400 °C and 600 °C when the coating prepared at 800 °C was regarded as the stress-free reference. The average residual stress in the surface of coating prepared at 25 °C reached the largest value of about 2.79 GPa and presented a decreasing tendency with increasing the circumstance temperature (1.03 GPa at 400 °C, 0.52 GPa at 600 °C, and 0 GPa at 800 °C). It revealed that the rise in circumstance temperature contributed to the reduction in cracking susceptibility in the laser cladding coating. However, the wear volumes of the coatings were increased with increasing the circumstance temperature (0.1912 mm3 at 25 °C, 0.2828 mm3 at 400 °C, 0.3732 mm3 at 600 °C, and 0.6073 mm3 at 800 °C) due to the weakening in strain-hardening effect and the reduction in reinforcement density. The wear mechanism of the coatings was transformed from the single brittle-debonding into the combination of micro-cutting and brittle-debonding when the circumstance temperature was changed from room temperature to

  16. Promising psyllium-based composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles as aspirin-carrier matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela-Corina Rosu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanomaterials represent a new trend in the biomedical field. Coupling inorganic/organic constituents with non-toxicity/biocompatibility properties leads to develop the new systems having special characteristics that can be used in various bio-applications. This paper describes the preparation and characterization of psyllium-based composites containing TiO2 nanoparticles in order to develop new therapeutic strategies for aspirin drug delivery. The structural characteristics of obtained materials were investigated by FTIR spectroscopy. The UV–vis spectrophotometric analysis was performed to evaluate the aspirin release behavior under different pH conditions at 37 °C. Combining psyllium (as an excellent source of fiber with TiO2 inorganic unit (as vehicle of aspirin it was found that polymeric-TiO2 networks have promising potential for controlled aspirin release as therapeutic agent.

  17. Microstructural evaluation of NiTi-based films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crăciunescu, Corneliu M., E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro; Mitelea, Ion, E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro; Budău, Victor, E-mail: corneliu.craciunescu@upt.ro [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara (Romania); Ercuţa, Aurel [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Politehnica University of Timisoara and Department of Physics, West University Timisoara (Romania)

    2014-11-24

    Shape memory alloy films belonging to the NiTi-based systems were deposited on heated and unheated substrates, by magnetron sputtering in a custom made system, and their structure and composition was analyzed using electron microscopy. Several substrates were used for the depositions: glass, Cu-Zn-Al, Cu-Al-Ni and Ti-NiCu shape memory alloy ribbons and kapton. The composition of the Ti-Ni-Cu films showed limited differences, compared to the one of the target and the microstructure for the DC magnetron sputtering revealed crystallized structure with features determined on peel off samples from a Si wafer. Both inter and transcrystalline fractures were observed and related to the interfacial stress developed on cooling from deposition temperature.

  18. Understanding the antimicrobial mechanism of TiO2-based nanocomposite films in a pathogenic bacterium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kubacka, A.; Suarez Diez, M.; Rojo, D.; Bargiela, R.; Ciordia, S.; Zapico, I.; Albar, J.P.; Barbas, C.; Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Fernández-García, M.; Ferrer, M.

    2014-01-01

    Titania (TiO2)-based nanocomposites subjected to light excitation are remarkably effective in eliciting microbial death. However, the mechanism by which these materials induce microbial death and the effects that they have on microbes are poorly understood. Here, we assess the low dose

  19. High Mobility of Graphene-Based Flexible Transparent Field Effect Transistors Doped with TiO2 and Nitrogen-Doped TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Hsien; Tseng, Po-Yuan; Hsieh, Ping-Yen; Chou, Hung-Tao; Tai, Nyan-Hwa

    2015-05-13

    Graphene with carbon atoms bonded in a honeycomb lattice can be tailored by doping various species to alter the electrical properties of the graphene for fabricating p-type or n-type field-effect transistors (FETs). In this study, large-area and single-layer graphene was grown on electropolished Cu foil using the thermal chemical vapor deposition method; the graphene was then transferred onto a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate to produce flexible, transparent FETs. TiO2 and nitrogen-doped TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanoparticles were doped on the graphene to alter its electrical properties, thereby enhancing the carrier mobility and enabling the transistors to sense UV and visible light optically. The results indicated that the electron mobility of the graphene was 1900 cm(2)/(V·s). Dopings of TiO2 and N-doped TiO2 (1.4 at. % N) lead to n-type doping effects demonstrating extremely high carrier mobilities of 53000 and 31000 cm(2)/(V·s), respectively. Through UV and visible light irradiation, TiO2 and N-TiO2 generated electrons and holes; the generated electrons transferred to graphene channels, causing the FETs to exhibit n-type electric behavior. In addition, the Dirac points of the graphene recovered to their original state within 5 min, confirming that the graphene-based FETs were photosensitive to UV and visible light. In a bending state with a radius of curvature greater than 2.0 cm, the carrier mobilities of the FETs did not substantially change, demonstrating the application possibility of the fabricated graphene-based FETs in photosensors.

  20. Corrosion resistant iron aluminides exhibiting improved mechanical properties and corrosion resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chain T.; McKamey, Claudette G.; Tortorelli, Peter F.; David, Stan A.

    1994-01-01

    The specification discloses a corrosion-resistant intermetallic alloy comprising, in atomic percent, an FeAl iron aluminide containing from about 30 to about 40% aluminum alloyed with from about 0.01 to 0.4% zirconium and from 0.01 to about 0.8% boron. The alloy exhibits considerably improved room temperature ductility for enhanced usefulness in structural applications. The high temperature strength and fabricability is improved by alloying with molybdenum, carbon, chromium and vanadium.

  1. A process for the fabrication of ceramic fibre reinforced titanium aluminide

    OpenAIRE

    Horsfall, Ian; Cundy, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes initial work on a novel process for the production of titanium aluminide matrix composites reinforced with short alumina fibers. The processing route involves an adaption of existing metal matrix composite (MMC) fabrication technology used to produce hybrid particulate/short fiber composites. A preform is produced which contains alumina fibers and titanium metal powder with a fiber content of around 10% by volume and approximately 50% porosity. This preform is then infilt...

  2. Measurement of the effective activation volume in 45XD titanium aluminides by repeated transient tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diologent, F.; Kruml, Tomáš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 487, č. 1-2 (2008), s. 377-382 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/0762; GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0495 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Titanium aluminides * Mechanical properties * Plastic deformation mechanisms * Activation volume * Stress relaxation Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  3. < c >-component plastic displacements in different microstructures of TiAl-base intermetallics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orlová, Alena; Kuchařová, Květa; Dlouhý, Antonín

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 483, Sp.Iss.SI (2008), s. 109-112 ISSN 0921-5093. [International Conference on the Strength of Materials /14./. Xian, 04.06.2006-09.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS200410502; GA MŠk OC 522.100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : intermetallics * creep * transmission electron microscopy * titanium aluminides Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2008

  4. Effect of cerium addition on the corrosion behaviour of carbon-alloyed iron aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, S.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Mungole, M.N.; Bharagava, S.; Baligidad, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of Ce addition on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of carbon-alloyed iron aluminides Fe-20.0Al-2.0C, Fe-18.5Al-3.6C and Fe-19.2Al-3.3C-0.07Ce (in at.%) has been studied. The potentiodynamic polarization behaviour of the alloys was evaluated in freely aerated 0.25 mol/l H 2 SO 4 . A 0.05% C steel was used for comparison purposes. All the alloys exhibited active-passive behaviour in the acidic solution. The addition of Ce destroyed passivity as indicated by lower breakdown potentials in polarization studies. This has been related to the finer distribution of the carbides in the microstructure. Corrosion rates were evaluated by immersion testing. The iron aluminide with Ce addition exhibited a lower corrosion rate compared to the aluminides without Ce addition. This has been attributed to modifications in surface film with Ce addition. Scanning electron microscopy of corroded surfaces indicated that the carbon-alloyed intermetallics were susceptible to localized galvanic corrosion due to the presence of carbides in the microstructure

  5. Additive manufacturing of a high niobium-containing titanium aluminide alloy by selective electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.P.; Yang, G.Y.; Jia, W.P.; He, W.W.; Lu, S.L.; Qian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers a radical net-shape manufacturing approach for titanium aluminide alloys but significant challenges still remain. A study has been made of the AM of a high niobium-containing titanium aluminide alloy (Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.3W, in at% throughout the paper) using selective electron beam melting (SEBM). The formation of various types of microstructural defects, including banded structures caused by the vaporization of aluminum, was investigated with respect to different processing parameters. To avoid both micro- and macro-cracks, the use of higher preheating temperatures and an intermediate reheating process (to reheat each solidified layer during SEBM) was assessed in detail. These measures enabled effective release of the thermal stress that developed during SEBM and therefore the avoidance of cracks. In addition, the processing conditions for the production of a fine full lamellar microstructure were identified. As a result, the Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.3W alloy fabricated showed outstanding properties (compression strength: 2750 MPa; strain-to-fracture: 37%). SEBM can be used to fabricate high performance titanium aluminide alloys with appropriate processing parameters and pathways

  6. New Ti-based Ti–Cu–Zr–Fe–Sn–Si–Ag bulk metallic glass for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Shujie; Liu, Ying; Li, Haifei; Sun, Lulu; Li, Yan; Zhang, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel Ti 47 Cu 38 Zr 7.5 Fe 2.5 Sn 2 Si 1 Ag 2 (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with a critical diameter of 7 mm was discovered. • The present BMG is the largest Ni- and Be-free Ti-based BMG containing low content of noble metal reported to date. • The glassy alloy possesses high specific strength, low Young’s modulus, and good corrosion resistance and bio-compatibility. • Combination of high glass-forming ability and good mechano- and bio-compatibility for the Ti-based BMG demonstrates the potential for use in biomedical applications. - Abstract: A novel Ni-free Ti 47 Cu 38 Zr 7.5 Fe 2.5 Sn 2 Si 1 Ag 2 (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with superior glass-forming ability, good mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility was discovered. The Ti-based BMG with a diameter of 7 mm can be prepared by copper mold casting and the supercooled liquid region was 52 K. Compressive strength, specific strength, Young’s modulus and microhardness of the Ti-based BMG were about 2.08 GPa, 3.2 × 10 5 N m/kg, 100 GPa and 588 Hv, respectively. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the Ti-based glassy alloy possesses higher corrosion resistance than Ti–6Al–4V alloy in a simulated body fluid environment. Attachment, spreading out and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the Ti-based BMG surface demonstrated the excellent biocompatibility. Mechanisms of the formation and properties for the Ti-based glassy alloy are also discussed. The combination of high glass-forming ability, excellent mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility demonstrates the potential of the Ni-free Ti-based BMG for use in biomedical applications

  7. TiB2 reinforced aluminum based in situ composites fabricated by stir casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Fei; Chen, Zongning; Mao, Feng; Wang, Tongmin; Cao, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new technique involving mechanical stirring at the salts/aluminum interface was developed to fabricate TiB 2 particulate reinforced aluminum based in situ composites with improved particle distribution. Processing parameters in terms of stirring intensity, stirring duration and stirring start time were optimized according to the microstructure and mechanical properties evaluation. The results show that, the first and last 15 min of the entire 60 min holding are of prime importance to the particle distribution of the final composites. When applying 180 rpm (revolutions per minute) stirring at the salts/aluminum interface in these two intervals, a more uniform microstructure can be achieved and the Al-4 wt% TiB 2 composite thus produced exhibits superior mechanical performance. Synchrotron radiation X-ray computed tomography (SR-CT) was used to give a full-scale imaging of the particle distribution. From the SR-CT results, the in situ Al–xTiB 2 composites (x=1, 4 and 7, all in wt%) fabricated by the present technique are characterized by fine and clean TiB 2 particles distributed uniformly throughout the Al matrix. These composites not only have higher yield strength (σ 0.2 ) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS), but also exhibit superior ductility, with respect to the Al–TiB 2 composites fabricated by the conventional process. The σ 0.2 and UTS of the Al–7TiB 2 composite in the present work, are 260% and 180% higher than those of the matrix. A combined mechanism was also presented to interpret the improvements in yield strength of the composites as influenced by their microstructures and processing history. The predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental results, strongly supporting the strengthening mechanism we proposed. Fractography reveals that the composites thus fabricated, follow ductile fracture mechanism in spite of the presence of stiff reinforcements

  8. Effects of microstructure on creep of Ti-24Al-11Nb polycrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to determine the steady-state creep rate (CRSS) of various microstructures of Ti-24Al-11Nb (a/o). This alloy is a two-phase (β + α 2 ) Ti 3 Al-based aluminide with niobium added to stabilize β. The microstructure of the heat-treated alloy is lath α 2 surrounded by a thin film of β arranged in a basketweave morphology, while the as-received microstructure consists of equiaxed α 2 plus a small amount of β. SSCR vs. stress and vs. temperature curves were determined to find Q a , apparent creep activation energy, and n, power law stress exponent. At low stresses, Q a s determined for all microstructures were found to be between 106 kJ/mol and 145 kJ/mol, which agrees fairly well with the value of 121 kJ/mol previously obtained for grain boundary diffusional creep in titanium at low stresses. Mechanical-test results show that microstructures with a coarse α 2 lath size in general display improved creep resistance over fine-lathed structures. Specimens with an equiaxed α 2 phase microstructure exhibit much greater creep rates at all stresses and temperatures

  9. TiO2/Cu2O composite based on TiO2 NTPC photoanode for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting under visible light

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Le

    2015-05-01

    Water splitting through photoelectrochemical reaction is widely regarded as a major method to generate H2 , a promising source of renewable energy to deal with the energy crisis faced up to human being. Efficient exploitation of visible light in practice of water splitting with pure TiO2 material, one of the most popular semiconductor material used for photoelectrochemical water splitting, is still challenging. One dimensional TiO2 nanotubes is highly desired with its less recombination with the short distance for charge carrier diffusion and light-scattering properties. This work is based on TiO2 NTPC electrode by the optimized two-step anodization method from our group. A highly crystalized p-type Cu2O layer was deposited by optimized pulse potentiostatic electrochemical deposition onto TiO2 nanotubes to enhance the visible light absorption of a pure p-type TiO2 substrate and to build a p-n junction at the interface to improve the PEC performance. However, because of the real photocurrent of Cu2O is far away from its theoretical limit and also poor stability in the aqueous environment, a design of rGO medium layer was added between TiO2 nanotube and Cu2O layer to enhance the photogenerated electrons and holes separation, extend charge carrier diffusion length (in comparison with those of conventional pure TiO2 or Cu2O materials) which could significantly increase photocurrent to 0.65 mA/cm2 under visible light illumination (>420 nm) and also largely improve the stability of Cu2O layer, finally lead to an enhancement of water splitting performance.

  10. Fabrication and study of double sintered TiNi-based porous alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergey, Anikeev; Valentina, Hodorenko; Timofey, Chekalkin; Victor, Gunther; Ji-hoon, Kang; Ji-soon, Kim

    2017-05-01

    Double-sintered porous TiNi-based alloys were fabricated and their structural characteristics and physico-mechanical properties were investigated. A fabrication technology of powder mixtures is elaborated in this article. Sintering conditions were chosen experimentally to ensure good structure and properties. The porous alloys were synthesized by solid-state double diffusion sintering (DDS) of Ti-Ni powder and prepare to obtain dense, crack-free, and homogeneous samples. The Ti-Ni compound sintered at various temperatures was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Phase composition of the sintered alloys was determined by x-ray diffraction. Analysis of the data confirmed the morphology and structural parameters. Mechanical and physical properties of the sintered alloys were evaluated. DDS at 1250 °C was found to be optimal to produce porous samples with a porosity of 56% and mean pore size of 90 μm. Pore size distribution was unimodal within the narrow range of values. The alloys present enhanced strength and ductility, owing to both the homogeneity of the macrostructure and relative elasticity of the bulk, which is hardened by the Ni-rich precipitates. These results suggest the possibility to manufacture porous TiNi-based alloys for application as a new class of dental implants.

  11. A pH sensor based on the TiO{sub 2} nanotube array modified Ti electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Rongrong; Xu Meizhu [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 523 Gongye Road, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian (China); Wang Jian, E-mail: jwang@fzu.edu.c [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 523 Gongye Road, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian (China); Chen Guonan, E-mail: guonanchen@126.co [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, 523 Gongye Road, Fuzhou 350002, Fujian (China)

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, a novel solid state pH sensor was fabricated by anodization of titanium substrate electrode. The relationship between pH sensitivity and hydrophilicity or surface morphology of TiO{sub 2} film was investigated. Amorphous TiO{sub 2} nanotube has better pH response than anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube. After being irradiated by ultraviolet light (UV), the potential response of the electrode modified by amorphous TiO{sub 2} nanotube was close to Nernst equation (59 mV/pH). SEM, XRD, and XPS were used to characterize electrodes. Possible mechanism was discussed by analyzing surface hydroxyl groups, crystal structure and hydrophilicity of the electrodes. The electrode has been used to detect some kinds of soft drinks and shows good response.

  12. Influence of Ti-based dopants in NaAlH4 on the performance for hydrogen storage application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aline Leon; Christoph Frommen; Maximilian Fichtner; Jorg Rothe; Dieter Schild

    2006-01-01

    In this work XAS and XPS spectroscopy have been applied to investigate the evolution of the local structure of Ti-based dopants in hydrogen storage materials. A novel catalyst, AlTi 0.02 , has been synthesized and used as precursor in Ti doped sodium alanate. The decomposition kinetics of the new compound is similar to the desorption kinetics obtained for sodium alanate doped with TiCl 3 (by ball milling for 30 minutes) after 5 cycles of hydrogenation. Moreover, the kinetics and the hydrogen storage capacity are stable with increasing number of cycles under hydrogen. Comparing the atomic scale behavior of this new dopant with the TiCl 3 or Ti colloid doped Na-alanates revealed that the chemical state of Ti as well as its local structure are relevant for the evolution of the storage capacity and the desorption/absorption reaction rate upon cycling under hydrogen. We conclude that the stability of the Ti electronic state and the catalyst structure in the AlTi 0.02 doped alanate hinder deterioration of the reaction rate and the hydrogen storage capacity under cycling. (authors)

  13. Effect of H2 Exposure on TiO2-based Ceramic Thick Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frade, J. R.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Thick-film sensors based on TiO2 (anatase and rutile and composites of TiO2-Al2O3 and TiO2-Y2O3 have been tested for their electrical response on exposure to H2. Film d.c. resistance was measured in the temperature range 500-650ºC as a function of time and gas-phase composition (air, N2 and 10% H2 in an N2-based stream; the equilibrium gas-phase Po2 was simultaneously monitored with a ZrO2-based oxygen sensor. The detection mechanism of TiO2 to H2 involves the formation of fully ionised oxygen vacancies for both anatase and rutile. The addition of Al2O3 and Y2O3 did little to affect film sensitivity at the tested H2 concentration levels.Los sensores de lámina gruesa basados en TIO2 (Anatasa y rutilo y materiales compuestos de TiO2-Al203 y TiO2-Y2O3 han sido evaluados en función de su respuesta eléctrica a la exposición de H2. La resistencia d.c. de las láminas fue medida en el rango de temperaturas de 500-560ºC en función del tiempo y la composición de la fase gaseosa (aire, N2 y 10% H2 en un vapor basado en N2; el equilibrio de P02 de la fase gaseosa fue simultáneamente monitorizado con un sensor de oxígeno basado en ZrO2. El mecanismo de detección del H2 por el TiO2 incluye la formación de vacantes de oxígeno totalmente ionizadas por la anatasa y el rutilo. La adición de Al2O3 y Y2O3 apenas afecta la sensibilidad de la lámina en los niveles de H2 evaluados.

  14. Structure-Curie temperature relationships in BaTiO3-based ferroelectric perovskites: Anomalous behavior of (Ba ,Cd )TiO3 from DFT, statistical inference, and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V.; Xue, Dezhen; Lookman, Turab

    2016-04-01

    One of the key impediments to the development of BaTiO3-based materials as candidates to replace toxic-Pb-based solid solutions is their relatively low ferroelectric Curie temperature (TC). Among many potential routes that are available to modify TC, ionic substitutions at the Ba and Ti sites remain the most common approach. Here, we perform density functional theory (DFT) calculations on a series of A TiO3 and Ba B O3 perovskites, where A =Ba , Ca, Sr, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Mg and B =Ti , Zr, Hf, and Sn. Our objective is to study the relative role of A and B cations in impacting the TC of the tetragonal (P 4 m m ) and rhombohedral (R 3 m ) ferroelectric phases in BaTiO3-based solid solutions, respectively. Using symmetry-mode analysis, we obtain a quantitative description of the relative contributions of various divalent (A ) and tetravalent (B ) cations to the ferroelectric distortions. Our results show that Ca, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Mg have large mode amplitudes for ferroelectric distortion in the tetragonal phase relative to Ba, whereas Sr suppresses the distortions. On the other hand, Zr, Hf, and Sn tetravalent cations severely suppress the ferroelectric distortion in the rhombohedral phase relative to Ti. In addition to symmetry modes, our calculated unit-cell volume also agrees with the experimental trends. We subsequently utilize the symmetry modes and unit-cell volumes as features within a machine learning approach to learn TC via an inference model and uncover trends that provide insights into the design of new high-TCBaTiO3 -based ferroelectrics. The inference model predicts CdTiO3-BaTiO3 solid solutions to have a higher TC and, therefore, we experimentally synthesized these solid solutions and measured their TC. Although the calculated mode strength for CdTiO3 in the tetragonal phase is even larger than that for PbTiO3, the TC of CdTiO3-BaTiO3 solid solutions in the tetragonal phase does not show any appreciable enhancement. Thus, CdTiO3-BaTiO3 does not follow the

  15. Surface modification of NiTi by plasma based ion implantation for application in harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, R. M.; Fernandes, B. B.; Carreri, F. C.; Gonçalves, J. A. N.; Ueda, M.; Silva, M. M. N. F.; Silva, M. M.; Pichon, L.; Camargo, E. N.; Otubo, J.

    2012-12-01

    The substitution of conventional components for NiTi in distinct devices such as actuators, valves, connectors, stents, orthodontic arc-wires, e.g., usually demands some kind of treatment to be performed on the surface of the alloy. A typical case is of biomaterials made of NiTi, in which the main drawback is the Ni out-diffusion, an issue that has been satisfactorily addressed by plasma based ion implantation (PBII). Even though PBII can tailor selective surface properties of diverse materials, usually, only thin modified layers are attained. When NiTi alloys are to be used in the harsh space environment, as is the case of devices designed to remotely release the solar panels and antenna arrays of satellites, e.g., superior mechanical and tribological properties are demanded. For this case the thickness of the modified layer must be larger than the one commonly achieved by conventional PBII. In this paper, new nitrogen PBII set up was used to treat samples of NiTi in moderate temperature of 450 °C, with negative voltage pulses of 7 kV/250 Hz/20 μs, in a process lasting 1 h. A rich nitrogen atomic concentration of 85 at.% was achieved on the near surface and nitrogen diffused at least for 11 μm depth. Tribological properties as well as corrosion resistance were evaluated.

  16. Wear Behavior of Mechanically Alloyed Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass Composites Containing Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Sheng Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the preparation and wear behavior of mechanically alloyed Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites containing carbon nanotube (CNT particles. The differential scanning calorimeter results show that the thermal stability of the amorphous matrix is affected by the presence of CNT particles. Changes in glass transition temperature (Tg and crystallization temperature (Tx suggest that deviations in the chemical composition of the amorphous matrix occurred because of a partial dissolution of the CNT species into the amorphous phase. Although the hardness of CNT/Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass composites is increased with the addition of CNT particles, the wear resistance of such composites is not directly proportional to their hardness, and does not follow the standard wear law. A worn surface under a high applied load shows that the 12 vol. % CNT/Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass composite suffers severe wear compared with monolithic Ti50Cu28Ni15Sn7 bulk metallic glass.

  17. Fabrication and characterization dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on TiO2/SnO2 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musyaro'ah, Huda, Ichsanul; Indayani, Wahyu; Gunawan, Bodi; Yudhoyono, G.; Endarko

    2017-01-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on TiO2/SnO2 composite electrode has been fabricated. In this research, modifications TiO2 electrode in the form of composite TiO2/SnO2 which aims to optimize the process of transfer and charge separation that reduces premature recombination in the cells, so as to increase the conversion efficiency and stability of dye-sensitized solar cell performance. In this study, DSSC is composed of several components, among others, a semiconductor oxide, a layer of dye, a counter electrode, and an electrolyte. This study used three types of semiconductors at the working electrode is pure TiO2, composite TiO2/SnO2 and pure SnO2, electrolyte gel based polymer PEG with BM 1000, plate carbon as the counter electrode (cathode), and the use of dye from synthetic materials N-749 as dye sensitizer. This study tested with xenon lamp light source intensity of 100mW/cm2. Results of research and calculations showed that the DSSC based composite electrode TiO2/SnO2 better than the DSSC based pure TiO2 electrodes and based pure SnO2 electrodes, this is indicated by the value efficient as follows: 0.041%, 0.019%, and 0.0114%.

  18. Aluminide slurry coatings for protection of ferritic steel in molten nitrate corrosion for concentrated solar power technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audigié, Pauline; Bizien, Nicolas; Baráibar, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Sergio; Pastor, Ana; Hernández, Marta; Agüero, Alina

    2017-06-01

    Molten nitrates can be employed as heat storage fluids in solar concentration power plants. However molten nitrates are corrosive and if operating temperatures are raised to increase efficiencies, the corrosion rates will also increase. High temperature corrosion resistant coatings based on Al have demonstrated excellent results in other sectors such as gas turbines. Aluminide slurry coated and uncoated P92 steel specimens were exposed to the so called Solar Salt (industrial grade), a binary eutectic mixture of 60 % NaNO3 - 40 % KNO3, in air for 2000 hours at 550°C and 580°C in order to analyze their behavior as candidates to be used in future solar concentration power plants employing molten nitrates as heat transfer fluids. Coated ferritic steels constitute a lower cost technology than Ni based alloy. Two different coating morphologies resulting from two heat treatment performed at 700 and 1050°C after slurry application were tested. The coated systems exhibited excellent corrosion resistance at both temperatures, whereas uncoated P92 showed significant mass loss from the beginning of the test. The coatings showed very slow reaction with the molten Solar Salt. In contrast, uncoated P92 developed a stratified, unprotected Fe, Cr oxide with low adherence which shows oscillating Cr content as a function of coating depth. NaFeO2 was also found at the oxide surface as well as within the Fe, Cr oxide.

  19. Synthesis mechanism of an Al-Ti-C grain refiner master alloy prepared by a new method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B. Q.; Lu, L.; Lai, M. O.; Fang, H. S.; Ma, H. T.; Li, J. G.

    2003-08-01

    The mechanisms of in-situ synthesis of an Al-Ti-C grain-refiner master alloy, prepared by adding a powder mixture of potassium titanium fluoride and carbon into an aluminum melt, have been systematically studied. It was found that vigorous reactions occurred at the initial stage of reaction and then slowed down. After about 20 minutes, the reactions, which led the formation of blocky titanium aluminides and submicron titanium carbides in the aluminum matrix, appeared to reach completion. Potassium titanium fluoride reacted with aluminum and carbon at 724 °C and 736 °C, respectively, resulting in the formation of titanium aluminides and titanium carbides in the aluminum matrix as well as in the formation of a low-melting-point slag of binary potassium aluminofluorides. The reaction between potassium titanium fluoride and carbon is believed to be the predominant mechanism in the synthesis of TiC by this method.

  20. Synthesis and optical properties of TiO{sub 2}-based magnetic nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarisoreanu, M.; Morjan, I. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics (NILPRP), Atomistilor 409, PO Box MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Fleaca, C.-T., E-mail: claudiufleaca@yahoo.com [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics (NILPRP), Atomistilor 409, PO Box MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); “Politehnica” University of Bucharest, Physics Department, Independentei 313, Bucharest (Romania); Morjan, I.P.; Niculescu, A.-M.; Dutu, E.; Badoi, A.; Birjega, R.; Luculescu, C. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics (NILPRP), Atomistilor 409, PO Box MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Vasile, E. [“Politehnica” University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, Department of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, Gh. Polizu 1-7, Bucharest (Romania); Danciu, V. [“Babes-Boyai” University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Electrochemical Research Laboratory, 11 Arany Janos Street, Cluj-Napoca 400028 (Romania); Filoti, G. [National Institute for Materials Physics (NIMP), Atomistilor 105bis, PO Box MG7, R-077125 Magurele, Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • Magnetic titania@silica nanoparticles were synthesized by the single step laser pyrolysis. • Fe(CO){sub 5}, TiCl{sub 4}, HMDSO and O{sub 2} from air were the precursors and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} was the sensitizer. • Samples present a typical character of diluted magnetic oxide systems. • Samples have a lower bandgap energy (down to E{sub g} = 1.85 eV) than the P25 Degussa. - Abstract: Magnetic titania nanoparticles covered/embedded in SiO{sub 2} shell/matrix were simultaneously manufactured by the single-step laser pyrolysis. The present study is a continuation of our previous investigations on the TiO{sub 2}/Fe and TiO{sub 2}/HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane) derived-systems. The aim of this work is to study the synthesis by IR (Infrared) laser pyrolysis of magnetic TiO{sub 2} based nanocomposites which implies many concurrent processes induced in the gas phase by the laser radiation. The dependence between characteristic properties and the synthesis parameters was determined by many analytical and complementary methods: XRD (X-ray diffraction) structural analysis, UV–vis (ultraviolet–visible) and EDAX (energy-dispersive X-ray) spectroscopy, TEM and HRTEM (transmission electron microscopy at low and high resolution) analysis and magnetic measurements. The results of analysis indicate the presence of disordered silica, Fe, α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and mixtures of anatase and rutile phases with mean crystallite dimensions (in the 14–34 nm range) with typical character of diluted magnetic oxide systems and a lower bandgap energy (E{sub g} = 1.85 eV) as compared with TiO{sub 2} P25 Degussa sample.

  1. Surface modification of NiTi by plasma based ion implantation for application in harsh environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, R.M., E-mail: rogerio@plasma.inpe.br [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Fernandes, B.B.; Carreri, F.C.; Goncalves, J.A.N.; Ueda, M.; Silva, M.M.N.F. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, M.M. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil); Pichon, L. [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique, University of Poitiers, Poitiers (France); Camargo, E.N.; Otubo, J. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), S. J. Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New nitrogen PBII set up was used to treat samples of NiTi in moderate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A very rich nitrogen atomic concentration was achieved on the top surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen diffused at least for 11 {mu}m depth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved tribological and corrosion properties were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A concentration dependent diffusion coefficient was calculated. - Abstract: The substitution of conventional components for NiTi in distinct devices such as actuators, valves, connectors, stents, orthodontic arc-wires, e.g., usually demands some kind of treatment to be performed on the surface of the alloy. A typical case is of biomaterials made of NiTi, in which the main drawback is the Ni out-diffusion, an issue that has been satisfactorily addressed by plasma based ion implantation (PBII). Even though PBII can tailor selective surface properties of diverse materials, usually, only thin modified layers are attained. When NiTi alloys are to be used in the harsh space environment, as is the case of devices designed to remotely release the solar panels and antenna arrays of satellites, e.g., superior mechanical and tribological properties are demanded. For this case the thickness of the modified layer must be larger than the one commonly achieved by conventional PBII. In this paper, new nitrogen PBII set up was used to treat samples of NiTi in moderate temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C, with negative voltage pulses of 7 kV/250 Hz/20 {mu}s, in a process lasting 1 h. A rich nitrogen atomic concentration of 85 at.% was achieved on the near surface and nitrogen diffused at least for 11 {mu}m depth. Tribological properties as well as corrosion resistance were evaluated.

  2. The modulation of stem cell behaviors by functionalized nanoceramic coatings on Ti-based implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangmei Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanoceramic coating on the surface of Ti-based metallic implants is a clinical potential option in orthopedic surgery. Stem cells have been found to have osteogenic capabilities. It is necessary to study the influences of functionalized nanoceramic coatings on the differentiation and proliferation of stem cells in vitro or in vivo. In this paper, we summarized the recent advance on the modulation of stem cells behaviors through controlling the properties of nanoceramic coatings, including surface chemistry, surface roughness and microporosity. In addition, mechanotransduction pathways have also been discussed to reveal the interaction mechanisms between the stem cells and ceramic coatings on Ti-based metals. In the final part, the osteoinduction and osteoconduction of ceramic coating have been also presented when it was used as carrier of BMPs in new bone formation.

  3. Parameters affecting the photocatalytic degradation of dyes using TiO2-based photocatalysts: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpan, U G; Hameed, B H

    2009-10-30

    This paper presents the review of the effects of operating parameters on the photocatalytic degradation of textile dyes using TiO2-based photocatalysts. It further examines various methods used in the preparations of the considered photocatalysts. The findings revealed that various parameters, such as the initial pH of the solution to be degraded, oxidizing agents, temperature at which the catalysts must be calcined, dopant(s) content and catalyst loading exert their individual influence on the photocatalytic degradation of any dye in wastewaters. It was also found out that sol-gel method is widely used in the production of TiO2-based photocatalysts because of the advantage derived from its ability to synthesize nanosized crystallized powder of the photocatalysts of high purity at relatively low temperature.

  4. Impact of Different Electrical Time-Based Activations on NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleczok, Benjamin; Rathmann, Christian; Otibar, Dennis; Weirich, Antonia; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2017-06-01

    The use of NiTi shape-memory alloys (SMA) in actuators bears significant advantages for designing robust, simple and lightweight applications. The SMA effect is based on a phase transformation of the atomic lattice in response to stress, strain and temperature. The resulting crystallographic configurations lead to a complex behavior revealing different electrical and mechanical characteristics. In view of the impact of thermo-mechanical cyclization on the operational lifetime, this paper investigates the influences of different types of electrical activation. For this purpose, six current curves with six samples each are compared to a reference activation with regard to the operational lifetime. The chosen time of activation is 1 second in accordance with an industrially relevant cycle of technical actuators. Based on the results of these investigations, recommendations of the activation type shall be developed for the operational lifetime of NiTi-SMA.

  5. Investigation of the microcrack evolution in a Ti-based bulk metallic glass matrix composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsheng Wang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The initiation and evolution behavior of the shear-bands and microcracks in a Ti-based metallic-glass–matrix composite (MGMC were investigated by using an in-situ tensile test under transmission electron microscopy (TEM. It was found that the plastic deformation of the Ti-based MGMC related with the generation of the plastic deformation zone in crystalline and shear deformation zone in glass phase near the crack tip. The dendrites can suppress the propagation of the shear band effectively. Before the rapid propagation of cracks, the extending of plastic deformation zone and shear deformation zone ahead of crack tip is the main pattern in the composite.

  6. Microstructure and electrical properties of slug-type resistors based on B4C and TiC - ESCA - XPS and impedance spectroscopy investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimiec, E.; Zaraska, W.; Stobiecki, T.; Bak, W.; Starzyk, F.

    2000-01-01

    The microstructure and electrical properties of slug-type resistors based on B 4 C and TiC were investigated. From XPS measurements was deducted that Ti in TiO 2 is in intermediate oxidation number between Ti +4 and Ti +3 . The impedance of both type of resistors is independent on frequency in the range from 10 3 to 10 4 Hz, only very subtle differences above 10 4 Hz are observed. The metallic type conductivity in TiC and semiconducting in B 4 C was established. (author)

  7. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO2 slurry-based photoanode

    OpenAIRE

    Jiaoping Cai; Zexiang Chen; Jun Li; Yan Wang; Dong Xiang; Jijun Zhang; Hai Li

    2015-01-01

    A new titanium dioxide (TiO2) slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO2 photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared TiO2 photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO2 slurry-based DSSC was ∼63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO2 slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon ...

  8. PbTiO3-based perovskite ferroelectric and multiferroic thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yilin; Zhao, Hanqing; Zhang, Linxing; Chen, Jun; Xing, Xianran

    2017-07-21

    Ferroelectric thin films, especially PbTiO 3 -based perovskite thin films which possess robust spontaneous electrical polarization, are widely investigated and applied in various devices. With the advances in synthesis, characterization and calculation techniques, diverse phenomena and properties are uncovered in ferroelectric thin films. Herein some typical PbTiO 3 -based perovskite thin films through composition control are introduced, which gives more choices with various ferroelectric or other properties. Strain engineering, as well as some other interfacial effects, is also included to show the possibilities of controlling the lattice structure, the electronic structure as well as the domain structure which are closely connected to ferroelectricity. Multiferroic thin films, which could achieve magnetic-field-controlled polarization reversal, expand the novel applications of ferroelectric thin films. Typical and remarkable progress made in the case of multiferroic PbTiO 3 -based perovskite thin films is discussed here. Critical problems such as leakage current and fatigue hinder the practical use of ferroelectric and multiferroic thin films, and are also included in this article.

  9. Complex between lignin and a Ti-based coupling agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jonas Stensgaard; Barsberg, Søren Talbro; Felby, Claus

    2014-01-01

    coating formulations would have a better performance if the adhesion to wood could be improved. In the present work, the chemical interaction between a titanium-based coupling agent, isopropyl triisostearoyl titanate (titanium agent, TA) and lignin has been studied by means of attenuated total reflectance...... between TA and lignin....

  10. SANS investigation on pore growth in self propagating high-temperature-synthesized nickel aluminide: the effect of heat removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sen, D. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India) and CEA Saclay, LIONS, DSM/DRECAM/SCM, Bat 125 P 38, 91191 Gif Sur Yvette Cedex (France)]. E-mail: debasis@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Patra, A.K. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Mazumder, S. [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Roy, S.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2006-11-15

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been employed to investigate the effect of heat removal on pore growth during self-propagating high-temperature-synthesis of nickel aluminide. Initially SANS experiments were performed with the double-crystal-based medium resolution (MR-SANS) instrument at the guide tube laboratory, Dhruva reactor, Trombay, India. Subsequently ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) experiments have been carried out at the USANS facility S18 at the Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, France. Significant growth in pore size, with respect to green specimen, occurs during synthesis mainly due to thermal migration and molar volume contraction. Rate of heat removal vis-a-vis the velocity of the propagating wave front affects the growth of the pore size in the final product to some extent. Effect of multiple scattering has been utilized to access higher length scale while analyzing scattering data. It has been found that the pore structures vis-a-vis the scattering function can be can be scaled with respect to the average size and the effective radius of gyration of the pores.

  11. SANS investigation on pore growth in self propagating high-temperature-synthesized nickel aluminide: the effect of heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, D.; Patra, A.K.; Mazumder, S.; Roy, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been employed to investigate the effect of heat removal on pore growth during self-propagating high-temperature-synthesis of nickel aluminide. Initially SANS experiments were performed with the double-crystal-based medium resolution (MR-SANS) instrument at the guide tube laboratory, Dhruva reactor, Trombay, India. Subsequently ultra-small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) experiments have been carried out at the USANS facility S18 at the Institute Laue-Langevin (ILL), Grenoble, France. Significant growth in pore size, with respect to green specimen, occurs during synthesis mainly due to thermal migration and molar volume contraction. Rate of heat removal vis-a-vis the velocity of the propagating wave front affects the growth of the pore size in the final product to some extent. Effect of multiple scattering has been utilized to access higher length scale while analyzing scattering data. It has been found that the pore structures vis-a-vis the scattering function can be can be scaled with respect to the average size and the effective radius of gyration of the pores

  12. Metakaolin-Based Geopolymer with Added TiO2 Particles: Physicomechanical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis A. Guzmán-Aponte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the TiO2 addition on the physicomechanical properties of a geopolymer system based on metakaolin (MK and hydroxide and potassium silicate as activators is presented in this article. Three different liquid-solid systems (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45 and two titanium additions were investigated (5% and 10% of the cement content. The flowability, setting time, and mechanical strength of the geopolymer mixtures and their microstructural characteristics were evaluated using techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was concluded that a percentage of up to 10% TiO2 does not affect the mechanical properties of the geopolymer, although it does reduce the fluidity and setting times of the mixture.

  13. M(Al,Ni)-TiO2-Based Photoanode for Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, Javier; Reyes-Pérez, Fran; Alcántara, Rodrigo; Fernández-Lorenzo, Concha; Bernal, Juan Jesús Gallardo; Martín-Calleja, Joaquín

    2018-05-01

    This study presents the incorporation of Al and Ni cations onto the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles used as photoelectrode in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The incorporation of these cations was performed using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. This process was applied up to three times to evaluate the semiconductors' properties with respect to the amount of Al and Ni. The M(Al,Ni)-TiO2-based semiconductors were widely characterized using techniques such as X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The presence of (hydr)oxide species of Al(III) and Ni(II) was confirmed and anatase was the predominant crystalline phase obtained. Moreover, for both elements, a decrease in the band gap energy was observed, this being more pronounced after the incorporation of Ni. Furthermore, the use of the M(Al,Ni)-TiO2-based semiconductors as photoelectrodes in DSSCs led to an increase in the open-circuit voltage of up to 22% and 10% for the incorporation of Al and Ni, respectively. This increase can be reasonably explained by the negative shift of the flat band potential of the photoelectrodes. EIS measurements were performed to study the electron transport kinetics in the photoelectrode and the internal resistance in the DSSCs to understand the photocurrent density values obtained.

  14. Twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) and work hardening in Ti-based metallic glass matrix composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J; Qiao, J W; Wang, Z H; Rao, W; Kang, G Z

    2017-05-12

    The present study demonstrates that Ti-based metallic glass matrix composites (MGMCs) with a normal composition of Ti 43 Zr 32 Ni 6 Ta 5 Be 14 containing ductile dendrites dispersed in the glass matrix has been developed, and deformation mechanisms about the tensile property have been investigated by focusing on twinning-induced plasticity (TWIP) effect. The Ti-based MGMC has excellent tensile properties and pronounced tensile work-hardening capacity, with a yield strength of 1100 MPa and homogeneous elongation of 4%. The distinguished strain hardening is ascribed to the formation of deformation twinning within the dendrites. Twinning generated in the dendrites works as an obstacle for the rapid propagation of shear bands, and then, the localized necking is avoided, which ensures the ductility of such kinds of composites. Besides, a finite-element model (FEM) has been established to explain the TWIP effect which brings out a work-hardening behavior in the present MGMC instead of a localized strain concentration. According to the plasticity theory of traditional crystal materials and some new alloys, TWIP effect is mainly controlled by stacking fault energy (SFE), which has been analyzed intensively in the present MGMC.

  15. Porous Nb-Ti based alloy produced from plasma spheroidized powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Li

    Full Text Available Spherical Nb-Ti based alloy powder was prepared by the combination of plasma spheroidization and mechanical alloying. Phase constituents, microstructure and surface state of the powder, and pore characteristics of the resulting porous alloy were investigated. The results show that the undissolved W and V in the mechanically alloyed powder is fully alloyed after spheroidization, and single β phase is achieved. Particle size of the spheroidized powder is in the range of 20–110 μm. With the decrease of particle size, a transformation from typical dendrite solidification structure to fine cell microstructure occurs. The surface of the spheroidized powder is coated by a layer of oxides consisting mainly of TiO2 and Nb2O5. Probabilities of sinter-neck formation and particle coalescence increases with increasing sintering temperature. Porous skeleton with relatively homogeneous pore distribution and open pore channel is formed after vacuum sintering at 1700 °C, and the porosity is 32%. The sintering kinetic analysis indicates that grain boundary diffusion is the primary mass transport mechanism during sintering process. Keywords: Powder metallurgy, Nb-Ti based alloy, Porous material, Mechanical alloying, Plasma spheroidizing, Solidification microstructure

  16. Synergic catalytic effect of Ti hydride and Nb nanoparticles for improving hydrogenation and dehydrogenation kinetics of Mg-based nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujuan Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mg-9.3 wt% (TiH1.971-TiH−0.7 wt% Nb nanocomposite has been synthesized by hydrogen plasma-metal reaction (HPMR approach to enhance the hydrogen sorption kinetics of Mg at moderate temperatures by providing nanosizing effect of increasing H “diffusion channels” and adding transition metallic catalysts. The Mg nanoparticles (NPs were in hexagonal shape range from 50 to 350 nm and the average size of the NPs was 177 nm. The small spherical TiH1.971, TiH and Nb NPs of about 25 nm uniformly decorated on the surface of the big Mg NPs. The Mg-TiH1.971-TiH-Nb nanocomposite could quickly absorb 5.6 wt% H2 within 5 min at 573 K and 4.5 wt% H2 within 5 min at 523 K, whereas the pure Mg prepared by HPMR could only absorb 4 and 1.5 wt% H2 at the same temperatures. TiH1.971, TiH and Nb NPs transformed into TiH2 and NbH during hydrogenation and recovered after dehydrogenation process. The apparent activation energies of the nanocomposite for hydrogenation and dehydrogenation were 45.0 and 50.7 kJ mol−1, which are much smaller than those of pure Mg NPs, 123.8 and 127.7 kJ mol−1. The improved sorption kinetics of the Mg-based nanocomposite at moderate temperatures and the small activation energy can be interpreted by the nanostructure of Mg and the synergic catalytic effects of Ti hydrides and Nb NPs.

  17. Two-phase quasi-equilibrium in β-type Ti-based bulk metallic glass composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Pauly, S.; Tang, M. Q.; Eckert, J.; Zhang, H. F.

    2016-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of cast Ti/Zr-based bulk metallic glass composites (BMGCs) containing β-Ti still remains ambiguous. This is why to date the strategies and alloys suitable for producing such BMGCs with precisely controllable volume fractions and crystallite sizes are still rather limited. In this work, a Ti-based BMGC containing β-Ti was developed in the Ti-Zr-Cu-Co-Be system. The glassy matrix of this BMGC possesses an exceptional glass-forming ability and as a consequence, the volume fractions as well as the composition of the β-Ti dendrites remain constant over a wide range of cooling rates. This finding can be explained in terms of a two-phase quasi-equilibrium between the supercooled liquid and β-Ti, which the system attains on cooling. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium allows predicting the crystalline and glassy volume fractions by means of the lever rule and we succeeded in reproducing these values by slight variations in the alloy composition at a fixed cooling rate. The two-phase quasi-equilibrium could be of critical importance for understanding and designing the microstructures of BMGCs containing the β-phase. Its implications on the nucleation and growth of the crystalline phase are elaborated. PMID:26754315

  18. High-performance self-powered UV photodetectors based on TiO2 nano-branched arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanru; Wei, Lin; Li, Qinghao; Chen, Yanxue; Yan, Shishen; Jiao, Jun; Liu, Guolei; Mei, Liangmo

    2014-02-01

    Nano-branched TiO2 arrays were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a facile two-step chemical synthesis process. Self-powered UV photodetectors based on photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) were assembled using these TiO2 nano-branched arrays as photoanodes. These visible-blind self-powered UV photodetectors exhibit high sensitivity and high-speed photoresponse. Compared with photodetectors based on bare TiO2 nanorod arrays, TiO2 nano-branched arrays show drastically improved photodetecting performance as photoanodes. The photosensitivity increases from 0.03 to 0.22 A W-1 when optimized nano-branched TiO2 arrays are used, corresponding to an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency higher than 77%. The UV photodetectors also exhibit excellent spectral selectivity and fast response (0.05 s decay time). The improved performance is attributed to a markedly enlarged TiO2/electrolyte contact area and good electron conductivity in the one-dimensional, well-aligned TiO2 nanorod trunk.

  19. Development of antimicrobial multifunctional coatings based on Ag-Ti(C,N) =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Isabel Soares de

    The development of new multifunctional coatings to apply on medical biomaterials continues to be required, since materials commonly used in hip prostheses are still presenting failures. Multifunctionality is the result of a synergy, on the nanoscale level, of good corrosion resistance, mechanical and tribological properties. Additionally, a biomaterial must always be biocompatible. Besides these properties, the major challenge would be to get a material with antimicrobial activity. Thus, the aim of this project was the development of advanced materials with the ability to present these properties. Ceramic coatings, based on carbonitrides of transition metals, such as Ti(C,N), which may favour these properties, were used in this study. As innovative approach, silver nanoclusters were added, in order to improve the prevention of microbial adhesion and biofilm formation on these biomaterials, one of the major causes of hip joint failure. Different Ag-Ti(C,N) thin films were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering, obtained by varying the density of the current applied to each magnetron and the chemical composition of the mixed Ti + Ag target (silver pellets were placed in the preferential erosion area of one Ti target resulting in a relative Ag sputtering areas of 15 % for atomic ratio Ag/Ti ≤ 0.20 and 37 % for atomic ratio Ag/Ti ≤ 0.37). The physical, chemical, structural, morphological/topographical, mechanical and tribological properties of these coatings were evaluated, respectively, by ball crater tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/ atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photon spectroscopy (XPS). Mechanical properties of the films were studied by nanoindentation and the tribological tests were performed in the presence of Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS), in order to simulate the tribochemical conditions of the use of an artificial implant. Cytotoxicity of the developed coatings was also determined and assessed

  20. Saturated bonds and anomalous electronic transport in transition-metal aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, T.

    2006-05-22

    This thesis deals with the special electronic properties of the transition-metal aluminides. Following quasicrystals and their approximants it is shown that even materials with small elementary cells exhibit the same surprising effects. So among the transition-metal aluminides also semi-metallic and semiconducting compounds exist, although if they consist of classic-metallic components like Fe, Al, or Cr. These properties are furthermore coupled with a deep pseusogap respectively gap in the density of states and strongly covalent bonds. Bonds are described in this thesis by two eseential properties. First by the bond charge and second by the energetic effect of the bond. It results that in the caes of semiconducting transition-metal aluminides both a saturation of certain bonds and a bond-antibond alteration in the Fermi level is present. By the analysis of the near-order in form of the so-calles coordination polyeders it has been succeeded to establish a simple rule for semiconductors, the five-fold coordination for Al. This rule states that aluminium atoms with their three valence electrons are not able to build more than five saturated bonds to their nearest transition-metal neighbours. In excellent agreement with the bond angles predicted theoretically under assumption of equal-type bonds it results that all binary transition-element aluminide semiconductors exhibit for the Al atoms the same near order. Typical values for specific resistances of the studied materials at room temperature lie in the range of some 100 {mu}{omega}cm, which is farly larger than some 10 {mu}{omega}cm as in the case of the unalloyed metals. SUrprising is furthermore a high transport anisotropy with a ratio of the specific resistances up to 3.0. An essential result of this thesis can be seen in the coupling of the properties of the electronic transport and the bond properties. The small conducitivities could be explained by small values in the density of states and a bond

  1. Enhanced performances of dye-sensitized solar cells based on Au-TiO2 and Ag-TiO2 plasmonic hybrid nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Huili; Fan, Jiajie; Zhang, Xiaoli; Mao, Jing; Shao, Guosheng

    2018-02-01

    Novel double-layer films were prepared and applied to dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using commercial TiO2 nanoparticles as a bonding underlayer and noble metal (Au and Ag) nanoparticles (NP) and nanowires (NW) incorporated to hybrid TiO2 composites, consisting of 3 dimensional (3D) hierarchical microspheres, 3D hollow spheres, 2 dimensional (2D) nanosheets and commercial P25 nanoparticles, as multifunctional light scattering overlayer. The influence of Au NP, Ag NP, Au NW, and Ag NW on of microstructures of the film electrodes and the photovoltaic (PV) performances of DSSCs was investigated. The result revealed that the ranges and intensity of sunlight absorption, the photo capture ability for dye molecules of the hybrid nanocomposite film electrodes, and the photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the cells were all significantly enhanced due to the plasmonic effect of the noble metal nanostructures. All composite DSSCs with noble metal nanostructures have higher PCE than the pure TiO2 solar cell. This is attributed the improved electron transport of the noble metal nanostructures, and the improvement of light absorption because of their local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect. Under optical conditions, a PCE of 5.74% was obtained in the TiO2-AgNW DSSC, representing a 25.3% enhancement compared to a reference solar cell based on pure TiO2 film (4.58%). The main reason of the advancement is the improved electron transport of AgNW, the light absorption enhancement on account of the LSPR effect of AgNW, and increased light scattering due to the incorporation of the large one dimensional AgNWs within the photo-anode.

  2. Photocatalytic fabrics based on reduced graphene oxide and TiO2 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina, J.; Fernandes, F.; Fernández, J.; Pastor, M.; Correia, A.; Souto, A.P.; Carneiro, J.O.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic fabrics were produced with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO 2 . • Charge transfer resistance decreased with the increasing number of RGO layers. • Scanning electrochemical microscopy showed the photoresponse obtained. • Photocatalytic properties were tested with Rhodamine B solutions. • Photocatalytic efficiency increased with the number of RGO layers. - Abstract: The purpose of this work is to obtain photocatalytic fabrics based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and TiO 2 coatings on polyester fabrics. The influence of the applied number of RGO coatings on properties such as light absorption, conductivity, electroactivity and photocatalytic properties of the fabrics was established. An improvement of these properties with the number of RGO coatings applied was obtained. FESEM, EDX, XPS and FTIR-ATR showed the incorporation of the TiO 2 nanoparticles on the fabrics. FTIR-ATR showed the formation of a bidentate carboxylic ligand with titanium atoms. The photocatalytic properties of the fabrics were tested with Rhodamine B dye solutions. Photocatalytic efficiency increased with the number of RGO coatings, due to the increased light absorption, and better electrical properties. The charge transfer resistance (R ct ) and its time constant (τ) decreased, indicating a better electron transfer which helps to increase the lifetime of the pair electron/hole

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Mn/N Co-Doped TiO2 Loaded on Wood-Based Activated Carbon Fiber and Its Visible Light Photodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Ma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using MnSO4·H2O as manganese source and urea as nitrogen source, Mn/N co-doped TiO2 loaded on wood-based activated carbon fiber (Mn/Ti-N-WACF was prepared by sol–gel method. Mn/Ti-N-WACF with different Mn doping contents was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies (XPS, and ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometer. Results showed that the loading rate of TiO2 in Mn/Ti-N-WACF was improved by Mn/N co-doping. After calcination at 450 °C, the degree of crystallinity of TiO2 was reduced due to Mn/N co-doption in the resulting Mn/Ti-N-WACF samples, but the TiO2 crystal phase was not changed. XPS spectra revealed that some Ti4+ ions from the TiO2 lattice of Mn/Ti-N-WACF system were substituted by doped Mn. Moreover, new bonds formed within N–Ti–N and Ti–N–O because of the doped N that substituted some oxygen atoms in the TiO2 lattice. Notably, the degradation rate of methylene blue for Mn/Ti-N-WACF was improved because of the co-doped Mn/N under visible-light irradiation.

  4. MULTILAYER COATINGS Ti/TiN, Cr/CrN AND W/WN DEPOSITED BY MAGNETRON SPUTTERING FOR IMPROVEMENT OF ADHESION TO BASE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Horník

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with evaluation of single and multilayer layer PVD coatings based on Cr and Ti widely used in tool application. Additionally, W and WN based coating which are not so widespread were designed and deposited as functionally graded material. The coatings properties were evaluated from the point of view of hardness and adhesion. The hardness measuring was carried out using nanoindentation method. The scratch test was performed to test adhesion. Moreover, the presence of metallic interlayer in functionally graded materials further increases the coating adhesion by gradually approaching its composition to the substrate. Coatings consisting of W and WN have showed very good adhesion. With regard to the results of the scratch test, the multilayer coatings of CrN, TiN and WN have increased adhesion and can be assumed to have their protective function improved. Results will be appliedin development of functionally graded layers for functionally graded materials.

  5. Mesoporous TiO₂-Based Photoanode Sensitized by BiOI and Investigation of Its Photovoltaic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Pei, Qi; Liang, Jiachen; Feng, Ting; Zhou, Xin; Mao, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Hisaeda, Yoshio; Song, Xi-Ming

    2015-09-22

    We reported a novel BiOI/mesoporous TiO2 photoanode for solar cells, which was fabricated with BiOI attached onto a three-dimensional mesoporous TiO2 film by a chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. BiOI was revealed as an efficient and environmental friendly semiconductor sensitizer to make TiO2 respond to visible light. Based on this photoanode, mesoporous TiO2-based solar cell sensitized by BiOI exhibited promising photovoltaic performance. Meanwhile, the optimization of photovoltaic performance was also achieved by varying cycles of deposition immersions. The highest open circuit voltage and short circuit current of the solar cell can reach 0.5 V and 1.5 mA/cm(2), respectively.

  6. Oxidation Behavior of TiAl-Based Alloy Modified by Double-Glow Plasma Surface Alloying with Cr-Mo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangfei; Zhang, Pingze; Wang, Qiong; Wei, Dongbo; Chen, Xiaohu

    2017-07-01

    A Cr-Mo alloyed layer was prepared on a TiAl-based alloy using plasma surface alloying technique. The isothermal oxidation kinetics of the untreated and treated samples was examined at 850 °C. The microstructure and phase composition of the alloyed layer were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The morphology and constituent of the oxide scales were also analyzed. The results indicated that the oxidation resistance of TiAl was improved significantly after the alloying treatment. The oxide scale eventually became a mixture of Al2O3, Cr2O3 and TiO2. The oxide scale was dense and integrated throughout the oxidation process. The improvement was mainly owing to the enhancing of scale adhesion and the preferential oxidation of aluminum brought by the alloying effect for TiAl-based alloy.

  7. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of indanthrene blue dye using Ti/Ru-based electrodes prepared by a modified Pechini method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pupo, Marilia M.S.; Costa, Lucas S. da; Figueiredo, Aile C.; Eguiluz, Katlin I. B.; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R., E-mail: gianrsb@gmail.com [Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Processos; Silva, Ronaldo S. da [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica. Laboratorio de Materiais Ceramicos Avancados; Cunha, Frederico G.C. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2013-03-15

    Photoelectrodes were used to treat synthetic textile wastewater contaminated with indanthrene blue dye. Two media of treatment were used (NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), with variations on temperature, pH, current density, dye and chloride concentration. A modified Pechini method was applied to obtain Ti/Ru-based electrodes (Ti, Ru, Ti{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}, Ti{sub 0.75}Ru{sub 0.25} and Ti{sub 0.25}Ru{sub 0.75}) containing anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and a color degradation analysis was done. Physical (atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffractometry) and electrochemical characterizations (cyclic voltammetry) were considered. The condition that yielded highest color removal for the system presented 0.05 mol L-1 NaCl, 100 mA cm-2, 35 Degree-Sign C and pH 7, independent of the dye concentration for the Ti{sub 0.25}Ru{sub 0.75} electrode. (author)

  8. Influence of TiO2 Nanoparticles on Enhancement of Optoelectronic Properties of PFO-Based Light Emitting Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bandar Ali Al-Asbahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvement on optoelectronic properties of poly (9,9′-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2.7-diyl- (PFO- based light emitting diode upon incorporation of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs is demonstrated. The PFO/TiO2 nanocomposites with different weight ratios between 5 and 35 wt.% were prepared using solution blending method before they were spin coated onto Indium Tin Oxide substrate. Then a thin Al layer was deposited onto the nanocomposite layer to act as top electrode. The nanocomposites were tested as emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs. The TiO2 NPs played the most crucial role in facilitating charge transport and electrical injection and thus improved device performance in terms of turn-on voltage, electroluminescence spectra (EL, luminance, and luminance efficiency. The best composition was OLED with 5 wt.% TiO2 NPs content having moderate surface roughness and well distribution of NPs. The device performance was reduced at higher TiO2 NPs content due to higher surface roughness and agglomeration of TiO2 NPs. This work demonstrated the importance of optimum TiO2 NPs content with uniform distribution and controlled surface roughness of the emissive layer for better device performance.

  9. SELF-CLEANING GLASS BASED ON ACID-TREATED TiO2 FILMS WITH PALMITIC ACID AS MODEL POLLUTANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayat Aprilita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation and characterization of self-cleaning glass based on acid-treated TiO2 films as well as evaluation on their self-cleaning properties have been carried out. Palmitic acid photodegradation was used as model pollutant. Acid-treated TiO2 powders were deposited on glass surface by using spraying technique. The XRD results showed that acid-treated TiO2 film exhibited decreased anatase crystalline size. The corresponding SEM images showed porous surface morphology. Layer densification was observed as the film thickness increased. TiO2 photocatalytic activity increased as the length of UV radiation increased. Best results were obtained at experimental condition of 35 hours UV radiation time. It is also observed that the thickness of TiO2 layers influenced the efficiency of palmitic acid photodegradation. The film with 1.661 µm thick TiO2 layers and 6.933 mg weight (0.7164 mg/cm2 could degrade 97.54 % mg palmitic acid/cm2 thin film.   Keywords: TiO2 films, acid treatment, self-cleaning glass

  10. Enhanced photovoltaic properties in graphitic carbon nanospheres networked TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite based dye sensitized solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Radhe [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); Sahoo, Satyaprakash, E-mail: satya504@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); Chitturi, Venkateswara Rao [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); Williams, Joseph D. [Department of Biomedical and Chemical Engineering, Syracuse University, L.C. Smith College of Engineering and Computer Science, Syracuse, NY (United States); Resto, Oscar [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States); Katiyar, Ram S., E-mail: rkatiyar@hpcf.uprrp.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00931 (United States)

    2015-08-25

    Highlights: • Nano size graphitic carbon nanospheres were prepared from MWCNTs. • TiO{sub 2}/GCNS composite was used as the photoanode in dye-sensitized solar cell. • An improved photovoltaic performance with GCNS–TiO{sub 2} composite was noticed. - Abstract: In this work, we report a novel carbon based TiO{sub 2} nanocomposite electron injection layer (photoanode) toward the improved performance of DSSCs. Graphitic carbon nanospheres (GCNSs) were synthesized by a unique acidic treatment of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. GCNS–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites with different concentrations of GCNSs (ranging from 5 to 20 μL) were prepared to use as photoanodes in DSSCs. Structural and morphological properties of GCNS–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were analyzed by Raman spectroscopy and ultra-high resolution transmission electron microscopy techniques, respectively. A systematic increment in the short circuit current density (J{sub SC}) and open circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of DSSC was observed by increasing GCNS concentration up to an optimal value, possibly due to the combined effect of slight rise in quasi-Fermi level and higher carrier transport rate in the resultant composite. Thus, a significant enhancement of ∼47% in the efficiency of DSSC containing GCNS–TiO{sub 2} photoanode was observed as compare to DSSC with pure TiO{sub 2} photoanode.

  11. Influences of Mg Doping on the Electrochemical Performance of TiO2 Nanodots Based Biosensor Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. H. Al-Furjan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical biosensors are essential for health monitors to help in diagnosis and detection of diseases. Enzyme adsorptions on biosensor electrodes and direct electron transfer between them have been recognized as key factors to affect biosensor performance. TiO2 has a good protein adsorption ability and facilitates having more enzyme adsorption and better electron transfer. In this work, Mg ions are introduced into TiO2 nanodots in order to further improve electrode performance because Mg ions are considered to have good affinity with proteins or enzymes. Mg doped TiO2 nanodots on Ti substrates were prepared by spin-coating and calcining. The effects of Mg doping on the nanodots morphology and performance of the electrodes were investigated. The density and size of TiO2 nanodots were obviously changed with Mg doping. The sensitivity of 2% Mg doped TiO2 nanodots based biosensor electrode increased to 1377.64 from 897.8 µA mM−1 cm−2 and its KMapp decreases to 0.83 from 1.27 mM, implying that the enzyme achieves higher catalytic efficiency due to better affinity of the enzyme with the Mg doped TiO2. The present work could provide an alternative to improve biosensor performances.

  12. Stress analysis and microstructure of PVD monolayer TiN and multilayer TiN/(Ti,Al)N coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; Zoestbergen, E; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    Two PVD titanium nitride based coatings; monolayer TiN and multilayer resulting from the stacking of TiN and (Ti,Al)N layers were evaluated with respect to their stress state and microstructure. The TiN was deposited by triode evaporation ion plating, whereas the TiN/(Ti,AI)N was deposited using a

  13. Effect of Energy Input on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Titanium Aluminide Alloy Fabricated by the Additive Manufacturing Process of Electron Beam Melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Titanium aluminides qualify adequately for advanced aero-engine applications in place of conventional nickel based superalloys. The combination of high temperature properties and lower density gives an edge to the titanium aluminide alloys. Nevertheless, challenges remain on how to process these essentially intermetallic alloys in to an actual product. Electron Beam Melting (EBM, an Additive Manufacturing Method, can build complex shaped solid parts from a given feedstock powder, thus overcoming the shortcomings of the conventional processing techniques such as machining and forging. The amount of energy supplied by the electron beam has considerable influence on the final build quality in the EBM process. Energy input is decided by the beam voltage, beam scan speed, beam current, and track offset distance. In the current work, beam current and track offset were varied to reflect three levels of energy input. Microstructural and mechanical properties were evaluated for these samples. The microstructure gradually coarsened from top to bottom along the build direction. Whereas higher energy favored lath microstructure, lower energy tended toward equiaxed grains. Computed tomography analysis revealed a greater amount of porosity in low energy samples. In addition, the lack of bonding defects led to premature failure in the tension test of low energy samples. Increase in energy to a medium level largely cancelled out the porosity, thereby increasing the strength. However, this trend did not continue with the high energy samples. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction investigations were carried out to understand this non-linear behavior of the strength in the three samples. Overall, the results of this work suggest that the input energy should be considered primarily whenever any new alloy system has to be processed through the EBM route.

  14. Oxidation Behavior of NiTi-Al Based Alloy with Nb and Mo Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyun; Ye, Wenjun; Hui, Songxiao; Li, Yan

    2017-10-01

    Oxidation behavior of a Ni-45Ti-5Al-2Nb-1Mo (composition in at %) alloy was studied in comparison with the Ni-45Ti-5Al alloy by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cyclic oxidation tests. The results show that the microstructure of Ni-45Ti-5Al-2Nb-1Mo alloy is composed of NiTi matrix, Ti2Ni and (Nb, Ti) solid solution phases. By 2 at% Nb and 1 at% Mo addition, the Ni-45Ti-5Al-2Nb-1Mo alloy shows excellent oxidation resistance. The mass gain of Ni-45Ti-5Al-2Nb-1Mo alloy after 100 h exposure at 800 °C is 2.29 mg/cm2, which is much lower than that of Ni-45Ti-5Al alloy. This is mainly resulted from the doping effect of Nb and Mo in TiO2 and the formation of a continuous Al2O3 layer by Nb and Mo addition. The oxide scale of the present alloy is with multi-layer structure in order of TiO2 layer/ Al2O3 + NiAl2O4 mixture layer/ TiO2 layer/ Nb-rich TiO2 layer/ Ni3Ti layer from outside.

  15. Three-dimensional self-branching anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorods with the improved carrier collection for SrTiO{sub 3}-based perovskite solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yajing; Wang, Chen; Tang, Ying; Huang, Lu [Department of Electronic Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Fu, Jianxun [Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Shi, Weimin; Wang, Linjun [Department of Electronic Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Yang, Weiguang, E-mail: wgyang@shu.edu.cn [Department of Electronic Information Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2016-09-15

    The organic–inorganic perovskite solar cells based on ternary oxide SrTiO{sub 3} shows a higher Voc, attributed to its slightly higher conduction band edge and better morphology of absorber material. However, its less efficient carrier collection and limited overall interfacial areas between the absorber material and the electron-transport layer (ETL), dramatically reducing the Jsc. Here, By adjusting the concentrations of the Ti(OBu){sub 4}, we successfully prepared the three-dimensional (3D) self-branching anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorod/SrTiO{sub 3} nanocomposites, and slightly tuned the particle size of SrTiO{sub 3}. With the incorporation of the three-dimensional (3D) self-branching anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorod, the Jsc of the device based on SrTiO{sub 3} was highly boosted. The best performing solar cell we obtained exhibited a PCE of 9.99% with a Jsc of 19.48 mA/cm{sup 2}. The excellent performance could be ascribed to the improvement of charge carrier collection of SrTiO{sub 3}, better surface coverage and crystallinity of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}, and enhanced light scattering ability caused by 3D self-branching anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorods. - Highlights: • The three-dimensional (3D) self-branching anatase TiO{sub 2} nanorod/SrTiO{sub 3} nanocomposites were prepared. • The particle sizes of SrTiO{sub 3} can be slightly tuned. • The best performing solar cell we obtained exhibited a PCE of 9.99% with the Jsc of 19.48 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  16. Preparation of TiO2-based nanotubes/nanoparticles composite thin film electrodes for their electron transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Wanyu; Fu, Wuyou; Chen, Jingkuo; Li, Huayang; Bala, Hari; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Guang; Cao, Jianliang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2015-01-01

    The composite thin film electrodes were prepared with one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 -B nanotubes (NTs) and zero-dimensional TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on different weight ratios. The electron transport properties of the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes applied for dye-sensitized solar cells had been investigated systematically. The results indicated that although the amount of dye adsorption decreased slightly, the devices with the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes could obtain higher open-circuit voltage and overall conversion efficiency compared to devices with pure TiO 2 NPs electrodes by rational tuning the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs and TiO 2 NPs. When the weight ratio of TiO 2 -B NTs in the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes increased, the density of states and recombination rate decreased. The 1D structure of TiO 2 -B NTs can provide direct paths for electron transport, resulting in higher electron lifetime, electron diffusion coefficient and electron diffusion length. The composite thin film electrodes possess the merits of the rapid electron transport of TiO 2 -B NTs and the high surface area of TiO 2 NPs, which has great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • The composite thin film electrodes (CTFEs) were prepared with nanotubes and nanoparticles. • The CTFEs possess the rapid electron transport and high surface area. • The CTFEs exhibit lower recombination rate and longer electron life time. • The CTFEs have great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices

  17. New Ti-based Ti–Cu–Zr–Fe–Sn–Si–Ag bulk metallic glass for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Shujie; Liu, Ying; Li, Haifei; Sun, Lulu [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Yan [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Beijing Key Laboratory for Advanced Functional Materials and Thin Film Technology, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Tao, E-mail: zhangtao@buaa.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Novel Ti{sub 47}Cu{sub 38}Zr{sub 7.5}Fe{sub 2.5}Sn{sub 2}Si{sub 1}Ag{sub 2} (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with a critical diameter of 7 mm was discovered. • The present BMG is the largest Ni- and Be-free Ti-based BMG containing low content of noble metal reported to date. • The glassy alloy possesses high specific strength, low Young’s modulus, and good corrosion resistance and bio-compatibility. • Combination of high glass-forming ability and good mechano- and bio-compatibility for the Ti-based BMG demonstrates the potential for use in biomedical applications. - Abstract: A novel Ni-free Ti{sub 47}Cu{sub 38}Zr{sub 7.5}Fe{sub 2.5}Sn{sub 2}Si{sub 1}Ag{sub 2} (at.%) bulk metallic glass (BMG) with superior glass-forming ability, good mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility was discovered. The Ti-based BMG with a diameter of 7 mm can be prepared by copper mold casting and the supercooled liquid region was 52 K. Compressive strength, specific strength, Young’s modulus and microhardness of the Ti-based BMG were about 2.08 GPa, 3.2 × 10{sup 5} N m/kg, 100 GPa and 588 Hv, respectively. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the Ti-based glassy alloy possesses higher corrosion resistance than Ti–6Al–4V alloy in a simulated body fluid environment. Attachment, spreading out and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the Ti-based BMG surface demonstrated the excellent biocompatibility. Mechanisms of the formation and properties for the Ti-based glassy alloy are also discussed. The combination of high glass-forming ability, excellent mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility demonstrates the potential of the Ni-free Ti-based BMG for use in biomedical applications.

  18. Oxidation-sulfidation behavior of Ni aluminide in oxygen-sulfur mixed-gas atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.

    1988-01-01

    Oxidation-sulfidation studies were conducted with sheet samples of nickel aluminide, containing 23.5 at. % Al, 0.5 at. % Hf, and 0.2 at. % B, in an annealed condition and after preoxidation treatments. Continuous weight-change measurements were made by a thermogravimetric technique in exposure atmospheres of air, a low-pO/sub 2/ gas mixture, and low-pO/sub 2/ gas mixtures with several levels of sulfur. The air-exposed specimens developed predominantly nickel oxide; the specimen exposed to a low-pO/sub 2/ environment developed an aluminum oxide scale. As the sulfur content of the gas mixture increased, the alumina scale exhibited spallation and the alloy tended to form nickel sulfide as the reaction phase. The results indicated that the sulfidation reaction of nickel aluminide specimens (both bare and preoxidized) was determined by the rate of transport of nickel from the substrate through the scale to the gas/alumina scale interface, the mechanical integrity of the oxide scale, and the H/sub 2/S concentration in the exposure environment

  19. Formation of alumina-aluminide coatings on ferritic-martensitic T91 steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choudhary R.K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, alumina-aluminide coatings were formed on ferritic-martensitic T91 steel substrate. First, coatings of aluminum were deposited electrochemically on T91 steel in a room temperature AlCl3-1-ethyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride ionic liquid, then the obtained coating was subjected to a two stage heat treatment procedure consisting of prolonged heat treatment of the sample in vacuum at 300 ○C followed by oxidative heat treatment in air at 650 ○C for 16 hours. X-ray diffraction measurement of the oxidatively heat treated samples indicated formation of Fe-Al and Cr-Al intermetallics and presence of amorphous alumina. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurement confirmed 50 wt- % O in the oxidized coating. Microscratch adhesion test conducted on alumina-aluminide coating formed on T91 steel substrate showed no major adhesive detachment up to 20 N loads. However, adhesive failure was observed at a few discrete points on the coating along the scratch track.

  20. Single-step gas phase synthesis of stable iron aluminide nanoparticles with soft magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernieres, Jerome, E-mail: Jerome.vernieres@oist.jp; Benelmekki, Maria; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Grammatikopoulos, Panagiotis; Diaz, Rosa E. [Nanoparticles by Design Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Bobo, Jean-François [Centre d’Elaboration de Materiaux et d’Etudes Structurales (CEMES), 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Sowwan, Mukhles, E-mail: Mukhles@oist.jp [Nanoparticles by Design Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University, 1919-1 Tancha, Onna Son, Okinawa 904-0495 (Japan); Nanotechnology Research Laboratory, Al-Quds University, P.O. Box 51000, East Jerusalem, Palestine (Country Unknown)

    2014-11-01

    Soft magnetic alloys at the nanoscale level have long generated a vivid interest as candidate materials for technological and biomedical purposes. Consequently, controlling the structure of bimetallic nanoparticles in order to optimize their magnetic properties, such as high magnetization and low coercivity, can significantly boost their potential for related applications. However, traditional synthesis methods stumble upon the long standing challenge of developing true nanoalloys with effective control over morphology and stability against oxidation. Herein, we report on a single-step approach to the gas phase synthesis of soft magnetic bimetallic iron aluminide nanoparticles, using a versatile co-sputter inert gas condensation technique. This method allowed for precise morphological control of the particles; they consisted of an alloy iron aluminide crystalline core (DO{sub 3} phase) and an alumina shell, which reduced inter-particle interactions and also prevented further oxidation and segregation of the bimetallic core. Remarkably, the as-deposited alloy nanoparticles show interesting soft magnetic properties, in that they combine a high saturation magnetization (170 emu/g) and low coercivity (less than 20 Oe) at room temperature. Additional functionality is tenable by modifying the surface of the particles with a polymer, to ensure their good colloidal dispersion in aqueous environments.

  1. Effect of Hf Additions to Pt Aluminide Bond Coats on EB-PVD TBC Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, James; Nagaraj, Ben; Williams, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    Small Hf additions were incorporated into a Pt aluminide coating during chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on single crystal RENE N5 substrates. Standard yttria-stabilized zirconia top coats were subsequently deposited onto the coated substrates by electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD). The coated substrates underwent accelerated thermal cycle testing in a furnace at a temperature in excess of 1121 C (2050 F) (45 minute hot exposure, 15 minute cool to approximately 121 C (250 F)) until the thermal barrier coating (TBC) failed by spallation. Incorporating Hf in the bond coat increased the TBC life by slightly more than three times that of a baseline coating without added Hf. Scanning electron microscopy of the spalled surfaces indicated that the presence of the Hf increased the adherence of the thermally grown alumina to the Pt aluminide bond coat. The presence of oxide pegs growing into the coating from the thermally grown alumina may also partially account for the improved TBC life by creating a near-surface layer with a graded coefficient of thermal expansion.

  2. Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of lead-free (Bi,Na)TiO3-based thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazari, M.; Safari, A.; Bharadwaja, S. S. N.; Trolier-McKinstry, S.

    2010-02-01

    Dielectric and piezoelectric properties of morphotropic phase boundary (Bi,Na)TiO3-(Bi,K)TiO3-BaTiO3 epitaxial thin films deposited on SrRuO3 coated SrTiO3 substrates were reported. Thin films of 350 nm thickness exhibited small signal dielectric permittivity and loss tangent values of 750 and 0.15, respectively, at 1 kHz. Ferroelectric hysteresis measurements indicated a remanent polarization value of 30 μC/cm2 with a coercive field of 85-100 kV/cm. The thin film transverse piezoelectric coefficient (e31,f) of these films after poling at 600 kV/cm was found to be -2.2 C/m2. The results indicate that these BNT-based thin films are a potential candidate for lead-free piezoelectric devices.

  3. Particle emission rates during electrostatic spray deposition of TiO2 nanoparticle-based photoactive coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Jensen, Alexander C. Ø.; Kling, Kirsten I.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we studied the particle release rate during Electrostatic spray deposition of anatase-(TiO2)-based photoactive coating onto tiles and wallpaper using a commercially available electrostatic spray device. Spraying was performed in a 20.3m3 test chamber while measuring concentrations of 5.6nm...... particlesconsisted of mainly TiO2, TiO2 mixed with Cl and/or Ag, TiO2particles coated with carbon, and Ag particles with size ranging from 60 nm to ca. 5 μm. As expected, no significant VOC emissions were observed as a result of spraying. Finally, we provide recommendations for exposure model parameterization....

  4. Aurivillius BaBi4Ti4O15 based compounds: Structure, synthesis and properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena D. Bobić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of some Aurivillius materials with high Curie temperature or fatigue-free character suggests possible applications in high temperature piezoelectric devices or non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories. Furthermore, increasing concerns for environmental issues have promoted the study of new lead- free piezoelectric materials. Barium bismuth titanate (BaBi4Ti4O15 , an Aurivillius compound, is promising candidate to replace lead-based materials, both as lead-free ferroelectric and high temperature piezoelectric. In this review paper, we report a detailed overview of crystal structure, different synthesis methods and char- acteristic properties of barium bismuth titanate ferroelectric materials.

  5. Fatigue crack propagation behaviour of a TiAl-based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henaff, G.; Mabru, C.; Petit, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study the fatigue crack propagation resistance of a nearly fully lamellar quaternary TiAl based is investigated at room-temperature. The fatigue crack growth rates material are shown to be highly sensitive on the applied stress intensity factor amplitude. A special attention is also paid to the influence of extrinsic factors. Thus crack-closure is proved to strongly influence the propagation. As regards environmental effects, ambient air induces fatigue crack growth rates two orders of magnitude higher than those measured in vacuum. The role of moisture in this deleterious effect is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Combustion synthesis of TiB2-based cermets: modeling and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Pacheco, M.; Bouma, R.H.B.; Katgerman, L.

    2008-01-01

    TiB 2 -based cermets are prepared by combustion synthesis followed by a pressing stage in a granulate medium. Products obtained by combustion synthesis are characterized by a large remaining porosity (typically 50%). To produce dense cermets, a subsequent densification step is performed after the combustion process and when the reacted material is still hot. To design the process, numerical simulations are carried out and compared to experimental results. In addition, physical and electrical properties of the products related to electrical contact applications are evaluated. (orig.)

  7. Fundamentals of Manufacturing Technologies for Aircraft Engine Parts Made of TiAl Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szkliniarz W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study presents fundamentals of manufacturing technologies for aircraft engine construction elements, made of light, intermetallic TiAl based alloy, which is characterized by high relative strength and good creep and oxidation resistance. For smelting of alloy, the vacuum metallurgy methods were used, including application of induction furnace equipped with special crucibles made of isostatic-pressed, high-density graphite. To produce good quality construction element for aircraft engine, such as low-pressure turbine blade, there were methods of gravity casting from a very high temperature to the preheated shell moulds applied.

  8. Production of Al-Ti-B grain refining master alloys from Na2B4O7 and K2TiF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birol, Yuecel

    2008-01-01

    It is very desirable to replace the KBF 4 salt in the popular 'halide salt' process to reduce the volume of fluoride salts to be added to molten aluminium in the production of Al-Ti-B grain refiners. Being over 2 times richer in B, Na 2 B 4 O 7 is a promising replacement for KBF 4 , and is used in the present work to produce Al-Ti-B grain refiner master alloys. A fraction of the aluminide particles were entrapped in the spent salt giving a relatively lower Ti recovery when KBF 4 was replaced by Na 2 B 4 O 7 . The grain refining performance of the Al-Ti-B grain refiner alloy thus produced was nevertheless acceptable. The spent salt became too viscous with the oxides, aluminides and borides to be removed by decanting when Na 2 B 4 O 7 .5H 2 O was used to supply boron. The viscous spent salt, entrained in the grain refiner alloy, did not only impair its performance, but also hurt the fluidity of the molten alloy and made pouring difficult

  9. Viscous surface flow induced on Ti-based bulk metallic glass by heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kun [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Hu, Zheng [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Science and Technology on Vehicle Transmission Laboratory, China North Vehicle Research Institute, Beijing 100072 (China); Li, Fengjiang [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wei, Bingchen, E-mail: weibc@imech.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Microgravity (National Microgravity Laboratory), Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Obvious smoothing and roughening phases on the Ti-based MG surface resulted, which correspond respectively to the normal and off-normal incidence angles. • Atomic force microscopy confirms two types of periodic ripples distributed evenly over the rough surface. • The irradiation-induced viscosity of MG is about 4×10{sup 12} Pa·s, which accords with the theoretical prediction for metallic glasses close to glass transition temperature. • Surface-confined viscous flow plays a dominant quantitative role, which is due to radiation-induced softening of the low-viscosity surface layer. - Abstract: Ti-based bulk metallic glass was irradiated by a 20 MeV Cl{sup 4+} ion beam under liquid-nitrogen cooling, which produced remarkable surface smoothing and roughening that respectively correspond to normal and off-normal incidence angles of irradiation. Atomic force microscopy confirms two types of periodic ripples distributed evenly over the rough glass surface. In terms of mechanism, irradiation-induced viscosity agrees with the theoretical prediction for metallic glasses near glass transition temperature. Here, a model is introduced, based on relaxation of confined viscous flow with a thin liquid-like layer, that explains both surface smoothing and ripple formation. This study demonstrates that bulk metallic glass has high morphological instability and low viscosity under ion irradiation, which assets can pave new paths for metallic glass applications.

  10. Sol-gel based TiO2 thin film deposition on frustules towards facile and scalable manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Wang, J.; Zhang, W.; McNaughton, R.; Anderson, S.; Zhang, X.

    2016-11-01

    Diatom frustules have drawn a lot of attention from engineering researchers in the past decades. As a type of biomaterial, diatom frustules have been applied in a variety of areas such as biosensors and solar cells due to their excellent material and optical properties. Titanium dioxide (TiO2), on the other hand, is also semiconductor material and photocatalyst, micro and nanoparticles of which can be found in applications such as dye sensitised solar cells (DSSC). It has been demonstrated that by using diatom frustule-TiO2 composite particles in DSSCs, the performance of the solar cells could be increased. In this paper, we introduce a sol- gel based method to deposit TiO2 layers on the surface of diatom frustules. TiO2 nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of the frustules. After a subsequent annealing process, TiO2 crystal grains were formed. The method in this paper has the potential for scalable manufacturing of frustule-TiO2 composite materials for future solar cell applications.

  11. Preparation and Tribological Properties of Dual-Coated TiO2 Nanoparticles as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 were synthesized and then dual-coated with silane coupling agent (KH-570 and OP-10 in sequence in order to be dispersed stably in water as lubricant additives. The tribological properties and the application performance in Q235 steel machining of the nanoparticles as water-based lubricant additives were investigated on an MSR-10D four-ball tribotester and on a bench drilling machine, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM were used to analyze the worn surface. The results show that the surface-modified TiO2 nanoparticles can remarkably improve the load-carrying capacity, the friction reducing, and anti wear abilities of pure water. The wear scar diameter and the coefficient of friction of the water-based lubricating fluids with TiO2 nanoparticles decreased, and the thick deep furrows on the surface of wear scar also decreased obviously with the increase of TiO2 concentration. The power consumption in drilling process was lower and the cutting surface was smoother using the water-based lubricating fluids added TiO2 nanoparticles compared to the fluid without addition. The reason for nanoparticles improving tribological properties of water based lubricating fluid might be the formation of a dynamic deposition film during rubbing process according to analysis of the worn surface.

  12. Creep of cast Fe-36Al-2Ti alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobeš, Ferdinand; Kratochvíl, P.; Milička, Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 14, 10-11 (2006), s. 1199-1203 ISSN 0966-9795. [EUROMAT 2005. Praha, 05.09.2005-08.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : iron aluminides, based on FeAl * creep * mechanical testing Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.943, year: 2006

  13. Microstructure/Oxidation/Microhardness Correlations in Gamma-Based and Tau-Based Al-Ti-Cr Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Smialek, J. L.; Humphrey, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    The relationships between alloy microstructure and air oxidation kinetics and alloy microstructure and microhardness in the Al-Ti-Cr system for exposures at 800 C and 1000 C were investigated. The relevant phases were identified as tau (Ll2), gamma (LIO), r-Al2Ti, TiCrAl (laves), and Cr2AI. Protective alumina formation was associated with tau, Al-rich TiCrAl, and gamma/TiCrAl mixtures. Brittleness was associated with the TiCrAl phase and tau decomposition to A12Ti + Cr2AI. It was concluded that two-phase gamma + TiCrAl alloys offer the greatest potential for oxidation resistance and room temperature ductility in the Al-Ti-Cr system.

  14. Growth mechanism, distribution characteristics and reinforcing behavior of (Ti, Nb)C particle in laser cladded Fe-based composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qingtang; Lei, Yongping; Fu, Hanguang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reinforced (Ti, Nb)Cp can be synthesized in the molten pool during laser cladding. • Formation mechanism of (Ti, Nb)Cp are impacted by Ti/Nb atomic ratio. • Appropriate Ti element can improve the precipitation of carbide particle. • Excess Ti weakens this effect above-mentioned. • The wear resistance of the coating was improved when Ti/Nb = 1. - Abstract: Over the past decade, researchers have demonstrated much interest in laser cladded metal matrix composite coatings for its good wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and high temperature properties. In this paper, in-situ (Ti, Nb)C particle reinforced Fe-based composite coatings were produced by laser cladding. The effects of Ti/Nb(atomic ratio) in the cladding powder on the formation mechanism and distribution characteristics of multiple particle were investigated. The results showed that when Ti/Nb > 1, Ti had a stronger ability to bond with C compared with Nb. (Ti, Nb)C multiple particles with TiC core formed in the molten pool. With the decrease of Ti/Nb, core-shell structure disappeared, the structure of particle got close to that of NbC gradually. It is found that the amount, area ratio and distribution of the reinforced particle in the coating containing Ti and Nb elements were improved, compared with these in the coating containing equal Nb element. When Ti/Nb = 1, the effects above-mentioned is most prominent, and the wear resistance of the coating is promoted obviously

  15. Vacuum brazing of TiAl48Cr2Nb2 casting alloys based on TiAl (γ intermetallic compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Mirski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing interest in modern engineering materials characterised by increasingly better operational parameters combined with a necessity to obtain joints of such materials representing good operation properties create important research and technological problems of today. These issues include also titanium joints or joints of titanium alloys based on intermetallic compounds. Brazing is one of the basic and sometimes even the only available welding method used for joining the aforesaid materials in production of various systems, heat exchangers and, in case of titanium alloys based on intermetallic compounds, turbine elements and space shuttle plating etc. This article presents the basic physical and chemical properties as well as the brazability of alloys based on intermetallic compounds. The work also describes the principle and mechanisms of diffusion-brazed joint formation as well as reveals the results of metallographic and strength tests involving diffusion-welded joints of TiAl48Cr3Nb2 casting alloy based on TiAl (γ phase with the use of sandwich-type layers of silver-based parent metal (grade B- Ag72Cu-780 (AG 401 and copper (grade CF032A. Structural examination was performed by means of light microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM and energy dispersion spectrometer (EDS. Furthermore, the article reveals the results of shear strength tests involving the aforementioned joints.

  16. INKJET PRINTING OF HIGH REFRACTIVE STRUCTURES BASED ON TiO2 SOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Eremeeva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with description of novel inkjet printing method for optical elements formed by structures based on TiO2 sol. The proposed approach presents effective way to obtain such optical nano objects as diffraction structures and transparent interference patterns. Methods. TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide (0.36 mol in deionized water (33.3 mol under vigorous stirring and using nitric acid (0.04 mol as a protonating agent. Viscosity was determined by Brookfield HA/HB viscometer, and surface tension - by Kyowa DY-700 tensiometer. Titanium dioxide inks were deposited on commercially available microembossed PET film with a thickness of 20 µm. To print titania ink Canon Pixma IP 2840 desktop office printer was used with a drop volume of 2 pL. The thickness of an inkjet TiO2 layer after drying in the air and removal of the solvents did not exceed 500 nm with a refractive index not less than 2.08 in the entire visible range.Main Results. The synthesis of aqueous TiO2 sol was used to obtain the ink with desirable rheological characteristics: viscosity and surface tension. The required rheology was regulated by controlling parameters of sol-gel transition in the system of aqueous titanium dioxide sol and by adding ethanol that affects the charge of double electrical layer of disperse phase. The reviled ratio of titanium dioxide sol and ethanol in the system gives such values of viscosity and surface tension that make this material convenient for inkjet printing. The coatings created by sol have a high refractive index in the entire visible range (not less than 2.08. We have shown that the deposition of optical transparent microstructures with diffraction effect has an ability to be applied on the transparent surfaces. The morphology of particles and the topology of printed structures were analyzed by optic and atomic-force microscopes.Practical Relevance. We have proposed the approach

  17. Role of TiF4 in Microleakage of Silorane and Methacrylate-based Composite Resins in Class V Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohpeima, Fatemeh; Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Jowkar, Zahra; Ahmadzadeh, Samaneh; Mokhtari, Mohammad Javad; Azarian, Babak

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of TiF4 solution pretreat-ment on microleakage of silorane and nanofilled methacrylate-based composites in class V cavities. Forty-eight intact premolar teeth were randomly allocated to four groups of 12 teeth. Restorative techniques after standard class V tooth preparations were as follows: Group 1, Filtek P90 composite; group 2, Filtek Z350 XT; group 3, TiF4 solution pretreatment and Filtek P90 composite; group 4, TiF4 solution pretreatment and Filtek Z350 XT. After storing the specimens in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and followed by immersion of the specimens in a 0.5% basic-fuchsin solution for 24 hours, they were sectioned buccolingually to obtain four surfaces for each specimen for analysis of microleakage using a stereomicroscope. Data analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis test to compare the four groups and the Mann-Whitney test for paired comparisons with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 software. At the enamel margins, microleakage score of the Filtek Z350 XT group was lower than those of the Filtek P90 with and without the application of the TiF4 (p = 0.009 and p = 0.031 respectively). At the dentin margins, groups 3 and 4 (TiF4+Filtek P90 and TiF4+Filtek z350 XT respectively) showed significantly lower microleakage than group 1 (Filtek P90). However, there was no significant difference between other groups (p > 0.05). At the enamel margins, microleakage score of the silorane-based composite was more than that of the nanofilled composite. No significant differences were observed between the other groups. At the dentin margins, for the silorane-based composite restorations, TiF4 solution pretreatment resulted in significantly lower microleakage. However, the similar result was not observed for Filtek Z350 XT. Also, no significant difference was observed between microleakage scores of Filtek P90 and Filtek Z350 XT with or without TiF4 pretreatment. In spite of better mechanical

  18. Processing map and hot working mechanisms in a P/M TiAl alloy composite with in situ carbide and silicide dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.P.; Prasad, Y.V.R.K.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: Mechanical alloying of Ti and Al with small additions of Si and C was used to synthesize metastable phases, which were incorporated in Ti-Al matrices using powder metallurgy techniques. These metastable phases (or also called as precursors), at higher temperatures, transformed in situ into very fine hard reinforcements that develop coherent interface with the surrounding matrix. Typically, Ti5Si3 and TiC are the end products after the synthesis of composite. In this study, hot working behavior of such composites has been studied using the concepts of processing maps to identify the safe and best processing conditions that should be adopted while forming this composite. Also, kinetic analysis of hot deformation has been performed to identify the dominant deformation mechanism. The results are compared with that of base TiAl matrix. The powder metallurgy route offers the advantage of working the material at much lower temperatures compared to the traditional cast and forge route. - Abstract: A titanium aluminide alloy composite with in situ carbide and silicide dispersions has been synthesized by mixing 90% of matrix with elemental composition of 46Ti-46Al-4Nb-2Cr-2Mn and 10% precursor with composition 55Ti-27Al-12Si-6C prepared by mechanical alloying. The powder mixture was blended for 2 h followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1150 deg. C for 4 h under a pressure of 150 MPa. In addition to TiAl alloy matrix, the microstructure of the HIP'ed billet showed a small volume fraction of Nb-rich intermetallic phase along with carbide and silicide dispersions formed in situ during HIP'ing. Cylindrical specimens from the HIP'ed billets were compressed at temperatures and strain rates in the ranges of 800-1050 deg. C and 0.0001-1 s -1 . The flow curves exhibited flow softening leading to a steady-state flow at strain rates lower than 0.01 s -1 while fracture occurred at higher strain rates. The processing map developed on the basis of flow stress at

  19. Processing and mechanical behaviour of TiAl/NiAl intermetallic composites produced by cryogenic mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Scott X.; McMinn, N.A.; Wu, N.Q.

    2003-01-01

    Cryogenic mechanical alloying of intermetallic powders has been used to produce TiAl/NiAl intermetallic composites. High-energy milling of prealloyed titanium aluminide and nickel aluminide powders at liquid nitrogen temperature results in the stable non-equilibrium mixtures with a fine grain size. Subsequent consolidation by uniaxial hot pressing produces unusual intermetallic composites. Powders and consolidated materials are characterised using microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Mechanical properties are evaluated by small punch testing and through microindentation measurement. It has been found that no new phase is formed during milling of intermetallic mixtures. Consolidated powders have exhibited exceptionally high hardness. The low fracture toughness of consolidated materials is attributed to the formation of ternary phases during consolidation

  20. The adhesion performance of epoxy coating on AA6063 treated in Ti/Zr/V based solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Wen; Li, Wenfang, E-mail: mewfli@scut.edu.cn; Mu, Songlin; Yang, Yunyu; Zuo, Xi

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • A non-chrome titanium/zirconium/vanadium-based (Ti/Zr/V) conversion coating is prepared on AA6063 at room temperature. • The Ti/Zr/V conversion coating is produced on AA6063 within 50 s. • The adhesion strength between epoxy coating and AA6063 is improved significantly after the Ti/Zr/V conversion treatment. - Abstract: An environment-friendly titanium/zirconium/vanadium-based (Ti/Zr/V) conversion coating was prepared on aluminum alloy 6063 (AA6063). The epoxy powder coatings were applied on the AA6063 samples with/without Ti/Zr/V conversion coatings via electrostatic spraying. The morphology and composition of the conversion coating were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The surface free energy components of AA6063 samples were measured by a static contact angle measuring device with Owens method. The adhesion properties of the epoxy coating on AA6063 treated with different conversion times were evaluated using a pull-off tester. The Ti/Zr/V conversion coating was mainly composed of metal oxide (TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, etc.), metal fluoride (ZrF{sub 4}, AlF{sub 3}, etc.) and metal organic complex. The formation time of this conversion coating was reduced to 50 s. After such surface treatment, the samples' surface roughness was increased and the contact angle with water was decreased. Both the surface free energy and the work of adhesion were increased. The adhesion strength between the epoxy coating and AA6063 was enhanced significantly.

  1. Strain-engineering stabilization of BaTi O3 -based polar metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Jin, Kui-juan; Ge, Chen; Yang, Guo-zhen

    2018-03-01

    Polar metals, which possess ferroelectriclike polar structure and conductivity simultaneously, have attracted wide interest since the first solid example, LiOs O3 (below 140 K), was discovered. However, the lack of room-temperature polar metals hinders further research and applications. Thus abundant properties of polar metals are unexplored. Here, with first-principles calculations, we report that the polar metal phase can be stabilized in the strain-engineered BaTi O3 with electron doping. The mechanism relates to the competition between the shifting of the t2 g energy levels and the narrowing of their bandwidth. Surprisingly, it is predicted that the ferroelectric-to-paraelectric transition temperature can be increased by electron doping when the strain is large enough, which holds potential for room-temperature polar metals. Our results indicate that strain engineering is a promising way to achieve BaTi O3 -based polar metals, and they should have practical significance for obtaining easily accessible, ecofriendly, and potential room-temperature polar metals.

  2. Ceramic thick film humidity sensor based on MgTiO3 + LiF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassas, Ahmad; Bernard, Jérôme; Lelièvre, Céline; Besq, Anthony; Guhel, Yannick; Houivet, David; Boudart, Bertrand; Lakiss, Hassan; Hamieh, Tayssir

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabricated sensor based on MgTiO 3 + LiF materials used the spin coating technology. • The response time is 70 s to detect variation between 5 and 95% relative humidity. • The addition of Scleroglucan controls the viscosity and decreases the roughness of thick film surface. • This humidity sensor is a promising, low-cost, high-quality, reliable ceramic films, that is highly sensitive to humidity. - Abstract: The feasibility of humidity sensor, consisting of a thick layer of MgTiO 3 /LiF materials on alumina substrate, was studied. The thermal analysis TGA-DTGA and dilatometric analysis worked out to confirm the sintering temperature. An experimental plan was applied to describe the effects of different parameters in the development of the thick film sensor. Structural and microstructural characterizations of the developed thick film were made. Rheological study with different amounts of a thickener (scleroglucan “sclg”), showing the behavior variation, as a function of sclg weight % was illustrated and rapprochement with the results of thickness variation as a function of angular velocity applied in the spin coater. The electrical and dielectric measurements confirmed the sensitivity of the elaborated thick film against moisture, along with low response time

  3. Ceramic thick film humidity sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassas, Ahmad, E-mail: a.kassas.mcema@ul.edu.lb [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Bernard, Jérôme; Lelièvre, Céline; Besq, Anthony; Guhel, Yannick; Houivet, David; Boudart, Bertrand [Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Lakiss, Hassan [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Faculty of Engineering, Section III, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Hamieh, Tayssir [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabricated sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF materials used the spin coating technology. • The response time is 70 s to detect variation between 5 and 95% relative humidity. • The addition of Scleroglucan controls the viscosity and decreases the roughness of thick film surface. • This humidity sensor is a promising, low-cost, high-quality, reliable ceramic films, that is highly sensitive to humidity. - Abstract: The feasibility of humidity sensor, consisting of a thick layer of MgTiO{sub 3}/LiF materials on alumina substrate, was studied. The thermal analysis TGA-DTGA and dilatometric analysis worked out to confirm the sintering temperature. An experimental plan was applied to describe the effects of different parameters in the development of the thick film sensor. Structural and microstructural characterizations of the developed thick film were made. Rheological study with different amounts of a thickener (scleroglucan “sclg”), showing the behavior variation, as a function of sclg weight % was illustrated and rapprochement with the results of thickness variation as a function of angular velocity applied in the spin coater. The electrical and dielectric measurements confirmed the sensitivity of the elaborated thick film against moisture, along with low response time.

  4. Photocatalytic application of TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2) for reusing of textile wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Laleh Enayati Ahangar; Karim Movassaghi; Masoomeh Emadi; Fatemeh Yaghoobi

    2016-01-01

    In this research we have developed a treatment method for textile wastewater by TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite. Textile wastewater includes a large variety of dyes and chemicals and needs treatments. This manuscript presents a facile method for removing dyes from the textile wastewater by using TiO2/SiO2-based nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2) under UV irradiation. This magnetic nanocomposite, as photocatalytically active composite, is synthesized via solution method in mild conditions....

  5. Physics of SrTiO3-based heterostructures and nanostructures: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun-Yi; Tylan-Tyler, Anthony; Irvin, Patrick; Levy, Jeremy

    2017-08-30

    1 Overview 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 Oxide growth techniques are rooted in search for high-Tc superconductors 2 1.1.2 First reports of interface conductivity 2 1.2 2D physics 2 1.3 Emergent properties of oxide heterostructures and nanostructures 3 1.4 Outline 3 2 Relevant properties of SrTiO3 3 2.1 Structural properties and transitions 3 2.2 Ferroelectricity, Paraelectricity and Quantum Paraelectricity 4 2.3 Electronic structure 5 2.4 Defects 6 2.4.1 Oxygen vacancies 6 2.4.2 Terraces 7 2.5 Superconductivity 7 3 SrTiO3-based heterostructures and nanostructures 8 3.1 Varieties of heterostructures 8 3.1.1 SrTiO3 only 9 3.1.2 LaAlO3/SrTiO3 9 3.1.3 Other heterostructures formed with SrTiO3 10 3.2 Thin-film growth 10 3.2.1 Substrates 10 3.2.2 SrTiO3 surface treatment 11 3.2.3 Pulsed Laser Deposition 11 3.2.4 Atomic Layer Deposition 13 3.2.5 Molecular Beam Epitaxy 14 3.2.6 Sputtering 15 3.3 Device Fabrication 15 3.3.1 "Conventional" photolithography - Thickness Modulation, hard masks, etc. 15 3.3.2 Ion beam irradiation 16 3.3.3 Conductive-AFM lithography 16 4 Properties and phase diagram of LaAlO3/SrTiO3 16 4.1 Insulating state 16 4.2 Conducting state 17 4.2.1 Confinement thickness (the depth profile of the 2DEG) 17 4.3 Metal-insulator transition and critical thickness 18 4.3.1 Polar catastrophe ( electronic reconstruction) 18 4.3.2 Oxygen Vacancies 19 4.3.3 Interdiffusion 20 4.3.4 Polar Interdiffusion + oxygen vacancies + antisite pairs 20 4.3.5 Role of surface adsorbates 21 4.3.6 Hidden FE like distortion - Strain induced instability 21 4.4 Structural properties and transitions 21 4.5 Electronic band structure 22 4.5.1 Theory 22 4.5.2 Experiment 23 4.5.3 Lifshitz transition 24 4.6 Defects, doping, and compensation 25 4.7 Magnetism 25 4.7.1 Experimental evidence 25 4.7.2 Two types of magnetism 27 4.7.3 Ferromagnetism 27 4.7.4 Metamagnetism 28 4.8 Superconductivity 28 4.9 Optical properties 29 4.9.1 Photoluminesce

  6. High-temperature corrosion-resistant iron-aluminide (FeAl) alloys exhibiting improved weldability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Philip J.; Goodwin, Gene M.; Liu, Chain T.

    1996-01-01

    This invention relates to improved corrosion-resistant iron-aluminide intermetallic alloys. The alloys of this invention comprise, in atomic percent, from about 30% to about 40% aluminum alloyed with from about 0.1% to about 0.5% carbon, no more than about 0.04% boron such that the atomic weight ratio of boron to carbon in the alloy is in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.08:1, from about 0.01 to about 3.5% of one or more transition metals selected from Group IVB, VB, and VIB elements and the balance iron wherein the alloy exhibits improved resistance to hot cracking during welding.

  7. Oxidation behavior of Hf-modified platinum aluminide coatings during thermal cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liya Ye

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Platinum aluminide coatings with different Hf contents were fabricated by using HfCl4. The oxidation kinetics and the rumpling behavior of oxide scale were investigated. After thermal cycling, the coating with 0.46 wt% Hf showed least weight gain. With the increase of Hf content, rumpling extent of the scale decreased. Meanwhile, HfO2 preferentially formed in the scale resulting in the increase of scale thickness. The oxidation of excessive Hf even caused the spallation of the scale. The results in the present study indicate that although Hf plays an important role in decreasing rumpling extent of TGO, the oxidation of Hf decreases the adhesion of the scale. Keywords: Pt-Al coating, Hf, Oxidation, Rumpling

  8. Release of fission products from irradiated aluminide fuel at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Toshikazu; Kanda, Keiji; Mishima, Kaichiro; Tamai, Tadaharu; Hayashi, Masatoshi; Snelgrove, James L.; Stahl, David; Matos, James E.; Travelli, Armando; Case, F. Neil; Posey, John C.

    1983-01-01

    Irradiated uranium aluminide fuel plates of 40% U-235 enrichment were heated for the determination of fission products released under flowing helium gas at temperatures up to and higher than the melting point of fuel cladding material. The release of fission products from the fuel plate at temperature below 500 deg. C was found negligible. The first rapid release of fission products was observed with the occurrence of blistering at 561±1 deg. C on the plates. The next release at 585. C might be caused by melting of the cladding material of 6061-Al alloy. The last release of fission product gases was occurred at the eutectic temperature of 640 deg. C of U-Al x . The released material was mostly xenon, but small amounts of iodine and cesium were observed. (author)

  9. Simulation and experimental approach to CVD-FBR aluminide coatings on ferritic steels under steam oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, J.; Alcala, G.; Bolivar, F.J.; Sanchez, L.; Hierro, M.P.; Perez, F.J.

    2008-01-01

    The ferritic steels used to produce structural components for steam turbines are susceptible to strong corrosion and creep damage due to the extreme working conditions pushed to increase the process efficiency and to reduce pollutants release. The response of aluminide coatings on the P-92 ferritic steel, deposited by CVD-FBR, during oxidation in a simulated steam environment was studied. The analyses were performed at 650 deg. C in order to simulate the working conditions of a steam turbine, and 800 deg. C in order to produce a critical accelerated oxidation test. The Thermo-Calc software was used to predict the different solid phases that could be generated during the oxidation process, in both, coated and uncoated samples. In order to validate the thermodynamic results, the oxides scales produced during steam tests were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, SEM and EDS. The preliminary results obtained are discussed in the present work

  10. Release of fission products from irradiated aluminide fuel at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, T.; Kanda, K.; Mishima, K.

    1982-01-01

    Irradiated uranium aluminide fuel plates of 40% U-235 enrichment were heated for the determination of fission products released under flowing helium gas at temperatures up to and higher than the melting point of fuel-cladding material. The release of fission products from the fuel plate at temperature below 500 0 C was found negligible. The firist rapid release of fission products was observed with the occurrence of blistering at 561 +- 1 0 C on the plates. The next release at 585 0 C might be caused by melting of the cladding material of 6061-Al alloy. The last release of fission product gases was occurred at the eutectic temperature of 640 0 C of U-Al/sub x/. The released material was mostly xenon, but small amounts of iodine and cesium were observed

  11. Simulation and experimental approach to CVD-FBR aluminide coatings on ferritic steels under steam oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Dep. CC. Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Avenida Complutense s/n, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alcala, G. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Dep. CC. Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Avenida Complutense s/n, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: galcades@yahoo.es; Bolivar, F.J.; Sanchez, L.; Hierro, M.P.; Perez, F.J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Dep. CC. Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Avenida Complutense s/n, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-15

    The ferritic steels used to produce structural components for steam turbines are susceptible to strong corrosion and creep damage due to the extreme working conditions pushed to increase the process efficiency and to reduce pollutants release. The response of aluminide coatings on the P-92 ferritic steel, deposited by CVD-FBR, during oxidation in a simulated steam environment was studied. The analyses were performed at 650 deg. C in order to simulate the working conditions of a steam turbine, and 800 deg. C in order to produce a critical accelerated oxidation test. The Thermo-Calc software was used to predict the different solid phases that could be generated during the oxidation process, in both, coated and uncoated samples. In order to validate the thermodynamic results, the oxides scales produced during steam tests were characterized by different techniques such as XRD, SEM and EDS. The preliminary results obtained are discussed in the present work.

  12. Plasmonic metamaterial-based chemical converted graphene/TiO2/Ag thin films by a simple spray pyrolysis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Promod; Swart, H. C.

    2018-04-01

    Graphene based hybrid nanostructures have received special attention in both the scientific and technological development due to their unique physicochemical behavior, which make them attractive in various applications such as, batteries, supercapacitors, fuel cells, solar cells, photovoltaic devices and bio-sensors. In the present study, the role of plasmonic metamaterials in light trapping photovoltaics for inorganic semiconducting materials by a simple and low cost spray pyrolysis technique has been studied. The plasmonic metamaterials thin film has been fabricated by depositing chemically converted graphene (CCG) onto TiO2-Ag nanoparticles which has a low resistivity and a low electron-hole recombination probability. The localized surface plasmon resonance at the metal-dielectric interface for the Ag nanoparticles has been observed at 403 nm after depositing chemical converted graphene (CCG) on the TiO2-Ag thin film. The results suggest that the stacking order of the CCG/TiO2/Ag plasmonic metamaterials samples did not change the band gap of TiO2 while it changed the conductivity of the film. Thus the diffusion of the noble metals in the glass and TiO2 matrices based thin films can trap the light of a particular wavelength by mean of plasmonic resonance and may be useful for superior photovoltaic and optoelectronic applications.

  13. Structuring a TiO2-based photonic crystal photocatalyst with Schottky junction for efficient photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Zhang, Yaobin

    2010-01-01

    Facile and effective approaches were developed to fabricate the inverse TiO2/Pt opals Schottky structures on the Ti substrate. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and diffuse reflectance UV-vis spectra (DRS), respectively. The results indicate that these samples were of ordered network, which was built by the Pt skeleton frame and the outer TiO2 layer. The TiO2 layer was identified as anatase with the preferential orientation of (101) plane. The experiments of short-circuit photocurrent (SCPC) and photocatalytic degradation of phenol were also conducted under the UV irradiation in order to evaluate the photoactivity of the samples. By tuning the red edge of photonic stop-band overlapping the absorption maximum of anatase (at 360 nm), both the UV absorption and the carrier separation of the samples were improved. The kinetic constant using the optimal inverse TiO2/Pt opals (0.992 h(-1)) was about 1.5 times as great as that of the disordered inverse TiO2/Pt opals (TiO2/Pt-mix) and was 3.3 times as great as that of pristine TiO2 nanocrystalline film (TiO2-nc) on Ti substrate.

  14. Investigation of TiO2 based Mixed-metal Oxide Catalysts for the Production of Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Si

    Abstract of the Dissertation. Investigation of TiO2 based Mixed-metal Oxide Catalysts for the Production of Hydrogen. by. Si Luo. Doctor of Philosophy. in. Chemistry. Stony Brook University. 2017. The environmental impacts of fossil fuel consumption and the resulting global warming have attracted increasing attention to technologies and fuels that are both sustainable and renewable in the 21st century. To date, hydrogen has been proposed as an encouraging candidate of the next generation of chemical fuels, which meets all demands for carbon free and efficient chemistries that could be produced from a variety of sources. However, despite tremendous efforts, there is a clear need to develop new catalysts for the production of hydrogen through catalytic processes that are sustainable, such as in the photocatalytic splitting of water (PCS: H2O → H2 + 0.5O2) and the water-gas shift process (WGS: CO + H2O → H2 + CO2). This thesis is primarily motivated by this challenge and has focused on the photochemical and thermal production of H2 by the employment of novel TiO2 based catalysts. TiO2 is one of the most widely studied photocatalysts in all history, due to its relatively high activity, robust stability, safety and low cost. In this thesis, several TiO2-based mixed metal oxide nano catalysts (CeOx-TiO2, Ru-TiO2, Ga-TiO2) have been synthesized with carefully controlled morphology/structure and with inclusion of co-catalysts (Pt). These novel materials were comprehensively characterized to better understand their morphology, crystal structure, and electronic properties in an attempt to unravel phenomena responsible for high catalytic performance for the production of H2 from H2O. We have discovered the importance of low-dimensional metal oxide and interfacial stabilized nano-scaled mixed metal oxides for H2 production, while learning how best to tune such structure to optimize both thermal and photochemical conversion. Optimized structure and/or composition have been

  15. Comparison between field and laboratory steam oxidation testing on aluminide coatings on P92

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueero, A.; Gonzalez, V.; Gutierrez, M. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Ctra. Ajalvir Km 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz (Spain); Knoedler, R.; Straub, S. [Alstom Power Systems GmbH, Boveristrasse 22, 68309 Mannheim (Germany); Muelas, R. [Ingenieria y Servicios Aeroespaciales, P Pintor Rosales 34, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-06-15

    Steam oxidation has become an important issue for steam power plants as operating temperatures increase from the current 550 to 600-650 C. For the last 10 years several groups have been carrying out steam oxidation testing of both uncoated substrates and coatings in the laboratory. On the other hand, field testing results are very scarce. In this paper, a comparison of laboratory steam oxidation testing with field test results carried out by Alstom at the Kraftwerk Westfalen power station located in Hamm, Germany will be presented. Both slurry deposited aluminide coatings and uncoated P92 steel have been included in the study. Under steam (atmospheric pressure) and isothermal conditions in the laboratory at 650 C, spallation of oxides formed on ferritic steels occurs after significantly longer time when compared to exposure to real operating conditions. Oxide spallation results in serious damage in steam power plants by obstructing heat exchanger tubes, erosion of valves and turbine blades, etc. Moreover, the thickness of the oxide scales formed under field testing conditions is significantly higher after similar exposure. On the other hand, aluminide coated P92, which exhibit thickness through cracks, have shown to be stable in the laboratory for up to 60 000 h at 650 C under steam, without evidence of crack propagation. However, field test results indicate that some degree of crack propagation occurs but without causing substrate attack up to 21 700 h of exposure. Moreover, the aluminium oxide observed in both laboratory and field tested specimens is different. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Structure and properties of porous TiNi(Co, Mo)-based alloy produced by the reaction sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukhova, Nadezda; Yasenchuk, Yuriy; Chekalkin, Timofey; Gunther, Victor; Kim, Ji-Soon; Kang, Ji-Hoon

    2016-10-01

    Modern medical technologies have developed many new devices that can be implanted into humans to repair, assist or take the place of diseased or defective bones, arteries and even organs. The materials, especially porous ones, used for these devices have evolved steadily over the past twenty years with TiNi-based alloys replacing stainless steels and titanium. The aim of the paper is to presents results for examination of porous TiNi(Co,Mo)-based alloys intended further to be used in clinical practice. The structure and properties of porous TiNi-based alloys obtained by reaction sintering of Ti and Ni powders with additions of Co and Mo have been studied. It has been shown that alloying additions both Co and Mo inhibit the compaction of nickel powders in the initial stage of sintering. The maximum irreversible strain of porous samples under loading in the austenitic state is fixed with the Co addition, and the minimum one is fixed with the Mo addition. The Co addition leads to the fact that the martensite transformation in the TiNi phase becomes close to a one-step, and the Mo addition leads to the fact that the martensite transformation becomes more uniform. Both Co and Mo lead to an increase in the maximum accumulated strain as a result of the formation of temperature martensite. The additional increase in the maximum accumulated strain of the Ti50Ni49Co1 alloy is caused by decreased resistance of the porous Ni γ -based mass during the load.

  17. Synthesis of Fe-Al-Ti Based Intermetallics with the Use of Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Kwiatkowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS technique was combined with direct synthesis to fabricate L21-ordered Fe-Al-Ti based intermetallic alloys. It was found that ternary Fe-Al-Ti alloys can be synthesized using the LENS technique from a feedstock composed of a pre-alloyed Fe-Al powder and elemental Ti powder. The obtained average compositions of the ternary alloys after the laser deposition and subsequent annealing were quite close to the nominal compositions, but the distributions of the elements in the annealed samples recorded over a large area were inhomogeneous. No traces of pure Ti were observed in the deposited alloys. Macroscopic cracking and porosity were observed in all investigated alloys. The amount of porosity in the samples was less than 1.2 vol. %. It seems that the porosity originates from the porous pre-alloyed Fe-Al powders. Single-phase (L21, two-phase (L21-C14 and multiphase (L21-A2-C14 Fe-Al-Ti intermetallic alloys were obtained from the direct laser synthesis and annealing process. The most prominent feature of the ternary Fe-Al-Ti intermetallics synthesized by the LENS method is their fine-grained structure. The grain size is in the range of 3–5 μm, indicating grain refinement effect through the highly rapid cooling of the LENS process. The Fe-Al-Ti alloys synthesized by LENS and annealed at 1000 °C in the single-phase B2 region were prone to an essential grain growth. In contrast, the alloys annealed at 1000 °C in the two-phase L21-C14 region exhibited almost constant grain size values after the high-temperature annealing.

  18. Photochemical and photocatalytic evaluation of 1D titanate/TiO{sub 2} based nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conceição, D.S.; Ferreira, D.P. [Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Graça, C.A.L. [Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida Prof. Luciano Gualberto, tr. 3, 380 São Paulo (Brazil); Júlio, M.F.; Ilharco, L.M. [Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Velosa, A.C. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia, Av. Venezuela 82, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Santos, P.F. [Centro de Química, Vila Real Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, 5001-801 Vila Real (Portugal); Vieira Ferreira, L.F., E-mail: lfvieiraferreira@tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Centro de Química-Física Molecular and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • 1D titanate based nanomaterials were prepared via a hydrothermal approach. • The structural and photochemical evaluation of the nanomaterials was performed. • A fluorescent dye was used as a surface probe in visible excitation conditions. • Amicarbazone was used as the model contaminant for photodegradation studies. - Abstract: One-dimensional (1D) titanate based nanomaterials were synthesized following an alkaline hydrothermal approach of commercial TiO{sub 2} nanopowder. The morphological features of all materials were monitored by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and also Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) technique. In addition the photochemical behaviour of these nanostructured materials were evaluated with the use of laser induced luminescence (LIL), ground-state diffuse reflectance (GSDR), and laser-flash photolysis in diffuse reflectance mode (DRLFP). The mixed titanate/TiO{sub 2} nanowires presented the least intense fluorescence spectra, suggesting the presence of surficial defects that can extend the lifetime of the excited charge carriers. A fluorescent ‘rhodamine-like’ dye was adsorbed onto different materials and examined via photoexcitation in the visible range to study the self-photosensitization mechanism. The presence of the radical cation of the dye and the degradation kinetics, when compared with a neutral substrate—cellulose, provided significant evidences regarding the photoactivity of the different materials. Regarding all the materials under study, the nanowires exhibited a strong photocatalytic efficiency, for the adsorbed fluorescent probe. The photocatalytic mechanism was also considered by studying the photodegradation capability of the titanate based materials in the presence of an herbicide, Amicarbazone, after ultraviolet (UVA) photoexcitation.

  19. Hydrogen absorption study of Ti-based alloys performed by melt-spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, R.M.; Lemus, L.F.; Santos, D.S. dos, E-mail: rafaella@metalmat.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (PEMM/COPPEP/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    The hydrogen absorption and desorption of Ti{sub 53}Zr{sub 27}Ni{sub 20} icosahedral quasicrystal (ICQ) and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} shape memory alloy (SMA) melt-spun ribbons was studied. Samples were exposed to hydrogen gas at 623 K and 4 MPa for 1000 minutes. The total capacity of hydrogen obtained for Ti{sub 53}Zr{sub 27}Ni{sub 20} and Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} was 3.2 and 2.4 wt. % respectively. The Thermal Desorption Spectrometry (TDS) of the hydrogenated alloys shows that both alloys start to desorb hydrogen around 750 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, performed after hydrogenation, indicate a complete amorphization of the Ti{sub 53}Zr{sub 27}Ni{sub 20} i-phase alloy, while the Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} alloy remained crystalline after hydride formation. (author)

  20. Can TiO2-based photocatalytic textiles be used to improve the urban air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, Mila; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borràs, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Catota, Marlon; Carreño, Javier; Hernández, Daniel; Gimeno, Cristina; López, Ramón; Muñoz, Amalia

    2017-04-01

    Despite current legislation and efforts made to improve urban air quality, significant negative effects still persist. That is the case of traffic, which impact on air pollution is a growing problem. For this reason, depollution measures are necessary to reach safer air quality levels. Recently, the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove air pollutants, especially NOx. TiO2 can be found in the market under different formats for environmental purposes, and its effectiveness depends not only on the support (concrete, paints, etc) but also on the impregnation method (layer, embedded, etc). By combining laboratory and field campaigns, the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project was conceived to demonstrate the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in textiles as a way of alleviating the air pollution in urban areas. Within the project, which is already within its last year, two one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaigns have already been completed to assess their impact on the selected urban sites, measuring before and after the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, respectively. Also, intensive active measurement campaigns (using active dosimetry, monitors and instrumentation for physical parameters) have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. Besides, lab-tests have been concluded to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, and these have been tested at the EUPHORE simulation chambers under typical environmental conditions of various European cities. Besides the effect on NOx, which has been the main focus of the study, VOCs formation and abatement has been assessed, yielding in a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. Very promising results on the deep reduction of NOx have been observed at EUPHORE. From the calculation of the uptake coefficient, a mathematical model tool foresees

  1. Hydrogen permeation rate reduction by post-oxidation of aluminide coatings on DIN 1.4914 martensitic steel (MANET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perujo, A.; Sample, T.

    1996-01-01

    In a previous work, it has been shown that lower aluminium content aluminide, having the same permeation rate reduction as the higher aluminium content, exhibited a lower hardness and greater ductility and therefore greater crack resistance than the higher aluminium content. In this work we combine this characteristic with a post-oxidation to obtain a further deuterium permeation reduction. The post-oxidation was performed in air at 1023 K for 15 h and at 1223 K for 10 h and 1 h. The maximum deuterium permeation rate reduction obtained is very moderate (maximum of a factor 500 for 1 h at 1223 K) as compared to that of the non-oxidised aluminide specimen (two orders of magnitude) and is constant in the temperature range studied (573-800 K). This method has the technological appeal of using air rather than the controlled environment used by other authors. (orig.)

  2. The obtainment of highly concentrated uranium pellets for plate type (MTR) fuel by dispersion of uranium aluminides in aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morando, R.A.; Raffaeli, H.A.; Balzaretti, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of the intermetallic UAl 3 for manufacturing plate type MTR fuel with 20% U 235 enriched uranium and a density of about 20 kg/m 3 is analyzed. The technique used is the dispersion of UAl 3 particles in aluminium powder. The obtainment of the UAl 3 intermetallic was performed by fusion in an induction furnace in an atmosphere of argon at a pressure of 0.7 BAR (400 mm) using an alumina melting pot. To make the aluminide powder and attain the wished granulometry a cutting and a rotating crusher were used. Aluminide powders of different granulometries and different pressures of compactation were analyzed. In each case the densities were measured. The compacts were colaminated with the 'Picture Frame' technique at temperatures of 490 and 0 deg C with excellent results from the manufacturing view point. (M.E.L.) [es

  3. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Al/Fe-aluminide in-situ composite prepared by reactive stir casting route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Subhranshu; Sinha, Arijit; Das, Debdulal; Ghosh, Sumit; Basumallick, Amitava

    2013-01-01

    Iron aluminide particulate reinforced aluminium composites were prepared by a simple liquid metal stir casting route. The particulate intermetallic reinforcements were formed by in-situ reaction between molten aluminium and a rotating mild steel stirrer at 800 °C. X-ray diffraction studies were carried out to identify the types of iron aluminide particulates present in the as cast composite. Compositional variations of the composite samples were estimated with the aid of energy dispersive spectroscopy. The microstructural features of the composite were studied with respect to different heat treatment schedules and deformation conditions. Microhardness and nanoindentation measurements were also carried out to assess the micromechanical behaviour e.g., hardness and elastic modulus in micrometric length scale of the composite samples. Tensile tests and fractographic analysis were performed to estimate the mechanical properties and determine the mode of failure of the samples. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the composite samples were correlated and discussed

  4. Theoretical models of Rashba spin splitting in asymmetric SrTiO3-based heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Heeringen, L. W.; McCollam, A.; de Wijs, G. A.; Fasolino, A.

    2017-04-01

    Rashba spin splitting in two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor systems is generally calculated in a k .p Luttinger-Kohn approach where the spin splitting due to asymmetry emerges naturally from the bulk band structure. In recent years, several new classes of 2D systems have been discovered where electronic correlations are believed to have an important role. In these correlated systems, the effects of asymmetry leading to Rashba splitting have typically been treated phenomenologically. We compare these two approaches for the case of 2D electron systems in SrTiO3-based heterostructures, and find that the two models produce fundamentally different behavior in regions of the Brillouin zone that are particularly relevant for magnetotransport. Our results demonstrate the importance of identifying the correct approach in the quantitative interpretation of experimental data, and are likely to be relevant to a range of 2D systems in correlated materials.

  5. Revealing homogeneous plastic deformation in dendrite-reinforced Ti-based metallic glass composites under tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F. F.; Wei, J. S.; Chan, K. C.; Chen, S. H.; Zhao, R. D.; Zhang, G. A.; Wu, X. F.

    2017-01-01

    The tensile plastic deformation of dendrite-reinforced Ti-based metallic glass composites (MGCs) was investigated. It was found that there is a critical normalized strain-hardening rate (NSHR) that determines the plastic stability of MGCs: if the NSHR is larger than the critical value, the plastic deformation of the MGCs will be stable, i.e. the necking and strain localization can be effectively suppressed, resulting in homogeneous plastic elongation. In addition, dendrite-reinforce MGCs are verified as being intrinsically ductile, and can be used as good coatings for improving the surface properties of pure titanium or titanium alloys. These findings are helpful in designing, producing, and using MGCs with improved performance properties. PMID:28195216

  6. Characterization of TiO2-based semiconductors for photocatalysis by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ângelo, Joana; Magalhães, Pedro; Andrade, Luísa; Mendes, Adélio

    2016-11-01

    The photocatalytic activity of a commercial titanium dioxide (P25) and of an in-house prepared P25/graphene composite is assessed according to standard ISO 22197-1:2007. The photoactivity performances of bare and composite TiO2-based materials were further studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique to better understand the function of the graphene in the composite. EIS experiments were performed using a three-electrode configuration, which allows obtaining more detailed information about the complex charge transfer phenomena at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface. The Randles equivalent circuit was selected as the most suitable for modelling the present photocatalysts. The use of the graphene composite allows a more effective charge separation with lower charge transfer resistance and less e-/h+ recombination on the composite photocatalyst, reflected in the higher values of NO conversion.

  7. Structure and tribological performance by nitrogen and oxygen plasma based ion implantation on Ti6Al4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xingguo; Sun Mingren; Ma Xinxin; Tang Guangze

    2011-01-01

    Ti6Al4V alloy was implanted with nitrogen-oxygen mixture by using plasma based ion implantation (PBII) at pulsed voltage -10, -30 and -50 kV. The implantation was up to 6 x 10 17 ions/cm 2 fluence. The changes in chemical composition, structure and hardness of the modified surfaces were studied by XPS and nanoindentation measurements. According to XPS, it was found that the modified layer was predominantly TiO 2 , but contained small amounts of TiO, Ti 2 O 3 , TiN and Al 2 O 3 between the outmost layer and metallic substrate. Surface hardness and wear resistance of the samples increased significantly after PBII treatment, the wear rate of the sample implanted N 2 -O 2 mixture at -50 kV decreased eight times than the untreated one. The sample implanted N 2 -O 2 mixture showed better wear resistance than that of the sample only implanted oxygen at - 50 kV. The wear mechanism of untreated sample was abrasive-dominated and adhesive, and the wear scar of the sample implanted at -50 kV was characterized by abrasive wear-type ploughing.

  8. High Sensitivity Refractometer Based on TiO2-Coated Adiabatic Tapered Optical Fiber via ALD Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shan; Pang, Fufei; Huang, Sujuan; Zou, Fang; Guo, Qiang; Wen, Jianxiang; Wang, Tingyun

    2016-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is introduced to fabricate a high sensitivity refractometer based on an adiabatic tapered optical fiber. Different thicknesses of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanofilm were coated around the tapered fiber precisely and uniformly under different deposition cycles. Attributed to the higher refractive index of the TiO2 nanofilm compared to that of silica, an asymmetric Fabry–Perot (F-P) resonator could be constructed along the fiber taper. The central wavelength of the F-P resonator could be controlled by adjusting the thickness of the TiO2 nanofilm. Such a F-P resonator is sensitive to changes in the surrounding refractive index (SRI), which is utilized to realize a high sensitivity refractometer. The refractometer developed by depositing 50.9-nm-thickness TiO2 on the tapered fiber shows SRI sensitivity as high as 7096 nm/RIU in the SRI range of 1.3373–1.3500. Due to TiO2’s advantages of high refractive index, lack of toxicity, and good biocompatibility, this refractometer is expected to have wide applications in the biochemical sensing field. PMID:27537885

  9. Layered Nano-TiO2 Based Treatments for the Maintenance of Natural Stones in Historical Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Francesca; Goidanich, Sara; Dal Santo, Vladimiro; Toniolo, Lucia

    2018-02-09

    Layered treatments of natural stones based on dispersions of experimental nano-TiO 2 and commercial TEOS showing photocatalytic and self-cleaning properties were set up and tested. To enhance nano-TiO 2 efficacy, a surface pre-treatment with tetraethyl orthosilicate was proposed to avoid the penetration of NPs into the crystalline porous substrates and to improve their adhesion to the stone. Two treatment applications (wet-on-wet and wet-on-dry) were compared, showing different results. A strong interaction Si-O-Ti was the key factor for the successful treatment, leaving the band gap and relevant properties of nano-TiO 2 unaltered. The layered treatments were tested on a porous calcarenite (Noto stone) and a very compact marble (Carrara marble). The combined SiO 2 -nano-TiO 2 treatments can find application in suitable cases where a surface consolidation is needed, ensuring a depolluting and self-cleaning durable activity. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Acetone sensors based on TiO2 nanocrystals modified with tungsten oxide species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epifani, Mauro; Comini, Elisabetta; Díaz, Raül; Genç, Aziz; Andreu, Teresa; Siciliano, Pietro; Morante, Joan R.

    2016-01-01

    TiO 2 nanocrystals were prepared by sol–gel/solvothermal processing and modified by the addition of W precursor before the solvothermal step. The W: Ti nominal atomic ratio (R W ) was fixed to 0.16 and 0.64. Surface modification of TiO 2 occurred for R W = 0.16 while for R W = 0.64 nanocomposites with WO 3 nanocrystals were obtained after heat-treatment at 500 °C. Pure TiO 2 proved to be very poorly performing in acetone sensing in all the operating conditions. Instead, the addition of both W concentrations largely enhanced the sensor response. It ranged over two orders of magnitude of conductance variation for all the tested concentrations at as low as 200 °C operating temperature. The results showed that it is possible to enhance the performance of an otherwise almost inactive oxide like TiO 2 by proper combination with another more active oxide like WO 3 . - Highlights: • Sensing architecture are synthesized, combining WO 3 and of TiO 2 nanocrystals. • Surface layers of W oxides or heterojunctions of TiO 2 and WO 3 are obtained. • Simple TiO 2 surface modification by W oxides boosts the TiO 2 acetone response. • High responses even at 200 °C show catalytic effect of WO 3 addition.

  11. Evaluation of surface energy state distribution and bulk defect concentration in DSSC photoanodes based on Sn, Fe, and Cu doped TiO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ako, Rajour Tanyi [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara (Brunei Darussalam); Ekanayake, Piyaisiri, E-mail: piyasiri.ekanayake@ubd.edu.bn [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara (Brunei Darussalam); Young, David James [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara (Brunei Darussalam); Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology and Research -A*STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Locked Bag 4, Maroochydore DC, Queensland, 4558 (Australia); Hobley, Jonathan [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara (Brunei Darussalam); Chellappan, Vijila [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology and Research - A*STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Tan, Ai Ling [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara (Brunei Darussalam); Gorelik, Sergey; Subramanian, Gomathy Sandhya [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering (IMRE), Agency for Science, Technology and Research - A*STAR, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore); Lim, Chee Ming [Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, BE1410, Negara (Brunei Darussalam)

    2015-10-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The structural, optical and optoelectronic properties of 1 mol.% Fe, Sn and Cu doped TiO{sub 2} have been compared. • Transient lifetimes for pure TiO{sub 2} and Sn doped TiO{sub 2} were considerably shorter than Fe and Cu doped TiO{sub 2}. • A good correlation between the bulk defects and transient decay for the doped TiO{sub 2} powders was observed. • Photon to current conversion efficiency of DSSC based on the metal doped TiO{sub 2} were in order Sn-TiO{sub 2} > Cu-TiO{sub 2} > Pure >> Fe-TiO{sub 2}. • DSSC based on Fe doped photoanodes is limited by a high concentration of surface free holes observed at 433 nm. - Abstract: Electron transfer dynamics in the oxide layers of the working electrodes in both dye-sensitized solar cells and photocatalysts greatly influences their performance. A proper understanding of the distribution of surface and bulk energy states on/in these oxide layers can provide insights into the associated electron transfer processes. Metal ions like Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu) and Tin (Sn) doped onto TiO{sub 2} have shown enhanced photoactivity in these processes. In this work, the structural, optical and transient properties of Fe, Cu and Sn doped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline powders have been investigated and compared using EDX, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Transient Absorption spectroscopy (TAS). Surface free energy states distributions were probed using Electrochemical Impedance spectroscopy (EIS) on Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) based on the doped TiO{sub 2} photoanodes. Raman and XPS Ti2p{sub 3/2} peak shifts and broadening showed that the concentration of defects were in the order: Cu doped TiO{sub 2} > Fe doped TiO{sub 2} > Sn doped TiO{sub 2} > pure TiO{sub 2}. Nanosecond laser flash photolysis of Fe and Cu doped TiO{sub 2} indicated slower transient decay kinetics than that of Sn doped TiO{sub 2} or pure TiO{sub 2}. A broad absorption peak and fast

  12. Scalability and reliability issues of Ti/HfOx-based 1T1R bipolar RRAM: Occurrence, mitigation, and solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahaman, Sk. Ziaur; Lee, Heng-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Yu-De; Chen, Pang-Shiu; Chen, Wei-Su; Wang, Pei-Hua

    2017-05-01

    Scalability and reliability issues are the most dominant obstacle for the development of resistive switching memory (RRAM) technology. Owing to the excellent memory performance and process compatibility with current CMOS technology of Ti/HfOx-based filamentary type bipolar RRAM, its scalability and reliability issues have been investigated in this document. Towards this goal, we demonstrate that there exists a clear correlation between the transistor and memory cell, which ultimately limits the scaling in terms of operation current and size of the transistor as well and performance of the Ti/HfOx-based 1T1R bipolar RRAM. Due to the resemblance of switching behaviour between complementary resistive switching, i.e., CRS in a single memory stack, and bipolar resistive switching, the Ti/HfOx-based bipolar RRAM suffers from resistance pinning (RP) issues, whereas the minimum resistance during the 1st RESET operation always impeded below 20 kΩ; this occurs through the interaction between the transistor and memory cell during the FORMING process. However, a sufficiently lower FORMING voltage can mitigate the RP issue occurring in Ti/HfOx-based bipolar RRAM and an alternative Ta buffer layer over HfOx dielectrics is proposed to prevent the activation of self-CRS in the memory cell during the FORMING process.

  13. Surface chemical functionalisation of epoxy photoresist-based microcantilevers with organic-coated TiO2 nanocrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingrosso, C.; Sardella, E.; Keller, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    In this Letter, a solution-based approach has been used for chemically immobilising oleic acid (OLEA)-capped TiO2 nanocrystals (NCs) on the surface of microcantilevers formed of SU-8, a negative tone epoxy photoresist. The immobilisation has been carried out at room temperature, under visible lig...

  14. Interfacial enhancement of carbon fiber composites by growing TiO2 nanowires onto amine-based functionalized carbon fiber surface in supercritical water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lichun; Li, Nan; Wu, Guangshun; Song, Guojun; Li, Xiaoru; Han, Ping; Wang, Gang; Huang, Yudong

    2018-03-01

    A novel amine-based functionalization method was developed to improve the interfacial adhesion between TiO2 NWs and CFs in supercritical water. The microstructure, morphology and mechanical properties of CFs were investigated. It was found that introducing hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) dendrimers and branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) on CF could increase significantly the adhesion strength between CF and TiO2 NWs and their interfacial shear strength with epoxy resin, and the order is CF-PEI-TiO2 NWs > CF-HMTA-TiO2 NWs > CF-COOH-TiO2 NWs > CF-TiO2 NW. Meanwhile, the reinforcing mechanisms and interfacial failure modes have also been discussed. We believe that these effective methods may provide theoretical foundation for the preparation of high performance composite materials.

  15. Development of a PIGE-Detection System for in-situ Inspection and Quality Assurance in the Evolution of Fast Rotating Parts in High Temperature Environment Manufactured from TiAl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Neve

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Intermetallic -titanium aluminides are a promising material in high temperature technologies. Their high specific strength at temperatures above 700°C offers the possibility for their use as components of aerospace and automotive industries. With a specific weight of 50% of that of the widely used Ni-based superalloys TiAl is very suitable as material for fast rotating parts like turbine blades in aircraft engines and land based power stations or turbocharger rotors. Thus lower mechanical stresses and a reduced fuel consumption and CO2-emission are expected. To overcome the insufficient oxidation protection the halogen effect offers an innovative way. After surface doping using F-implantation or liquid phase-treatment with an F-containing solution and subsequent oxidation at high temperatures the formation of a protective alumina scale can be achieved. By using non-destructive ion beam analyses (PIGE, RBS F was found at the metal/oxide interface. For analysis of large scale components a new vacuum chamber at the IKF was installed and became operative. With this prototype of in-situ quality assurance system for the F-doping of manufactured parts from TiAl some performance test measurements were done and presented in this paper

  16. Electrochemical properties of nanoparticle-based Ti-Co-Mg electrodes by mechanical alloying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vediappan, Kumaran; Lee, Chang Woo

    2010-05-01

    The Ti-Co-Mg powders were synthesized by mechanical alloying process. The crystalline structure, particle size, surface morphology and the electrochemical performance of the Ti-Co-Mg alloy electrodes have been characterized by X-ray diffractometer, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, and charge-discharge cycler.

  17. Air-suspended TiO2-based HCG reflectors for visible spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ehsan; Bengtsson, Jörgen; Gustavsson, Johan; Carlsson, Stefan; Rossbach, Georg; Haglund, Åsa

    2015-02-01

    For GaN-based microcavity light emitters, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and resonant cavity light emitting diodes (RCLEDs) in the blue-green wavelength regime, achieving a high reflectivity wide bandwidth feedback mirror is truly challenging. The material properties of the III-nitride alloys are hardly compatible with the conventional distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and the newly proposed high-contrast gratings (HCGs). Alternatively, at least for the top outcoupling mirror, dielectric materials offer more suitable material combinations not only for the DBRs but also for the HCGs. HCGs may offer advantages such as transverse mode and polarization control, a broader reflectivity spectrum than epitaxially grown DBRs, and the possibility to set the resonance wavelength after epitaxial growth by the grating parameters. In this work we have realized an air-suspended TiO2 grating with the help of a SiO2 sacrificial layer. The deposition processes for the dielectric layers were fine-tuned to minimize the residual stress. To achieve an accurate control of the grating duty cycle, a newly developed lift-off process, using hydrogen silesquioxan (HSQ) and sacrificial polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) resists, was applied to deposit the hard mask, providing sub-10 nm resolution. The finally obtained TiO2/air HCGs were characterized in a micro-reflectance measurement setup. A peak power reflectivity in excess of 95% was achieved for TM polarization at the center wavelength of 435 nm, with a reflectivity stopband width of about 80 nm (FWHM). The measured HCG reflectance spectra were compared to corresponding simulations obtained from rigorous coupled-wave analysis and very good agreement was found.

  18. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO{sub 2} slurry-based photoanode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Jiaoping; Chen, Zexiang, E-mail: zxchen@uestc.edu.cn; Li, Jun; Wang, Yan, E-mail: zxchen@uestc.edu.cn; Zhang, Jijun; Li, Hai [School of Opto-electronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Xiang, Dong [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    A new titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO{sub 2} photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared TiO{sub 2} photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO{sub 2} slurry-based DSSC was ∼63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO{sub 2} slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the TiO{sub 2} slurry was examined. More specifically, the effect of varying the concentration of the CNTs in this slurry on the performance of the resulting DSSCs was studied. The chemical state of the CNTs-incorporated TiO{sub 2} photoanode was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A high energy conversion efficiency of 6.23% was obtained at an optimum CNT concentration of ∼0.06 wt.%. The obtained efficiency corresponds to a 63% enhancement when compared with that obtained from a DSSC based on a commercial TiO{sub 2} slurry. The higher efficiency was attributed to the improvement in the collection and transport of excited electrons in the presence of the CNTs.

  19. A high-sensitive ultraviolet photodetector composed of double-layered TiO{sub 2} nanostructure and Au nanoparticles film based on Schottky junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huan; Qin, Pei [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Yi, Guobin, E-mail: ygb702@163.com [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Zu, Xihong [School of Chemical Engineering and Light Industry, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Zhang, Li, E-mail: zhangli2368@126.com [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Hong, Wei; Chen, Xudong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen (Zhongshan) University, Guangzhou, 510275 (China)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, a Schottky-type ultraviolet (UV) photodetector based on double-layered nanostructured TiO{sub 2}/Au films was fabricated. Double-layered titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanostructures composed of one layer of TiO{sub 2} nano-flowers on one layer of TiO{sub 2} nanorods on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) pre-coated glass substrates were synthesized via a convenient hydrothermal method using titanium butoxide and hydrochloric acid as the starting precursor, without involving the use of any other surfactants and catalysts. A granular-shaped thin-layer of Au film using vacuum sputter coating technique was subsequently deposited on TiO{sub 2} for the formation of Schottky-type photodetector. The as-fabricated Schottky device showed various photocurrent responses when irradiated with different wavelength of UV light. This suggests that the newly-developed photodetectors have promising potential for identifying different UV light wavelengths. - Highlights: • A novel double-layered TiO{sub 2} nanostructure was synthesized by a simple method. • An UV photodetector composed of TiO{sub 2} and Au was designed and fabricated. • The preparation method of TiO{sub 2}/Au UV photodetector was simple and convenient. • The UV photodetector based on TiO{sub 2}/Au showed excellent sensitivity to UV light.

  20. UV and visible light synergetic photodegradation using rutile TiO2nanorod arrays based on a p-n Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Tao; Cui, Ze; Zhang, Wenlong; Cao, Yunjiu; Zhang, Yongfang; He, Shu-Ang; Xu, Mingdong; Sun, Yangang; Zou, Rujia; Hu, Junqing

    2017-03-27

    Herein, we report a photocatalytic heterojunction device of rutile TiO 2 nanorod arrays based on a p-n silicon junction (TiO 2 @PN) and its full absorption of ultraviolet and visible light for synergistic photodegradation. The fabricated TiO 2 @PN had excellent photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under irradiation of a 300 W Xe lamp, and its pseudo-first-order rate constant k was 0.221 h -1 , which was greatly higher than that for TiO 2 nanorod arrays based on an n-p silicon junction (TiO 2 @NP, 0.078 h -1 ) and glass (TiO 2 @G, 0.032 h -1 ). The higher photocatalytic performance of TiO 2 @PN could be attributed to the fact that the photovoltage (PV) of the p-n junction promotes separation of the electron-hole pairs of the TiO 2 , and the holes are thus left within the TiO 2 nanorods to produce a strong oxidant of hydroxyl radicals (˙OH). Moreover, this heterojunction device could be easily fabricated in a large size for easy recovery and recycling, which shows its promise in the solar-driven degradation of environmental pollution.

  1. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO2 slurry-based photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaoping Cai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A new titanium dioxide (TiO2 slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO2 photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The prepared TiO2 photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO2 slurry-based DSSC was ∼63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO2 slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs into the TiO2 slurry was examined. More specifically, the effect of varying the concentration of the CNTs in this slurry on the performance of the resulting DSSCs was studied. The chemical state of the CNTs-incorporated TiO2 photoanode was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A high energy conversion efficiency of 6.23% was obtained at an optimum CNT concentration of ∼0.06 wt.%. The obtained efficiency corresponds to a 63% enhancement when compared with that obtained from a DSSC based on a commercial TiO2 slurry. The higher efficiency was attributed to the improvement in the collection and transport of excited electrons in the presence of the CNTs.

  2. Enhanced conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells using a CNT-incorporated TiO2 slurry-based photoanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiaoping; Chen, Zexiang; Li, Jun; Wang, Yan; Xiang, Dong; Zhang, Jijun; Li, Hai

    2015-02-01

    A new titanium dioxide (TiO2) slurry formulation is herein reported for the fabrication of TiO2 photoanode for use in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The prepared TiO2 photoanode featured a highly uniform mesoporous structure with well-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles. The energy conversion efficiency of the resulting TiO2 slurry-based DSSC was ˜63% higher than that achieved by a DSSC prepared using a commercial TiO2 slurry. Subsequently, the incorporation of acid-treated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into the TiO2 slurry was examined. More specifically, the effect of varying the concentration of the CNTs in this slurry on the performance of the resulting DSSCs was studied. The chemical state of the CNTs-incorporated TiO2 photoanode was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A high energy conversion efficiency of 6.23% was obtained at an optimum CNT concentration of ˜0.06 wt.%. The obtained efficiency corresponds to a 63% enhancement when compared with that obtained from a DSSC based on a commercial TiO2 slurry. The higher efficiency was attributed to the improvement in the collection and transport of excited electrons in the presence of the CNTs.

  3. Effect of Ti seed and spacer layers on structure and magnetic properties of FeNi thin films and FeNi-based multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalov, A.V., E-mail: andrey.svalov@ehu.es [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Kurlyandskaya, G.V. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 19}Ni{sub 81} films and FeNi-based multilayers were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • The samples were deposited onto glass substrates at room temperature. • Ti/FeNi films exhibit good (1 1 1) texture and crystallinity. • The thick Cu seed increases the coercive force of the magnetic layer. • The thin Ti spacer restores the magnetic softness of the Cu/Ti/FeNi multilayers. - Abstract: The microstructure and magnetic properties of sputtered permalloy films and FeNi-based multilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering have been studied. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that Ti/FeNi films exhibit good (1 1 1) texture and crystallinity. Ti/FeNi bilayers with high crystallographic quality have relatively low resistivity. The Ti seed layer does not influence the magnetic properties of FeNi film in Ti/FeNi bilayers, but the thick Cu seed layer leads to an increase of the coercive force of the magnetic layer. For the FeNi films deposited on thick Cu seed layer, the (0 1 0) and (0 0 2) diffraction peaks of hcp nickel were clearly observed. The thin Ti spacer between Cu and FeNi layers prevents the formation of the nickel phase and restores the magnetic softness of the FeNi layer in the Cu/Ti/FeNi sample. Obtained results can be important for the development of multilayer sensitive elements for giant magnetoimpedance or magnetoresistance detectors.

  4. Nanostructured Polyelectrolytes Based on SPEEK/TiO2 for Direct Ethanol Fuel Cells (DEFCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Dutra Filho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton-conducting hybrid membranes consisting of poly(ether ether ketone sulfonated (SPEEK and titanium oxide (TiO2 were prepared using the sol-gel technique for application in direct ethanol fuel cells. The effect from TiO2 incorporation on membrane properties such as ethanol uptake, pervaporation and proton conductivity was investigated. The uptake and permeated flux decreased with increasing content of TiO2. The ethanol permeability was about one order of magnitude smaller than Nafion® 117. FTIR spectra indicated that PEEK was sulfonated and the second degradation temperature of SPEEK58 samples confirmed the titanium oxide incorporation. The proton conductivity in ethanol solution was of the order of 10-3 S cm-1 when 4 or 8 wt% TiO2 were added, and generally increased with addition of TiO2.

  5. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on anatase TiO2/multi-walled carbon nanotubes composite nanofibers photoanode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Pingfan; Song, Lixin; Xiong, Jie; Li, Ni; Wang, Lijun; Xi, Zhenqiang; Wang, Naiyan; Gao, Linhui; Zhu, Hongliang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiO 2 /multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) hybrid nanofibers are prepared via electrospinning. ► Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are assembled using TiO 2 /MWCNTs nanofibers film as photoanode. ► Energy conversion efficiency of DSSCs is greatly dependent on the content of MWCNTs. ► Moderate MWCNTs incorporation can substantially enhance the performance of DSSCs. - Abstract: Anatase TiO 2 /multi-walled carbon nanotubes (TiO 2 /MWCNTs) hybrid nanofibers (NFs) film was prepared via a facile electrospinning method. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on TiO 2 /MWCNTs composite NFs photoanodes with different contents of MWCNTs (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1 wt.%) were assembled using N719 dye as sensitizer. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Raman spectrometer were used to characterize the TiO 2 /MWCNTs electrode films. The photocurrent–voltage (I–V) characteristic, incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) spectrum, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were carried out to evaluate the photoelectric properties of the DSSCs. The results reveal that the energy conversion efficiency is greatly dependent on the content of MWCNTs in the composite NFs film, and a moderate incorporation of MWCNTs can substantially enhance the performance of DSSCs. When the electrode contains 0.3 wt.% MWCNTs, the corresponding solar cell yield the highest efficiency of 5.63%. This efficiency value is approximately 26% larger than that of the unmodified counterpart.

  6. Impacts of post-metallization annealing on the memory performance of Ti/HfO2-based resistive memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Pang-Shiu; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Heng-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Impacts of post-metallization annealing (PMA) on bipolar resistance switching of Ti/HfO x stacked films were investigated. A Ti capping film as a scavenging layer with assistance of PMA is used to tune the dielectric strength of the 10-nm-thick HfO x layer. The polycrystalline microstructure of 10-nm-thick HfO x seems immune to the temperature of PMA in this work. The initial resistance and forming voltage in the Ti/HfO x devices mitigate as the increment of the annealing temperature. With enough annealing temperature (>450 °C), the device shows a good on/off ratio, high temperature operation ability and robust endurance (>10 6 cycles). Through the reaction between Ti and HfO x at 500 °C, the abundant oxygen ions are depleted from the insulator and the left charge-defects building conductive percolative paths in the dielectric layer. The operation-polarity independence of the form-free HfO x device in initial state is demonstrated. The forming-free memory with initial low resistance of 800 Ω at 0.1 V can be operated with stable bipolar resistance switching via initially positive or negative voltage sweep. The formless device with 10 nm thick HfO x also exhibits excellent nonvolatile memory performances, including enough on/off ratio, improved HRS uniformity and good high temperature retention (3 × 10 4 s at 200 °C). The results of this work suggest that the PMA temperature will affect the memory window and cycling reliability of the Ti/HfO x -based resistive memory. Optimum temperature (450 °C) will improve the memory performance of the Ti/HfO x stacked layer. (paper)

  7. Dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} solar cells based on novel coumarin dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Kohjiro; Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Sayama, Kazuhiro; Sugihara, Hideki; Arakawa, Hironori [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan). Photoreaction Control Research Center; Ohga, Yasuyo; Shinpo, Akira; Suga, Sadaharu [Hayashibara Biochemical Labs., Okayama (Japan)

    2003-04-30

    We have developed dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} solar cells (DSSCs) based on novel coumarin-dye photosensitizers. The absorption spectra of these novel dyes are red-shifted remarkably in the visible region relative to the spectrum of C343, a conventional coumarin dye. Introduction of a methine unit (-CH=CH-) connecting the cyano (-CN) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups into the coumarin framework expanded the {pi}-conjugation in the dye and thus resulted in a wide absorption in the visible region. These novel dyes performed as efficient photosensitizers for DSSCs. A DSSC based on 2-cyano-5-(1,1,6,6-tetramethyl-10-oxo-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,4H,10H-11-oxa-3a-a= za-benzo[de]anthracen-9-yl)-penta-2,4-dienoic acid (NKX-2311), produced a 6.0% solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency ({eta}), the highest performance among DSSCs based on organic-dye photosensitizers, under AM 1.5 irradiation (100 mW cm{sup -2}) with a short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 14.0 mA cm{sup -2}, an open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.60 V, and a fill factor of 0.71. Our results suggests that the structure of NKX-2311 whose carboxyl group is directly connected to the -CH=CH- unit, is advantageous for effective electron injection from the dye into the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}. In addition, the cyano group, owing to its strong electron-withdrawing ability, might play an important role in electron injection in addition to a red shift in the absorption region. On a long-term stability test under continuous irradiation with white light (80 mW cm{sup -2}), stable performance was attained with a solar cell based on the NKX-2311 dye with a turnover number of 2.6x10{sup 7} per one molecule. (Author)

  8. Dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sup 2} solar cells based on novel coumarin dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Kohjiro; Tachibana, Yasuhiro; Sayama, Kazuhiro; Sugihara, Hideki; Arakawa, Hironori [Photoreaction Control Research Center (PCRC) Science and Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Ohga, Yasuyo; Shinpo, Akira; Suga, Sadaharu [Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc., 564-176 Fujita, Okayama 701-0221 (Japan)

    2003-04-30

    We have developed dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} solar cells (DSSCs) based on novel coumarin-dye photosensitizers. The absorption spectra of these novel dyes are red-shifted remarkably in the visible region relative to the spectrum of C343, a conventional coumarin dye. Introduction of a methine unit (-CH==CH-) connecting the cyano (-CN) and carboxyl (-COOH) groups into the coumarin framework expanded the {pi}-conjugation in the dye and thus resulted in a wide absorption in the visible region. These novel dyes performed as efficient photosensitizers for DSSCs. A DSSC based on 2-cyano-5-(1,1,6,6-tetramethyl-10-oxo-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-1H,4H,10H-11-oxa-3a- aza-benzo[de]anthracen-9-yl)-penta-2,4-dienoic acid (NKX-2311), produced a 6.0% solar energy-to-electricity conversion efficiency ({eta}), the highest performance among DSSCs based on organic-dye photosensitizers, under AM 1.5 irradiation (100mWcm{sup -2}) with a short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) of 14.0mAcm{sup -2}, an open-circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) of 0.60V, and a fill factor of 0.71. Our results suggests that the structure of NKX-2311 whose carboxyl group is directly connected to the -CH==CH- unit, is advantageous for effective electron injection from the dye into the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}. In addition, the cyano group, owing to its strong electron-withdrawing ability, might play an important role in electron injection in addition to a red shift in the absorption region. On a long-term stability test under continuous irradiation with white light (80mWcm{sup -2}), stable performance was attained with a solar cell based on the NKX-2311 dye with a turnover number of 2.6x10{sup 7} per one molecule.

  9. Phenomenological analysis of random telegraph noise in amorphous TiOx-based bipolar resistive switching random access memory devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Kyu; Lee, Ju-Wan; Bae, Jong-Ho; Park, Jinwon; Chung, Sung-Woong; Roh, Jae Sung; Hong, Sung-Joo; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2012-07-01

    As dimensions of resistive random access memories (RRAMs) devices continue to shrink, the low-frequency noise of nanoscale devices has become increasingly important in evaluating the device reliability. Thus, we investigated random telegraph noise (RTN) caused by capture and emission of an electron at traps. We physically analyzed capture and emission processes through systematic measurements of amorphous TiOx (alpha-TiOx)-based bipolar RRAMs. RTNs were observed during high-resistance state (HRS) in most devices. However, discrete switching behavior was scarcely observed in low-resistance state (LRS) as most of traps in the alpha-TiOx were filled with mobile ions such as O2- in LRS. The capture and emission processes of an electron at traps are largely divided into two groups: (1) both capture and emission processes are mainly affected by electric field; and (2) one of the capture and emission processes is only influenced by the thermal process. This paper provides fundamental physics required to understand the mechanism of RTNs in alpha-TiOx-based bipolar RRAMs.

  10. Preparation of aluminide coatings on the inner surface of tubes by heat treatment of Al coatings electrodeposited from an ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Dongpeng; Chen, Yimin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Ling, Guoping, E-mail: linggp@zju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Kezhao; Chen, Chang’an; Zhang, Guikai [National Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Al coating is prepared on the inner surface of one-meter tube. • Al coating shows good adherence to the substrate. • The thickness of Al coating is uniform along the tube. • Aluminide coating is obtained by heat treating Al coating. • Structure of aluminide coating is regulated by different thickness of Al coating. - Abstract: Aluminide coatings were prepared on the inner surface of 316L stainless steel tubes with size of Ø 12 mm × 1000 mm by heat-treating Al coatings electrodeposited from AlCl{sub 3}-1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (AlCl{sub 3}–EMIC) ionic liquid at room temperature. Studies on the electrolytic etching pretreatment of stainless tubes before Al coating electrodeposition were carried out. The Al coating showed good adherence to the substrate after electrolytic etching at 10 mA/cm{sup 2} for 10 min. The thickness of Al coatings was uniform along the tube. The structure of prepared aluminide coatings can be regulated by different thickness of Al coating. The outer layer of aluminide coatings was FeAl, Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and FeAl{sub 3} for the samples of 1-μm, 5-μm and 10-μm thick Al coatings, respectively.

  11. Molecular structure effect of pyridine-based surface ligand on the performance of P3HT:TiO₂ hybrid solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jhih-Fong; Tu, Guang-Yao; Ho, Chun-Chih; Chang, Chun-Yu; Yen, Wei-Che; Hsu, Sheng-Hao; Chen, Yang-Fang; Su, Wei-Fang

    2013-02-01

    Colloid TiO(2) nanorods are used for solution-processable poly(3-hexyl thiophene): TiO(2) hybrid solar cell. The nanorods were covered by insulating ligand of oleic acid (OA) after sol-gel synthesis. Three more conducting pyridine type ligands: pyridine, 2,6-lutidine (Lut) and 4-tert-butylpyridine (tBP) were investigated respectively to replace OA. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the solar cell was increased because the electronic mobility of pyridine-type ligand-modified TiO(2) is higher than that of TiO(2)-OA. The enhancement of PCE is in the descending order of Lut > pyridine > tBP because of the effective replacement of OA by Lut. The PCE of solar cell can be further enhanced by ligand exchange of pyridine type ligand with conjugating molecule of 2-cyano-3-(5-(7-(thiophen-2-yl)-benzothiadiazol-4-yl) thiophen-2-yl) acrylic acid (W4) on TiO(2) nanorods because W4 has aligned bandgap with P3HT and TiO(2) to facilitate charge separation and transport. The electronic mobility of two-stage ligand exchanged TiO(2) is improved furthermore except Lut, because it adheres well and difficult to be replaced by W4. The amount of W4 on TiO(2)-tBP is 3 times more than that of TiO(2)-Lut (0.20 mol % vs. 0.06 mol %). Thus, the increased extent of PCE of solar cell is in the decreasing order of tBP > pyridine > Lut. The TiO(2)-tBP-W4 device has the best performance with 1.4 and 2.6 times more than TiO(2)-pyridine-W4 and TiO(2)-Lut-W4 devices, respectively. The pKa of the pyridine derivatives plays the major role to determine the ease of ligand exchange on TiO(2) which is the key factor mandating the PCE of P3HT:TiO(2) hybrid solar cell. The results of this study provide new insights of the significance of acid-base reaction on the TiO(2) surface for TiO(2)-based solar cells. The obtained knowledge can be extended to other hybrid solar cell systems.

  12. Hydrazine-based synergistic Ti(III)/N doping of surfactant-templated TiO{sub 2} thin films for enhanced visible light photocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Islam, Syed Z.; Rankin, Stephen E., E-mail: srankin@engr.uky.edu

    2016-10-01

    This study reports the preparation of titanium (Ti{sup 3+}) and nitrogen co-doped cubic ordered mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films using N{sub 2}H{sub 4} treatment. The resulting co-doped TiO{sub 2} (Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2}) thin films show significant enhancements in visible light absorption and photocatalytic activity. Cubic ordered mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films were prepared via a sol-gel method with Pluronic F127 as the pore template. After brief calcination, the TiO{sub 2} films were dipped into hydrazine hydrate which acts both as a nitrogen source and as a reducing agent, followed by heating at low temperature (90 °C). The hydrazine treatment period was varied from 5 to 20 h to obtain different degrees of reduction and nitrogen doping. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses and UV–vis absorbance spectra of Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2} films indicate that the incorporated N atoms and Ti{sup 3+} reduce the band gap of TiO{sub 2} and thus enhance the absorption of visible light. The corresponding visible light photocatalytic activity of Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2} films was determined from the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under visible light illumination (at 455 nm). The Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2} films prepared with 10 h of treatment show the optimum photocatalytic activity, with a pseudo-first order rate coefficient of 0.12 h{sup −1}, which is 3 times greater than that of undoped TiO{sub 2} films. Calcination temperature and time were varied prior to hydrazine treatment to confirm that a brief calcination at low temperature (10 min at 350 °C) gave the best photochemical activity. In photoelectrochemical water oxidation using a 455 nm LED, the Ti{sup 3+}-N-TiO{sub 2} films prepared with 10 h of N{sub 2}H{sub 4} treatment show about 4 times the photocurrent compared to undoped TiO{sub 2} films. The present study suggests that hydrazine induced doping is a promising approach to enable synergistic incorporation of N and Ti{sup 3+} into the

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Sol-Gel Derived TiO2 Coatings Based on a Variety of Precursors and Synthesis Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Marycz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of synthesis way of TiO2 coatings on biocompatibility of transplanted materials using an in vitro and in vivo rat model was investigated. TiO2 layers were synthesized by a nonaqueous sol-gel dip-coating method on stainless steel 316L substrates applying two different precursors and their combination. Morphology and topography of newly formed biomaterials were determined as well as chemical composition and elemental distribution of a surface samples. In vitro tests were conducted by adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured on TiO2 coatings and stainless steel without coatings to assess the bioreactivity of obtained materials. A positive biological effect of TiO2/316L/1 coatings—based on titanium(IV ethoxide—was found in both in vitro and in vivo models. The TiO2/316L/1 exhibited the highest roughness and the lowest titanium concentration in TiO2 than TiO2/316L/2—based on titanium(IV propoxide and TiO2/316L/3—based on both above-mentioned precursors. The proper fibroblast-like morphology and higher proliferation rate of cells cultured on TiO2/316L/1 were observed when compared to the other biomaterials. No inflammatory response in the bone surrounding implant covered by each of the obtained TiO2 was present. Our results showed that improvement of routinely used stainless steel 316L with TiO2/316L/1 layer can stimulate beneficial biological response.

  14. Structure, thermal and mechanical properties of in situ Al-based metal matrix composite reinforced with Al2O3 and TiC submicron particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Peng; Mei Zhi; Tjong, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    We report herein the structure and characterization of in situ Al-based metal matrix composites (MMCs) prepared from the Al-10 wt.% TiO 2 and Al-10 wt.% TiO 2 -1.5 wt.% C systems via hot isostatic pressing (HIP) at 1000 deg C and 100 MPa. The structure, morphology and thermal behavior of HIPed samples were studied by means of the X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that fined Al 2 O 3 particles and large intermetallic Al 3 Ti plates were in situ formed in the Al-10 wt.% TiO 2 sample during HIPing. However, the introduction of C to the Al-TiO 2 system was beneficial to eliminate large intermetallic Al 3 Ti plates. In this case, Al 2 O 3 and TiC submicron particles were in situ formed in the Al-10 wt.% TiO 2 -1.5 wt.% C sample. Three-point-bending test showed that the strength and the strain-at-break of the HIPed Al-10 wt.% TiO 2 -1.5 wt.% C sample were significantly higher than those of its Al-10 wt.% TiO 2 counterpart. The improvement was derived from the elimination of bulk Al 3 Ti intermetallic plates and from the formation of TiC submicron particles. DSC measurements and thermodynamic analyses were carried out to reveal the reaction formation mechanisms of in situ reinforcing phases. The DSC results generally correlated well with the theoretical predictions. Finally, the correlation between the structure-property relationships of in situ composites is discussed

  15. Adsorption and photocatalysis for methyl orange and Cd removal from wastewater using TiO2/sewage sludge-based activated carbon nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, M. Nageeb; Eltaher, M. A.; Abdou, A. N. A.

    2017-12-01

    Nanocomposite TiO2/ASS (TiO2 nanoparticle coated sewage sludge-based activated carbon) was synthesized by the sol-gel method. The changes in surface properties of the TiO2/ASS nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence. The prepared TiO2/ASS nanocomposite was applied for simultaneous removal of methyl orange dye (MO) and Cd2+ from bi-pollutant solution. The factors influencing photocatalysis (TiO2 : ASS ratios, initial pollutant concentrations, solution pH, nanocomposite dosage and UV irradiation time) were investigated. The results revealed that high removal efficiency of methyl orange dye (MO) and Cd2+ from bi-pollutant solution was achieved with TiO2/ASS at a ratio (1 : 2). The obtained results revealed that degradation of MO dye on the TiO2/ASS nanocomposite was facilitated by surface adsorption and photocatalytic processes. The coupled photocatalysis and adsorption shown by TiO2/ASS nanocomposite resulted in faster and higher degradation of MO as compared to MO removal by ASS adsorbent. The removal efficiency of MO by ASS adsorbent and TiO2/ASS (1 : 2) nanocomposite at optimum pH value 7 were 74.14 and 94.28%, respectively, while for Cd2+ it was more than 90%. The experimental results fitted well with the second-order kinetic reaction.

  16. Effect of surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles on thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of long oil alkyd resin-based coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. S. Radoman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel soy alkyd-based nanocomposites (NCs were prepared using TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs surface modified with different gallates, and for the first time with imine obtained from 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and oleylamine (DHBAOA. Unmodified and surface modified anatase TiO2 NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis spectroscopy, while the amount of adsorbed ligands was calculated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA results. Surface modification of TiO2 NPs was confirmed by FTIR and UV-Vis spectra. The influence of the TiO2 surface modification on the dispersion of TiO2 NPs in alkyd resin, thermal, barrier and mechanical properties and chemical resistance of alkyd resin/TiO2 NC coatings was investigated. The obtained results revealed that glass transition temperature of all investigated NCs is lower than for pure resin, that the presence of TiO2 NPs surface modified with gallates had no significant influence on the thermooxidative stability of alkyd resin, while TiO2-DHBAOA NPs slightly improved alkyd resin thermooxidative stability. Also, the presence of surface modified TiO2 NPs improved barrier properties, increased stress and strain at break and hardness and chemical resistance and decreased modulus of elasticity and abrasion resistance of alkyd resin.

  17. Electrospun cerium-based TiO2 nanofibers for photocatalytic oxidation of elemental mercury in coal combustion flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu; Zhao, Yongchun; Zhang, Junying

    2017-10-01

    Photocatalytic oxidation is an attractive method for Hg-rich flue gas treatment. In the present study, a novel cerium-based TiO 2 nanofibers was prepared and selected as the catalyst to remove mercury in flue gas. Accordingly, physical/chemical properties of those nanofibers were clarified. The effects of some important parameters, such as calcination temperature, cerium dopant content and different illumination conditions on the removal of Hg 0 using the photocatalysis process were investigated. In addition, the removal mechanism of Hg 0 over cerium-based TiO 2 nanofibers focused on UV irradiation was proposed. The results show that catalyst which was calcined at 400 °C exhibited better performance. The addition of 0.3 wt% Ce into TiO 2 led to the highest removal efficiency at 91% under UV irradiation. As-prepared samples showed promising stability for long-term use in the test. However, the photoluminescence intensity of nanofibers incorporating ceria was significantly lower than TiO 2 , which was attributed to better photoelectron-hole separation. Although UV and O 2 are essential factors, the enhancement of Hg 0 removal is more obviously related to the participation of catalyst. The coexistence of Ce 3+ and Ce 4+ , which leads to the efficient oxidation of Hg 0 , was detected on samples. Hg 2+ is the final product in the reaction of Hg 0 removal. As a consequence, the emissions of Hg 0 from flue gas can be significantly suppressed. These indicate that combining photocatalysis technology with cerium-based TiO 2 nanofibers is a promising strategy for reducing Hg 0 efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of non-thermal TiCl{sub 4}/Ar + O{sub 2} plasma-assisted TiOx based coatings on the surface of polypropylene (PP) films for the tailoring of surface properties and cytocompatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyaraj, K.N., E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Kumar, A. Arun; Ramkumar, M.C. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L& T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Sachdev, A.; Gopinath, P. [Nanobiotechnology Laboratory, Centre for Nanotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Cools, Pieter; De Geyter, N.; Morent, R. [Research Unit Plasma Technology (RUPT), Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Ghent University, Jozef Plateaustraat 22, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Hegde, P. [William Mason High School, Mason 45040 (United States); Han, C. [Department of Biomedical, Chemical and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Nadagouda, M.N. [Center for Nanoscale Multifunctional Materials, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The superior bulk properties (corrosion resistance, high strength to weight ratio, relatively low cost and easy processing) of hydrocarbon based polymers such as polypropylene (PP) have contributed significantly to the development of new biomedical applications such as artificial organs and cell scaffolds. However, low cell affinity is one of the main draw backs for PP due to its poor surface properties. In tissue engineering, physico-chemical surface properties such as hydrophilicity, polar functional groups, surface charge and morphology play a crucial role to enrich the cell proliferation and adhesion. In this present investigation TiOx based biocompatible coatings were developed on the surface of PP films via DC excited glow discharge plasma, using TiCl{sub 4}/Ar + O{sub 2} gas mixture as a precursor. Various TiOx-based coatings are deposited on the surface of PP films as a function of discharge power. The changes in hydrophilicity of the TiO{sub x}/PP film surfaces were studied using contact angle analysis and surface energy calculations by Fowke's approximation. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the surface chemical composition of TiOx/PP films. The surface morphology of the obtained TiO{sub x}/PP films was investigated by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy (SEM &TEM). Moreover, the surface topography of the material was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The cytocompatibility of the TiO{sub x}/PP films was investigated via in vitro analysis (cell viability, adhesion and cytotoxicity) using NIH3T3 (mouse embryonic fibroblast) cells. Furthermore the antibacterial activities of TiO{sub x}/PP films were also evaluated against two distinct bacterial models namely Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus) and Gram negative Escherichia coli DH5α. (E.coli) bacteria. XPS results clearly indicate the successful incorporation of TiO{sub x} and oxygen containing polar functional groups on the surface

  19. Mechanical Properties of a Newly Additive Manufactured Implant Material Based on Ti-42Nb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schulze

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of Ti-6Al-4V alloy or commercially pure titanium for additive manufacturing enables the fabrication of complex structural implants and patient-specific implant geometries. However, the difference in Young’s modulus of α + β-phase Ti alloys compared to the human bone promotes stress-shielding effects in the implant–bone interphase. The aim of the present study is the mechanical characterization of a new pre-alloyed β-phase Ti-42Nb alloy for application in additive manufacturing. The present investigation focuses on the mechanical properties of SLM-printed Ti-42Nb alloy in tensile and compression tests. In addition, the raw Ti-42Nb powder, the microstructure of the specimens prior to and after compression tests, as well as the fracture occurring in tensile tests are characterized by means of the SEM/EDX analysis. The Ti-42Nb raw powder exhibits a dendrite-like Ti-structure, which is melted layer-by-layer into a microstructure with a very homogeneous distribution of Nb and Ti during the SLM process. Tensile tests display Young’s modulus of 60.51 ± 3.92 GPa and an ultimate tensile strength of 683.17 ± 16.67 MPa, whereas, under a compressive load, a compressive strength of 1330.74 ± 53.45 MPa is observed. The combination of high mechanical strength and low elastic modulus makes Ti-42Nb an interesting material for orthopedic and dental implants. The spherical shape of the pre-alloyed material additionally allows for application in metal 3D printing, enabling the fabrication of patient-specific structural implants.

  20. Mechanical Properties of a Newly Additive Manufactured Implant Material Based on Ti-42Nb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Christian; Weinmann, Markus; Schweigel, Christoph; Keßler, Olaf; Bader, Rainer

    2018-01-13

    The application of Ti-6Al-4V alloy or commercially pure titanium for additive manufacturing enables the fabrication of complex structural implants and patient-specific implant geometries. However, the difference in Young's modulus of α + β-phase Ti alloys compared to the human bone promotes stress-shielding effects in the implant-bone interphase. The aim of the present study is the mechanical characterization of a new pre-alloyed β-phase Ti-42Nb alloy for application in additive manufacturing. The present investigation focuses on the mechanical properties of SLM-printed Ti-42Nb alloy in tensile and compression tests. In addition, the raw Ti-42Nb powder, the microstructure of the specimens prior to and after compression tests, as well as the fracture occurring in tensile tests are characterized by means of the SEM/EDX analysis. The Ti-42Nb raw powder exhibits a dendrite-like Ti-structure, which is melted layer-by-layer into a microstructure with a very homogeneous distribution of Nb and Ti during the SLM process. Tensile tests display Young's modulus of 60.51 ± 3.92 GPa and an ultimate tensile strength of 683.17 ± 16.67 MPa, whereas, under a compressive load, a compressive strength of 1330.74 ± 53.45 MPa is observed. The combination of high mechanical strength and low elastic modulus makes Ti-42Nb an interesting material for orthopedic and dental implants. The spherical shape of the pre-alloyed material additionally allows for application in metal 3D printing, enabling the fabrication of patient-specific structural implants.

  1. Production of Al-Ti-B grain refining master alloys from Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} and K{sub 2}TiF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birol, Yuecel [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey)], E-mail: yucel.birol@mam.gov.tr

    2008-06-30

    It is very desirable to replace the KBF{sub 4} salt in the popular 'halide salt' process to reduce the volume of fluoride salts to be added to molten aluminium in the production of Al-Ti-B grain refiners. Being over 2 times richer in B, Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7} is a promising replacement for KBF{sub 4}, and is used in the present work to produce Al-Ti-B grain refiner master alloys. A fraction of the aluminide particles were entrapped in the spent salt giving a relatively lower Ti recovery when KBF{sub 4} was replaced by Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}. The grain refining performance of the Al-Ti-B grain refiner alloy thus produced was nevertheless acceptable. The spent salt became too viscous with the oxides, aluminides and borides to be removed by decanting when Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}.5H{sub 2}O was used to supply boron. The viscous spent salt, entrained in the grain refiner alloy, did not only impair its performance, but also hurt the fluidity of the molten alloy and made pouring difficult.

  2. Preparation of MoS2/TiO2based nanocomposites for photocatalysis and rechargeable batteries: progress, challenges, and perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Biao; Meng, Yuhuan; Sha, Junwei; Zhong, Cheng; Hu, Wenbin; Zhao, Naiqin

    2017-12-21

    The rapidly increasing severity of the energy crisis and environmental degradation are stimulating the rapid development of photocatalysts and rechargeable lithium/sodium ion batteries. In particular, MoS 2 /TiO 2 based nanocomposites show great potential and have been widely studied in the areas of both photocatalysis and rechargeable lithium/sodium ion batteries due to their superior combination properties. In addition to the low-cost, abundance, and high chemical stability of both MoS 2 and TiO 2 , MoS 2 /TiO 2 composites also show complementary advantages. These include the strong optical absorption of TiO 2 vs. the high catalytic activity of MoS 2 , which is promising for photocatalysis; and excellent safety and superior structural stability of TiO 2 vs. the high theoretic specific capacity and unique layered structure of MoS 2 , thus, these composites are exciting as anode materials. In this review, we first summarize the recent progress in MoS 2 /TiO 2 -based nanomaterials for applications in photocatalysis and rechargeable batteries. We highlight the synthesis, structure and mechanism of MoS 2 /TiO 2 -based nanomaterials. Then, advancements and strategies for improving the performance of these composites in photocatalytic degradation, hydrogen evolution, CO 2 reduction, LIBs and SIBs are critically discussed. Finally, perspectives on existing challenges and probable opportunities for future exploration of MoS 2 /TiO 2 -based composites towards photocatalysis and rechargeable batteries are presented. We believe the present review would provide enriched information for a deeper understanding of MoS 2 /TiO 2 composites and open avenues for the rational design of MoS 2 /TiO 2 based composites for energy and environment-related applications.

  3. TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Geopolymers for Nitric Oxide Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Strini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an experimental overview for the development of photocatalytic materials based on geopolymer binders as catalyst support matrices. Particularly, geopolymer matrices obtained from different solid precursors (fly ash and metakaolin, composite systems (siloxane-hybrid, foamed hybrid, and curing temperatures (room temperature and 60 °C were investigated for the same photocatalyst content (i.e., 3% TiO2 by weight of paste. The geopolymer matrices were previously designed for different applications, ranging from insulating (foam to structural materials. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated as NO degradation in air, and the results were compared with an ordinary Portland cement reference. The studied matrices demonstrated highly variable photocatalytic performance depending on both matrix constituents and the curing temperature, with promising activity revealed by the geopolymers based on fly ash and metakaolin. Furthermore, microstructural features and titania dispersion in the matrices were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS analyses. Particularly, EDS analyses of sample sections indicated segregation effects of titania in the surface layer, with consequent enhancement or depletion of the catalyst concentration in the active sample region, suggesting non-negligible transport phenomena during the curing process. The described results demonstrated that geopolymer binders can be interesting catalyst support matrices for the development of photocatalytic materials and indicated a large potential for the exploitation of their peculiar features.

  4. TiO2-Based Photocatalytic Geopolymers for Nitric Oxide Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strini, Alberto; Roviello, Giuseppina; Ricciotti, Laura; Ferone, Claudio; Messina, Francesco; Schiavi, Luca; Corsaro, Davide; Cioffi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an experimental overview for the development of photocatalytic materials based on geopolymer binders as catalyst support matrices. Particularly, geopolymer matrices obtained from different solid precursors (fly ash and metakaolin), composite systems (siloxane-hybrid, foamed hybrid), and curing temperatures (room temperature and 60 °C) were investigated for the same photocatalyst content (i.e., 3% TiO2 by weight of paste). The geopolymer matrices were previously designed for different applications, ranging from insulating (foam) to structural materials. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated as NO degradation in air, and the results were compared with an ordinary Portland cement reference. The studied matrices demonstrated highly variable photocatalytic performance depending on both matrix constituents and the curing temperature, with promising activity revealed by the geopolymers based on fly ash and metakaolin. Furthermore, microstructural features and titania dispersion in the matrices were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDS) analyses. Particularly, EDS analyses of sample sections indicated segregation effects of titania in the surface layer, with consequent enhancement or depletion of the catalyst concentration in the active sample region, suggesting non-negligible transport phenomena during the curing process. The described results demonstrated that geopolymer binders can be interesting catalyst support matrices for the development of photocatalytic materials and indicated a large potential for the exploitation of their peculiar features. PMID:28773634

  5. New Cu-Free Ti-Based Composites with Residual Amorphous Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Nicoara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Titanium-based bulk metallic glasses (BMGs are considered to have potential for biomedical applications because they combine favorable mechanical properties and good biocompatibility. Copper represents the most common alloying element, which provides high amorphization capacity, but reports emphasizing cytotoxic effects of this element have risen concerns about possible effects on human health. A new copper-free alloy with atomic composition Ti42Zr10Pd14Ag26Sn8, in which Cu is completely replaced by Ag, was formulated based on Morinaga’s d-electron alloy design theory. Following this theory, the actual amount of alloying elements, which defines the values of covalent bond strength Bo and d-orbital energy Md, situates the newly designed alloy inside the BMG domain. By mean of centrifugal casting, cylindrical rods with diameters between 2 and 5 mm were fabricated from this new alloy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and X-rays diffraction (XRD, as well as microstructural analyses using optical and scanning electron microscopy (OM/SEM revealed an interesting structure characterized by liquid phase-separated formation of crystalline Ag, as well as metastable intermetallic phases embedded in residual amorphous phases.

  6. Preparation of nano-TiO2/diatomite-based porous ceramics and their photocatalytic kinetics for formaldehyde degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ru-qin; Sun, Qian; Fang, Zhi; Li, Guo-ting; Jia, Meng-zhe; Hou, Xin-mei

    2018-01-01

    Diatomite-based porous ceramics were adopted as carriers to immobilize nano-TiO2 via a hydrolysis-deposition technique. The thermal degradation of as-prepared composites was investigated using thermogravimetric-differential thermal analysis, and the phase and microstructure were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that the carriers were encapsulated by nano-TiO2 with a thickness of 300-450 nm. The main crystalline phase of TiO2 calcined at 650°C was anatase, and the average grain size was 8.3 nm. The FT-IR absorption bands at 955.38 cm-1 suggested that new chemical bonds among Ti, O, and Si had formed in the composites. The photocatalytic (PC) activity of the composites was investigated under UV irradiation. Furthermore, the photodegradation kinetics of formaldehyde was investigated using the composites as the cores of an air cleaner. A kinetics study showed that the reaction rate constants of the gas-phase PC reaction of formaldehyde were κ = 0.576 mg·m-3·min-1 and K = 0.048 m3/mg.

  7. (V,Nb)-doped half Heusler alloys based on {Ti,Zr,Hf}NiSn with high ZT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogl, G.; Sauerschnig, P.; Rykavets, Z.; Romaka, V.V.; Heinrich, P.; Hinterleitner, B.; Grytsiv, A.; Bauer, E.; Rogl, P.

    2017-01-01

    Half Heusler alloys are among the most promising materials for thermoelectric generators as they can be used in a wide temperature range and their starting materials are abundant and cheap, the latter as long as no hafnium is involved. For Sb-doped Ti 0.5 Zr 0.25 Hf 0.25 NiSn Sakurada and Shutoh in 2008 have published ZT max  = 1.5 at 690 K, a value that hitherto was never reproduced independently. In this paper we successfully prepared Ti 0.5 Zr 0.25 Hf 0.25 NiSn with ZT max  = 1.5, however, at higher temperature (825 K). As the main goal is to produce hafnium – free half Heusler alloys, we investigated the influence of niobium or vanadium dopants on Ti x Zr 1−x NiSn 0.98 Sb 0.02 , reaching ZTs > 1.2 and thermal-electric conversion efficiencies up to 13.1%. For Hf-free n-type TiNiSn-based half Heusler alloys these values are unsurpassed. In order to further improve our thermoelectric materials our study is completed by electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity data in the low temperature range but also by mechanical properties (elastic moduli, hardness) at room temperature. The electrical properties have been discussed in comparison with DFT calculations.

  8. A Low Noise NbTiN-Based 850 GHz SIS Receiver for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, J. W.; Kawamura, J.; Chen, J.; Chattopadhyay, G.; Pardo, J. R.; Zmuidzinas, J.; Phillips, T. G.; Bumble, B.; Stern, J.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN) based superconductor- insulator-superconductor (SIS) receiver to cover the 350 micron atmospheric window. This frequency band lies entirely above the energy gap of niobium (700 GHz), a commonly used SIS superconductor. The instrument uses an open structure twin-slot SIS mixer that consists of two Nb/AlN/NbTiN tunnel junctions, NbTiN thin-film microstrip tuning elements, and a NbTiN ground plane. The optical configuration is very similar to the 850 GHz waveguide receiver that was installed at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in 1997. To minimize front-end loss, we employed reflecting optics and a cooled beamsplitter at 4 K. The instrument has an uncorrected receiver noise temperature of 205K DSB at 800 GHz and 410K DSB at 900 GHz. The degradation in receiver sensitivity with frequency is primarily due to an increase in the mixer conversion loss, which is attributed to the mismatch between the SIS junction and the twin-slot antenna impedance. The overall system performance has been confirmed through its use at the telescope to detect a wealth of new spectroscopic lines.

  9. Interaction of New-Developed TiO₂-Based Photocatalytic Nanoparticles with Pathogenic Microorganisms and Human Dermal and Pulmonary Fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nica, Ionela Cristina; Stan, Miruna Silvia; Popa, Marcela; Chifiriuc, Mariana Carmen; Lazar, Veronica; Pircalabioru, Gratiela G; Dumitrescu, Iuliana; Ignat, Madalina; Feder, Marcel; Tanase, Liviu Cristian; Mercioniu, Ionel; Diamandescu, Lucian; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2017-01-25

    TiO₂-based photocatalysts were obtained during previous years in order to limit pollution and to ease human daily living conditions due to their special properties. However, obtaining biocompatible photocatalysts is still a key problem, and the mechanism of their toxicity recently received increased attention. Two types of TiO₂ nanoparticles co-doped with 1% of iron and nitrogen (TiO₂-1% Fe-N) atoms were synthesized in hydrothermal conditions at pH of 8.5 (HT1) and 5.5 (HT2), and their antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects exerted on human pulmonary and dermal fibroblasts were assessed. These particles exhibited significant microbicidal and anti-biofilm activity, suggesting their potential application for microbial decontamination of different environments. In addition, our results demonstrated the biocompatibility of TiO₂-1% Fe-N nanoparticles at low doses on lung and dermal cells, which may initiate oxidative stress through dose accumulation. Although no significant changes were observed between the two tested photocatalysts, the biological response was cell type specific and time- and dose-dependent; the lung cells proved to be more sensitive to nanoparticle exposure. Taken together, these experimental data provide useful information for future photocatalytic applications in the industrial, food, pharmaceutical, and medical fields.

  10. Characteristic and biocompatibility of the TiO2-based coatings containing amorphous calcium phosphate before and after heat treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Daqing; Zhou Yu

    2009-01-01

    TiO 2 -based coating containing amorphous calcium phosphate (CaP) was prepared on titanium alloy by microarc oxidation (MAO). The increase in the EDTA-2Na concentration was unfavorable for the crystallization of TiO 2 . After heat treatment, the amorphous CaP was crystallized. The thickness of the MAO coatings did not change when heat-treated at 400, 600 and 700 deg. C; while it increased slightly after heat treatment at 800 deg. C due to the crystallization of amorphous CaP and growth of TiO 2 . No apparent discontinuity between the coatings and substrates was observed at various heat-treatment temperatures, indicating the MAO coatings with good interfacial bonding to the substrate. The heat treatment did not alter the chemical composition of the MAO coating and the chemical states of Ti, Ca and P elements. However, it increased the roughness (Ra) of the MAO coating and improved the wetting ability of the MAO coating. In this work, preliminary investigation of the MG63 cell proliferation on the surface of the MAO and heat-treated MAO coatings was conducted. The MAO coating surface with about Ra = 220 nm may be suitable for the MG63 cell adhesion and proliferation. The increased roughness of the heat-treated MAO coatings may result in a decrease in the ability for cell adhesion and proliferation.

  11. Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on Bi4Ti3O12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth titanate (Bi4Ti3O12 particles were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment and nanoporous thin films were prepared on conducting glass substrates. The structures and morphologies of the samples were examined with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Significant absorbance spectra emerged in visible region which indicated the efficient sensitization of Bi4Ti3O12 with N3 dye. Surface photovoltaic properties of the samples were investigated by surface photovoltage. The results further indicate that N3 can extend the photovoltaic response range of Bi4Ti3O12 nanoparticles to the visible region, which shows potential application in dye-sensitized solar cell. As a working electrode in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs, the overall efficiency reached 0.48% after TiO2 modification.

  12. Biomimetic Approach to Solar Cells Based on TiO2 Nanotubes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allen, Jan L; Lee, Ivan C; Wolfenstine, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this research was to explore the use of nanotube titanium dioxide (TiO2) as an electrode material in dye-sensitized solar cells in order to further the development of solar cell technology...

  13. Mass-sensitive TiO2-based acoustic sensor element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Spassov, D; Donkov, N; Jordanova, I; Grechnikov, A

    2010-01-01

    The sorption properties with respect to gaseous NH 3 of e-beam evaporated TiO 2 layers were investigated by a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) allowing the detection of nanograms of sorbed mass. The TiO 2 (249 nm thick) layers were deposited on 16 MHz resonators. The as-deposited TiO 2 layers were characterized by ellipsometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The measurements of the QCM-TiO 2 system's sorption properties were carried out on a laboratory setup allowing operation in dynamic and static modes under strict control of the process parameters which were recorded and processed automatically by an electronic measuring system. The sorption properties of TiO 2 were determined using the frequency shift (ΔF) of the QCM in NH 3 with concentrations ranging from 10 ppm to 1000 ppm. The time of sorption and de-sorption were defined; the maximal QCM frequency shifts for each NH 3 concentrations were measured and the sorbed masses were calculated. It was determined that ΔF increases from 8 Hz at 10 ppm to 216 Hz at 1000 ppm, which corresponds to sorbed masses of 2.78 ng and 75.19 ng, respectively. The results show that the QCM-TiO 2 system could very successfully be used as a sensor element for NH 3 detection in the range 10 - 1000 ppm.

  14. Hot-working behavior of an advanced intermetallic multi-phase γ-TiAl based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaighofer, Emanuel; Clemens, Helmut; Lindemann, Janny; Stark, Andreas; Mayer, Svea

    2014-01-01

    New high-performance engine concepts for aerospace and automotive application enforce the development of lightweight intermetallic γ-TiAl based alloys with increased high-temperature capability above 750 °C. Besides an increased creep resistance, the alloy system must exhibit sufficient hot-workability. However, the majority of current high-creep resistant γ-TiAl based alloys suffer from poor workability, whereby grain refinement and microstructure control during hot-working are key factors to ensure a final microstructure with sufficient ductility and tolerance against brittle failure below the brittle-to-ductile transition temperature. Therefore, a new and advanced β-solidifying γ-TiAl based alloy, a so-called TNM alloy with a composition of Ti–43Al–4Nb–1Mo–0.1B (at%) and minor additions of C and Si, is investigated by means of uniaxial compressive hot-deformation tests performed with a Gleeble 3500 simulator within a temperature range of 1150–1300 °C and a strain rate regime of 0.005–0.5 s −1 up to a true deformation of 0.9. The occurring mechanisms during hot-working were decoded by ensuing constitutive modeling of the flow curves by a novel phase field region-specific surface fitting approach via a hyperbolic-sine law as well as by evaluation through processing maps combined with microstructural post-analysis to determine a safe hot-working window of the refined TNM alloy. Complementary, in situ high energy X-ray diffraction experiments in combination with an adapted quenching and deformation dilatometer were conducted for a deeper insight about the deformation behavior of the alloy, i.e. phase fractions and texture evolution as well as temperature uncertainties arising during isothermal and non-isothermal compression. It was found that the presence of β-phase and the contribution of particle stimulated nucleation of ζ-Ti 5 Si 3 silicides and h-type carbides Ti 2 AlC enhance the dynamic recrystallization behavior during deformation within

  15. Biofouling Prevention of Ancient Brick Surfaces by TiO2-Based Nano-Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Graziani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Brick constitutes a significant part of the construction materials used in historic buildings around the world. This material was used in Architectural Heritage for structural scope, and even for building envelopes. Thus, components made of clay brick were subjected to weathering for a long time, and this causes their deterioration. One of the most important causes for deterioration is biodeterioration caused by algae and cyanobacteria. It compromises the aesthetical properties, and, at a later stage, the integrity of the elements. In fact, traditional products used for the remediation/prevention of biofouling do not ensure long-term protection, and they need re-application over time. The use of nanotechnology, especially the use of photocatalytic products for the prevention of organic contamination of building façades is increasing. In this study, TiO2-based photocatalytic nano-coatings were applied to ancient brick, and its efficiency towards biofouling was studied. A composed suspension of algae and cyanobacteria was sprinkled on the bricks’ surface for a duration of twelve weeks. Digital Image Analysis and colorimetric measurements were carried out to evaluate algal growth on specimens’ surfaces. Results show that photocatalytic nano-coating was able to inhibit biofouling on bricks’ surfaces. In addition, substrata (their porosity and roughness clearly influences the adhesion of algal cells.

  16. Solute partitioning and interfacial segregation in TiAl-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.J.; Miller, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    Atom probe microscopy has been used to investigate elemental partitioning and segregation behavior in a TiAl-based alloy with a variety of alloying additions including Cr, Nb, W and B. These results indicate that in a stress-relieved state (2h at 900 C) and a reheated state (2h at 900 C, 2,184h at 800 C and 2h at 1,210 C) chromium, and to a lesser extent tungsten, is partitioned to the α 2 phase. However, in an annealed state (2h at 900 C and 720 h at 800 C), these elements are partitioned to the γ phase. Segregation of chromium and tungsten to lamellar interfaces is observed in the stress-relieved material, but significant segregation was not observed in material subjected to the other heat treatments. A W- and B-enriched precipitate was observed in the reheated material and provides a possible explanation for the low tungsten concentrations measured in the matrix phases

  17. Environmental dosimetry system based on LiF : Mg, Ti (TLD-100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez Vergara, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents the various tests carried out to the characterize a thermoluminescence environmental dosimetry systems, using the phosphor LiF:mg,Ti (TLD-100) in chip form. The holder has been specifically designed in order to obtain simplicity in the operation and to assure correct measurements in terms of the new operational quantities in radiation protection (ICRU-1985). Some topics in TLD Environmental Monitoring are discussed (Dark Current, Reference Light, Zero Reading, Free-in-Air or Phantom Calibration, Fading Correction, Transit Dose, etc.), and the proposed solutions are exposed. The tests performed have been designed to conform with the different existing international Standards and Recommendations (ANSI : N545-1975; IEC: Draft 45B-1987, ISO : DP 8034-19849. The data from an European Interlaboratory Programm (EUR-8932) have been used to evaluate the performance : the TLD System presented is among the best systems using TLD-100. The results obtained in the characterization (linearity, repeatability, detection threshold, residue, angular response, stability of stored information, etc.) show the optimum performance of this dosimetric system in its application to environmental gamma dose monitoring. Based on these results, two operational procedures have been developed for the application of this Dosimetric System, specially in Quality Assurance Monitoring Programs around Nuclear Plants in Spain. (author)

  18. Microcracking and macroscopic failure in intermetallic titanium aluminides; Mikrorissbildung und makroskopisches Versagen in intermetallischen Titanaluminiden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesand-Valk, B. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    2000-07-01

    This paper deals with the correlations between microstructural disorder, that means statistical distribution of phases and local material properties, and macroscopic failure of disordered multiphase materials. On a microscopic level the microstructural disorder leads to randomly distributed local damage before failure (in brittle materials to microcracks) and eventually to localisation of damage. On a macroscopic level the value and scatter of fracture strength and its dependence on specimen size are essentially determined by the microstructural disorder. The failure behaviour is treated by using the discrete chain-of-bundles-model, which treats the details of the microstructure not explicitly but as locally distributed fluctuations of characteristical material parameters. The model has been verified by comparing with experimental results for four intermetallic titanium aluminides and its validity has been demonstrated. (orig.) [German] Die Arbeit behandelt die Zusammenhaenge zwischen der Stochastizitaet des Gefueges, das heisst, einer statistischen Verteilung von Phasen und lokalen Materialeigenschaften und dem makroskopischen Versagen von ungeordneten mehrphasigen Werkstoffen. Auf mikroskopischer Ebene fuehrt die Stochastizitaet des Gefueges vor dem Versagen zu lokalen Schaedigungen (in sproeden Werkstoffen zu Mikrorissen) und schliesslich (abhaengig vom Grad der Unordnung) zur Lokalisierung des Bruchgeschehens. Makroskopisch werden die Groesse und Streuung von Bruchfestigkeitswerten und ihre Probengroessenabhaengigkeit durch die mikrostrukturelle Unordnung wesentlich bestimmt. Dieses Versagensverhalten wird in dem diskreten Chain-of-Bundles-Modell beschrieben, das die Details der Mikrostruktur nicht explizit sondern als lokale statistische Schwankungen von charakteristischen Werkstoffparametern erfasst. Am Beispiel von vier ausgewaehlten Titan-Aluminiden wird das Modell validiert und verifiziert. (orig.)

  19. The effect of mechano-chemical treatment on structural properties of the drawn TiNi-based alloy wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikeev, Sergey; Hodorenko, Valentina; Gunther, Victor; Chekalkin, Timofey; Kang, Ji-hoon; Kang, Seung-baik

    2018-01-01

    The rapid development of biomedical materials with the advanced functional characteristics is a challenging task because of the growing demands for better material properties in-clinically employed. Modern medical devices that can be implanted into humans have evolved steadily by replacing TiNi-based alloys for titanium and stainless steel. In this study, the effect of the mechano-chemical treatment on structural properties of the matrix and surface layer of the drawn TiNi-based alloy wire was assessed. A range of samples have been prepared using different drawing and etching procedures. It is clear from the results obtained that the fabricated samples show a composite structure comprising the complex matrix and textured oxycarbonitride spitted surface layer. The suggested method of surface treatment is a concept to increase the surface roughness for the enhanced bio-performance and better in vivo integration.

  20. Ion-beam assisted deposition of C-, Ti-, Zr-, Mo-based thin films on silicon substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashlykov, I.S.; Vesh, V.; Vendler, Eh.

    2004-01-01

    With the help pf RBS/channeling method and scattering spectrum computer simulation C-, Ti-, Zr- and Mo-based coatings deposited by ion beam assisted deposition technique on Si substrate have been investigated. Si, O, C, and H atoms were found to be incorporated into the coatings composition. Radiation damage of silicon near the coating-substrate interface region does not depend on the mass of bombarding ions [ru

  1. In-Pile Experiment of a New Hafnium Aluminide Composite Material to Enable Fast Neutron Testing in the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donna Post Guillen; Douglas L. Porter; James R. Parry; Heng Ban

    2010-06-01

    A new hafnium aluminide composite material is being developed as a key component in a Boosted Fast Flux Loop (BFFL) system designed to provide fast neutron flux test capability in the Advanced Test Reactor. An absorber block comprised of hafnium aluminide (Al3Hf) particles (~23% by volume) dispersed in an aluminum matrix can absorb thermal neutrons and transfer heat from the experiment to pressurized water cooling channels. However, the thermophysical properties, such as thermal conductivity, of this material and the effect of irradiation are not known. This paper describes the design of an in-pile experiment to obtain such data to enable design and optimization of the BFFL neutron filter.

  2. The use of TiNi-based endografts in larynx cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulbakin Denis

    2015-12-01

    mobile organ when swallowing, speaking etc. Secondly, there are no commercially produced endografts for wide clinical practice. Thirdly, there are high demands regarding the material selection for the replacement. This study aimed to present the new technique of sparing surgery in patients with laryngeal cancer.Methods: Totally 120 patients with laryngeal cancer were observed with stage grouping T2-3N0-1M0 (Т1N0M0 – 14, Т2N0M0 – 40, T3N0M0 – 58, T2N1M0 – 8. Most of them (118, 98.3% were males where patients’ age ranged from 32 to 70 years (Tab. 1. The maximum number of patients (78% was in 40–60 years group. Not all of those in the laryngeal cancer group were newly diagnosed and they received previous treatment. Informed consent was obtained from each patient. The subsites of laryngeal cancer were the glottis in 17 cases, the supraglottic-glottis in 45 cases and the transglottic in 58 cases.The intervention depended on the location and extent of the tumor process. Standard volume of resection, extended resection, combined resection, subtotal resection were basic types of surgery. Most of laryngeal resections were front-lateral (117, 98% and there were only three (2% subtotal ones. Surgeries on the primary focus were combined with cervical lymph node dissection in eight patients (6.6%. The essence of the resection is to remove larynx structures which are affected by neoplastic process as a single unit including mucosa, submucosa layer, muscles, thyroid cartilage with the inner perichondrium into the volume of cut out tissue.Both the creation of laryngeal frame using the endograft made of superelastic TiNi-based alloy mesh and the providing of the inner lining of the recovered larynx is the basis of sparing technique regarding the larynx prosthetics.Producing of original design endograft made of superelastic TiNi-based alloy mesh was performed individually for each patient using the data acquired by helical CT of the larynx, laryngoscopy and volume of

  3. Mechanical characterization of thin TiO2 films by means of microelectromechanical systems-based cantilevers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adami, A.; Decarli, M.; Bartali, R.; Micheli, V.; Laidani, N.; Lorenzelli, L.

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of mechanical parameters by means of microcantilever structures offers a reliable and accurate alternative to traditional methods, especially when dealing with thin films, which are extensively used in microfabrication technology and nanotechnology. In this work, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based piezoresistive cantilevers were realized and used for the determination of Young's modulus and residual stress of thin titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) deposited by sputtering from a TiO 2 target using a rf plasma discharge. Films were deposited at different thicknesses, ranging from a few to a hundred nanometers. Dedicated silicon microcantilevers were designed through an optimization of geometrical parameters with the development of analytical as well as numerical models. Young's modulus and residual stress of sputtered TiO 2 films were assessed by using both mechanical characterization based on scanning profilometers and piezoresistive sensing elements integrated in the silicon cantilevers. Results of MEMS-based characterization were combined with the tribological and morphological properties measured by microscratch test and x-ray diffraction analysis.

  4. Advancement of Compositional and Microstructural Design of Intermetallic γ-TiAl Based Alloys Determined by Atom Probe Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Klein

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Advanced intermetallic alloys based on the γ-TiAl phase have become widely regarded as most promising candidates to replace heavier Ni-base superalloys as materials for high-temperature structural components, due to their facilitating properties of high creep and oxidation resistance in combination with a low density. Particularly, recently developed alloying concepts based on a β-solidification pathway, such as the so-called TNM alloy, which are already incorporated in aircraft engines, have emerged offering the advantage of being processible using near-conventional methods and the option to attain balanced mechanical properties via subsequent heat-treatment. Development trends for the improvement of alloying concepts, especially dealing with issues regarding alloying element distribution, nano-scale phase characterization, phase stability, and phase formation mechanisms demand the utilization of high-resolution techniques, mainly due to the multi-phase nature of advanced TiAl alloys. Atom probe tomography (APT offers unique possibilities of characterizing chemical compositions with a high spatial resolution and has, therefore, been widely used in recent years with the aim of understanding the materials constitution and appearing basic phenomena on the atomic scale and applying these findings to alloy development. This review, thus, aims at summarizing scientific works regarding the application of atom probe tomography towards the understanding and further development of intermetallic TiAl alloys.

  5. Advancement of Compositional and Microstructural Design of Intermetallic γ-TiAl Based Alloys Determined by Atom Probe Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Thomas; Clemens, Helmut; Mayer, Svea

    2016-09-06

    Advanced intermetallic alloys based on the γ-TiAl phase have become widely regarded as most promising candidates to replace heavier Ni-base superalloys as materials for high-temperature structural components, due to their facilitating properties of high creep and oxidation resistance in combination with a low density. Particularly, recently developed alloying concepts based on a β-solidification pathway, such as the so-called TNM alloy, which are already incorporated in aircraft engines, have emerged offering the advantage of being processible using near-conventional methods and the option to attain balanced mechanical properties via subsequent heat-treatment. Development trends for the improvement of alloying concepts, especially dealing with issues regarding alloying element distribution, nano-scale phase characterization, phase stability, and phase formation mechanisms demand the utilization of high-resolution techniques, mainly due to the multi-phase nature of advanced TiAl alloys. Atom probe tomography (APT) offers unique possibilities of characterizing chemical compositions with a high spatial resolution and has, therefore, been widely used in recent years with the aim of understanding the materials constitution and appearing basic phenomena on the atomic scale and applying these findings to alloy development. This review, thus, aims at summarizing scientific works regarding the application of atom probe tomography towards the understanding and further development of intermetallic TiAl alloys.

  6. Porous TiO2-Based Gas Sensors for Cyber Chemical Systems to Provide Security and Medical Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan Galstyan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gas sensors play an important role in our life, providing control and security of technical processes, environment, transportation and healthcare. Consequently, the development of high performance gas sensor devices is the subject of intense research. TiO2, with its excellent physical and chemical properties, is a very attractive material for the fabrication of chemical sensors. Meanwhile, the emerging technologies are focused on the fabrication of more flexible and smart systems for precise monitoring and diagnosis in real-time. The proposed cyber chemical systems in this paper are based on the integration of cyber elements with the chemical sensor devices. These systems may have a crucial effect on the environmental and industrial safety, control of carriage of dangerous goods and medicine. This review highlights the recent developments on fabrication of porous TiO2-based chemical gas sensors for their application in cyber chemical system showing the convenience and feasibility of such a model to provide the security and to perform the diagnostics. The most of reports have demonstrated that the fabrication of doped, mixed and composite structures based on porous TiO2 may drastically improve its sensing performance. In addition, each component has its unique effect on the sensing properties of material.

  7. Porous TiO₂-Based Gas Sensors for Cyber Chemical Systems to Provide Security and Medical Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galstyan, Vardan

    2017-12-19

    Gas sensors play an important role in our life, providing control and security of technical processes, environment, transportation and healthcare. Consequently, the development of high performance gas sensor devices is the subject of intense research. TiO₂, with its excellent physical and chemical properties, is a very attractive material for the fabrication of chemical sensors. Meanwhile, the emerging technologies are focused on the fabrication of more flexible and smart systems for precise monitoring and diagnosis in real-time. The proposed cyber chemical systems in this paper are based on the integration of cyber elements with the chemical sensor devices. These systems may have a crucial effect on the environmental and industrial safety, control of carriage of dangerous goods and medicine. This review highlights the recent developments on fabrication of porous TiO₂-based chemical gas sensors for their application in cyber chemical system showing the convenience and feasibility of such a model to provide the security and to perform the diagnostics. The most of reports have demonstrated that the fabrication of doped, mixed and composite structures based on porous TiO₂ may drastically improve its sensing performance. In addition, each component has its unique effect on the sensing properties of material.

  8. Porous TiO2-Based Gas Sensors for Cyber Chemical Systems to Provide Security and Medical Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Gas sensors play an important role in our life, providing control and security of technical processes, environment, transportation and healthcare. Consequently, the development of high performance gas sensor devices is the subject of intense research. TiO2, with its excellent physical and chemical properties, is a very attractive material for the fabrication of chemical sensors. Meanwhile, the emerging technologies are focused on the fabrication of more flexible and smart systems for precise monitoring and diagnosis in real-time. The proposed cyber chemical systems in this paper are based on the integration of cyber elements with the chemical sensor devices. These systems may have a crucial effect on the environmental and industrial safety, control of carriage of dangerous goods and medicine. This review highlights the recent developments on fabrication of porous TiO2-based chemical gas sensors for their application in cyber chemical system showing the convenience and feasibility of such a model to provide the security and to perform the diagnostics. The most of reports have demonstrated that the fabrication of doped, mixed and composite structures based on porous TiO2 may drastically improve its sensing performance. In addition, each component has its unique effect on the sensing properties of material. PMID:29257076

  9. Protective Sliding Carbon-Based Nanolayers Prepared by Argon or Nitrogen Ion-Beam Assisted Deposition on Ti6Al4V Alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlčák, P.; Jirka, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2016, č. 2016 (2016), 1697090 ISSN 1687-4110 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : carbon-based nanolayers * Ti6Al4V * nanotechnology Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.871, year: 2016

  10. Effect of Hafnium and Zirconium to Glass Forming Ability, Thermal Stability, Plasticity Deformation and Crystallization of Ni-Free Pentabasic Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oak J.J.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The newly designed Ti-based bulk metallic glass (BMG in which case of fracture behavior was observed 1990MPa to compressive strength with a wide plastic deformation around 7% after process of elastic deformation. This phenomenon can be compared with those of Ti-based alloys and other Ti-based BMGs and indicates high potential to be applied in use. It was evaluated the Ti-based BMG for thermal stability that the reduced glass parameters, ΔTx, Trg and γ, are 79K, 0.50 and 0.38, respectively. In addition, it reveals high activation energies for crystallization in which are estimated to Ex1 = 291.77 ±9.71 kJ/mol, Ex2 = 588.77 ±28.88 kJ/mol and Ex3 = 330.26 ±3.61 kJ/mol on kissinger plotting in this study.

  11. Effect of Core-Shell Ag@TiO2 Volume Ratio on Characteristics of TiO2-Based DSSCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to develop photoanode material required by dye-sensitized solar cells. The material prepared is in the form of Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites. This material is used to replace the titanium oxide powder commonly used in general DSSCs. The prepared Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites are mixed with Degussa P25 TiO2 in different proportions. Triton X-100 is added and polyethylene glycol (PEG at 20 wt% is used as a polymer additive. This study tests the particle size and material properties of Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites and measures the photoelectric conversion efficiency and IPCE of DSSCs. Experimental results show that the DSSC prepared by Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites can achieve a photoelectric conversion efficiency of 3.67%. When Ag@TiO2 core-shell-type nanocomposites are mixed with P25 nanoparticles in specific proportions, and when the thickness of the photoelectrode thin film is 28 μm, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can reach 6.06%, with a fill factor of 0.52, open-circuit voltage of 0.64V, and short-circuit density of 18.22 mAcm−2. Compared to the DSSC prepared by P25 TiO2 only, the photoelectric conversion efficiency can be raised by 38% under the proposed approach.

  12. Electronic imitation of behavioral and psychological synaptic activities using TiOx/Al2O3-based memristor devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Writam; Liu, Qi; Lv, Hangbing; Long, Shibing; Liu, Ming

    2017-10-05

    Seeking an effective electronic synapse to emulate biological synaptic behavior is fundamental for building brain-inspired computers. An emerging two-terminal memristor, in which the conductance can be gradually modulated by external electrical stimuli, is widely considered as the strongest competitor of the electronic synapse. Here, we show the capability of TiO x /Al 2 O 3 -based memristor devices to imitate synaptic behaviors. Along with analog resistive switching performances, the devices replicate the bio-synapse behaviors of potentiation/depression, short-term-plasticity, and long-term-potentiation, which show that TiO x /Al 2 O 3 -based memristors may be useful as electronic synapses. The essential memorizing capabilities of the brain are dependent on the connection strength between neurons, and the memory types change from short-term memory to long-term memory. In the TiO x /Al 2 O 3 -based electronic synaptic junction, the memorizing levels can change their state via a standard rehearsal process and also via newly introduced process called "impact of event" i.e. the impact of pulse amplitude, and the width of the input pulse. The devices show a short-term to long-term memory effect with the introduction of intermediate mezzanine memory. The experimental achievements using the TiO x /Al 2 O 3 electronic synapses are finally psychologically modeled by considering the mezzanine level. It is highly recommended that similar phenomena should be investigated for other memristor systems to check the authenticity of this model.

  13. Characterization of sol-gel synthesised lead-free (1 - x)Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3}-based ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaouchi, A., E-mail: ahchaouchi@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquee et Genie Chimique de l' Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Kennour, S. [Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquee et Genie Chimique de l' Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); D' Astorg, S.; Rguiti, M.; Courtois, C. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Ceramiques et Procedes Associes - Universite de Valenciennes et du Hainaut-Cambresis, Z.I. du Champ de l' Abbesse, 59600 Maubeuge (France); Univ. Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); Marinel, S. [Laboratoire CRISMAT, UMR 6508 CNRS/ENSICAEN 6 Bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen cedex (France); Aliouat, M. [Laboratoire de Chimie Appliquee et Genie Chimique de l' Universite Mouloud Mammeri de Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > BaTiO{sub 3}-doped Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} powders were synthesized by a sol-gel method. > Our results reveal that the 0.93Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-0.07BaTiO{sub 3} ceramic exhibits good polarization behaviour, interesting piezoelectric, dielectric and ferroelectric properties at room temperature (d{sub 33} = 120 pC/N, {epsilon}{sub r} = 1600, tan {delta} < 0.05, T{sub c} = 240 deg. C. - Abstract: The crystal structure, microstructure, dielectric and ferroelectric properties of (1 - x)Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-xBaTiO{sub 3} ceramics with x = 0, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 and 0.1 are investigated. A structural variation according to the system composition was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results revealed that the synthesis temperature for pure perovskite phase powder prepared by the present sol-gel process is much lower (800 deg. C), and a rhombohedral-tetragonal morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) is found for x = 0.07 composition which showing the highest remanent polarization value and the smallest coercive field. The optimum dielectric and piezoelectric properties were found with the 0.93Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-0.07BaTiO{sub 3} composition. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} is 120 pC/N and good polarization behaviour was observed with remanent polarization (P{sub r}) of 12.18 pC/cm{sup 2}, coercive field (E{sub c}) of 2.11 kV/mm, and enhanced dielectric properties {epsilon}{sub r} > 1500 at room temperature. The 0.93Na{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3}-0.07BaTiO{sub 3}-based ceramic is a promising lead-free piezoelectric candidate for applications in different devices.

  14. Optimization of the manufacturing process of a titanium aluminide metal matrix composite using a viscoplastic constitutive theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, J.A.; Quimby, H.M. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-04-01

    The thermomechanical behavior of a titanium aluminide metal matrix composite reinforced with silicon carbide fibers is computationally investigated to determine an optimum manufacturing process. The investigations are completed using the Ramaswamy-Stouffer constitutive model and the finite element method. Hold times at a given temperature were used in an effort to allow the residual stresses to relax. However, the subsequent temperature changes erased the benefit of such holds. Thermomechanical cycling was determined to be the optimum method for reducing the residual stress field after cooldown from consolidation.

  15. Polymeric precursors method for obtaining pigments based on Inorganic oxides of chromium and iron deposited on TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Everlania M. da; Galvao, Sheila B.; Paskocimas, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The case study was the use of chromium oxides and iron, as a precursor in the synthesis of inorganic pigments. The synthesis was based on the dissolution of citric acid as a complexing agent, addition of metal oxides, such as ion chromophores; polymerization with ethylene glycol and doping with titanium oxide. Going through pre-calcination, breakdown, calcination at different temperatures (700, 900 and 1100 deg C resulting in pigments: green for pigment and chromium deposited on TiO2, orange for iron on TiO2. The thermal analysis (TG and DTA), evaluated their thermal decompositions, the XRD revealed the formation of crystalline phases such as iron titanate and chrome titanate; SEM showed the formation of hexagonal particles for both oxides. Under the different analysis, one can see the potential stability of pigments and powders, can be proposed its use as pigments in polymers. (author)

  16. Synthesis and characterization of ceramic pigments based on oxides of chromium and iron, on TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E.M. da; Galvao, S.B.; Paskocimas, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    This work used oxides of chromium and iron, as precursors of the synthesis of ceramic pigments. The synthesis is based on the dissolution of citric acid as a complexing agent, addition of metal oxides, such as ion chromophores; polymerization with ethylene glycol and doping with titanium oxide. Passing through pre-calcination, breakdown, calcination at different temperatures (900 and 1100 ° C), resulting in pigments: green for pigment chrome deposited on TiO 2 and orange for iron on TiO 2 . Noticing an increase in the opacity with increasing temperature. The thermal analysis (TG and DTA), evaluated their thermal behavior, the XRD revealed the formation of crystalline phases as Iron Titanate and Chrome Titanate; SEM showed the formation of hexagonal particles for both oxides. Thus, the synthesized oxides were within the requirements for application as ceramic pigments. (author)

  17. Adhesive PEG-based binder for aqueous fabrication of thick Li4Ti5O12 electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Binh; Oladeji, Isaiah O.; Wang, Zedong; Calderon, Jean; Chai, Guangyu; Atherton, David; Zhai, Lei

    2013-01-01

    We report the first fully compressed Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 electrode designed by an aqueous process. An adhesive, elastomeric, and lithium ion conductive PEG-based copolymer is used as a binder for the aqueous fabrication thick, flexible, and densely packed Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 (LTO) electrodes. Self-adherent cathode films exceeding 200 μm in thickness and withholding high active mass loadings of 28 mg/cm 2 deliver 4.2 mAh/cm 2 at C/2 rate. Structurally defect-free electrodes are fabricated by casting aqueous cathode slurries onto nickel foam, dried, and hard-calendared at 10 tons/cm 2 . As a multifunctional material, the binder is synthesized by the copolymerization of poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate (PEGMA), methyl methacrylate (MMA), and isobutyl vinyl ether (IBVE) in optimal proportions. Furthermore, coordinating the binder with lithium salt is necessary for the electrode to function

  18. Natural Pigments from Plants Used as Sensitizers for TiO2 Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Kushwaha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Four natural pigments, extracted from the leaves of teak (Tectona grandis, tamarind (Tamarindus indica, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus, and the flower of crimson bottle brush (Callistemon citrinus, were used as sensitizers for TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. The dyes have shown absorption in broad range of the visible region (400–700 nm of the solar spectrum and appreciable adsorption onto the semiconductor (TiO2 surface. The DSSCs made using the extracted dyes have shown that the open circuit voltages (Voc varied from 0.430 to 0.610 V and the short circuit photocurrent densities (Jsc ranged from 0.11 to 0.29 mA cm−2. The incident photon-to-current conversion efficiencies (IPCE varied from 12–37%. Among the four dyes studied, the extract obtained from teak has shown the best photosensitization effects in terms of the cell output.

  19. Photocatalytic antibacterial effects are maintained on resin-based TiO2 nanocomposites after cessation of UV irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yanling; Strømme, Maria; Welch, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Photocatalysis induced by TiO2 and UV light constitutes a decontamination and antibacterial strategy utilized in many applications including self-cleaning environmental surfaces, water and air treatment. The present work reveals that antibacterial effects induced by photocatalysis can be maintained even after the cessation of UV irradiation. We show that resin-based composites containing 20% TiO2 nanoparticles continue to provide a pronounced antibacterial effect against the pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis for up to two hours post UV. For biomaterials or implant coatings, where direct UV illumination is not feasible, a prolonged antibacterial effect after the cessation of the illumination would offer new unexplored treatment possibilities.

  20. Photocatalytic antibacterial effects are maintained on resin-based TiO2 nanocomposites after cessation of UV irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanling Cai

    Full Text Available Photocatalysis induced by TiO2 and UV light constitutes a decontamination and antibacterial strategy utilized in many applications including self-cleaning environmental surfaces, water and air treatment. The present work reveals that antibacterial effects induced by photocatalysis can be maintained even after the cessation of UV irradiation. We show that resin-based composites containing 20% TiO2 nanoparticles continue to provide a pronounced antibacterial effect against the pathogens Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis for up to two hours post UV. For biomaterials or implant coatings, where direct UV illumination is not feasible, a prolonged antibacterial effect after the cessation of the illumination would offer new unexplored treatment possibilities.

  1. High-Performance Humidity Sensors Based on Double-Layer ZnO-TiO2 Nanofibers via Electrospinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Xue-Jun; Hong Tian-Sheng; Xu Xing; Li Zhen

    2011-01-01

    ZnO and TiO 2 nanofibers are synthesized via electrospinning methods and characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Humidity sensors with double-layer sensing films are fabricated by spinning the ZnO and TiO 2 nanofibers on ceramic substrates sequentially. Compared with sensors loading only one type of nanofiber, the double-layer sensors exhibit much better sensing properties. The corresponding impedance changes more than four orders of magnitude within the whole humidity range from 11% to 95% relative humidity, and the response and recovery times are about 11 and 7s, respectively. Maximum hysteresis is around 1.5% RH, and excellent stability is also observed after 180 days. The humidity sensing mechanism is discussed in terms of the sensor structure. The experimental results provide a possible route for the design and fabrication of high performance humidity sensors based on one-dimensional nanomaterials. (general)

  2. Investigation of the performances of PZT vs rare earth (BaLaTiO3 vibration based energy harvester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pak Nehemiah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the investigation of two piezoelectric material namely PZT and Lanthanum Doped Barium Titanate (BaLaTiO3 performance as a vibration based energy harvester. The piezoelectric material when applied mechanical stress or strain produces electricity through the piezoelectric effect. The vibration energy would exude mechanical energy and thus apply mechanical force on the energy harvester. The energy harvester would be designed and simulated using the piezoelectric material individually. The studied outputs are divided to frequency response, the load dependence, and the acceleration dependence whereby measurement are observed and taken at maximum power output. The simulation is done using the cantilevers design which employs d31 type of constants. Three different simulations to study the dependence of output power on the resonant frequency response, load and acceleration have found that material that exhibit highest power generation was the BaLaTiO3.

  3. Yttrium-substituted nanocrystalline TiO 2 photoanodes for perovskite based heterojunction solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Peng

    2014-01-01

    We report the use of Y3+-substituted TiO2 (0.5%Y-TiO2) in solid-state mesoscopic solar cells, consisting of CH3NH3PbI3 as the light harvester and spiro-OMeTAD as the hole transport material. A power conversion efficiency of 11.2% under simulated AM 1.5 full sun illumination was measured. A 15% improvement in the short-circuit current density was obtained compared with pure TiO2, due to the effect of Y3+ on the dimensions of perovskite nanoparticles formed on the semiconductor surface, showing that the surface modification of the semiconductor is an effective way to improve the light harvesters\\' morphology and electron transfer properties in the solid-state mesoscopic solar cells. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. TiO2 Nanowires/Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Based Hybrid Photodetector: Improved Light Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Mondal, A; Choudhur, B; Goswami, T; Sarkar, M B; Chattopadhyay, K K

    2016-03-01

    Hybrid photodetector with a maximum external quantum efficiency of ~3.08% in the UV region at 370 nm, was fabricated by spin-coated poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer onto glancing angle deposited (GLAD) vertically aligned TiO2 nanowire (NW) arrays. The TiO2 NWs/PMMA detector shows excellent rectification and constant 1.3 times photo-responsivity in the reverse bias condition from -1 V to -10 V. The photodiode possesses a low ideality factor of 5.1 as compared to bared TiO2 NWs device of 7.1. The hybrid device produces sharp turn-on of -0.8 s and turn-off transient of -0.9 s respectively.

  5. Velcro-like fasteners based on NiTi micro-hook arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokoun, D; Pilch, J; Majtás, D; Šittner, P; Sedlák, P; Frost, M

    2011-01-01

    A recently developed Velcro-like fastener utilizes superelastic deformation of two interlocked NiTi hooks when pulled apart. This work focuses on experimental analysis (evaluation of normal detachment force at different temperatures) and modeling (simulation by a finite element implemented SMA model) of the unhooking process. It is claimed that nonlinear superelastic deformation of NiTi leads to unique properties of the NiTi hook fasteners such as high strength (∼15 000 kg m −2 ), a significant increase of strength with increasing temperature, absorption of impact loads, damping of mechanical vibrations, forceless contact or silent release and better functioning in dirty environments compared to conventional Velcro fasteners

  6. Poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites based on TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals: Tailoring material properties towards sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Convertino, A., E-mail: annalisa.convertino@ismn.cnr.i [ISMN-CNR Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00016 Roma (Italy); Tamborra, M., E-mail: m.tamborra@ba.ipcf.cnr.i [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Bari Division, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Striccoli, M., E-mail: m.striccoli@ba.ipcf.cnr.i [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Bari Division, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Leo, G., E-mail: gabriella.leo@ismn.cnr.i [ISMN-CNR Istituto per lo Studio dei Materiali Nanostrutturati, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00016 Roma (Italy); Agostiano, A., E-mail: a.agostiano@ba.ipcf.cnr.i [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Bari Division, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dipartimento di Chimica., Universita di Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Curri, M.L., E-mail: lucia.curri@ba.ipcf.cnr.i [IPCF-CNR Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Bari Division, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)

    2011-03-31

    Nanocomposite materials have been obtained by dispersing organic capped TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals (NCs) with different shape and surface chemistry in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) as a host medium. Films of the prepared nanocomposites based on TiO{sub 2} NCs have been fabricated by spin coating and morphologically characterized as a function of the preparative conditions. The organic vapor absorption ability of the PMMA/TiO{sub 2} NC based nanocomposites has been then investigated both for spherical and rod-like NCs, and the chemical nature of the coordinating organic molecules has been also varied. The results of the investigation have demonstrated that NC geometry and surface chemistry can modulate the specific absorption characteristics of the modified PMMA in order to absorb different solvent molecules (i.e. acetone, ethanol, propan-2-ol and water). Such features, due to specific interactions between the potential analyte vapors and the functionalized surface of NCs, can effectively be addressed in a controlled and reproducible way, thus offering original opportunities for designing innovative chemical sensors.

  7. Toxicological Assessment and UV/TiO2-Based Induced Degradation Profile of Reactive Black 5 Dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Rasheed, Tahir; Iqbal, Hafiz M. N.; Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xuehong

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the toxicological and degradation profile of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) dye was evaluated using a UV/TiO2-based degradation system. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thin layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) techniques were used to evaluate the degradation level of RB5. The UV-Vis spectral analysis revealed the disappearance of peak intensity at 599 nm (λmax). The FT-IR spectrum of UV/TiO2 treated dye sample manifest appearance of new peaks mainly because of the degraded product and/or disappearance of some characteristics peaks which were present in the untreated spectrum. The HPLC profile verified the RB5 degradation subject to the formation of metabolites at different retention times. A stable color removal higher than 96% with COD removal in the range of 74-82.3% was noted at all evaluated dye concentrations. The tentative degradation pathway of RB5 is proposed following a careful analysis of the intermediates identified by UPLC-MS. Toxicity profile of untreated and degraded dye samples was monitored using three types of human cell lines via MTT assay and acute toxicity testing with Artemia salina. In conclusion, the UV/TiO2-based degradation system could be effectively employed for the remediation of textile wastewater comprising a high concentration of reactive dyes.

  8. Enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in thermally robust, nanostructured superlattices based on SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2015-03-24

    Thermoelectric (TE) metal oxides overcome crucial disadvantages of traditional heavy-metal-alloy-based TE materials, such as toxicity, scarcity, and instability at high temperatures. Here, we report the TE properties of metal oxide superlattices, composed from alternating layers of 5% Pr3+-doped SrTiO3-δ (SPTO) and 20% Nb5+-doped SrTiO3-δ (STNO) fabricated using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Excellent stability is established for these superlattices by maintaining the crystal structure and reproducing the TE properties after long-time (20 h) annealing at high temperature (∼1000 K). The introduction of oxygen vacancies as well as extrinsic dopants (Pr3+ and Nb5+), with different masses and ionic radii, at different lattice sites in SPTO and STNO layers, respectively, results in a substantial reduction of thermal conductivity via scattering a wider range of phonon spectrum without limiting the electrical transport and thermopower, leading to an enhancement in the figure-of-merit (ZT). The superlattice composed of 20 SPTO/STNO pairs, 8 unit cells of each layer, exhibits a ZT value of 0.46 at 1000 K, which is the highest among SrTiO3-based thermoelectrics. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  9. Remediation of organic and inorganic arsenic contaminated groundwater using a nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}-based adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jing Chuanyong, E-mail: cyjing@rcees.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China); Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Meng Xiaoguang; Calvache, Edwin [Center for Environmental Systems, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Jiang Guibin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 18 Shuangqing Road, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2009-08-15

    A nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}-based adsorbent was evaluated for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in contaminated groundwater. Batch experimental results show that As adsorption followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics. The competitive adsorption was described with the charge distribution multi-site surface complexation model (CD-MUSIC). The groundwater containing an average of 329 mug L{sup -1} As(III), 246 mug L{sup -1} As(V), 151 mug L{sup -1} MMA, and 202 mug L{sup -1} DMA was continuously passed through a TiO{sub 2} filter at an empty bed contact time of 6 min for 4 months. Approximately 11 000, 14 000, and 9900 bed volumes of water had been treated before the As(III), As(V), and MMA concentration in the effluent increased to 10 mug L{sup -1}. However, very little DMA was removed. The EXAFS results demonstrate the existence of a bidentate binuclear As(V) surface complex on spent adsorbent, indicating the oxidation of adsorbed As(III). - A nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2}-based adsorbent could be used for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA in contaminated groundwater.

  10. Remediation of organic and inorganic arsenic contaminated groundwater using a nanocrystalline TiO2-based adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Chuanyong; Meng Xiaoguang; Calvache, Edwin; Jiang Guibin

    2009-01-01

    A nanocrystalline TiO 2 -based adsorbent was evaluated for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in contaminated groundwater. Batch experimental results show that As adsorption followed pseudo-second order rate kinetics. The competitive adsorption was described with the charge distribution multi-site surface complexation model (CD-MUSIC). The groundwater containing an average of 329 μg L -1 As(III), 246 μg L -1 As(V), 151 μg L -1 MMA, and 202 μg L -1 DMA was continuously passed through a TiO 2 filter at an empty bed contact time of 6 min for 4 months. Approximately 11 000, 14 000, and 9900 bed volumes of water had been treated before the As(III), As(V), and MMA concentration in the effluent increased to 10 μg L -1 . However, very little DMA was removed. The EXAFS results demonstrate the existence of a bidentate binuclear As(V) surface complex on spent adsorbent, indicating the oxidation of adsorbed As(III). - A nanocrystalline TiO 2 -based adsorbent could be used for the simultaneous removal of As(V), As(III), MMA, and DMA in contaminated groundwater.

  11. Detection of nicotine based on molecularly imprinted TiO2-modified electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-T.; Chen, P.-Y.; Chen, J.-G.; Suryanarayanan, Vembu; Ho, K.-C.

    2009-01-01

    Amperometric detection of nicotine (NIC) was carried out on a titanium dioxide (TiO 2 )/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-modified electrode by a molecular imprinting technique. In order to improve the conductivity of the substrate, PEDOT was coated onto the sintered electrode by in situ electrochemical polymerization of the monomer. The sensing potential of the NIC-imprinted TiO 2 electrode (ITO/TiO 2 [NIC]/PEDOT) in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH 7.4) containing 0.1 M KCl was determined to be 0.88 V (vs. Ag/AgCl/saturated KCl). The linear detection range for NIC oxidation on the so-called ITO/TiO 2 [NIC]/PEDOT electrode was 0-5 mM, with a sensitivity and limit of detection of 31.35 μA mM -1 cm -2 and 4.9 μM, respectively. When comparing with the performance of the non-imprinted one, the sensitivity ratio was about 1.24. The sensitivity enhancement was attributed to the increase in the electroactive area of the imprinted electrode. The at-rest stability of the ITO/TiO 2 [NIC]/PEDOT electrode was tested over a period of 3 days. The current response remained about 85% of its initial value at the end of 2 days. The ITO/TiO 2 [NIC]/PEDOT electrode showed reasonably good selectivity in distinguishing NIC from its major interferent, (-)-cotinine (COT). Moreover, scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) was employed to elucidate the surface morphology of the imprinted and non-imprinted electrodes using Fe(CN) 6 3- /Fe(CN) 6 4- as a redox probe on a platinum tip. The imprinted electrode was further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)

  12. TiB2-Based Composites for Ultra-High-Temperature Devices, Fabricated by SHS, Combining Strong and Weak Exothermic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemnicka-Sylwester

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available TiB2-based ceramic matrix composites (CMCs were fabricated using elemental powders of Ti, B and C. The self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS was carried out for the highly exothermic “in situ” reaction of TiB2 formation and the “tailing” synthesis of boron carbide characterized by weak exothermicity. Two series of samples were fabricated, one of them being prepared with additional milling of raw materials. The effects of TiB2 vol fraction as well as grain size of reactant were investigated. The results revealed that combustion was not successful for a TiB2:B4C molar ratio of 0.96, which corresponds to 40 vol% of TiB2 in the composite, however the SHS reaction was initiated and self-propagated for the intended TiB2:B4C molar ratio of 2.16 or above. Finally B13C2 was formed as the matrix phase in each composite. Significant importance of the grain size of the C precursor with regard to the reaction completeness, which affected the microstructure homogeneity and hardness of investigated composites, was proved in this study. The grain size of Ti powder did not influence the microstructure of TiB2 grains. The best properties (HV = 25.5 GPa, average grain size of 9 μm and homogenous microstructure, were obtained for material containing 80 vol% of TiB2, fabricated using a graphite precursor of 2 μm.

  13. Visible light photoelectrochemical sensor for ultrasensitive determination of dopamine based on synergistic effect of graphene quantum dots and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yuting; Liu, Qian; Du, Xiaojiao; Qian, Jing; Mao, Hanping; Wang, Kun, E-mail: wangkun@ujs.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The GQDs–TiO{sub 2} could prevent GQDs assembling and achieve the immobilization of GQDs. • The GQDs–TiO{sub 2} showed synergistic amplification on the PEC in the visible region. • The PEC sensor for sensitive and selective detection of dopamine was constructed. • The sensor showed wide linear response and low detection limit for dopamine detection. - Abstract: We have demonstrated a facile approach for fabricating graphene quantum dots–TiO{sub 2} (GQDs–TiO{sub 2}) nanocomposites by a simple physical adsorption method. Compared with pure GQDs and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs), the as-prepared GQDs–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites showed enhanced photoelectrochemical (PEC) signal under visible-light irradiation. The photocurrent of GQDs–TiO{sub 2}/GCE was nearly 30-fold and 12-fold enhancement than that of GQDs/GCE and TiO{sub 2}/GCE, respectively, which was attributed to the synergistic amplification between TiO{sub 2} NPs and GQDs. More interestingly, the photocurrent of GQDs–TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites was selectively sensitized by dopamine (DA), and enhanced with the increasing of DA concentration. Further, a new PEC methodology for ultrasensitive determination of DA was developed, which showed linearly enhanced photocurrent by increasing the DA concentration from 0.02 to 105 μM with a detection limit of 6.7 nM (S/N = 3) under optimized conditions. This strategy opens up a new avenue for the application of GQDs-based nanocomposites in the field of PEC sensing and monitoring.

  14. Phase transformations and resulting microstructures in Ti - 47 Al -2 Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi-Armaki, H.; Heshmati-Manesh, S.; Jafarian, H. R.; Nili-Ahmadabadi, M.

    2008-01-01

    During the last three decades, intermetallic alloys have focused attention because of their high strength to weight ratio and good creep resistance. Titanium aluminide alloys based on γ-Ti Al are potential candidates to replace Ni-based super alloys currently used in jet engine components at high temperatures because of their low density, high melting temperature, good elevated-temperature strength and modulus retention, high resistance to oxidation and hydrogen absorption, and excellent creep properties. One of the major concerns in these alloys is their poor ductility at room and intermediate temperatures which has been improved slightly by microstructure modifications through heat treatment. Thus, modification of microstructure during cooling and CCT diagram in these alloys is of vital importance. In this study, Ti - 47 Al - 2 Cr intermetallic alloy has been prepared by remelting 4 times with a vacuum arc remelting furnace. Homogenizing treatment was done at 1125 d eg C for 72 h in a sealed vacuum quartz tube. All heat treatments on the samples were carried out in a vacuum heat treatment furnace under a pressure of 10 -1 bar. The atmosphere inside the furnace was changed to that of high purity argon for each heat treatment as an added precaution against oxidation. In this paper, phase transformations in a γ-Ti Al based intermetallic alloy containing chromium were investigated. Heat treatments on samples of this alloy at temperatures above Tα and subsequent cooling with various cooling rates resulted in variety of microstructures. The schematic CCT diagram for this alloy was drawn from microstructural studies using microscopy routs and X-ray diffraction. Then, cyclic heat treatment with grain refining purpose was conducted on a sample of this alloy having massive gamma microstructure. During cyclic heat treatment, gradual dissociation of the gamma phase resulted in the formation of a Widmanstaetten type structure. Trend of microstructure evolution and

  15. Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell Based on Nanocrystalline TiO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasim, K.E.

    2012-01-01

    During the last quarter of the twentieth century there have been intensive research activities looking for green sources of energy. The main aim of the green generators or converters of energy is to replace the conventional (fossil) energy sources, hence reducing further accumulation of the green house gasses GHGs. Conventional silicon and III-V semiconductor solar cell based on crystalline bulk, quantum well and quantum dots structure or amorphous and thin film structures provided a feasible solution. However, natural dye sensitized solar cells NDSSC are a promising class of photovoltaic cells with the capability of generating green energy at low production cost since no vacuum systems or expensive equipment are required in their fabrication. Also, natural dyes are abundant, easily extracted and safe materials. In NDSSC, once dye molecules exposed to light they become oxidized and transfer electrons to a nano structured layer of wide bandgap semiconductors such as TiO 2 . The generated electrons are drawn outside the cell through ohmic contact to a load. In this paper we review the structure and operation principles of the dye sensitized solar cell DSSC. We discuss preparation procedures, optical and electrical characterization of the NDSSC using local dyes extracted from Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.), pomegranate, cherries and Bahraini raspberries (Rubus spp.). These natural organic dyes are potential candidates to replace some of the man-made dyes used as sensitizer in many commercialized photoelectrochemical cells. Factors limiting the operation of the DSSC are discussed. NDSSCs are expected to be a favored choice in the building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) due to their robustness, therefore, requiring no special shielding from natural events such as tree strikes or hails. (author)

  16. Microstructural and mechanical characterization of Nb-based in situ composites from Nb-Si-Ti ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z. [Department of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, CAS Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, School of Engineering Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China); Peng, L.M. [Department of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, CAS Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, School of Engineering Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China)], E-mail: penglm@ustc.edu.cn

    2007-11-15

    This study deals with the Nb-niobium silicide-based composites developed by the hot-pressing of Nb-Si-Ti ternary powder mixtures with a fixed Ti addition (6 at.%) and Si content ranging from hypereutectic (11 at.%) to near-eutectic compositions (18 at.%). The effects of Si content, Ti addition and strain rates on the sample microstructural characterization, flexural strength, fracture toughness, quasi-static compressive deformation and failure processes were investigated. It was revealed that the volume fraction of silicides increased with increasing Si content, and most of the Ti atoms dissolved into the niobium silicides to form (Nb,Ti){sub 5}Si{sub 3} solid solutions instead of binary titanium silicides. The experimental evidence showed that a moderate improvement in the flexural strength, fracture toughness and compressive yield stress of the composites was achieved by the addition of Ti. Higher Si additions produced a much more remarkable enhancement in the compressive yield stress and bulk hardness, whereas both the flexural strength and fracture toughness decreased with increasing Si content owing to the existence of residual porosities in the samples. The composites showed remarkable superiority to the arc-melted Nb-Si alloys and monolithic niobium silicides in fracture toughness (8.3-13.0MPa{radical}(m) vs. 4.5MPa{radical}(m)), where the toughening effect was attributed mainly to crack bridging and crack deflection by the remaining ductile Nb phase. Moreover, quasi-static uniaxial compression tests at strain rates between 10{sup -5} and 10{sup -3} s{sup -1} indicated that the deformation behavior and failure processes were significantly affected by Si content and strain rates. The strain-rate-hardening behavior for all the strain rates was observed in the composite materials and the strain-rate sensitivity decreased with increasing Si content. At a lower strain rate, the composite materials with a hypoeutectic Si composition failed with a pseudoplastic

  17. Optimizing the photochemical conversion of UV–vis light of silver-nanoparticles decorated TiO2 nanotubes based photoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidi, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Hajjaji, A.; Chourou, M. L.; Alhazaa, A. N.; Bessais, B.; El Khakani, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    Homogeneous decoration of TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) by Ag metallic nanoparticles (NPs) was carried out by a relatively simple photoreduction process. This Ag-NPs decoration was found to improve the photoconversion efficiency of the TiO2-NTs based photoanodes. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses confirmed that all the Ag-NPs are metallic and the underlying TiO2-NTs crystallize in the anatase phase after their annealing at 400 °C, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy observations have confirmed the effective decoration of the TiO2-NTs’ surface by Ag-NPs, and allowed to measure the average Ag-NPs size, which was found to increase linearly from (4 ± 2) nm to (16 ± 4) nm when the photoreduction time is increased from 5 to 20 min. The diffuse reflectivity of the Ag-NPs decorated TiO2-NTs was found to decrease significantly as compared to the undecorated TiO2-NTs. Interestingly, the Ag-NPs decorated TiO2-NTs exhibited a significantly enhanced photochemical response, under visible radiation, with regards to the undecorated NTs. This enhancement was found to reach its maximum for the TiO2-NTs decorated with Ag-NPs having the optimal average diameter of ∼8.5 nm. The maximum photoconversion efficiency of Ag-NPs decorated TiO2-NTs was about two times greater than for the undecorated ones. This improved photo-electro-chemical response is believed to be associated with the additional absorption of visible light of Ag-NPs through the localized surface plasmon resonance phenomenon. This interpretation is supported by the fact that the photoluminescence intensity of the Ag-NPs decorated TiO2-NTs was found to decrease significantly as compared to undecorated NTs, due to charge carriers trapping in the Ag NPs. This demonstrates that Ag-NPs decoration promotes photogenerated charges separation in the TiO2-NTs, increasing thereby their capacity for current photogeneration. The surface decoration of TiO2 NTs by noble metals NPs is expected to

  18. Influence of Ta and Ti Doping on the High Field Performance of (Nb, Ta, Ti)3Sn Multifilamentary Wires based on Osprey Bronze with High Tin Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abächerli, V.; Uglietti, D.; Lezza, P.; Seeber, B.; Flükiger, R.; Cantoni, M.; Buffat, P.-A.

    2006-06-01

    Ta and Ti are the most widely used additions for technical Nb3Sn multifilamentary superconductors. These elements are known to influence grain growth, grain morphology and chemical composition in the A15 layer, hence the current carrying properties of the wires over a wide magnetic field range. So far only few studies tried to compare systematically Ta and Ti doped and undoped Nb3Sn wires in the frame of the same work, down to a nanometric scale. We present an investigation on several multifilamentary (Nb, Ta, Ti)3Sn bronze route wires, fabricated at a laboratory scale, with various amounts of additives. The wires consist of fine filaments embedded in a Cu-Sn or Cu-Sn-Ti Osprey bronze with > 15 wt.% Sn and an external Cu stabilization. Microstructural observations are compared with the results of Jc and n values measured up to 21 T at 4.2 and 2.2 K, and for longitudinal strains up to 0.5%. Non-Cu Jc values up to 300 Amm-2 and n values up to 50 at 17 T and 4.2 K show clearly that wires with Ti addition to the bronze have a better performance with respect to wires with Ti additions to the filaments.

  19. Qualification of high density aluminide fuels for the BR2 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeckmans de West-Meerbeeck, Andre; Gubel, Pol; Ponsard, Bernard; Pin, Thomas; Falgoux, Jean Louis

    2005-01-01

    The BR2 operation still relies on the use of 90..93% enriched HEU aluminide fuel. The availability of a limited batch of 73% enriched HEU from reprocessed BR2 uranium in Dounreay justified 10 years ago the qualification and use of this material. After some preliminary test irradiations, various batches of fuel elements were fabricated by the UKAEA-Dounreay and successfully irradiated. Due to their lower 235 U content (0.050 g 235 U/cm 2 ), these elements were always irradiated together with standard 90...93% HEU fuel elements. A mixed-core strategy was developed at this occasion for an optimal utilization, and was reported during the 4th RRFM conference (March 19-21, 2000, Colmar, France). The availability of a new batch of fresh 73% HEU material was the occasion, a few years ago, to initiate the development, fabrication and qualification of a new high density fuel element. An order was placed with CERCA to assess the optimal fabrication methods and tooling required to meet as far as possible the existing BR2 standard specifications and 235 U content (0.060 g 235 U/cm 2 ). This development phase has been already reported during the 7th RRFM conference (March 9-12, 2003, Aix-en-Provence, France). Afterwards, six lead test fuel elements were ordered for qualification by irradiation. The neutronic properties of the fuel elements were adjusted and optimized. After a short summary of the main results of the development program, this paper describes the nuclear characteristics of the high density fuel elements and comments on the nuclear follow-up of the lead test fuel elements during their irradiation for five cycles in the BR2 reactor and the return of experience for CERCA. (author)

  20. Transmission electron microscopy study for investigating high-temperature reliability of Ti10W90-based and Ta-based diffusion barriers up to 600 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budhiman, Nando; Schuermann, Ulrich; Kienle, Lorenz; Jensen, Bjoern; Chemnitz, Steffen; Wagner, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Abstractauthoren Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, including energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) (elemental mapping, line, and point measurements) and energy filtered TEM (EFTEM) methods, is applied to investigate the high temperature reliability, especially material diffusion, of two types of diffusion barriers: titanium-tungsten-based (Ti 10 W 90 -based) and tantalum-based (Ta-based), with nickel (Ni) layer on top. Both barriers were deposited as a form of stacked layers on sili-con (Si) wafers using the physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. TEM analysis is performed on both barriers before and after annealing (at 600 C for 24 h inside a vacuum chamber). No diffusion of material into the Si substrate as observed. Additionally, only diffusion between the Ni and adjoining Ti 10 W 90 layers, and between Ni and adjoining Ta layers in the Ti 10 W 90 -based and Ta-based barriers, respectively, are observed due to annealing. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Influence of the Sol-Gel pH Process and Compact Film on the Efficiency of TiO-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. T. Patrocinio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of pH during hydrolysis of titanium(IV isopropoxide on the morphological and electronic properties of TiO2 nanoparticles prepared by the sol-gel method is investigated and correlated to the photoelectrochemical parameters of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs based on TiO2 films. Nanoparticles prepared under acid pH exhibit smaller particle size and higher surface area, which result in higher dye loadings and better short-circuit current densities than DSCs based on alkaline TiO2-processed films. On the other hand, the product of charge collection and separation quantum yields in films with TiO2 obtained by alkaline hydrolysis is c.a. 27% higher than for the acid TiO2 films. The combination of acid and alkaline TiO2 nanoparticles as mesoporous layer in DSCs results in a synergic effect with overall efficiencies up to 6.3%, which is better than the results found for devices employing one of the nanoparticles separately. These distinct nanoparticles can be also combined by using the layer-by-layer technique (LbL to prepare compact TiO2 films applied before the mesoporous layer. DSCs employing photoanodes with 30 TiO2 bilayers have shown efficiencies up to 12% higher than the nontreated photoanode ones. These results can be conveniently used to develop optimized synthetic procedures of TiO2 nanoparticles for several dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

  2. A photoelectrochemical methanol fuel cell based on aligned TiO2 nanorods decorated graphene photoanode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyuan; Wang, Guowen; Jing, Lin; Ni, Wei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Chao; Yan, Yi-Ming

    2016-02-11

    We report the photoelectrochemical (PEC) oxidation of methanol on a rationally designed graphene-TiO2 nanorod array (G-TNR) photoanode. A PEC methanol fuel cell was constructed by coupling the G-TNR photoanode with a cathode. This study raises a conceptual fuel cell that realizes the synergistic energy conversion of chemical energy and solar energy.

  3. Charge modulated interfacial conductivity in SrTiO3-based oxide heterostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yunzhong; Stamate, Eugen; Pryds, Nini

    2011-01-01

    When depositing amorphous SrTiO3 (STO) films on crystalline STO substrates by pulsed laser deposition, metallic interfaces are observed, though both materials are band-gap insulators. The interfacial conductivity exhibits strong dependence on oxygen pressure during film growth, which is closely...

  4. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on composite TiO2 nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) and bi-layer TiO2 nanoparti- cle/nanorod (NP/NR) with the optimized diameter of NRs had been prepared as anode layer in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Morphology and thickness of anode layers were provided by field emission ...

  5. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on composite TiO2 nanoparticle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    On the other hand, the worst conversion efficiency and current density belongs to solar cell D with the maximum NRs diameter 391 ± 1 nm. According to the fill factor parameters, solar cell D had the least power to transport electrons within its anode layer. 3.2 Microstructure of TiO2 anode layers. To find out the morphologies ...

  6. TiO2 nanotube-based dye solar cell research in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cummings, F

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Vertically orientated titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes hold great potential for application in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) as they provide an unscathed, one-dimensional transport route for photo-generated charge carriers, thereby increasing...

  7. Design and experimental characterization of a NiTi-based, high-frequency, centripetal peristaltic actuator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borlandelli, E; Scarselli, D; Bettini, P; Morandini, M; Sala, G; Quadrio, M; Nespoli, A; Rigamonti, D; Villa, E

    2015-01-01

    Development and experimental testing of a peristaltic device actuated by a single shape-memory NiTi wire are described. The actuator is designed to radially shrink a compliant silicone pipe, and must work on a sustained basis at an actuation frequency that is higher than those typical of NiTi actuators. Four rigid, aluminum-made circular sectors are sitting along the pipe circumference and provide the required NiTi wire housing. The aluminum assembly acts as geometrical amplifier of the wire contraction and as heat sink required to dissipate the thermal energy of the wire during the cooling phase. We present and discuss the full experimental investigation of the actuator performance, measured in terms of its ability to reduce the pipe diameter, at a sustained frequency of 1.5 Hz. Moreover, we investigate how the diameter contraction is affected by various design parameters as well as actuation frequencies up to 4 Hz. We manage to make the NiTi wire work at 3% in strain, cyclically providing the designed pipe wall displacement. The actuator performance is found to decay approximately linearly with actuation frequencies up to 4 Hz. Also, the interface between the wire and the aluminum parts is found to be essential in defining the functional performance of the actuator. (paper)

  8. Highly efficient ultraviolet photodetectors based on TiO{sub 2} nanocrystal-polymer composites via wet processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Yangang; Wu Gang; Li Haiguo; Wang Mang; Chen Hongzheng, E-mail: wmang@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: hzchen@zju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Macromolecule Synthesis and Functionalization of Ministry of Education, State Key Lab of Silicon Materials, Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2010-05-07

    Solution-processed inorganic/organic hybrid films based on anatase TiO{sub 2} nanocrystals and poly (9,9-dihexylfluorene) (PFH) are fabricated via a simple spin-coating method and characterized by atomic force microscopy, UV-vis absorption and photoluminescence spectra. The photodetector devices are made from hybrid TiO{sub 2}/PFH bulk heterojunction films sandwiched between poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) pre-coated ITO and Al electrodes. The device characteristics, including current-voltage (I-V) curves under UV illumination, spectral response, response time and bias dependence, are studied. The photovoltaic effect is observed and the photocurrent shows an increase with increasing TiO{sub 2} content from 2.5 to 11 wt%. The high UV photo-to-dark current ratio of 10{sup 3}, fast response time less than 200 ms and a responsivity of 54.6 mA W{sup -1} are obtained for the hybrid photodetector. The fast photoresponse is attributed to the enhanced interfacial dissociation of excitons. The overlap of the spectral response with the UV-A range (320-400 nm) and the low-cost wet fabrication method show their potential for environmental and biological uses.

  9. A Micro Oxygen Sensor Based on a Nano Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hairong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An oxygen gas microsensor based on nanostructured sol-gel TiO2 thin films with a buried Pd layer was developed on a silicon substrate. The nanostructured titania thin films for O2 sensors were prepared by the sol-gel process and became anatase after heat treatment. A sandwich TiO2 square board with an area of 350 μm × 350 μm was defined by both wet etching and dry etching processes and the wet one was applied in the final process due to its advantages of easy control for the final structure. A pair of 150 nm Pt micro interdigitated electrodes with 50 nm Ti buffer layer was fabricated on the board by a lift-off process. The sensor chip was tested in a furnace with changing the O2 concentration from 1.0% to 20% by monitoring its electrical resistance. Results showed that after several testing cycles the sensor’s output becomes stable, and its sensitivity is 0.054 with deviation 2.65 × 10−4 and hysteresis is 8.5%. Due to its simple fabrication process, the sensor has potential for application in environmental monitoring, where lower power consumption and small size are required.

  10. Fabrication and characterization of TiO2/SiO2 based Bragg reflectors for light trapping applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Dubey

    Full Text Available Distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs have received an intensive attention due to their increasing demand in optoelectronic and photonic devices. Such reflectors are capable to prohibit the light propagation within the specified wavelength range of interest. In this paper, we present the fabrication of TiO2/SiO2 stacks based Bragg reflectors by using a simple and in-expensive sol-gel spin coating technique. The prepared single-layer thin films of TiO2 and SiO2 onto glass substrates were characterized for their optical constants. By tuning the process parameters, one-seven DBR stacks of TiO2/SiO2 were prepared. The corresponding shift of the Bragg reflection peak was observed with the increased number of DBR stacks and as much as about 90% reflectance is observed from the 7DBR stacks. The experimentally measured reflectance was compared with the simulated one, which showed good in agreement. FESEM measurement has confirmed the formation of bright and dark strips of TiO2 and SiO2 films with their thicknesses 80 and 115 nm respectively. The simulation study was explored to a design of thin film silicon solar cell using 7DBR stacks. An enhancement in light absorption in the visible wavelength range is observed which coincides with the experimental result of the reflectance. The use of DBR at the bottom of the solar cell could felicitate the better light harvesting with the occurrence of Fabry-Perot resonances in the absorbing layer. Keywords: Bragg reflector, Photonic bandgap, Sol-gel coating, Reflection, Absorption

  11. Fabrication and characterization of TiO2/SiO2 based Bragg reflectors for light trapping applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, R. S.; Ganesan, V.

    Distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) have received an intensive attention due to their increasing demand in optoelectronic and photonic devices. Such reflectors are capable to prohibit the light propagation within the specified wavelength range of interest. In this paper, we present the fabrication of TiO2/SiO2 stacks based Bragg reflectors by using a simple and in-expensive sol-gel spin coating technique. The prepared single-layer thin films of TiO2 and SiO2 onto glass substrates were characterized for their optical constants. By tuning the process parameters, one-seven DBR stacks of TiO2/SiO2 were prepared. The corresponding shift of the Bragg reflection peak was observed with the increased number of DBR stacks and as much as about 90% reflectance is observed from the 7DBR stacks. The experimentally measured reflectance was compared with the simulated one, which showed good in agreement. FESEM measurement has confirmed the formation of bright and dark strips of TiO2 and SiO2 films with their thicknesses 80 and 115 nm respectively. The simulation study was explored to a design of thin film silicon solar cell using 7DBR stacks. An enhancement in light absorption in the visible wavelength range is observed which coincides with the experimental result of the reflectance. The use of DBR at the bottom of the solar cell could felicitate the better light harvesting with the occurrence of Fabry-Perot resonances in the absorbing layer.

  12. Structural evolution of Ti/TiC multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahan, I.; Frage, N.; Dariel, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Hard coatings based on metal/ceramic multilayers with periods in the nanometer range have been shown to possess some potential for improved tribological and mechanical properties. The present work is concerned with the structural evolution of (Ti/TiC) multilayers. Two kinds of multilayers consisting of 30 equithick (40 nm)TiC layers and 20 and 60 nm thick Ti layers, respectively, were sputter deposited on Mo substrates. The structural and the compositional evolution of these multilayers were examined by x-ray diffraction, transition electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, Auger electron microscopy spectroscopy and differential thermal analysis (DTA), in the as-deposited state and after various heat treatments up to 500 deg. C. Initially, the Ti layers had a crystalline columnar grain structure displaying a (002) texture. The TiC layers displayed weak crystallinity with a pronounced (111) texture. In the course of the heat treatments, carbon diffused from the carbide layer into the adjacent Ti layers transforming the latter into off-stoichiometric TiC x with x≅0.5 and simultaneously depleting the carbon content of the initial carbide layer. The formed TiC x layers maintained the textural relationship with the neighboring TiC layers, consistent with a transformation that involved only a ABAB to ABC stacking change of the Ti sublattice. Increased mobility of the Ti atoms in carbon-depleted original TiC layers led to their full or partial recrystallization. The thermal effects associated both with the transformation of Ti layers into TiC, due to the influx of carbon atoms, and with the recrystallization of the original TiC layers were clearly revealed by the DTA measurements

  13. Effect of surface modified TiO2 nanoparticles on thermal, barrier and mechanical properties of long oil alkyd resin-based coatings

    OpenAIRE

    T. S. Radoman; J. V. Dzunuzovic; K. T. Trifkovic; T. Palija; A. D. Marinkovic; B. Bugarski; E. S. Dzunuzovic

    2015-01-01

    Novel soy alkyd-based nanocomposites (NCs) were prepared using TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) surface modified with different gallates, and for the first time with imine obtained from 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde and oleylamine (DHBAOA). Unmodified and surface modified anatase TiO2 NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, while the amount of adsorbed ligands w...

  14. Formation of aluminide coatings by low-temperature heat treatment of Al coating electrodeposited from ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yan; Xu Bajin; Ling Guoping; Liu Kezhao; Chen Chang'an; Zhang Guikai

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we proposed a two-step approach to prepare aluminide coatings, namely electrodepositing Al from AlCl 3 -1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (AlCl 3 -EMIC) ionic liquid at room temperature and subsequent heat treatment at low temperature. The adherence of the coating was checked by a simple mechanical scratch test. The surface and cross-sectional morphologies, phase structures and chemical compositions of the coatings after heat treatment were characterized by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), respectively. The deposited Al coatings were in homogenous and controllable thickness with excellent adherence to the substrate. The coatings were brittle Fe 2 Al 5 and FeAl 3 phase after 5 min heat treatment at 670 deg. C, which transformed into ductile FeAl phase after 16 h heat treatment. The advantages of this method in eliminating the brittle Fe 2 Al 5 , cracks and pores in the aluminide coatings were discussed.

  15. Photocatalytic application of TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2 for reusing of textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laleh Enayati Ahangar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research we have developed a treatment method for textile wastewater by TiO2/SiO2-based magnetic nanocomposite. Textile wastewater includes a large variety of dyes and chemicals and needs treatments. This manuscript presents a facile method for removing dyes from the textile wastewater by using TiO2/SiO2-based nanocomposite (Fe3O4@SiO2/TiO2 under UV irradiation. This magnetic nanocomposite, as photocatalytically active composite, is synthesized via solution method in mild conditions. A large range of cationic, anionic and neutral dyes including: methyl orange, methylene blue, neutral red, bromocresol green and methyl red are used for treatment investigations. Neutral red and bromocresol green have good results in reusing treatment. The high surface area of nanocomposites improve the kinetic of wastewater treatment. In this method, by using the magnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, TiO2-based photocatalyst could be separated and reused for 3 times. The efficiency of this method is respectively 100% and 65% for low concentration (10 ppm and high concentration (50 ppm of neutral red and bromocrosol green after 3 h treatment. The efficiency of treatment using the second used nanocomposite was 90% for 10 ppm of the same dyes.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide removal in water-based drilling fluid by metal oxide nanoparticle and ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi Morgani, M.; Saboori, R.; Sabbaghi, S.

    2017-07-01

    Advanced approaches to the application of nanomaterials for environmental studies, such as waste-water treatment and pollution removal/adsorption, have been considered in recent decades. In this research, hydrogen sulfide removal from water-based drilling fluid by ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles and a ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite was studied experimentally. The ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sedimentation and the sol-gel method. A sol-chemical was employed to synthesize the ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface analysis, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the produced ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles, and the ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite. The results showed that the concentration of hydrogen sulfide decreased from 800 ppm to about 250 ppm (about 70% removal) and less than 150 ppm (more than 80% removal) using the TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles with a 0.67 wt% concentration, respectively. Hydrogen sulfide removal using the ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite with a 0.67 wt% showed the highest value of removal in comparison with the TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles. The hydrogen sulfide level was lowered from 800 ppm to less than 5 ppm (99% removal) by the nanocomposite.

  17. Adsorption and photocatalysis for methyl orange and Cd removal from wastewater using TiO2/sewage sludge-based activated carbon nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltaher, M. A.; Abdou, A. N. A.

    2017-01-01

    Nanocomposite TiO2/ASS (TiO2 nanoparticle coated sewage sludge-based activated carbon) was synthesized by the sol-gel method. The changes in surface properties of the TiO2/ASS nanocomposite were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence. The prepared TiO2/ASS nanocomposite was applied for simultaneous removal of methyl orange dye (MO) and Cd2+ from bi-pollutant solution. The factors influencing photocatalysis (TiO2 : ASS ratios, initial pollutant concentrations, solution pH, nanocomposite dosage and UV irradiation time) were investigated. The results revealed that high removal efficiency of methyl orange dye (MO) and Cd2+ from bi-pollutant solution was achieved with TiO2/ASS at a ratio (1 : 2). The obtained results revealed that degradation of MO dye on the TiO2/ASS nanocomposite was facilitated by surface adsorption and photocatalytic processes. The coupled photocatalysis and adsorption shown by TiO2/ASS nanocomposite resulted in faster and higher degradation of MO as compared to MO removal by ASS adsorbent. The removal efficiency of MO by ASS adsorbent and TiO2/ASS (1 : 2) nanocomposite at optimum pH value 7 were 74.14 and 94.28%, respectively, while for Cd2+ it was more than 90%. The experimental results fitted well with the second-order kinetic reaction. PMID:29308227

  18. CoFe2O4-TiO2 Hybrid Nanomaterials: Synthesis Approaches Based on the Oil-in-Water Microemulsion Reaction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Adrián Rodríguez-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available CoFe2O4 nanoparticles decorated and wrapped with TiO2 nanoparticles have been prepared by mixing well-dispersed CoFe2O4 with amorphous TiO2 (impregnation approach and growing amorphous TiO2 over the magnetic core (seed approach, respectively, followed by thermal treatment to achieve TiO2 crystallinity. Synthesis strategies were based on the oil-in-water microemulsion reaction method. Thermally treated nanomaterials were characterized in terms of structure, morphology, and composition, to confirm hybrid nanoparticles formation and relate with the synthesis approaches; textural, optical, and magnetic properties were evaluated. X-ray diffraction revealed coexistence of cubic spinel-type CoFe2O4 and tetragonal anatase TiO2. Electron microscopy images depicted crystalline nanoparticles (sizes below 25 nm, with homogeneous Ti distribution for the hybrid nanoparticles synthesized by seed approach. EDX microanalysis and ICP-AES corroborated established chemical composition. XPS evidenced chemical states, as well as TiO2 predominance over CoFe2O4 surface. According to BET measurements, the hybrid nanoparticles were mesoporous. UV-Vis spectroscopy showed optical response along the UV-visible light region. Magnetic properties suggested the breaking order of magnetic domains due to modification with TiO2, especially for mediated seed approach sample. The properties of the obtained hybrid nanoparticles were different in comparison with its individual components. The results highlight the usefulness of designed microemulsion approaches for the straightforward synthesis of CoFe2O4-TiO2 nanostructured hybrids.

  19. Effects of HfB2 and HfN Additions on the Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of TiB2-Based Ceramic Tool Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing An

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of HfB2 and HfN additions on the microstructures and mechanical properties of TiB2-based ceramic tool materials were investigated. The results showed that the HfB2 additive not only can inhibit the TiB2 grain growth but can also change the morphology of some TiB2 grains from bigger polygons to smaller polygons or longer ovals that are advantageous for forming a relatively fine microstructure, and that the HfN additive had a tendency toward agglomeration. The improvement of flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfB2 ceramics was due to the relatively fine microstructure; the decrease of fracture toughness was ascribed to the formation of a weaker grain boundary strength due to the brittle rim phase and the poor wettability between HfB2 and Ni. The decrease of the flexural strength and Vickers hardness of the TiB2-HfN ceramics was due to the increase of defects such as TiB2 coarse grains and HfN agglomeration; the enhancement of fracture toughness was mainly attributed to the decrease of the pore number and the increase of the rim phase and TiB2 coarse grains. The toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfB2 ceramics mainly included crack bridging and transgranular fracture, while the toughening mechanisms of TiB2-HfN ceramics mainly included crack deflection, crack bridging, transgranular fracture, and the core-rim structure.

  20. Reporting performance in MoS{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} bilayer and heterojunction films based dye-sensitized photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zuoli, E-mail: wandaohzl@163.com; Que, Wenxiu, E-mail: wxque@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Xing, Yonglei; Liu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-05

    Three types of bilayer and heterojunction films photoanodes were designed and fabricated from green synthesized MoS{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs), and then the dye-sensitized solar cells based on these various films photoanodes were investigated. Results demonstrated that layered semiconductor MoS{sub 2} could be a viable material candidate for solar cell applications due to its superior photoelectric characteristics. The DSSCs from the MoS{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} heterojunction film photoanode exhibit the highest solar energy conversion efficiency of 6.02% under AM 1.5G simulated solar irradiation, which is 1.5 times higher than that of the cell from pure TiO{sub 2} film photoanode. MoS{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} heterojunction at the interface helps MoS{sub 2} NPs to efficiently collect the photo-injected electrons from TiO{sub 2} NPs, thus reduce charge recombination at both the NPs-electrolyte and NPs-dye interfaces. These advantages together with collecting or transferring injected electrons abilities by combining the improved light absorption and the large dye-loading capacity of such structural NPs films, rendering the MoS{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} composite photoelectrode superior potential for DSSCs applications. - Highlights: • MoS{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} NPs were synthesized via green process using rape pollen grains as bio-templates. • DSSCs based on these various bilayer and heterojunction films photoanodes were investigated. • Enhanced η of MoS{sub 2}@TiO{sub 2} based DSSCs was related to its strong light adsorption ability. • The mechanism of electron transport in these various films photoanodes was proposed.

  1. A Reliability Model for Ni-BaTiO3-Based (BME) Ceramic Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Donhang

    2014-01-01

    The evaluation of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with base-metal electrodes (BMEs) for potential NASA space project applications requires an in-depth understanding of their reliability. The reliability of an MLCC is defined as the ability of the dielectric material to retain its insulating properties under stated environmental and operational conditions for a specified period of time t. In this presentation, a general mathematic expression of a reliability model for a BME MLCC is developed and discussed. The reliability model consists of three parts: (1) a statistical distribution that describes the individual variation of properties in a test group of samples (Weibull, log normal, normal, etc.), (2) an acceleration function that describes how a capacitors reliability responds to external stresses such as applied voltage and temperature (All units in the test group should follow the same acceleration function if they share the same failure mode, independent of individual units), and (3) the effect and contribution of the structural and constructional characteristics of a multilayer capacitor device, such as the number of dielectric layers N, dielectric thickness d, average grain size r, and capacitor chip size S. In general, a two-parameter Weibull statistical distribution model is used in the description of a BME capacitors reliability as a function of time. The acceleration function that relates a capacitors reliability to external stresses is dependent on the failure mode. Two failure modes have been identified in BME MLCCs: catastrophic and slow degradation. A catastrophic failure is characterized by a time-accelerating increase in leakage current that is mainly due to existing processing defects (voids, cracks, delamination, etc.), or the extrinsic defects. A slow degradation failure is characterized by a near-linear increase in leakage current against the stress time; this is caused by the electromigration of oxygen vacancies (intrinsic defects). The

  2. PVC Based Membrane of Ti(IV Iodovanadate for Pb(II Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu. Naushad

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ti(IV iodovanadate has been synthesized by mixing a mixture of aqueous solutions of 0.1 M sodium vanadate and 0.1 M potassium iodate with 0.1 M solution of Ti(IV chloride at pH 1.0. Distribution coefficients (Kd of various metal ions were determined on the column of Ti(IV iodovanadate which showed the selectivity of Pb(II ions by this cation exchange material. So Ti(IV iodovanadate has been used as an electoactive material for the construction of Pb(II selective electrode. The main purpose of this study is to develop an inexpensive, simple and reliable ion-selective electrode for Pb(II determination. The sensor exhibit Nernstian response for Pb(II ions over a wide concentration range of 1 x 10-7 M to 1 x 10-1 M with a slope of 30±0.4 mV per decade of activity. The electrode is suitable for use in aqueous solution in a pH range of 2-7.2 with a response time of 10 second. The membrane electrode can be used at least for 4 months without any divergence in potential. The selectivity coefficients were determined by the mixed solution method and revealed that the electrode was selective for Pb(II ions in the presence of interfering cations. The sensor could be used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Pb(II ions with EDTA. The practical applicability of the proposed sensor has been reported for Pb(II determination in a standard rock sample and water sample. The results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained by using conventional methods.

  3. Low cycle fatigue of cast gamma-TiAl based alloys at high temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrenec, Martin; Šmíd, Miroslav; Kruml, Tomáš; Obrtlík, Karel; Polák, Jaroslav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 452-453, - (2011), s. 421-424 ISSN 1013-9826 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/0762; GA ČR GA106/08/1631 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : low cycle fatigue * lamellar TiAl alloys * high temperature * PSMs * fracture surface Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  4. Failure mechanisms of platinum aluminide bond coat/electron beam-physical vapor deposited thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Krishnakumar

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) allow operation of structural components, such as turbine blades and vanes in industrial and aircraft gas engines, at temperatures close to the substrate melting temperatures. They consist of four different layers; a high strength creep-resistant nickel-based superalloy substrate, an oxidation resistant bond coat (BC), a low thermal conductivity ceramic topcoat and a thermally grown oxide (TGO), that is predominantly alpha-Al 2O3, that forms between the BC and the TBC. Compressive stresses (3--5 GPa) that are generated in the thin TGO (0.25--8 mum) due to the mismatch in thermal coefficient of expansion between the TGO and BC play a critical role in the failure of these coatings. In this study, the failure mechanisms of a commercial yttria-stabilized zirconia (7YSZ) electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) coating on platinum aluminide (beta-(Ni,Pt)Al) bond coat have been identified. Two distinct mechanisms have been found responsible for the observed damage initiation and progression at the TGO/bond coat interface. The first mechanism leads to localized debonding at TGO/bond coat interface due to increased out-of-plane tensile stress, along bond coat features that manifest themselves as ridges. The second mechanism causes cavity formation at the TGO/bond coat interface, driven by cyclic plasticity of the bond coat. It has been found that the debonding at the TGO/bond coat interface due to the first mechanism is solely life determining. The final failure occurs by crack extension along either the TGO/bond coat interface or the TGO/YSZ interface or a combination of both, leading to large scale buckling. Based on these mechanisms, it is demonstrated that the bond coat grain size and the aspect ratio of the ridges have a profound influence on spallation lives of the coating. The removal of these ridges by fine polishing prior to TBC deposition led to a four-fold improvement in life. The failure mechanism identified for the

  5. The effect of fiber microstructure on evolution of residual stresses in silicon carbide/titanium aluminide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of the morphology of the SCS6 silicon carbide fiber on the evolution of residual stresses in SiC/Ti composites. A micromechanics model based on the concentric cylinder concept is presented which is used to calculate residual stresses in a SiC/Ti composite during axisymmetric cooling by a spatially uniform temperature change. The silicon carbide fiber is modeled as a layered material with five distinct transversely isotropic and orthotropic, elastic layers, whereas the titanium matrix is taken to be isotropic, with temperature-dependent elastoplastic properties. The results arc compared with those obtained based on the assumption that the silicon carbide fiber is isotropic and homogeneous.

  6. Improvement to the Corrosion Resistance of Ti-Based Implants Using Hydrothermally Synthesized Nanostructured Anatase Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Lorenzetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical behavior of polycrystalline TiO2 anatase coatings prepared by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis on commercially pure (CP Ti grade 2 and a Ti13Nb13Zr alloy for bone implants was investigated in Hank’s solution at 37.5 °C. The aim was to verify to what extent the in-situ-grown anatase improved the behavior of the substrate in comparison to the bare substrates. Tafel-plot extrapolations from the potentiodynamic curves revealed a substantial improvement in the corrosion potentials for the anatase coatings. Moreover, the coatings grown on titanium also exhibited lower corrosion-current densities, indicating a longer survival of the implant. The results were explained by considering the effects of crystal morphology, coating thickness and porosity. Evidence for the existing porosity was obtained from corrosion and nano-indentation tests. The overall results indicated that the hydrothermally prepared anatase coatings, with the appropriate morphology and surface properties, have attractive prospects for use in medical devices, since better corrosion protection of the implant can be expected.

  7. Improved UV Photodetection by Indium Doped TiO₂ Thin Film Based Photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Mitra Barun; Choudhuri, Bijit; Bhattacharya, P; Barman, R N; Ghosh, A; Dwivedi, S M M Dhar; Chakrabartty, S; Mondal, Aniruddha

    2018-07-01

    Indium (In) was doped into TiO2 thin film (TF) using the electron beam evaporation technique followed by an annealing process. The high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) analysis revealed lower angle diffraction peak (2) shifting of Rutile (002) phases of TiO2 from 61.9 to 61.56 for an increased In doped samples. Calculated average grain size from FESEM (field emission scanning electron microscope) gradually decreased from 21.12 nm to 17.03 mm with an increase in In content ranging from 1.45~17.30 at%. HRXRD data revealed that crystallite sizes also reduced from 21.79 nm to 16.93 nm with an increased In doping concentration. Doping of In leads to the formation of inhomogeneous InxTiy O2 alloy that enhances the transition between 3.3-3.42 eV energy levels with variation in doping concentration. The photo-efficiencies for increased doping concentration of In with 3.47 at% and 17.30 at% were enhanced by 2.56 and 2.76 times, respectively, compared to the undoped TiO2 TF detector and both were larger than low doped In with 1.45 at% sample. The ratio of main band detection intensity to oxygen defect level was also increased from 0.22 to 2.22 with the gradual increase in In content.

  8. Artificial photosynthesis over crystalline TiO2-based catalysts: fact or fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chieh-Chao; Yu, Yi-Hui; van der Linden, Bart; Wu, Jeffrey C S; Mul, Guido

    2010-06-23

    The mechanism of photocatalytic conversion of CO(2) and H(2)O over copper oxide promoted titania, Cu(I)/TiO(2), was investigated by means of in situ DRIFT spectroscopy in combination with isotopically labeled (13)CO(2). In addition to small amounts of (13)CO, (12)CO was demonstrated to be the primary product of the reaction by the 2115 cm(-1) Cu(I)-CO signature, indicating that carbon residues on the catalyst surface are involved in reactions with predominantly photocatalytically activated surface adsorbed water. This was confirmed by prolonged exposure of the catalyst to light and water vapor, which significantly reduced the amount of CO formed in a subsequent experiment in the DRIFT cell. In addition, formation of carboxylates and (bi)carbonates was observed by exposure of the Cu(I)/TiO(2) surface to CO(2) in the dark. These carboxylates and (bi)carbonates decompose upon light irradiation, yielding predominantly CO(2). At the same time a novel carbonate species is produced (having a main absorption at approximately 1395 cm(-1)) by adsorption of photocatalytically produced CO on the Cu(I)/TiO(2) surface, most likely through a reverse Boudouard reaction of photocatalytically activated CO(2) with carbon residues. The finding that carbon residues are involved in photocatalytic water activation and CO(2) reduction might have important implications for the rates of artificial photosynthesis reported in many studies in the literature, in particular those using photoactive materials synthesized with carbon containing precursors.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of PbTiO3 based glass ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, J.; Rani, G. Neeraja; Mamatha, B.; Deshpande, V. K.

    2017-05-01

    Glass samples with composition (50 - X) PbO - XCaO - 25 TiO2 - 25 B2O3 (where = 0, .5, 10 and 15 mol %) were prepared using conventional quenching technique. It was observed that with the addition of alkaline earth oxides to lead borate glass containing TiO2 alters the network (conversion of BO3 to BO4) increasing the rigidity of the glass which enhances the Tg. These glass samples were converted to glass ceramics by following two stage heat treatment schedule. The density values of glass ceramic samples are higher than those of corresponding glass samples. It was observed that there was good correlation between the density and CTE results of the glass-ceramics. The XRD results in the glass ceramics revealed the formation of tetragonal lead titanate as a major crystalline phase and Ca3Ti2O7 as minor crystalline phase. The ferroelectric nature of all the glass ceramic samples is confirmed by P - E hysteresis measurements.

  10. Low-temperature relaxation in NiTi-based shape memory alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens-Serra, Joan; Salas, Daniel; Cesari, Eduard; Kustov, Sergey [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, cra. de Valldemossa km 7.5, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    We have studied the structural changes occurring in different Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Fe alloys over the temperature range from 13 to 300 K by means of mechanical spectroscopy, calorimetry (DSC) and electrical resistivity measurements. Several binary and ternary alloys were used with different thermal and mechanical history, which demonstrate distinct transformation paths: B2-B19', B2-R and B2-R-B19'. Temperature dependence of the internal friction (IF) was studied over the range 90-137 kHz for different strain amplitudes from 3{sup *}10E-7 to 5{sup *}10E-5. In addition to the martensitic and intermartensitic transformations, the IF curves showed a peak at about 90 K in annealed and water-quenched samples independently of their composition which can not be detected by DSC or electrical resistivity measurements. The thermally activated nature of the relaxation has been confirmed using different measurement frequencies. Since the IF peak is observed for ultrasonic frequencies at temperatures of around 90 K, it corresponds to a new relaxation phenomenon, not reported so far in Ni-Ti family of alloys, with the activation energy of the order of only 0.01 eV. On the other hand, no relaxation is found in deformed alloys not subjected to annealing heat treatments. The origin of this relaxation may be attributed to the presence of interstitial hydrogen atoms.

  11. OPTIMIZATION OF STEEL SATURATION PROCESSES USING CARBIDE-FORMING ELEMENTS IN SYSTEMS BASED ON Cr-Ti-V AND Cr-Ti-Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shmatov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of saturating mixture compositions has been carried out in two three-component systems, namely: Cr-Ti-V and Cr-Ti-Mn in respect of micro-hardness and wear resistance of carbide coatings obtained by thermo-chemical treatment of high carbon steel. «Composition - properties» diagrams have been plotted using mathematical models. Treatment with optimum compositions of powder media permits to increase wear resistance of steel by factor of 30-70 as compared with untreated steel. 

  12. Stability, Reactivity, and Constituent Interaction in TiSe2-Based Metastable Misfit Layer Compounds Synthesized from Designed Amorphous Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Devin R.

    A series of intergrowth compounds with the basic formula [(MSe) 1+delta]m(TiSe2)n are reported. The compounds are prepared from modulated elemental reactants and display interesting structural and electronic behavior. Section 1 of this dissertation outlines initial attempts to characterize constituent interaction. The first member of the SnSe based subclass is reported and displays the highest Seebeck coefficient of any m = n = 1 compound reported to date, and a surprising amount of order is observed, compared to previously reported compounds. With properly established deposition parameters, the synthesis was extended to included the m = 2-4 compounds. These compounds display interesting electronic behavior that suggests the band structure shifts considerably as the SnSe block is expanded, affecting the interaction between the constituent layers. The first compound based on BiSe is then reported, suggesting that the Bi structure donates more conduction electrons to the band structure. Targeted substitution through kinetic control is the focus of Section 2, and a family of (PbxSn1-xSe)1+deltaTiSe 2 is reported over the entire range of x, even though a miscibility gap exists in the bulk PbxSn1-xSe system. The resulting alloyed intergrowth compounds also display equal or higher mobility than the end members, suggesting modulation doping could be used to affect transport properties. As a proof of principle, the analogous system based on a Bi xSn1-xSe constituent was prepared to attempt to systematically affect carrier concentration. It was found that while carrier concentration can be controlled, the evolving structure affects the doping efficiency of the Bi atoms and mobility in the structure. Section 3 outlines attempts to form higher order TiSe2-based heterostructures and the important chemical considerations observed during the preparation of these materials. The 3 component systems in the Pb-Sn-Ti-Se system can be formed at low temperature, with SnSe2 rather than

  13. Design of splints based on the NiTi alloy for the correction of joint deformities in the fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puértolas, Sergio; Pérez-García, José M; Gracia, Luis; Cegoñino, José; Ibarz, Elena; Puértolas, José A; Herrera, Antonio

    2010-09-13

    The proximal interphalange joint (PIP) is fundamental for the functional nature of the hand. The contracture in flexion of the PIP, secondary to traumatisms or illnesses leads to an important functional loss. The use of correcting splints is the common procedure for treating this problem. Its functioning is based on the application of a small load and a prolonged stress which can be dynamic, static progressive or static serial.It is important that the therapist has a splint available which can release a constant and sufficient force to correct the contracture in flexion. Nowadays NiTi is commonly used in bio-engineering, due to its superelastical characteristics. The experience of the authors in the design of other devices based on the NiTi alloy, makes it possible to carry out a new design in this work--the production of a finger splint for the treatment of the contracture in flexion of the PIP joint. Commercial orthosis have been characterized using a universal INSTRON 5565 machine. A computational simulation of the proposed design has been conducted, reproducing its performance and using a model "ad hoc" for the NiTi material. Once the parameters have been adjusted, the design is validated using the same type of test as those carried out on commercial orthosis. For commercial splint the recovering force falls to excessively low values as the angle increases. Angle curves for different lengths and thicknesses of the proposed design have been obtained, with a practically constant recovering force value over a wide range of angles that vary between 30° and 150° in every case. Then the whole treatment is possible with only one splint, and without the need of progressive replacements as the joint recovers. A new model of splint based on NiTi alloy has been designed, simulated and tested comparing its behaviour with two of the most regularly used splints. Its uses is recommended instead of other dynamic orthosis used in orthopaedics for the PIP joint. Besides, its

  14. Barium aluminides BaxAl5(x=3,3.5,4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehle, Michael; Scherer, Harald; Wendorff, Marco; Roehr, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Three aluminides of the series Ba x Al 5 (x=3,3.5,4) were synthesized from stoichiometric ratios of the elements in Ta crucibles. The crystal structure of the new compound Ba 7 Al 10 was determined using single crystal X-ray data (space group R3-barm, a=604.23(9), c=4879.0(12)pm, Z=3, R1=0.0325). The compound exhibits Al Kagome (3.6.3.6.) nets in which half of the triangles form the basis of trigonal bipyramids Al 5 . The apical Al are thus three-bonded assuming a charge of -2 ( 27 Al-NMR chemical shift δ=660pm), whereas the Al atoms of the basal triangle (i.e. of the Kagome net) are four-bonded and thus of formal charge -1(δ=490ppm). The total charge of the anion is thus exactly compensated by the Ba cations, i.e. the compound can be interpreted as an electron precise Zintl phase, exhibiting a distinct pseudo-band gap at the Fermi level of the calculated tDOS. According to the total formula, the structure displays a combination the stacking sequences of Ba 3 Al 5 and Ba 4 Al 5 , the structures of which have been redetermined with current methods (both hexagonal with space group P6 3 /mmc; Ba 3 Al 5 : a=606.55(7), c=1461.8(2)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0239; Ba 4 Al 5 : a=609.21(7), c=1775.8(3)pm, Z=2, R1=0.0300). These three compounds with slightly different electron counts but similar polyanions allow to compare the bond lengths, the electronic structures and the overall bonding situation in dependence of positive or negative deviation of the electron count in relation to the novel formally electron precise Zintl compound Ba 7 Al 10 . - Al 5 layers of Kagome nets in the new binary electron precise Zintl compound Ba 3.5 Al 5 , also found in Ba 3 Al 5 and Ba 4 Al 5 .

  15. Pilot-plant evaluation of TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}-based hybrid photocatalysts for solar treatment of polluted water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronic, Luminita, E-mail: andronic-luminita@unitbv.ro [Transilvania University of Brasov, Centre of Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Romania, Eroilor, 29, 500036, Brasov (Romania); Isac, Luminita [Transilvania University of Brasov, Centre of Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Romania, Eroilor, 29, 500036, Brasov (Romania); Miralles-Cuevas, Sara [Laboratory for Environmental Research in Arid Zones, LIMZA, School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tarapaca, Arica (Chile); Visa, Maria [Transilvania University of Brasov, Centre of Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Romania, Eroilor, 29, 500036, Brasov (Romania); Oller, Isabel [Plataforma Solar de Almería, CIEMAT, P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almería (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almería-CIEMAT, 04120 Almería (Spain); Duta, Anca, E-mail: a.duta@unitbv.ro [Transilvania University of Brasov, Centre of Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Romania, Eroilor, 29, 500036, Brasov (Romania); Malato, Sixto [Plataforma Solar de Almería, CIEMAT, P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almería (Spain); CIESOL, Joint Centre of the University of Almería-CIEMAT, 04120 Almería (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    Materials with photocatalytic and adsorption properties for advanced wastewater treatment targeting reuse were studied. Making use of TiO{sub 2} as a well-known photocatalyst, Cu{sub 2}S as a Vis-active semiconductor, and fly ash as a good adsorbent, dispersed mixtures/composites were prepared to remove pollutants from wastewater. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, band gap energy, point of zero charge (pH{sub pzc}) and BET porosity were used to characterize the substrates. Phenol, imidacloprid and dichloroacetic acid were used as pollutants for photocatalytic activity of the new photocatalysts. Experiments using the new dispersed powders were carried out at laboratory scale in two solar simulators and under natural solar irradiation at the Plataforma Solar de Almería, in a Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) for a comparative analysis of pollutants removal and mineralization efficiencies, and to identify features that could facilitate photocatalyst separation and reuse. The results show that radiation intensity significantly affects the phenol degradation rate. The composite mixture of TiO{sub 2} and fly ash is 2-3 times less active than sol-gel TiO{sub 2}. Photodegradation kinetic data on the highly active TiO{sub 2} are compared for pollutants elimination. Photodegradation of dichloroacetic acid was fast and complete after 90 min in the CPC, while after 150 min imidacloprid and phenol removal was 90% and 56% respectively.

  16. Pilot-plant evaluation of TiO2and TiO2-based hybrid photocatalysts for solar treatment of polluted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronic, Luminita; Isac, Luminita; Miralles-Cuevas, Sara; Visa, Maria; Oller, Isabel; Duta, Anca; Malato, Sixto

    2016-12-15

    Materials with photocatalytic and adsorption properties for advanced wastewater treatment targeting reuse were studied. Making use of TiO 2 as a well-known photocatalyst, Cu 2 S as a Vis-active semiconductor, and fly ash as a good adsorbent, dispersed mixtures/composites were prepared to remove pollutants from wastewater. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, band gap energy, point of zero charge (pH pzc ) and BET porosity were used to characterize the substrates. Phenol, imidacloprid and dichloroacetic acid were used as pollutants for photocatalytic activity of the new photocatalysts. Experiments using the new dispersed powders were carried out at laboratory scale in two solar simulators and under natural solar irradiation at the Plataforma Solar de Almería, in a Compound Parabolic Collector (CPC) for a comparative analysis of pollutants removal and mineralization efficiencies, and to identify features that could facilitate photocatalyst separation and reuse. The results show that radiation intensity significantly affects the phenol degradation rate. The composite mixture of TiO 2 and fly ash is 2-3 times less active than sol-gel TiO 2 . Photodegradation kinetic data on the highly active TiO 2 are compared for pollutants elimination. Photodegradation of dichloroacetic acid was fast and complete after 90min in the CPC, while after 150min imidacloprid and phenol removal was 90% and 56% respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Cu-Ni nanowire-based TiO{sub 2} hybrid for the dynamic photodegradation of acetaldehyde gas pollutant under visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shuying [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Xie, Xiaofeng, E-mail: xxfshcn@163.com [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Chen, Sheng-Chieh [College of Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Tong, Shengrui [Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lu, Guanhong [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Pui, David Y.H. [College of Science and Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Sun, Jing [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2017-06-30

    Graphical abstract: One-dimensional Cu-Ni bimetallic nanowires were introduced into TiO{sub 2}-based matrix to enhance their photocatalysis efficiency and expand their light absorption range. - Highlights: • Cu-Ni nanowire-based TiO{sub 2} hybrid photocatalyst. • One-dimensional electron pathways and surface plasmon resonance effects. • Dynamic photodegradation of acetaldehyde gas pollutant. - Abstract: One-dimensional bimetallic nanowires were introduced into TiO{sub 2}-based matrix to enhance their photocatalysis efficiency and expand their light absorption range in this work. Recently, metal nanowires have attracted many attention in photocatalyst research fields because of their favorable electronic transmission properties and especially in the aspect of surface plasmon resonance effects. Moreover, Cu-Ni bimetallic nanowires (Cu-Ni NWs) have shown better chemical stability than ordinary monometallic nanowires in our recent works. Interestingly, it has been found that Ni sleeves of the bimetallic nanowires also can modify the Schottky barrier of interface between TiO{sub 2} and metallic conductor, so that be beneficial to the separation of photogenerated carriers in the Cu-Ni/TiO{sub 2} network topology. Hence, a novel heterostructured photocatalyst composed of Cu-Ni NWs and TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) was fabricated by one-step hydrolysis approach to explore its photocatalytic performance. TEM and EDX mapping images of this TiO{sub 2} NPs @Cu-Ni NWs (TCN) hybrid displayed that Cu-Ni NWs were wrapped by compact TiO{sub 2} layer and retained the one-dimensional structure in matrix. In experiments, the photocatalytic performance of the TCN nanocomposite was significantly enhanced comparing to pure TiO{sub 2}. Acetaldehyde, as a common gas pollutant in the environment, was employed to evaluate the photodegradation efficiency of a series of TCN nanocomposites under continuous feeding. The TCN exhibited excellent potodegradation performance, where the

  18. The effect of applied stress on the shape memory behavior of TiNi-based alloys with different consequences of martensitic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisner, L.L.; Sivokha, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    The development of plastic deformation and shape memory behavior of the Ti 49.5 Ni 50.5 , Ti 50 Ni 34 Pt 16 , Ti 50 Ni 39,25 Cu 10 Fe 0,75 alloys are studied. The alloys differ by consequences of martensitic transformations (MT). It is found that the behavior of both accumulated and returned strain components exhibit some features in the alloys under consideration. The strain-temperature diagrams of the Ti 49.5 Ni 50.5 alloy with the B2↔B19' MT are of the one-step form. There are three stages on the strain-stress curves of this alloy depending on value of the applied mechanical torque. The regularity of plastic behavior of the Ti 50 Ni 34 Pt 16 alloy with the B2↔B19 transformation is similar to that of the Ti 49.5 Ni 50.5 alloy. The strain-stress diagram has three stages. However, there is a significant difference in the shape memory behavior of this alloy. The shape-memory behavior of the Ti 50 Ni 39,25 Cu 10 Fe 0,75 alloy corresponds to the two-stage nature of its B2↔B19↔B19' MT. The deformation mechanisms for these stages have their features in contrast to those of the foregoing alloys. The strain and temperature parameters of the shape memory effect and plastic behavior of the TiNi-based alloys are also examined

  19. The influence of anatase-rutile mixed phase and ZnO blocking layer on dye-sensitized solar cells based on TiO2nanofiberphotoanodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jianning; Li, Yan; Hu, Hongwei; Bai, Li; Zhang, Shuai; Yuan, Ningyi

    2013-01-01

    High performance is expected in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) that utilize one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanostructures owing to the effective electron transport. However, due to the low dye adsorption, mainly because of their smooth surfaces, 1-D TiO2 DSSCs show relatively lower efficiencies than nanoparticle-based ones. Herein, we demonstrate a very simple approach using thick TiO2 electrospun nanofiber films as photoanodes to obtain high conversion efficiency. To improve the performance of the DSCCs, anatase-rutile mixed-phase TiO2 nanofibers are achieved by increasing sintering temperature above 500°C, and very thin ZnO films are deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) method as blocking layers. With approximately 40-μm-thick mixed-phase (approximately 15.6 wt.% rutile) TiO2 nanofiber as photoanode and 15-nm-thick compact ZnO film as a blocking layer in DSSC, the photoelectric conversion efficiency and short-circuit current are measured as 8.01% and 17.3 mA cm-2, respectively. Intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy and intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy measurements reveal that extremely large electron diffusion length is the key point to support the usage of thick TiO2 nanofibers as photoanodes with very thin ZnO blocking layers to obtain high photocurrents and high conversion efficiencies.

  20. Effect of Mo on Microstructures and Wear Properties of In Situ Synthesized Ti(C,N)/Ni-Based Composite Coatings by Laser Cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Chen, Tao; Wang, Haojun; Liu, Defu

    2017-09-06

    Using Ni60 alloy, C, TiN and Mo mixed powders as the precursor materials, in situ synthesized Ti(C,N) particles reinforcing Ni-based composite coatings are produced on Ti6Al4V alloys by laser cladding. Phase constituents, microstructures and wear properties of the composite coatings with 0 wt % Mo, 4 wt % Mo and 8 wt % Mo additions are studied comparatively. Results indicate that Ti(C,N) is formed by the in situ metallurgical reaction, the (Ti,Mo)(C,N) rim phase surrounding the Ti(C,N) ceramic particle is synthesized with the addition of Mo, and the increase of Mo content is beneficial to improve the wear properties of the cladding coatings. Because of the effect of Mo, the grains are remarkably refined and a unique core-rim structure that is uniformly dispersed in the matrix appears; meanwhile, the composite coatings with Mo addition exhibit high hardness and excellent wear resistance due to the comprehensive action of dispersion strengthening, fine grain strengthening and solid solution strengthening.

  1. Photocatalytic, Morphological and Structural Properties of the TiO2-SiO2-Ag Porous Structures Based System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Kovács

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2-SiO2-based nanocomposites with highly porous structures are gaining ever increasing attention due to their specific properties and large variability of synthesis pathways together with wide information on the impact of the synthesis on the activity of the catalyst. This thereby offers an alternative approach to traditional/commercially available photocatalysts. In our work TiO2-SiO2 based aerogels were obtained and modified with various amount of Ag nanoparticles, using different synthesis pathways. In the first instance their photocatalytic activity was examined in detail, by observing major differences toward salicylic acid and correlating them with their morphological and structural properties (investigating their mesoporous character, band-gap values, crystallinity grade etc.. Applying different techniques such as diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS, X-ray diffraction measurements (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Raman- and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS the nanoparticles and their composite morphological and structural details were successfully evaluated. Major differences were observed in the activity towards salicylic acid.

  2. Monitoring the Environmental Impact of TiO2 Nanoparticles Using a Plant-Based Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaghan, Scott C.; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hao; Burris, Jason N.; Stewart, C. Neal; Parker, Lynne E.; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    The increased manufacturing of nanoparticles for use in cosmetics, foods, and clothing necessitates the need for an effective system to monitor and evaluate the potential environmental impact of these nanoparticles. The goal of this research was to develop a plant-based sensor network for characterizing, monitoring, and understanding the environmental impact of TiO2 nanoparticles. The network consisted of potted Arabidopsis thaliana with a surrounding water supply, which was monitored by cameras attached to a laptop computer running a machine learning algorithm. Using the proposed plant sensor network, we were able to examine the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles in two systems: algae and terrestrial plants. Increased terrestrial plant growth was observed upon introduction of the nanoparticles, whereas algal growth decreased significantly. The proposed system can be further automated for high-throughput screening of nanoparticle toxicity in the environment at multiple trophic levels. The proposed plant-based sensor network could be used for more accurate characterization of the environmental impact of nanomaterials. PMID:28458617

  3. Improved Plasticity of Ti-Based Bulk Metallic Glass at Room Temperature by Electroless Thin Nickel Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available By restricting the dilated deformation, surface modification can stimulate multiple shear banding and improve the plasticity of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs. Aimed at modifying the surface of BMGs by thin layers, a crystalline Ni coating with ultrafine grains was coated on the surface of a Ti-based BMG by electroless plating. With a thickness of about 10 μm, the prepared thin coating could effectively limit the fast propagation of primary shear bands and stimulate the nucleation of multiple shear bands. As a result, the compression plasticity of the coated Ti-based BMG was improved to about 3.7% from near 0% of the non-coated BMG. Except for a small amount of Ni coating was adhered to the BMG substrate after fracture, most of the coatings were peeled off from the surface. It can be attributed to the abnormal growth of some coarse grains/particles in local region of the coating, which induces a large tensile stress at the interface between the coating and the BMG substrate. It is suggested that, for electroless nickel plating, improving the adhesive bonding strength between the coating and the substrate has a better geometric restriction effect than simply increasing the thickness of the coating.

  4. Enhanced photocatalytic performance of TiO{sub 2} nanotube based heterojunction photocatalyst via the coupling of graphene and FTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niu, Xiaoyou [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yu, Jianyuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Tangshan University, Tangshan 063000 (China); Wang, Likun; Fu, Chen; Wang, Jixia; Wang, Li [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhao, Hongli, E-mail: zhaohongli@ysu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Yang, Jingkai, E-mail: yangjk@ysu.edu.cn [National Defense Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • The rGO-TONT composites have been deposited onto FTO. • Photocatalytic reaction rate shows 3 times greater than TONT. • Chemical interaction between rGO and TONT was analyzed. • Electron transfer process in rGO-TONT/FTO heterojunction was discussed. - Abstract: The TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TONT) based heterojunction photocatalyst was developed via the coupling of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and SnO{sub 2}:F film (FTO). Based on the characterization of Raman analysis, XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS and ESR, the crystal phase, morphology, heterojunction interfacial interaction and the photoinduced electron chemical environment of the samples are studied. In the photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) solution under UV irradiation, the rGO-TONT/FTO heterojunction photocatalyst exhibits the improved photocatalytic reaction rate, 3 times greater than that of pure TONT. The enhanced photocatalytic mechanism was discussed by PL. The effectively separate charge in heterojunction structure of rGO-TONT/FTO is responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity. Wherein, the abundant oxygen vacancies at TiO{sub 2} surface and the chemically bonded interface in rGO-TONT heterojunction also contributes to the interfacial electron transfer. Besides, the introduction of rGO enhanced its optical absorption capacity.

  5. An Investigation of Porous Structure of TiNi-Based SHS-Materials Produced at Different Initial Synthesis Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodorenko, V. N.; Anikeev, S. G.; Kokorev, O. V.; Yasenchuk, Yu. F.; Gunther, V. É.

    2018-02-01

    An investigation of structural characteristics and behavior of TiNi-based pore-permeable materials manufactured by the methods of selfpropagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) at the initial synthesis temperatures T = 400 and 600°C is performed. It is shown that depending on the temperature regime, the resulting structure and properties of the material can differ. It is found out that the SHS-material produced at the initial synthesis temperature T = 400°C possesses the largest number of micropores in the pore wall surface structure due to a high phase inhomogeneity of the alloy. The regime of structure optimization of the resulting materials is described and the main stages of formation of the pore wall microporous surfaces are revealed. It is demonstrated that after optimization of the surface structure of a TiNi-based fine-pore alloy by its chemical etching, the fraction of micropores measuring in size less than 50 nm increased from 59 to 68%, while the number of pores larger than 1 μm increased twofold from 11 to 22%. In addition, peculiar features of interaction between certain cell cultures with the surface of the SHS-material manufactured at different initial synthesis temperatures are revealed. It is found out that the dynamics of the cell material integration depends on the pore wall surface morphology and dimensions of macropores.

  6. Surfactant-dependent macrophage response to polypyrrole-based coatings electrodeposited on Ti6Al7Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mindroiu, Mihaela [University Polytechnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1-7 Polizu, 011061, Bucharest (Romania); Ion, Raluca [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91-95 Spl. Independentei, 050095, Bucharest (Romania); Pirvu, Cristian [University Polytechnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science, 1-7 Polizu, 011061, Bucharest (Romania); Cimpean, Anisoara, E-mail: anisoara.cimpean@bio.unibuc.ro [University of Bucharest, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 91-95 Spl. Independentei, 050095, Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-01

    In this study, polypyrrole (PPy) films were successfully synthesized on Ti6Al7Nb alloy by potentiostatic polymerization in the presence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (NaPSS), t-octylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol (Triton X-100) and N-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DM) surfactants. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the PPy/surfactant composite films revealed a granular structure characterized by a lower surface roughness than un-modified PPy films. The results demonstrated that addition of surfactants, namely Triton X-100 and DM, can improve electrochemical film stability and corrosion resistance. Further, Triton X-100 enhanced the adhesive strength of PPy films to the substrate. The surfactant type also showed a great influence on the surface wettability, the highest hydrophilic character being observed in the case of PPy/PSS film. Few studies have been devoted to the elucidation of inflammatory cell response to PPy-based materials. Therefore, RAW 264.7 macrophages were cultured on PPy-surfactant films to determine whether they elicit a differential cell behavior in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation, cellular morphology and cytokine secretion. Our results highlight the dependence of macrophage response on the surfactants used in the pyrrole polymerization process and suggest that the immune response to biomaterials coated with PPy films might be controlled by the choice of surfactant molecules. Highlights: • We electrodeposited polypyrrole films on Ti6Al7Nb alloy using three surfactants. • Differences in electrostability and wettability of polypyrrole films were found. • Triton X increased and NaPSS decreased the adhesion of polypyrrole films to Ti6Al7Nb. • Cytoskeletal architecture and macrophage activation were affected by surfactants. • The hydrophilic PPy/PSS coating elicited the lowest inflammatory response.

  7. Surfactant-dependent macrophage response to polypyrrole-based coatings electrodeposited on Ti6Al7Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mindroiu, Mihaela; Ion, Raluca; Pirvu, Cristian; Cimpean, Anisoara

    2013-01-01

    In this study, polypyrrole (PPy) films were successfully synthesized on Ti6Al7Nb alloy by potentiostatic polymerization in the presence of poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (NaPSS), t-octylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol (Triton X-100) and N-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside (DM) surfactants. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the PPy/surfactant composite films revealed a granular structure characterized by a lower surface roughness than un-modified PPy films. The results demonstrated that addition of surfactants, namely Triton X-100 and DM, can improve electrochemical film stability and corrosion resistance. Further, Triton X-100 enhanced the adhesive strength of PPy films to the substrate. The surfactant type also showed a great influence on the surface wettability, the highest hydrophilic character being observed in the case of PPy/PSS film. Few studies have been devoted to the elucidation of inflammatory cell response to PPy-based materials. Therefore, RAW 264.7 macrophages were cultured on PPy-surfactant films to determine whether they elicit a differential cell behavior in terms of cell adhesion, proliferation, cellular morphology and cytokine secretion. Our results highlight the dependence of macrophage response on the surfactants used in the pyrrole polymerization process and suggest that the immune response to biomaterials coated with PPy films might be controlled by the choice of surfactant molecules. Highlights: • We electrodeposited polypyrrole films on Ti6Al7Nb alloy using three surfactants. • Differences in electrostability and wettability of polypyrrole films were found. • Triton X increased and NaPSS decreased the adhesion of polypyrrole films to Ti6Al7Nb. • Cytoskeletal architecture and macrophage activation were affected by surfactants. • The hydrophilic PPy/PSS coating elicited the lowest inflammatory response

  8. In situ TEM observations of unusual nanocrystallization in a Ti-based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, M.; Wang, D.J.; Shen, J.; Qian, M.

    2011-01-01

    In situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to witness the nanocrystallization of amorphous Ti 42.5 Cu 40 Zr 10 Ni 5 Sn 2.5 . A crystallization front exists to separate the TEM sample into two parts with different thermal stabilities. The number density of the crystallization products varies significantly, with the precipitate sizes ranging from a few nanometres to ∼100 nm. Detailed TEM analysis suggests that oxygen is the most likely reason for realizing the unusual nanocrystallization. External thermal analysis also indicates that oxygen affects the crystallization.

  9. Optimized anodization setup for the growth of TiO2 nanotubes on flat surfaces of titanium based materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strnad Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive research work on development of nanostructured TiO2 layers on the surface of titanium based materials for biomedical implants led the authors to the optimization of process parameters of electrochemical anodization in phosphate/fluoride based electrolytes. Based on those parameters, a dedicated optimized electrochemical anodization setup was originally designed and realized. The anodization bath was designed in order to provide a proper circulation of electrolyte and the possibility of distance anode-cathode modification, the DC power supply was designed accordingly to the electrical parameters requested by the nanotubes development, and a dedicated software (Nanosource was developed for process control and ease and flexibility of process parameters acquisition, storage and processing.

  10. AlTiN layer effect on mechanical properties of Ti-doped diamond-like carbon composite coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Xiaolu; Yang Huisheng; Gao Kewei; Wang Yanbin; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2011-01-01

    Ti/Ti-doped diamond-like carbon (DLC) and Ti/AlTiN/Ti-DLC composite coatings were deposited by magnetron sputtering on W18Cr4V high speed steel substrates. The effect of the AlTiN support layer on the properties of these composite coatings was investigated through microstructure and mechanical properties characterization, including hardness, elastic modulus, coefficient of friction and wear properties measured by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, scratch and ball-on-disk friction tests. Ti and AlTiN interlayers have a columnar structure with 50-80 nm grains. The hardness and elastic modulus of Ti/Ti-DLC and Ti/AlTiN/Ti-DLC coatings is 25.9 ± 0.4, 222.2 ± 6.3 GPa and 19.3 ± 1, 205.6 ± 6.7 GPa, respectively. Adhesion of Ti-DLC, Ti/AlTiN/Ti-DLC and AlTiN/Ti-DLC coatings expressed as the critical lateral force is 26.5 N, 38.2 N, and 47.8 N, respectively. Substrate coefficient of friction without coatings is 0.44, and it is 0.1 for Ti/Ti-DLC and Ti/AlTiN/Ti-DLC coatings. Wear resistance of Ti/AlTiN/Ti-DLC composite coatings is much higher than Ti/Ti-DLC coatings based on the wear track width of 169.8 and 73.2 μm, respectively, for the same experimental conditions.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of a novel stationary phase, Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS), based upon ternary oxide support for high performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amparo, Maura R.; Marques, Fabiana A.; Faria, Anizio M., E-mail: anizio@pontal.ufu.br [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (FACIP/UFU), Ituiutaba, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Integradas do Pontal

    2013-09-15

    A new stationary phase based on the thermal immobilization of poly(methyltetradecylsiloxane) (PMTDS) on silica particles coated with a mixture of zirconia and titania was prepared and evaluated for the chromatographic separation of test mixtures. The spherical particles were characterized by elemental analysis, SEM, FTIR and {sup 29}Si NMR. The physicochemical properties of PMTDS phase supported on Si-Zr/Ti were intermediate between PMTDS phases supported on titanized silica and zirconized silica. The chromatographic performance of Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) phase was similar to PMTDS phases based on metal oxide coated silica having only one metal oxide and the preparation of a Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) phase allowed evaluation of the effect of each oxide, zirconia and titania, on the separation process and on the stability of the immobilized polymer phase. The hydrolytic stability of Si-Zr/Ti(PMTDS) stationary phase was similar to the Si-Ti(PMTDS) phase, improving the chemical stability of the silica-based PMTDS phase by about 100%. (author)

  12. ZrC zone structure and features of electronic structure of solid solutions on the base ZrC, ZrN, TiC and TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhracheva, L.P.; Gel'd, P.V.; Tskhaj, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    The results of ZrC zone structure calculation conducted using the strong bond method in the three-centre variant are given. Essentially higher degree of M-C chemical bond ionicity than in TiC is shown to take place for it. Solid solution formation in TiC-ZrC, TiN-ZrC and ZrC-ZrN systems differing from TiC-TiN, TiN-ZrN and TiC-TiN is stated to be followed by essential deformation of component zone structures that, obviously, should prevent formation of solid solutions without vacancies in sublatices in these systems

  13. Development of inorganic composite material based TiO2 for environmental application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningsih, Sayekti; Handono Ramelan, Ari; Pramono, Edi; Purnawan, Candra; Anjani, Velina; Estianingsih, Puji; Rinawati, Ludfiaastu; Fadli, Khusnan

    2016-02-01

    Syntheses of various materials, for green energy nanotechnology applications have special attention to develop emerging areas, such as environmental as well as energy materials. Various approaches for preparing nanostructured photocatalysts, such as titanium dioxide, nickel oxide, lead oxide and their composites, was introduced. The use of nanomaterials as photocatalysts water detoxification by visible light photocatalyst of an inorganic composite as well as dye-sensitized photoreduction was also discussed. The enhancement of selective photocatalyst system was gain by the use of photocatalyst composite materials and applied potential bias on the system. The photoelectrocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B (RB) and Remazol Yellow FG (RY) as water contaminant using the thin film of modified TiO2 as the electrode was investigated via a series of potentials, and various pH. The result showed that the anodic potential bias influenced the degradation rate of water contaminant and exhibited better performance by the positive anodic bias was applied. The pH conditions influence the active dye structure whereas it will interact with inorganic semiconductor photocatalyst. Using dye- sensitized TiO2 system (DSTs), we have applied this system to build water decolorization as a novelty environmental remediation system.

  14. Hydrogen storage performance of Ti-V-based BCC phase alloys with various Fe content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, X.B.; Feng, S.L.; Wu, Z.; Xia, B.J.; Xu, N.X.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Fe content on hydrogen storage characteristics of Ti-10Cr-18Mn-(32-x)V-xFe (x = 0, 2, 3, 4, 5) alloys has been investigated at 353 K. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the alloys present BCC and C14 two-phase structures for all of the Fe-containing alloys. With the increasing Fe content, the lattice parameters of the BCC phase decrease, which results in an increase of the hydrogen desorption plateau pressure of the alloys. Among the studied alloys, Ti-10Cr-18Mn-27V-5Fe alloy exhibits the smallest PCT plateau slope and a more suitable plateau pressure (0.1 MPa equ <1 MPa). The maximum and effective capacities of the alloy are 3.32 wt.% and 2.26 wt.%, respectively, which are higher than other reported Fe-containing BCC phase alloys. In addition, the V/Fe ratio in this alloy is close to that of (VFe) alloy, whose cost is much lower than that of pure V

  15. A Humidity Sensor Based on Nb-doped Nanoporous TiO2 Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Anbia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The humidity sensing properties of the sensor fabricated from Nb-doped nanoporous TiO2 by screen-printing on the alumina substrate with Ag-Pd interdigital electrodes have been investigated. The nanoporous thin film has been prepared by sol-gel technique. The product has been characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy to analyze the structure and its morphology. It is found that the impedance of this sensor changes more than four orders of magnitude in the relative humidity (RH range of 11–95 % at 25 °C. The response and recovery time of the sensor are about 19 and 25 s, respectively, during the RH variation from 11 to 95 %. The sensor shows high humidity sensitivity, rapid response and recovery, prominent stability, good repeatability and narrow hysteresis loop. These results indicate that Nb-doped nanoporous TiO2 thin films have a great potential for humidity sensing applications in room temperature operations.

  16. An experimental study on pseudoelasticity of a NiTi-based damper for civil applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespoli, Adelaide; Bassani, Enrico; Della Torre, Davide; Donnini, Riccardo; Villa, Elena; Passaretti, Francesca

    2017-10-01

    In this work, a pseudoelastic damper composed by NiTi wires is tested at 0.5, 1 and 2 Hz for 1000 mechanical cycles. The damping performances were evaluated by three key parameters: the damping capacity, the dissipated energy per cycle and the maximum force. During testing, the temperature of the pseudoelastic elements was registered as well. Results show that the damper assures a bi-directional motion throughout the 1000 cycles together with the maintenance of the recentering. It was observed a stabilization process in the first 50 mechanical cycles, where the key parameters reach stable values; in particular it was found that the damping capacity and the dissipated energy both decrease with frequency. Besides, the mean temperature of the pseudoleastic elements reaches a stable value during tests and confirms the different response of the pseudoelastic wires accordingly with the specific length and stain. Finally, interesting thermal effects were observed at 1 and 2 Hz: at these frequencies and at high strains, the maximum force increases but the temperature of the NiTi wire decreases being in contraddiction with the Clausius-Clapeyron law.

  17. Phase transformations in Ni/Ti multilayers investigated by synchrotron radiation-based x-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaleiro, A.J., E-mail: andre.cavaleiro@dem.uc.pt [CEMUC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, R. Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Ramos, A.S. [CEMUC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, R. Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Martins, R.M.S. [CENIMAT/I3N, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); LATR/IST/CTN – Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 ao km 139.7, 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Fernandes, F.M. Braz [CENIMAT/I3N, Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Morgiel, J. [Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Polish Academy of Sciences, Reymonta 25, 30-059 Cracow (Poland); Baehtz, C. [Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf HZDR, Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Vieira, M.T. [CEMUC, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, R. Luís Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-10-15

    X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation was used for real-time investigation of the phase evolution of Ni/Ti multilayer thin films during annealing. These multilayers were deposited onto Ti–6Al–4V substrates by dc magnetron sputtering from pure Ni and Ti targets. The deposition parameters were adjusted in order to obtain a near equiatomic chemical composition and modulation periods (Λ) below 25 nm. Along the entire thickness of the films, well-defined structures with alternate Ni- and Ti-rich layers are observed, even for Λ = 4 nm. In this case, a halo characteristic of an amorphous structure is obtained, while for Λ of 12 and 25 nm the as-deposited thin films are nanocrystalline being possible to identify the (111) Ni and (002) Ti diffraction peaks. The nanolayered structure vanishes during annealing due to interdiffusion followed by reaction. The reaction between Ni and Ti to produce NiTi in the cubic B2 structure occurs in a short delay of time and within a narrow temperature range. For Λ of 25, 12 and 4 nm, the reaction temperature is close to 320, 350 and 385 °C, respectively. For higher temperatures, in addition to the austenitic phase, the NiTi{sub 2} phase is identified. The diffusion of Ti from the substrate and Ni towards the substrate could favour the precipitation of NiTi{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Alternate Ni- and Ti-rich layers are observed, even for short periods. • Phase evolution was studied using synchrotron radiation XRD during annealing. • Ni and Ti reacted at ∼300–400 °C to form B2–NiTi in a single step. • The higher the period the lower the reaction temperature. • At higher temperatures NiTi{sub 2} was detected due to Ni diffusion towards Ti{sub 6}Al{sub 4}V.

  18. Effects of plasma parameters and collection region on synthesis of iron and nickel aluminide composite particles during thermal plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, K.; Selvarajan, V.

    2010-02-01

    Iron and Nickel aluminide composite particles were synthesized by non-transferred DC plasma spray torch at atmospheric pressure. Irregular shaped ball milled, micron sized powders were fed in to the plasma flame using argon as carrier gas. The particles got molten and vaporized. The vapour condensed on the walls of the reaction chamber and nanoparticles were formed. The molten particles got spheroidized due to surface tension forces. Powders as formed were collected in the plasma reactor at three different sections (Section A, B and C). These powder particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The particle size and morphology of the composite particles strongly varied depending on the processing parameters and collection region. The results were discussed.

  19. Experimental Study on Influence of Process Variables on Crater Dimensions in Micro- EDM of γ-Titanium Aluminide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, S.; Paul, G.; Sarkar, S.; Nagahanumaiah

    2011-01-01

    In the present work the effect of different dielectric mediums in micro-EDM of γ-Titanium Aluminide alloy have been investigated. Experiments were conducted both in the absence (dry conditions) and in presence of dielectric (EDM oil).Circular craters were produced both in the presence and absence of dielectric fluid using varying micro-EDM process variables i.e. open circuit voltage, discharge capacitance, pulse frequency and pulse-on-time. Over cut was measured from optical microscope images using Image Analyzer software. Influences of process variables and optimal conditions for minimum over cut on crater dimensions were investigated. ANOVA test which shows that capacitance of RC circuit contributes significantly in crater formation followed by pulse frequency. Optical photographs exhibit that over cut are less in air medium compared to oil medium.

  20. Plasmonic effect of Ag@TiO{sub 2} core–shell nanocubes on dye-sensitized solar cell performance based on reduced graphene oxide–TiO{sub 2} nanotube composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandrasekhar, P.S., E-mail: pschandrasekhar9@gmail.com [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Chander, Nikhil [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Anjaneyulu, Oruganti [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India); Komarala, Vamsi K., E-mail: vamsi@ces.iitd.ac.in [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2015-11-02

    The role of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and plasmonic Ag@TiO{sub 2} core–shell nanocubes has been investigated on dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) performance based on 1-D TiO{sub 2} nanotubes (TNTs) as photoanodes. A series of cells are fabricated with different amounts of RGO (0.2 to 1.0 wt.%) in TNTs. The incorporation of RGO in TNTs is confirmed by photoluminescence, Raman, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies. The best performance is achieved with 0.8 wt.% RGO–TNT composite, which exhibited a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 4.26%, while with bare TNTs, it showed a PCE of 2.85%. The ~ 49% enhancement in PCE with RGO is attributed to the improved dye loading, reduced charge carrier recombination, and high electron transfer efficiency. The enhancement in open circuit voltage (maximum of 50 mV) is also observed with RGO, which is due to the increased electron density in the conduction band of TiO{sub 2} leading to the change in position of quasi Fermi level to higher levels, resulting in shifts towards negative potential side. To further enhance the PCE of DSSCs based on RGO–TNT composites, surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) of silver (Ag) @TiO{sub 2} core–shell nanocubes are also exploited by integrating differing concentrations from 0.1 to 0.3 wt.%. The PCE of plasmonic DSSC is further enhanced to 5.19% with 0.2 wt.% Ag nanocubes. The strong near-fields around the nanocubes (SPR peak spread from 600 to 1000 nm) stimulated the N719 dye for generating more photoelectrons with enhanced light absorption process in broad wavelength region. - Highlights: • Systematic investigation is carried out based on reduced graphene oxide (RGO)–TiO{sub 2} nanotube (TNT) composites as photoanodes. • Surface Plasmon Resonance of Ag@TiO{sub 2} core–shell nanocubes are incorporated in RGO–TNTs to improve the light absorption in near IR regions. • RGO improved the electron transportation by suppressing charge recombination, and also increases the dye

  1. High Temperature Oxidation of Spark Plasma Sintered and Thermally Sprayed FeAl-Based Iron Aluminides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haušild, P.; Karlík, M.; Skiba, T.; Sajdl, P.; Dubský, Jiří; Palm, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2012), s. 465-468 ISSN 0587-4246. [International Symposium on Physics of Materials (ISPMA)/12./. Prague, 04.09.2011-08.09.2011] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : thermal spraying * plasma sintering Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.531, year: 2012

  2. Electrical properties of BaTiO3 based – MFIS heterostructure: Role of semiconductor channel carrier concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Vagadia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Effect of semiconductor channel carrier concentration on the modifications in the electrical properties of Ag/BaTiO3/SrTiO3/ZnO Metal-Ferroelectric-Insulator-Semiconductor (MFIS heterostructure has been investigated. Under 4 V applied voltage, low leakage current density ∼3.2 × 10−6 A/cm2, has been observed in ZnO based MFIS heterostructure, which becomes ∼5.0 × 10−6 A/cm2 for MFIS with Al:ZnO channel. Observation of counterclockwise butterfly shaped C-V behavior confirms that, hysteresis in C-V is due to spontaneous ferroelectric polarization and field effect. A device with ZnO semiconductor exhibit ∼2700% modulation which decreases to ∼800% for Al: ZnO channel with good retention behavior. Pulse induced write/erase repeatability of source/drain current confirms the usefulness of the presently studied devices for non-volatile switching memory application.

  3. W/Cu thin film infrared reflector for TiNxOy based selective solar absorber with high thermal stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, Y. C.; Liu, Z.; Yang, H. Y.

    2017-05-01

    The W/Cu thin film structure is deposited by magnetron sputtering to form the infrared reflector for the TiNxOy based selective solar absorber (SSA) that can be used in the low- and middle-temperature applications. The structural, chemical, and optical properties of the SSA layers that experienced thermal annealing at different temperatures for various durations have been investigated with the characterization techniques, including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, and spectrophotometry. Without a W layer, the reflectance in both visible and infrared ranges of the SSA increases as a result of the crystallization of the Cu layer at elevated temperatures. With a W layer with appropriate film thickness, the increase of the reflectance in the visible range can be suppressed to maintain a high solar absorptance, whereas a high infrared reflectance can be maintained to achieve a low thermal emittance. It is shown that for the SiO2-TiNxOy-W-Cu-Glass SSA with a 15 nm W thin film, thermal annealing can significantly reduce the thermal emittance to a low value (e.g., 4.4% at the temperature of 400 °C for annealing at 400 °C for 6 h), whereas the solar absorptance can be maintained at a high value (e.g., 92.2% for the annealing at 400 °C for 6 h).

  4. Tetragonal Ce-based Ce-Sm(Fe, Co, Ti){sub 12} alloys for permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin-Cid, Andres; Salazar, Daniel [BCMaterials, Bizkaia Science and Tecnology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Gabay, Aleksandr M.; Hadjipanayis, George C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 19716 (United States); Barandiaran, Jose Manuel [BCMaterials, Bizkaia Science and Tecnology Park, 48160 Derio (Spain); Department of Electricity and Electronics, University Basque Country (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    Abundance and relatively low cost of Ce provide a great incentive for its use in rare-earth permanent magnets. It has been recently reported that the tetragonal Ce(Fe,Co,Ti)12 compounds may exhibit application-worthy intrinsic magnetic properties. In this work the effect of the α-Fe phase formation due to the evaporation of Sm during alloy fabrication has been studied, as a previous step in the attempt to convert the intrinsic magnetic properties into functional properties of a permanent magnet. Ce{sub 0.5}Sm{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 9}Co{sub 2}Ti alloys based on the ThMn12-type crystal structure have been synthesized via melt-spinning with different Sm content. Coercive fields between 2.8 and 1.4 kOe have been found for α-Fe phase contents between 8 and 46% in volume, showing the influence of the α-Fe phase on the coercivity and exchange coupling between the hard and soft phase. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Effects of low pressure plasma treatments on DSSCs based on rutile TiO2 array photoanodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Weiqi; Chen, Jiazang; Luo, Jianqiang; Zhang, Yuzhi; Gao, Lian; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Plasma treatment effects on rutile nanorod arrays studied. • Dye adsorption amount increased by all plasma treatment. • Flat-band potential positively shifted after NP and OP treatments. • Cell performance improved by NP and OP treatments. - Abstract: In this paper, three types of low pressure plasma including hydrogen (HP), oxygen (OP) and nitrogen (NP) treatments have been utilized for the first time to improve DSSCs based on rutile TiO 2 array photoanodes. Their effects on the photoanodes and the cell performance have been systematically compared by characterizing the dye loading amount, flat-band potential, donor concentration, electron lifetime and the photovoltaic parameters. Experimental results show that all the three plasma treatments increase the dye loading owing to improved hydrophilicity or enhanced surface roughness. It is found that NP and OP treatments significantly increase the TiO 2 donor concentration and decrease trapping sites. By this way, the electron transport is enhanced and the electron recombination is effectively restrained. These comprehensive effects make NP and OP treatments beneficial for the overall performance, by which 13% and 5% increases in efficiency are achieved. However, HP treatment causes obvious reduction in the donor concentration and more severe electron recombination, which decreases the efficiency by about 15%

  6. Electrochemical sensor based on graphene and mesoporous TiO2 for the simultaneous determination of trace colourants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tian; Sun, Junyong; Meng, Wen; Song, Li; Zhang, Yuxia

    2013-12-15

    Currently, synthetic colourants draw much attention as food additives. This paper investigated the simultaneous electrocatalytic oxidation of sunset yellow and tartrazine, two yellow colourants commonly present in food together, with a novel voltammetric sensor based on graphene and mesoporous TiO2 modified carbon paste electrode. Due to the high accumulation effect and great catalytic capability of graphene and mesoporous TiO2, the developed sensor exhibited well-defined and separate square wave voltammetric peaks (i.e., 272 mV) for sunset yellow tartrazine. The peak currents of sunset yellow and tartrazine increased linearly with their concentration in the ranges of 0.02-2.05 μM and 0.02-1.18 μM, respectively. And the detection limit was 6.0 and 8.0 nM for sunset yellow and tartrazine, respectively. This new sensor was applied to determine sunset yellow and tartrazine in several food sample extracts. Results suggested that the proposed sensor was sensitive, rapid and reliable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ti, Al

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, authors report on the effect that substrate bias voltage has on the microstructure and mechanical properties of (Ti, Al)N hard coatings deposited with cathodic arc evaporation (CAE) technique. The coatings were deposited from a Ti0.5Al0.5 powder metallurgical target in a reactive nitrogen atmosphere at ...

  8. Performance-degradation model for Li4Ti5O12-based battery cells used in wind power applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2012-01-01

    Energy storage systems based on Lithium-ion batteries have the potential to mitigate the negative impact of wind power grid integration on the power system stability, which is caused by the characteristics of the wind. This paper presents a performance model for a Li4Ti5O12/LiMO2 battery cell....... For developing the performance model an EIS-based electrical modelling approach was followed. The obtained model is able to predict with high accuracy charge and discharge voltage profiles for different ages of the battery cell and for different charging/discharging current rates. Moreover, the ageing behaviour...... of the battery cell was analysed for the case of accelerated cycling ageing with a certain mission profile....

  9. Surface Texture-Based Surface Treatments on Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloys for Tribological and Biological Applications: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Lin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface texture (ST has been confirmed as an effective and economical surface treatment technique that can be applied to a great range of materials and presents growing interests in various engineering fields. Ti6Al4V which is the most frequently and successfully used titanium alloy has long been restricted in tribological-related operations due to the shortcomings of low surface hardness, high friction coefficient, and poor abrasive wear resistance. Ti6Al4V has benefited from surface texture-based surface treatments over the last decade. This review begins with a brief introduction, analysis approaches, and processing methods of surface texture. The specific applications of the surface texture-based surface treatments for improving surface performance of Ti6Al4V are thoroughly reviewed from the point of view of tribology and biology.

  10. Surface Texture-Based Surface Treatments on Ti6Al4V Titanium Alloys for Tribological and Biological Applications: A Mini Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Naiming; Li, Dali; Zou, Jiaojuan; Xie, Ruizhen; Wang, Zhihua; Tang, Bin

    2018-03-24

    Surface texture (ST) has been confirmed as an effective and economical surface treatment technique that can be applied to a great range of materials and presents growing interests in various engineering fields. Ti6Al4V which is the most frequently and successfully used titanium alloy has long been restricted in tribological-related operations due to the shortcomings of low surface hardness, high friction coefficient, and poor abrasive wear resistance. Ti6Al4V has benefited from surface texture-based surface treatments over the last decade. This review begins with a brief introduction, analysis approaches, and processing methods of surface texture. The specific applications of the surface texture-based surface treatments for improving surface performance of Ti6Al4V are thoroughly reviewed from the point of view of tribology and biology.

  11. Effect of Ti Doping to Maintain Structural Disorder in InOx-Based Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Shinya

    2017-12-01

    The effect of Ti doping in an indium oxide (InOx)-based semiconductor is investigated for the thin-film transistor (TFT) property and crystal structure of the film. InOx and Ti-doped InOx (InTiOx) films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering under the same O2 partial pressure conditions were systematically compared. The TFT behavior of the InOx showed higher conductivity than that of the InTiOx and was drastically changed to metallic conduction after annealing at 150 °C. Under the annealing conditions when the electrical transition to the metallic behavior occurred, the InOx film was crystallized. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the shrinkage of the In2O3 unit cell is pronounced in the case of InOx films. Thus, Ti dopants may play the role as a suppressor for shrinkage of the unit cell, i.e. maintaining neighboring In-In distances, in addition to suppression of oxygen vacancies. The In-In distance, which is related to the overlapping of In 5 s orbitals, is considered to be one of the key factor for which InOx-based materials are utilized as conducting films or semiconducting channels.

  12. Challenges and Progress in the Development of High-Temperature Shape Memory Alloys Based on NiTiX Compositions for High-Force Actuator Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Santo, II; Bigelow, Glen; Noebe, Ronald; Gaydosh, Darrell; Garg, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Interest in high-temperature shape memory alloys (HTSMA) has been growing in the aerospace, automotive, process control, and energy industries. However, actual materials development has seriously lagged component design, with current commercial NiTi alloys severely limited in their temperature capability. Additions of Pd, Pt, Au, Hf, and Zr at levels greater than 10 at.% have been shown to increase the transformation temperature of NiTi alloys, but with few exceptions, the shape memory behavior (strain recovery) of these NiTiX systems has been determined only under stress free conditions. Given the limited amount of basic mechanical test data and general lack of information regarding the work attributes of these materials, a program to investigate the mechanical behavior of potential HTSMAs, with transformation temperatures between 100 and 500 C, was initiated. This paper summarizes the results of studies, focusing on both the practical temperature limitations for ternary TiNiPd and TiNiPt systems based on the work output of these alloys and the ability of these alloys to undergo repeated thermal cycling under load without significant permanent deformation or "walking". These issues are ultimately controlled by the detwinning stress of the martensite and resistance to dislocation slip of the individual martensite and austenite phases. Finally, general rules that govern the development of useful, high work output, next-generation HTSMA materials, based on the lessons learned in this work, will be provided

  13. Mechanochemical assisted synthesis of NiTi intermetallic based nanocomposite reinforced by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousavi, T. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karimzadeh, F. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: karimzadeh_f@cc.iut.ac.ir; Abbasi, M.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology (IUT), Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2009-01-07

    Synthesis of NiTi/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite by mechanical alloying (MA) of a powder mixture containing NiO, Al, Ti and Ni was investigated. The structural evaluation of milled and annealed powders was studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and microhardness measurements. The mechanochemical reaction between NiO and Al took place shortly in a combustion mode leading to increase of vial temperature and formation of NiTi, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and a small amount of Ti{sub 2}Ni which transformed to NiTi at further MA times. NiTi/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposite exhibited larger grain size of NiTi, higher microhardness and smaller particle size compared to NiTi. Annealing of the milled powder showed that the products are dependent on the cooling rate. The presence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} dispersoids in the NiTi matrix leads to decrease of grain growth and ordering degree of NiTi and finally high thermal stability of nanocomposite during annealing.

  14. R&D on Composition and Processing of Titanium Aluminide Alloys for Turbine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    and is approved for publication. 4.2 / /;ARRY LIPS NORMA M. GEYER Projec Engineer Technical Area Manager Processing & High Temperature Materials...of as- forged Ti- 25A1-10Nb- 3V- iMo 24 alloy pancake forging. This was forged on iso - thermal dies at 1120C (20SOF) in one step from a cast ingot. 14

  15. Building memristive and radiation hardness TiO{sub 2}-based junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghenzi, N., E-mail: n.ghenzi@gmail.com [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Rubi, D. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); ECyT, UNSAM, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Bs As (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Mangano, E.; Gimenez, G. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Industrial (INTI) (Argentina); Lell, J. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Zelcer, A. [Gerencia Química, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); ECyT, UNSAM, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Bs As (Argentina); Stoliar, P. [ECyT, UNSAM, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Bs As (Argentina); IMN, Université de Nantes, CNRS, 2 rue de la Houssinière, BP 32229, 44322 Nantes (France); and others

    2014-01-01

    We study micro-scale TiO{sub 2} junctions that are suitable to be used as resistive random-access memory nonvolatile devices with radiation hardness memristive properties. The fabrication and structural and electrical characterization of the junctions are presented. We obtained a retentivity of 10{sup 5} s, an endurance of 10{sup 4} cycles and reliable switching with short electrical pulses (time-width below 10 ns). Additionally, the devices were exposed to 25 MeV oxygen ions. Then, we performed electrical measurements comparing pristine and irradiated devices in order to check the feasibility of using these junctions as memory elements with memristive and radiation hardness properties. - Highlights: • We fabricated radiation hardness memristive metal insulator metal junctions. • We characterized the structural properties of the devices. • We showed the feasibility of the junctions as a non-volatile memory.

  16. Carrier density independent scattering rate in SrTiO3-based electron liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Zhang, Jack Y; Marshall, Patrick B; Kajdos, Adam P; Balents, Leon; Stemmer, Susanne

    2016-02-10

    We examine the carrier density dependence of the scattering rate in two- and three-dimensional electron liquids in SrTiO3 in the regime where it scales with T(n) (T is the temperature and n ≤ 2) in the cases when it is varied by electrostatic control and chemical doping, respectively. It is shown that the scattering rate is independent of the carrier density. This is contrary to the expectations from Landau Fermi liquid theory, where the scattering rate scales inversely with the Fermi energy (EF). We discuss that the behavior is very similar to systems traditionally identified as non-Fermi liquids (n density-independent scattering rates have been observed. The results indicate that the applicability of Fermi liquid theory should be questioned for a much broader range of correlated materials and point to the need for a unified theory.

  17. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, N.; Azizah, N.; Hashim, U.

    2016-01-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO 2 ) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  18. Highly transparent and flexible bio-based polyimide/TiO2 and ZrO2 hybrid films with tunable refractive index, Abbe number, and memory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Tien; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Tateyama, Seiji; Kaneko, Tatsuo; Liou, Guey-Sheng

    2016-07-07

    The novel bio-based polyimide (4ATA-PI) and the corresponding PI hybrids of TiO2 or ZrO2 with excellent optical properties and thermal stability have been prepared successfully. The highly transparent 4ATA-PI containing carboxylic acid groups in the backbone could provide reaction sites for organic-inorganic bonding to obtain homogeneous hybrid films. These PI hybrid films showed a tunable refractive index (1.60-1.81 for 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 1.60-1.80 for 4ATA-PI/ZrO2), and the 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films revealed a higher optical transparency and Abbe's number than those of the 4ATA-PI/TiO2 system due to a larger band gap of ZrO2. By introducing TiO2 and ZrO2 as the electron acceptor into the 4ATA-PI system, the hybrid materials have a lower LUMO energy level which could facilitate and stabilize the charge transfer complex. Therefore, memory devices derived from these PI hybrid films exhibited tunable memory properties from DRAM, SRAM, to WORM with a different TiO2 or ZrO2 content from 0 wt% to 50 wt% with a high ON/OFF ratio (10(8)). In addition, the different energy levels of TiO2 and ZrO2 revealed specifically unique memory characteristics, implying the potential application of the prepared 4ATA-PI/TiO2 and 4ATA-PI/ZrO2 hybrid films in highly transparent memory devices.

  19. Monitoring the Degradation Process of Inconel 600 and its Aluminide Coatings under Molten Sulfate Film with Thermal Cycles by Electrochemical Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Take, S.; Yoshinaga, S.; Yanagita, M.; Itoi, Y.

    2016-01-01

    With a specially designed electrochemical cell, the changes in impedance behavior for Inconel 600 and aluminide diffusion coatings under molten sulfate film with thermal cycles (from 800 ℃ to 350 ℃) were monitored with electrochemical impedance measurements. It was found that corrosion resistance for both materials increased with lower temperatures. At the same time, the state of molten salt was also monitored successfully by measuring the changes in impedance at high frequency, which generally represents the resistance of molten salt itself. After two thermal cycles, both Inconel 600 and aluminide diffusion coatings showed excellent corrosion resistance. The results from SEM observation and EDS analysis correlated well with the results obtained by electrochemical impedance measurements. It is concluded that electrochemical impedance is very useful for monitoring the corrosion resistance of materials under molten salt film conditions even with thermal cycles.

  20. A novel drug delivery of 5-fluorouracil device based on TiO2/ZnS nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Henrique Antonio Mendonça; de Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio Alencar

    2015-11-01

    The structural and electronic properties of titanium oxide nanotubes (TiO2) have attracted considerable attention for the development of therapeutic devices and imaging probes for nanomedicine. However, the fluorescence response of TiO2 has typically been within ultraviolet spectrum. In this study, the surface modification of TiO2 nanotubes with ZnS quantum dots was found to produce a red shift in the ultra violet emission band. The TiO2 nanotubes used in this work were obtained by sol-gel template synthesis. The ZnS quantum dots were deposited onto TiO2 nanotube surface by a micelle-template inducing reaction. The structure and morphology of the resulting hybrid TiO2/ZnS nanotubes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. According to the results of fluorescence spectroscopy, pure TiO2 nanotubes exhibited a high emission at 380nm (3.26eV), whereas TiO2/ZnS exhibited an emission at 410nm (3.02eV). The TiO2/ZnS nanotubes demonstrated good bio-imaging ability on sycamore cultured plant cells. The biocompatibility against mammalian cells (Chinese Hamster Ovarian Cells-CHO) suggesting that TiO2/ZnS may also have suitable optical properties for use as biological markers in diagnostic medicine. The drug release characteristic of TiO2/ZnS nanotubes was explored using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an anticancer drug used in photodynamic therapy. The results show that the TiO2/ZnS nanotubes are a promising candidate for anticancer drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. M5Si3(M=Ti, Nb, Mo) Based Transition-Metal Silicides for High Temperature Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Zhihong [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Transition metal silicides are being considered for future engine turbine components at temperatures up to 1600 C. Although significant improvement in high temperature strength, room temperature fracture toughness has been realized in the past decade, further improvement in oxidation resistance is needed. Oxidation mechanism of Ti5Si3-based alloys was investigated. Oxidation behavior of Ti5Si3-based alloy strongly depends on the atmosphere. Presence of Nitrogen alters the oxidation behavior of Ti5Si3 by nucleation and growth of nitride subscale. Ti5Si3.2and Ti5Si3C0.5 alloys exhibited an excellent oxidation resistance in nitrogen bearing atmosphere due to limited dissolution of nitrogen and increased Si/Ti activity ratio. MoSi2 coating developed by pack cementation to protect Mo-based Mo-Si-B composites was found to be effective up to 1500 C. Shifting coating composition to T1+T2+Mo3Si region showed the possibility to extend the coating lifetime above 1500 C by more than ten times via formation of slow growing Mo3Si or T2 interlayer without sacrificing the oxidation resistance of the coating. The phase equilibria in the Nb-rich portion of Nb-B system has been evaluated experimentally using metallographic analysis and differential thermal analyzer (DTA). It was shown that Nbss (solid solution) and NbB are the only two primary phases in the 0-40 at.% B composition range, and the eutectic reaction L {leftrightarrow} NbSS + NbB was determined to occur at 2104 ± 5 C by DTA.

  2. Crystal plasticity finite element simulation of NiTi shape memory alloy based on representative volume element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li; Jiang, Shuyong; Zhang, Yanqiu; Sun, Dong

    2017-11-01

    Crystal plasticity finite element method based on a representative volume element model, which includes the effect of grain shape and size, is combined with electron backscattered diffraction experiment in order to investigate plastic deformation of NiTi shape memory alloy during uniaxial compression at 400 °C. Simulation results indicate that the constructed representation of the polycrystal microstructure is able to effectively simulate macroscopically global stress-strain response and microscopically inhomogeneous microstructure evolution in the case of various loading directions. According to slip activity and Schmid factor in {110}, {010} and {110} slip modes, slip modes are found to play a dominant role in plastic deformation, while slip mode is found to be a secondary slip mode. In addition, the simulation results are supported well by the experimental ones. With the progression of plastic deformation, the (001) [0\\bar 10] texture component gradually disappears, while the γ-fiber () texture is increasingly enhanced.

  3. Influence of pulse repetition rate on percussion drilling of Ti-based alloy by picosecond laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononenko, Taras V.; Freitag, Christian; Sovyk, Dmitry N.; Lukhter, Alexander B.; Skvortsov, Konstantin V.; Konov, Vitaly I.

    2018-04-01

    Percussion drilling of a Ti-based alloy with 8 ps laser pulses was investigated with emphasis on the influence of the pulse repetition rate (1-300 kHz) on the drilling process. Heat accumulation is found to be responsible for simultaneous significant rise of the average drilling rate, the occurrence of a rim around the hole entrance, as well as noticeable surface oxidation. This can be observed as soon as the repetition rate exceeds a certain critical value, which depends on the pulse energy applied. Dramatic rise of the recast layer thickness inside the growing hole was revealed for the limited range of the repetition rates around the lower boundary of the heat accumulation regime. Possible origins of this phenomenon are discussed.

  4. Investigation of spin-gapless semiconductivity and half-metallicity in Ti2MnAl-based compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukashev, P.; Staten, B.; Hurley, N.; Kharel, P.; Gilbert, S.; Fuglsby, R.; Huh, Y.; Valloppilly, S.; Zhang, W.; Skomski, R.; Sellmyer, D. J.; Yang, K.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing interest in spin-based electronics has led to a vigorous search for new materials that can provide a high degree of spin polarization in electron transport. An ideal candidate would act as an insulator for one spin channel and a conductor or semiconductor for the opposite spin channel, corresponding to the respective cases of half-metallicity and spin-gapless semiconductivity. Our first-principle electronic-structure calculations indicate that the metallic Heusler compound Ti 2 MnAl becomes half-metallic and spin-gapless semiconducting if half of the Al atoms are replaced by Sn and In, respectively. These electronic structures are associated with structural transitions from the regular cubic Heusler structure to the inverted cubic Heusler structure.

  5. Electromagnetic behavior of radar absorbing materials based on Ca hexaferrite modified with Co-Ti ions and doped with La

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdirene Aparecida da Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Radar Absorbing Materials (RAM are compounds that absorb incidental electromagnetic radiation in tuned frequencies and dissipate it as heat. Its preparation involves the adequate processing of polymeric matrices filled with compounds that act as radar absorbing centers in the microwave range. This work shows the electromagnetic evaluation of RAM based on CoTi and La doped Ca hexaferrite. Vibrating Sample Magnetization analyses show that ion substitution promoted low values for the parameters of saturation magnetization (123.65 Am2/kg and coercive field (0.07 T indicating ferrite softening. RAM samples obtained using different hexaferrite concentrations (40-80 per cent, w/w show variations in complex permeability and permittivity parameters and also in the performance of incidental radiation attenuation. Microwave attenuation values between 40 and 98 per cent were obtained.

  6. Hole-Conductor-Free Mesoscopic TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 Heterojunction Solar Cells Based on Anatase Nanosheets and Carbon Counter Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Yaoguang; Ku, Zhiliang; Mei, Anyi; Liu, Tongfa; Xu, Mi; Ko, Songguk; Li, Xiong; Han, Hongwei

    2014-06-19

    A hole-conductor-free fully printable mesoscopic TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cell was developed with TiO2 nanosheets containing high levels of exposed (001) facets. The solar cell embodiment employed a double layer of mesoporous TiO2 and ZrO2 as a scaffold infiltrated by perovskite as a light harvester. No hole conductor or Au reflector was employed. Instead, the back contact was simply a printable carbon layer. The perovskite was infiltrated from solution through the porous carbon layer. The high reactivity of (001) facets in TiO2 nanosheets improved the interfacial properties between the perovskite and the electron collector. As a result, photoelectric conversion efficiency of up to 10.64% was obtained with the hole-conductor-free fully printable mesoscopic TiO2/CH3NH3PbI3 heterojunction solar cell. The advantages of fully printable technology and the use of low-cost carbon-materials-based counter electrode and hole-conductor-free structure provide this design a promising prospect to approach low-cost photovoltaic devices.

  7. Ba(1-x)Na(x)Ti2Sb2O (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33): a layered titanium-based pnictide oxide superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Phuong; Gooch, Melissa; Tang, Zhongjia; Lorenz, Bernd; Möller, Angela; Tapp, Joshua; Chu, Paul C W; Guloy, Arnold M

    2012-10-10

    A new layered Ti-based pnictide oxide superconductor, Ba(1-x)Na(x)Ti(2)Sb(2)O (0.0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33), is reported. X-ray studies revealed that it crystallizes in the tetragonal CeCr(2)Si(2)C structure. The undoped parent compound, BaTi(2)Sb(2)O [P4/mmm; a = 4.1196(1) Å; c = 8.0951(2) Å], exhibits a charge density wave (CDW)/spin density wave (SDW) transition at 54 K. Upon chemical doping with Na, the CDW/SDW transition is systematically suppressed, and superconductivity arises with the critical temperature (T(c)) increasing to 5.5 K. Bulk superconductivity was confirmed by resistivity, magnetic, and heat capacity measurements. Like the high-T(c) cuprates and the iron pnictides, the superconductivity in BaTi(2)Sb(2)O arises from an ordered state. Similarities and differences between BaTi(2)Sb(2)O and the cuprate and iron pnictide superconductors are discussed.

  8. Nanoscale CuO solid-electrolyte-based conductive-bridging, random-access memory cell with a TiN liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Sun; Kim, Dong-Won; Kim, Hea-Jee; Jin, Soo-Min; Song, Myung-Jin; Kwon, Ki-Hyun; Park, Jea-Gun; Jalalah, Mohammed; Al-Hajry, Ali

    2018-01-01

    The Conductive-bridge random-access memory (CBRAM) cell is a promising candidate for a terabit-level non-volatile memory due to its remarkable advantages. We present for the first time TiN as a diffusion barrier in CBRAM cells for enhancing their reliability. CuO solid-electrolyte-based CBRAM cells implemented with a 0.1-nm TiN liner demonstrated better non-volatile memory characteristics such as 106 AC write/erase endurance cycles with 100-μs AC pulse width and a long retention time of 7.4-years at 85 °C. In addition, the analysis of Ag diffusion in the CBRAM cell suggests that the morphology of the Ag filaments in the electrolyte can be effectively controlled by tuning the thickness of the TiN liner. These promising results pave the way for faster commercialization of terabit-level non-volatile memories.

  9. Depth profiling the solid electrolyte interphase on lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) using synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordh, Tim; Younesi, Reza; Brandell, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The presence of a surface layer on lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12, LTO) anodes, which has been a topic of debate in scientific literature, is here investigated with tunable high surface sensitive synchrotron-based photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) to obtain a reliable depth profile of the interphase...

  10. Study on the decomposition of trace benzene over V2O5-WO3/TiO2-based catalysts in simulated flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commercial and laboratory-prepared V2O5–WO3/TiO2-based catalysts with different compositions were tested for catalytic decomposition of chlorobenzene (ClBz) in simulated flue gas. Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) was employe...

  11. Unbiased Selective Isolation of Protein N-Terminal Peptides from Complex Proteome Samples Using Phospho Tagging PTAG) and TiO2-based Depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommen, G.P.M.; Waterbeemd, van de B.; Meiring, H.D.; Kersten, G.; Heck, A.J.R.; Jong, de A.P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    A positional proteomics strategy for global N-proteome analysis is presented based on phospho tagging (PTAG) of internal peptides followed by depletion by titanium dioxide (TiO2) affinity chromatography. Therefore, N-terminal and lysine amino groups are initially completely dimethylated with

  12. Effects of Process Variables and Size Scale on Solidification Microstructure in Laser-Based Solid Freeform Fabrication of Ti-6Al-4V

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klingbeil, N. W; Bontha, S; Brown, C. J; Gaddam, D. R; Kobryn, P. A; Fraser, H. L; Sears, J. W

    2004-01-01

    ... in laser-deposited Ti-6A1-4V. The analytical approach is based on the well-known Rosenthal solution for a moving point heat source, which provides dimensionless process maps for solidification cooling rate and thermal gradient...

  13. Tunable All-Optical Wavelength Conversion Based on Cascaded SHG/DFG in a Ti:PPLN Waveguide Using a Single CW Control Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, Rahman; Wang, Wenrui

    2012-01-01

    Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion (AOWC) of a 40-Gb/s RZ-OOK data signal based on cascaded second-harmonic generation (SHG) and difference-frequency generation (DFG) in a Ti:PPLN waveguide is demonstrated. Error-free performances with negligible power penalty are achieved for the wavelength...

  14. Numerical study of crucial parameters in tilt casting for titanium aluminides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical modeling of the tilt casting process for TiAl alloys was investigated to achieve a tranquil mould filling and TiAl castings free of defects. Titanium alloys are very reactive in molten state, so they are widely melted in cold crucible, e.g. the Induction Skull Melting (ISM furnace. Then the crucible holding the molten metal together with the mould is rotated to transfer the metal into the mould — ISM+ tilt casting. This paper emphasizes the effect of crucial parameters on mould filling and solidification of the castings during tilt casting. All crucial parameters, such as rotation rate, rotation profile, venting, initial mould temperature, casting orientation, feeder design, change of radius in 'T' junction and mould insulation have been discussed using numerical modeling data. Simulations were performed using a 3D CFD code PHYSICA implemented with front tracking, heat transfer algorithms and a turbulence model (which accounts for an advancing solid front.

  15. Activated carbon-based magnetic TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst codoped with iodine and nitrogen for organic pollution degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xuejiang, E-mail: wangxj@tongji.edu.cn; Song, Jingke; Huang, Jiayu; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Xin; Ma, RongRong; Wang, Jiayi; Zhao, Jianfu, E-mail: zhaojianfu@tongji.edu.cn

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • Iodine-nitrogen codoped magnetic photocatalyst was prepared. • A suitable I/Ti ratio was required for good performance of I{sub x}-N-T/CMAC. • I{sub 0.1}-N-T/CMAC own the best photocatalytic performance and can be separated easily. • Both Cl{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} have negative effect on the photocatalytic degradation of SA. • Suitable concentration of humic acid could enhance the photodegradation of SA. - Abstract: Magnetic photocatalyst − iodine and nitrogen codoped TiO{sub 2} based on chitosan decorated magnetic activated carbon (I-N-T/CMAC) was prepared via simple coprecipitation and sol-gel method. The characteristics of photocatalysts were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherm, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS), photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). It turned out that the prepared material had large surface area, enhanced absorption of visible light, and magnetically separable properties when mole ratio of I/Ti was 0.1. Iodine-nitrogen codoped magnetic photocatalyst was used for the removal of salicylic acid (SA), and the rate of adsorption reaction for SA by I{sub 0.1}-N-T/CMAC followed the pseudo second-order kinetic. Under visible light irradiation, 89.71% SA with initial concentration = 30 mg/L could be removed by I{sub 0.1}-N-T/CMAC, and photodegradation rate of SA on I{sub 0.1}-N-T/CMAC composites was 0.0084 min{sup −1} which is about 4 times higher than that of magnetic photocatalyst with nitrogen doped only. The effects of SA initial concentration, pH, coexisting anions and humic acid to the degradation of SA with the prepared material were also investigated. Main oxidative species in the photodegradation process are ·OH and h{sup +}.

  16. Thermal resistant efficiency of Nb-doped TiO2 thin film based glass window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luu Manh Quynh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The proportional relationship between the infrared (IR transmittance of a transparent material and its IR-induced heat transfer can be explained via a simple model. An agreement between the theory and the experimental work was examined by measuring the temperature rising inside a heat-insulated box with glass windows under IR irradiation, where the material of the glass windows was modified from corning glass (CG to 9 at% Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO fabricated by sputtering deposition. The fabricated TNO thin film was mostly transparent in a visible region and had a low transparency in the IR region, which, in turn, produced the self-cooling effect inside the insulated box. In comparison to the window glass made by CG, the temperature increase inside the box would be 24% less if the window was made by CG coated by TNO (TNO on CG. This suggests the possibility of manufacturing products with desirable features in the energy-cut cooling. The energy-cut was found to decline proportionally to the decrease of the glass window area.

  17. Enhancement of electrochemical properties of micro/nano electrodes based on TiO2 nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhair, D.; Gaburro, J.; Shafei, S.; Barlow, A.; Nahavandi, S.; Bhatti, A.

    2017-04-01

    Titanium oxide nanotube (TiO2 nanotube) arrays were produced by anodizing titanium foils in two different electrolytes. The first electrolyte consisted of ethylene glycol containing 0.5 wt% NH4F and 4 vol% of distilled water to produce pure TiO2 nanotube arrays and the second consisted of HF aqueous solution (0.5 wt%) containing 0.5% polyvinylalcohol to produce carbon doped TiO2 nanotube arrays. The fabricated TiO2 nanotube arrays were subsequently annealed in the atmosphere of nitrogen. The morphology and crystal structure of fabricated arrays were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The electrical conductivity and capacitance of TiO2 nanotube arrays were investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). Water contact angle and biocompatibility of fabricated nanotube arrays were investigated. The results showed that carbon doped TiO2 nanotube arrays annealed in the atmosphere of nitrogen have higher conductivity and capacitance than those of pure arrays annealed in the same atmosphere. Doping with carbon enhances the biocompatibility and wettability of TiO2 nanotube arrays. It has also noted that electrical conductivity and capacitance of TiO2 nanotube arrays were directly proportional to the tube wall thickness.

  18. Fe-Ti-O based catalyst for large-chiral-angle single-walled carbon nanotube growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Maoshuai; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Fe nanoparticles with subsequent high-temperature air calcination, which favours the formation of a homogeneous Fe-Ti-O solid solution. Using CO as the carbon feedstock, chemical vapour deposition growth of SWNTs at 800 °C was demonstrated on the Fe-Ti-O catalyst. Nanobeam electron diffraction...

  19. A study on the adsorption of methylene blue onto gum ghatti/TiO2nanoparticles-based hydrogel nanocomposite

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mittal, Hemant

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the isotherm and kinetic models for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) onto a TiO(sub2) nanoparticle (TiO(sub2)NP)-containing hydrogel nanocomposite (HNC) of polyacrylamide-grafted gum ghatti (PAAm...

  20. Hydroxyapatite-TiO(2)-based nanocomposites synthesized in supercritical CO(2) for bone tissue engineering: physical and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarian, Mehrnaz; Xu, William Z; Wang, Zhiqiang; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Charpentier, Paul A

    2014-10-08

    Calcium phosphate-based nanocomposites offer a unique solution toward producing scaffolds for orthopedic and dental implants. However, despite attractive bioactivity and biocompatibility, hydroxyapatite (HAp) has been limited in heavy load-bearing applications due to its intrinsically low mechanical strength. In this work, to improve the mechanical properties of HAp, we grew HAp nanoplates from the surface of one-dimensional titania nanorod structures by combining a coprecipitation and sol-gel methodology using supercritical fluid processing with carbon dioxide (scCO2). The effects of metal alkoxide concentration (1.1-1.5 mol/L), reaction temperature (60-80 °C), and pressure (6000-8000 psi) on the morphology, crystallinity, and surface area of the resulting nanostructured composites were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) method. Chemical composition of the products was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analyses. HAp nanoplates and HAp-TiO2 nanocomposites were homogeneously mixed within poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) to develop scaffolds with enhanced physical and mechanical properties for bone regeneration. Mechanical behavior analysis demonstrated that the Young's and flexural moduli of the PCL/HAp-TiO2 composites were substantially higher than the PCL/HAp composites. Therefore, this new synthesis methodology in scCO2 holds promise for bone tissue engineering with improved mechanical properties.

  1. A novel drug delivery of 5-fluorouracil device based on TiO{sub 2}/ZnS nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça Faria, Henrique Antonio, E-mail: henrique.fisica@ifsc.usp.br [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Federal University of Itajubá (UNIFEI), Av. BPS, 1303, Pinheirinho, Itajubá, MG, PO Box 50, CEP: 37500-903 (Brazil); Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology Laboratory, São Carlos Institute of Physics, University of São Paulo. Av. Trabalhador São-carlense, 400, Arnold Schimidt, São Carlos, SP CEP: 13566-590 (Brazil); Alencar de Queiroz, Alvaro Antonio, E-mail: alencar@unifei.edu.br [Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Federal University of Itajubá (UNIFEI), Av. BPS, 1303, Pinheirinho, Itajubá, MG, PO Box 50, CEP: 37500-903 (Brazil)

    2015-11-01

    The structural and electronic properties of titanium oxide nanotubes (TiO{sub 2}) have attracted considerable attention for the development of therapeutic devices and imaging probes for nanomedicine. However, the fluorescence response of TiO{sub 2} has typically been within ultraviolet spectrum. In this study, the surface modification of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes with ZnS quantum dots was found to produce a red shift in the ultra violet emission band. The TiO{sub 2} nanotubes used in this work were obtained by sol–gel template synthesis. The ZnS quantum dots were deposited onto TiO{sub 2} nanotube surface by a micelle-template inducing reaction. The structure and morphology of the resulting hybrid TiO{sub 2}/ZnS nanotubes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. According to the results of fluorescence spectroscopy, pure TiO{sub 2} nanotubes exhibited a high emission at 380 nm (3.26 eV), whereas TiO{sub 2}/ZnS exhibited an emission at 410 nm (3.02 eV). The TiO{sub 2}/ZnS nanotubes demonstrated good bio-imaging ability on sycamore cultured plant cells. The biocompatibility against mammalian cells (Chinese Hamster Ovarian Cells—CHO) suggesting that TiO{sub 2}/ZnS may also have suitable optical properties for use as biological markers in diagnostic medicine. The drug release characteristic of TiO{sub 2}/ZnS nanotubes was explored using 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an anticancer drug used in photodynamic therapy. The results show that the TiO{sub 2}/ZnS nanotubes are a promising candidate for anticancer drug delivery systems. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/ZnS nanotubes showed a redshift in fluorescence spectrum. • Cytotoxicity against mammalian cells revealed biocompatibility of the nanotubes. • TiO{sub 2}/ZnS proved an efficient delivery system for anti-tumor 5-fluorouracil.

  2. Effect of CeO2 on TiC Morphology in Ni-Based Composite Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yangchuan; Luo, Zhen; Chen, Yao

    2018-03-01

    The TiC/Ni composite coating with different content of CeO2 was fabricated on the Cr12MoV steel by laser cladding. The microstructure of cladding layers with the different content of CeO2 from the bottom to the surface is columnar crystal, cellular crystal, and equiaxed crystal. When the content of CeO2 is 0 %, the cladding layer has a coarse and nonuniform microstructure and TiC particles gathering in the cladding layer, and then the wear resistance was reduced. Appropriate rare-earth elements refined and homogenised the microstructure and enhanced the content of carbides, precipitated TiC particles and original TiC particles were spheroidised and refined, the wear resistance of the cladding layer was improved significantly. Excessive rare-earth elements polluted the grain boundaries and made the excessive burning loss of TiC particles that reduced the wear resistance of the cladding layer.

  3. Vacancy-induced magnetism in BaTiO3(001) thin films based on density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dan; Cai, Meng-Qiu; Hu, Wang-Yu; Yu, Ping; Huang, Hai-Tao

    2011-03-14

    The origin of magnetism induced by vacancies on BaTiO(3)(001) surfaces is investigated systematically by first-principles calculations within density-functional theory. The calculated results show that O vacancy is responsible for the magnetism of the BaO-terminated surface and the magnetism of the TiO(2)-terminated surface is induced by Ti vacancy. For the BaO-terminated surface, the magnetism mainly arises from the unpaired electrons that are localized in the O vacancy basin. In contrast, for the TiO(2)-terminated surface, the magnetism mainly originates from the partially occupied O-2p states of the first nearest neighbor O atoms surrounding the Ti vacancy. These results suggest the possibility of implementing magneto-electric coupling in conventional ferroelectric materials.

  4. Cavitation erosion of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy deposited coatings and Fe base shape memory alloy solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shuji; Fujisawa, Seiji; Owa, Tomonobu

    2007-01-01

    In this study, cavitation erosion tests were carried out by using thermal spraying and deposition of Ti-Ni shape memory alloy for the surface coating. The results show the test speciment of Ti-Ni thermal spraying has many initial defects, so that the erosion resistance is very low. The erosion resistance of Ti-Ni deposit is about 5-10 times higher than that of SUS 304, thus erosion resistance of Ti-Ni deposit is better than that of Ti-Ni thermal spraying. The cavitation erosion tests were carried out by using Fe-Mn-Si with shape memory and gunmetal with low elastic modulus. The erosion resistance of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy solid is about 9 times higher than that of SUS 304. The erosion resistance of gunmetal is almost the same as SUS 304, because the test specimen of gunmetal has many small defects on the original surface. (author)

  5. A brief review of Ba(Ti0.8Zr0.2)O3-(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 based lead-free piezoelectric ceramics: Past, present and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Sun, Huajun; Chen, Wen

    2018-03-01

    As one kind of most crucial and emerging lead-free piezoelectric systems, Ba(Ti0.8Zr0.2)O3-(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCZT) based lead-free piezoceramics have attracted worldwide attention in recent years. Much progress has been made, however, a summary which covers both the recent progress and the remained problems is urgently needed to further push this field forward. In this review, a brief background of the development of BCZT based lead-free piezoceramics was illustrated firstly. Then, the internal mechanism for the high piezoelectric response would be elaborated. Current research status was discussed in detail in the third section. Various strategies including: (1) Using distinct synthesis routes, (2) adopting different sintering techniques, (3) doping with foreign ions and/or second components, (4) grain size control, were exploited to improve the comprehensive performance and in turn broaden their application areas. In this part, some recently representative works were touched in detail and several existing problems were pointed out. Last, some critical comments (some thoughts related to the potential and future development of BCZT system) were given based on the current research status and existing problems. All in all, this review is devoted to summarizing the milestones in the past, classifying selected recent works and analyzing the prospects of BCZT based ceramics. It can be expected that, this first review that concentrates on BCZT based ceramics obviously would provide useful guidance for the research community.

  6. Patient-Report Satisfaction and Health-Related Quality of Life in TiLOOP® Bra-Assisted or Implant-Based Breast Reconstruction Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Dieterich; J, Angres; A, Stachs; A, Glass; T, Reimer; B, Gerber; J, Stubert

    2015-08-01

    Implant-based breast reconstructions (IBBR) using alternatives to acellular dermal matrixes are increasing. Data on complications are limited, and information concerning health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) following the use of these synthetic meshes do not exist. Between January 2006 and January 2013, patients undergoing immediate or delayed-immediate IBBR with or without titanium covered polypropylene mesh (TiLOOP® Bra) were investigated. HR-QoL was assessed using the validated self-reporting BREAST-Q questionnaire. Patient demographics and complications were evaluated retrospectively. Stepwise regression backward elimination analysis was performed to identify influential factors on each BREAST-Q domain. Of the 90 women, 42 had IBBR alone and 48 in combination with TiLOOP® Bra. The mean follow-up was 18 months in the TiLOOP® Bra and 17.5 months in the implant alone group (p = 0.827). The overall complication rate was 21.1 %, with 14.6 % in the TiLOOP® Bra and in 28.6 % in the implant alone group (p = 0.105). Capsular contraction rate was 4.4 % in the TiLOOP® Bra and 16.7 % in the implant alone group (p = 0.052). The analysis of the HR-QoL showed no significant differences between the groups. Surgeries prior to IBBR had a positive influence on HR-QoL. TiLOOP® Bra was associated with a negative effect on "satisfaction with breast" (β = -5.72; p < 0.001), as it was no longer observed for "satisfaction with outcome" and other domains.

  7. Macroporous graphene capped Fe3O4for amplified electrochemiluminescence immunosensing of carcinoembryonic antigen detection based on CeO2@TiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Zhu, Wenjuan; Ren, Xiang; Khan, Malik Saddam; Zhang, Yong; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2017-05-15

    A novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signal-amplified immunosensing strategy was proposed by using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) capped Fe 3 O 4 (Au-FrGO). In this work, CeO 2 @TiO 2 was prepared by a sol-gel method to wrap CeO 2 with TiO 2 . In the presence of CeO 2 , CeO 2 @TiO 2 exhibited better ECL activity than TiO 2 with peroxydisulfate as coreactant. In addition, FrGO with macroporous structure was synthesized by self-assembly of rGO sheets capped cationic Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles, exhibiting larger specific surface area than rGO. Due to the low toxicity and magnetism of Fe 3 O 4 , FrGO owned more favorable biocompatibility and the application of magnetic-separation simplified the preparation procedure. After hybridizing with Au NPs, FrGO exhibited more excellent electrical conductivity and could immobilize more CeO 2 @TiO 2 and antibodies. Therefore, a novel label-free ECL immunosensor based on Au-FrGO-CeO 2 @TiO 2 was constructed which generated higher ECL response. To investigate the performance of the immunosensor, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) was chosen as a model target analyte. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor had sensitive response to CEA in a wide linear range of 0.01pgmL -1 to 10ngmL -1 with a detection limit of 3.28 fg mL -1 . The proposed ECL immunosensor exhibited excellent stability, repeatability and selectivity, which opened another promising avenue for CEA determination in real serum samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Development of TiN particulates reinforced SS316 based metal matrix composite by direct metal laser sintering technique and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Manowar; Mandal, Vijay; Kumar, Vikas; Das, A. K.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The present study describes the fabrication of TiN particulates reinforced SS316 based Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) in nitrogen and argon atmosphere. The influence of sintering process parameters on microstructure, density, porosity, wear rate and microhardness of the fabricated samples has been analyzed. The input variable process parameters, such as, laser power density (range: 4.13-5.57 W/cm2 (× 104)), scanning speed (range: 3500-4500 mm/min) and the constant parameters, such as, laser beam diameter (0.4 mm), hatching distance (0.2 mm) and layer thickness (0.4 mm) have been considered in the process. It has been observed from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis that TiN and SS316 powder mixture can be sintered in which chromium acts as a binder. Fine gaps are not found at the interface between TiN and SS316 when the mixture is sintered in nitrogen atmosphere. With an increase in the percentage of TiN, the density and wear rate decreases. However, when the reinforcement is taken beyond 18% by weight, the wear rate starts increasing. The microhardness also increases with an increase in the percentage of TiN. The microstructure, elemental compositions and phase characterization of the developed sintered MMCs have been examined by FESEM, EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffractometer) analysis, respectively. The results have demonstrated the suitability of the TiN reinforced SS316 MMCs for industrial applications.

  9. Cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory effects of sol-gel combustion based titanium dioxide (TiO2) particles of large surface area on RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Palani; Suresh Yadav, C; Kannadasan, Sathanandhan; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2017-09-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity and immunomodulatory effects of sol-gel combustion based TiO 2 particles (glycine and l-alanine as reducing agents) of large surface area on RAW 264.7 macrophages. RAW 264.7 macrophages exposed to varying concentrations of TiO 2 particles (0.001 to 1000μg/ml) were assessed after 24h and showed a reduced cell viability at 100 and 1000μg/ml and increased LDH release at 10μg/ml. Furthermore, TiO 2 particles (0.1, 1 and 10μg/ml) were utilized to assess the immune responses and intracellular ROS levels on RAW 264.7 macrophages. TiO 2 particles at 10μg/ml showed increased mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6), inflammatory mediators (iNOS and COX-2) and transcription factor (NFκB) similar to that of LPS stimulated macrophages. However, the mRNA expression levels were found near normal levels at lower concentrations (0.1 and 1μg/ml). In addition, TiO 2 particles at 10μg/ml also increased the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6) and intracellular ROS levels in RAW 264.7 macrophages similar to that of LPS stimulated macrophages. Conclusively, TiO 2 particles prepared through this method at a concentration≤0.1μg/ml can be used for various biological applications with minimal immunomodulatory effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Recent Advances in Graphene Based TiO2 Nanocomposites (GTiO2Ns for Photocatalytic Degradation of Synthetic Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Giovannetti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes are widely used in textile, paper, food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. During industrial processes, some of these dyes are released into the wastewater and their successive release into rivers and lakes produces serious environmental problems. TiO2 is one of the most widely studied and used photocatalysts for environmental remediation. However, it is mainly active under UV-light irradiation due to its band gap of 3.2 eV, while it shows low efficiency under the visible light spectrum. Regarding the exploration of TiO2 activation in the visible light region of the total solar spectrum, the incorporation of carbon nanomaterials, such as graphene, in order to form carbon-TiO2 composites is a promising area. Graphene, in fact, has a large surface area which makes it a good adsorbent for organic pollutants removal through the combination of electrostatic attraction and π-π interaction. Furthermore, it has a high electron mobility and therefore it reduces the electron-hole pair recombination, improving the photocatalytic activity of the semiconductor. In recent years, there was an increasing interest in the preparation of graphene-based TiO2 photocatalysts. The present short review describes the recent advances in TiO2 photocatalyst coupling with graphene materials with the aim of extending the light absorption of TiO2 from UV wavelengths into the visible region, focusing on recent progress in the design and applications in the photocatalytic degradation of synthetic dyes.

  11. CdTe Nanocrystal Hetero-Junction Solar Cells with High Open Circuit Voltage Based on Sb-doped TiO₂ Electron Acceptor Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miaoz